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Sample records for cladosporium fulvum hydrophobins

  1. Localization of Cladosporium fulvum hydrophobins reveals a role for HCf-6 in adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Hélène; Whiteford, James; Spanu, Pietro D

    2008-01-01

    for establishing hydrophobin localization during growth in culture and in plants. In this paper we localize HCf-2, -3, -4 and -5 and compare the data to our previous observations for HCf-1 and -6. In culture, HCf-1, -2, -3 and 4 localize to conidia and also appear on aerial hyphae. HCf-4 is unique...... in that it appears on submerged hyphae. HCf-5 expression is tightly regulated and appears on aerial hyphae early on during growth. Only HCf-1, -3 and -6 were observed during infection; HCf-3 appears on both conidia and emerging germ tubes. We also show that HCf-6 is secreted and coats surfaces under and around...... growing hyphae and demonstrate the effect of deleting HCf-6 on the adhesion of germinating C. fulvum conidia to glass slides....

  2. Specific Hypersensitive Response–Associated Recognition of New Apoplastic Effectors from Cladosporium fulvum in Wild Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Ӧkmen, Bilal; Rovenich, Hanna; Griffiths, Scott A.; Wang, Changchun; Karimi Jashni, Mansoor; Mihajlovski, Aleksandar; Collemare, Jérôme; Hunziker, Lukas; Deng, Cecilia H.; Burgt, Van Der Ate; Beenen, Henriek G.; Templeton, Matthew D.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Wit, De Pierre J.G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes

  3. Secondary metabolism and biotrophic lifestyle in the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collemare, J.; Griffiths, S.A.; Iida, Y.; Karimi Jashni, M.; Battaglia, E.; Cox, R.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cladosporium fulvum is a biotrophic fungal pathogen that causes leaf mould of tomato. Analysis of its genome suggested a high potential for production of secondary metabolites (SM), which might be harmful to plants and animals. Here, we have analysed in detail the predicted SM gene clusters of C.

  4. Streptomycetes antagonism against Cladosporium fulvum Cooke and Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. lycopersici Antagonismo de estreptomicetos a Cladosporium fulvum Cooke e Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. lycopersici

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    Ana Cristina Fermino Soares

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the secondary effects of secondary metabolites produced by streptomycetes on spore germination and mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium fulvum Cooke and Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. lycopersici from tomato plants. Metabolites produced by streptomycete isolates codified as AC-147 and AC-92 caused 94.1% inhibition of C. fulvum while AC-95 isolate caused 33.9% inhibition. AC-92 was the most efficient for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causing 94.2% inhibition of spore germination. For mycelial growth, AC-26 and AC-92 were the most efficient in inhibiting C. fulvum growth by 46.6% and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici by 29.9%. These streptomycetes are potential agents for biocontrol development methods of these tomato plant pathogenic fungi.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metabólitos secundários produzidos por estreptomicetos na germinação de esporos e no crescimento micelial dos fungos Cladosporium fulvum Cooke e Fusarium oxysporum sp. f. lycopersici da cultura do tomateiro. Metabólitos produzidos pelos isolados AC-147 e AC-92 causaram 94,1% de inibição da germinação de esporos de C. fluvum, enquanto que o isolado AC-95 causou 33,9% de inibição. O AC-92 foi o mais eficiente para F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causando 94,2% de inibição na germinação de esporos. Para o crescimento micelial, AC-26 e AC-92 foram os mais eficientes na inibição dos fungos C. fulvum, em 46,6%, e F. oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici, em 29,9%. Esses estreptomicetos são potenciais agentes para o desenvolvimento de métodos de controle biológico desses fungos fitopatogênicos do tomateiro.

  5. Recognitional specificity and evolution in the tomato-Cladosporium fulvum pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, B B H; Chakrabarti, A; Jones, D A

    2009-10-01

    The interactions between plants and many biotrophic or hemibiotrophic pathogens are controlled by receptor proteins in the host and effector proteins delivered by the pathogen. Pathogen effectors facilitate pathogen growth through the suppression of host defenses and the manipulation of host metabolism, but recognition of a pathogen-effector protein by a host receptor enables the host to activate a suite of defense mechanisms that limit pathogen growth. In the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum syn. Solanum lycopersicum)-Cladosporium fulvum (leaf mold fungus syn. Passalora fulva) pathosystem, the host receptors are plasma membrane-anchored, leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like proteins encoded by an array of Cf genes conferring resistance to C. fulvum. The pathogen effectors are mostly small, secreted, cysteine-rich, but otherwise largely dissimilar, extracellular proteins encoded by an array of avirulence (Avr) genes, so called because of their ability to trigger resistance and limit pathogen growth when the corresponding Cf gene is present in tomato. A number of Cf and Avr genes have been isolated, and details of the complex molecular interplay between tomato Cf proteins and C. fulvum effector proteins are beginning to emerge. Each effector appears to have a different role; probably most bind or modify different host proteins, but at least one has a passive role masking the pathogen. It is, therefore, not surprising that each effector is probably detected in a distinct and specific manner, some by direct binding, others as complexes with host proteins, and others via their modification of host proteins. The two papers accompanying this review contribute further to our understanding of the molecular specificity underlying effector perception by Cf proteins. This review, therefore, focuses on our current understanding of recognitional specificity in the tomato-C. fulvum pathosystem and highlights some of the critical questions that remain to be addressed. It also

  6. Novel mutations detected in avirulence genes overcoming tomato Cf resistance genes in isolates of a Japanese population of Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iida, Y.; Hof, van 't P.M.J.; Beenen, H.G.; Mesarich, C.H.; Kubota, M.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Mehrabi, A.; Notsu, A.; Fujiwara, K.; Bahkali, A.; Abd-Elsalam, K.; Collemare, J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction

  7. Studies towards the Intrinsic Function of the AVR4 and AVR9 Elicitors of the Fungal Tomato Pathogen Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Recognition of the extracellular race-specific elicitor proteins AVR4 and AVR9 produced by the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum is mediated by the tomato resistance genes Cf-4 and Cf-9 , respectively. Recognition of these elicitors triggers host defense responses

  8. Molecular interactions between tomato and the leaf mold pathogen Cladosporium fulvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Susana; Thomas, Colwyn M

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between tomato and the leaf mold pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is controlled in a gene-for-gene manner. This interaction has provided useful insights to the molecular basis of recognition specificity in plant disease resistance (R) proteins, disease resistance (R) gene evolution, R-protein mediated signaling, and cellular responses to pathogen attack. Tomato Cf genes encode type I membrane-associated receptor-like proteins (RLPs) comprised predominantly of extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs) and which are anchored in the plasma membrane. Cf proteins recognize fungal avirulence (Avr) peptides secreted into the leaf apoplast during infection. A direct interaction of Cf proteins with their cognate Avr proteins has not been demonstrated and the molecular mechanism of Avr protein perception is not known. Following ligand perception Cf proteins trigger a hypersensitive response (HR) and the arrest of pathogen development. Cf proteins lack an obvious signaling domain, suggesting that defense response activation is mediated through interactions with other partners. Avr protein perception results in the rapid accumulation of active oxygen species (AOS), changes in cellular ion fluxes, activation of protein kinase cascades, changes in gene expression and, possibly, targeted protein degradation. Here we review our current understanding of Cf-mediated responses in resistance to C. fulvum.

  9. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum that are related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and infect different hosts. C. fulvum is a biotroph that infects tomato, while D. septosporum is a hemibiotr...

  10. Novel Mutations Detected in Avirulence Genes Overcoming Tomato Cf Resistance Genes in Isolates of a Japanese Population of Cladosporium fulvum.

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    Yuichiro Iida

    Full Text Available Leaf mold of tomato is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum which complies with the gene-for-gene system. The disease was first reported in Japan in the 1920s and has since been frequently observed. Initially only race 0 isolates were reported, but since the consecutive introduction of resistance genes Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 new races have evolved. Here we first determined the virulence spectrum of 133 C. fulvum isolates collected from 22 prefectures in Japan, and subsequently sequenced the avirulence (Avr genes Avr2, Avr4, Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9 to determine the molecular basis of overcoming Cf genes. Twelve races of C. fulvum with a different virulence spectrum were identified, of which races 9, 2.9, 4.9, 4.5.9 and 4.9.11 occur only in Japan. The Avr genes in many of these races contain unique mutations not observed in races identified elsewhere in the world including (i frameshift mutations and (ii transposon insertions in Avr2, (iii point mutations in Avr4 and Avr4E, and (iv deletions of Avr4E, Avr5 and Avr9. New races have developed by selection pressure imposed by consecutive introductions of Cf-2, Cf-4, Cf-5 and Cf-9 genes in commercially grown tomato cultivars. Our study shows that molecular variations to adapt to different Cf genes in an isolated C. fulvum population in Japan are novel but overall follow similar patterns as those observed in populations from other parts of the world. Implications for breeding of more durable C. fulvum resistant varieties are discussed.

  11. Bioengineered silver nanoparticles using Curvularia pallescens and its fungicidal activity against Cladosporium fulvum

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    Abdallah M. Elgorban

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms based biosynthesis of nanomaterials has triggered significant attention, due to their great potential as vast source of the production of biocompatible nanoparticles (NPs. Such biosynthesized functional nanomaterials can be used for various biomedical applications. The present study investigates the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs using the fungus Curvularia pallescens (C. pallescens which is isolated from cereals. The C. pallescens cell filtrate was used for the reduction of AgNO3 to Ag NPs. To the best of our knowledge C. pallescens is utilized first time for the preparation of Ag NPs. Several alkaloids and proteins present in the phytopathogenic fungus C. pallescens were mainly responsible for the formation of highly crystalline Ag NPs. The as-synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV–Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The TEM micrographs have revealed that spherical shaped Ag NPs with polydisperse in size were obtained. These results have clearly suggested that the biomolecules secreted by C. pallescens are mainly responsible for the formation and stabilization of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of the as-prepared Ag NPs was tested against Cladosporium fulvum, which is the major cause of a serious plant disease, known as tomato leaf mold. The synthesized Ag NPs displayed excellent fungicidal activity against the tested fungal pathogen. The extreme zone of reduction occurred at 50 μL, whereas, an increase in the reduction activity is observed with increasing the concentration of Ag NPs. These encouraging results can be further exploited by employing the as synthesized Ag NPs against various pathogenic fungi in order to ascertain their spectrum of fungicidal activity.

  12. Functional analysis of the conserved transcriptional regulator CfWor1 in Cladosporium fulvum reveals diverse roles in the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ökmen, B.; Collemare, J.; Griffiths, S.A.; Burgt, van der A.; Cox, R.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal Wor1-like proteins are conserved transcriptional regulators that are reported to regulate the virulence of several plant pathogenic fungi by affecting the expression of virulence genes. Here, we report the functional analysis of CfWor1, the homologue of Wor1 in Cladosporium fulvum. ¿cfwor1

  13. Investigating the role of polyols in Cladosporium fulvum during growth under hyper-osmotic stress and in planta.

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    Clark, Anthony J; Blissett, Kerry J; Oliver, Richard P

    2003-02-01

    The role of the large amounts of polyols accumulated by the fungal tomato pathogen, Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva, Cooke) both in planta and in axenic cultures has been examined. Arabinitol and glycerol accumulated in response to hyper-osmotic stress in vitro. Mannitol levels were lower in osmo-stressed mycelium. (13)C NMR spectroscopy indicated that carbon flow from glucose to mannitol was redirected to arabinitol and glycerol in hyper-osmotic conditions. Infected tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants contained all three polyols whereas glycerol was the only polyol present in uninfected plants, suggesting that the mannitol and arabinitol were of fungal origin. Substantially higher levels of arabinitol and glycerol were present in infected plants that were subjected to a restricted watering regime compared to fully watered plants. The results suggest that a primary role of fungal arabinitol and glycerol, but not mannitol, is osmoregulation and that water acquisition is an important aspect of pathogenicity.

  14. Recognition of Cladosporium fulvum Ecp2 elicitor by non-host Nicotiana spp. is mediated by a single dominant gene that is not homologous to known Cf-genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, de M.J.D.; Iskandar, H.M.; Brandwagt, B.F.; Laugé, R.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Lindhout, W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Cladosporium fulvum is a fungal pathogen of tomato that grows exclusively in the intercellular spaces of leaves. Ecp2 is one of the elicitor proteins that is secreted by C. fulvum and is specifically recognized by tomato plants containing the resistance gene Cf-Ecp2. Recognition is followed by a

  15. Biocontrol del moho foliar del tomate Cladosporium fulvum empleando cuatro hongos antagonistas Biocontrole do mofo foliar em tomateiro empregando quatro fungos antagonistas Biocontrol of leaf mold of tomato Cladosporium fulvum (Cooke 1883 employing four antagonistic fungi

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    Enrique Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El moho foliar Cladosporium fulvum (Cooke 1883 produce una enfermedad que ataca el cultivo de tomate en invernadero en el Perú. Como alternativa al control de este patógeno se probó la eficiencia bajo condiciones in vitro e invernadero de cuatro hongos antagonistas: Hansfordia pulvinata (Berk y Curt 1958, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai 1969, T. viride (Persoon 1821 y T. virens (Miller, Giddens y Foster 1963. El cultivo y crecimiento de los hongos se realizó en Agar Sabouraud para Trichoderma spp. y en Agar Jugo V8 para H. pulvinata. El bioensayo empleado fue el de placas precolonizadas propuesto por Krauss. En condiciones in vitro se observó que a 24 ºC y 72 h, el crecimiento de T. harzianum fue estadísticamente diferente de las otras tres especies ensayadas, y a 28 ºC fue similar a T. viride. A 24 ºC y a las 120 h, T. virens fue diferente de todas las especies evaluadas. A las 168 h el crecimiento de las tres especies de Trichoderma fue estadísticamente similar, diferenciándose de H. pulvinata. A 28 ºC a las 120 h y 168 h los resultados fueron estadísticamente similares para las tres especies de Trichoderma, pero diferentes de H. pulvinata. El mecanismo de acción más común para los hongos antagonistas fue el micoparasitismo. Finalmente, T. harzianum fue más eficiente debido a que redujo la severidad de la enfermedad en un 19,35 % bajo condiciones de invernadero.O mofo foliar Cladosporium fulvum (Cooke, 1883 produz uma enfermidade que ataca o cultivo do tomateiro em casa de vegetação no Peru. Como alternativa ao controle desse patógeno, testou-se a eficiência, sob condições in vitro e casa de vegetatção, de quatro fungos antagonistas: Hansfordia pulvinata (Berk y Curt 1958, Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai 1969, T. viride (Persoon 1821 y T. virens (Miller, Giddens y Foster 1963. O cultivo e crescimento dos fungos foi realizado em Agar Sabouraud para Trichoderma spp. e em Agar Suco V8 para H. pulvinata. O bioensaio empregado

  16. Natural disulfide bond-disrupted mutants of AVR4 of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum are sensitive to proteolysis, circumvent Cf-4-mediated resistance, but retain their chitin binding ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den H.A.; Westerink, N.; Francoijs, C.J.J.; Roth, R.; Woestenenk, E.A.; Boeren, J.A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The extracellular AVR4 elicitor of the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum induces defense responses in the tomato genotype Cf-4. Here, the four disulfide bonds of AVR4 were identified as Cys-11-41, Cys-21-27, Cys-35-80, and Cys-57-72 by partial reduction with Tris-(2-carboxyethyl)-phosphine

  17. A Biocontrol Strain of Bacillus subtilis WXCDD105 Used to Control Tomato Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke and Promote the Growth of Seedlings

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    Hui Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a strain named WXCDD105, which has strong antagonistic effects on Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke, was screened out from the rhizosphere of healthy tomato plants. The tomato plants had inhibition diameter zones of 5.00 mm during the dual culture for four days. Based on the morphological and physiological characteristics, the 16S rDNA sequence, and the gyrB gene sequence analysis, the strain WXCDD105 was identified as Bacillus subtilis suBap. subtilis. The results of the mycelial growth test showed that the sterile filtrate of the strain WXCDD105 could significantly inhibit mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and Cladosporium fulvum Cooke. The inhibition rates were 95.28 and 94.44%, respectively. The potting experiment showed that the strain WXCDD105 made effective the control of tomato gray mold and tomato leaf mold. The control efficiencies were 74.70 and 72.07%. The antagonistic test results showed that the strain WXCDD105 had different degrees of inhibition on 10 kinds of plant pathogenic fungi and the average inhibition rates were more than 80%. We also found that the strain WXCDD105 stimulated both the seed germination and seedling growth of tomatoes. Using the fermentation liquid of WXCDD105 (108 cfu·mL−1 to treat the seeds, the germination rate and radicle length were increased. Under the treatment of the fermentation liquid of the strain WXCDD105 (106 cfu·mL−1, nearly all physiological indexes of tomato seedlings were significantly higher than that of the control groups. This could not only keep the nutritional quality of tomato fruits but also prevent them from rotting. This study provided us with an excellent strain for biological control of tomato gray mold, tomato leaf mold, and tomato growth promotion. This also laid the technical foundation for its application.

  18. The genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum reveal adaptation to different hosts and lifestyles but also signatures of common ancestry.

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    Pierre J G M de Wit

    Full Text Available We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu (syn. Passalora fulva and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70% of gene content in both genomes are homologs, but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb, which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2% in Cfu versus 3.2% in Dse. Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an α-tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  19. The Genomes of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Dothistroma septosporum Reveal Adaptation to Different Hosts and Lifestyles But Also Signatures of Common Ancestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; van der Burgt, Ate; Okmen, Bilal; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Aerts, Andrea L.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Beenen, Henriek G.; Chettri, Oranav; Cos, Murray P.; Datema, Erwin; de Vries, Ronald P.; DHillon, Braham; Ganley, Austen R.; Griffiths, Scott A.; Guo, Yanan; Gamelin, Richard C.; Henrissat, Bernard; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Jashni, Mansoor Karimi; Kema, Gert; Klaubauf, Sylvia; Lapidus, Alla; Levasseur, Anthony; Lindquist, Erika; Mehrabi, Rahim; Ohm, Robin A.; Owen, Timothy J.; Salamov, Asaf; Schwelm, Arne; Schijlen, Elio; Sun, Hui; van den Burg, Harrold A.; van Burg, Roeland C. H. J.; Zhang, Shuguang; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Collemare, Jerome; Bradshaw, Rosie E.

    2012-05-04

    We sequenced and compared the genomes of the Dothideomycete fungal plant pathogens Cladosporium fulvum (Cfu) (syn. Passalora fulva) and Dothistroma septosporum (Dse) that are closely related phylogenetically, but have different lifestyles and hosts. Although both fungi grow extracellularly in close contact with host mesophyll cells, Cfu is a biotroph infecting tomato, while Dse is a hemibiotroph infecting pine. The genomes of these fungi have a similar set of genes (70percent of gene content in both genomes are homologs), but differ significantly in size (Cfu >61.1-Mb; Dse 31.2-Mb), which is mainly due to the difference in repeat content (47.2percent in Cfu versus 3.2percent in Dse). Recent adaptation to different lifestyles and hosts is suggested by diverged sets of genes. Cfu contains an tomatinase gene that we predict might be required for detoxification of tomatine, while this gene is absent in Dse. Many genes encoding secreted proteins are unique to each species and the repeat-rich areas in Cfu are enriched for these species-specific genes. In contrast, conserved genes suggest common host ancestry. Homologs of Cfu effector genes, including Ecp2 and Avr4, are present in Dse and induce a Cf-Ecp2- and Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response, respectively. Strikingly, genes involved in production of the toxin dothistromin, a likely virulence factor for Dse, are conserved in Cfu, but their expression differs markedly with essentially no expression by Cfu in planta. Likewise, Cfu has a carbohydrate-degrading enzyme catalog that is more similar to that of necrotrophs or hemibiotrophs and a larger pectinolytic gene arsenal than Dse, but many of these genes are not expressed in planta or are pseudogenized. Overall, comparison of their genomes suggests that these closely related plant pathogens had a common ancestral host but since adapted to different hosts and lifestyles by a combination of differentiated gene content, pseudogenization, and gene regulation.

  20. The genus Cladosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    A monographic revision of the hyphomycete genus Cladosporium s. lat. (Cladosporiaceae, Capnodiales) is presented. It includes a detailed historic overview of Cladosporium and allied genera, with notes on their phylogeny, systematics and ecology. True species of Cladosporium s. str. (anamorphs of Davidiella), are characterised by having coronate conidiogenous loci and conidial hila, i.e., with a convex central dome surrounded by a raised periclinal rim. Recognised species are treated and illustrated with line drawings and photomicrographs (light as well as scanning electron microscopy). Species known from culture are described in vivo as well as in vitro on standardised media and under controlled conditions. Details on host range/substrates and the geographic distribution are given based on published accounts, and a re-examination of numerous herbarium specimens. Various keys are provided to support the identification of Cladosporium species in vivo and in vitro. Morphological datasets are supplemented by DNA barcodes (nuclear ribosomal RNA gene operon, including the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S nrDNA, as well as partial actin and translation elongation factor 1-α gene sequences) diagnostic for individual species. In total 993 names assigned to Cladosporium s. lat., including Heterosporium (854 in Cladosporium and 139 in Heterosporium), are treated, of which 169 are recognized in Cladosporium s. str. The other taxa are doubtful, insufficiently known or have been excluded from Cladosporium in its current circumscription and re-allocated to other genera by the authors of this monograph or previous authors. Taxonomic novelties: Cladosporium allicinum (Fr.: Fr.) Bensch, U. Braun & Crous, comb. nov., C. astroideum var. catalinense U. Braun, var. nov., Fusicladium tectonicola (Yong H. He & Z.Y. Zhang) U. Braun & Bensch, comb. nov., Septoidium uleanum (Henn.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium adeniae (Hansf.) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium

  1. Molecular aspects of avirulence and pathogenicity of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackerveken, van den G.F.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The molecular understanding of host-pathogen interactions and particularly of specificity forms the basis for studying plant resistance. Understanding why a certain plant species or cultivar is susceptible and why other species or cultivars are resistant is of great importance in order to

  2. Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Schubert, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Cladosporium is restricted to dematiaceous hyphomycetes with a coronate scar type, and Davidiella teleomorphs. In the present study numerous cladosporium-like taxa are treated, and allocated to different genera based on their morphology and DNA phylogeny derived from the LSU nrRNA gene.

  3. The role of repellents and hydrophobins in Ustilago maydis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is an important model organism to study fungal pathogenicity. U. maydis can grow yeast-like and filamentous. In the latter form this fungus infects maize. In my Thesis the expression and function of hydrophobins and repellents of U. maydis were studied. Hydrophobins are produced by

  4. EPR studies of melanin from Cladosporium cladosporioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilawa, B.; Buszman, E.; Latocha, M.; Wilczok, T.

    1996-01-01

    Free radical properties of Cladosporium cladosporioides mycelium and melanin, and synthetic eumelanin and pheomelanin were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance method. Single EPR line and complex EPR spectrum with hyperfine splitting were measured for model DOPA-melanin and cysteinyldopa-melanin, respectively. EPR spectra of Cladosporium cladosporioides samples and pheomelanin show the same character. The concentration of paramagnetic centers in melanins isolated from Cladosporium cladosporioides is considerably higher than that of crude mycelium, whereas the EPR line widths are lower for mycelium than for melanin samples. For all analyzed samples the increase of EPR signals intensity with the increase of microwave power, and the decrease of intensities after saturation were observed the low values of microwave power sufficient for EPR lines saturation demonstrate that the spin-lattice relaxation times of unpaired electrons in melanins are long. (author)

  5. Hydrophobins as aqueous lubricant additive for a soft sliding contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Seunghwan; Røn, Troels; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.

    2015-01-01

    lubrication characteristic is dominant via ‘self-healing’ mechanism. FpHYD5 revealed a better lubrication than HFBI presumably due to the presence of glycans and improved hydration of the sliding interface. Two type II hydrophobins function more favorably compared to a synthetic amphiphilic copolymer, PEO-PPO...

  6. Immunolocalization of hydrophobin HYDPt-1 from the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Pisolithus tinctorius during colonization of Eucalyptus globulus roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tagu, D; De Bellis, R; Balestrini, R; De Vries, OMH; Piccoli, G; Stocchi, [No Value; Bonfante, P; Martin, F

    The immunolocalization of one of the hydrophobins of Pisolithus tinctorius (HYDPt-1) is reported. Hydrophobin proteins play key roles in adhesion and aggregation of fungal hyphae, and it is already known that formation of ectomycorrhizas on eucalypt roots enhances the accumulation of hydrophobin

  7. Hydrophobins from Aspergillus species cannot be clearly divided into two classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Pedersen, Mona Højgaard

    2010-01-01

    in the attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic structures, the formation of aerial structures and appear to be involved in pathogenicity. Findings Analysis of nine genome sequences from seven Aspergilli revealed fifty hydrophobins, where each species displayed between two to eight hydrophobins. Twenty of the identified...

  8. Adsorption behavior of hydrophobin and hydrophobin/surfactant mixtures at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli L; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Bent, Julian; Cox, Andrew; Campbell, Richard A

    2011-09-20

    The adsorption of the surface-active protein hydrophobin, HFBII, and the competitive adsorption of HFBII with the cationic, anionic, and nonionic surfactants hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB, sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, and hexaethylene monododecyl ether, C(12)E(6), has been studied using neutron reflectivity, NR. HFBII adsorbs strongly at the air-water interface to form a dense monolayer ∼30 Å thick, with a mean area per molecule of ∼400 Å(2) and a volume fraction of ∼0.7, for concentrations greater than 0.01 g/L, and the adsorption is independent of the solution pH. In competition with the conventional surfactants CTAB, SDS, and C(12)E(6) at pH 7, the HFBII adsorption totally dominates the surface for surfactant concentrations less than the critical micellar concentration, cmc. Above the cmc of the conventional surfactants, HFBII is displaced by the surfactant (CTAB, SDS, or C(12)E(6)). For C(12)E(6) this displacement is only partial, and some HFBII remains at the surface for concentrations greater than the C(12)E(6) cmc. At low pH (pH 3) the patterns of adsorption for HFBII/SDS and HFBII/C(12)E(6) are different. At concentrations just below the surfactant cmc there is now mixed HFBII/surfactant adsorption for both SDS and C(12)E(6). For the HFBII/SDS mixture the structure of the adsorbed layer is more complex in the region immediately below the SDS cmc, resulting from the HFBII/SDS complex formation at the interface. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Adsorption of Hydrophobin-Protein Mixtures at the Air-Water Interface: The Impact of pH and Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ian M; Petkov, Jordan T; Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Cox, Andrew R; Hedges, Nick

    2015-09-15

    The adsorption of the proteins β-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and hydrophobin, and the protein mixtures of β-casein/hydrophobin and β-lactoglobulin/hydrophobin have been studied at the air-water interface by neutron reflectivity, NR. Changing the solution pH from 7 to 2.6 has relatively little impact on the adsorption of hydrophobin or β-lactoglobulin, but results in a substantial change in the structure of the adsorbed layer of β-casein. In β-lactoglobulin/hydrophobin mixtures, the adsorption is dominated by the hydrophobin adsorption, and is independent of the hydrophobin or β-lactoglobulin concentration and solution pH. At pH 2.6, the adsorption of the β-casein/hydrophobin mixtures is dominated by the hydrophobin adsorption over the range of β-casein concentrations studied. At pH 4 and 7, the adsorption of β-casein/hydrophobin mixtures is dominated by the hydrophobin adsorption at low β-casein concentrations. At higher β-casein concentrations, β-casein is adsorbed onto the surface monolayer of hydrophobin, and some interpenetration between the two proteins occurs. These results illustrate the importance of pH on the intermolecular interactions between the two proteins at the interface. This is further confirmed by the impact of PBS, phosphate buffered saline, buffer and CaCl2 on the coadsorption and surface structure. The results provide an important insight into the adsorption properties of protein mixtures and their application in foam and emulsion stabilization.

  10. New foliicolous species of Cladosporium from South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, K.; Greslebin, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Two new species of Cladosporium found on necrotic needles of Pinus ponderosa trees in Patagonia, Argentina, are described as C. chubutense and C. pini-ponderosae. An additional isolate from dead leaves of Cortaderia collected in Colombia, which is a sister taxon to the species occurring on Pinus, is

  11. Isocladosporin, a biologically active isomer of cladosporin from Cladosporium cladosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacyno, J M; Harwood, J S; Cutler, H G; Lee, M K

    1993-08-01

    Extraction of the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides yielded the known isocoumarin, cladosporin [1], and a new compound. This metabolite, which inhibited the growth of etiolated wheat coleoptiles slightly more than did cladosporin, was characterized as a diastereoisomer of cladosporin at C-14 and was named isocladosporin [2].

  12. Hydrophobins in the Life Cycle of the Ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Sammer

    Full Text Available Hydrophobins-secreted small cysteine-rich, amphipathic proteins-foster interactions of fungal hyphae with hydrophobic surfaces, and are involved in the formation of aerial hyphae. Phylogenetic analyses of Tricholoma vaccinum hydrophobins showed a grouping with hydrophobins of other ectomycorrhizal fungi, which might be a result of co-evolution. Further analyses indicate angiosperms as likely host trees for the last common ancestor of the genus Tricholoma. The nine hydrophobin genes in the T. vaccinum genome were investigated to infer their individual roles in different stages of the life cycle, host interaction, asexual and sexual development, and with respect to different stresses. In aerial mycelium, hyd8 was up-regulated. In silico analysis predicted three packing arrangements, i.e., ring-like, plus-like and sheet-like structure for Hyd8; the first two may assemble to rodlets of hydrophobin covering aerial hyphae, whereas the third is expected to be involved in forming a two-dimensional network of hydrophobins. Metal stress induced hydrophobin gene hyd5. In early steps of mycorrhization, induction of hyd4 and hyd5 by plant root exudates and root volatiles could be shown, followed by hyd5 up-regulation during formation of mantle, Hartig' net, and rhizomorphs with concomitant repression of hyd8 and hyd9. During fruiting body formation, mainly hyd3, but also hyd8 were induced. Host preference between the compatible host Picea abies and the low compatibility host Pinus sylvestris could be linked to a stronger induction of hyd4 and hyd5 by the preferred host and a stronger repression of hyd8, whereas the repression of hyd9 was comparable between the two hosts.

  13. Applications of Functional Amyloids from Fungi: Surface Modification by Class I Hydrophobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Piscitelli

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Class I hydrophobins produced from fungi are amongst the first proteins recognized as functional amyloids. They are amphiphilic proteins involved in the formation of aerial structures such as spores or fruiting bodies. They form chemically robust layers which can only be dissolved in strong acids. These layers adhere to different surfaces, changing their wettability, and allow the binding of other proteins. Herein, the modification of diverse types of surfaces with Class I hydrophobins is reported, highlighting the applications of the coated surfaces. Indeed, these coatings can be exploited in several fields, spanning from biomedical to industrial applications, which include biosensing and textile manufacturing.

  14. Cytotoxic and antibacterial naphthoquinones from an endophytic fungus, Cladosporium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Imdadul Huque Khan

    Full Text Available Objective: Endophytes have the potential to synthesize various bioactive secondary metabolites. The aim of the study was to find new cytotoxic and antibacterial metabolites from endophytic fungus, Cladosporium sp. isolated from the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (L. Benth. ex Kurz. (Fam: Apocyanaceae. Materials and methods: The endophytic fungus was grown on potato dextrose agar medium and extracted using ethyl acetate. Secondary metabolites were isolated by chromatographic separation and re-crystallization, and structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The cytotoxicity was determined by WST-1 assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay, while antibacterial activity was assessed by disc diffusion method. Results: Two naphthoquinones, namely anhydrofusarubin (1 and methyl ether of fusarubin (2, were isolated from Cladosporium sp. The isolated compounds 1 and 2, by WST-1 assay against human leukemia cells (K-562 showed potential cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.97 μg/mL and 3.58 μg/mL, respectively. Initial screening of crude ethyl acetate extract and column fractions F-8 and F-10 exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity to brine shimp nauplii with LC50 values of 42.8, 1.2 and 2.1 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the isolated compound 2 (40 μg/disc showed prominent activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium with an average zone of inhibition of 27 mm, 25 mm, 24 mm and 22 mm, respectively and the activities were compared with kanamycin (30 μg/disc. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that anhydrofusarubin (1 and methyl ether of fusarubin (2 might be useful lead compounds to develop potential cytotoxic and antimicrobial drugs. Keywords: Endophytic fungi, Cladosporium species, Fusarubin, Cytoxicity, Antibacterial activity

  15. Scale-up of hydrophobin-assisted recombinant protein production in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Lauri J; Bailey, Michael J; Joensuu, Jussi J; Ritala, Anneli

    2014-05-01

    Plant suspension cell cultures are emerging as an alternative to mammalian cells for production of complex recombinant proteins. Plant cell cultures provide low production cost, intrinsic safety and adherence to current regulations, but low yields and costly purification technology hinder their commercialization. Fungal hydrophobins have been utilized as fusion tags to improve yields and facilitate efficient low-cost purification by surfactant-based aqueous two-phase separation (ATPS) in plant, fungal and insect cells. In this work, we report the utilization of hydrophobin fusion technology in tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) suspension cell platform and the establishment of pilot-scale propagation and downstream processing including first-step purification by ATPS. Green fluorescent protein-hydrophobin fusion (GFP-HFBI) induced the formation of protein bodies in tobacco suspension cells, thus encapsulating the fusion protein into discrete compartments. Cultivation of the BY-2 suspension cells was scaled up in standard stirred tank bioreactors up to 600 L production volume, with no apparent change in growth kinetics. Subsequently, ATPS was applied to selectively capture the GFP-HFBI product from crude cell lysate, resulting in threefold concentration, good purity and up to 60% recovery. The ATPS was scaled up to 20 L volume, without loss off efficiency. This study provides the first proof of concept for large-scale hydrophobin-assisted production of recombinant proteins in tobacco BY-2 cell suspensions. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Structural changes and molecular interactions of hydrophobin SC3 in solution and on a hydrophobic surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Vocht, M.L. de; Poolman, B.; Robillard, G.T.; Wang, [No Value; Jonge, J. de

    2002-01-01

    The hydrophobin SC3 belongs to a class of small proteins functioning in the growth and development of fungi. Its unique amphipathic property and remarkable surface activity make it interesting not only for biological studies but also for medical and industrial applications. Biophysical studies have

  17. Oligomerization of hydrophobin SC3 in solution : From soluble state to self-assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Graveland-Bikker, Johanna F.; Kruif, Cornelis G. de; Robillard, George T.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrophobin SC3 is a protein with special self-association properties that differ depending on whether it is in solution, on an air/water interface or on a solid surface. Its self-association on an air/water interface and solid surface have been extensively characterized. The current study focuses

  18. Targeted mutation of the SC3 hydrophobin gene of Schizophyllum commune affects formation of aerial hyphae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWetter, MA; Schuren, FHJ; Schuurs, TA; Wessels, JGH

    1996-01-01

    The SC3 hydrophobin gene of Schizophyllum commune was disrupted by homologous integration of an SC3 genomic fragment interrupted by a phleomycin resistance cassette. The phenotype of the mutant was particularly clear in sealed plates in which formation of aerial hyphae was blocked. In non-sealed

  19. Characterization of Emericella nidulans RodA and DewA hydrophobin mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Pedersen, Mona Højgaard

    Hydrophobins are small amphiphilic proteins containing an eight cysteine pattern only found in filamentous fungi. They are involved in the attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic structures and the formation of aerial structures. Five Emericella nidulans mutant strains were examined to study the two...

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the hydrophobin SC3 at a hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Hao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Jiang; Robillard, George T.; Mark, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrophobins are small (similar to 100 aa) proteins that have an important role in the growth and development of mycelial fungi. They are surface active and, after secretion by the fungi, self-assemble into amphipathic membranes at hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces, reversing the hydrophobicity of

  1. Permeation studies of novel terbinafine formulations containing hydrophobins through human nails in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejnovic, Ivana; Huonder, Cornelia; Betz, Gabriele

    2010-09-15

    Existing treatments of onychomycosis are not satisfactory. Oral therapies have many side effects and topical formulations are not able to penetrate into the human nail plate and deliver therapeutical concentrations of active agent in situ. The purpose of the present study was to determine the amount of terbinafine, which permeates through the human nail plate, from liquid formulations containing enhancers, namely hydrophobins A-C in the concentration of 0.1% (w/v). The used reference solution contained 10% (w/v) of terbinafine in 60% (v/v) ethanol/water without enhancer. Permeability studies have been performed on cadaver nails using Franz diffusion cells modified to mount nail plates and filled with 60% (v/v) ethanol/water in the acceptor chamber. Terbinafine was quantitatively determined by HPLC. The amount of terbinafine remaining in the nail was extracted by 96% ethanol from pulverized nail material after permeation experiment and presented as percentage of the dry nail weight before the milling test. Permeability coefficient (PC) of terbinafine from reference solution was determined to be 1.52E-10 cm/s. Addition of hydrophobins improved PC in the range of 3E-10 to 2E-9 cm/s. Remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail from reference solution was 0.83% (n=2). An increase of remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail was observed in two out of three tested formulations containing hydrophobins compared to the reference. In all cases, known minimum inhibitory concentration of terbinafine for dermatophytes (0.003 microg/ml) has been exceeded in the acceptor chamber of the diffusion cells. All tested proteins (hydrophobins) facilitated terbinafine permeation after 10 days of permeation experiment, however one of them achieved an outstanding enhancement factor of 13.05 compared to the reference. Therefore, hydrophobins can be included in the list of potential enhancers for treatment of onychomycosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metulocladosporiella gen. nov. for the causal organism of Cladosporium speckle disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Schroers, H.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Braun, U.; Schubert, K.

    2006-01-01

    Cladosporium musae, a widespread leaf-spotting hyphomycete on Musa spp., is genetically and morphologically distinct from Cladosporium s. str. (Davidiella anamorphs, Mycosphaerellaceae, Dothideales). DNA sequence data derived from the ITS and LSU gene regions of C. musae isolates show that this

  3. Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides as potential new fungal antagonists of Puccinia horiana Henn., the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Eduardo Torres

    Full Text Available Puccinia horiana Hennings, the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust, is a worldwide quarantine organism and one of the most important fungal pathogens of Chrysanthemum × morifolium cultivars, which are used for cut flowers and as potted plants in commercial production regions of the world. It was previously reported to be controlled by Lecanicillium lecanii, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, C. uredinicola and Aphanocladium album, due to their antagonistic and hyperparasitic effects. We report novel antagonist species on Puccinia horiana. Fungi isolated from rust pustules in a commercial greenhouse from Villa Guerrero, México, were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides based upon molecular analysis and morphological characters. The antagonism of C. cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides on chrysanthemum white rust was studied using light and electron microscopy in vitro at the host/parasite interface. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides grew towards the white rust teliospores and colonized the sporogenous cells, but no direct penetration of teliospores was observed; however, the structure and cytoplasm of teliospores were altered. The two Cladosporium spp. were able to grow on media containing laminarin, but not when chitin was used as the sole carbon source; these results suggest that they are able to produce glucanases. Results from the study indicate that both Cladosporium species had potential as biological control agents of chrysanthemum white rust.

  4. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  5. A High-Density Integrated DArTseq SNP-Based Genetic Map of Pisum fulvum and Identification of QTLs Controlling Rust Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Barilli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pisum fulvum, a wild relative of pea is an important source of allelic diversity to improve the genetic resistance of cultivated species against fungal diseases of economic importance like the pea rust caused by Uromyces pisi. To unravel the genetic control underlying resistance to this fungal disease, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population was generated from a cross between two P. fulvum accessions, IFPI3260 and IFPI3251, and genotyped using Diversity Arrays Technology. A total of 9,569 high-quality DArT-Seq and 8,514 SNPs markers were generated. Finally, a total of 12,058 markers were assembled into seven linkage groups, equivalent to the number of haploid chromosomes of P. fulvum and P. sativum. The newly constructed integrated genetic linkage map of P. fulvum covered an accumulated distance of 1,877.45 cM, an average density of 1.19 markers cM−1 and an average distance between adjacent markers of 1.85 cM. The composite interval mapping revealed three QTLs distributed over two linkage groups that were associated with the percentage of rust disease severity (DS%. QTLs UpDSII and UpDSIV were located in the LGs II and IV respectively and were consistently identified both in adult plants over 3 years at the field (Córdoba, Spain and in seedling plants under controlled conditions. Whenever they were detected, their contribution to the total phenotypic variance varied between 19.8 and 29.2. A third QTL (UpDSIV.2 was also located in the LGIVand was environmentally specific as was only detected for DS % in seedlings under controlled conditions. It accounted more than 14% of the phenotypic variation studied. Taking together the data obtained in the study, it could be concluded that the expression of resistance to fungal diseases in P. fulvum originates from the resistant parent IFPI3260.

  6. Mucorales spores induce a proinflammatory cytokine response in human mononuclear phagocytes and harbor no rodlet hydrophobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, Sebastian; Thielen, Vanessa; Weis, Philipp; Walther, Paul; Elias, Johannes; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Dragan, Mariola; Dandekar, Thomas; Einsele, Hermann; Löffler, Jürgen; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-11-17

    Mucormycoses are life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. This study characterizes the response of human mononuclear cells to different Mucorales and Ascomycota. PBMC, monocytes, and monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) from healthy donors were stimulated with resting and germinated stages of Mucorales and Ascomycota. Cytokine response and expression of activation markers were studied. Both inactivated germ tubes and resting spores of Rhizopus arrhizus and other human pathogenic Mucorales species significantly stimulated mRNA synthesis and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, R. arrhizus spores induced the upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules on moDCs and a specific T-helper cell response. Removal of rodlet hydrophobins by hydrofluoric acid treatment of A. fumigatus conidia resulted in enhanced immunogenicity, whereas the cytokine response of PBMCs to dormant R. arrhizus spores was not influenced by hydrofluoric acid. Scanning electron micrographs of Mucorales spores did not exhibit any morphological correlates of rodlet hydrophobins. Taken together, this study revealed striking differences in the response of human mononuclear cells to resting stages of Ascomycota and Mucorales, which may be explained by absence of an immunoprotective hydrophobin layer in Mucorales spores.

  7. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy on Vmh2 hydrophobin self-assembled layers for Teflon membrane bio-functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portaccio, M.; Gravagnuolo, A.M.; Longobardi, S.; Giardina, P.; Rea, I.; De Stefano, L.; Cammarota, M.; Lepore, M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrophobin self-assembled layers on Teflon in different preparation conditions were investigated. • ATR collection data geometry allowed samples examination without any particular preparation. • Amide content, lipid/amide and carbohydrate/amide ratios of the protein layer were estimated. • Secondary structure of protein was determined for the examined samples. • FT-IR demonstrated to be of extreme relevance in monitoring hydrophobin self-assembled layers preparation. - Abstract: Surface functionalization by layers of hydrophobins, amphiphilic proteins produced by fungi offers a promising and green strategy for fabrication of biomedical and bioanalytical devices. The layering process of the Vmh2 hydrophobin from Pleurotus ostreatus on Teflon membrane has been investigated by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. In particular, protein layers obtained with hydrophobin purified with two different procedures and in various coating conditions have been examined. The layers have been characterized by quantifying the amide I and amide II band area together with the lipid/amide ratio and carbohydrate/amide ratio. This characterization can be very useful in evaluating the best purification strategy and coating conditions. Moreover the analysis of the secondary structure of the layered protein using the deconvolution procedure of amide I band indicate the prevalent contribution from β-sheet state. The results inferred by infrared spectroscopy have been also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging

  8. ATR FT-IR spectroscopy on Vmh2 hydrophobin self-assembled layers for Teflon membrane bio-functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portaccio, M., E-mail: marianna.portaccio@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy); Gravagnuolo, A.M., E-mail: alfredomaria.gravagnuolo@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, S., E-mail: sara.longobardi@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Giardina, P., E-mail: paola.giardina@unina.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università “Federico II”, Via Cintia, 21- 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rea, I., E-mail: ilaria.rea@na.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, CNR, Via P. Castellino, 111-80131 Napoli (Italy); De Stefano, L., E-mail: luca.destefano@na.imm.cnr.it [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, CNR, Via P. Castellino, 111-80131 Napoli (Italy); Cammarota, M., E-mail: marcella.cammarota@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy); Lepore, M., E-mail: maria.lepore@unina2.it [Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale – Seconda Università di Napoli, Via S.M. di Costantinopoli, 16-80134 Napoli (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hydrophobin self-assembled layers on Teflon in different preparation conditions were investigated. • ATR collection data geometry allowed samples examination without any particular preparation. • Amide content, lipid/amide and carbohydrate/amide ratios of the protein layer were estimated. • Secondary structure of protein was determined for the examined samples. • FT-IR demonstrated to be of extreme relevance in monitoring hydrophobin self-assembled layers preparation. - Abstract: Surface functionalization by layers of hydrophobins, amphiphilic proteins produced by fungi offers a promising and green strategy for fabrication of biomedical and bioanalytical devices. The layering process of the Vmh2 hydrophobin from Pleurotus ostreatus on Teflon membrane has been investigated by Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. In particular, protein layers obtained with hydrophobin purified with two different procedures and in various coating conditions have been examined. The layers have been characterized by quantifying the amide I and amide II band area together with the lipid/amide ratio and carbohydrate/amide ratio. This characterization can be very useful in evaluating the best purification strategy and coating conditions. Moreover the analysis of the secondary structure of the layered protein using the deconvolution procedure of amide I band indicate the prevalent contribution from β-sheet state. The results inferred by infrared spectroscopy have been also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy imaging.

  9. Hydrophobins in ectomycorrhizas: heterologous transcription of the Pisolithus HydPt-1 gene in yeast and Hebeloma cylindrosporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Tagu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobins are fungal cell wall proteins involved in aggregation of hyphae. Upon the development of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between tree roots and fungal hyphae, the transcripts of hydrophobin genes markedly accumulated. As the precise role of these proteins in symbiosis is not yet known, we develop heterologous expression system of the Pisolithus hydrophobin HYDPt-1. This gene has been introduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum. Introns were required for hydPt-1 transcript accumulation in the basidiomycete H. cylindrosporum. Heterologous transcript accumulation did not alter the phenotype of either species. The lack of altered phenotype resulted from the absence of HYDPt-1 polypeptide accumulation in transformed strains.

  10. Identification of Races 0 and 2 of Cladosporium fulvum (syn Passalora fulva) on Tomato in the Cinturón Hortícola de La Plata, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Rollán, María Cristina; Protto, Victoria; Medina, Rocío; López, Silvina Marianela Yanil; Vera Bahima, José; Ronco, Blanca Lía; Saparrat, Mario Carlos Nazareno; Balatti, Pedro Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Surveys aimed at evaluating the incidence and severity of a new disease that developed in greenhouses cultivated with tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) were performed during 2009 and 2010 in greenhouses of the cultivars Elpida (Enza Zaden) and Colibrí (Clause) in an area of tomato production known as the Cinturón Hortícola de La Plata (the “horticultural belt of La Plata”). The disease had a 100% prevalence and 90% incidence within the ten 250 m greenhouses that were monitored in 2009, 2010, a...

  11. Coating Nanoparticles with Plant-Produced Transferrin-Hydrophobin Fusion Protein Enhances Their Uptake in Cancer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Lauri J.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Makila, Ermei M.

    2017-01-01

    can be expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana plants as a fusion with Trichoderma reesei hydrophobins HFBI, HFBII, or HFBIV. Transferrin-HFBIV was further expressed in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells. Both partners of the fusion protein retained their functionality; the hydrophobin moiety enabled migration...... to a surfactant phase in an aqueous two-phase system, and the transferrin moiety was able to reversibly bind iron. Coating porous silicon nanoparticles with the fusion protein resulted in uptake of the nanoparticles in human cancer cells. This study provides a proof-of concept for the functionalization...

  12. Evolutionary relationships in Aspergillus section Fumigati inferred from partial beta-tubulin and hydrophobin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiser, D.M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Taylor, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    are heterothallic. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred among members of Aspergillus section Fumigati based on partial DNA sequences from the benA beta-tubulin and rodA hydrophobin genes. Aspergillus clavatus was chosen as an outgroup. The two gene regions provided nearly equal numbers of phylogenetically...... informative nucleotide characters. The rodA region possessed a considerably higher level of inferred amino acid variation than did the benA region. The results of a partition homogeneity test showed that the benA and rodA data sets were not in significant conflict, and the topologies of the most parsimonious...

  13. Hydrophobin genes of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, are differentially expressed and corresponding mutants are decreased in virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobins are small, cysteine-rich, secreted proteins, ubiquitously produced by filamentous fungi that are speculated to function in fungal growth, cell surface properties, and development, although this has been rigorously tested for only a few species. Herein, we report identification of three ...

  14. Formation and elasticity of membranes of the class II hydrophobin Cerato-ulmin at oil-water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Kirby, Stephanie M; Chen, Yuwu; Anna, Shelley L; Walker, Lynn M; Hung, Francisco R; Russo, Paul S

    2018-04-01

    Protein surfactants show great potential to stabilize foams, bubbles, and emulsions. An important family of surface active proteins, the hydrophobins, is secreted by filamentous fungi. Two hydrophobin classes have been recognized, with Class II exhibiting slightly better solubility than Class I, although neither is very soluble in water. Hydrophobins are small proteins (8-14 kDa), but they are larger and more rigid than typical surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate. This rigidity seems to be manifested in the strength of adsorbed hydrophobin layers on oil droplets or air bubbles. A particular Class II hydrophobin, Cerato-ulmin, was characterized at the oil-water interface (the oil was squalane). The results are compared to measurements at the air-water interface, newly extended to lower Cerato-ulmin concentrations. For both oil-water and air-water interfaces, static and dynamic properties were measured during the evolution of the membrane structure. The static measurements reveal that dilute Cerato-ulmin solution efficiently decreases the interfacial tension, whether at oil-water or air-water interfaces. The reduction in surface tension requires several hours. Interfacial mechanics were characterized too, and the dilatational modulus was found to reach large values at both types of interfaces: 339 ± 19 mN/m at the squalane-water interface and at least 764 ± 45 mN/m at the air-water interface. Both values well exceed those typical of small-molecule surfactants, but come closer to those expected of particulate-loaded interfaces. Circular dichroism provides some insight to adsorption-induced molecular rearrangements, which seem to be more prevalent at the oil-water interface than at the air-water interface. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  16. Protein Hydration Thermodynamics: The Influence of Flexibility and Salt on Hydrophobin II Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsing, Richard C; Xi, Erte; Patel, Amish J

    2018-04-05

    The solubility of proteins and other macromolecular solutes plays an important role in numerous biological, chemical, and medicinal processes. An important determinant of protein solubility is the solvation free energy of the protein, which quantifies the overall strength of the interactions between the protein and the aqueous solution that surrounds it. Here we present an all-atom explicit-solvent computational framework for the rapid estimation of protein solvation free energies. Using this framework, we estimate the hydration free energy of hydrophobin II, an amphiphilic fungal protein, in a computationally efficient manner. We further explore how the protein hydration free energy is influenced by enhancing flexibility and by the addition of sodium chloride, and find that it increases in both cases, making protein hydration less favorable.

  17. Fusion to Hydrophobin HFBI Improves the Catalytic Performance of a Cytochrome P450 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Sebastian; Schumacher, Dominik; Raszkowski, Daniel; Girhard, Marco; Urlacher, Vlada B.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) are heme-containing enzymes that oxidize a broad range of substrates in the presence of molecular oxygen and NAD(P)H. For their activity, most P450s rely on one or two redox proteins responsible for the transfer of electrons from the cofactor NAD(P)H to the heme. One of the challenges when using P450s in vitro, especially when non-physiological redox proteins are applied, is the inefficient transfer of electrons between the individual proteins resulting in non-productive consumption of NAD(P)H – referred to as uncoupling. Herein, we describe the improvement of the coupling efficiency between a P450 and its redox partner – diflavin reductase – by fusing both enzymes individually to the hydrophobin HFBI – a small self-assembling protein of the fungus Trichoderma reesei. The separated monooxygenase (BMO) and reductase (BMR) domains of P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium were chosen as a P450-reductase model system and individually fused to HFBI. The fusion proteins could be expressed in soluble form in Escherichia coli. When HFBI-fused BMO and BMR were mixed in vitro, substantially higher coupling efficiencies were measured as compared with the respective non-fused enzymes. Consequently, myristic acid conversion increased up to 20-fold (after 6 h) and 5-fold (after 24 h). Size exclusion chromatography demonstrated that in vitro the hydrophobin-fused enzymes build multimeric protein assemblies. Thus, the higher activity is hypothesized to be due to HFBI-mediated self-assembly arranging BMO and BMR in close spatial proximity in aqueous solution. PMID:27458582

  18. Coating of hydrophobins on three-dimensional electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds for cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou Sen; Li Xinxin; Li Xiaoyu; Feng Xizeng, E-mail: xzfeng@nankai.edu.c [College of Life Science, Nankai University, Weijin Road 94, Tianjin, 300071 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Surface modification with hydrophobins is very important for cell adhesion in its applications in biosensor fabrication. In this study, we modified the surface of three-dimensional electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds with hydrophobin HFBI and collagen, and investigated its applications for cell adhesion. We found that HFBI could not only improve the hydrophilicity of the three-dimensional electrospun PLGA scaffolds but also endow the electrospun PLGA scaffolds with water permeability. This permeability should be attributed to both the hydrophilicity of the modified PLGA surface and the large positive capillary effect induced by the microstructures. Further experiment indicated that HFBI modification could improve collagen immobilization on the electrospun PLGA scaffolds and the HFBI/collagen modified electrospun PLGA scaffolds showed higher efficiency in promoting cell adhesion than the native PLGA scaffolds. This finding should be of potential application in biosensor device fabrication.

  19. Cloning and heterologous expression of a hydrophobin gene Ltr.hyd from the tiger milk mushroom Lentinus tuber-regium in yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydrophobins are small proteins secreted by filamentous fungi, which show a highly surface activity. Because of the signally self-assembling abilities and surface activities, hydrophobins were considered as candidates in many aspects, for example, stabilizing foams and emulsions in food products. Lentinus tuber-regium, known as tiger milk mushroom, is both an edible and medicinal sclerotium-producing mushroom. Up to now, the hydrophobins of L. tuber-regium have not been identified. Results: In this paper, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Ltr.hyd, was cloned from L. tuber-regium and expressed in the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The expression vector pGEH-GH was under the control of T. fuciformis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd promoter. The integration of Ltr.hyd into the genome of T. fuciformis was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence observation and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE demonstrated that recombinant hydrophobin rLtr.HYD with an expected molecular mass of 13 kDa was extracted. The yield of rLtr.HYD was 0.66 mg/g dry weight. The emulsifying activity of rLtr.HYD was better than the typical food emulsifiers sodium caseinate and Tween 20. Conclusions: We evaluated the emulsifying property of hydrophobin Ltr.HYD, which can be potentially used as a food emulsifier. Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Emulsifier, Expression vector, Filamentous fungi, Gel electrophoresis, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Heterogenous expression, Hydrophobin, Quantitative real-time PCR, Southern blot, Surface activity

  20. Surface-water interface induces conformational changes critical for protein adsorption: Implications for monolayer formation of EAS hydrophobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamron eLey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The class I hydrophobin EAS is part of a family of small, amphiphilic fungal proteins best known for their ability to self-assemble into stable monolayers that modify the hydrophobicity of a surface to facilitate further microbial growth. These proteins have attracted increasing attention for industrial and biomedical applications, with the aim of designing surfaces that have the potential to maintain their clean state by resisting non-specific protein binding. To gain a better understanding of this process, we have employed all-atom molecular dynamics to study initial stages of the spontaneous adsorption of monomeric EAS hydrophobin on fully hydroxylated silica, a commonly used industrial and biomedical substrate. Particular interest has been paid to the Cys3-Cys4 loop, which has been shown to exhibit disruptive behavior in solution, and the Cys7-Cys8 loop, which is believed to be involved in the aggregation of EAS hydrophobin at interfaces. Specific and water mediated interactions with the surface were also analyzed. We have identified two possible binding motifs, one which allows unfolding of the Cys7-Cys8 loop due to the surfactant-like behavior of the Cys3-Cys4 loop, and another which has limited unfolding due to the Cys3-Cys4 loop remaining disordered in solution. We have also identified intermittent interactions with water which mediate the protein adsorption to the surface, as well as longer lasting interactions which control the diffusion of water around the adsorption site. These results have shown that EAS behaves in a similar way at the air-water and surface-water interfaces, and have also highlighted the need for hydrophilic ligand functionalization of the silica surface in order to prevent the adsorption of EAS hydrophobin.

  1. Antifungal Activity Against Plant Pathogens of Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoning; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Taráwneh, Amer H.; Gao, Jiangtao; Wedge, David E.; Rosa, Luiz H.; Cutler, Horace G.; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin, 1, isocladosporin, 2, 5′-hydroxyasperentin, 3, and cladosporin-8-methyl ether, 4. An additional compound 5′,6-diacetyl cladosporin, 5, was synthesized by acetylation of compound 3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens. Phomopsis viticola was the most sensitive fungus to the tested compounds. At 30 μM, c...

  2. Infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. after penetrating keratoplasty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock RA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo Alexandre Stock,1 Elcio Luiz Bonamigo,2 Emeline Cadore,3 Rafael Allan Oechsler4 1Corneal Transplant Section, Santa Terezinha University Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Bioethics, 3University of Western Santa Catarina, Joaçaba, 4Cornea Department, Oftalmo Center Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil Background: Infectious crystalline keratopathy is a rare, progressive infection characterized by the insidious progression of branches and crystalline corneal opacities with minimal or no inflammation. This case report describes the evolution of an infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp., which developed after tectonic keratoplasty in a patient with a history of ocular trauma.Case presentation: A 40-year-old Brazilian male was the victim of firework-induced trauma to the left eye, which resulted in a corneal laceration that could not be sutured as well as a severe traumatic cataract. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and phacoemulsification. During postoperative follow-up, another therapeutic keratoplasty was required because unresponsive infectious keratitis was observed. The infiltrate’s characteristics were suggestive of infectious crystalline keratopathy; in particular, the infiltrate was insidious and progressive, and grayish-white branches appeared in the anterior corneal stroma. As different therapies were administered, inflammatory reactions ranging from mild to severe were observed. The infection was unresponsive to typical antifungal drugs. This lack of response most likely occurred due to steroid treatment and the diffuse corneal spread of an atypical microorganism, which was subsequently identified in culture as Cladosporium sp. After the second therapeutic keratoplasty, the patient’s eye integrity was successfully reestablished.Conclusion: This study likely provides the first report describing a case of infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. This case

  3. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  4. Kinetic and equilibrium aspects of adsorption and desorption of class II hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII at silicon oxynitride/water and air/water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivosheeva, Olga; Dėdinaitė, Andra; Linder, Markus B; Tilton, Robert D; Claesson, Per M

    2013-02-26

    Hydrophobins are relatively small globular proteins produced by filamentous fungi. They display unusual high surface activity and are implied as mediators of attachment to surfaces, which has resulted in high scientific and technological interest. In this work we focus on kinetic and equilibrium aspects of adsorption and desorption properties of two representatives of class II hydrophobins, namely HFBI and HFBII, at a negatively charged hydrophilic solid/water interface and at the air/water interface. The layers formed at the air/liquid interface were examined in a Langmuir trough, whereas layers formed at the solid/liquid interface were studied using dual polarization interferometry (DPI) under different flow conditions. For comparison, another globular protein, lysozyme, was also investigated. It was found that both the adsorbed amount and the adsorption kinetics were different for HFBI and HFBII, and the adsorption behavior of both hydrophobins on the negatively charged surface displayed some unusual features. For instance, even though the adsorption rate for HFBI was slowed down with increasing adsorbed amount as expected from packing constraints at the interface, the adsorption kinetics curves for HFBII displayed a region indicating adsorption cooperativity. Further, it was found that hydrophobin layers formed under flow partly desorbed when the flow was stopped, and the desorption rate for HFBII was enhanced in the presence of hydrophobins in solution.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of Cladosporium cladosporioides species complex causing pecan tree leaf spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C; Muniz, M F B; Rolim, J M; Martins, R R O; Rosenthal, V C; Maciel, C G; Mezzomo, R; Reiniger, L R S

    2016-09-16

    The objective of this study was to characterize species of the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex isolated from pecan trees (Carya illinoinensis) with symptoms of leaf spot, based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological attributes were assessed using monosporic cultures on potato dextrose agar medium, which were examined for mycelial growth, sporulation, color, and conidia and ramoconidia size. Molecular characterization comprised isolation of DNA and subsequent amplification of the translation elongation factor 1α (TEF-1α) region. Three species of the C. cladosporioides complex were identified: C. cladosporioides, Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides, and Cladosporium subuliforme. Sporulation was the most important characteristic differentiating species of this genus. However, morphological features must be considered together with molecular analysis, as certain characters are indistinguishable between species. TEF-1αcan be effectively used to identify and group isolates belonging to the C. cladosporioides complex. The present study provides an important example of a methodology to ascertain similarity between isolates of this complex causing leaf spot in pecan trees, which should facilitate future pathogenicity studies.

  6. Characterization of Emericella nidulans RodA and DewA hydrophobin mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Nielsen, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Pedersen, Mona Højgaard

    hydrophobins RodA and DewA. Individual knock-out mutants rodAΔ, dewAΔ and the double deletion strain rodAΔdewAΔ were constructed. Furthermore, two strains containing a point mutation in the first of the cysteines of RodA (rodA-C57G), where one was coupled to the dewA deletion, were included. The reference...... strain (NID1) and dewAΔ displayed green conidia. However, rodAΔ and rodAΔdewAΔ showed a dark green/brown conidial pigmentation, while rodA-C57G and rodAC57G dewAΔ displayed lighter brown conidia. rodAΔ and rodAΔdewAΔ displayed a higher degree of hülle cells compared to the moderate amount observed...... for NID1 and dewAΔ, while rodA-C57G and rodA-C57G dewAΔ displayed a low number of hülle cells. NID1 and dewAΔ conidia were dispersed as spore chains. rodAΔ, rodAΔdewAΔ, rodA-C57G and rodA-C57G dewAΔ spores were associated in large clumps, where the conidia seemed to adhere to one another. The largest...

  7. HFB7 - A novel orphan hydrophobin of the Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma, is involved in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylucka, Agnes; Akcapinar, Gunseli Bayram; Chenthamara, Komal; Cai, Feng; Grujic, Marica; Karpenko, Juriy; Livoi, Miriam; Shen, Qirong; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S

    2017-05-01

    Hydrophobins are small secreted cysteine-rich proteins exclusively found in fungi. They are able to self-assemble in single molecular layers at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces and can therefore be directly involved in establishment of fungi in their habitat. The genomes of filamentous mycotrophic fungi Trichoderma encode a rich diversity of hydrophobins, which are divided in several groups based on their structure and evolution. Here we describe a new member of class II hydrophobins, HFB7, that has a taxonomically restricted occurrence in Harzianum and Virens clades of Trichoderma. Evolutionary analysis reveals that HFB7 proteins form a separate clade distinct from other Trichoderma class II hydrophobins and that genes encoding them evolve under positive selection pressure. Homology modelling of HFB7 structure in comparison to T. reesei HFB2 reveals that the two large hydrophobic patches on the surface of the protein are remarkably conserved between the two hydrophobins despite significant difference in their primary structures. Expression of hfb7 gene in T. virens increases at interactions with other fungi and a plant and in response to a diversity of abiotic stress conditions, and is also upregulated during formation of aerial mycelium in a standing liquid culture. This upregulation significantly exceeds that of expression of hfb7 under a strong constitutive promoter, and T. virens strains overexpressing hfb7 thus display only changes in traits characterized by low hfb7 expression, i.e. faster growth in submerged liquid culture. The hfb7 gene is not expressed in conidia. Our data allow to conclude that this protein is involved in defence of Trichoderma against a diversity of stress factors related to the oxidative stress. Moreover, HFB7 likely helps in the establishment of the fungus in wetlands or other conditions related to high humidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of herbicidal potential of depsides from Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus found in Guava fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, Livia S. de; Sampaio, Olivia M.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Veiga, Thiago Andre M.

    2012-01-01

    Two natural products produced by Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus isolated from guava fruit, were evaluated for their effects on photosynthesis. Both of them inhibited electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV), acting as Hill reaction inhibitors in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. These polyketides, belonging to depsides class, inhibited partial reactions of photosystem II (PS II) electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo Na + ), and partially inhibited electron flow from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCPIP). These results established that the depsides sites of inhibition are located on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, between P680 and QA . Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements corroborated this mechanism of action. None of the tested compounds inhibited photosystem I (PS I) electron transport. (author)

  9. Species and ecological diversity within the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex (Davidiellaceae, Capnodiales)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensch, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2010-01-01

    of this species. Cladosporium tenuissimum and C. oxysporum, two saprobes abundant in the tropics, are epitypified and shown to be allied to, but distinct from C. cladosporioides. Twenty-two species are newly described on the basis of phylogenetic characters and cryptic morphological differences. The most...... important phenotypic characters for distinguishing species within the C. cladosporioides complex, which represents a monophyletic subclade within the genus, are shape, width, length, septation and surface ornamentation of conidia and conidiophores; length and branching patterns of conidial chains and hyphal...... shape, width and arrangement. Many of the treated species, e.g., C. acalyphae, C. angustisporum, C. australiense, C. basiinflatum, C. chalastosporoides, C. colocasiae, C. cucumerinum, C. exasperatum, C. exile, C. flabelliforme, C. gamsianum, and C. globisporum are currently known only from specific...

  10. Evaluation of herbicidal potential of depsides from Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus found in Guava fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Livia S. de; Sampaio, Olivia M.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Veiga, Thiago Andre M., E-mail: tveiga@unifesp.br [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Two natural products produced by Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus isolated from guava fruit, were evaluated for their effects on photosynthesis. Both of them inhibited electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV), acting as Hill reaction inhibitors in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. These polyketides, belonging to depsides class, inhibited partial reactions of photosystem II (PS II) electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo Na{sup +}), and partially inhibited electron flow from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCPIP). These results established that the depsides sites of inhibition are located on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, between P680 and QA . Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements corroborated this mechanism of action. None of the tested compounds inhibited photosystem I (PS I) electron transport. (author)

  11. Towards an Integrated Use of Biological Control by Cladosporium cladosporioides H39 in Apple Scab (Venturia inaequalis) Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Scheer, C.; Holb, I.J.; Masny, S.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Apple scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, is the most important disease in apple production, reducing yield and quality of fruit. Control of apple scab in commercial orchards currently depends on multiple applications of fungicides. The potential of the antagonistic isolate Cladosporium

  12. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, Swapnil M.; Chandanshive, Vishal V.; Rane, Niraj R.; Khandare, Rahul V.; Watharkar, Anuprita D.; Govindwar, Sanjay P.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96 h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36 h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV—vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36 h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus on Ipomoea hederifolia promotes root growth and shoot development • Endophytic Cladosporium cladosporioides synergistically degrade Navy Blue-HE2R dye • Endophyte colonized I. hederifolia roots proved superior in dye decolorization • Dye stress and toxicity was efficiently dealt by root-endophyte consortium • Root-endophyte consortium can be used as a sustainable remediation strategy

  13. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, Swapnil M. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Chandanshive, Vishal V. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Rane, Niraj R.; Khandare, Rahul V. [Department of Biotechnology, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Watharkar, Anuprita D. [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India); Govindwar, Sanjay P., E-mail: spg_biochem@unishivaji.ac.in [Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University, Kolhapur-416004 (India)

    2016-04-15

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96 h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36 h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV—vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36 h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes. - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus on Ipomoea hederifolia promotes root growth and shoot development • Endophytic Cladosporium cladosporioides synergistically degrade Navy Blue-HE2R dye • Endophyte colonized I. hederifolia roots proved superior in dye decolorization • Dye stress and toxicity was efficiently dealt by root-endophyte consortium • Root-endophyte consortium can be used as a sustainable remediation strategy.

  14. Biotransformation of cholesterol and 16,17-alpha epoxypregnenolone by novel Cladosporium sp. strain IS547.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cuiping; Cao, Yuting; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a few steroid drugs or intermediates that have been obtained via the transformation of microorganisms, and many strains of transformed steroids have not been found yet. Therefore, it is very significant to screen for the strains that have the abilities to transform steroids to produce valuable products. This study has focused on the screen and identification of strains, the structural identification of converted products, and the optimization of transformation conditions, as well as the establishment of transformation systems. A soil microbiota was screened for strain involved in the biotransformation of steroids. A new isolate IS547 is capable of converting a variety of steroids (such as cholesterol, ergosterol, hydrocortisone, progesterone, pregnenolone, and 16,17-alpha-epoxypregnenolone). Based on the 18S rDNA gene sequence comparison, the isolate IS547 has been demonstrated to be very closely related to Cladosporium sp. genus. Present paper is the first report regarding the microbial transformation by Cladosporium sp. to produce active intermediates, which include 7-hydroxy cholesterol, 20-droxyl-16α,17α-epoxypregna-4-dien-3-one, 7-ketocholesterol, and 7-droxyl-16α,17α-epoxypregna-4-dien-3,20-dione. Under the optimum conditions, the yields of product 3 and product 4 were 20.58 and 17.42%, respectively, higher than that prior to the optimization. The transformation rate increased significantly under the optimum fermentation conditions. This study describes an efficient, rapid, and inexpensive biotransformation system for the production of active pharmaceutical intermediates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The amphiphilic hydrophobin Vmh2 plays a key role in one step synthesis of hybrid protein-gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Jane; De Stefano, Luca; Longobardi, Sara; Giardina, Paola; Rea, Ilaria; Methivier, Christophe; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Casale, Sandra; Spadavecchia, Jolanda

    2015-12-01

    We report a simple and original method to synthesize gold nanoparticles in which a fungal protein, the hydrophobin Vmh2 from Pleurotus ostreatus and dicarboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene-glycol (PEG) has been used as additional components in a one step process, leading to hybrid protein-metal nanoparticles (NPs). The nanoparticles have been characterized by ultra-violet/visible, infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, dynamic light scattering and also by electron microscopy imaging. The results of these analytical techniques highlight nanometric sized, stable, hybrid complexes of about 12 nm, with outer surface rich in functional chemical groups. Interaction with protein and antibodies has also been exploited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrophobins contribute to root colonization and stress responses in the rhizosphere-competent insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonjely, Soumya; Keyhani, Nemat O; Bidochka, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    The hyd1/hyd2 hydrophobins are important constituents of the conidial cell wall of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This fungus can also form intimate associations with several plant species. Here, we show that inactivation of two Class I hydrophobin genes, hyd1 or hyd2, significantly decreases the interaction of B. bassiana with bean roots. Curiously, the ∆hyd1/∆hyd2 double mutant was less impaired in root association than Δhyd1 or Δhyd2. Loss of hyd genes affected growth rate, conidiation ability and oosporein production. Expression patterns for genes involved in conidiation, cell wall integrity, insect virulence, signal transduction, adhesion, hydrophobicity and oosporein production were screened in the deletion mutants grown in different conditions. Repression of the major MAP-Kinase signal transduction pathways (Slt2 MAPK pathway) was observed that was more pronounced in the single versus double hyd mutants under certain conditions. The ∆hyd1/∆hyd2 double mutant showed up-regulation of the Hog1 MAPK and the Msn2 transcription factor under certain conditions when compared to the wild-type or single hyd mutants. The expression of the bad2 adhesin and the oosporein polyketide synthase 9 gene was severely reduced in all of the mutants. On the other hand, fewer changes were observed in the expression of key conidiation and cell wall integrity genes in hyd mutants compared to wild-type. Taken together, the data from this study indicated pleiotropic consequences of deletion of hyd1 and hyd2 on signalling and stress pathways as well as the ability of the fungus to form stable associations with plant roots.

  17. Analysis of the ionic interaction between the hydrophobin RodA and two cutinases of Aspergillus nidulans obtained via an Aspergillus oryzae expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takumi; Nakayama, Mayumi; Takahashi, Toru; Nanatani, Kei; Yamagata, Youhei; Abe, Keietsu

    2017-03-01

    Hydrophobins are amphipathic secretory proteins with eight conserved cysteine residues and are ubiquitous among filamentous fungi. In the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, the hydrophobin RolA and the polyesterase CutL1 are co-expressed when the sole available carbon source is the biodegradable polyester polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA). RolA promotes the degradation of PBSA by attaching to the particle surface, changing its structure and interacting with CutL1 to concentrate CutL1 on the PBSA surface. We previously reported that positively charged residues in RolA and negatively charged residues in CutL1 are cooperatively involved in the ionic interaction between RolA and CutL1. We also reported that hydrophobin RodA of the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which was obtained via an A. oryzae expression system, interacted via ionic interactions with CutL1. In the present study, phylogenetic and alignment analyses revealed that the N-terminal regions of several RolA orthologs contained positively charged residues and that the corresponding negatively charged residues on the surface of CutL1 that were essential for the RolA-CutL1 interaction were highly conserved in several CutL1 orthologs. A PBSA microparticle degradation assay, a pull-down assay using a dispersion of Teflon particles, and a kinetic analysis using a quartz crystal microbalance revealed that recombinant A. nidulans RodA interacted via ionic interactions with two recombinant A. nidulans cutinases. Together, these results imply that ionic interactions between hydrophobins and cutinases may be common among aspergilli and other filamentous fungi.

  18. Antiangiogenic, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Endophytic Fungus isolated from seaweed (Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath M. Hulikere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi from marine seaweeds are the less studied group of organisms with vast medical applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antiangiogenic as well as wound healing potential of the endophytic fungus isolated from the seaweed Sargassum wightii. The morphological characters and the rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis (BLAST search in Gen Bank database was used for the identification of endophytic fungus. The antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of endophytic fungus was assessed by, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The fungal extract was also analysed for reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid content. Antiangiogenic activity of the fungal extract was studied in vitro by inhibition of wound healing scratch assay and in vivo by Chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. The endophytic fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Gen Bank ID – KT384175. The ethyl acetate extract of C. cladosporioides showed a significant antioxidant and angiosuppressive activity. The ESI-LC-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of wide range of secondary metabolites. Results suggest that C. cladosporioides extract could be exploited as a potential source for angiogenic modulators.

  19. EPR examination of Zn2+ and Cu2+ binding by pigmented soil fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buszman, Ewa; Pilawa, Barbara; Zdybel, Magdalena; Wilczynski, Slawomir; Gondzik, Anna; Witoszynska, Teresa; Wilczok, Tadeusz

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) to estimate zinc and copper ions biosorption from the environment by pigmented soil fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides. The existence of a low amount of pheomelanin, besides eumelanin, in C. cladosporioides samples was proved by the analysis of shape of their EPR spectra. Concentration of o-semiquinone free radicals in crude mycelium was 2.4 x 10 17 spin/g. Changes in free radicals system of C. cladosporioides cultured in the presence of Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ were analysed. Both magnetic and chemical interactions of zinc and copper ions with free radicals in C. cladosporioides melanin were found. Magnetically interacting diamagnetic Zn 2+ ions increased the concentration of o-semiquinone free radicals in melanin existing in C. cladosporioides mycelium, whereas paramagnetic Cu 2+ ions decreased this concentration. Chemical interactions of Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ ions decreased the free radical concentrations in C. cladosporioides melanin. Homogeneously distributed free radicals in C. cladosporioides melanin rise its activity in biosorption processes

  20. Antifungal activity against plant pathogens of metabolites from the endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Radwan, Mohamed M; Taráwneh, Amer H; Gao, Jiangtao; Wedge, David E; Rosa, Luiz H; Cutler, Horace G; Cutler, Stephen J

    2013-05-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin, 1; isocladosporin, 2; 5'-hydroxyasperentin, 3; and cladosporin-8-methyl ether, 4. An additional compound, 5',6-diacetylcladosporin, 5, was synthesized by acetylation of compound 3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens. Phomopsis viticola was the most sensitive fungus to the tested compounds. At 30 μM, compound 1 exhibited 92.7, 90.1, 95.4, and 79.9% growth inhibition against Colletotrichum acutatum , Colletotrichum fragariae , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , and P. viticola, respectively. Compound 2 showed 50.4, 60.2, and 83.0% growth inhibition at 30 μM against Co. fragariae, Co. gloeosporioides, and P. viticola, respectively. Compounds 3 and 4 were isolated for the first time from Cl. cladosporioides. Moreover, the identification of essential structural features of the cladosporin nuclei has also been evaluated. These structures provide new templates for the potential treatment and management of plant diseases.

  1. Occurrence and infection of Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium in withered rotten grapes during post-harvest dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-11-01

    Fungi like Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium can occur on withered grapes causing spoilage of passito wine. There is little or no information on the pathogenic role of these fungi. This study describes the isolation, incidence and identification of several isolates from different withered rotten grapes. Representative isolates grouped in several phenotypes were identified by phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer, actin or elongation factor gene sequences. Isolates of Cladosporium and Fusarium were ascribed to different species, of these C. ramotenellum, C. halotolerans and F. graminearum were isolated from Vitis vinifera for the first time. All Epicoccum and Aureobasidium isolates belonged to E. nigrum and A. pullulans, respectively. Random amplified DNA polymorphism analysis showed high level of heterogenicity among Epicoccum and Fusarium isolates. Infection assays were carried out to evaluate infectivity in some strains under different withering conditions. Fusarium spp. strains had similar infectivity, while significant variability was observed among Cladosporium spp. and E. nigrum strains. A. pullulans resulted particularly infective. This study provided insights into the occurrence and infection of these fungi in fruit-drying rooms with important implications towards control management during the withering.

  2. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows

  3. Seletividade de fungicidas cúpricos e sistêmicos sobre o fungo Cladosporium cladosporioides em cafeeiro Selectivity of cupric and systemic fungicides on Cladosporium cladosporioides in coffee plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência do fungo Cladosporium sp. em frutos do cafeeiro é freqüente e coincide com o período de controle de doenças desta cultura. O fungo Cladosporium sp. tem sido relatado associado a cafés de boa qualidade portanto, é importante que os fungicidas sejam seletivos aos agentes antagonistas de fungos deletérios à qualidade do café sendo o Cladosporium sp incluído neste grupo. Deste modo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi testar a seletividade de alguns produtos utilizados visando o controle de doenças do cafeeiro sobre o fungo Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres. de Vries. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma lavoura da cultivar Acaiá Cerrado MG 1474, com 6 anos de idade no espaçamento adensado de 2,0 x 0,6 m, onde foram testados produtos preventivos, a base de cobre, e sistêmico, aplicados isoladamente e associados. Foram empregados como produtos cúpricos o oxicloreto de cobre (50% de cobre metálico e Calda Viçosa comercial e como sistêmico o epoxiconazole. A avaliação da incidência de C. cladosporioides foi realizada através de notas subjetivas, em quatro épocas, registrando em porcentagem a área com crescimento fúngico sobre os frutos do cafeeiro. Verificou-se que enquanto nos tratamentos com fungicida epoxiconazole aplicado isoladamente ou associado ao fungicida cúprico o fungo apresentava-se inicialmente com baixa incidência, aumentando progressivamente a partir do mês de maio, nos tratamentos com apenas fungicidas cúpricos a incidência do fungo mostrou-se elevada desde maio, indicando não ter sido afetada e/ou mesmo favorecida por pulverizações anteriores do produto.The occurrence of Cladosporium cladosporioides on coffee fruits is frequently and coincides with the control of others diseases in coffee plants. The fungus Cladosporium sp. has been found associated with coffee of good quality; therefore, it is important to use of selective fungicides to preserve it. On the study, six years old, coffee

  4. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  5. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  6. Peptaibol, secondary-metabolite, and hydrophobin pattern of commercial biocontrol agents formulated with species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Dieckmann, Ralf; Branco-Rocha, Fabiano; Chaverri, Priscila; Samuels, Gary J; Thrane, Ulf; von Döhren, Hans; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Brückner, Hans

    2015-04-01

    The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics in plant-protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna(®) , Trichosan(®) , Vitalin(®) , Promot(®) WP, and TrichoMax(®) , formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well-established, HPLC/MS-based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all of these formulations contained new and recurrent peptaibols, i.e., peptaibiotics carrying an acetylated N-terminus, the C-terminus of which is reduced to a 1,2-amino alcohol. Their chain lengths, including the amino alcohol, were 11, 14, and 18 residues, respectively. Peptaibols were also to be the dominating secondary metabolites in plate cultures of the four strains obtained from four of the Trichoderma- based BCAs, contributing 95% of the UHPLC-UV/VIS peak areas and 99% of the total ion count MS peak area from solid media. Furthermore, species-specific hydrophobins, as well as non-peptaibiotic secondary metabolites, were detected, the latter being known for their antifungal, siderophore, or plant-growth-promoting activities. Notably, none of the isolates produced low-molecular weight mycotoxins. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Adsorption of hydrophobin on different self-assembled monolayers: the role of the hydrophobic dipole and the electric dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chunwang; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Daohui; Zhou, Jian

    2014-09-30

    In this work, the adsorptions of hydrophobin (HFBI) on four different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) (i.e., CH3-SAM, OH-SAM, COOH-SAM, and NH2-SAM) were investigated by parallel tempering Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation results indicate that the orientation of HFBI adsorbed on neutral surfaces is dominated by a hydrophobic dipole. HFBI adsorbs on the hydrophobic CH3-SAM through its hydrophobic patch and adopts a nearly vertical hydrophobic dipole relative to the surface, while it is nearly horizontal when adsorbed on the hydrophilic OH-SAM. For charged SAM surfaces, HFBI adopts a nearly vertical electric dipole relative to the surface. HFBI has the narrowest orientation distribution on the CH3-SAM, and thus can form an ordered monolayer and reverse the wettability of the surface. For HFBI adsorption on charged SAMs, the adsorption strength weakens as the surface charge density increases. Compared with those on other SAMs, a larger area of the hydrophobic patch is exposed to the solution when HFBI adsorbs on the NH2-SAM. This leads to an increase of the hydrophobicity of the surface, which is consistent with the experimental results. The binding of HFBI to the CH3-SAM is mainly through hydrophobic interactions, while it is mediated through a hydration water layer near the surface for the OH-SAM. For the charged SAM surfaces, the adsorption is mainly induced by electrostatic interactions between the charged surfaces and the oppositely charged residues. The effect of a hydrophobic dipole on protein adsorption onto hydrophobic surfaces is similar to that of an electric dipole for charged surfaces. Therefore, the hydrophobic dipole may be applied to predict the probable orientations of protein adsorbed on hydrophobic surfaces.

  8. Characterization and dynamic of colonization of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries in coffee fruits (Coffea arabica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ricardo Tadeu Galvão; Pfenning, Ludwig Heinrich; Castro, Hilário Antônio de

    2005-01-01

    A presença de fungos em associação natural com frutos do cafeeiro é considerada um fator importante influenciando a qualidade do café. A influência negativa de algumas espécies de Aspergillus é conhecida, comprometendo inclusive a segurança do produto. Os relatos de fungos influenciando positivamente a qualidade se resumem à ocorrência de Cladosporium sp. associados a grãos que originaram cafés de boa qualidade, porém informações exatas sobre a espécie e a sua dinâmica no campo são escassas. ...

  9. The Cf-4 and Cf-9 resistance proteins of tomato: molecular aspects of specificity and elicitor perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van der R.A.L.

    2001-01-01

    To feed the increasing world population, agricultural production needs continuous improvement. Especially protection of crops from disastrous diseases is crucial. The interaction between the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum and its host,

  10. Knocking down expression of the auxin-amidohydrolase IAR3 alters defense responses in Solanaceae family plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Ippolito, S.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Casalongue, C.A.; Fiol, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 253, DEC (2016), s. 31-39 ISSN 0168-9452 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * Biotic stress * Cladosporium fulvum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  11. Antagonism of Trichoderma species on Cladosporium herbarum and their enzimatic characterization Antagonismo de espécies de Trichoderma sobre Cladosporium herbarum e suas caracterização enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The verrucose caused by Cladosporium herbarum reduces production and quality of Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims., a largely consumed tropical fruit. This work aimed to investigate the antagonism of Trichoderma species (T. polysporum, T. koningii, T. viride and T. harzianum against Cladosporium herbarum, and to study the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by the pathogen and the antagonists. The results showed considerable antagonistic potential for the biocontrol of C. herbarum isolates by all Trichoderma species, except T. koningii. The most distinguished effect was observed for T. polysporum. In relation to the pattern of esterase obtained by electrophoresis in poliacrylamyde gel, the major activity presented by the isolates was observed after five days of incubation. The C. herbarum isolates produced extracellular enzymes, lipase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease, all possibly related to the infection process. Amylase excretion, not known to be associated with phytopathogens, was detected in Trichoderma species, but not in C. herbarum. In addition to amylase, all Trichoderma species tested produced also extracellular cellulase and pectinase, except T. koningii in relation to the latter enzyme. The demonstration of various esterase isoenzymes in zymograms of the Trichoderma species and C. herbarum isolates was markedly improved by washing the mycelia with detergents or EDTA. This fact suggested that a major fraction of extracelular enzymes may remain attached to outside fungal cell wall after being excreted.O maracujá (Passiflora edulis Sims., um fruto tropical amplamente consumido, tem sua produção e a qualidade dos seus frutos reduzidos pela verrugose causada por Cladosporium herbarum. Este trabalho objetivou investigar o antagonismo de espécies de Trichoderma (T. polysporum, T.koningii, T. viride e T. harzianum contra C. herbarum, e estudar a produção de enzimas hidrolíticas extracelulares pelo fitopatógeno e

  12. South African report of first case of chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladosporium (syn Cladophialophora) carrionii infection in a cat with feline immunodeficiency virus and lymphosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Anthony B; Griffiths, Catherine A

    2015-04-01

    This report describes a 6-year-old neutered male feline immunodeficiency-positive cat with repeated abdominal and thoracic effusions. The cat was diagnosed with and treated for lymphosarcoma but remission was short-lived and, on re-evaluation, a fungal peritoneal exudate was noted. Cytology of the organisms is described and the culture elucidated Cladosporium carrionii, an important cause of chromoblastomycosis. Treatment with itraconazole was unsuccessful in this case. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  13. [Peculiarities of linear growth of the melanin-containing fungi Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penz. and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vember, V V; Zhdanova, N N

    2001-01-01

    Results on determination of radial (linear) growth rate of melanin-containing fungi Cladosporium sphaerospermum Penz. and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler concerning place of their isolation and ecologic peculiarities are presented in the paper. Essential differences, as to all studied indices of the strains of C. sphaerospermum strains, isolated from premices of the ChNPP 4th unit from the control strains of this species have been established. Only strain 34 of C. sphaerospermum, isolated from the cable driving region of the "Shelter" object, which did not differ from the control strains as to all the studied indices, made the exception. The radial growth rate was 2-4 times as low and variability amplitude 10-30 times as high in strains 60 and 5-1 of C. sphaerospermum, (which suffered high radiation load), as in the control strains of this species. The radial growth rate of C. sphaerospermum studied strains was an order lower as a whole than that of A. alternata strains. All the above said evidence for implementation of K-type vital strategy by C. sphaerospermum species and in this connection one can suppose its active growth on the surface of walls and ferroconcrete structures of the ChNPP 4th unit. Absence of differences, as to the studied radial growth indices, between A. alternata strains isolated from the ChNPP 4th unit premices and control strains of the species can evidence for the existence of A. alternata species under the conditions of high radioactivity in the surviving state.

  14. Caracterização e dinâmica de colonização de Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen. de vries em frutos do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. Characterization and dynamic of colonization of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen. de Vries in coffee fruits (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tadeu Galvão Pereira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de fungos em associação natural com frutos do cafeeiro é considerada um fator importante influenciando a qualidade do café. A influência negativa de algumas espécies de Aspergillus é conhecida, comprometendo inclusive a segurança do produto. Os relatos de fungos influenciando positivamente a qualidade se resumem à ocorrência de Cladosporium sp. associados a grãos que originaram cafés de boa qualidade, porém informações exatas sobre a espécie e a sua dinâmica no campo são escassas. Objetivando caracterizar a espécie associada ao cafeeiro e sua dinâmica de colonização, 18 isolados de Cladosporium foram caracterizados e identificados. A dinâmica de colonização do fungo nas comunidades externa e interna do fruto do cafeeiro foi estudada ao longo do período de desenvolvimento do fruto. A espécie associada ao cafeeiro foi identificada como Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen. de Vries. A dinâmica do fungo é característica de um fungo saprófita encontrado em intensidade máxima quando os frutos estão nos estágios de cereja.The natural occurrence of fungi in coffee fruits is considered an important factor influencing the quality of coffee. The negative effect of some Aspergillus species in coffee, which can also affect safety of the product, is well known. Otherwise, there are reports describing the positive influence of fungi in coffee quality, but they are limited to the occurrence of Cladosporium sp. in fruits, and its correlation with a product of good quality. Indeed, the exact information about the species involved and dynamics of colonization are not available. The objective of this work was to identify and characterize the species of Cladosporium, detected in coffee fruits, and study the dynamics of colonization of the fruits during the maturation process. The species found on coffee fruits was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen. de Vries. and the dynamics of colonization showed the

  15. Some new and noteworthy diseases of poplars in India. [Botryodiplodia sett-rot; Alternaria tip blight; Cladosporium leaf spot; Fusarium pink incrustation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.

    1983-09-01

    Four new diseases of poplars namely Botryodiplodia sett-rott, Alternaria tip blight, Cladosporium leaf spot and Fusarium pink incrustation are described in this paper. Botryodiplodia palmarum causes sett-rott of poplars both at pre-sprouting and post-sprouting stage. The pathogen also causes mortality of poplar plants in the field within 4-6 weeks after planting. Alternaria stage of Pleuspora infectoria has been found as the cause of blackening and dying of growing tips and young leaves of a Populus sp. and P. deltoides in nurseries. Cladosporium humile has been recorded as the cause of brown spot followed by crumpling and premature shedding of leaves in P. ciliata, P. nigra and P. alba. The cause of Fusarium incrustation disease on P. cilata has been identified as Fusarium sp. of Gibbosum group. Pathogenicity of Botryodiplodia palmarum and Alternaria stage of Pleospora infectoria was confirmed by artificial inoculations. Brief descriptions of Alternaria, Cladosporium and Fusarium are also given. The paper also gives a short account of some noteworthy diseases recorded on poplars namely Ganoderma root rot, foliage ruts and stem cankers. Ganoderma root-rot is found to reach alarming proportions in closely spaced poplar plantations. Melampsora ciliata, an indigenous rust, is found to attack mainly clones of P. deltoides, P. yunnanensis, P. trichocarpa, P. alba and some cultivars of P. x euramericana in nurseries. A brief account of three types of stem cankers i.e. cankers due to pink disease fungus, Corticium salmonicolor, sun-scaled cankers and cankers associated with slime flux on various clones of P. deltoides is also given.

  16. Asp30 of Aspergillus oryzae cutinase CutL1 is involved in the ionic interaction with fungal hydrophobin RolA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Yuki; Kim, Yoon-Kyung; Tanaka, Takumi; Nanatani, Kei; Takahashi, Toru; Abe, Keietsu

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus oryzae hydrophobin RolA adheres to the biodegradable polyester polybutylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) and promotes PBSA degradation by interacting with A. oryzae polyesterase CutL1 and recruiting it to the PBSA surface. In our previous studies, we found that positively charged amino acid residues (H32, K34) of RolA and negatively charged residues (E31, D142, D171) of CutL1 are important for the cooperative ionic interaction between RolA and CutL1, but some other charged residues in the triple mutant CutL1-E31S/D142S/D171S are also involved. In the present study, on the basis of the 3D-structure of CutL1, we hypothesized that D30 is also involved in the CutL1-RolA interaction. We substituted D30 with serine and performed kinetic analysis of the interaction between wild-type RolA and the single mutant CutL1-D30S or quadruple mutant CutL1-D30S/E31S/D142S/D171S by using quartz crystal microbalance. Our results indicate that D30 is a novel residue involved in the ionic interaction between RolA and CutL1.

  17. Preparative Separation of Sulfur-Containing Diketopiperazines from Marine Fungus Cladosporium sp. Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Binbin; Zhang, Yanying; Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Wu, Bin; Dong, Junde; Zhu, Peng; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs) (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1) and cladosporin B (3), and a known compound haematocin (2)) from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v) and (2:1:2:1, v/v), in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was perfor...

  18. Production of extracellular traps against Aspergillus fumigatus in vitro and in infected lung tissue is dependent on invading neutrophils and influenced by hydrophobin RodA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bruns

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important airborne fungal pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Macrophages and neutrophils are known to kill conidia, whereas hyphae are killed mainly by neutrophils. Since hyphae are too large to be engulfed, neutrophils possess an array of extracellular killing mechanisms including the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs consisting of nuclear DNA decorated with fungicidal proteins. However, until now NET formation in response to A. fumigatus has only been demonstrated in vitro, the importance of neutrophils for their production in vivo is unclear and the molecular mechanisms of the fungus to defend against NET formation are unknown. Here, we show that human neutrophils produce NETs in vitro when encountering A. fumigatus. In time-lapse movies NET production was a highly dynamic process which, however, was only exhibited by a sub-population of cells. NETosis was maximal against hyphae, but reduced against resting and swollen conidia. In a newly developed mouse model we could then demonstrate the existence and measure the kinetics of NET formation in vivo by 2-photon microscopy of Aspergillus-infected lungs. We also observed the enormous dynamics of neutrophils within the lung and their ability to interact with and phagocytose fungal elements in situ. Furthermore, systemic neutrophil depletion in mice almost completely inhibited NET formation in lungs, thus directly linking the immigration of neutrophils with NET formation in vivo. By using fungal mutants and purified proteins we demonstrate that hydrophobin RodA, a surface protein making conidia immunologically inert, led to reduced NET formation of neutrophils encountering Aspergillus fungal elements. NET-dependent killing of Aspergillus-hyphae could be demonstrated at later time-points, but was only moderate. Thus, these data establish that NET formation occurs in vivo during host defence against A

  19. Identification of effector-like proteins in Trichoderma spp. and role of a hydrophobin in the plant-fungus interaction and mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Paulina; Alemán-Duarte, Mario Iván; Delaye, Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey

    2017-02-15

    Trichoderma spp. can establish beneficial interactions with plants by promoting plant growth and defense systems, as well as, antagonizing fungal phytopathogens in mycoparasitic interactions. Such interactions depend on signal exchange between both participants and can be mediated by effector proteins that alter the host cell structure and function, allowing the establishment of the relationship. The main purpose of this work was to identify, using computational methods, candidates of effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei, validate the expression of some of the genes during a beneficial interaction and mycoparasitism and to define the biological function for one of them. We defined a catalogue of putative effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. We further validated the expression of 16 genes encoding putative effector proteins from T. virens and T. atroviride during the interaction with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and with two anastomosis groups of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. We found genes which transcript levels are modified in response to the presence of both plant fungi, as well as genes that respond only to either a plant or a fungal host. Further, we show that overexpression of the gene tvhydii1, a Class II hydrophobin family member, enhances the antagonistic activity of T. virens against R. solani AG2. Further, deletion of tvhydii1 results in reduced colonization of plant roots, while its overexpression increases it. Our results show that Trichoderma is able to respond in different ways to the presence of a plant or a fungal host, and it can even distinguish between different strains of fungi of a given species. The putative effector proteins identified here may play roles in preventing perception of the fungus by its hosts, favoring host colonization or protecting it from the host's defense response. Finally, the novel effector protein TVHYDII1 plays a role in plant root colonization by T

  20. Microculture model studies on the effect of sorbic acid on Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Ulocladium atrum at different pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirdal, I M; Eklund, T

    1993-02-01

    The minimum growth-inhibitory concentration of sorbic acid has been determined for Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Ulocladium atrum at pH 4.1-7.6 by using a microculture technique. This technique had earlier been applied to bacteria and Candida albicans and gave very reliable minimum inhibitory values. This investigation has shown that it is suitable also for determination of mould growth. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of sorbic acid were at the tested pH levels 1-230 mmol l-1 for P. chrysogenum, 0.3-18.0 mmol l-1 for C. cladosporioides and 0.2-33.0 mmol l-1 for U. atrum. A mathematical model for combined inhibition by dissociated and undissociated acid, which gave a good description of the minimum inhibitory concentration data earlier obtained for bacteria and Candida albicans, was suitable also for moulds. Both dissociated and undissociated acid contributed to growth inhibition.

  1. Phosphorylation and proteome dynamics in pathogen-resistant tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Stulemeijer, I.J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat on global food production. Similar to disease resistance in mammals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognise pathogens and swiftly activate defence. For the work described in this thesis, the interaction between tomato and the extracellular fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum serves as a model system to study host resistance and susceptibility in plant-pathogen interactions. Resistance to C. fulvum in tomato plants follows the ge...

  2. The Indoor Fungus Cladosporium halotolerans Survives Humidity Dynamics Markedly Better than Aspergillus niger and Penicillium rubens despite Less Growth at Lowered Steady-State Water Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Frank J J; van Laarhoven, Karel A; Huinink, Hendrik P; Adan, Olaf C G; Wösten, Han A B; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Indoor fungi cause damage in houses and are a potential threat to human health. Indoor fungal growth requires water, for which the terms water activity (aw) and relative humidity (RH) are used. The ability of the fungi Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium halotolerans, and Penicillium rubens at different developmental stages to survive changes in aw dynamics was studied. Fungi grown on media with high aw were transferred to a controlled environment with low RH and incubated for 1 week. Growth of all developmental stages was halted during incubation at RHs below 75%, while growth continued at 84% RH. Swollen conidia, germlings, and microcolonies of A. niger and P. rubens could not reinitiate growth when retransferred from an RH below 75% to a medium with high aw All developmental stages of C. halotolerans showed growth after retransfer from 75% RH. Dormant conidia survived retransfer to medium with high aw in all cases. In addition, retransfer from 84% RH to medium with high aw resulted in burst hyphal tips for Aspergillus and Penicillium Cell damage of hyphae of these fungi after incubation at 75% RH was already visible after 2 h, as observed by staining with the fluorescent dye TOTO-1. Thus, C. halotolerans is more resistant to aw dynamics than A. niger and P. rubens, despite its limited growth compared to that of these fungi at a lowered steady-state aw The survival strategy of this phylloplane fungus in response to the dynamics of aw is discussed in relation to its morphology as studied by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM). Indoor fungi cause structural and cosmetic damage in houses and are a potential threat to human health. Growth depends on water, which is available only at certain periods of the day (e.g., during cooking or showering). Knowing why fungi can or cannot survive indoors is important for finding novel ways of prevention. Until now, the ability of fungi to grow on media with little available water at steady state (unchanging conditions) has

  3. Characterization of Cladosporols from the Marine Algal-Derived Endophytic Fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides EN-399 and Configurational Revision of the Previously Reported Cladosporol Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Lei; Li, Xiao-Ming; Mándi, Attila; Antus, Sándor; Li, Xin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Yang; Kurtán, Tibor; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-10-06

    Four new cladosporol derivatives, cladosporols F-I (1-4), the known cladosporol C (5), and its new epimer, cladosporol J (6), were isolated and identified from the marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides EN-399. Their structures were determined by detailed interpretation of NMR and MS data, and the absolute configurations were established on the basis of TDDFT-ECD and OR calculations. The configurational assignment of cladosporols F (1) and G (2) showed that the previously reported absolute configuration of cladosporol A and all the related cladosporols need to be revised from (4'R) to (4'S). Compounds 1-6 showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Vibrio harveyi with MIC values ranging from 4 to 128 μg/mL. Compound 3 showed significant cytotoxicity against A549, Huh7, and LM3 cell lines with IC 50 values of 5.0, 1.0, and 4.1 μM, respectively, and compound 5 showed activity against H446 cell line with IC 50 value of 4.0 μM.

  4. Dry Heat Treatment Reduces the Occurrence of Cladosporium cucumerinum, Ascochyta citrullina, and Colletotrichum orbiculare on the Surface and Interior of Cucumber Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry heat treatment has been identified as a method for disinfecting seed-borne pathogens in vegetable seeds. This study demonstrated that three seed-borne pathogens of cucumber (Cladosporium cucumerinum that causes scabs, Ascochyta citrullina that results in gummy stem blight, and Colletotrichum orbiculare that induces anthracnose could be effectively eradicated from cucumber seeds by dry heat treatment. In vitro growth of these three pathogens was inhibited by dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 40 min. These pathogens were inactivated after exposing infected seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 90 min. Seed infection was significantly reduced by exposing the seeds to 70 °C dry heat for at least 40 min. Seed moisture content and germination were slightly reduced after 70 °C heat treatment for 40–120 min. Seed vigor remained at a high level after dry heat treatment at 70 °C for 90 min. In conclusion, 70 °C dry heat treatment for 90 min was determined to be the optimal method for eradication of C. cucumerinum, Didymella bryoniae, and C. orbiculare from cucumber seeds.

  5. Preparative separation of sulfur-containing diketopiperazines from marine fungus Cladosporium sp. using high-speed counter-current chromatography in stepwise elution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binbin; Zhang, Yanying; Ding, Lijian; He, Shan; Wu, Bin; Dong, Junde; Zhu, Peng; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhang, Jinrong; Yan, Xiaojun

    2015-01-09

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs) (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1) and cladosporin B (3), and a known compound haematocin (2)) from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v) and (2:1:2:1, v/v), in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products.

  6. Preparative Separation of Sulfur-Containing Diketopiperazines from Marine Fungus Cladosporium sp. Using High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography in Stepwise Elution Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successively applied to the separation of three sulfur-containing diketopiperazines (DKPs (including two new compounds cladosporin A (1 and cladosporin B (3, and a known compound haematocin (2 from a marine fungus Cladosporium sp. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water at (1:1:1:1, v/v and (2:1:2:1, v/v, in stepwise elution mode, was used for HSCCC. The preparative HSCCC separation was performed on 300 mg of crude sample yielding 26.7 mg of compound 3 at a purity of over 95%, 53.6 mg of a mixture of compounds 1 and 2, which was further separated by preparative-HPLC yielding 14.3 mg of compound 1 and 25.4 mg of compound 2 each at a purity of over 95%. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The sulfur-containing DKPs suppressed the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. The present work represents the first application of HSCCC in the efficient preparation of marine fungal natural products.

  7. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos and Its Hydrolysis Product 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol by a New Fungal Strain Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chuyan; Liu, Hongmei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Intensive use of chlorpyrifos has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils. It is thus critically essential to develop bioremediation methods to degrade and eliminate this pollutant from environments. We present here that a new fungal strain Hu-01 with high chlorpyrifos-degradation activity was isolated and identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides based on the morphology and 5.8S rDNA gene analysis. Strain Hu-01 utilized 50 mg·L−1 of chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon of source, and tolerated high concentration of chlorpyrifos up to 500 mg·L−1. The optimum degradation conditions were determined to be 26.8°C and pH 6.5 based on the response surface methodology (RSM). Under these conditions, strain Hu-01 completely metabolized the supplemented chlorpyrifos (50 mg·L−1) within 5 d. During the biodegradation process, transient accumulation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was observed. However, this intermediate product did not accumulate in the medium and disappeared quickly. No persistent accumulative metabolite was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis at the end of experiment. Furthermore, degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos and TCP followed the first-order model. Compared to the non-inoculated controls, the half-lives (t 1/2) of chlorpyrifos and TCP significantly reduced by 688.0 and 986.9 h with the inoculum, respectively. The isolate harbors the metabolic pathway for the complete detoxification of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product TCP, thus suggesting the fungus may be a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water, soil or crop. PMID:23056611

  8. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by a new fungal strain Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen

    Full Text Available Intensive use of chlorpyrifos has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils. It is thus critically essential to develop bioremediation methods to degrade and eliminate this pollutant from environments. We present here that a new fungal strain Hu-01 with high chlorpyrifos-degradation activity was isolated and identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides based on the morphology and 5.8S rDNA gene analysis. Strain Hu-01 utilized 50 mg·L(-1 of chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon of source, and tolerated high concentration of chlorpyrifos up to 500 mg·L(-1. The optimum degradation conditions were determined to be 26.8°C and pH 6.5 based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Under these conditions, strain Hu-01 completely metabolized the supplemented chlorpyrifos (50 mg·L(-1 within 5 d. During the biodegradation process, transient accumulation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP was observed. However, this intermediate product did not accumulate in the medium and disappeared quickly. No persistent accumulative metabolite was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis at the end of experiment. Furthermore, degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos and TCP followed the first-order model. Compared to the non-inoculated controls, the half-lives (t(1/2 of chlorpyrifos and TCP significantly reduced by 688.0 and 986.9 h with the inoculum, respectively. The isolate harbors the metabolic pathway for the complete detoxification of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product TCP, thus suggesting the fungus may be a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water, soil or crop.

  9. Aplicação do agente biológico Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries “Cladosporin” como bioprotetor da qualidade do café (Coffea arabica L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Angélico, Caroline Lima

    2013-01-01

    O produto à base do agente bioprotetor da qualidade do café Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen) de Vries é uma alternativa promissora para a aplicação nos frutos de café ainda na lavoura, por se tratar de um produto biológico contendo um micro-organismo com características GRAS (General Regarded as Safe) e com reconhecida ação deletéria sobre fungos prejudiciais à qualidade do produto final. A aplicação do produto nos frutos poderia promover a manutenção ou a melhoria da qualidade de cafés ...

  10. System-Wide Hypersensitive Response-Associated Transcriptome and Metabolome Reprogramming in Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalo, D.W.; Stulemeijer, I.J.E.; Esse, van H.P.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is considered to be the hallmark of the resistance response of plants to pathogens. To study HR-associated transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used plants that express both a resistance gene to Cladosporium fulvum and the

  11. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on diots and monocots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Burg, van den H.A.; Ökmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Liere, van S.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce

  12. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics of Tomato Mounting a Hypersensitive Response Reveals a Swift Suppression of Photosynthetic Activity and a Differential Role for Hsp90 Isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stulemeijer, Iris J E; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Jensen, Ole N

    2009-01-01

    secreted by the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. Phosphopeptides were isolated from tomato seedlings expressing both Cf-4 and Avr4 using titanium dioxide columns and LC-MS/MS analysis led to the identification of 50 phosphoproteins, most of which have not been described in tomato before...

  13. COMPLEXES OF BISCITRATOGERMANATES AND BISCITRATOSTANATES WITH METALS ARE MODIFIERS OF ACTIVITY OF Bacillus thuringiensis var. іsraelensis PEPTIDASES AND α-Penicillium canescens, Cladosporium cladosporioides AND Aspergillus niger GALACTOIDASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Varbanets

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the effect of a number of coordination compounds of stanum and germanium (compounds 1‒8 as modifiers of activity of peptidases and α-galactosidases. The coordination compounds with the same type structure of were investigated as enzymes effectors. Two types of complexes: 1 [M(H2O6][Ge(НCitr2]4H2O (M = Mg(1, Mn(2, Co(3, Ni(4, Zn(5, containing biscitrate-stanate anion ([Ge(НCitr2]2-, and 2 [M(H2O6][Sn(НCitr2]4H2O (M = Mg(6, Co(7, Ni(8, containing biscitratostanate anion and various hexaaquacations ([M(H2O6]2+, М= Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn were studied. It is shown that the compound 6 which is a biscitratostanate complex containing magnesium ions as metal, can be used for stimulation on 20‒25% of collagenase activity of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis IMV B-7465 peptidase 1 and peptidase 2. Compound 1 (biscitrate-stanate complex containing magnesium ions as metal and 7 (biscitratostanate complex containing cobalt ions as metal and compound 6 in a concentration of 0.001% are able to increase elastolytic activity of peptidase 1 on 55‒58%. However compound 7 has shown the greatest activating effect. It increased the elastolytic activity of peptidase 2 on 100‒140% (for both tested concentrations. This indicates that the compound 7 can further be used as of peptidase 2 elastolytic activity effector. In the study of effect of the considered coordination compounds on the activity of α-galactosidase of Penicillium canescens, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Aspergillus niger was found that when using a number of complexes (1‒2 and 4‒8, there is a slight increase on 12‒20% of enzyme activity of P. canescens, and the maximum effect (~20%, concentration 0.01% was provided by complex 6.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity Investigation on Wuyiencin Fractions of Different Polarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengjie Cui

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Wuyiencin fractions with different polarities against six indicator microorganisms: Rhodotorula rubra, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Cladosporium fulvum and Staphylococcus aureus. The fermentation broth of Wuyiencin was submitted to AB-8 macroporous adsorptive resin and fractionated with solvents of different polarity. The fraction eluted with water had remarkably antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms investigated except for C. fulvum and S. aureus (MIC ≤ 0.0625 mg/mL, probably due to the presence of active components. The fraction eluted with methanol showed potential antimicrobial activity against all the test microorganisms except for R.rubra, with MIC values of0.5 and 2 mg/mL. In conclusion, fractions eluted with water and methanol, respectively, represent the main active-part of Wuyiencin, and could be emphasized for agricultural applications in the future.

  15. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium fulvum, wherein said plant is not a tomato or tobacco plant. The invention also relates to methods for screening the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to at least one pathogen, wherein said path...

  16. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on dicots and monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; van den Burg, Harrold A; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; van Liere, Sabine; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2010-04-20

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-triggered immunity in their presence. Here we show that homologs of the C. fulvum Avr4 and Ecp2 effectors are present in other pathogenic fungi of the Dothideomycete class, including Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana. We demonstrate that the Avr4 homolog of M. fijiensis is a functional ortholog of C. fulvum Avr4 that protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases through binding to chitin and, despite the low overall sequence homology, triggers a Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. Furthermore, three homologs of C. fulvum Ecp2 are found in M. fijiensis, one of which induces different levels of necrosis or HR in tomato lines that lack or contain a putative cognate Cf-Ecp2 protein, respectively. In contrast to Avr4, which acts as a defensive virulence factor, M. fijiensis Ecp2 likely promotes virulence by interacting with a putative host target causing host cell necrosis, whereas Cf-Ecp2 could possibly guard the virulence target of Ecp2 and trigger a Cf-Ecp2-mediated HR. Overall our data suggest that Avr4 and Ecp2 represent core effectors that are collectively recognized by single cognate Cf-proteins. Transfer of these Cf genes to plant species that are attacked by fungi containing these cognate core effectors provides unique ways for breeding disease-resistant crops.

  17. Analysis of Two in Planta Expressed LysM Effector Homologs from the Fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Novel Functional Properties and Varying Contributions to Virulence on Wheat1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rosalind; Kombrink, Anja; Motteram, Juliet; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Lucas, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Rudd, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Secreted effector proteins enable plant pathogenic fungi to manipulate host defenses for successful infection. Mycosphaerella graminicola causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. Leaf infection involves a long (approximately 7 d) period of symptomless intercellular colonization prior to the appearance of necrotic disease lesions. Therefore, M. graminicola is considered as a hemibiotrophic (or necrotrophic) pathogen. Here, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of M. graminicola homologs of Ecp6 (for extracellular protein 6), the Lysin (LysM) domain-containing effector from the biotrophic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum, which interferes with chitin-triggered immunity in plants. Three LysM effector homologs are present in the M. graminicola genome, referred to as Mg3LysM, Mg1LysM, and MgxLysM. Mg3LysM and Mg1LysM genes were strongly transcriptionally up-regulated specifically during symptomless leaf infection. Both proteins bind chitin; however, only Mg3LysM blocked the elicitation of chitin-induced plant defenses. In contrast to C. fulvum Ecp6, both Mg1LysM and Mg3LysM also protected fungal hyphae against plant-derived hydrolytic enzymes, and both genes show significantly more nucleotide polymorphism giving rise to nonsynonymous amino acid changes. While Mg1LysM deletion mutant strains of M. graminicola were fully pathogenic toward wheat leaves, Mg3LysM mutant strains were severely impaired in leaf colonization, did not trigger lesion formation, and were unable to undergo asexual sporulation. This virulence defect correlated with more rapid and pronounced expression of wheat defense genes during the symptomless phase of leaf colonization. These data highlight different functions for MgLysM effector homologs during plant infection, including novel activities that distinguish these proteins from C. fulvum Ecp6. PMID:21467214

  18. Avr4 promotes Cf-4 receptor-like protein association with the BAK1/SERK3 receptor-like kinase to initiate receptor endocytosis and plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Jelle; Liebrand, Thomas W H; Bi, Guozhi; Evrard, Alexandre; Bye, Ruby R; Mbengue, Malick; Kuhn, Hannah; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-04-01

    The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires transphosphorylation with a second associated RLK, it remains elusive how RLPs initiate downstream signaling. We employed live-cell imaging, gene silencing and coimmunoprecipitation to investigate the requirement of associated kinases for functioning and ligand-induced subcellular trafficking of Cf RLPs that mediate immunity of tomato against Cladosporium fulvum. Our research shows that after elicitation with matching effector ligands Avr4 and Avr9, BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1/SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR KINASE 3 (BAK1/SERK3) associates with Cf-4 and Cf-9. BAK1/SERK3 is required for the effector-triggered hypersensitive response and resistance of tomato against C. fulvum. Furthermore, Cf-4 interacts with SOBIR1 at the plasma membrane and is recruited to late endosomes upon Avr4 trigger, also depending on BAK1/SERK3. These observations indicate that RLP-mediated resistance and endocytosis require ligand-induced recruitment of BAK1/SERK3, reminiscent of BAK1/SERK3 interaction and subcellular fate of the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) RLK. This reveals that diverse classes of cell surface immune receptors share common requirements for initiation of resistance and endocytosis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Fed-batch production of hydrophobin RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in host Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    was dependent on the methanol-induced AOX1 promoter. Later production was scaled up to a 2 L fed-batch fermentor. Protein production was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, coomassie and silver-stained, as well as western blotting using an anti-his detection antibody. RodB was purified using His-select Nickel Affinity gel....... The emulsifying property of rRodB was investigated using olive oil stained with Sudan black suspended in tris-buffer. The stability of oil micelles were studied by light microscopy. Results: Protein bands of expected size were detected by SDS-PAGE and western blotting in both the fermentation broth and excess...

  20. Interspecific variability of class II hydrophobin GEO1 in the genus Geosmithia10

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frascella, A.; Bettini, P.P.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Comparini, C.; Pazzagli, L.; Lutti, S.; Scala, F.; Scala, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 11 (2014), s. 862-871 ISSN 1878-6146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ascomycetes * Entomochoric fungi * Gene expression Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2014

  1. INSOLUBLE HYDROPHOBIN COMPLEXES IN THE WALLS OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE AND OTHER FILAMENTOUS FUNGI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, OMH; FEKKES, MP; WOSTEN, HAB; WESSELS, JGH

    Two closely related cysteine-rich hydrophobic proteins, Sc3p and Sc4p, of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are developmentally regulated and associated with the walls of aerial hyphae and fruit-body hyphae. They are present in the walls as hot-SDS-insoluble complexes which can be extracted

  2. HYDROPHOBIN GENES INVOLVED IN FORMATION OF AERIAL HYPHAE AND FRUIT BODIES IN SCHIZOPHYLLUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSELS, JGH; DEVRIES, OMH; ASGEIRSDOTTIR, SA; SCHUREN, FHJ

    Fungi typically grow by apical extension of hyphae that penetrate moist substrates. After establishing a branched feeding mycelium, the hyphae differentiate and grow away from the substrate into the air where they form various structures such as aerial hyphae and mushrooms. In the basidiomycete

  3. High-yield production of hydrophobins RodA and RodB from Aspergillus fumigatus in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona Højgaard; Borodina, Irina; Moresco, Jacob Lange

    2011-01-01

    A as well as rRodB were able to convert a glass surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic similar to native RodA, but only rRodB was able to decrease the hydrophobicity of a Teflon-like surface to the same extent as native RodA, while rRodA showed this ability to a lesser extent. Recombinant RodA and native...

  4. Peptaibol, Secondary‐Metabolite, and Hydrophobin Pattern of Commercial Biocontrol Agents Formulated with Species of the Trichoderma harzianum Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Dieckmann, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The production of bioactive polypeptides (peptaibiotics) in vivo is a sophisticated adaptation strategy of both mycoparasitic and saprotrophic Trichoderma species for colonizing and defending their natural habitats. This feature is of major practical importance, as the detection of peptaibiotics...... in plant‐protective Trichoderma species, which are successfully used against economically relevant bacterial and fungal plant pathogens, certainly contributes to a better understanding of these complex antagonistic interactions. We analyzed five commercial biocontrol agents (BCAs), namely Canna®, Trichosan......®, Vitalin®, Promot® WP, and TrichoMax®, formulated with recently described species of the Trichoderma harzianum complex, viz. T. afroharzianum, T. simmonsii, and T. guizhouense. By using the well‐established, HPLC/MS‐based peptaibiomics approach, it could unequivocally be demonstrated that all...

  5. System-Wide Hypersensitive Response-Associated Transcriptome and Metabolome Reprogramming in Tomato1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etalo, Desalegn W.; Stulemeijer, Iris J.E.; Peter van Esse, H.; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is considered to be the hallmark of the resistance response of plants to pathogens. To study HR-associated transcriptome and metabolome reprogramming in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), we used plants that express both a resistance gene to Cladosporium fulvum and the matching avirulence gene of this pathogen. In these plants, massive reprogramming occurred, and we found that the HR and associated processes are highly energy demanding. Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, hydrolysis of sugars, and lipid catabolism are used as alternative sources of amino acids, energy, and carbon skeletons, respectively. We observed strong accumulation of secondary metabolites, such as hydroxycinnamic acid amides. Coregulated expression of WRKY transcription factors and genes known to be involved in the HR, in addition to a strong enrichment of the W-box WRKY-binding motif in the promoter sequences of the coregulated genes, point to WRKYs as the most prominent orchestrators of the HR. Our study has revealed several novel HR-related genes, and reverse genetics tools will allow us to understand the role of each individual component in the HR. PMID:23719893

  6. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (Activation of Host-Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Elicitor-Induced Enzyme Dephosphorylation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Barkla, B. J.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from race 4 of Cladosporium fulvum and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells near isogenic for the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate events following the treatment of host plasma membranes with elicitor. A 4-fold increase in H+-ATPase activity, coincident with the acidification of the extracellular medium, was detected immediately after elicitor treatment. The elicitor-induced stimulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was inhibited by okadaic acid but not by staurosporine, suggesting that protein dephosphorylation was required for increased H+-ATPase activity. This observation was confirmed by [gamma]-32P labeling and immunodetection of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the ATPase activity suggested the role of GTP-binding proteins in mediating the putative elicitor-receptor binding, resulting in activation of a phosphatase(s), which in turn stimulates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by dephosphorylation. PMID:12232073

  7. Elucidation of cladofulvin biosynthesis reveals a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase required for anthraquinone dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Mesarich, Carl H; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Vaisberg, Abraham; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Cox, Russell; Collemare, Jérôme

    2016-06-21

    Anthraquinones are a large family of secondary metabolites (SMs) that are extensively studied for their diverse biological activities. These activities are determined by functional group decorations and the formation of dimers from anthraquinone monomers. Despite their numerous medicinal qualities, very few anthraquinone biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated so far, including the enzymatic dimerization steps. In this study, we report the elucidation of the biosynthesis of cladofulvin, an asymmetrical homodimer of nataloe-emodin produced by the fungus Cladosporium fulvum A gene cluster of 10 genes controls cladofulvin biosynthesis, which begins with the production of atrochrysone carboxylic acid by the polyketide synthase ClaG and the β-lactamase ClaF. This compound is decarboxylated by ClaH to yield emodin, which is then converted to chrysophanol hydroquinone by the reductase ClaC and the dehydratase ClaB. We show that the predicted cytochrome P450 ClaM catalyzes the dimerization of nataloe-emodin to cladofulvin. Remarkably, such dimerization dramatically increases nataloe-emodin cytotoxicity against mammalian cell lines. These findings shed light on the enzymatic mechanisms involved in anthraquinone dimerization. Future characterization of the ClaM enzyme should facilitate engineering the biosynthesis of novel, potent, dimeric anthraquinones and structurally related compound families.

  8. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40¢ªC were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained at 25¢ªC ...

  9. THE THN MUTATION OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE, WHICH SUPPRESSES FORMATION OF AERIAL HYPHAE, AFFECTS EXPRESSION OF THE SC3 HYDROPHOBIN GENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSELS, JGH; DEVRIES, OMH; ASGEIRSDOTTIR, SA; SPRINGER, J

    1991-01-01

    The spontaneous and recessive mutation thn in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune suppresses the formation of aerial hyphae in the monokaryon and, if present as a double dose, the formation of both aerial hyphae and fruit-bodies in the dikaryon. In the monokaryon, the mutation prevents

  10. The SC15 protein of Schizophyllum commune mediates formation of aerial hyphae and attachment in the absence of the SC3 hydrophobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugones, L G; de Jong, J F; de Vries, O M H; Jalving, R; Dijksterhuis, J; Wösten, H A B

    Disruption of the SC3 gene in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune affected not only formation of aerial hyphae but also attachment to hydrophobic surfaces. However, these processes were not completely abolished, indicating involvement of other molecules. We here show that the SC15 protein

  11. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E Arango Isaza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules

  12. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F; V de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C; Lindquist, Erika A; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A J; De Wit, Pierre J G M; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V; Goodwin, Stephen B; Kema, Gert H J

    2016-08-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this

  13. A Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Is Systemically Induced upon Wounding in Tomato Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, José Manuel; Raíces, Marcela; Téllez-Iñón, María Teresa; Ulloa, Rita María

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone (LeCDPK1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) encoding a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) was isolated by screening a cDNA library from tomato cell cultures exposed to Cladosporium fulvum elicitor preparations. The predicted amino acid sequence of the cDNA reveals a high degree of similarity with other members of the CDPK family. LeCDPK1 has a putative N-terminal myristoylation sequence and presents a possible palmitoylation site. The in vitro translated protein conserves the biochemical properties of a member of the CDPK family. In addition, CDPK activity was detected in soluble and particulate extracts of tomato leaves. Basal levels of LeCDPK1 mRNA were detected by northern-blot analysis in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of tomato plants. The expression of LeCDPK1 was rapidly and transiently enhanced in detached tomato leaves treated with pathogen elicitors and H2O2. Moreover, when tomato greenhouse plants were subjected to mechanical wounding, a transient increase of LeCDPK1 steady-state mRNA levels was detected locally at the site of the injury and systemically in distant non-wounded leaves. The increase observed in LeCDPK1 mRNA upon wounding correlates with an increase in the amount and in the activity of a soluble CDPK detected in extracts of tomato leaves, suggesting that this kinase is part of physiological plant defense mechanisms against biotic or abiotic attacks. PMID:11788771

  14. Obtaining of interspecific hybrids for pea introgressive breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vasilevich Bobkov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Overcoming of reproductive isolation, identification and transfer of agronomic value genes from wild relatives into cultivated pea genomes is an important task for pea introgressive breeding. Materials and methods. Reciprocal hybridization of cultivated pea with wide set of P. fulvum accessions was conducted. Identification of hybrids was carried out with use of biochemical and morphological markers. Identification of unique protein was conducted with use of electrophoretic spectra of mature seeds. Results. Pea interspecific hybrids were obtained in two reciprocal directions of crosses. Cross efficiency in Р. sativum × P. fulvum and P. fulvum × Р. sativum combinations was 36 % and 7 %, respectively. All tested seeds in crosses Р. sativum × P. fulvum were hybrids. Crosses in direction P. fulvum × Р. sativum led to formation of puny seeds restricted in embryo growth. Protein markers of one seed derived in cross P. fulvum × Р. sativum proved its hybrid nature. Morphological markers demonstrated that plant derived from another cross was also a hybrid. Culture of immature embryos was developed for recovering plants in interspecific crosses. Morphogenic calli and regenerated plants were obtained in culture of immature embryos P. fulvum (И592589 × Р. sativum (Aest. Identification of unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was conducted. Inheritance of that protein was proved as monogenic dominant. Conclusion. Efficiency of hybridization in combination P. fulvum × Р. sativum was significantly less in compare to reciprocal one. All products of that cross combination were tested as hybrids. Unique protein 7 of P. fulvum was revealed as a result of mature seed electrophoretic spectra analysis. Inheritance of that protein was determined as monogenic dominant.

  15. The Liana assemblage of a Congolian rainforest : diversity, structure and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewango Ekokinya, Corneille

    2010-01-01

    Key words: Liana assemblage, species composition, community, dynamics, canopy openness, Manniophyton fulvum, functional traits, population density, pervasive change.

    This study analyzes the diversity, composition, and dynamics of the liana assemblage of the Ituri rain forest in

  16. Overexpression of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Gene AdBiL Contributes to Resistance against Chilling Stress and Leaf Mold Disease in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangchen Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitination is a common regulatory mechanism, playing a critical role in diverse cellular and developmental processes in eukaryotes. However, a few reports on the functional correlation between E3 ubiquitin ligases and reactive oxygen species (ROS or reactive nitrogen species (RNS metabolism in response to stress are currently available in plants. In the present study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase gene AdBiL (Adi3 Binding E3 Ligase was introduced into tomato line Ailsa Craig via Agrobacterium-mediated method. Transgenic lines were confirmed for integration into the tomato genome using PCR. Transcription of AdBiL in various transgenic lines was determined using real-time PCR. Evaluation of stress tolerance showed that T1 generation of transgenic tomato lines showed only mild symptoms of chilling injury as evident by higher biomass accumulation and chlorophyll content than those of non-transformed plants. Compared with wild-type plants, the contents of AsA, AsA/DHA, GSH and the activity of GaILDH, γ-GCS and GSNOR were increased, while H2O2, O2.−, MDA, NO, SNOs, and GSNO accumulations were significantly decreased in AdBiL overexpressing plants in response to chilling stress. Furthermore, transgenic tomato plants overexpressing AdBiL showed higher activities of enzymes such as G6PDH, 6PGDH, NADP-ICDH, and NADP-ME involved in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP. The transgenic tomato plants also exhibited an enhanced tolerance against the necrotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. Tyrosine nitration protein was activated in the plants infected with leaf mold disease, while the inhibition could be recovered in AdBiL gene overexpressing lines. Taken together, our results revealed a possible physiological role of AdBiL in the activation of the key enzymes of AsA–GSH cycle, PPP and down-regulation of GSNO reductase, thereby reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress in plants. This study demonstrates an optimized transgenic strategy using AdBiL gene for crop

  17. THE CHARACTERISATION OF FUNGI Passalora fulva (Cooke U.Braun&Crous PATHOTYPES, CAUSER OF TOMATO LEAF MOLD IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrijana Novak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is considered one of the most widely grown vegetable crops in the world and production of it is rising every year in Croatia as well as in the world. This research paper shows results on tomato leaf mould caused by Passalora fulva (Cooke U.Braun & Crous (syn. Cladosporium fulvum (Cooke, which can cause significant reduction of yield and quality of tomato. Other than economic loss, tomato leaf mould can be the cause of allergies because it produces lots of spores. During research, the following materials and methods have been used: collecting samples of plant material infected with tomato leaf mould and assessments of disease intensity, isolation and determination of the pathogen, detecting pathotypes using biassay, susceptibility testing of different tomato genotypes infected with P. fulva, molecular identification and testing the effects of essential oils in vitro on conidia germination. Visual controls of greenhouse and outdoor growing tomato were conducted during the period from 2006 to 2011. Samples (17 from 14 localities in 10 counties (Istra County, Koprivnica-Križevci County, KrapinaZagorje County, Međimurje County, Osijek-BaranjaCounty, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Varaždin County, Virovitica-Podravina County, Zadar County and Zagreb County were collected. Symptoms were detected on 6 different tomato genotypes: Belle, Jeremy, Minaret, Amaneta, Gravitet and test genotype. Outdoors, P. fulva was not found. For isolation and determination of P. fulva 4 different growing media were used: PDA (potato – dextrose agar, tomato – agar, carrot – agar and V8 – agar. By measuring the size of conidia on carrot – agar it was determined that they were the closest in size to the conidia from infected tomato leaf. Bioassay for the first time in Croatia confirmed presence of two different physiological pathotypes of P. fulva, Cf – 0 and Cf – 5. Other pathotypes obtained by bioassay were not confirmed by sequencing because the

  18. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. ... The fungus showed maximum growth at 92.5 and 100% relative humidity. .... recommended that fruits and vegetables should be stored at low ...

  19. Technological Possibilities to Prevent and Suppress Primary Gushing of Beer.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poštulková, Michaela; Riveros-Galan, D.; Cordova-Agiular, K.; Zítková, K.; Verachtert, H.; Derdelinckx, G.; Dostálek, P.; Růžička, Marek; Brányik, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, MAR (2016), s. 64-73 ISSN 0924-2244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : primary gushing * hydrophobins * barley Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.191, year: 2016

  20. DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION OF GENES UNDER CONTROL OF THE MATING-TYPE GENES IN THE SECONDARY MYCELIUM OF SCHIZOPHYLLUM-COMMUNE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ASGEIRSDOTTIR, SA; VANWETTER, MA; WESSELS, JGH

    The Schizophyllum commune SC3 gene, which encodes a hydrophobin that coats aerial hyphae, is expressed in both monokaryons and dikaryons. The dikaryons were formed by mating two monokaryons with different MATA and MATB genes, leading to activation of the MATA- and MATB-controlled pathways (MATA-on

  1. A Biomimetic Approach to Lubricate Engineering Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røn, Troels

    lubrication characteristic is dominant via ‘selfhealing’ mechanism. The glycosylated FpHYD5 revealed a better lubrication than HFBI. Two type II hydrophobins function more favorably compared to synthetic amphiphilic copolymer, PEO-PPO-PEO, with a similar molecular weight. This is ascribed to higher amount...

  2. Microfungal contaminants on mobile phones of health services vocational school students in Marmaris, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Vedat Kadir; Sülün, Yusuf

    2014-02-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine microfungi on mobile phones. Totally, 50 mobile phones were used belonging to Health Services Vocational School students. The samples were taken by swabbing the screen and keys of mobile phones using moistened sterile swab sticks. A total of 24 different microfungal species were obtained belonging to Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhinocladiella, Scopulariopsis, Trichoderma, and Trichophyton genera. The genera of microfungi most abundant in terms of the number of species on the mobile phones were Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium. Numerically, Cladosporium was found as the most abundant on the mobile phones. Cladosporium herbarum colonies were highest in number, followed by Cladosporium sphaerospermum, and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. When percentages of each species present on the mobile phones were considered, C. herbarum and C. sphaerospermum were the most common. There was a great similarity between the dominant microfungi isolated from mobile phones and dominant microfungi obtained from studies of atmospheric microfungi in Turkey.

  3. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... using only NIR gave a separation of 26-88% between uninfected and Fusarium spp. infected seeds. Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. could be distinguished from each other and from Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp. and Stemphylium spp. Separation of Cladosporium spp., Verticillium spp....... and Stemphylium spp. needs further development before practical application....

  4. Searching for eukaryotic life preserved in Antarctic permafrost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucconi, L.; Selbmann, L.; Buzzini, P.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi and yeasts isolated in pure culture from Antarctic permafrost collected at different depths in the McMurdo Dry Valleys were identified with cultural, physiological and molecular methods. Fungi belonged to the genera Penicillium, Eurotium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Engyodonthium, Aureobasidium...

  5. Quality of Ghana herbal tea: microflora and control measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal species isolated varied from one sample to another. Sixteen fungal species were isolated from Hibiscus, belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Manoascus. Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Septodochium, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum; thirteen fungal species belonging to the genera Aspergillus ...

  6. Modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Guilmart, A.; Radoi, F.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanol (E) on the radial growth rate (¿) of food spoilage moulds (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium

  7. Airspora concentrations in the Vaal-triangle-monitoring and potential health-effects.2, fungal spores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vismer, HF

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fungal spores were monitored in Vanderbijlpark for the period 1991-92 as part of the Vaal triangle air pollution health study of the medical research council and the CSIR. Cladosporium, Aspergillus/ Penicillium, Alternaria and Epicoccum...

  8. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-01-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the domin...

  9. The Fate and Effects of Crude Oil Spilled on Subarctic Permafrost Terrain in Interior Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    on microorganisms are more important than ab - the filamentous fungal population was greater in solute numbers. the winter plot than in the summer...nalkanes by McCown, B.H., F.J. Deneke, W.E. Rickard and L.L. Tieszen Cladosporium resinae Applied Microbiology, vol 25, p (197 t) The response of...alkanes.on Impact of Oil Resource Deselopment on Northern Plant Com- Cladosporium resinae Canadian Journal of Microbiology. vol munities University of

  10. Identification of Aspergillus fumigatus Surface Components That Mediate Interaction of Conidia and Hyphae With Human Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambach, Günter; Blum, Gerhard; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Fontaine, Thierry; Heinekamp, Thorsten; Hagleitner, Magdalena; Jeckström, Hanna; Weigel, Günter; Würtinger, Philipp; Pfaller, Kristian; Krappmann, Sven; Löffler, Jürgen; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Speth, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Platelets were recently identified as a part of innate immunity. They are activated by contact with Aspergillus fumigatus; putative consequences include antifungal defense but also thrombosis, excessive inflammation, and thrombocytopenia. We aimed to identify those fungal surface structures that mediate interaction with platelets. Human platelets were incubated with Aspergillus conidia and hyphae, isolated wall components, or fungal surface mutants. Interaction was visualized microscopically; activation was quantified by flow cytometry of specific markers. The capacity of A. fumigatus conidia to activate platelets is at least partly due to melanin, because this effect can be mimicked with "melanin ghosts"; a mutant lacking melanin showed reduced platelet stimulating potency. In contrast, conidial hydrophobin masks relevant structures, because an A. fumigatus mutant lacking the hydrophobin protein induced stronger platelet activation than wild-type conidia. A. fumigatus hyphae also contain surface structures that interact with platelets. Wall proteins, galactomannan, chitin, and β-glucan are not the relevant hyphal components; instead, the recently identified fungal polysaccharide galactosaminogalactan potently triggered platelet activation. Conidial melanin and hydrophobin as well as hyphal galactosaminogalactan represent important pathogenicity factors that modulate platelet activity and thus might influence immune responses, inflammation, and thrombosis in infected patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Domestication of Pea (Pisum sativum L.): The Case of the Abyssinian Pea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Norman F.

    2018-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the Abyssinian pea (Pisum sativum ssp. abyssinicum) to other subspecies and species in the genus were investigated to test between different hypotheses regarding its origin and domestication. An extensive sample of the Pisum sativum ssp. sativum germplasm was investigated, including groups a-1, a-2, b, c, and d as identified by Kwon et al. (2012). A broad sample of P. fulvum but relatively few P. s. ssp. elatius accessions were analyzed. Partial sequences of 18 genes were compared and these results combined with comparisons of additional genes done by others and available in the literature. In total, 54 genes or gene fragment sequences were involved in the study. The observed affinities between alleles in P. ssp. sativum, P. s. ssp. abyssinicum, P. s. ssp. elatius, and P. fulvum clearly demonstrated a close relationship among the three P. sativum subspecies and rejected the hypothesis that the Abyssinian pea was formed by hybridization between one of the P. sativum subspecies and P. fulvum. If hybridization were involved in the generation of the Abyssinian pea, it must have been between P. s. ssp. sativum and P. s. ssp. elatius, although the Abyssinian pea possesses a considerable number of highly unique alleles, implying that the actual P. s. ssp. elatius germplasm involved in such a hybridization has yet to be tested or that the hybridization occurred much longer ago than the postulated 4000 years bp. Analysis of the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum alleles in genomic regions thought to contain genes critical for domestication indicated that the indehiscent pod trait was independently developed in the Abyssinian pea, whereas the loss of seed dormancy was either derived from P. s. ssp. sativum or at least partially developed before the P. s. ssp. abyssinicum lineage diverged from that leading to P. s. ssp. sativum. PMID:29720994

  12. Atmospheric mold spore counts in relation to meteorological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katial, R. K.; Zhang, Yiming; Jones, Richard H.; Dyer, Philip D.

    Fungal spore counts of Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum were studied during 8 years in Denver, Colorado. Fungal spore counts were obtained daily during the pollinating season by a Rotorod sampler. Weather data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Daily averages of temperature, relative humidity, daily precipitation, barometric pressure, and wind speed were studied. A time series analysis was performed on the data to mathematically model the spore counts in relation to weather parameters. Using SAS PROC ARIMA software, a regression analysis was performed, regressing the spore counts on the weather variables assuming an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) error structure. Cladosporium was found to be positively correlated (Pmodel was derived for Cladosporium spore counts using the annual seasonal cycle and significant weather variables. The model for Alternaria and Epicoccum incorporated the annual seasonal cycle. Fungal spore counts can be modeled by time series analysis and related to meteorological parameters controlling for seasonallity; this modeling can provide estimates of exposure to fungal aeroallergens.

  13. Actual measurement, hygrothermal response experiment and growth prediction analysis of microbial contamination of central air conditioning system in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Hu, Guangyao; Wang, Chunyang; Yuan, Wenjie; Wei, Shanshan; Gao, Jiaoqi; Wang, Boyuan; Song, Fangchao

    2017-04-03

    The microbial contamination of central air conditioning system is one of the important factors that affect the indoor air quality. Actual measurement and analysis were carried out on microbial contamination in central air conditioning system at a venue in Dalian, China. Illumina miseq method was used and three fungal samples of two units were analysed by high throughput sequencing. Results showed that the predominant fungus in air conditioning unit A and B were Candida spp. and Cladosporium spp., and two fungus were further used in the hygrothermal response experiment. Based on the data of Cladosporium in hygrothermal response experiment, this paper used the logistic equation and the Gompertz equation to fit the growth predictive model of Cladosporium genera in different temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the square root model was fitted based on the two environmental factors. In addition, the models were carried on the analysis to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the established model equation.

  14. The contribution of polystyrene nanospheres towards the crystallization of proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Kallio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallization is a slow process of trial and error and limits the amount of solved protein structures. Search of a universal heterogeneous nucleant is an effort to facilitate crystallizability of proteins. METHODOLOGY: The effect of polystyrene nanospheres on protein crystallization were tested with three commercial proteins: lysozyme, xylanase, xylose isomerase, and with five research target proteins: hydrophobins HFBI and HFBII, laccase, sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (SDMT, and anti-testosterone Fab fragment 5F2. The use of nanospheres both in screening and as an additive for known crystallization conditions was studied. In screening, the addition of an aqueous solution of nanosphere to the crystallization drop had a significant positive effect on crystallization success in comparison to the control screen. As an additive in hydrophobin crystallization, the nanospheres altered the crystal packing, most likely due to the amphiphilic nature of hydrophobins. In the case of laccase, nanospheres could be used as an alternative for streak-seeding, which insofar had remained the only technique to produce high-diffracting crystals. With methyltransferase SDMT the nanospheres, used also as an additive, produced fewer, larger crystals in less time. Nanospheres, combined with the streak-seeding method, produced single 5F2 Fab crystals in shorter equilibration times. CONCLUSIONS: All in all, the use of nanospheres in protein crystallization proved to be beneficial, both when screening new crystallization conditions to promote nucleation and when used as an additive to produce better quality crystals, faster. The polystyrene nanospheres are easy to use, commercially available and close to being inert, as even with amphiphilic proteins only the crystal packing is altered and the nanospheres do not interfere with the structure and function of the protein.

  15. Fungi of the house dust in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, R R; el-Gindy, A A

    1990-01-01

    30 species belonging to 18 genera were isolated from floor dust of 30 homes in Riyadh. Out of them 16 species and 10 genera were isolated from dust of air conditioners of the same homes. The most common genera in floor dust were Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Aspergillus repens, A. amstelodami, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus, Penicillium purpurogenum, P. crustosum, Cladosporium cladosporoides and C. herbarum were frequently isolated. The most abundant genera in air conditioner dust were Aspergillus and Penicillium. Aspergillus fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, Penicillium oxalicium and P. crustosum were most frequent species.

  16. Joint DoD/DoE Shale Oil Project. Volume 3. Testing of Refined Shale Oil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    10-9. GROWTH RATINGS OF CLADOSPORIUM RESINAE AT VARIOUS INCUBATION STAGES ......................... 10-25 S 0 xv - LIST OF TABLES (Continued) TABLE 10...test_nC are sho’ T, in Trbl]e .3 d :: ab ffr stead..--staoe zerfrrmance was noted wcrh the snale fel. Wh’le a ..6 :o:n: = in Scecifiz Fuel Consumption...both shale DFM and shale JP-5 support heavy growth of Cladosporium resinae . Short-term engine performance tests were conducted on two gas turbine

  17. Surface hydrophobicity of Aspergillus nidulans conidiospores and its role in pellet formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Jens Østergaard; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Formation of pellets by Aspergillus nidulans is primarily due to agglomeration of the fungal conidiospores. Although agglomeration of conidiospores has been known for a long time, its mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. To study the influence of the fungal conidiospore wall hydrophobicity...... on conidiospore agglomeration, pellet formation of an A. nidulans wild type and strains deleted in the conidiospore-wall-associated hydrophobins DewA and RodA was compared at different pH values. From contact angle measurements, RodA was found to be more important for the surface hydrophobicity than Dew...

  18. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogen known for its production of a large array of extrolites. Up to 63 species have been described in Aspergillus section Fumigati, some of which have also been reliably reported to be pathogenic, including A. felis, A. fischeri, A....... fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. noyofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoyiridinutans, A. spinosus, A. therrnornutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37 °C...

  19. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  20. On a difference in the antifungal activity of tridemorph and its formulated product Calixin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkenaar, A.; Kaars Sijpesteijn, A.

    1979-01-01

    The antifungal effects of tridemorph and its formulated product Calixin were compared in vitro on Ustilago maydis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulopsis candida, Botrytis allii, and Cladosporium cucumerinum. MIC values for both products were about the same. In liquid media the products were somewhat

  1. Mycoflora of soybeans used for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-06-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju.

  2. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium

  3. An unusual double fungal infection of the bladder due to Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G.V. KandaSwamy

    rarely pathogenic to humans, but may cause skin lesions, keratitis, onychomycosis, sinusitis and pulmonary infections [2]. Candida infection is synonymous with fungal cystitis, but cladosporium involving the bladder has virtually been unheard of. Case report. A 37-year-old diabetic female, mother of one child, presented with ...

  4. A new species of Phaeoramularia (Fungi Imperfecti: Dematiaceae from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available A dematiaceous Hyphomycete isolated fro n wheat and oat straw, as well as lucerne seed in South Africa, is described as Phaeoramularia kellermaniana Marasas & Bred ill, sp. nov. The relationships ofP. kellermaniana to  Cladosporium resinae (Lindau de Vries and other species of Phaeoramularia are discussed.

  5. Identification of distinct specificity determinants in resistance protein Cf-4 allows construction of a Cf-9 mutant that confers recognition of avirulence protein AVR4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, Van der R.A.L.; Roth, R.; Wit, De P.J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    The tomato resistance genes Cf-4 and Cf-9 confer specific, hypersensitive response-associated recognition of Cladosporium carrying the avirulence genes Avr4 and Avr9, respectively. Cf-4 and Cf-9 encode type I transmembrane proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Compared with Cf-9,

  6. Fungi and some mycotoxins contaminating rice ( Oryza Sativa ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major fungal genera contaminating rice were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Curvularia, elminthosporium and Cladosporium. The most prevalent fungal species on rice were .Penicillium spp., A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger, Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp. and Alternaria spp.

  7. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  8. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  9. Quinones from Heliotropium ovalifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntern, A; Ioset, J R; Queiroz, E F; Foggin, C M; Hostettmann, K

    2001-10-01

    Two new benzoquinones, heliotropinones A and B, have been isolated from the aerial parts of Heliotropium ovalifolium. Their structures were elucidated by spectrometric methods including high resolution electrospray ionization (ESI-HR), EI mass spectrometry, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR experiments. The two quinones demonstrated antifungal activities against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans as well as antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis.

  10. Characterization of moulds associated with processed garri stored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of moulds associated with processed white and yellow garri stored at ambient temperature for 40 days was investigated. The moulds isolated from white garri (%) were: Aspergillus spp 35.3, Penicillium spp 23.53, Fusarium spp 2.94, Mucor spp 17.65, Alternaria spp 5.88, Cladosporium sp 2.94 and ...

  11. Determination of Optimum Tropic Storage and Exposure Sites. Report 1: Survey of Programs in Tropic Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Aspergillus, Penicillium , Pseudomonas, and Bacillus. Their activity was indicated by oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production...species of Cladosporium, Helminthosporium, Syncephalastrum, Penicillium , Margaronomyces, and Bacillus. This report confirmed the view that unvulcanized...found that the material was more resistant to Chaetomium globosum sp . than similar unexposed fabrics. Disregarding the strength loss due to weathering

  12. Diagnosis of mold allergy by RAST and skin prick testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Agrell, B; Malling, H J; Dreborg, S

    1990-11-01

    Sera from 33 patients with mold allergy proven by bronchial provocation were analyzed for specific IgE against six mold species comparing an improved Phadebas RAST with four other techniques. The new method was more sensitive and gave significantly higher IgE antibody concentrations for all tested molds except Cladosporium herbarum.

  13. Isolation and Identification of Spoilage Fungi Associated With Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spoilage fungi isolated were Aspergillus species, Rhizopus, Penicilluim, Fusarium, Eurotium, Mucor, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Actinomyces species. The predominant spoilage fungi in the grains were Aspergillus species. The populations of some spoilage fungi isolated from the grains were not high ...

  14. Antibacterial activity of the endophytic fungi from medicinal herb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine distinct isolates (Macof01 to Macof09) were selected for further taxonomical identification by morphological traits and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene sequence analysis. Seven genera namely Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bionectria, Cladosporium, Neosartorya and Penicillium were identified on ...

  15. Morphological and molecular identification of filamentous fungi isolated from cosmetic powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cristina Jastale Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven fungi were isolated from 50 samples of cosmetic powders. Morphological analyses and ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers sequencing were performed which allowed the discrimination of the isolated fungi as Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp., and Cladosporium sp. which could have, among their species, potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

  16. JPRS Report Science & Technology USSR: Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-18

    Fractionated Irradiation [V. N. Malakhovskiy, M. I. Bokk; RADIOBIOLOGIYA, Vol 29 No 3, May-Jun 89] 41 Melanin Acts as Radioprotector [A. Patyko...Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Tricho- derma viride; but Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium her- barum, Stemphylium ilicis, and Ulocladium atrum...of the above. Melanin -producing micromycetes predominated on materials subjected to storage both in open fields and sheds. Determinations of

  17. A Review of Microbially Induced Corrosion (MIC) of Steel and a Preliminary Investigation to Determine Its Occurrence in Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    decimal dilution; i.e. 1 l0 Il], aSepticalvY transterred to ’) 0 inl1 dilutinig fluid and shaken and the procedure repeated .2 .2 Sw~ ab Samples...Materials Research Laboratory. Videla, H.A. (1985). The action of Cladosporium resinae growth on the electrochemical behaviour of aluminium. In Biologically

  18. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    1 janv. 2018 ... activity of the crude fungal extract of the genera Cladosporium, Alternaria, ... vieillissement, le déclenchement et la progression de plusieurs maladies, telles que le cancer, ... Sur le plan bioclimatique, la zone d'étude se situe.

  19. Maxisorp RAST. A sensitive method for detection of antigen-specific human IgE in culture fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L K; Pedersen, M F; Malling, H J

    1989-01-01

    For determination of allergen-specific IgE in cell culture supernatants and other highly diluted IgE preparations a radioallergosorbent test (RAST) based on high adsorption polystyrene test tubes has been developed ("Maxisorp RAST"). Cladosporium herbarum extract was used as a model allergen...

  20. Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaitre, Elodie; Knoche, Sebastian; Cicuta, Pietro; Vella, Dominic

    2013-03-01

    The protein hydrophobin HFBII self-assembles into very elastic films at the surface of water; these films wrinkle readily upon compression. We demonstrate and study this wrinkling instability in the context of non-planar interfaces by forming HFBII layers at the surface of bubbles whose interfaces are then compressed by deflation of the bubble. By varying the initial concentration of the hydrophobin solutions, we are able to show that buckling occurs at a critical packing fraction of protein molecules on the surface. Independent experiments show that at this packing fraction the interface has a finite positive surface tension, and not zero surface tension as is usually assumed at buckling. We attribute this non-zero wrinkling tension to the finite elasticity of these interfaces. We develop a simple geometrical model for the evolution of the wrinkle length with further deflation and show that wrinkles grow rapidly near the needle (used for deflation) towards the mid-plane of the bubble. This geometrical model yields predictions for the length of wrinkles in good agreement with experiments independently of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layer.

  1. Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles

    KAUST Repository

    Aumaitre, Elodie

    2013-03-01

    The protein hydrophobin HFBII self-assembles into very elastic films at the surface of water; these films wrinkle readily upon compression. We demonstrate and study this wrinkling instability in the context of non-planar interfaces by forming HFBII layers at the surface of bubbles whose interfaces are then compressed by deflation of the bubble. By varying the initial concentration of the hydrophobin solutions, we are able to show that buckling occurs at a critical packing fraction of protein molecules on the surface. Independent experiments show that at this packing fraction the interface has a finite positive surface tension, and not zero surface tension as is usually assumed at buckling. We attribute this non-zero wrinkling tension to the finite elasticity of these interfaces. We develop a simple geometrical model for the evolution of the wrinkle length with further deflation and show that wrinkles grow rapidly near the needle (used for deflation) towards the mid-plane of the bubble. This geometrical model yields predictions for the length of wrinkles in good agreement with experiments independently of the rheological properties of the adsorbed layer. © 2013 EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  2. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  3. Sesquiterpene Lactones of Amphoricarpos autariatus ssp. autariatus from Montenegro - Antifungal Leaf - Surface Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Jadranin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The composition of leaf cuticular neutral lipids of Amphoricarpos autariatus ssp. autariatus collected at canyon of river Tara (North Montenegro was investigated by GC/MS (nonpolar fraction, LC-ESI TOF MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy (more polar fraction. The nonpolar fraction (ca. 15% of the whole surface extract contained C 27 - 33 n-alkanes, those with odd-number of carbons predominating. The LC-ESI MS and 1H NMR of the more polar fraction revealed 13 sesquiterpene lactones, constituting ca. 97.5% of the lactone mixture, identified as the known guaianolides, so-called amphoricarpolides, found previously in the aerial parts of the genus. The lactone fraction exhibited considerable in vitro effect against eight fungi, i.e. Aspergillus ochraceus , A. niger, A. versicolor , Penicillium funiculosum, P. ochrochloron, Trichoderma viride, Fusarium verticillioides and Fulvia fulvum.

  4. Isolation of Fungi from Heterodera glycines and in vitro Bioassays for Their Antagonism to Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S L; Huettel, R N; Sayre, R M

    1990-10-01

    Twenty fungi were assayed in vitro for antagonism to eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eight of the fungi were isolated from cysts or eggs of H. glycines during the current study, one was isolated from Panagrellus redivivus, and eleven were obtained from other researchers or collections. The bioassays were conducted on eggs from nematodes that had been grown monoxenically on excised root tips. Phoma chrysanthemicola, one strain of Verticillium chlamydosporium, and one strain of V. lecanii caused a decrease (P Trichoderma polysporum infected live eggs but enhanced (P Fusarium sp., Neocosmospora vasinfecta, Scytalidium fulvum, Trichoderma harzianum (two strains), V. chlamydosporium (one strain), V. lecanii (three strains), and an unidentified fungus did not measurably affect egg viability, even though hyphae of five of these fungi were seen in live eggs. The bioassay provides a useful step in the selection of a biological control agent for this major nematode pest.

  5. Report on ticks collected in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil: analyzing the potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens to man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of ticks were collected in 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998, mostly from wild and domestic animals in the Southeast and Mid-West regions of Brazil. Nine species of Amblyommidae were identified: Anocentor nitens, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma fulvum, Amblyomma striatum, Amblyomma rotundatum, Boophilus microplus, Boophilus annulatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The potential of these tick species as transmitters of pathogens to man was analyzed. A Flaviviridade Flavivirus was isolated from Amblyomma cajennense specimens collected from a sick capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris. Amblyomma cajennense is the main transmitter of Rickettsia rickettsii (=R. rickettsi, the causative agent of spotted fever in Brazil. Wild mammals, mainly capybaras and deer, infested by ticks and living in close contact with cattle, horses and dogs, offer the risk of transmission of wild zoonosis to these domestic animals and to man.

  6. Diversity and Antibacterial Activities of Fungi Derived from the Gorgonian Echinogorgia rebekka from the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Yun Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of symbiotic fungi associated with the gorgonian coral Echinogorgia rebekka from the Weizhou coral reef in the South China Sea was investigated. Combined with morphologic traits, ITS-rDNA sequences revealed 18 fungal strains from this gorgonian. All of the 18 fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and were distributed among seven genera in five orders: Eurotiales (Aspergillus and Penicillium, Pleosporales (Alternaria, Capnodiales (Cladosporium, Trichosphaeriales (Nigrospora and Hypocreales (Hypocrea and Nectria. Antibacterial activities of these fungal strains were investigated with five pathogenic bacteria. All of the 18 fungal strains displayed different levels of antibacterial activities, most of which exhibited moderate to high antibacterial activities to the Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus tetragenus, and showed relatively low bioactivities to other three pathogenic bacteria. Several fungal strains in the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium with strong antibacterial activities provide potential for further research on isolation of bioactive secondary metabolites.

  7. Diversity and antibacterial activities of fungi derived from the Gorgonian Echinogorgia rebekka from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Shao, Chang-Lun; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Yi-Yan; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of symbiotic fungi associated with the gorgonian coral Echinogorgia rebekka from the Weizhou coral reef in the South China Sea was investigated. Combined with morphologic traits, ITS-rDNA sequences revealed 18 fungal strains from this gorgonian. All of the 18 fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and were distributed among seven genera in five orders: Eurotiales (Aspergillus and Penicillium), Pleosporales (Alternaria), Capnodiales (Cladosporium), Trichosphaeriales (Nigrospora) and Hypocreales (Hypocrea and Nectria). Antibacterial activities of these fungal strains were investigated with five pathogenic bacteria. All of the 18 fungal strains displayed different levels of antibacterial activities, most of which exhibited moderate to high antibacterial activities to the Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus tetragenus, and showed relatively low bioactivities to other three pathogenic bacteria. Several fungal strains in the genera Penicillium and Cladosporium with strong antibacterial activities provide potential for further research on isolation of bioactive secondary metabolites.

  8. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  9. Exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi in Seoul metropolitan subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Hyeon Tae

    2011-01-01

    The exposure level and distribution characteristics of airborne bacteria and fungi were assessed in the workers' activity areas (station office, bedroom, ticket office and driver's seat) and passengers' activity areas (station precinct, inside the passenger carriage, and platform) of the Seoul metropolitan subway. Among investigated areas, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in the workers' bedroom and station precincts were relatively high. No significant difference was found in the concentration of airborne bacteria and fungi between the underground and above ground activity areas of the subway. The genera identified in all subway activity areas with a 5% or greater detection rate were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Corynebacterium for airborne bacteria and Penicillium, Cladosporium, Chrysosporium, Aspergillus for airborne fungi. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus comprised over 50% of the total airborne bacteria and Penicillium and Cladosporium comprised over 60% of the total airborne fungi, thus these four genera are the predominant genera in the subway station.

  10. The relationships between air pollutants, meteorological parameters and concentration of airborne fungal spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Wolski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Fungal spores are an important component of bioaerosol and also considered to act as indicator of the level of atmospheric bio-pollution. Therefore, better understanding of these phenomena demands a detailed survey of airborne particles. The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of two the most important allergenic taxa of airborne fungi - Alternaria and Cladosporium - on meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations during three consecutive years (2006-2008). This study is also an attempt to create artificial neural network (ANN) forecasting models useful in the prediction of aeroallergen abundance. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and environmental parameters as well as pollutants, confirmed by the Spearman's correlation rank analysis and high performance of the ANN models obtained. The concentrations of Cladosporium and Alternaria spores can be predicted with quite good accuracy from meteorological conditions and air pollution recorded three days earlier. - ANN models predict airspore contents from weather conditions and air pollutant.

  11. Combined use of atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry for cell surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dague, Etienne; Delcorte, Arnaud; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the surface properties of microbial cells is a major challenge of current microbiological research and a key to efficiently exploit them in biotechnology. Here, we used three advanced surface analysis techniques with different sensitivity, probing depth, and lateral resolution, that is, in situ atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, to gain insight into the surface properties of the conidia of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. We show that the native ultrastructure, surface protein and polysaccharide concentrations, and amino acid composition of three mutants affected in hydrophobin production are markedly different from those of the wild-type, thereby providing novel insight into the cell wall architecture of A. fumigatus. The results demonstrate the power of using multiple complementary techniques for probing microbial cell surfaces.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-01-01

    Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. ...

  13. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus, Rhodnius neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas, 1909 Flora fúngica do trato digestivo de Rhodnius prolixus, Rhodnius neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus e Panstrongylus megistus vetores de Trypanosoma cruzi, Chagas 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Maria Lage de Moraes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study on the mycobiota in the digestive tract of four important species of triatomines: Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus and Panstrongylus megistus. The digestive tracts of 90 adults and 425 nymphs of these four triatomine species were studied and 365 fungal strains were isolated. The genera with the greatest number of species were Aspergillus, Penicillium (14 species in each genus, Acremonium and Cladosporium (three species in each genus, and the most frequent species, in decreasing order, were Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium corylophilum, Cladosporium herbarum and Aspergillus niger. It was concluded that, among the isolated fungi, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum might be part of the natural flora of the digestive tract of triatomines.Um estudo da micobiota do trato digestivo de quatro importantes espécies de triatomíneos, Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Diptelanogaster maximus e Panstrongylus megistus, foi realizado. Foram examinados os tratos digestivos de 90 adultos e 425 ninfas destas espécies de triatomíneos e 365 cepas fúngicas foram isoladas. Os gêneros com o maior número de espécies encontradas foram Aspergillus, Penicillium (14 espécies cada, Acremonium e Cladosporium (3 espécies cada e as espécies mais freqüentes, em ordem decrescente, foram Aspergillus awamori, Penicillium corylophilum, Cladosporium herbarum e Aspergillus niger. Dentre os fungos isolados, concluímos que Aspergillus niger e Penicillium corylophilum possam fazer parte da flora natural do trato digestivo destes triatomíneos.

  14. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, Richard A. [European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro TR1 3HD (United Kingdom); Cocq, Kate Le [Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Okehampton EX20 2SB (United Kingdom); Nikolaou, Vasilis [University of Exeter Medical School, The Veysey Building, Salmon Pool Lane, Exeter EX2 4SG (United Kingdom); Osborne, Nicholas J. [European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, Truro TR1 3HD (United Kingdom); Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology Research Group, Discipline of Pharmacology, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW (Australia); Thornton, Christopher R., E-mail: c.r.thornton@exeter.ac.uk [Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. - Highlights: • Monoclonal antibodies were used to track culturable allergenic moulds in homes. • Allergenic moulds were recovered from 82% of swabs from contaminated surfaces. • The mAbs were highly specific with 100% agreement to PCR of recovered fungi. • Improvements to energy

  15. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard A; Cocq, Kate Le; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, Richard A.; Cocq, Kate Le; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. - Highlights: • Monoclonal antibodies were used to track culturable allergenic moulds in homes. • Allergenic moulds were recovered from 82% of swabs from contaminated surfaces. • The mAbs were highly specific with 100% agreement to PCR of recovered fungi. • Improvements to energy

  17. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  18. Diversity and Antibacterial Activities of Fungi Derived from the Gorgonian Echinogorgia rebekka from the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Shao, Chang-Lun; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Chen, Yi-Yan; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of symbiotic fungi associated with the gorgonian coral Echinogorgia rebekka from the Weizhou coral reef in the South China Sea was investigated. Combined with morphologic traits, ITS-rDNA sequences revealed 18 fungal strains from this gorgonian. All of the 18 fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and were distributed among seven genera in five orders: Eurotiales (Aspergillus and Penicillium), Pleosporales (Alternaria), Capnodiales (Cladosporium), Trichosphaeriales (Nigrospora)...

  19. Flavonoids from Ulex airensis and Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máximo, Patrícia; Lourenço, Ana; Feio, Sónia Savluchinske; Roseiro, José Carlos

    2002-02-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Ulex airensis three new isoflavonoids, ulexin C (1), ulexin D (2), and 7-O-methylisolupalbigenin (3), were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Ulexin D (2) was also identified from the dichloromethane extract of Ulex europaeus ssp. europaeus. Together with these new metabolites, 18 compounds of previously known structures were isolated and identified from both species. The antifungal activity of these compounds was tested against Cladosporium cucumerinum by a bioautographic TLC assay.

  20. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    O. N. Korinovskaya; V. N. Gryshko

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen) G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart.) Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC)) in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderm...

  1. The Mycobiota of Air Inside and Outside the Meju Fermentation Room and the Origin of Meju Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Sun-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2015-09-01

    The fungi on Meju are known to play an important role as degrader of macromolecule of soybeans. In order to elucidate the origin of fungi on traditional Meju, mycobiota of the air both inside and outside traditional Meju fermentation rooms was examined. From 11 samples of air collected from inside and outside of 7 Meju fermentation rooms, 37 genera and 90 species of fungi were identified. In outside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp. and Cladosporium cladosporioides were the dominant species, followed by Cladosporium tenuissimum, Eurotium sp., Phoma sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Alternaria sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Schizophyllum commune, and Penicillium glabrum. In inside air of the fermentation room, Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asp. nidulans, Aspergillus sp., Cla. cladosporioides, Eurotium sp., Penicillium sp., Cla. tenuissimum, Asp. niger, Eur. herbariorum, Asp. sydowii, and Eur. repens were collected with high frequency. The concentrations of the genera Aspergillus, Eurotium, and Penicillium were significantly higher in inside air than outside air. From this result and those of previous reports, the origin of fungi present on Meju was inferred. Of the dominant fungal species present on Meju, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis are thought to be originated from outside air, because these species are not or are rarely isolated from rice straw and soybean; however, they were detected outside air of fermentation room and are species commonly found in indoor environments. However, Asp. oryzae, Pen. polonicum, Eur. repens, Pen. solitum, and Eur. chevalieri, which are frequently found on Meju, are common in rice straw and could be transferred from rice straw to Meju. The fungi grow and produce abundant spores during Meju fermentation, and after the spores accumulate in the air of fermentation room, they could influence mycobiota of Meju fermentation in the following

  2. Modern methods in cereal grain mycology

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Johan

    2000-01-01

    A simple rapid DNA extraction method, equally suitable for spores and mycelia is proposed. Heating samples in NaOH and SDS provides DNA of high purity, suitable for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. For Penicillium roqueforti the detection limit was 6 x lo3 conidia and 1 mg (fresh weight) mycelium in the extraction liquid. The method proved efficient with Aspergillus jlavus, Fusarium graminearum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Eurotium herbariorum, and Cladosporium herbarum, as well. An optimis...

  3. Cause of Mortality in Thermally Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    11 patients, Cladosporium species from nine patients, Penicillium species from seven patients, and Phycomycetes ( mucor species and rhizopus species...infecting organisms were filamentous fungi, Aspergillus species in 16 and Mucor species in two, and in four patients C(nlida species were the causative...surface. Twelve, or 75 %, of the 16 patients with Aspergillus wound infections died but, somewhat surprisingly, both of the patients with mucor species

  4. The deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue

    OpenAIRE

    河野, 又四; 寺下, 隆夫

    1988-01-01

    [Author abstract]Deterioration during transport and storage of tomato fruits is generally thought to be caused by microorganisms contaminating the surface and latent infected tissue of apparently healthy fruit. Counts of viable airborne microorganisms showed that there were more in plastic greenhouses than in open culure of tomatoes. Altemaria, Aspergillus niger, Asp. oryzae, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium, Bacillus, Erwinia and Pseudomonas were among t...

  5. Biological and Health Effects of Exposure to Kerosene-Based Jet Fuels and Performance Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    applications, to fuels at 100ppm or directly to the water phase (water layer) to control colonization of bacteria and fungus . Presently, three commercial... fungus ≤ 100 colony-forming units (cfu)/L (range ə–2000cfu/L). The predominant fungi were Cladosporium resinae and Aspergillus fumigatus, although...levels. Using electrophoretic techniques ( proteomic assay), Witzmann et al. (2000a) determined that exposure of male rats to 1 g/m3 JP-8 vapor for 6h/d

  6. The occurrence of Ganoderma spores in the air and its relationships with meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, whose spores cause symptoms of allergy and whose levels are directly related to meteorological factors. There are only few articles from different parts of the world about the relationships between Ganoderma spore count and meteorological factors. The aim of the study was to review all available publications about airborne Ganoderma spores and to compare the results in a short useful form.

  7. Biocatalytic Resolution of Enantiomeric Mixtures of 1-Aminoethanephosphonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kafarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Several fungal strains, namely Bauveria bassiana, Cuninghamella echinulata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum and Cladosporium herbarum, were used as biocatalysts to resolve racemic mixtures of 1-aminoethanephosphonic acid using L/D amino acid oxidase activity. The course of reaction was analyzed by 31P-NMR in the presence of cyclodextrin used as chiral discriminating agent. The best result (42% e.e of R-isomer was obtained with a strain of Cuninghamella echinulata.

  8. Identification and reconstitution of the polyketide synthases responsible for biosynthesis of the anti-malarial agent, cladosporin

    OpenAIRE

    Cochrane, Rachel V. K.; Sanichar, Randy; Lambkin, Gareth R.; Reiz, Béla; Xu, Wei; Tang, Yi; Vederas, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The anti-malarial agent cladosporin is a nanomolar inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum lysyl-tRNA synthetase, and exhibits activity against both blood and liver stage infection. Cladosporin can be isolated from the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides, where it was believed to be biosynthesized by a highly reducing (HR) and non-reducing (NR) iterative type I polyketide synthase (PKS) pair. Genome sequencing of the host organism, and subsequent heterologous expression of these enzymes in Sacchar...

  9. Comparison of background levels of culturable fungal spore concentrations in indoor and outdoor air in southeastern Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, D.; Habib, J.; Luxner, J.; Galler, H.; Zarfel, G.; Schlacher, R.; Friedl, H.; Reinthaler, F. F.

    2014-12-01

    Background concentrations of airborne fungi are indispensable criteria for an assessment of fungal concentrations indoors and in the ambient air. The goal of this study was to define the natural background values of culturable fungal spore concentrations as reference values for the assessment of moldy buildings. The concentrations of culturable fungi were determined outdoors as well as indoors in 185 dwellings without visible mold, obvious moisture problems or musty odor. Samples were collected using the MAS-100® microbiological air sampler. The study shows a characteristic seasonal influence on the background levels of Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus. Cladosporium sp. had a strong outdoor presence, whereas Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were typical indoor fungi. For the region of Styria, the median outdoor concentrations are between 100 and 940 cfu/m³ for culturable xerophilic fungi in the course of the year. Indoors, median background levels are between 180 and 420 cfu/m³ for xerophilic fungi. The I/O ratios of the airborne fungal spore concentrations were between 0.2 and 2.0. For the assessment of indoor and outdoor air samples the dominant genera Cladosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus should receive special consideration.

  10. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  11. Molecular and morphological identification of fungal species isolated from bealmijang meju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Baek, Sung Yeol; Choi, Hye Sun

    2011-12-01

    Bealmijang is a short-term aged paste made from meju, which is a brick of fermented soybeans and other ingredients. Different types of bealmijang are available depending on the geographic region or ingredients used. However, no study has clarified the microbial diversity of these types. We identified 17 and 14 fungal species from black soybean meju (BSM) and buckwheat meju (BWM), respectively, on the basis of morphology, culture characteristics, and internal transcribed spacer and beta-tubulin gene sequencing. In both meju, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicillium polonicum, P. steckii, Cladosporium tenuissimum, C. cladosporioides, C. uredinicola, and yeast species Pichia burtonii were commonly found. Moreover, A. flavus, A. niger, P. crustosum, P. citrinum, Eurotium niveoglaucum, Absidia corymbifera, Setomelanomma holmii, Cladosporium spp. and unclassified species were identified from BSM. A. clavatus, Mucor circinelloides, M. racemosus, P. brevicompactum, Davidiella tassiana, and Cladosporium spp. were isolated from BWM. Fast growing Zygomycetous fungi is considered important for the early stage of meju fermentation, and A. oryae and A. niger might play a pivotal role in meju fermentation owing to their excellent enzyme productive activities. It is supposed that Penicillium sp. and Pichia burtonii could contribute to the flavor of the final food products. Identification of this fungal diversity will be useful for understanding the microbiota that participate in meju fermentation, and these fungal isolates can be utilized in the fermented foods and biotechnology industries.

  12. Characterisation and detection of spoilage mould responsible for black spot in dry-cured fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Cordero, Mirian; Bernáldez, Victoria; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Córdoba, Juan J

    2015-02-01

    Moulds responsible for black spot spoilage of dry-cured fermented sausages were characterised. For this purpose, samples were taken from those dry-cured fermented sausages which showed black spot alteration. Most of the mould strains were first tentatively identified as Penicillium spp. due to their morphological characteristics in different culture conditions, with one strain as Cladosporium sp. The Cladosporium strain was the only one which provoked blackening in culture media. This strain was further characterised by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA and β-tubulin genes. This mould strain was able to reproduce black spot formation in dry-cured fermented sausage 'salchichón' throughout the ripening process. In addition, a specific and sensitive real-time PCR method was also developed to detect Cladosporium oxysporum responsible for the black spot formation in sausages. This method could be of great interest for the meat industry to detect samples contaminated with this mould before spoilage of product avoiding economic losses for this sector.

  13. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

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    O. E. Kosterin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an English translation of a paper published in Russian (but with proper Latin formulations at taxonomical novelties to make them validly published on March 15, 2017 in Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Vol. 22 (2: 158-169. The Abyssinian pea (Pisum abyssinicum A. Br., concerned in this review, is known from Ethiopia and Yemen, where it is cultivated along with the common pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum. The continuously reproduced notion of its possible spontaneous occurrence in the wild ascends to suppositions made in the XIX century and is not based on any actual data. P. abyssinicum is of practical interest owing to its extra early ripening and resistance to bacterial blight. Morphologically it is very similar to P. sativum but its crossability with it is bad as either seed or pollen parent. Traditionally this reproductive barrier was associated with karyological differences. The Abyssinian pea karyotype is variable as 1–2 reciprocal translocations were reported. At the same time there are accessions not differing from the standard karyotype of P. sativum with respect to reciprocal translocations, yet their crossability with the latter is very low and the pollen fertility of F1 and F2 hybrids is lowered. Data were reported on influence of the region of Linkage Group III, containing a gene known to participate in the conflict of nucleus and plastids in remote crosses of peas, on the pollen fertility of hybrids with abyssinian pea. With their karyological variability, the known accessions of the Abyssinian pea are very close to each other genetically, as they diverged just about 4 000 years ago. The presence of alleles of molecular markers common with Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Smith on the one hand and with P. sativum L. subsp. elatius (Bieb. Schmalh. on the other hand evidences in favour of an old hypotheses by L.I. Govorov that the Abyssinian pea originated from their spontaneous hybrid. This spontaneous cross may

  14. In-vitro Activity of 10 Antifungal Agents against 320 Dermatophyte Strains Using Microdilution Method in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimi, Parvaneh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Mirhendi, Hossein; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Emmami, Masood; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Gramishoar, Mohsen; Kordbacheh, Parivash

    2013-01-01

    Dermatophyte fungi are the etiologic agents of skin infections commonly referred to as ringworm. These infections are not dangerous but as a chronic cutaneous infections they may be difficult to treat and can also cause physical discomfort for patients. They are considered important as a public health problem as well. No information is available regarding the efficacy of antifungal agents against dermatophytes in Tehran. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the efficacy of 10 systemic and topical antifungal medications using CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A). The antifungal agents used included griseofulvin, terbinafine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, clotrimazole, ciclopirox olamine, amorolfine and naftifine.Fifteen different species of dermatophytes which were mostly clinical isolates were used as follows; T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, E. floccosum, M. canis, T. verrucosum, T. tonsurans, M. gypseum, T. violaceum, M. ferruginum, M. fulvum, T. schoenleinii, M. racemosum, T. erinacei, T. eriotrephon and Arthroderma benhamiae. The mean number of fungi particles (conidia) inoculated was 1.25 ×10⁴ CFU/mL. Results were read after 7 days of incubation at 28 °C. According to the obtained results,itraconazole and terbinafine showed the lowest and fluconazole had the greatest MIC values for the most fungi tested. Based on the results, it is necessary to do more research and design a reliable standard method for determination of antifungal susceptibility to choose proper antibiotics with fewer side effects and decrease antifungal resistance and risk of treatment failure. PMID:24250660

  15. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

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    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia. Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 – 108,78%, pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 – 109,07%, and triprolidine HCl (98,20 – 104,19% were recorded. Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana’a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

  16. Phylogenetic reconstruction at the species and intraspecies levels in the genus Pisum (L.) (peas) using a histone H1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Olga O; Bogdanova, Vera S; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2012-08-10

    A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pisum (peas), embracing diverse wild and cultivated forms, which evoke problems with species delimitation, was carried out based on a gene coding for histone H1, a protein that has a long and variable functional C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed on the basis of the coding sequence of the gene His5 of H1 subtype 5 in 65 pea accessions. Early separation of a clear-cut wild species Pisum fulvum is well supported, while cultivated species Pisum abyssinicum appears as a small branch within Pisum sativum. Another robust branch within P. sativum includes some wild and almost all cultivated representatives of P. sativum. Other wild representatives form diverse but rather subtle branches. In a subset of accessions, PsbA-trnH chloroplast intergenic spacer was also analysed and found less informative than His5. A number of accessions of cultivated peas from remote regions have a His5 allele of identical sequence, encoding an electrophoretically slow protein product, which earlier attracted attention as likely positively selected in harsh climate conditions. In PsbA-trnH, a 8bp deletion was found, which marks cultivated representatives of P. sativum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The first case of onychomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) due to atypical isolates of Microsporum gypseum, a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhendi, H; Nishiyama, Y; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A; Satoh, K; Makimura, K

    2016-06-01

    Superficial mycotic infections have been only poorly described in koalas and there are no reliable mycologically confirmed data regarding clinical isolation of dermatophytes in this animal. We report an 11-year-old female koala, kept in a zoo in Tokyo, Japan, and presenting with hyperkeratotic lesions and scaly plaques on forepaw claws and pads reminiscent of fungal infection. Direct microscopy of the scrapings was indicative of a dermatophyte infection. By culture and subsequent repeated subculturing of clinical specimens on Sabouraud dextrose agar, Mycobiotic agar, and potato dextrose agar, two distinct strains with different colony morphotypes (designed as types I and II) were identified. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the strains were suggestive of three different species, i.e. Microsporum canis , M. gypseum , and M. fulvum . However, partial sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, translation elongation factor-1α ( Tef-1α ), and beta-tubulin ( BT2 ) genes confirmed the identity of both isolates as M. gypseum. The animal was treated with a continuous terbinafine regimen (250 mg/kg) once daily for 12 weeks. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first confirmed case of dermatophytosis in a koala. The genetics underlying a variety of phenotypic traits in most classical dermatophyte species are unknown, and further studies are needed to understand this phenomenon.

  18. Fungi isolated in school buildings

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    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  19. Control of ergosterol producer fungi contaminating cereal grains by certain environmental conditions and gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Existence of ergosterol in grains usually gives an indication that these grains are contaminated by ergosterol producing fungi. So, ergosterol concentration could be a suitable marker for estimation of fungal contamination range in cereal grains. Thirty eight fungal isolates were isolated from maize, sorghum and barley grains. Alternaria, Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most common fungal genera among these isolates and they were tested for ergosterol production. The highest ergosterol producing fungi were identified as Alternaria alternaria, Cladosporium herbarum and Aspergillus niger var.niger. The present results indicate that the most suitable conditions for producing ergosterol by these strains in maize grains were found to be at 25 degree C for 30 days. Exposing the artificially contaminated maize grains by the above three strains (10 7 CFU/ml) to increasing dose levels of gamma rays up to 10 kGy and storing for 30 days, gradually decreased the production of ergosterol to 7.9, 6.2 and 1.5 mg/g dry weight of grains by A. alternata and C.herbarum and A. niger var. niger, respectively. D 10 values of the tested three isolates in maize grains were found to be 2, 1.61, and 1.2 kGy, respectively. The results showed that cold storage (10 degree C) clearly decreased the activity of the tested fungi for producing ergosterol during the storage periods, and a dose level of 15 kGy was quite enough to free the grains from A. alternata, Cladosporium herbarum and A. niger var. niger, regardless the contamination level of grains with these ergosterol producer fungus

  20. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

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    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  1. Systemic resistance induced by volatile organic compounds emitted by plant growth-promoting fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Hushna Ara Naznin

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOC were extracted and identified from plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF, Phoma sp., Cladosporium sp. and Ampelomyces sp., using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the three VOC extracted, two VOC blends (emitted from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. significantly reduced disease severity in Arabidopsis plants against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst. Subsequently, m-cresol and methyl benzoate (MeBA were identified as major active volatile compounds from Ampelomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp., respectively, and found to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR against the pathogen. Molecular signaling for disease suppression by the VOC were investigated by treating different mutants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants impaired in salicylic acid (SA or Jasmonic acid (JA/ethylene (ET signaling pathways with m-cresol and MeBA followed by challenge inoculation with Pst. Results show that the level of protection was significantly lower when JA/ET-impaired mutants were treated with MeBA, and in SA-, and JA/ET-disrupted mutants after m-cresol treatment, indicating the involvement of these signal transduction pathways in the ISR primed by the volatiles. Analysis of defense-related genes by real-time qRT-PCR showed that both the SA-and JA-signaling pathways combine in the m-cresol signaling of ISR, whereas MeBA is mainly involved in the JA-signaling pathway with partial recruitment of SA-signals. The ET-signaling pathway was not employed in ISR by the volatiles. Therefore, this study identified two novel volatile components capable of eliciting ISR that may be promising candidates in biological control strategy to protect plants from diseases.

  2. Normal intestinal flora of wild Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

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    C.J. Lovely

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed from cloacal swabs collected from 29 wild Nile crocodiles, captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Sixteen species of bacteria and 6 fungal species were cultured. Individual crocodiles yielded 1-4 bacterial species, and 0-2 fungal species. The most commonly isolated bacteria were Microbacterium, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Escherichia coli. No salmonellae were cultured. The most commonly occurring fungus was Cladosporium. Several of the bacterial and fungal species isolated have been implicated in cases of septicaemia in crocodilians. Knowledge of the normal intestinal flora will contribute towards the development of a crocodile-specific probiotic for use in farmed crocodiles.

  3. The health state of Ginkgo biloba L. in the presence of microfungi

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    Adamčíková Katarína

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The health state of Ginkgo biloba L. and damage caused by microscopic fungi were evaluated over the 2010-2011 time period, in selected localities of Slovakia and Czechia. The trees were assessed and put into two categories of health. Trees in very good (category 1 or good vitality and health with no or only light damage (category 2. A total of seven species of microscopic fungi were identified from samples taken from branches, fruits, and leaves. The following fungal genera were detected: Epicoccum, Fusarium, Alternaria, Phomopsis, Cylindrosporium, Phyllosticta, and Cladosporium. This present study is the first report about microscopic fungi determined on G. biloba for Slovakia

  4. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii; Saponinas antifungicas de Swartzia langsdorffii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: dhsilva@iq.unesp.br; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao [Inst. de Botanica, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2008-07-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-{beta}-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  5. Antifungal activity of natural and synthetic amides from Piper species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Joaquim V.; Oliveira, Alberto de; Kato, Massuo J., E-mail: majokato@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Raggi, Ludmila; Young, Maria C. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2010-07-01

    The antifungal leaves extract from Piper scutifolium was submitted to bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum yielding piperine, piperlonguminine and corcovadine as the active principles which displayed a detection limit of 1 {mu}g. Structure-activity relationships were investigated with the preparation of twelve analogs having differences in the number of unsaturations, aromatic ring substituents and in the amide moiety. Analogs having a single double-bond and no substituent in the aromatic ring displayed higher activity, while N,N,-diethyl analogs displayed higher dose-dependent activity. (author)

  6. Composition and antifungal activity of essential oils from Piper aduncum, Piper arboreum and Piper tuberculatum

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    Hosana M. Debonsi Navickiene

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The composition of essential oils from leaves, stems and fruits of Piper aduncum, P. arboreum and P. tuberculatum was examined by means of GC-MS and antifungal assay. There was a predominance of monoterpenes in P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum and of sesquiterpenes in P. arboreum. P. aduncum showed the richest essential oil composition, including linalool. The essential oils from fruits of P. aduncum and P. tuberculatum showed the highest antifungal activity with the MIC of 10 µg as determined against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. This is the first report of the composition of essential oils from P. tuberculatum.

  7. Hypersaline waters - a potential source of foodborne toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butinar, Lorena; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of hypersaline environments have revealed the dominant presence of melanized yeast-like fungi and related Cladosporium spp. In this study, we focused on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and their teleomorphic forms. From oligotrophic and eutrophic hypersaline waters around...... herbariorum, as they were quite evenly distributed among the sampled sites, and Aspergillus candidus, which was abundant, but more locally distributed. These species and their byproducts can accumulate downstream following evaporation of brine, and they can become entrapped in the salt crystals. Consequently...

  8. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

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    Tânia Maria de Almeida Alves

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  9. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

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    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  10. Occurrence of pathotypes of Ascochyta pisi (Lib. in the Olsztyn district

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    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaf and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Ascochyta pisi (Lib.. Investigated isolates of A. pisi differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophitic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium c1adosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia starilia were dominated. In the study of the identification and distribution of pathotypes of A. pisi five pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 2 were dominated. The identified the pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  11. Occurrence of pathotypes of Ascochyta pinodes (Jones in the Olsztyn district

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    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agent of leaf and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Ascochyta pinodes (Jones. Investigated isolates of A. pinoides different by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseased leaves and pods of peas and field peas saprophytic fungi were also obtained. Among them Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominant. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of A. pinodes (Jones six pathotypes were identified among which pathotypes 3 dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  12. Mycoflora and Mycotoxigenic Moulds of Pistachio Nuts for Human Consumption in the Sultanate of Oman

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    A. E. Elshafie

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoflora of 75 cans of different batches and brands of pistachio nuts purchased in the Sultanate of Oman was studied. A number of fungi were isolated, with percentages of contaminated nuts [average between brands ] as follows: Aspergillus niger 14.8%, Penicillium spp. 13.6%, A flavus 9.7%, A nidulans 1.6%, and < l % for Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata , A ochraceeus and Ulocadium consortiale. Significant differences were found among the batches and brands contaminated by A flavus. A flatoxin B, was found only in one sample out of 1.5 assayed at a level of 2 ug/kg.

  13. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marqui, Sara Regina de; Lemos, Renata Brionizio; Santos, Luciana Avila; Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Scorzoni, Liliana; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria Jose Soares; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Torres, Luce Maria Brandao

    2008-01-01

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-β-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate.Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  14. Microbiology of acid soils. IV. Selected sites in Northern England and Southern Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J G

    1955-01-01

    A number of localities were selected in Northern England and Southern Scotland at altitudes above 225 m. A series of soil samples were taken over the period 1946-9, and the soils examined for fungal and bacterial activity. The frequency of the appearance of species of the genera penicillium, saccharomyces, pullularia, cladosporium, botrytis, cephalosporium, trichoderma, verticilium and stemphylium and of the mucorles were recorded by a plating-out technique. The distributions of cellulose- and protein-decomposing bacteria, of Clostridium butyricum and of nitrifying bacteria were examined. Finally, the metabolic activities of selected bacteria were recorded.

  15. Sulfated Steroid–Amino Acid Conjugates from the Irish Marine Sponge Polymastia boletiformis

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    Vangelis Smyrniotopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2. Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature.

  16. Sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates from the Irish marine sponge Polymastia boletiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrniotopoulos, Vangelis; Rae, Margaret; Soldatou, Sylvia; Ding, Yuanqing; Wolff, Carsten W; McCormack, Grace; Coleman, Christina M; Ferreira, Daneel; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2015-03-24

    Antifungal bioactivity-guided fractionation of the organic extract of the sponge Polymastia boletiformis, collected from the west coast of Ireland, led to the isolation of two new sulfated steroid-amino acid conjugates (1 and 2). Extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses in combination with quantum mechanical calculations of the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, optical rotation, and 13C chemical shifts were used to establish the chemical structures of 1 and 2. Both compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum, while compound 2 was also active against Candida albicans. Marine natural products containing steroidal and amino acid constituents are extremely rare in nature.

  17. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  18. SEGUIMIENTO Y CONTROL DE BIODETERIORO MICROBIOLÓGICO EN DOCUMENTOS DE INTERÉS HISTÓRICO EN EL ARCHIVO GENERAL DE LA NACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Mateus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los soportes papel (manual, bond, periódico, fotografías con gelatina como aglutinante y planos con soporte en fibra textil del Archivo General de la Nación (AGN, se realizaron diferentes pruebas de aislamiento e identificación de hongos, determinando los géneros de mayor frecuencia de aparición, y el efecto de los desinfectantes Tego51®, Timsen® a 4000 ppm (1.6 g principio activo n-alquil dimetil bencil amonio, etanol 70% y New ger® 0.7% (solución de N-duopropenida mezcla completa de yoduros de amonio cuaternario al 2.5%, sobre papel afectado y su forma de aplicación nebulización y aspersión.Igualmente a 231 fotografías con gelatina como aglutinante, tomadas del fondo del Ministerio de Obras Publicas (MOP que presentaron indicadores de biodeterioro, se realizó, aislamiento e identificación de 48 géneros siendo los más frecuentes Penicillium sp. y Cladosporium sp. y los más agresivos frente al soporte Rhizopus sp., Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp1, y Fusarium sp., con efecto de biodeterioro en 25 días.A partir de este estudio, se tomaron los géneros Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp y se realizaron pruebas con desinfectantes (Timsen®, etanol, New ger® para determinar el efecto fungicida y su acción sobre el soporte fotográfico, evaluando 4 formas de aplicación de los desinfectantes (aspersión, inmersión, aplicación puntual y directa sobre muestras de fotografías inoculadas, determinando que la inmersión en los desinfectantes evaluados, fue el mejor método de aplicación ya que no afecta las características físicas de la imagen.Finalmente también se evaluaron 66 planos con soporte en fibra textil a partir de los cuales se aislaron e identificaron 37 géneros siendo los más frecuentes Penicillium sp. y Cladosporium sp., los cuales también demostraron alta agresividad junto con Bipolaris sp.

  19. Microbiological contamination with moulds in work environment in libraries and archive storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska-Jankiewicz, Katarzyna; Kozajda, Anna; Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Microbiological contamination with fungi, including moulds, can pose a significant health hazard to those working in archives or museums. The species involved include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Fusarium which are associated mostly with allergic response of different types. The aim of the study was to analyse, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, workplace air samples collected in a library and archive storage facilities. Occupational exposure and the related health hazard from microbiological contamination with moulds were assessed in three archive storage buildings and one library. Air samples (total 60) were collected via impact method before work and at hourly intervals during work performance. Surface samples from the artifacts were collected by pressing a counting (RODAC) plate filled with malt extract agar against the surface of the artifacts. The air sample and surface sample analyses yielded 36 different mould species, classified into 19 genera, of which Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most prevalent. Twelve species were regarded as potentially pathogenic for humans: 8 had allergic and 11 toxic properties, the latter including Aspergillus fumigatus. Quantitative analysis revealed air microbiological contamination with moulds at the level ranging from 1.8 x 10(2)-2.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3). In surface samples from library and archive artifacts, 11 fungal species were distinguished; the number of species per artifact varying from 1-6 and colony count ranging from 4 x 10(1) to 8-10(1) cfu/100 cm(2). Higher contamination levels were found only for Cladosporium cladosporioides (1.48 x 10(3) cfu/100 cm(2)) and Paecillomyces varioti (1.2 x 10(2) cfu/100 cm(2)). At the workposts examined, although no clearly visible signs of mould contamination could be found, the study revealed abundant micromycetes, with the predominant species of Cladosporium and Penicillium. The detected species included

  20. Sludy of the Dermatophytes in the Students Houses of Minia University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Maghazy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of dermatophytes and other fungi was carried out in 100 air - dust samples from bedrooms and dinning halls of male and female student resident houses. By hair baiting technique the common dermatophytes were obtained namely Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton mtntagrophytes. Also five species of Chrysasporium were isolated in the following order of dominance C. tropicum, C. keratinophilum, C. indicum, C. pannicola and C. quecnslandicum. By dilution plate method, 37 species representing 20 genera of which Aspergilus niger, A. flavus, Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides were most frequently isolated.

  1. Isolation of radiation resistant fungal strains from highly radioactive field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.M.; Aziz, N.H.; Attaby, H.S.H.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the radiation resistance of fungal flora isolated from the hot-lab around the radiation sources, cobalt 137 and radium 226 . The predominant mould species were: Aspergillus flavus, A. Niger, penicillium chrysogenum, cladosporium herbarum, fusarium oxysporum and alternaria citri. The D 10 values of F. Oxysporum; 2.00 KGy, A. Flavus; 1.40 KGy, P. chrysogenum; 1.15 KGy, and A. citri; 0.95 KGy, are about 1.67, 3.10, 1.92 and 1.36 folds as the D 1 0 values of the same isolates recovered from soil

  2. Heliotropamide, a novel oxopyrrolidine-3-carboxamide from Heliotropium ovalifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntern, A; Ioset, J-R; Queiroz, E F; Sándor, P; Foggin, C M; Hostettmann, K

    2003-12-01

    Heliotropamide (1), a new alkaloid with a novel oxopyrrolidine-3-carboxamide central moiety, has been isolated as the major product of the dicholoromethane extract of Heliotropium ovalifolium aerial parts. Its structure was elucidated by spectrometric methods including ESI-HR, EI, D/CI mass spectrometry, (1)H, (13)C, and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical derivatization. Neither heliotropamide nor its acetylated derivative (1a) showed any antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida albicans, antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, radical-scavenging properties in the DPPH test, or inhibitory potential toward acetylcholinesterase.

  3. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  4. Cultivable microflora and endo mycorrhizas obtained in litter forest (Paramo Guerrero - Finca Puente de Tierra) Zipaquira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Eleonora; Celis, Sebastian; Galindez, Ximena; Moratto, Claudia; Sanchez, Jimena; Garcia, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The count of cultivable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi), cellulolytic microorganisms and endo mycorrhizas present in litter forest (property Puente de Tierra) in the Guerrero's moor, Colombia was made. The most frequently isolated microorganisms belonged to the staphylococcus, bacillus, pseudomonas, micrococcus, penicillium and rhodotorulagenus and cladosporium sp., which is a cellulolytic microorganism, was isolated in carboxymethyl cellulose agar. In addition eight morphotypes of endomycorrhizas were found, species of glomus and acaulospora predominated among them. This study contributes with the knowledge of the cultivable microorganisms of litter that have been little explored in moor ecosystems

  5. Phyllosphere mycobiota on garden ponds plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on calamus, common cattail, soft rush, yellow iris and white water lily plants in twenty ponds in Malopolska and Podkarpacie Regions. Mycobiota existing in the phyllosphere caused discolouring and necroses of leaves and shoots. 88 species of mycobiota were identified and isolated from the diseased tissues. Dominant were Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum and Isaria farinosa. Fungi of genera: Aspergillus, Botrytis, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Ilyonectria, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium, Phialophora, Phoma, Pleustomophora, Sordaria, Trichoderma and Umbelopsis were also numerous. The monophagous and the polyphagous were identified.

  6. Mold attack on frescoes and stone walls of Gradac monastery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Miloš Č.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfungi can colonize stone surfaces and form sub-aerial biofilms which can lead to biodeterioration of historic monuments. In this investigation samples for mycological analyses were collected from stone material with visible alteration on stone walls of Gradac monastery exterior. The prevailing fungi found on stone walls were dematiaceous hyphomycetes with melanized hyphae and reproductive structures (Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium and Epicoccum species. The frescoes inside the monastery building were also analyzed for the presence of mycobiota. The predominant fungi found on frescoes were osmophilic species from genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The significant result is identification of human pathogen species Aspergillus fumigatus on frescoes.

  7. Augmentation of a Microbial Consortium for Enhanced Polylactide (PLA) Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nimisha R; Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-03-01

    Bioplastics are eco-friendly and derived from renewable biomass sources. Innovation in recycling methods will tackle some of the critical issues facing the acceptance of bioplastics. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the commonly used and well-studied bioplastic that is presumed to be biodegradable. Considering their demand and use in near future, exploration for microbes capable of bioplastic degradation has high potential. Four PLA degrading strains were isolated and identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. A consortium of above strains degraded 44 % (w/w) PLA in 30 days time in laboratory conditions. Subsequently, the microbial consortium employed effectively for PLA composting.

  8. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities of common indoor fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Poulsen, Rehab; Hansen, Gustav Hammerich

    2016-01-01

    Moldy building materials, such as chip wood and gypsum, should be a good source for fungal strains with high production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Screening of 21 common indoor fungal strains showed, contrary to the expected, that the Chaetomium and Stachybotrys strains had little...... or no cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities using AZCL-assays. On the other hand, both Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Penicillium chrysogenum showed the highest cellulase, β-glucosidase, mannase, β-galactanase and arabinanase activities and would be good candidates for over-producers of enzymes needed...

  9. Isolation of fungi in Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae captured at two natural breeding grounds in the municipality of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales Márcia de Senna Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to isolate and identify fungal species found in natural association with adults of Musca domestica. The adult insects were collected from two natural breeding grounds: hog pens and an urban sanitary landfill. The isolated fungi were identified as: Aspergillus flavus (23.8%, A. niger var. niger (14.4%, Penicillium corylophilum (21.4%, P. fellutanum (11.9%, Cladosporium cladosporoides (4.7%, Fusarium sp. (4.7%, Alternaria alternata (11.9%, Curvularia brachyspora (2.4%, Mycelia sterilia (2.4% and the Mucorales order (2.4%.

  10. Development of Army Fire-Resistant Diesel Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    45 C C Service Station Fuel Semple 85 A 75B AB C C 95 95 Service Station Fuel Sample 8 00 A -7B\\ A -7s C Refiney Fu UNMODIFIED* MODIFIED* SURFACTANT...Change in Brake Power, % -11.2 Change in Brake Specific Volumetric Fuel Consumption, % +17.7 Change in Thermal Efficiency of Work Cycle, abs % - 1.6...and unmodified surfactant) 2. Cladosporium resinae . 3. ASTM mixed fungal spore inoculum (only with item A5 and with item A4 made with deionized water

  11. Antifungal polysulphides from Petiveria alliacea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, P J; Young, M C; Giesbrecht, A M; Roque, N F; Bolzani, V S

    2001-07-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH (2:1, v/v) extract of the roots of Petiveria alliacea, using mutant yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum led to the isolation of dipropyl disulphide (1), dibenzyl sulphide (2), dibenzyl disulphide (3), dibenzyl trisulphide (4), dibenzyl tetrasulphide (5), benzylhydroxymethyl sulphide (6) and di(benzyltrithio) methane (7). Of these, 5-7 are new compounds and this is the first report of the natural occurrence of 2 and 3.

  12. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  13. Microflora fúngica de sementes de milho em ambientes de armazenamento

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Maria Aparecida de Souza; Maeda, Jocely Andreuccetti; Plazas, Isabel Helena de Almeida Zeituni

    2001-01-01

    Durante o armazenamento, vários fungos podem permanecer associados às sementes de milho, causando deterioração ou se mantendo viáveis, infectando posteriormente a plântula. Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar a sobrevivência de fungos associados às sementes de milho durante 12 meses de armazenamento, em câmara fria (14ºC; 40% UR) e em ambiente não controlado. Observaram-se com maior freqüência os fungos de campo Alternaria alternata, Bipolaris maydis, Cephalosporium acremonium, Cladosporium...

  14. Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities; Sesquiterpenos produzidos pelo fungo endofitico Phomopsis cassiae com atividade antifungica e inibidora de acetilcolinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Lisineia M.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.; Silva, Dulce H. Siqueira; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Silva, Geraldo H. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Teles, Helder L. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Young, Maria Claudia M., E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seccao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2012-07-01

    Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

  15. Investigation on Indoor Air Pollution and Childhood Allergies in Households in Six Chinese Cities by Subjective Survey and Field Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhua; Li, Nianping; Lv, Yang; Liu, Jing; Xie, Jingchao; Zhang, Huibo

    2017-08-29

    Greater attention is currently being paid to the relationship between indoor environment and childhood allergies, however, the lack of reliable data and the disparity among different areas hinders reliable assessment of the relationship. This study focuses on the effect of indoor pollution on Chinese schoolchildren and the relationship between specific household and health problems suffered. The epidemiological questionnaire survey and the field measurement of the indoor thermal environment and primary air pollutants including CO₂, fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), chemical pollutants and fungi were performed in six Chinese cities. A total of 912 questionnaires were eligible for statistical analyses and sixty houses with schoolchildren aged 9-12 were selected for field investigation. Compared with Chinese national standards, inappropriate indoor relative humidity (70%), CO₂ concentration exceeding 1000 ppm and high PM 2.5 levels were found in some monitored houses. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most frequently detected semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in house dust. Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium were detected in both indoor air and house dust. This study indicates that a thermal environment with CO₂ exceeding 1000 ppm, DEHP and DBP exceeding 1000 μg/g, and high level of PM 2.5 , Cladosporium , Aspergillus and Penicillium increases the risk of children's allergies.

  16. Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H

    2005-01-01

    After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. The most common bacterial agents are Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, and lactic acid bacteria with E. carotovora being the most common, attacking virtually every vegetable type. Fungi commonly causing spoilage of fresh vegetables are Botrytis cinerea, various species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, Phytophthora, Pythium and Rhizopus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and some mildews. A few of these organisms show a substrate preference whereas others such as Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Phytophthora, and Rhizopus spp., affect a wide variety of vegetables causing devastating losses. Many of these agents enter the plant tissue through mechanical or chilling injuries, or after the skin barrier has been broken down by other organisms. Besides causing huge economic losses, some fungal species could produce toxic metabolites in the affected sites, constituting a potential health hazard for humans. Additionally, vegetables have often served as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites and were implicated in many food borne illness outbreaks. In order to slow down vegetable spoilage and minimize the associated adverse health effects, great caution should be taken to follow strict hygiene, good agricultural practices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during cultivation, harvest, storage, transport, and marketing.

  17. Monitoring of fungal spores in the indoor air of preschool institution facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milana S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal spores can cause a range of health problems in humans such as respiratory diseases and mycotoxicoses. Since children are the most vulnerable, the presence of fungal spores in the facilities of preschool and school institutions should be investigated readily. In order to estimate air contamination by fungal spores, air sampling was conducted in eight facilities of the preschool institution in Novi Sad during February and March, 2007. Sedimentation plate method was used for the detection of viable fungal spores, mostly being members of subdv. Deuteromycota (Fungi imperfecti. In 32 samples a total of 148 colonies were developed, among which five genera were identified: Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Acremonium while non-sporulating fungal colonies were labeled as sterile mycelia. Most frequently recorded genera were Penicillium with 46 colonies and Cladosporium with 44 colonies. The genera Aspergillus and Alternaria were represented with 3 colonies each and Acremonium with only 1 colony. The greatest number of colonies emerged in the samples from the day care facilities “Vendi” (58 colonies and “Panda” (49 colonies. Most diverse samples were obtained from the day care center “Zvončica”, with presence of all identified genera. These results showed notable presence of fungal spores in the indoor air of Preschool institution facilities and indicated the need for further, more complete seasonal research. Obtained information is considered useful for the evaluation of potential mycofactors that endanger health of children. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002

  18. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  19. Hongos de importancia agrícola presentes en moscas de la fruta del valle de Ica, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Tipismana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar hongos de especímenes de moscas de la fruta de los géneros Ceratitis (Macleay y Anastrepha (Schiner, del valle de Ica, Perú. Se aislaron hongos pertenecientes a los géneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus y Trichoderma;así como levaduras y micelios estériles. Los recuentos de hongos presentaron rangos entre 8x103 a 8x104 UFC/g para el género Ceratitis; y 7x103 a 7x104 UFC/g para el género Anastrepha. El IVI% (Índice de Valor de Importancia demostró que Cladosporium es el género con mayor valor ecológico con un 78,05%. El Índice de Similitud de especies de hongos entre ambos géneros de mosca de la fruta analizados fue 0,5. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la presencia de hongos en moscas de la fruta; y se deduce el posible impacto de estos dípteros en el área agrícola como potenciales agentes vectores de enfermedades fúngicas para los cultivos locales de importancia económica.

  20. Role of Some Isolated Fungi in The Biological Leaching of Uranium From Low Grade Cretaceous Sandstone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.A.; Morsy, A.; El-Sheikh, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Microbiological leaching has been used as an alternative approach to conventional hydrometallurgical methods of uranium extraction. In this investigation, the biological leaching of uranium by isolated fungi from low grade sandstone was studied. Five isolates of fungi were obtained from sandstone sample. Cladosporium oxysporum and Penicilluim stoloniferum exhibited high potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for uranium extraction. The percentages of organic acid produced by fungi were determined. By-product such as molasses was tested. The maximum dissolution of uranium was achieved at the following conditions; incubation period 6 days, pulp density 1:3 g/L, ph 3.5 and at 30 degree C. Maximum solubilization of uranium with values of 54% and 67% were achieved by Cladosporium oxysporum and Penicilluim stoloniferum, respectively. From properly prepared pregnant bio-leach liquor, the leached uranium was recovered in the form of marketable products (3UO 3 NH 3 .5H 2 O) using classical chemical technique and the product was confirmed using XRD techniques

  1. Isolation and primary identification of endophytic fungi from Cephalotaxus mannii trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramuan Saithong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-two isolates of endophytic fungi were collected from the bark of Cephalotaxus mannii (plum-yew trees located in the north of Thailand and the south of China. All isolates were identified based on colony morphology and examination of spores and fruiting bodies using stereo and light microscopes. Thirty-five isolates (67.3% belonging to 13 genera were recorded, viz. Cladosporium sp., Acremonium sp., Trichoderma sp., Monilia sp., Fusarium sp., Spicaria sp., Humicola sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Cephalosporium sp., Botrytis sp., Penicillium sp., Chalaropsis sp. and Geotrichum sp., while 17 strains (32.7% were unidentified. The dominant genera found both in northern Thailand and southern China were Acremonium sp., Monilia sp. and Fusarium sp. Cladosporium sp. and Trichoderma sp. were found only in southern China, whereas Spicaria sp., Humicula sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Botrytis sp., Penicillium sp., Geotrichum sp., Chalaropsis sp. and Cephalosporium sp. were found only in northern Thailand. Thus, there seemed to be a significant difference in the genera of endophytic fungi from Cephalotaxus mannii trees of different sources.

  2. DIAGNOSIS LIMA PENYAKIT UTAMA KARENA JAMUR PADA 100 KULTIVAR BIBIT PISANG

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    Loekas Soesanto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research which aimed to identify main pathogenic fungi of 100 banana seedling cultivars and their disease intensity was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Disease, Faculty of Agriculture, Jenderal Soedirman University with samples and field data taking at Indonesian Insitute of Science  Bogor.  This descriptive research was started by taking samples and field data followed by identification of pathogenic fungi at the laboratory.  Variables observed were disease symptoms, colony and pathogenic morphology, kinds of the pathogen, disease intensity, and physical data.  Result of the research showed that there were five main pathogenic fungi of the banana seedlings, i.e., Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. cubense, causing Fusarium wilt; Mychosphaerella musicola Mulder, causing Mycosphaerella leaf spot or Sigatoka; Cordana musae (Zimm. Hohn., causing Cordana leaf spot; Curvularia lunata, causing leaf spot; and Cladosporium musae Mason, causing speckle.  From 100 banana seedling cultivars observed, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense was the most frequently found with the intensity of 1.4-72%, followed by Curvularia lunata, Mychosphaerella musicola, Cladosporium Musae, and Cordana musae with the intensity of 1-32, 2-18, 2-24, and 3-23%, respectively.

  3. Environmental Sustainability and Mold Hygiene in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoxiang; Ng, Tsz Wai; Wong, Jonathan Wc; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-04-04

    Environmental sustainability is one of the key issues in building management. In Hong Kong, one of the initiatives is to reduce the operation hours of air-conditioning in buildings to cut down energy consumption. In this study, we reported a mold contamination case in a newly refurbished laboratory, in which the air-conditioner was switched from 24- to 18-h mode after refurbishment. In order to prevent mold recurrence, the air-conditioner was switched back to 24-h mode in the laboratory. During the mold investigation, visible mold patches in the laboratory were searched and then cultured, counted and identified. Building and environmental conditions were recorded, and used to deduce different causes of mold contamination. Eight contaminated sites including a wall, a bench, some metal and plastic surfaces and seven types of molds including two Cladosporium spp., two Aspergillus spp., one Rhizopus sp., one Trichoderma sp., and one Tritirachium sp. were identified. Cladosporium spp. were the most abundant and frequently found molds in the laboratory. The contaminated areas could have one to five different species on them. Based on the mold and environmental conditions, several scenarios causing the mold contamination were deduced, and different mold control measures were discussed to compare them with the current solution of using 24-h air-conditioning to control mold growth. This study highlights the importance of mold hygiene in sustainable building management.

  4. Environmental Sustainability and Mold Hygiene in Buildings

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    Haoxiang Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability is one of the key issues in building management. In Hong Kong, one of the initiatives is to reduce the operation hours of air-conditioning in buildings to cut down energy consumption. In this study, we reported a mold contamination case in a newly refurbished laboratory, in which the air-conditioner was switched from 24- to 18-h mode after refurbishment. In order to prevent mold recurrence, the air-conditioner was switched back to 24-h mode in the laboratory. During the mold investigation, visible mold patches in the laboratory were searched and then cultured, counted and identified. Building and environmental conditions were recorded, and used to deduce different causes of mold contamination. Eight contaminated sites including a wall, a bench, some metal and plastic surfaces and seven types of molds including two Cladosporium spp., two Aspergillus spp., one Rhizopus sp., one Trichoderma sp., and one Tritirachium sp. were identified. Cladosporium spp. were the most abundant and frequently found molds in the laboratory. The contaminated areas could have one to five different species on them. Based on the mold and environmental conditions, several scenarios causing the mold contamination were deduced, and different mold control measures were discussed to compare them with the current solution of using 24-h air-conditioning to control mold growth. This study highlights the importance of mold hygiene in sustainable building management.

  5. Nanosilver against fungi. Silver nanoparticles as an effective biocidal factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit, Jolanta; Banach, Marcin; Szczygłowska, Renata; Bryk, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    The work presents a method of obtaining an aqueous raspberry extract as well as its physicochemical and analytical characteristics. The paper also contains a description of the method of preparation of nanosilver suspensions based on this extract. The raspberry extract served as a source of phenolic compounds which acted as both reducing and stabilizing agents. Suspensions of silver nanoparticles were obtained with the use of chemical reduction method. The silver ions concentration, pH value and temperature of samples incubation were independent variables. The next step of the research was to measure the antifungal activity of the received silver nanoparticles as well as to perform a mycological efficacy resistance analysis of the tested preparations in relation to different concentrations of nanostructured silver. Tests were conducted in compliance with the Eucast guidelines. The results of microbiological study of (the samples') biocidal effect against Cladosporium cladosporoides and Aspergillus niger are described. It was found that using nanosilver suspension at the concentration of 50 ppm inhibited the growth of Cladosporium cladosporoides and Aspergillus niger by 90% and 70%, respectively.

  6. The preliminary assessment and isolation of entomopathogenic fungi to be used in biological control with twospotted spider mite [Tetranychus urticae (acari, tetranychidae)] from East Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtücü, Serkan; Algur, Ömer Faruk

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to isolation entomopathogenic fungi for possible use in biocontrol of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. and to determine their pathogenicity. For this purpose, plant leaves infected with T. urticae were collected from Erzurum, Kars and Ardahan. At laboratory, the internal and external mycoflora of T.urticae individuals on plant leaves were determined. As a result of isolation, twenty-five different fungi species belonging to the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Gliocladium, Humicola, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Isaria, Ulocladium and Verticillium were obtained. Pathogenicity of this forty-five isolate belonging to twenty-five species were evaluated. As a test organism, T. urticae was used and suspensions (1 × 108conidia ml-1) were prepared in Tween 80. 2ml suspension of a single dose was sprayed onto down side of bean leaf discs using hand sprayer. Mortality was recorded daily for 7 days. A total of twelve isolates belonging to three species were determined to be pathogen against T.urticae. According to scale used: AT020 Isaria farinosa and AT025 Cladosporium cladosporioides were determined as least pathogen, AT037 and AT101 Beauveria bassiana, and AT019 and AT026 C. cladosporioides, and AT035 and AT036 I. farinosa as moderate pathogen, AT007, AT021, AT034 and AT076 B. bassiana as highly pathogen. The other thirty-three isolates found that not pathogenic against T.urticae.

  7. Construction of Potent Recombinant Strain Through Intergeneric Protoplast Fusion in Endophytic Fungi for Anticancerous Enzymes Production Using Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed; Al-Zahrani, Salha Hassan Mastour; El-Bondkly, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Among all fungal endophytes isolates derived from different ethno-medical plants, the hyper-yield L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase wild strains Trichoderma sp. Gen 9 and Cladosporium sp. Gen 20 using rice straw under solid-state fermentation (SSF) were selected. The selected strains were used as parents for the intergeneric protoplast fusion program to construct recombinant strain for prompt improvement production of these enzymes in one recombinant strain. Among 21 fusants obtained, the recombinant strain AYA 20-1, with 2.11-fold and 2.58-fold increase in L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase activities more than the parental isolates Trichoderma sp. Gen 9 and Cladosporium sp. Gen 20, respectively, was achieved using rice straw under SSF. Both therapeutic enzymes L-asparaginase and L-glutaminase were purified and characterized from the culture supernatant of the recombinant AYA 20-1 strain with molecular weights of 50.6 and 83.2 kDa, respectively. Both enzymes were not metalloenzymes. Whereas thiol group blocking reagents such as p-chloromercurybenzoate and iodoacetamide totally inhibited L-asparaginase activity, which refer to sulfhydryl groups and cysteine residues involved in its catalytic activity, they have no effect toward L-glutaminase activity. Interestingly, potent anticancer, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities were detected for both enzymes.

  8. The determination of microscopic fungi from Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill. fruits, leaves, crust and pollen

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    Miroslava Kačániová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant-microbial interactive relations with respect to determination of the mycoflora of the Castanea sativa Mill. nuts, crust, leaves and pollen and their effect on the host organism in four Slovak regions were studied. In the experiments were isolated 7 genera and 10 species of microscopic fungi from the nut, crust and leaves. It was found, that isolates from the Castanea sativa Mill. pollen were represented by 8 genera and 11 species of microscopic fungi. Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor and Rhizopus appeared to be the most frequently occurring genera of nuts, leaves and crust. Acremonium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Penicillium and Trichoderma are the most frequently fungi of pollen. On the base of further taxonomic determination from the genera Aspergillus were isolated and identified representatives of species A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. terreus and A. versicolor. From the genera Fusarium was isolated F. oxysporum and from Penicillium genera were isolated P. crustosum and P. glabrum. It is necessary to underline that the isolated genera Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium are considered as the most important producers of mycotoxins.

  9. Control of the Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae with entomopathogenic fungi

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    SRF Rezende

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, considered a worldwide pest in the poultry industry, is difficult to control and it is a vector for pathogens. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control of the lesser mealworm, by strains of fungi Beauveria bassiana, Cladosporium sp. and Trichoderma sp. Larvae and adults of the A. diaperinus were inoculated with suspensions of conidia in the concentration of 10(7 conídia.mL-1. The B. bassiana isolate caused higher insect mortality as compared to Cladosporium sp. and Trichoderma sp. isolates, with the larvae being more susceptible than adults. The entomopathogenicity of B. bassiana was further evaluated with 200 larvae and 200 adults of A. diaperinus inoculated with suspensions 10(6, 10(7, and 10(8 conidia.mL-1, and observed for ten days. Larvae mortality started at the fourth day at the lowest concentration, and the adult mortality was only observed on the sixth day at the concentration of 10(8 conidia.mL-1.

  10. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

  11. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  12. Investigation of the microbial communities colonizing prepainted steel used for roofing and walling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tran T; Jamil, Ili; Pianegonda, Nicole A; Blanksby, Stephen J; Barker, Philip J; Manefield, Mike; Rice, Scott A

    2017-04-01

    Microbial colonization of prepainted steel, commonly used in roofing applications, impacts their aesthetics, durability, and functionality. Understanding the relevant organisms and the mechanisms by which colonization occurs would provide valuable information that can be subsequently used to design fouling prevention strategies. Here, next-generation sequencing and microbial community finger printing (T-RFLP) were used to study the community composition of microbes colonizing prepainted steel roofing materials at Burrawang, Australia and Kapar, Malaysia over a 52-week period. Community diversity was low and was dominated by Bacillus spp., cyanobacteria, actinobacteria, Cladosporium sp., Epicoccum nigrum, and Teratosphaeriaceae sp. Cultivation-based methods isolated approximately 20 different fungi and bacteria, some of which, such as E. nigrum and Cladosporium sp., were represented in the community sequence data. Fluorescence in situ hybridization imaging showed that fungi were the most dominant organisms present. Analysis of the sequence and T-RFLP data indicated that the microbial communities differed significantly between locations and changed significantly over time. The study demonstrates the utility of molecular ecology tools to identify and characterize microbial communities associated with the fouling of painted steel surfaces and ultimately can enable the targeted development of control strategies based on the dominant species responsible for fouling. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Detoxification of toxic phorbol esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. kernel by Trichoderma spp. and endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Azhar; Abdullah, Norhani; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Ahmad, Syahida; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abas, Faridah; Gherbawy, Youssuf

    2014-02-05

    The presence of phorbol esters (PEs) with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1) was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS) and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%-96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.

  14. Airborne fungi in an intensive care unit

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    C. L. Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of airborne fungi in Intensive Care Unit (ICUs is associated with increased nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of airborne fungi presented in an ICU from the University Hospital of Pelotas – RS, with the attempt to know the place’s environmental microbiota. 40 Petri plates with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar were exposed to an environment of an ICU, where samples were collected in strategic places during morning and afternoon periods for ten days. Seven fungi genera were identified: Penicillium spp. (15.18%, genus with the higher frequency, followed by Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Paecelomyces spp., Curvularia spp., Alternaria spp., Zygomycetes and sterile mycelium. The most predominant fungi genus were Aspergillus spp. (13.92% in the morning and Cladosporium spp. (13.92% in the afternoon. Due to their involvement in different diseases, the identified fungi genera can be classified as potential pathogens of inpatients. These results reinforce the need of monitoring the environmental microorganisms with high frequency and efficiently in health institutions.

  15. Biosusceptibility of historical bricks from the Bač fortress: part I

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    Vidaković Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the conservation of cultural heritage objects has led to a greater interest in the appearance of biocorrosion. The aim of this paper is to point out the correlation between the growth of fungi isolated from the fortress of Bač and the contact angle value of the bricks from the fortress in order to determine the brick susceptibility to biodegradation. Three types of bricks (red, yellow and roan and three isolates of Penicillium spp., as well as one isolate of Cladosporium sp., were used during the experiments. A suspension of fungi in soil extract solution was inflicted on the surface of the bricks and then the samples were incubated. The study showed that the red bricks with cut surface and the roan bricks with broken surface are the most susceptible to the biocorrosion process. Based on the obtained results, Cladosporium sp. can be considered as the most important biodeteriogenic factor on the bricks built in the walls of the Bač fortress. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III45008

  16. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Filamentous fungi associated with natural infection of noble rot on withered grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, M; Simonato, B; Favati, F; Bernardi, P; Sbarbati, A; Zapparoli, G

    2018-05-02

    The effects of noble rot infection of grapes on the characteristics of different types of wine, including Italian passito wine, are well known. Nevertheless, there is still little information on filamentous fungi associated with noble-rotten grapes. In this study, withered Garganega grapes for passito wine production, naturally infected by noble rot, were analyzed and compared to sound grapes. Skin morphology and fungal population on berry surfaces were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed microcracks, germination conidia and branched hyphae on noble-rotten berries. Penicillium, Aureobasidium and Cladosporium were the most frequent genera present. Analysis of single berries displayed higher heterogeneity of epiphytic fungi in those infected by noble-rot than in sound berries. Penicillium adametzoides, Cladosporium cladospoirioides and Coniochaeta polymorpha were recovered. These, to the best of our knowledge, had never been previously isolated from withered grapes and, for C. polymorpha, from grapevine. This study provided novel data on noble rot mycobiota and suggests that fungi that co-habit with B. cinerea could have an important role on grape and wine quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cnidarian-derived filamentous fungi from Brazil: isolation, characterisation and RBBR decolourisation screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, M; Passarini, M R Z; Bonugli, R C; Sette, L D

    2008-12-01

    Marine-derived fungi represent a valuable source of structurally novel and biologically active metabolites of industrial interest. They also have drawn attention for their capacity to degrade several pollutants, including textile dyes, organochlorides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), among others. The fungal tolerance to higher concentrations of salt might be considered an advantage for bioremediation processes in the marine environment. Therefore, filamentous fungi were isolated from cnidarians (scleractinian coral and zoanthids) collected from the north coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 144 filamentous fungi were morphologically and molecularly characterised. Among them there were several species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, in addition to Cladosporium spp., Eutypella sp., Fusarium spp., Khuskia sp., Mucor sp., Peacilomyces sp., Phoma sp. and Trichoderma spp. These fungi were tested regarding their decolourisation activity for Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), a textile dye used as an initial screening for PAH-degrading fungi. The most efficient fungi for RBBR decolourisation after 12 days were Penicillium citrinum CBMAI 853 (100%), Aspergillus sulphureus CBMAI 849 (95%), Cladosporium cladosporioides CBMAI 857 (93%) and Trichoderma sp. CBMAI 852 (89%). Besides its efficiency for dye decolourisation within liquid media, C. cladosporioides CBMAI 857 also decolourised dye on solid media, forming a decolourisation halo. Further research on the biotechnological potential, including studies on PAH metabolism, of these selected fungi are in progress.

  19. Tobacco BY-2 Media Component Optimization for a Cost-Efficient Recombinant Protein Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Suvi T; Reuter, Lauri; Nuorti, Ninni; Joensuu, Jussi J; Rischer, Heiko; Ritala, Anneli

    2018-01-01

    Plant cells constitute an attractive platform for production of recombinant proteins as more and more animal-free products and processes are desired. One of the challenges in using plant cells as production hosts has been the costs deriving from expensive culture medium components. In this work, the aim was to optimize the levels of most expensive components in the nutrient medium without compromising the accumulation of biomass and recombinant protein yields. Wild-type BY-2 culture and transgenic tobacco BY-2 expressing green fluorescent protein-Hydrophobin I (GFP-HFBI) fusion protein were used to determine the most inexpensive medium composition. One particularly high-accumulating BY-2 clone, named 'Hulk,' produced 1.1 ± 0.2 g/l GFP-HFBI in suspension and kept its high performance during prolonged subculturing. In addition, both cultures were successfully cryopreserved enabling truly industrial application of this plant cell host. With the optimized culture medium, 43-55% cost reduction with regard to biomass and up to 69% reduction with regard to recombinant protein production was achieved.

  20. Protein bodies in leaves exchange contents through the endoplasmic reticulum

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    Reza eSaberianfar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein bodies (PBs are organelles found in seeds whose main function is the storage of proteins that are used during germination for sustaining growth. PBs can also be induced to form in leaves when foreign proteins are produced at high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and when fused to one of three tags: Zera®, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP, or hydrophobin-I (HFBI. In this study, we investigate the differences between ELP, HFBI and Zera PB formation, packing, and communication. Our results confirm the ER origin of all three fusion-tag-induced PBs. We show that secretory pathway proteins can be sequestered into all types of PBs but with different patterns, and that different fusion tags can target a specific protein to different PBs. Zera PBs are mobile and dependent on actomyosin motility similar to ELP and HFBI PBs. We show in vivo trafficking of proteins between PBs using GFP photoconversion. We also show that protein trafficking between ELP or HFBI PBs is faster and proteins travel further when compared to Zera PBs. Our results indicate that fusion-tag-induced PBs do not represent terminally stored cytosolic organelles, but that they form in, and remain part of the ER, and dynamically communicate with each other via the ER. We hypothesize that the previously documented PB mobility along the actin cytoskeleton is associated with ER movement rather than independent streaming of detached organelles.

  1. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

  2. Gene expression profiling of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive Suillus luteus isolate exposed to increased external zinc concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, L A H; Craciun, A R; Ruytinx, J; Lambaerts, M; Verbruggen, N; Vangronsveld, J; Colpaert, J V

    2007-10-01

    Complementary DNA (cDNA)-amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to analyze transcript profiles of a Zn-tolerant and a Zn-sensitive isolate of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Suillus luteus, both cultured with and without increased external zinc concentrations. From the obtained transcript profiles that covered approximately 2% of the total expected complement of genes in S. luteus, 144 nonredundant, differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), falling in different classes of expression pattern, were isolated and sequenced. Thirty-six of the represented genes showed homology to function-known genes, whereas 6 matched unknown protein coding sequences, and 102 were possibly novel. Although relatively few TDFs were found to be responsive to the different zinc treatments, their modulated expression levels may suggest a different transcriptional response to zinc treatments in both isolates. Among the identified genes that could be related to heavy-metal detoxification or the tolerance trait were genes encoding for homologues of a heat-shock protein, a putative metal transporter, a hydrophobin, and several proteins involved in ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis.

  3. Alkane-grown Beauveria bassiana produce mycelial pellets displaying peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress, and cell surface alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Paixão, Flávia R S; Ponce, Juan C; Santana, Marianela; Prieto, Eduardo D; Pedrini, Nicolás

    2018-06-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana is able to grow on insect cuticle hydrocarbons, inducing alkane assimilation pathways and concomitantly increasing virulence against insect hosts. In this study, we describe some physiological and molecular processes implicated in growth, nutritional stress response, and cellular alterations found in alkane-grown fungi. The fungal cytology was investigated using light and transmission electron microscopy while the surface topography was examined using atomic force microscopy. Additionally, the expression pattern of several genes associated with oxidative stress, peroxisome biogenesis, and hydrophobicity were analysed by qPCR. We found a novel type of growth in alkane-cultured B. bassiana similar to mycelial pellets described in other alkane-free fungi, which were able to produce viable conidia and to be pathogenic against larvae of the beetles Tenebrio molitor and Tribolium castaneum. Mycelial pellets were formed by hyphae cumulates with high peroxidase activity, exhibiting peroxisome proliferation and an apparent surface thickening. Alkane-grown conidia appeared to be more hydrophobic and cell surfaces displayed different topography than glucose-grown cells. We also found a significant induction in several genes encoding for peroxins, catalases, superoxide dismutases, and hydrophobins. These results show that both morphological and metabolic changes are triggered in mycelial pellets derived from alkane-grown B. bassiana. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rtt109-dependent histone H3 K56 acetylation and gene activity are essential for the biological control potential of Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Wang, Juan-Juan; Shao, Wei; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2018-04-27

    Rtt109 is a histone acetyltransferase that catalyzes histone H3K56 acetylation required for genomic stability, DNA damage repair and virulence-related gene activity in yeast-like human pathogens but remains functionally unknown in fungal insect pathogens. This study seeks to elucidate catalytic activity of Rtt109 orthologue and its possible role in sustaining biological control potential of Beauveria bassiana, a fungal entomopathogen. Deletion of rtt109 in B. bassiana abolished histone H3K56 acetylation and triggered histone H2A-S129 phosphorylation. Consequently, the deletion mutant showed increased sensitivities to the stresses of DNA damage, oxidation, cell wall perturbation, high osmolarity and heat shock during colony growth, severe conidiation defects under normal culture conditions, reduced conidial hydrophobicity, decreased conidial UV-B resistance, and attenuated virulence through normal cuticle infection. These phenotypic changes correlated well with reduced transcript levels of many genes, which encode the families of H2A-S129 dephosphorylation-related protein phosphotases, DNA damage-repairing factors, antioxidant enzymes, heat-shock proteins, key developmental activators, hydrophobins and cuticle-degrading Pr1 proteases respectively. Rtt109 can acetylate H3K56 and dephosphorylate H2A-S129 in direct and indirect manners respectively, and hence plays an essential role in sustaining genomic stability and global gene activity required for conidiation capacity, environmental fitness and pest-control potential in B. bassiana. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Conidiation of Penicillium camemberti in submerged liquid cultures is dependent on the nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boualem, Khadidja; Labrie, Steve; Gervais, Patrick; Waché, Yves; Cavin, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    To study the ability of a commercial Penicillium camemberti strain, used for Camembert type cheese ripening, to produce conidia during growth in liquid culture (LC), in media containing different sources of nitrogen as, industrially, conidia are produced by growth at the surface of a solid state culture because conidiation in stirred submerged aerobic LC is not known. In complex media containing peptic digest of meat, hyphae ends did not differentiate into phialides and conidia. Contrarily, in a synthetic media containing KNO3 as sole nitrogen source, hyphae ends differentiated into phialides producing 0.5 × 10(7) conidia/ml. Conidia produced in LC were 25 % less hydrophobic than conidia produced in solid culture, and this correlates with a seven-times-lower expression of the gene rodA encoding hydrophobin RodA in the mycelium grown in LC. Conidiation of P. camembertii is stimulated in iquid medium containing KNO3 as sole source of nitrogen and therefore opens up opportunities for using liquid medium in commercial productions.

  6. Functional genomic profiling of Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm reveals enhanced production of the mycotoxin gliotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Sandra; Seidler, Marc; Albrecht, Daniela; Salvenmoser, Stefanie; Remme, Nicole; Hertweck, Christian; Brakhage, Axel A; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Müller, Frank-Michael C

    2010-09-01

    The opportunistic pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and in part immunocompetent patients. A. fumigatus can grow in multicellular communities by the formation of a hyphal network encased in an extracellular matrix. Here, we describe the proteome and transcriptome of planktonic- and biofilm-grown A. fumigatus mycelium after 24 and 48 h. A biofilm- and time-dependent regulation of many proteins and genes of the primary metabolism indicates a developmental stage of the young biofilm at 24 h, which demands energy. At a matured biofilm phase, metabolic activity seems to be reduced. However, genes, which code for hydrophobins, and proteins involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites were significantly upregulated. In particular, proteins of the gliotoxin secondary metabolite gene cluster were induced in biofilm cultures. This was confirmed by real-time PCR and by detection of this immunologically active mycotoxin in culture supernatants using HPLC analysis. The enhanced production of gliotoxin by in vitro formed biofilms reported here may also play a significant role under in vivo conditions. It may confer A. fumigatus protection from the host immune system and also enable its survival and persistence in chronic lung infections such as aspergilloma.

  7. Optically degradable dendrons for temporary adhesion of proteins to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiainen, Mauri A; Kotimaa, Juha; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Pavan, Giovanni M

    2010-06-18

    Experimental studies and molecular dynamics modeling demonstrate that multivalent dendrons can be used to temporarily glue proteins and DNA together with high affinity. We describe N-maleimide-cored polyamine dendrons that can be conjugated with free cysteine residues on protein surfaces through 1,4-conjugate addition to give one-to-one protein-polymer conjugates. We used a genetically engineered cysteine mutant of class II hydrophobin (HFBI) and a single-chain Fragment variable (scFv) antibody as model proteins for the conjugation reactions. The binding affinity of the protein-dendron conjugates towards DNA was experimentally assessed by using the ethidium bromide displacement assay. The binding was found to depend on the generation of the dendron, with the second generation having a stronger affinity than the first generation. Thermodynamic parameters of the binding were obtained from molecular dynamics modeling, which showed that the high binding affinity for each system is almost completely driven by a strong favorable binding enthalpy that is opposed by unfavorable binding entropy. A short exposure to UV (lambda approximately 350 nm) can cleave the photolabile o-nitrobenzyl-linked binding ligands from the surface of the dendron, which results in loss of the multivalent binding interactions and triggers the release of the DNA and protein. The timescale of the release is very rapid and the binding partners can be efficiently released after 3 min of UV exposure.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed Highly Expressed Genes Encoding Secondary Metabolite Pathways and Small Cysteine-Rich Proteins in the Sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis.

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    Hui-Yeng Y Yap

    Full Text Available Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke Ryvarden (tiger milk mushroom has long been known for its nutritional and medicinal benefits among the local communities in Southeast Asia. However, the molecular and genetic basis of its medicinal and nutraceutical properties at transcriptional level have not been investigated. In this study, the transcriptome of L. rhinocerotis sclerotium, the part with medicinal value, was analyzed using high-throughput Illumina HiSeqTM platform with good sequencing quality and alignment results. A total of 3,673, 117, and 59,649 events of alternative splicing, novel transcripts, and SNP variation were found to enrich its current genome database. A large number of transcripts were expressed and involved in the processing of gene information and carbohydrate metabolism. A few highly expressed genes encoding the cysteine-rich cerato-platanin, hydrophobins, and sugar-binding lectins were identified and their possible roles in L. rhinocerotis were discussed. Genes encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of glucans, six gene clusters encoding four terpene synthases and one each of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase, and 109 transcribed cytochrome P450 sequences were also identified in the transcriptome. The data from this study forms a valuable foundation for future research in the exploitation of this mushroom in pharmacological and industrial applications.

  9. Extrolites of Aspergillus fumigatus and Other Pathogenic Species in Aspergillus Section Fumigati

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvad, Jens C.; Larsen, Thomas O.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogen known for its production of a large array of extrolites. Up to 63 species have been described in Aspergillus section Fumigati, some of which have also been reliably reported to be pathogenic, including A. felis, A. fischeri, A. fumigatiaffinis, A. fumisynnematus, A. hiratsukae, A. laciniosus, A. lentulus, A. novofumigatus, A. parafelis, A. pseudofelis, A. pseudoviridinutans, A. spinosus, A. thermomutatus, and A. udagawae. These species share the production of hydrophobins, melanins, and siderophores and ability to grow well at 37°C, but they only share some small molecule extrolites, that could be important factors in pathogenicity. According to the literature gliotoxin and other exometabolites can be contributing factors to pathogenicity, but these exometabolites are apparently not produced by all pathogenic species. It is our hypothesis that species unable to produce some of these metabolites can produce proxy-exometabolites that may serve the same function. We tabulate all exometabolites reported from species in Aspergillus section Fumigati and by comparing the profile of those extrolites, suggest that those producing many different kinds of exometabolites are potential opportunistic pathogens. The exometabolite data also suggest that the profile of exometabolites are highly specific and can be used for identification of these closely related species. PMID:26779142

  10. Genomics of Aspergillus oryzae: Learning from the History of Koji Mold and Exploration of Its Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masayuki; Yamada, Osamu; Gomi, Katsuya

    2008-01-01

    At a time when the notion of microorganisms did not exist, our ancestors empirically established methods for the production of various fermentation foods: miso (bean curd seasoning) and shoyu (soy sauce), both of which have been widely used and are essential for Japanese cooking, and sake, a magical alcoholic drink consumed at a variety of ritual occasions, are typical examples. A filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, is the key organism in the production of all these traditional foods, and its solid-state cultivation (SSC) has been confirmed to be the secret for the high productivity of secretory hydrolases vital for the fermentation process. Indeed, our genome comparison and transcriptome analysis uncovered mechanisms for effective degradation of raw materials in SSC: the extracellular hydrolase genes that have been found only in the A. oryzae genome but not in A. fumigatus are highly induced during SSC but not in liquid cultivation. Also, the temperature reduction process empirically adopted in the traditional soy-sauce fermentation processes has been found to be important to keep strong expression of the A. oryzae-specific extracellular hydrolases. One of the prominent potentials of A. oryzae is that it has been successfully applied to effective degradation of biodegradable plastic. Both cutinase, responsible for the degradation of plastic, and hydrophobin, which recruits cutinase on the hydrophobic surface to enhance degradation, have been discovered in A. oryzae. Genomic analysis in concert with traditional knowledge and technology will continue to be powerful tools in the future exploration of A. oryzae. PMID:18820080

  11. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

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    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  12. Moléstias em tomateiro cultivado em estufas plásticas em quatro municípios da região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Blume Elena

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moléstias podem atacar severamente hortaliças cultivadas em cultivos protegidos e, para o manejo integrado dessas moléstias, o conhecimento das condições climáticas que favorecem sua incidência nesses cultivos é fundamental. O trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar as moléstias em tomateiro cultivado em estufas plásticas em quatro municípios na região central do Rio Grande do Sul e as condições de temperatura e umidade relativa (UR do ar nas quais elas ocorrem. O estudo foi realizado nos municípios de São Pedro do Sul, São Sepé, Ivorá e Santa Maria (RS, no período de março a outubro de 1998. A temperatura e umidade relativa do ar foram medidas diariamente com um psicrômetro. As moléstias observadas e sua incidência máxima foram: requeima (Phytophthora infestans: 100,0%, pinta-preta (Alternaria solani: 98,1%, mofo cinzento (Botrytis cinerea: 55,4%, cladosporiose (Cladosporuim fulvum: 48,9%, septoriose (Septoria lycopersici: 37,5%, talo-oco (Erwinia spp.: 33,0%, murcha de fusarium (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici: 8,4% e podridão de esclerotínia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: 1,3%. Valores de UR superiores a 80%, de maneira geral, aumentaram a incidência das moléstias, em sua maioria de origem fúngica. A incidência de moléstias varia entre municípios de uma mesma região climática de acordo com os fatores meteorológicos e práticas de manejo da cultura.

  13. Airborne fungi causing respiratory allergy in patients from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil Fungos anemófilos causando alergia respiratória em pacientes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal of airborne fungi is made through atmospherical air. Knowledge of anemophilous fungi in a given city is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhaled allergens. Their use in individuals' allergy is widespread, and probably will remain so in the years to come. The purpose of this research was to make a relationship between the airborne fungi and the patients' respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis from the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil. First a research was made in Fortaleza about the fungal allergens dispersed in atmospherical air. Fungal allergen extracts were made from the ten most predominant moulds in the air, using sodium bicarbonate. The prick tests were made in fifty patients with asthma and rhinitis and in ten healthy persons (with no respiratory allergy. The positive test was made using histamine and the negative test with sodium bicarbonate preparation. The predominant fungi in the air of Fortaleza were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Mycelia sterilia, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Drechslera, Absidia and Alternaria. As determined by the prick test: three fungal extracts (Aspergillus, Alternaria and Drechslera were positive in all patients; two (Penicillium and Curvularia were positive in thirty-five patients; two (Cladosporium and Mycelia sterilia were positive in thirty patients; and three (Rhizopus, Absidia and Fusarium were positive in nine patients. All the control tests were negative. All the ten most predominant anemophilous fungi isolated in the air could provoke skin test reactivity in individuals with respiratory allergy in Fortaleza.Os fungos anemófilos estão dispersos no ar atmosférico. O conhecimento dos fungos anemófilos em uma cidade é importante para o diagnóstico ecológico e o tratamento específico de manifestações alérgicas induzidas pela inalação de alérgenos. Os fungos alergênicos são usados para o

  14. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

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    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

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    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  16. Biofilm forming microorganisms on various substrata from greenhouse of Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”

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    Unković Nikola D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of subaerial biofilm forming cyanobacteria, algae and fungi was investigated on 10 different substrata from greenhouse of Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”. Out of 37 documented taxa, 16 cyanobacterial and 10 algal taxa were identified. Remaining 11 taxa belong to the Kingdom of Fungi. The highest diversity of biofilm forming microorganisms, a total of 24 taxa, was detected on the corroded metal surface, while significantly lower number of taxa was recorded on other examined substrata. Cyanobacterium Porphyrosiphon sp., diatom Achnanthes sp. and green algae Chlorella sp. and Chlorococcum minutum were the most frequently encountered photosynthetic components of biofilms. In all analyzed samples, Trichoderma sp., followed by Cladosporium sp. and Rhizopus stolonifer, were the most frequently identified fungi. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI176020, Grant no. OI176018, and Grant no. OI173032

  17. Chlorine inactivation of fungal spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S; Pardoel, D; Harun, A; Treloar, T

    1997-04-01

    Although 0.4% chlorine for 2 min has been recommended for surface disinfection of food samples before direct plating for fungal enumeration, this procedure may not be adequate for highly contaminated products. The effectiveness of a range of chlorine solutions was investigated using barley samples artificially contaminated with four different concentrations of Aspergillus flavus. A. niger, A. ochraceus, Eurotium repens, Penicillium brevicompactum P. chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. At initial contamination levels greater than 10(4)/g, 0.4% chlorine did not inactivate sufficient spores to produce less than 20% contamination. Of the test fungi, ascospores of E. repens were the most resistant to chlorine inactivation, whereas the conidia of C. cladosporioides were the most sensitive. Rinsing the samples with 70% ethanol improved the effectiveness of the recommended surface disinfection procedure. However, some ethanol appears to permeate into the grains and may inactivate sensitive internal fungi, although a minimal effect only was observed on wheat infected with Alternaria.

  18. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H

    1987-02-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  19. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  20. Antifungal derivatives from Piper mollicomum and P. lhotzkyanum (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades]. E-mail: joaolago@iq.usp.br; Young, Maria Claudia M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Reigada, Juliana B.; Soares, Marisi G.; Roesler, Bianca P.; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-09-15

    Bioguided fractionation of the extracts from leaves of Piper mollicomum and Piper lhotzkyanum against the fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum afforded seven bioactive compounds, four being chromenes: methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, 2-methyl-2-[4'-methyl-3'-pentenyl]-2H-1-benzopyrane-6-carboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid, one a dihydrochalcone: 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, and two flavanones: 7-methoxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-flavanone and 7,4'-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy-flavanone. The structures of the bioactive isolated derivatives were elucidated by interpretation of their NMR data [{sup 1}H and {sup 13}C (BBD, DEPT 135 deg)], and mass spectral data as well as by comparison with data described in the literature. (author)

  1. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Fuad; Moslem, Mohamed; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Al-Sabri, Ahmed E

    2016-03-01

    Mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. The isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequence analysis. The fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without developing antagonistic activity, were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus terreus, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eupenicillium hirayamae and Paecilomyces variotii. As compared to the controls, these fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced extracellular enzymes and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations with GC-MS data confirm that these isolates displayed rapid diesel oil bioremoval and when used together as a consortium, there was no antagonistic activity.

  2. A new antifungal phenolic glycoside derivative, iridoids and lignans from Alibertia sessilis (vell.) K. Schum. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane C. da; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Lopes, Marcia N. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: mnlopes@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2007-07-01

    A new antifungal phenolic glycoside, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-1-O-{beta}-D-(5-O-syringoyl)apiofuranosyl-(1 {yields} 6)-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with four known iridoids, geniposidic acid (2), geniposide (3), 6{alpha}-hydroxygeniposide (4) and 6{beta}-hydroxygeniposide (5); two lignans, (+)-lyoniresinol-3{alpha}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (6), (-)-lyoniresinol-3{alpha}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (7); and two phenolic acids, chlorogenic (8) and salicylic acids (9) and D-manitol (10), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the stems of Alibertia sessilis. Structures of 1 and of the known compounds were determined by spectroscopic analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for their antifungal activities against two phytopathogenic fungi strains Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum by direct bioautography. (author)

  3. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN THE BREAD SAMPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

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    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi that can cause occurrence of mould in bread. We used breads from experimental baking with different addition of walnuts (0 - 15% as model samples. Bread samples were stored in the fridge, in plastic bags and in the bread box. After three days of storage 25% of samples were moldy. The middle parts of breads (4 pieces, that were not moldy, were stored on DRBC and cultured at 25±1oC for three days. All the colonies of micromycets were inserted on identification agar. Molding of bread samples was caused by species of genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. 28 strains of potentially toxigenic species of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were tested by TLC method for the ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. We discovered the production of cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C using mentioned method.

  4. A Metabarcoding Survey on the Fungal Microbiota Associated to the Olive Fruit Fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrinò, Antonino; Schena, Leonardo; Campolo, Orlando; Laudani, Francesca; Mosca, Saveria; Giunti, Giulia; Strano, Cinzia Patricia; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of interaction between insects and fungi is interesting from an ecological point of view, particularly when these interactions involve insect pests and plant pathogens within an agroecosystem. In this study, we aimed to perform an accurate analysis on the fungal microbiota associated to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) through a metabarcoding approach based on 454 pyrosequencing. From this analysis, we retrieved 43,549 reads that clustered into 128 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which 29 resulted in the "core" associate fungi of B. oleae. This fungal community was mainly represented by sooty mould fungi, such as Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp. and Aureobasidium spp., by plant pathogens like Colletotrichum spp. and Pseudocercospora spp., along with several other less abundant taxa whose ecology is unclear in most of the cases. Our findings lead to new insights into the microbial ecology of this specific ecological niche, enabling the understanding of a complex network of interactions within the olive agroecosystem.

  5. Fatal systemic cladosporiosis in a merino sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haligur, Mehmet; Ozmen, Ozlem; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2010-12-01

    Systemic cladosporiosis is described in 25 merino sheep from a flock consisting 250 animals. The fungal pneumonia appeared after an intensive antibiotic treatment, because of a respiratory system disorder. The pen of the flock was humid and crowded, and animals had signs of respiratory distress, coughing, fever and anorexia. All of the ill animals died, and necropsy was performed on 10 sheep. The lesions were characterized by a multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and an abomasitis. Severe hemorrhages were observed in the lungs. At the histopathological examination, severe vasculitis with thrombosis was observed in various organs, especially in the lungs and abomasums, suggestive for a hematogenous dissemination of the infection in these organs. Numerous PAS-positive fungal elements were seen in the pyogranulomatous foci. Dark green fungal colonies were seen in the blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar that were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides. This report highlights that phaeohyphomycosis can cause a severe systemic and fatal disease in merino sheep under insufficient management conditions.

  6. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  7. Antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidiry, Eugene Sebastian J; Ganeshan, Girija; Lokesha, Ankanahalli N

    2011-12-01

    Bioassay monitored HPLC assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convulvulaceae) were achieved using Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. The activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of Alternaria alternata and A. porri. The active fraction was identified as a mixture of (E)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (Z)-octadecyl p-coumarate. The two isomers were detected on an HPLC column with substantially different retention times, but once eluted from the column, one form was partly converted to the other in daylight. Conclusive evidence for the structures and their isomerization were obtained from the HPLC behavior, IR, UV, HRESIMS, CIMS and and NMR spectral data. Important 1H NMR and 13C NMR signals could be separately assigned for the isomers using 2D NMR techniques.

  8. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  9. The Comparative Study Of Saprophytic Fungi In Air Canal, Air, Hospital Instruments And Clinical Samples From Patients With Bone Marrow Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi S J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone Marrow Transplantation is one of the most important therapeutic methods in much malignant and nonmalignant disease. Patients with Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT following radiotherapy and chemotherapy will suffer from immuno-suppression. Therefore they are susceptible to get saprophytic fungi infection that sometimes are killer. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this cross-sectional survey is isolation of saprophytic fungi from patients with BMT and wards space and instruments. Therefore sampling from ventilator system (HEPA filter and common filter, air canal, air, hospital instruments and clinical samples (nasal discharge, sputum, urine were done and cultured in sabouro dextrose agar with choloramphenicol (SC. In assessing total frequency from 4838 plates of wards space and instruments, 985 fungi colonies includes 21 genus were isolated. Results and Conclusion: Most fungi colonies present were Penicillium , Aspergillus and Cladosporium and low present were Trichoderma ,Stereptomyses, Chrysosporium, Rhizopus.

  10. Antifungal isopimaranes from Hypoestes serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, L; Guilet, D; Marston, A; Randimbivololona, F; Hostettmann, K

    2003-09-01

    Five isopimarane diterpenes (7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8,15-dien-14-one, 14alpha-hydroxyisopimara-7,15-dien-1-one, 1beta,14alpha-dihydroxyisopimara-7,15-diene, 7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one and 7beta-acetoxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one) have been isolated from the leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). All compounds exhibited antifungal activity against both the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and the yeast Candida albicans; two of them also displayed an acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis.

  11. Assessment of bioaerosol contamination (bacteria and fungi) in the largest urban wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Sadegh; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Nabavi, Samira; Faridi, Sasan; Dehghani, Asghar; Hoseini, Mohammad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Mokamel, Adel; Kashani, Homa; Yarali, Navid; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-10-01

    Bioaerosol concentration was measured in wastewater treatment units in south of Tehran, the largest wastewater treatment plant in the Middle East. Active sampling was carried out around four operational units and a point as background. The results showed that the aeration tank with an average of 1016 CFU/m(3) in winter and 1973 CFU/m(3) in summer had the greatest effect on emission of bacterial bioaerosols. In addition, primary treatment had the highest impact on fungal emission. Among the bacteria, Micrococcus spp. showed the widest emission in the winter, and Bacillus spp. was dominant in summer. Furthermore, fungi such as Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were the dominant types in the seasons. Overall, significant relationship was observed between meteorological parameters and the concentration of bacterial and fungal aerosols.

  12. Production of aflatexin B1 in wheat grains under different environmental storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Bothaina, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal flora of stored wheat grains and the production of aflatoxin B 1 by Aflavus in wheat grains under different environmental conditions were examined. Aspergillus, Penicillium,. Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicouccum, Verticilium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Altenaria were the predominant fungi isolated from the collected non-disinfected grains. Aspergillus spp, were only isolated from surface disinfected grains. Of 223 aspergillus spp, isolates only 128 found to aflatoxin producing and all aflatoxin producing-fungi belonged to the Aflavus group. Results demonstrate that Aflavus could produce maximum concentration of aflatoxin B 1 in grains at 20% moisture (163.5 MOU g/kg). The highest concentration of aflatoxin B 1 was produced by Aflavus (10 5 spores/g) in wheat grains with 20% moisture after 20 days at 30 degree and 92.40 % R.H. The aflatoxin production did not increase monotonously as a function of inoculum density

  13. Influence of Gamma-Irradiation and Some Environmental Conditions on the Occurrence of Mycotoxins Producing Moulds in Corn Meal and Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present investigation, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Rhizopus and Mucor were the most common genera isolated from wheat flour and corn meal. Aspergillus flavus, A.ocllraceus, P. viridieatum,. P.islalldicum, F. monilforme, F. tricinctum,and F. equisetie were aflatoxin B, ochratoxin A and zearalenone producers. Irradiation at a dose 5 kGy reduced the total fungal counts relative to un-irradiated controls. There was no growth at 7.0 kGy. At 18% moisture level, there was no deterioration at 34 degree C for 3 kGy irradiated samples after 2 weeks of storage. A dose of 5 kGy inhibited the toxigenic mould growth in wheat flour and corn meal stored for 12 months at 18% moisture content and at 25 degree C

  14. SANIDADE DE SEMENTES DE GIRASSOL PROVENIENTES DE TRÊS MUNICÍPIOS DO ESTADO DO MARANHÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delineide Pereira Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of sunflower leads to studies on seed pathogen, to guarantee crop sanity and to provide identification of pathogens in new areas. Genotypes seeds lots produced in Embrapa Soja assays carried out in tree cities of the State of Maranhão, Brazil (Balsas, São Luís and Timon were analyzed, with the objective of evaluating sanitary quality of sunflower seeds. Sanitary analysis was performed by blotter test method and identification of fungi genera was based on morphological features. The occurrence of Fusarium sp., Alternaria spp., Curvularia sp., Dreschelera sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Trichoderma sp., Botrytis sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp., Colletotrichum sp., Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was observed in seeds of sunflower, with variable incidences.

  15. An efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslem, M A; Bahkali, A H; Abd-Elsalam, K A; Wit, P J G M

    2010-11-23

    We developed an efficient method for DNA extraction from Cladosporioid fungi, which are important fungal plant pathogens. The cell wall of Cladosporioid fungi is often melanized, which makes it difficult to extract DNA from their cells. In order to overcome this we grew these fungi for three days on agar plates and extracted DNA from mycelium mats after manual or electric homogenization. High-quality DNA was isolated, with an A(260)/A(280) ratio ranging between 1.6 and 2.0. Isolated genomic DNA was efficiently digested with restriction enzymes and produced distinct banding patterns on agarose gels for the different Cladosporium species. Clear DNA fragments from the isolated DNA were amplified by PCR using small and large subunit rDNA primers, demonstrating that this method provides DNA of sufficiently high quality for molecular analyses.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of some Ganoderma species from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofodile, L N; Uma, N U; Kokubun, T; Grayer, R J; Ogundipe, O T; Simmonds, M S J

    2005-04-01

    The crude n-hexane:diethyl ether, chloroform:acetone and methanol extracts of four species of Ganoderma (Ganoderma colossum (Fr.) C. F. Baker, G. resinaceum Boud., G. lucidum (cf.) (Curtis) P. Karst. and G. boninense (cf.) Pat.), from Nigeria, were tested for antimicrobial activity. The three solvent extracts of all the species of Ganoderma were active against Pseudomonas syringae and Bacillus subtilis, whereas none of the extracts were active against Cladosporium herbarum. Preliminary thin layer chromatography chemical tests on these extracts of Ganoderma showed that they contained compounds that stained blue-violet and blue or green when sprayed with anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid or Dragendorff, respectively. The profile of compounds in the extracts showed some variation among the four species. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of microscopic fungi on the 137Cs accumulation by some plants growing on radionuclides contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanova, N.; Vasilevskaya, A.; Lashko, T.; Gerzabek, H.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of soil micromycetes (melanin-containing, dark-pigmented Cladosporium cladosporioides and light-pigmented Paecilomyces lilacinus) on 137C s accumulation by aboveground phytomass of some higher plants (sugar beet, cabbage and clover) was studied in field experiments in radionuclides contaminated soil of the Chernobyl zone with total radioactivity 37-50 kBq/kg. Abundance of these fungi was determined 1, 3 and 5 months after their introduction into the soil. P. lilacinus colonies were isolated in the beginning of the experiment in contrast to C. cladosporioides colonies that were isolated at the end of plants vegetation. The coefficients of 137C s accumulation by aboveground phytomass were higher after the introduction of light-pigmented than of dark-pigmented fungus. These coefficients were higher after the simultaneous introduction of the two fungi than after each fungus introduced separately. (author)

  18. [The interaction of soil micromycetes with "hot" particles in a model system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, N N; Lashko, T N; Redchits, T I; Vasilevskaia, A I; Borisiuk, L G; Siniavskaia, O I; Gavriliuk, V I; Muzalev, P N

    1991-01-01

    A model system which permits observing for a long time and fixing interaction of fungi with a radiation source has been created on the basis of an isolated "hot" particle, deficient mineral medium (saccharose content 60 mg/l) and suspension of fungal conidia. Five species (six strains) of micromycetes isolated from radionuclide-contaminated soils and fifteen "hot" particles have been tested. It has been found out for the first time that Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium roseo-purpureum are able actively overgrow "hot" particles whose radioactivity did not exceed 3.1-1.0(-7) Ci by gamma-spectrum and to destroy them 50-150 days later. Certain changes in morphology of fungi-destructors of "hot" particles are revealed. A problem on ecological significance of the found phenomenon is discussed.

  19. [Indoor air studies of mould fungus contamination of homes of selected patients with bronchial asthma (with special regard to evaluation problems)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkpiel, K; Kurowski, V; Ohgke, H

    1996-02-01

    Investigations of indoor air of the homes of seven patients with asthma bronchiale who showed up with positive reactions following intracutaneous application of fungal allergens revealed that their places of residence were contaminated by fungal and bacterial spores. The number of colony forming units of mesophilic fungal spores of the indoor air ranged from 100 to 1000 CFU/m3 and this was much higher than the mould flora of the outdoor air determined simultaneously. The major fungi species found by the indoor investigation were: Penicillium sp. > Aspergillus sp. > Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Chrysonilia sp., Verticillium sp. > Geotrichum sp., Trichoderma sp. In two cases Thermoactinomyces species could be detected in the indoor air. The main cause of fungal contamination were moist building materials on room walls, insufficient air ventilation, bad maintenance of the circulating air-machines and insufficient room hygiene (e.g. biological garbage in the kitchen).

  20. Fungic microflora of Panicum maximum and Styosanthes spp. commercial seed / Microflora fúngica de sementes comerciais de Panicum maximum e Stylosanthes spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Fabris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The sanitary quality of 26 lots commercial seeds of tropical forages, produced in different regions (2004-05 and 2005-06 was analyzed. The lots were composed of seeds of Panicum maximum ('Massai', 'Mombaça' e 'Tanzânia' and stylo ('Estilosantes Campo Grande' - ECG. Additionally, seeds of two lots of P. maximum for exportation were analyzed. The blotter test was used, at 20ºC under alternating light and darkness in a 12 h photoperiod, for seven days. The Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Rhizopus genus consisted the secondary or saprophytes fungi (FSS with greatest frequency in P. maximum lots. In general, there was low incidence of these fungus in the seeds. In relation to pathogenic fungi (FP, it was detected high frequency of contaminated lots by Bipolaris, Curvularia, Fusarium and Phoma genus. Generally, there was high incidence of FP in P. maximum seeds. The occurrence of Phoma sp. was hight, because in 81% of the lots showed incidence superior to 50%. In 'ECG' seeds it was detected FSS (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium genus and FP (Bipolaris, Curvularia, Fusarium and Phoma genus, usually, in low incidence. FSS and FP were associated to P. maximum seeds for exportation, with significant incidence in some cases. The results indicated that there was a limiting factor in all producer regions regarding sanitary quality of the seeds.Sementes comerciais de forrageiras tropicais, pertencente a 26 lotes produzidos em diferentes regiões (safras 2004-05 e 2005-06, foram avaliadas quanto à sanidade. Foram analisadas sementes de cultivares de Panicum maximum (Massai, Mombaça e Tanzânia e de estilosantes (Estilosantes Campo Grande – ECG. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a qualidade sanitária de dois lotes de sementes de P. maximum destinados à exportação. Para isso, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste de papel de filtro em gerbox, os quais foram incubados a 20ºC, com fotoperíodo de 12 h, durante sete dias. Os fungos saprófitos ou

  1. Fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation in the air distribution system of a multi-story office building: VOC production and possible relationship to a sick building syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Crow, S. A.; Simmons, R. B.; Price, D. L.; Noble, J. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Complaints characteristic of those for sick building syndrome prompted mycological investigations of a modern multi-story office building on the Gulf coast in the Southeastern United States (Houston-Galveston area). The air handling units and fiberglass duct liner of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system of the building, without a history of catastrophic or chronic water damage, demonstrated extensive colonization with Penicillium spp and Cladosporium herbarum. Although dense fungal growth was observed on surfaces within the heating-cooling system, most air samples yielded fewer than 200 CFU m-3. Several volatile compounds found in the building air were released also from colonized fiberglass. Removal of colonized insulation from the floor receiving the majority of complaints of mouldy air and continuous operation of the units supplying this floor resulted in a reduction in the number of complaints.

  2. MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLISH HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of some honey samples from Poland was carried out on the basis of their microbiological (fungi and yeasts analysis. Most of the samples contained less than 20 % water. The amount of fungi found in the honey samples was less than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 but 19 % of the samples had more yeasts than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 – up to 5.7 x 102 CFU.g-1. The isolated fungi were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium spp. The last genus was isolated very frequently. A total number of eight fungal Penicillium species were identified namely, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. commune, P. corylophilum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and P. polonicum. They were isolated using dilution plate method. The results showed that honeys produced in this region are of good microbiological quality.

  3. [Fungi isolated from diseased medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Matsuhashi, M; Iida, O

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four fungal isolates were obtained from diseased Paeonia albiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa Bung., Astragalus membranaceus Bung., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., Ledebouriella seseloides Wolff and Bupleurum falcatum L. which were collected in the test field of Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences. Most of them were identified into 15 genera containing 8 species. Fungal species presumed to be pathogens of the host plants were as follows: Cladosporium paeoniae, Pestalotia paeoniicola, Glomerella cingulata, Hainesia lythri, Guignardia sp. and Alternaria sp. from P. albiflora, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. and Neocosmospora vasinfecta from A. membranaceus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from L. erythrorhizon, Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium spp., Phoma sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp. from L. seseloides, and Fusarium sp., Alternaria alternata, Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp. and C. gloeosporioides from B. falcatum. Roots of B. falcatum were found to be parasitized by Meloidogyne sp.

  4. Micromycetes sensitiveness to heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Korinovskaya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 33 micromycete species to nitric compounds of copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cadmium has been determined. Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen G. A. de Vries and Fusarium solani (C. Mart. Appel et Wollenw are sensitive to minimal content of the heavy metals (0.75 of maximum permissible concentration (MPC in the growth medium. At the same time Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (Fr. Keissl and Penicillium sp. 4 demonstrated moderate growth under maximal concentration (50 MPC. It is determined that minimal content of the heavy metals in the initial stage of influence (up to 48 h promotes growth of only Fusarium oxysporum E. F. Sm. et Swingle, while retards growth of the other species.

  5. Antifungal activity of Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa in rice cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eunjong; Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Hyejung; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Jeongho

    2012-10-01

    The antifungal activity of organic acids greatly improves the shelf life of bread and bakery products. However, little is known about the effect of lactic acid fermentation on fungal contamination in rice cakes. Here, we show that lactic acid fermentation in rice dough can greatly retard the growth of three fungal species when present in rice cakes, namely Cladosporium sp. YS1, Neurospora sp. YS3, and Penicillium crustosum YS2. The antifungal activity of the lactic acid bacteria against these fungi was much better than that of 0.3% calcium propionate. We found that organic acids including lactic and acetic acid, which are byproducts of lactic fermentation or can be artificially added, were the main antifungal substances. We also found that some Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa strains could be good starter species for rice dough fermentation. These results imply that these lactic acid bacteria can be applicable to improve the preservation of rice cakes.

  6. Microbial penetration and utilization of organic aircraft fuel-tank coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, M G; Reynolds, R J; Hedrick, H G

    1967-11-01

    Microorganisms have been found as contaminants in various types of aircraft fuel tanks. Their presence introduces problems in the operation of the aircraft, including destruction of components such as the organic coatings used as protective linings in the fuel tanks. Microbial penetration and utilization of the currently used organic coatings, EC 776, DV 1180, PR 1560, and DeSoto 1080, were determined by changes in electrical resistances of the coatings; mycelial weight changes; growth counts of the bacteria; and manometric determinations on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GD-FW B-25) and Cladosporium resinae (QMC-7998). The results indicate EC 776 and DV 1180 to be less resistant to microbial degradation than the other coatings. Organic coatings, serving as a source of nutrition, would be conducive to population buildups in aircraft fuel tanks.

  7. Multispectral imaging as a potential tool for seed health testing of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M. Halkjaer; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Boelt, B.

    2011-01-01

    Seed health tests are time consuming and require substantial training for characterization of pathogenic fungi on seed. A new approach to use a multispectral vision system for identifying surface properties of different fungal infections has been tested in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) at Aarhus...... University. Our study demonstrates that multispectral imaging with wavelengths ranging from 395-970 nm can be used to distinguish between uninfected spinach seeds and seeds infected with Verticillium spp., Fusarium spp., Stemphylium botryosum, Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria alternata. Analytical separation...... based on mean pixel intensity, Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and classification by Jeffries-Matusita (JM) distance illustrates that a combination of Near Infrared spectra (NIR) and Visual spectra (VIS) is able to identify uninfected seeds from infected seeds ranging from 80-100%. Classification...

  8. Variaciones en la estacionalidad de polen y esporas fúngicas en la atmósfera de la ciudad de La Plata (Argentina Seasonal variation of pollen and fungal spores in the atmosphere of Plata city (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela S Nitiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los primeros datos sobre variaciones estacionales de polen y esporas fúngicas en su conjunto en la atmósfera de la ciudad de La Plata durante julio 2000 / junio 2001. El total de bioaerosoles fue de 201889.15 de los cuales el 15% correspondió a 54 tipos polínicos y el 85% a 79 tipos esporales. El Índice Polínico estuvo dado en un 74% por Polen Arbóreo (PA y en un 26% por Polen Herbáceo (PNA. La máxima concentración de PA tuvo lugar en septiembre con granos provenientes de Platanus y Fraxinus. El PNA presentó dos picos, el primero en diciembre procedente de Poaceae y el segundo en marzo debido a Ambrosia. Con respecto al componente fúngico, se identificaron esporas de Oomycota, Zygomycota, Myxomycota, Ascomycota y Basidiomycota. Estos bioaerosoles estuvieron presentes durante todo el año y en altas concentraciones siendo más abundantes en verano - otoño Las mitosporas de Hongos Imperfectos dominan la nube superando el 44% del total del Índice Esporal. El máximo aporte se registró en febrero dado por las esporas de Cladosporium. Se identificaron dos períodos estacionales en los cuales se hallan simultáneamente altas concentraciones de polen y esporas fúngicas. El primero se desarrolla en primavera y está integrado por Platanus, Fraxinus y Aspergillus / Penicillium y el segundo es estival e involucra a Ambrosia, Alternaria y Cladosporium.We present the first data on representativeness and seasonal variation of pollen and fungal spores as a whole in the atmosphere of the city of La Plata during july 2000 / june 2001. Total was 201889.15 bioaerosols, 15% of which was contributed by 54 pollen types and 85% by 79 spore types. The Pollinic Index came from arboreal pollen (PA in 74% and herbaceous pollen (PNA in 26%. The PA maximum concentration took place in september due to Platanus and Fraxinus. The PNA presented two peaks, one in december due to Poaceae, and the other one in march from Ambrosia. In regard to the

  9. A Survey of Phytopathogenic Fungi and Oomycetes in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Widyawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of phytopathogenic fungi and Oomyceteswas conducted in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia duringOctober 2008 – May 2009. Total of 223 samples were collectedfrom four regions; Al-Kharj, Oyaynah, Old Diriyah, and Al Amariyah. Isolation was done using Potato Dextrose Agar(PDA. Infected parts were cut then sterilized in chlorox(10%, then were put in petridish that contain PDA andincubated at 25-27 °C. A total twelve genera of fungi andsingle genera of Oomycetes were isolated from the infectedplants and identifi ed as Fusarium spp., Alternaria spp.,Helmintosphorium (Bipolaris spp., Sclerotium spp., Rhizoctoniaspp., Cladosporium spp., Mauginiella scattae, Erysiphe spp.,Leveillula spp., Macrophomina phaseolina, Ustilago spp.,Ulocladium spp., and Phytium spp.

  10. Antifungal derivatives from Piper mollicomum and P. lhotzkyanum (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Reigada, Juliana B.; Soares, Marisi G.; Roesler, Bianca P.; Kato, Massuo J.

    2007-01-01

    Bioguided fractionation of the extracts from leaves of Piper mollicomum and Piper lhotzkyanum against the fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum afforded seven bioactive compounds, four being chromenes: methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, methyl 8-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate, 2-methyl-2-[4'-methyl-3'-pentenyl]-2H-1-benzopyrane-6-carboxylic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene-6-carboxylic acid, one a dihydrochalcone: 2',6'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxydihydrochalcone, and two flavanones: 7-methoxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-flavanone and 7,4'-dimethoxy-5-hydroxy-flavanone. The structures of the bioactive isolated derivatives were elucidated by interpretation of their NMR data [ 1 H and 13 C (BBD, DEPT 135 deg)], and mass spectral data as well as by comparison with data described in the literature. (author)

  11. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  12. Fungi isolated from Stewartia pseudocamellia Max. seeds and their pathogenesis

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    Halina Kurzawińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of studies was to determine typical composition of fungi occurring on seeds of Stewartia pseudocamellia.The studies conducted on 100 disinfected and 100 nondisinfected seeds of these plants.Isolates of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, Cylindrocarpon radicicola and Rhizoctonia solani were characterized by pathogenicity towards the investigated Stewartia pseudocamellia. In the laboratory experiment, 204 isolations of microorganisms were obtained that belonged to 20 species and form of fungi and bacteria. Among fungi there were both of parasite (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and typical saprophytic (Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp., Mucor spp.. The dominant fungus on seeds was Alternaria alternata. Among the investigated isolates only one isolate (R4 Rhizoctonia solani, was strongly pathogenic, isolates (A1 Alternaria alternata were weakly pathogenic to seedlings of Stewartia pseudocamellia.

  13. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalipor (India

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    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  14. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalior (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  15. Genera of phytopathogenic fungi: GOPHY 1

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    Y. Marin-Felix

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY is introduced as a new series of publications in order to provide a stable platform for the taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi. This first paper focuses on 21 genera of phytopathogenic fungi: Bipolaris, Boeremia, Calonectria, Ceratocystis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Coniella, Curvularia, Monilinia, Neofabraea, Neofusicoccum, Pilidium, Pleiochaeta, Plenodomus, Protostegia, Pseudopyricularia, Puccinia, Saccharata, Thyrostroma, Venturia and Wilsonomyces. For each genus, a morphological description and information about its pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms are provided. In addition, this information is linked to primary and secondary DNA barcodes of the presently accepted species, and relevant literature. Moreover, several novelties are introduced, i.e. new genera, species and combinations, and neo-, lecto- and epitypes designated to provide a stable taxonomy. This first paper includes one new genus, 26 new species, ten new combinations, and four typifications of older names.

  16. Integrated Management of Causal Agents of Postharvest Fruit Rot of Apple

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    Mila Grahovac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of poor quality and fruit loss (during storage and transportare diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi. Economic losses which are the consequenceof the phytopathogenic fungus activity after harvest exceed the losses in the field.Themost important postharvest fungal pathogens of apple fruits are: Botrytis cinerea Pers. exFr., Penicillium expansum (Lk. Thom., Cryptosporiopsis curvispora (Peck. Grem., Colletotrichumgloeosporioides (Penz. Sacc., Monilinia sp., Gloeosporium album Osterw, Alternaria alternata(Fr. Keissler, Cladosporium herbarium Link., Cylindrocarpon mali (Alles. Wollenw., Stemphyliumbotryosum Wallr. The use of available protection technologies can significantly reducelosses caused by pathogens in storage. The concept of integrated pest management (IPMin apple fruits i.e. sustainable approach in control of causal agents of postharvest fruit rot,using cultural, physical, biological and chemical measures, to minimize economic, healthand risks to consumers and environment, is presented in the paper.

  17. Variación estacional y potencial enzimático de microhongos asociados con la descomposición de hojarasca de Nothofagus pumilio Seasonal variation and enzymatic potential of microfungi associated with the decomposition of Nothofagus pumilio leaf litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO VALENZUELA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la variación estacional y el potencial enzimático de microhongos aislados desde el follaje y hojarasca de Nothofagus pumilio sometida a degradación natural durante 1 año. La investigación se realizó en un bosque de N. pumilio ubicado en una microcuenca del Valle de Antillanca, Parque Nacional Puyehue (40° 47' S, 72° 12' O, 1.120 m de altitud. Hojas senescentes colectadas desde árboles de N. pumilio se depositaron en bolsas de malla de nylon ("litter bags" y se sometieron a degradación natural en el piso del bosque durante 1 año (marzo 1997-marzo 1998, realizando muestreos trimestrales. Para el aislamiento de microhongos desde las hojas se utilizó el método de las diluciones, con agar extracto de malta al 2 % como medio de cultivo. Para determinar los potenciales degradativos de los aislamientos, se analizaron in vitro las actividades de amilasa, celulasa, pectinasa, proteasa, lacasa, oxidasa extracelular, peroxidasa, citocromo oxidasa, fosfatasa, esterasa y tirosinasa. Las principales especies aisladas en las hojas senescentes fueron Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, Phialophora grupo hoffmannii y Rhodotorula aurantiaca. Las especies dominantes en la hojarasca fueron Hormonema prunorum, Mortierella ramanniana var. angulispora, Penicillium para-herquei y Trichoderma polysporum. El mayor potencial enzimático lo exhibieron Moniliales y micelios estériles, mientras el menor Sphaeropsidales y levaduras. Las especies más activas fueron Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Hormonema prunorum y Phialophora malorum. Las actividades de celulasa y amilasa fueron las más importantes. De las enzimas ligninolíticas, oxidasa extracelular y peroxidasa presentaron los más elevados potenciales enzimáticosThe seasonal variation and enzymatic potential of microfungi isolated from senescent leaves and leaf litter of Nothofagus pumilio was studied. The study was performed in a N

  18. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

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    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  19. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN APPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY TO PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

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    Dana Tančinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi involved in rot of apples in market and to test isolated potentially toxigenic species for ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. From 30 apples with rotting were isolated and identificated 8 genera (Penicillium, Monilinia, Botrytis, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium and Geotrichum of filamentous fungi. The most frequent (40% rot apples was Penicillium expansum, the most important producer of rotting during storage of apples. For the ability to produce mycotoxins in vitro were tested isolates, potential producers of mycotoxins. All tested isolates were determinated as producers of mycotoxins: Penicillium expansum (patulin and citrinin, 12 isolates, Penicillium citrinum (citrinin, 1 isolate, Penicillium roqueforti (roquefotin C, 1 isolate and Aspergillus versicolor (sterigmatocystin, 1 isolate.

  20. Fungal flora of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae from Argentina Flora fúngica de tractos digestivos en Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae en Argentina

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    G. A. Marti

    Full Text Available A survey of the fungal microbiota of the digestive tract of Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae adults was carried out. Insects captured in the field from different provinces in Argentina, as well as individuals reared in artificial colonies, were used for dissection. Axenic cultures of the fungal species were identified and were deposited with mycological collections at La Plata , Argentina. A total of 33 fungal species, with the exception of three that were mycelia sterilia, belonging to 11 genera were identified. Thirty two species belonged to Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes and one to Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. The genera with the greatest number of species were Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, and Cladosporium (2. Among the isolated fungi, some of the species were entomopathogenic or pathogens of humans and other animals.En el presente estudio se realizó un relevamiento de la flora fúngica microbiana en tractos digestivos de adultos de Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Se disecaron insectos capturados del campo en diferentes provincias Argentinas, así como también se utilizaron individuos de una colonia artificial. Fueron realizados cultivos axénicos de las especies fúngicas aisladas, los que fueron identificados y luego depositados en las colecciones de hongos entomopatógenos del CEPAVE La Plata , Argentina. Fueron identificadas 33 especies fúngicas perteneciente a 11 géneros. Treinta y dos especies pertenecen a Ascomycota (Eurotiomycetes y Sordariomycetes y una a Zygomycota (Zygomycetes. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Penicillium (15, Aspergillus (5, y Cladosporium (2. Entre los aislamientos fúngicos, algunas de las especies encontradas son entomopatogénicas o patógenas de humanos y otros animales.

  1. Indoor Fungal and Bacterial Contaminations on Household Environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)

  2. Fungal diversity of rice straw for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-12-01

    Rice straw is closely associated with meju fermentation and it is generally known that the rice straw provides meju with many kinds of microorganisms. In order to elucidate the origin of meju fungi, the fungal diversity of rice straw was examined. Rice straw was collected from 12 Jang factories where meju are produced, and were incubated under nine different conditions by altering the media (MEA, DRBC, and DG18), and temperature (15°C, 25°C, and 35°C). In total, 937 strains were isolated and identified as belonging to 39 genera and 103 species. Among these, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Fusarium, and Penicillium were the dominant genera. Fusarium asiaticum (56.3%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (48.6%), Aspergillus tubingensis (37.5%), A. oryzae (31.9%), Eurotium repens (27.1%), and E. chevalieri (25.0%) were frequently isolated from the rice straw obtained from many factories. Twelve genera and 40 species of fungi that were isolated in the rice straw in this study were also isolated from meju. Specifically, A. oryzae, C. cladosporioides, E. chevalieri, E. repens, F. asiaticum, and Penicillium polonicum (11.8%), which are abundant species in meju, were also isolated frequently from rice straw. C. cladosporioides, F. asiaticum, and P. polonicum, which are abundant in the low temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 15°C and 25°C, whereas A. oryzae, E. repens, and E. chevalieri, which are abundant in the high temperature fermentation process of meju fermentation, were frequently isolated from rice straw incubated at 25°C and 35°C. This suggests that the mycobiota of rice straw has a large influence in the mycobiota of meju. The influence of fungi on the rice straw as feed and silage for livestock, and as plant pathogens for rice, are discussed as well.

  3. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

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    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  4. Mohos y levaduras en agua envasada y bebidas sin alcohol Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks

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    E. G. Ancasi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aparición esporádica de alteraciones en algunos envases dentro de lotes de aguas carbonatadas y de bebidas con zumos frutales (carbonatadas y no carbonatadas motivó la presente investigación, en la que se determinaron los microorganismos causantes del deterioro observado. También se estudiaron los contaminantes del azúcar utilizado en la elaboración de una de las bebidas analizadas. Se emplearon los métodos de Déak y Beuchat y de Pitt y Hocking para la identificación de levaduras y de mohos, respectivamente. Las levaduras causantes del deterioro de las bebidas fueron Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis y Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Los mohos y las levaduras encontrados en el azúcar fueron Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, Pichia anomala y Rhizopus stolonifer. En el agua carbonatada se encontraron los mohos Paecilomyces fulvus y Penicillium glabrum.Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in

  5. Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata

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    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esse trabalho caracterizar dois lotes de sementes de Luehea divaricata, quanto à sua qualidade fisiológica e sanitária. As sementes foram coletadas nos municípios de Santa Maria (SM e Restinga Seca (RES – região central do Rio Grande do Sul. Foi utilizado o substrato comercial Carolina Soil® para a caracterização fisiológica e o teste de transmissão de fungos via sementes. As variáveis determinadas foram índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, emergência (%, plântulas sintomáticas (% e sementes mortas (%. Para a detecção dos fungos, foram utilizados os testes em BDA e substrato papel-filtro (PF. Para cada teste foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 25 sementes. Determinou-se ainda a sanidade dos frutos, através do blotter test. O IVG e o percentual de emergência variaram entre 6,7 e 8,7; 51 e 63%, para os lotes RES e SM, respectivamente. Os fungos identificados associados às sementes, independente do método foram: Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotiopsis sp., Phoma sp. e Cladosporium sp. Destes, os gêneros Fusarium e Alternaria, podem estar associados aos sintomas observados nas plântulas no teste transmissão. Os fungos identificados presentes nos frutos foram: Fusarium sp., Aspergilus sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp. e Alternaria sp.

  6. [Variations of soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities with different salinities on Yuyao coast, Zhejiang, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jian Feng; Xu, Hua Sen; Chen, Guang Cai; Wang, Li Ping

    2016-10-01

    In October 2015, soil samples with different salinity were collected in a coast area in Yuyao, Zhejiang, and soil microbial community composition, soil catalase, urease activities, as well as soil physical and chemical properties were studied. The results showed that Nitrospira took absolute advantage in the bacterial community, and showed good correlations to total potassium. Cladosporium and Fusarium were predominant in the fungal community. Meanwhile, Cladosporium was related to soil urease and total nitrogen, and same correlation was found between Fusarium and soil urease. Catalase activity ranged from 3.52 to 4.56 mL·g -1 , 3.08 to 4.61 mL·g -1 and 5.81 to 6.91 mL·g -1 for soils with heavy, medium and weak salinity, respectively. Catalase activity increased with the soil layer deepening, which was directly related to soil total potassium, and indirectly related to pH, organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus through total potassium. Soil urease activity ranged among 0.04 to 0.52 mg·g -1 , 0.08 to 1.07 mg·g -1 and 0.27 to 8.21 mg·g -1 for each saline soil, respectively. Urease activity decreased with soil layer deepening which was directly related to soil total nitrogen, and was indirectly related to pH, organic matter and total potassium through total nitrogen. The total phosphorus was the largest effect factor on the bacterial community CCA ordination, and the urease was on fungal community.

  7. Hongos ambientales en una biblioteca: un año de estudio

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    Dante J. Bueno

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los hongos presentes en una biblioteca científica situada en un centro de investigación (el cual trabaja con microorganismos en Tucumán, Argentina, desde Febrero del 2000 a Enero del 2001. Se identificaron 33 géneros, además de las levaduras y de los hongos clasificados como Mycelia sterilia y Basidiomycetes. Los géneros que presentaron la mayor frecuencia fueron Cladosporium sp. (30.1%, Fusarium sp (8.6%, Alternaria sp. (8.4%, Acremonium sp. (6.4% y Aspergillus sp. (5.5%. La mayor cantidad de esporas fúngicas fue observada en Octubre y la mínima en Julio. La temperatura estuvo entre 16,5 y 28,5ºC. El género Cladosporium sp. fue aislado en todos los meses muestreados. Este género predominó en Febrero (19.6%, junto a Alternaria sp., Mayo (29.6%, Junio (35.7%, Julio (33.3%, Agosto (40%, septiembre (27.5% y octubre (51.3%, mientras que Acremonium sp. predominó en Marzo (26.5%, Ceratosporium sp. en Abril (20.4% y los Basidiomycetes en Noviembre (17.6%. Además, Alternaria sp. fue el más abundante en Diciembre (20% y Enero (35.9%. A pesar del uso de un muestreo no volumétrico, este estudio provee una información útil sobre la incidencia de los hongos ambientales en la biblioteca testada. Sabiendo que su presencia es incuestionable y difícil de erradicar, son necesarias futuras investigaciones para examinar los efectos de su exposición sobre los problemas de salud relacionados.

  8. A estrutura do fígado de micos-leões de cativeiro (Callithrichidae, Primates

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    Thais Lins Brotto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Inúmeros fatores predisponentes podem acarretar doenças auriculares a partir de uma microbiota saprófita. A identificação da microbiota fúngica poderia auxiliar no diagnóstico e tratamento de micoses que possam se tornar patogênicas mediante um desequilíbrio homeostásico. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a microbiota fúngica saprófita no conduto auditivo médio de macacos rhesus (Macaca mulatta clinicamente saudáveis, destinados à pesquisa biomédica. Quarenta macacos rhesus foram divididos em dois grupos. O grupo I foi formado por animais adultos, alojados em gaiolas individuais localizadas em containeres especiais de experimentação com temperatura e umidade controladas. O grupo II, originado da colônia de criação, foi formado por animais jovens, mantidos em ambientes livres, sem controle de temperatura e umidade. O cerúmen do conduto auditivo médio dos animais foi coletado através de swabs. A semeadura das amostras foi feita em placas de Petri contendo Ágar Sabouraud com cloranfenicol 1%, lacradas com fita adesiva e incubadas à temperatura ambiente. Nos 20 animais do grupo I, foi encontrado o seguinte: Aspergillus (80%, Candida (60%, Cladosporium (5% e Rhodotorula (5%. O grupo II apresentou uma diversidade maior de fungos: Candida sp. (95%, Aspergillus (20%, Cladosporium sp. (60%, Penicillium sp. (30%, Rodotorulla sp., (15%, Trychophytum verrucosum (5%, Epidermophyton flocosum (5% e Scopulariopsis sp. (5%. Estes dados serão úteis nos diagnósticos e tratamentos de otites e sugerem que os fatores climáticos podem ser responsáveis pelo grande número de fungos presentes nos animais do grupo II, que se encontram expostos às condições climáticas naturais.

  9. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Man; Rao, Carol Y.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chao, H. Jasmine

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993-1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible determinants. We used a Burkard seven-day volumetric spore trap to collect daily fungal spores. Air pollutants, meteorological factors, and Asian dust events were included in the statistical analyses to predict fungal levels. We found that the most dominant fungal categories were ascospores, followed by Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium. The majority of the fungal categories had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. Total fungi, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Arthrinium/Papularia, Cercospora, Periconia, Alternaria, Botrytis, and PM 10 had significantly higher concentrations ( p<0.05) during the period affected by Asian dust events. In multiple regression models, we found that temperature was consistently and positively associated with fungal concentrations. Other factors correlated with fungal concentrations included ozone, particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10), relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Most of the fungal categories had higher levels in 1994 than in 1995-96, probably due to urbanization of the study area. In this study, we demonstrated complicated interrelationships between fungi and air pollution/meteorological factors. In addition, long-range transport of air pollutants contributed significantly to local aeroallergen levels. Future studies should examine the health impacts of aeroallergens, as well as the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather, and local and global-scale air pollutions.

  10. Detoxification of Toxic Phorbol Esters from Malaysian Jatropha curcas Linn. Kernel by Trichoderma spp. and Endophytic Fungi

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    Azhar Najjar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phorbol esters (PEs with toxic properties limits the use of Jatropha curcas kernel in the animal feed industry. Therefore, suitable methods to detoxify PEs have to be developed to render the material safe as a feed ingredient. In the present study, the biological treatment of the extracted PEs-rich fraction with non-pathogenic fungi (Trichoderma harzianum JQ350879.1, T. harzianum JQ517493.1, Paecilomyces sinensis JQ350881.1, Cladosporium cladosporioides JQ517491.1, Fusarium chlamydosporum JQ350882.1, F. chlamydosporum JQ517492.1 and F. chlamydosporum JQ350880.1 was conducted by fermentation in broth cultures. The PEs were detected by liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESIMS and quantitatively monitored by HPLC using phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate as the standard. At day 30 of incubation, two T. harzianum spp., P. sinensis and C. cladosporioides significantly (p < 0.05 removed PEs with percentage losses of 96.9%–99.7%, while F. chlamydosporum strains showed percentage losses of 88.9%–92.2%. All fungal strains could utilize the PEs-rich fraction for growth. In the cytotoxicity assay, cell viabilities of Chang liver and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell lines were less than 1% with the untreated PEs-rich fraction, but 84.3%–96.5% with the fungal treated PEs-rich fraction. There was no inhibition on cell viability for normal fungal growth supernatants. To conclude, Trichoderma spp., Paecilomyces sp. and Cladosporium sp. are potential microbes for the detoxification of PEs.

  11. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  12. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  13. Combining real-time PCR and next-generation DNA sequencing to provide quantitative comparisons of fungal aerosol populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, Karen C.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Rudich, Yinon; Peccia, Jordan

    2014-02-01

    We examined fungal communities associated with the PM10 mass of Rehovot, Israel outdoor air samples collected in the spring and fall seasons. Fungal communities were described by 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the fungal ribosomal RNA encoding gene. To allow for a more quantitative comparison of fungal exposure in humans, the relative abundance values of specific taxa were transformed to absolute concentrations through multiplying these values by the sample's total fungal spore concentration (derived from universal fungal qPCR). Next, the sequencing-based absolute concentrations for Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium/Aspergillus spp. were compared to taxon-specific qPCR concentrations for A. alternata, C. cladosporioides, E. nigrum, and Penicillium/Aspergillus spp. derived from the same spring and fall aerosol samples. Results of these comparisons showed that the absolute concentration values generated from pyrosequencing were strongly associated with the concentration values derived from taxon-specific qPCR (for all four species, p 0.70). The correlation coefficients were greater for species present in higher concentrations. Our microbial aerosol population analyses demonstrated that fungal diversity (number of fungal operational taxonomic units) was higher in the spring compared to the fall (p = 0.02), and principal coordinate analysis showed distinct seasonal differences in taxa distribution (ANOSIM p = 0.004). Among genera containing allergenic and/or pathogenic species, the absolute concentrations of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Cladosporium were greater in the fall, while Cryptococcus, Penicillium, and Ulocladium concentrations were greater in the spring. The transformation of pyrosequencing fungal population relative abundance data to absolute concentrations can improve next-generation DNA sequencing-based quantitative aerosol exposure assessment.

  14. Bioburden assessment and gamma radiation inactivation patterns in parchment documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Inês; Mesquita, Nuno; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Carolino, Maria Manuela; Portugal, António; Botelho, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    Parchment documents are part of our cultural heritage and, as historical artifacts that they are, should be preserved. The aim of this study was to validate an appropriate methodology to characterize the bioburden of parchment documents, and to assess the growth and gamma radiation inactivation patterns of the microbiota present in that material. Another goal was to estimate the minimum gamma radiation dose (D min ) to be applied for the decontamination of parchment as an alternative treatment to the current toxic chemical and non-chemical decontamination methods. Two bioburden assessment methodologies were evaluated: the Swab Method (SM) and the Destructive Method (DM). The recovery efficiency of each method was estimated by artificial contamination, using a Cladosporium cladosporioides spore suspension. The parchment samples' microbiota was typified using morphological methods and the fungal isolates were identified by ITS-DNA sequencing. The inactivation pattern was assessed using the DM after exposure to different gamma radiation doses, and using C. cladosporioides as reference. Based on the applied methodology, parchment samples presented bioburden values lower than 5×10 3 CFU/cm 2 for total microbiota, and lower than 10 CFU/cm 2 for fungal propagules. The results suggest no evident inactivation trend for the natural parchment microbiota, especially regarding the fungal community. A minimum gamma radiation dose (D min ) of 5 kGy is proposed for the decontamination treatment of parchment. Determining the minimal decontamination dose in parchment is essential for a correct application of gamma radiation as an alternative decontamination treatment for this type of documents avoiding the toxicity and the degradation promoted by the traditional chemical and non-chemical treatments. - Highlights: • Characterization of the microbial population of parchment documents. • Study the inactivation pattern of parchment microbiota by gamma radiation. • Assessment of

  15. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

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    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  16. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls and componential analysis of the black dirt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miho; Nagata, Yusuke; Niizeki, Kazuma; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We have previously conducted a microflora analysis and examined the biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms. In the present investigation, to reveal the strain involved in the formation of black dirt in toilet bowls, we performed a microflora analysis of the bacteria and fungi isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls at ten homes. Among samples from different isolation sites and sampling seasons, although a similar tendency was not seen in bacterial microflora, Exophiala sp. was detected in the fungal microflora from all samples of black dirt except for one, and constituted the major presence. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the formed black dirt, SEM image at × 1,000 and × 5,000 magnification showed objects like hyphae and many bacteria adhering to them, respectively. Micro fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro FT-IR) and SEM with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XMA) were used to investigate the components of black dirt. IR spectra of micro-FT-IR showed typical absorptions associated with amide compounds and protein, and the elements such as C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, and Ba were detected with SEM-XMA. These results showed that black dirt had living body ingredients. Furthermore, Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains, which were observed at a high frequency, accumulated 2-hydroxyjuglone (2-HJ) and flaviolin as one of the intermediates in the melanin biosynthetic pathway by the addition of a melanin synthesis inhibitor (tricyclazole) at the time of cultivation. These results suggested strongly that the pigment of black dirt in toilet bowls was melanin produced by Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains.

  17. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Carvalho, Camila R; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-06-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A hundred-eight endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Biscogniauxia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Paraconiothyrium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. The most frequent species associated with O. humifusa were Alternaria sp. 3, Aureobasidium pullulans and Diaporthe sp. The fungal community of O. humifusa had a high richness and diversity; additionally, the species richness obtained indicates that the sample effort was enough to recover the diversity pattern obtained. Six extracts of endophytes showed antifungal properties and (1)H NMR analyses of the extracts of Alternaria sp. 5 Ohu 8B2, Alternaria sp. 3 Ohu 30A, Cladosporium funiculosum Ohu 17C1 and Paraconiothyrium sp. Ohu 17A indicated the presence of functional groups associated with unsaturated fatty-acid olefinic protons and fatty acid methylene and methyl protons. GC-FID analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of a mixture of different fatty acids. The (1)H NMR analyses of Biscogniauxia mediterranea Ohu 19B extracts showed the presence of aromatic compounds. From the extract of B. mediterranea we isolated the compound 5-methylmellein that displayed moderate antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Phomopsis obscurans. Our results suggest that native medicinal cacti of the United States can live symbiotically with rich and diverse endophytic communities and may be a source of bioactive molecules, including those able to inhibit or control plant disease pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. WetA bridges cellular and chemical development in Aspergillus flavus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yueh Wu

    Full Text Available Bridging cellular reproduction and survival is essential for all life forms. Aspergillus fungi primarily reproduce by forming asexual spores called conidia, whose formation and maturation is governed by the central genetic regulatory circuit BrlA→AbaA→WetA. Here, we report that WetA is a multi-functional regulator that couples spore differentiation and survival, and governs proper chemical development in Aspergillus flavus. The deletion of wetA results in the formation of conidia with defective cell walls and no intra-cellular trehalose, leading to reduced stress tolerance, a rapid loss of viability, and disintegration of spores. WetA is also required for normal vegetative growth, hyphal branching, and production of aflatoxins. Targeted and genome-wide expression analyses reveal that WetA exerts feedback control of brlA and that 5,700 genes show altered mRNA levels in the mutant conidia. Functional category analyses of differentially expressed genes in ΔwetA RNA-seq data indicate that WetA contributes to spore integrity and maturity by properly regulating the metabolic pathways of trehalose, chitin, α-(1,3-glucan, β-(1,3-glucan, melanin, hydrophobins, and secondary metabolism more generally. Moreover, 160 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed by the absence of wetA, suggesting that WetA may play a global regulatory role in conidial development. Collectively, we present a comprehensive model for developmental control that bridges spore differentiation and survival in A. flavus.

  19. Highly active promoters and native secretion signals for protein production during extremely low growth rates in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanka, Franziska; Arentshorst, Mark; Cairns, Timothy C; Jørgensen, Thomas; Ram, Arthur F J; Meyer, Vera

    2016-08-20

    The filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus niger is used in many industrial processes for the production of enzymes and organic acids by batch and fed-batch cultivation. An alternative technique is continuous cultivation, which promises improved yield and optimized pipeline efficiency. In this work, we have used perfusion (retentostat) cultivation to validate two promoters that are suitable for A. niger continuous cultivation of industrially relevant products. Firstly, promoters of genes encoding either an antifungal protein (Panafp) or putative hydrophobin (PhfbD) were confirmed as active throughout retentostat culture by assessing mRNA and protein levels using a luciferase (mluc) reporter system. This demonstrated the anafp promoter mediates a high but temporally variable expression profile, whereas the hfbD promoter mediates a semi-constant, moderate-to-high protein expression during retentostat culture. In order to assess whether these promoters were suitable to produce heterologous proteins during retentostat cultivation, the secreted antifungal protein (AFP) from Aspergillus giganteus, which has many potential biotechnological applications, was expressed in A. niger during retentostat cultivation. Additionally, this assay was used to concomitantly validate that native secretion signals encoded in anafp and hfbD genes can be harnessed for secretion of heterologous proteins. Afp mRNA and protein abundance were comparable to luciferase measurements throughout retentostat cultivation, validating the use of Panafp and PhfbD for perfusion cultivation. Finally, a gene encoding the highly commercially relevant thermal hysteresis protein (THP) was expressed in this system, which did not yield detectable protein. Both hfbD and anafp promoters are suitable for production of useful products in A. niger during perfusion cultivation. These findings provide a platform for further optimisations for high production of heterologous proteins with industrial relevance.

  20. A Duo of Potassium-Responsive Histidine Kinases Govern the Multicellular Destiny of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Paula; Kunert, Maritta; Leñini, Cecilia; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Mhatre, Eisha; Vileta, Darío; Hölscher, Theresa; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multicellular biofilm formation and surface motility are bacterial behaviors considered mutually exclusive. However, the basic decision to move over or stay attached to a surface is poorly understood. Here, we discover that in Bacillus subtilis, the key root biofilm-controlling transcription factor Spo0A~Pi (phosphorylated Spo0A) governs the flagellum-independent mechanism of social sliding motility. A Spo0A-deficient strain was totally unable to slide and colonize plant roots, evidencing the important role that sliding might play in natural settings. Microarray experiments plus subsequent genetic characterization showed that the machineries of sliding and biofilm formation share the same main components (i.e., surfactin, the hydrophobin BslA, exopolysaccharide, and de novo-formed fatty acids). Sliding proficiency was transduced by the Spo0A-phosphorelay histidine kinases KinB and KinC. We discovered that potassium, a previously known inhibitor of KinC-dependent biofilm formation, is the specific sliding-activating signal through a thus-far-unnoticed cytosolic domain of KinB, which resembles the selectivity filter sequence of potassium channels. The differential expression of the Spo0A~Pi reporter abrB gene and the different levels of the constitutively active form of Spo0A, Sad67, in Δspo0A cells grown in optimized media that simultaneously stimulate motile and sessile behaviors uncover the spatiotemporal response of KinB and KinC to potassium and the gradual increase in Spo0A~Pi that orchestrates the sequential activation of sliding, followed by sessile biofilm formation and finally sporulation in the same population. Overall, these results provide insights into how multicellular behaviors formerly believed to be antagonistic are coordinately activated in benefit of the bacterium and its interaction with the host. PMID:26152584

  1. Genome Assembly of the Fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus, and Transcriptome Analysis during Early Stages of Infection on American Wildrice (Zizania palustris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V Castell-Miller

    Full Text Available The fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus causes severe leaf spot disease on rice (Oryza sativa and two North American specialty crops, American wildrice (Zizania palustris and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum. Despite the importance of C. miyabeanus as a disease-causing agent in wildrice, little is known about either the mechanisms of pathogenicity or host defense responses. To start bridging these gaps, the genome of C. miyabeanus strain TG12bL2 was shotgun sequenced using Illumina technology. The genome assembly consists of 31.79 Mbp in 2,378 scaffolds with an N50 = 74,921. It contains 11,000 predicted genes of which 94.5% were annotated. Approximately 10% of total gene number is expected to be secreted. The C. miyabeanus genome is rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, and harbors 187 small secreted peptides (SSPs and some fungal effector homologs. Detoxification systems were represented by a variety of enzymes that could offer protection against plant defense compounds. The non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and polyketide synthases (PKS present were common to other Cochliobolus species. Additionally, the fungal transcriptome was analyzed at 48 hours after inoculation in planta. A total of 10,674 genes were found to be expressed, some of which are known to be involved in pathogenicity or response to host defenses including hydrophobins, cutinase, cell wall degrading enzymes, enzymes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, PKS, detoxification systems, SSPs, and a known fungal effector. This work will facilitate future research on C. miyabeanus pathogen-associated molecular patterns and effectors, and in the identification of their corresponding wildrice defense mechanisms.

  2. Proteomics as a Tool to Identify New Targets Against Aspergillus and Scedosporium in the Context of Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Pellon, Aize; Buldain, Idoia; Antoran, Aitziber; Arbizu-Delgado, Aitana; Guruceaga, Xabier; Rementeria, Aitor; Hernando, Fernando L

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of suffering microbial, including fungal, infections. In this paper, proteomics-based information was collated relating to secreted and cell wall proteins with potential medical applications from the most common filamentous fungi in CF, i.e., Aspergillus and Scedosporium/Lomentospora species. Among the Aspergillus fumigatus secreted allergens, β-1,3-endoglucanase, the alkaline protease 1 (Alp1/oryzin), Asp f 2, Asp f 13/15, chitinase, chitosanase, dipeptidyl-peptidase V (DppV), the metalloprotease Asp f 5, mitogillin/Asp f 1, and thioredoxin reductase receive a special mention. In addition, the antigens β-glucosidase 1, catalase, glucan endo-1,3-β-glucosidase EglC, β-1,3-glucanosyltransferases Gel1 and Gel2, and glutaminase A were also identified in secretomes of other Aspergillus species associated with CF: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus terreus. Regarding cell wall proteins, cytochrome P450 and eEF-3 were proposed as diagnostic targets, and alkaline protease 2 (Alp2), Asp f 3 (putative peroxiredoxin pmp20), probable glycosidases Asp f 9/Crf1 and Crf2, GPI-anchored protein Ecm33, β-1,3-glucanosyltransferase Gel4, conidial hydrophobin Hyp1/RodA, and secreted aspartyl protease Pep2 as protective vaccines in A. fumigatus. On the other hand, for Scedosporium/Lomentospora species, the heat shock protein Hsp70 stands out as a relevant secreted and cell wall antigen. Additionally, the secreted aspartyl proteinase and an ortholog of Asp f 13, as well as the cell wall endo-1,3-β-D-glucosidase and 1,3-β-glucanosyl transferase, were also found to be significant proteins. In conclusion, proteins mentioned in this review may be promising candidates for developing innovative diagnostic and therapeutic tools for fungal infections in CF patients.

  3. Adaptation to high salt concentrations in halotolerant/ halophilic fungi: a molecular perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana ePlemenitas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular studies of salt tolerance of eukaryotic microorganisms have until recently been limited to the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a few other moderately halotolerant yeast. Discovery of the extremely halotolerant and adaptable fungus Hortaea werneckii and the obligate halophile Wallemia ichthyophaga introduced two new model organisms into studies on the mechanisms of salt tolerance in eukaryotes. H. werneckii is unique in its adaptability to fluctuations in salt concentrations, as it can grow without NaCl as well as in the presence of up to 5 M NaCl. On the other hand, W. ichthyophaga requires at least 1.5 M NaCl for growth, but also grows in up to 5 M NaCl. Our studies have revealed the novel and intricate molecular mechanisms used by these fungi to combat high salt concentrations, which differ in many aspects between the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii and the halophilic W. ichthyophaga. Specifically, the high osmolarity glycerol signalling pathway that is important for sensing and responding to increased salt concentrations is here compared between H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga. In both of these fungi, the key signalling components are conserved, but there are structural and regulation differences between these pathways in H. werneckii and W. ichthyophaga. We also address differences that have been revealed from analysis of their newly sequenced genomes. The most striking characteristics associated with H. werneckii are the large genetic redundancy, the expansion of genes encoding metal cation transporters, and a relatively recent whole genome duplication. In contrast, the genome of W. ichthyophaga is very compact, as only 4,884 protein-coding genes are predicted, which cover almost three quarters of the sequence. Importantly, there has been a significant increase in their hydrophobins, cell-wall proteins that have multiple cellular functions.

  4. The Proteomic Signature of Aspergillus fumigatus During Early Development*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagas, Steven E.; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that causes a range of diseases in humans including invasive aspergillosis. All forms of disease begin with the inhalation of conidia, which germinate and develop. Four stages of early development were evaluated using the gel free system of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation to determine the full proteomic profile of the pathogen. A total of 461 proteins were identified at 0, 4, 8, and 16 h and fold changes for each were established. Ten proteins including the hydrophobin rodlet protein RodA and a protein involved in melanin synthesis Abr2 were found to decrease relative to conidia. To generate a more comprehensive view of early development, a whole genome microarray analysis was performed comparing conidia to 8 and 16 h of growth. A total of 1871 genes were found to change significantly at 8 h with 1001 genes up-regulated and 870 down-regulated. At 16 h, 1235 genes changed significantly with 855 up-regulated and 380 down-regulated. When a comparison between the proteomics and microarray data was performed at 8 h, a total of 22 proteins with significant changes also had corresponding genes that changed significantly. When the same comparison was performed at 16 h, 12 protein and gene combinations were found. This study, the most comprehensive to date, provides insights into early pathways activated during growth and development of A. fumigatus. It reveals a pathogen that is gearing up for rapid growth by building translation machinery, generating ATP, and is very much committed to aerobic metabolism. PMID:21825280

  5. Light-dependent roles of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 of Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei

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    Kubicek Christian P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature and transmission of the signals initiating and modulating this machinery are largely unknown. Heterotrimeric G-protein signaling represents one of the best studied signal transduction pathways in fungi. Results Analysis of the regulatory targets of the G-protein α subunit GNA1 in H. jecorina revealed a carbon source and light-dependent role in signal transduction. Deletion of gna1 led to significantly decreased biomass formation in darkness in submersed culture but had only minor effects on morphology and hyphal apical extension rates on solid medium. Cellulase gene transcription was abolished in Δgna1 on cellulose in light and enhanced in darkness. However, analysis of strains expressing a constitutively activated GNA1 revealed that GNA1 does not transmit the essential inducing signal. Instead, it relates a modulating signal with light-dependent significance, since induction still required the presence of an inducer. We show that regulation of transcription and activity of GNA1 involves a carbon source-dependent feedback cycle. Additionally we found a function of GNA1 in hydrophobin regulation as well as effects on conidiation and tolerance of osmotic and oxidative stress. Conclusion We conclude that GNA1 transmits a signal the physiological relevance of which is dependent on both the carbon source as well as the light status. The widespread consequences of mutations in GNA1 indicate a broad function of this Gα subunit in appropriation of intracellular resources to environmental (especially nutritional conditions.

  6. Estudio de la concentración microbiana del aire en depósitos del Archivo Nacional de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Flavia Borrego Alonso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente el estudio de la microbiota en ambientes interiores es de interés para los especialistas, pues los microorganismos pueden provocar afectaciones a la salud de las personas y causar el biodeterioro de colecciones valiosas. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: determinar la concentración microbiana del aire en depósitos del Archivo Nacional de Cuba, realizar la identificación taxonómica de los hongos aislados y definir el riesgo potencial que ellos representan para el biodeterioro del patrimonio documental y la salud del personal. El muestreo microbiológico se realizó en verano e invierno y en 6 depósitos, empleando un método de sedimentación. Para aislar hongos y bacterias se emplearon placas de Petri con medios de cultivo adecuados que se colocaron por triplicado a 3m de altura. Se determinó cualitativamente la actividad celulolítica, la producción de pigmentos y de ácidos a los hongos aislados. La microbiota viable total fue mayor en invierno que en verano, siendo la concentración bacteriana significativamente superior en esta estación (sequía en tanto que la fúngica es más elevada en verano. Los géneros fúngicos que predominaron en invierno fueron Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia y Alternaria, mientras que en verano prevaleció Cladosporium y se aislaron los géneros Fusarium, Mucor y Chrysonilia que llegaron a alcanzar niveles significativos en algunos depósitos. Los hongos aislados degradaron celulosa, produjeron pigmentos y ácidos. Asimismo, se evidenció que pueden provocar estados alérgicos y enfermedades respiratorias a las personas. Con relación a las bacterias del aire, predominaron las Gram positivas y se identificaron los géneros Enterobacter, Hafnia, Serratia, Streptomyces, Bacillus, Streptococcus y Staphylococcus. De igual manera, se detectó que las bacterias identificadas son capaces de producir afectaciones a la salud del personal.

  7. Sazonalidade e prevalência de fungos anemófilos em ambiente hospitalar no Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Rubens Cáurio Lobato

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O ar atmosférico é o meio de dispersão mais utilizado e bem sucedido dos fungos. O objetivo deste estudo foi reconhecer a diversidade taxonômica de fungos anemófilos em ambiente hospitalar. Foram coletadas amostras do ar do hospital conforme as estações do ano num total de 104 amostras, entre maio de 2006 a junho de 2007. A técnica Settle Plate foi utilizada e a identificação dos fungos foi feita através da macro e micromorfologia. O cálculo das prevalências e o teste do x2 foram utilizados. Os gêneros encontrados foram: Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Penicillium e Rhodotorula, além de fungos não- esporulados. Na distribuição sazonal dos gêneros durante o inverno, leveduras dos gêneros Candida e Rhodotorula tiveram uma maior prevalência. Na primavera, Alternaria e Acremonium obtiveram a sua maior prevalência e no verão Helminthosporium e Torula. Cladosporium foi mais prevalente nas estações da primavera e do verão e Aspergillus foi o mais prevalente no outono e no verão. Quanto aos gêneros fúngicos por tipo de ambiente, as amostras oriundas dos Expurgos, Oficinas, ambientes confinados, Salas de Preparo de Materiais, de Procedimentos e o Centro de Materiais e Esterilização foram os locais com maior ocorrência. As Unidades de Internação e o Ambulatório foram os locais com o mais alto índice de diversidade fúngica. Os gêneros Mucor e Rhizopus apresentaram uma correlação para o tipo de ambiente hospitalar. O estudo realizado constitui-se de um resultado inédito no que diz respeito ao conhecimento da micobiota anemófila em ambiente hospitalar neste município.

  8. Detecção, transmissão e patogenicidade de fungos em sementes de angico-vermelho (Parapiptadenia rigida Detection, transmission and pathogenicity of fungi on seeds of Parapiptadenia rigida ("angico-vermelho"

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    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Angico-vermelho (Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan é uma espécie nativa de grande valor ecológico e econômico, importante para a recomposição de áreas degradadas. O presente trabalho avaliou incidência, transmissão e patogenicidade de fungos associados a sementes de angico-vermelho de distintas procedências do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para isso, utilizaram-se três amostras de sementes, com as quais realizaram-se testes de germinação, sanidade empregando-se o método do papel-filtro (PF e de plaqueamento em batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA, transmissão e patogenicidade dos fungos. A germinação das sementes de angico-vermelho variou de 63 a 91 %. Os fungos considerados potencialmente patogênicos encontrados associados as sementes de angico-vermelho foram: Alternaria sp.; Botrytis sp.; Fusarium sp.; Cladosporium sp. e Pestalotia sp.; sendo que Fusarium sp. foi detectado em todas as amostras pelo método PF, e foi transmitido via semente causando má formação do sistema radicular e dos cotilédones e tombamento de pré emergência. Sua patogenicidade foi confirmada."Angico-vermelho" (Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan is a native species of great ecological and economic importance for the recovery of degraded areas. This study evaluated the incidence, the transmission and the pathogenicity of fungi associated with "angico-vermelho" seeds from different provenances of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Thus, we used three samples of seeds, with which germination and sanity tests were carried out by adopting the methods of filter paper (FP, plating on potato dextrose agar (PDA, transmission and pathogenicity of fungi. Germination of "angico-vermelho" seeds ranged from 63-91%. The fungi considered potentially pathogenic and found associated with "angico-vermelho" seeds were: Alternaria sp.; Botrytis sp.; Fusarium sp.; Cladosporium sp. and Pestalotia sp.. Fusarium sp. was detected in all samples according to the FP method and was

  9. Germinação, vigor e sanidade de sementes de fava d'anta (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. obtidas de frutos coletados no solo e na planta Germination, vigor and sanity of "fava d'anta" (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds obtained from fruits collected both in the soil and in the plant

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    A.V. Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes obtidas a partir de frutos maduros coletados no solo e nas plantas de fava d'anta, espécie medicinal nativa do Cerrado, ameaçada de extinção, cujos frutos são ricos em rutina. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições. Cada repetição foi constituída de uma caixa gerbox contendo 15 sementes cada. A qualidade fisiológica foi determinada por meio de testes de germinação e vigor, avaliando-se a porcentagem de germinação, o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG e a massa seca das raízes primárias. A qualidade sanitária foi determinada pela identificação dos microorganismos patogênicos associados às sementes, bem como pela porcentagem de ocorrência destes em cada parcela. Os fungos identificados nas sementes pertencem aos gêneros Fusarium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletrotrichum, Helminthosporium, Nigrospora, Penicillum, Phoma e Phomopsis. Sementes oriundas de frutos coletados no solo foram mais contaminadas por agentes patogênicos e apresentaram germinação (56,67%, vigor e sanidade inferiores às sementes obtidas de frutos coletados na planta.The aim of this work was to evaluate the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds obtained from mature fruits collected in the soil and in "fava d'anta" plants. Dimorphandra mollis constitutes an endangered medicinal species native to cerrado and presents fruits rich in rutin. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 10 replicates. Each replicate consisted of a gerbox containing 15 seeds each. Physiological quality was assessed through germination and vigor tests by evaluating germination percentage, germination velocity index (GVI, and primary root dry matter. Sanitary quality was evaluated by identifying pathogenic microorganisms associated with the seeds, as well as their occurrence percentage in each plot. The

  10. Toxigenic fungi in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes black and color cultivated in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil Fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. classes preto e cores cultivado no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Léa Luzia Freitas Costa

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic fungi were studied in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. of Classes black and color, cultivated in different regions of the State of Santa Catarina, south region of Brazil. The mean counts of filamentous fungi were 2.8 x 103 and 6.7 x 103 CFU/g for beans Classes black and color, respectively. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Phoma spp. were the most frequent genera isolated, followed by Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. and Dreschelera spp. Among beans Class black, 24.6% of the Aspergillus strains produced mycotoxins: 13.1% produced aflatoxins (AFs; 11.5% produced ochratoxin A (OTA and 28.9% of Penicillium produced citrinin (CTR. On the other hand, 22.1% of Aspergillus strains isolated from beans Class color produced mycotoxins (16.7% produced AFs and 5.4% produced OTA, while Penicillium genera had 35.4% of CTR producing strains. The toxigenic species were A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus and P. citrinum Thom.Foram estudados fungos toxigênicos em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., classes preto e cores, cultivados em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, região Sul do Brasil. A média total de fungos filamentosos foi de 2,8x10³ e 6,7x10³ UFC/g para feijão classe preto e cores, respectivamente. Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. e Phoma spp. foram os gêneros mais frequentes isolados, seguidos por Ryzopus spp., Alternaria spp., Helminthosporium spp., Cladosporium spp., Botrytis spp., Fusarium spp., Trichoderma spp., Curvularia spp. e Dreschelera spp. No feijão classe preto, 24,6% das cepas de Aspergillus isolados eram toxigenicas: 13.1% eram produtoras de aflatoxinas (AFs e 11,5% de ocratoxina A (OTA; e 28,9% de Penicillium produziram citrinina (CTR. Por outro lado, 22,1% de cepas de Aspergillus isolados do feijão classe cores, produziram micotoxinas (16,7% produziram AF e 5,4% produziram OTA, já do g

  11. Isolamento de fungos filamentosos em água utilizada em uma unidade de hemodiálise Isolation of filamentous fungi from water used in a hemodialysis unit

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    Samuel Dutra Varo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A despeito da relativa freqüência de infecções fúngicas oportunísticas em pacientes sob hemodiálise, os reservatórios ambientais destes permanecem desconhecidos, embora alguns estudos recentes tenham correlacionado o suprimento de água como fonte desses microrganismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar a qualidade micológica do sistema hídrico de uma Unidade de Hemodiálise, do interior do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, no período entre abril e julho de 2006. Foram coletadas amostras (15, de 1000mL em 7 pontos de distribuição de água empregando-se técnica da membrana filtrante (0,45µm. Foram isolados 116 fungos filamentosos, dos quais 47 (40,5% Trichoderma sp, 29 (25% Cladosporium sp, 16 (13,8% Aspergillus sp e 11 (9,5% Fusarium sp. Mediante os resultados, sugerimos que suprimentos de água para Unidades de Hemodiálise devam ser monitorados também quanto ao aspecto micológico, adotando-se medidas profiláticas eficazes que minimizem a exposição destes pacientes imunodeficientes a fontes aquáticas ambientais contaminadas.Despite the relative frequency of opportunistic fungal infections among hemodialysis patients, the reservoirs for these microorganisms in the environment remain unknown, although some recent studies have made correlations with the water supply as their source. The objective of the present study was to monitor the mycological quality of the water system of a hemodialysis unit in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, over the period from April to July 2006. Fifteen samples of 1000 ml were collected from seven water distribution points using the membrane filtration technique (0.45 µm. A total of 116 filamentous fungus specimens were isolated, including 47 Trichoderma sp (40.5%, 29 Cladosporium sp (25%, 16 Aspergillus sp (13.8% and 11 Fusarium sp (9.5%. The results suggest that the water supply for hemodialysis units should also be monitored for mycological contamination, and that effective

  12. Incidence and distribution of filamentous fungi during fermentation, drying and storage of coffee (Coffea arabica L. beans Incidência e distribuição de fungos filamentosos durante a fermentação, secagem e armazenamento de frutos e grãos de café (Coffea arabica L.

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    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to isolate and characterize filamentous fungi present in different stages of harvest, fermentation, drying and storage of coffee beans processed by natural method. The cherries were hand-picked and then placed on a cement drying platform where they remained until reached 11% of humidity. Microbial counts were found in all samples during fermentation and drying of the coffee beans. Counts of fungi in the coffee cherries collected from the tree (time 0 were around 1.5 x 10³ CFU/g. This number increased slowly during the fermentation and drying reaching values of 2 x 10(5 CFU/g within 22 days of processing. Two hundred and sixty three isolates of filamentous fungi were identified. The distribution of species during fermentation and drying was very varied while there was a predominance of Aspergillus species during storage period. The genera found were Pestalotia (4, Paecelomyces (4, Cladosporium (26, Fusarium (34, Penicillium (81 and Aspergillus (112 and comprised 38 different species.O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e caracterizar fungos filamentosos presentes em diferentes estágios de beneficiamento de café processado pelo método natural, incluindo: colheita, fermentação, secagem e armazenamento. O café cereja foi colhido manualmente e então colocado em uma plataforma de cimento, onde permaneceu até atingir 11% de umidade. A contagem microbiana foi realizada em todas as amostras durante a fermentação e secagem do café. A população de fungos filamentosos no café cereja ainda nos pés (tempo 0 foi em torno de 1,5 x 10³ UFC/g. Este número aumentou vagarosamente durante a fermentação e secagem, alcançando valores de 2 x 10(5 UFC/g em 22 dias do processamento. Duzentos e sessenta e três isolados de fungos filamentosos foram identificados. A distribuição das espécies durante fermentação e secagem foi bastante variada, mas no armazenamento dos grãos ocorreu o predomínio de espécies de

  13. Sensitization to Indigenous Pollen and Molds and Other Outdoor and Indoor Allergens in Allergic Patients From Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Airborne allergens vary from one climatic region to another. Therefore, it is important to analyze the environment of the region to select the most prevalent allergens for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of positive skin tests to pollen and fungal allergens collected from local indigenous plants or isolated molds, as well as other outdoor and indoor allergens in allergic patients in 6 different geographical areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the United Arab Emirates, and Sudan. Materials and methods Four hundred ninety-two consecutive patients evaluated at different Allergy Clinics (276 women and 256 men; mean age, 30 years) participated in this study. The selection of indigenous allergens was based on research findings in different areas from Riyadh and adjoining areas. Indigenous raw material for pollen grains was collected from the desert near the capital city of Riyadh, KSA. The following plants were included: Chenopodium murale, Salsola imbricata, Rumex vesicarius, Ricinus communis, Artiplex nummularia, Amaranthus viridis, Artemisia monosperma, Plantago boissieri, and Prosopis juliflora. Indigenous molds were isolated from air sampling in Riyadh and grown to obtain the raw material. These included the following: Ulocladium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium spp., and Alternaria spp. The raw material was processed under Good Manufacturing Practices for skin testing. Other commercially available outdoor (grass and tree pollens) and indoor (mites, cockroach, and cat dander) allergens were also tested. Results The highest sensitization to indigenous pollens was detected to C. murale (32%) in Khartoum (Sudan) and S. imbricata (30%) and P. juliflora (24%) in the Riyadh region. The highest sensitization to molds was detected in Khartoum, especially to Cladosporium spp. (42%), Aspergillus (40%), and Alternaria spp. (38%). Sensitization to mites was also very prevalent

  14. Adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces, and anisotropic surface tensions studied by capillary meniscus dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Stanimirova, Rumyana D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Marinova, Krastanka G; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Blijdenstein, Theodorus B J; Cox, Andrew R; Pelan, Eddie G

    2016-07-01

    Here, we review the principle and applications of two recently developed methods: the capillary meniscus dynamometry (CMD) for measuring the surface tension of bubbles/drops, and the capillary bridge dynamometry (CBD) for quantifying the bubble/drop adhesion to solid surfaces. Both methods are based on a new data analysis protocol, which allows one to decouple the two components of non-isotropic surface tension. For an axisymmetric non-fluid interface (e.g. bubble or drop covered by a protein adsorption layer with shear elasticity), the CMD determines the two different components of the anisotropic surface tension, σs and σφ, which are acting along the "meridians" and "parallels", and vary throughout the interface. The method uses data for the instantaneous bubble (drop) profile and capillary pressure, but the procedure for data processing is essentially different from that of the conventional drop shape analysis (DSA) method. In the case of bubble or drop pressed against a substrate, which forms a capillary bridge, the CBD method allows one to determine also the capillary-bridge force for both isotropic (fluid) and anisotropic (solidified) adsorption layers. The experiments on bubble (drop) detachment from the substrate show the existence of a maximal pulling force, Fmax, that can be resisted by an adherent fluid particle. Fmax can be used to quantify the strength of adhesion of bubbles and drops to solid surfaces. Its value is determined by a competition of attractive transversal tension and repulsive disjoining pressure forces. The greatest Fmax values have been measured for bubbles adherent to glass substrates in pea-protein solutions. The bubble/wall adhesion is lower in solutions containing the protein HFBII hydrophobin, which could be explained with the effect of sandwiched protein aggregates. The applicability of the CBD method to emulsion systems is illustrated by experiments with soybean-oil drops adherent to hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates in

  15. Influence of a reducing agent used to prepare radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m on the adhesive properties of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.M.; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Hirata, R. Jr.; Moreira, L.O.; Mattos-Guaraldi, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    of SnCl 2 to diphtheria bacilli. Since SnCl 2 treatment was capable of modifying cell morphology, hydrophobins and adhesin expression, additional studies are necessary to investigate genotoxic effects by inducing and /or producing lesions in DNA as well as mechanisms of repair of DNA possibly presented by diphtheria bacilli. We also suggest that biological effects of this reducing agent need further discussion due to SnCl 2 is present in the technetium-99m complexes that are administered to the patients under a nuclear medicine examination

  16. Parasitic and fungal infections in synanthropic rodents in an area of urban expansion, Aracaju, Sergipe State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v36i1.19760

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    Adriana Oliveira Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the prevalence of parasitic and fungal infections in rodents in an area of urban expansion, Aracaju, Brazil. Traps were placed in the area from December 2011 to January 2013. Blood samples, faeces and hair were collected from the animals. We collected a total of 47 rodents; 44 were Rattus rattus, and 3 were Mus musculus. Parasitological evaluation revealed the cestode Hymenolepis diminuta infection in both rodent species. The nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata were found in M. musculus, and the commensal Entamoeba coli was found in R. rattus. We observed that 69.2% of the R. rattus and 33.3% of the M. musculus were infected with the haemoparasite Babesia sp. The differential leukocyte count revealed normal (72.3%, neutrophilic (15.9% and lymphocytic (11.4% profiles. The evaluation showed the following species of fungi in the rodents: Aspergillus sp. (77.1%, Penicillium sp. (28.6%, Cladosporium sp. (14.3%, Mucor sp. (14.3%, Curvularia sp. (8.6%, Acremonium sp. (8.6%, Chrysosporium sp. (2.9%, Syncephalostrum sp. (2.9%, Alternaria sp. (2.9%, Trichophyton sp. (2.9% and Scopulariopsis sp. (2.9%. The parasites and fungi found in rodents are potentially zoonotic, and the presence of these household animals demonstrates their potential role as reservoirs and disseminators of fungal and parasitic infections.

  17. Viable allergenic fungi in a documentary deposit of the National Archive of Cuba

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    Alian Molina-Veloso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intense and persistent exposure to indoor-air biological agents has been associated with the appearance of allergic diseases. Archives and libraries Indoor environments in tropical countries are an important reservoir of fungal propagules. Objective: To evaluate the degree of air pollution with allergenic fungi in a repository of frequently-manipulated documents. Methods: Air sampling was performed by two methods: active (biocollector and passive (sedimentation plate. Fungi were taxonomically identified, and spores were measured to determine their penetrability in the human respiratory tract, and its impact on episodes of allergy. Results: In terms of concentration and diversity, the local environment behaved as a fungal propagule reservoir, which showed that there is significant health risk for the staff that manipulates the documents. Some spores were shown to be able to reach the lower respiratory tract when inhaled, which increases their allergenic and pathogenic potential. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria, which are referred to as highly allergenic fungi, were prevalent. Conclusion: Aerobiological studies are a valuable tool for the treatment of patients with allergy to fungi and other disorders they produce.

  18. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Dynamics and diversity of microbial community succession in traditional fermentation of Shanxi aged vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Yu; Du, Hongfu; Xie, Sankuan; Wang, Min

    2015-05-01

    The traditional fermentation of Shanxi aged vinegar (SAV), a well-known traditional Chinese vinegar, generally involves the preparation of starter daqu, starch saccharification, alcoholic fermentation (AF) and acetic acid fermentation (AAF). Dynamics and diversity of microbial community succession in daqu and other fermentation stages were investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that eight bacterial genera and four fungal genera were found in daqu. However, Staphylococcus, Saccharopolyspora, Bacillus, Oceanobacillus, Enterobacter, Streptomyces, Eurotium, Monascus and Pichia in daqu were eradicated during AF. Four bacterial genera and three fungal genera were found in this stage. Weissella, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Saccharomyces, and Saccharomycopsis were the dominant microorganisms in the late stage of AF. During AAF, four bacterial genera and four fungal genera were found. Weissella, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Cladosporium gradually disappeared; the dominant microorganisms were Acetobacter, Lactobacillus, Saccharomycopsis, and Alternaria in the late stage of AAF. Alpha diversity metrics showed that fungal diversity in daqu was greater than that in AF and AAF. By contrast, bacterial diversity decreased from daqu to AF and increased in the first three days of AAF and then decreased. Hence, these results could help understand dynamics of microbial community succession in continuous fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment.

  1. Study on Prevalence of Mycoflora in Wheat Seeds

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    Pratishtha Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty seed sample of wheat (Triticum aestivum were collected from four locations viz. Chitwan, Kaski, Banke and Lalitpur and tested by blotter method at laboratory during 2013 for determining fungal pathogens associated with wheat seeds in Nepal. Eighteen species representing thirteen genera of fungi were recovered from the seed. Alternaria alternata and Bipolaris sorokiniana were predominant in all the varieties/genotypes from all the locations, where B. sorokiniana was strongly pathogenic in wheat crop. Percentage frequency and type of fungi detected varied with variety and locations. Bipolaris sorokiniana was highest (64.40% in Banke than remaining three locations. Seeds of Chitwan had lowest percentage (5.50% of seed infection as compared to other locations. Relative abundance of Alternaria alternata (55.10% was highest as it was the most prevalent component of seed borne mycoflora, followed by Bipolaris sorokiniana (34.69% and Cladosporium herbarum (7.19%. Differences in quantity of precipitation and relative humidity might be the possible reason for variation in frequency and type of fungi detected in wheat seeds of four locations.

  2. Study on toxigenic fungi in ruminant feeds under desert conditions with special references to its biological control

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    Shimaa M.S. Hegazy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 435 samples from feedstuff (130 samples of commercial ration feed storage from 1–30 days, 77 samples of commercial ration stored higher than 30 days, 57 samples from each of, derris, grind mixture, Tibn and wheat bran were collected from the feed store houses of private farms located at the desert regions of Ras Sudr at South Sinai and Elameria area at Alexandria Governorate, from December 2012 to May 2014. The collected samples were analyzed for fungal growth. The results revealed that, the main moulds observed in the ruminant feeds were Penicillium spp., Aspergillus (A flavus, Cladosporium spp., Mucor spp., Trichoderma spp., A. niger, Alternaria spp., Rhizopus spp., Fusarium spp., A. fumigates and A. terreus. In addition, the winter season was of higher incidence for moulds isolation than summer season. The most toxigenic aflatoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus include Aflatoxin B1, Aflatoxin B2, Aflatoxin G1 and Aflatoxin G2. The results of biological treatment of Aflatoxins using Saccharomyces (S cerevisiae, showed that, the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a level of (1 × 106 cfu.ml−1 and (1 × 109 cfu.ml−1 decreased the level of concentration of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 and the level of (1 × 109 cfu.ml−1 was more efficient in reducing aflatoxins than the lower concentration.

  3. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

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    Fernando Manuel d´Almeida Bernardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2% in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%, ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9% with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%. Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%, ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative.

  4. Targeting allergenic fungi in agricultural environments aids the identification of major sources and potential risks for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikl, F; Radl, V; Munch, J C; Pritsch, K

    2015-10-01

    Fungi are, after pollen, the second most important producers of outdoor airborne allergens. To identify sources of airborne fungal allergens, a workflow for qPCR quantification from environmental samples was developed, thoroughly tested, and finally applied. We concentrated on determining the levels of allergenic fungi belonging to Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma in plant and soil samples from agricultural fields in which cereals were grown. Our aims were to identify the major sources of allergenic fungi and factors potentially influencing their occurrence. Plant materials were the main source of the tested fungi at and after harvest. Amounts of A. alternata and C. cladosporioides varied significantly in fields under different management conditions, but absolute levels were very high in all cases. This finding suggests that high numbers of allergenic fungi may be an inevitable side effect of farming in several crops. Applied in large-scale studies, the concept described here may help to explain the high number of sensitization to airborne fungal allergens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  6. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J.; Morel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m -2 contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Pathogenic Fungal Species Associated with Digestive System of Periplaneta americana (Blattaria: Blattidae Trapped from Residential Dwellings in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are the most prevalent domestic pests of a worldwide distribution. They were recognized as possible vectors of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in residential dwellings and hospital environ­ments. The present study isolated and identified yeasts and filamentous fungi from digestive tract of American cock­roaches, collected from three different residential regions of Iran.Methods: Seventy cockroaches were sampled using direct collection (hand catch, vacuum cleaner and sticky traps in Ahvaz, Iran in 2009–2010. Their medically important fungal microorganisms were isolated from digestive tract using standard mycological methods. Filamentous fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic examina­tion. Yeasts were identified by API ID32C-32100 kit.Results: A high percentage of cockroaches (88.6% were detected to carry fungi of medical importance. Overall, 23 fungi species/genera were isolated from the American cockroaches' alimentary tract. The fungi isolated from cock­roaches, from the residential regions were species of Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Mucorales, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mycelia, Chrysosporium, Candida, Rhodotorula, Zygosaccharomyces, and Debaryomyces. Candida spp. (41.4%, Aspergillus spp. (37.1% and Rhodotorula spp (27.1% were the most common fungi recovered on cockroaches. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were the commonest species of the genus Candida. In addi­tion, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were the most frequent species of the genus Aspergillus.Conclusion: American cockroaches may carry pathogenic fungi in the urban areas of Ahvaz.

  8. Cyanobacteria, algae and microfungi present in biofilm from Božana Cave (Serbia

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    Slađana Popović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Phototrophic microorganisms (cyanobacteria and algae and microfungi, were identified from biofilm on the walls of the entrance of BožanaCavein west Serbia. Temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were measured, and chlorophyll a content determined. Light intensity differed from the entrance inwards. However, Chl a content was not proportional to light intensity, instead it was positively correlated to biofilm weight. Biofilm samples from two sites were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. Coccoid forms of cyanobacteria were abundant at the sampling site with the lowest light intensity, while members of the order Nostocales were predominant at the sampling site with the highest light intensity measured. Cyanobacteria were the dominant group of phototrophs colonizing cave walls (29 taxa, with the order Chroococcales prevailing (21 taxa. The most frequently documented cyanobacteria were species from genera Gloeocapsa, Scytonema, Aphanocapsa and Chroococcus. Desmococcus olivaceus and Trentepohlia aurea were the only green algae documented on cave walls. Ascomycetes were common (e.g. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Penicillum and Trichoderma, while zygomycetes and oomycetes were less frequent. The different color of each biofilm sample was ascribed to the presence of various different species of cyanobacteria and algae.

  9. Treatment of Fungal Bioaerosols by a High-Temperature, Short-Time Process in a Continuous-Flow System▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Byung Uk

    2009-01-01

    Airborne fungi, termed fungal bioaerosols, have received attention due to the association with public health problems and the effects on living organisms in nature. There are growing concerns that fungal bioaerosols are relevant to the occurrence of allergies, opportunistic diseases in hospitals, and outbreaks of plant diseases. The search for ways of preventing and curing the harmful effects of fungal bioaerosols has created a high demand for the study and development of an efficient method of controlling bioaerosols. However, almost all modern microbiological studies and theories have focused on microorganisms in liquid and solid phases. We investigated the thermal heating effects on fungal bioaerosols in a continuous-flow environment. Although the thermal heating process has long been a traditional method of controlling microorganisms, the effect of a continuous high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process on airborne microorganisms has not been quantitatively investigated in terms of various aerosol properties. Our experimental results show that the geometric mean diameter of the tested fungal bioaerosols decreased when they were exposed to increases in the surrounding temperature. The HTST process produced a significant decline in the (1→3)-β-d-glucan concentration of fungal bioaerosols. More than 99% of the Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides bioaerosols lost their culturability in about 0.2 s when the surrounding temperature exceeded 350°C and 400°C, respectively. The instantaneous exposure to high temperature significantly changed the surface morphology of the fungal bioaerosols. PMID:19201954

  10. Treatment of fungal bioaerosols by a high-temperature, short-time process in a continuous-flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Soo; Lee, Byung Uk

    2009-05-01

    Airborne fungi, termed fungal bioaerosols, have received attention due to the association with public health problems and the effects on living organisms in nature. There are growing concerns that fungal bioaerosols are relevant to the occurrence of allergies, opportunistic diseases in hospitals, and outbreaks of plant diseases. The search for ways of preventing and curing the harmful effects of fungal bioaerosols has created a high demand for the study and development of an efficient method of controlling bioaerosols. However, almost all modern microbiological studies and theories have focused on microorganisms in liquid and solid phases. We investigated the thermal heating effects on fungal bioaerosols in a continuous-flow environment. Although the thermal heating process has long been a traditional method of controlling microorganisms, the effect of a continuous high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process on airborne microorganisms has not been quantitatively investigated in terms of various aerosol properties. Our experimental results show that the geometric mean diameter of the tested fungal bioaerosols decreased when they were exposed to increases in the surrounding temperature. The HTST process produced a significant decline in the (1-->3)-beta-d-glucan concentration of fungal bioaerosols. More than 99% of the Aspergillus versicolor and Cladosporium cladosporioides bioaerosols lost their culturability in about 0.2 s when the surrounding temperature exceeded 350 degrees C and 400 degrees C, respectively. The instantaneous exposure to high temperature significantly changed the surface morphology of the fungal bioaerosols.

  11. The Xenon Test Chamber Q-SUN® for testing realistic tolerances of fungi exposed to simulated full spectrum solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luciana P; Araújo, Claudinéia A S; Pupin, Breno; Ferreira, Paulo C; Braga, Gilberto Ú L; Rangel, Drauzio E N

    2018-06-01

    The low survival of insect-pathogenic fungi when used for insect control in agriculture is mainly due to the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation and heat from solar irradiation. In this study, conidia of 15 species of entomopathogenic fungi were exposed to simulated full-spectrum solar radiation emitted by a Xenon Test Chamber Q-SUN XE-3-HC 340S (Q-LAB ® Corporation, Westlake, OH, USA), which very closely simulates full-spectrum solar radiation. A dendrogram obtained from cluster analyses, based on lethal time 50 % and 90 % calculated by Probit analyses, separated the fungi into three clusters: cluster 3 contains species with highest tolerance to simulated full-spectrum solar radiation, included Metarhizium acridum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Trichothecium roseum with LT 50  > 200 min irradiation. Cluster 2 contains eight species with moderate UV tolerance: Aschersonia aleyrodis, Isaria fumosorosea, Mariannaea pruinosa, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium brunneum, Metarhizium robertsii, Simplicillium lanosoniveum, and Torrubiella homopterorum with LT 50 between 120 and 150 min irradiation. The four species in cluster 1 had the lowest UV tolerance: Lecanicillium aphanocladii, Beauveria bassiana, Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, and Tolypocladium inflatum with LT 50  solar radiation before. We conclude that the equipment provided an excellent tool for testing realistic tolerances of fungi to full-spectrum solar radiation of microbial agents for insect biological control in agriculture. Copyright © 2018 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of the fungi population on the physicochemical and chemical composition of coffee (Coffea arabica L.

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    Liliana Auxiliadora Avelar Pereira Pasin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fungi associated with coffee fruits was verified regarding the chemical and physicochemical composition of Coffea arabica L. raw grains. The fruits were harvested at EPAMIG Experimental farm in Lavras, State of Minas Gerais - making up the different samples here analyzed. After processing and drying, the grains were incubated in wet chamber for fungal exteriorization through the blotter test method and submitted to the following analyses: polyphenoloxidase, total reducing and non-reducing sugars, clorogenic acid, titrable acidity, potassium leaching, electric conductivity and caffeine. The occurrence of the P. variable, P. rugulosum, P. funiculosum, F. equiseti, F. semitectum, A.alutaceus, A. niger and C. cladosporioides fungi in the different samples was detected. From the analysis of the results obtained, it was observed that the presence of the Aspergillus alutaceus fungus reduces the activity of the enzyme polyphenoloxidase and increases the values of potassium leaching, electric conductivity and chlorogenic acid. The incidence of the Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus influenced the average values of potassium leaching and electric conductivity.

  13. Microbiological Spectrum of Brain Abscess at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India: 24-Year Data and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscesses are life-threatening infections that pose a diagnostic challenge not only to the neurosurgeon but also to the microbiologists. Detailed studies documenting the spectrum of infecting agents involved in brain abscesses are limited from India. Materials and Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 352 samples from 1987 to 2010 analyzed at a tertiary care hospital in South India from 1987 to 2010, to document the changing trends with time. Results. The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 80 years, a larger number of males being affected. Otogenic infections were the most common cause while cryptogenic abscesses were 20%. Gram stain and culture positivity were 78% each. Gram-positive and negative facultative aerobes and obligate anaerobes were also on the rise. Unusual organisms, like Burkholderia pseudomallei, Salmonella typhi, Nocardia species, Cladosporium bantiana, Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Entamoeba histolytica, and Acanthamoeba were also isolated and/or detected from the brain abscesses aspirate or resected tissue. Summary. New and emerging pathogens associated with brain abscess, especially in immunosuppressed individuals, have renewed the necessity of an early detection, and it will be of great value in appropriate management of patients with brain abscess.

  14. Fungi Isolated from Flue-cured Tobacco at Time of Sale and After Storage1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, R. E.; Lucas, G. B.

    1969-01-01

    The fungi isolated from 100 samples of flue-cured tobacco from 12 markets in 2 tobacco belts comprised 11 genera, including 10 species of Aspergillus. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 62 samples of tobacco from Middle Belt markets was Alternaria, 40.6%; Aspergillus niger, 47.8%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Penicillium, 25.8%. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 38 samples of tobacco from Old Belt markets was Alternaria, 74.0%; Penicillium, 52.5%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Aspergillus ruber, 36.2%. Damaged (74 samples) and nondamaged (26 samples) stored tobacco yielded species of six genera of fungi, including eight species of Aspergillus. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from both damaged and nondamaged tobacco, whereas species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus were isoalted more frequently from nondamaged tobacco. The fungi that occurred in the highest population in damaged tobacco were Aspergillus repens, A. niger, A. ruber, and Penicillium species. PMID:16349841

  15. Fungal growth inhibitory properties of new phytosphingolipid analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormeneo, D; Manresa, A; Casas, J; Llebaria, A; Delgado, A

    2008-04-01

    To study the growth inhibitory properties of a series of phytosphingosine (PHS) and phytoceramide (PHC) analogues. A panel of two yeast (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and six moulds (Aspergillus repens, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Arthroderma uncinatum and Penicillium funiculosum) has been used in this study. A series of new PHS and PHC analogues differing at the sphingoid backbone and the functional group at C1 position were synthesized. Among PHS analogues, 1-azido derivative 1c, bearing the natural D-ribo stereochemistry, showed a promising growth inhibitory profile. Among PHC analogues, compound 12, with a bulky N-pivaloyl group and a Z double bond at C3 position of the sphingoid chain, was the most active growth inhibitor. Minimal inhibitory concentration values were in the range of 23-48 micromol l(-1) for 1c and 44-87 micromol l(-1) for 12. Only scattered data on the antifungal activity of phytosphingolipids have been reported in the literature. This is the first time that a series of analogues of this kind are tested and compared to discern their structural requirements for antifungal activity.

  16. Effects of N2-O2 and CO2-O2 tensions on growth of fungi isolated from damaged flue-cured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Lucas, G B

    1970-02-01

    Ten fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. ruber, A. repens, A. amstelodami, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Chaetomium dolicotrichum, were isolated from moldy flue-cured tobacco and grown in various mixtures of N(2)-O(2) or CO(2)-O(2). A 1 to 5% concentration of O(2) in an N(2) atmosphere caused the greatest change in growth of the nine species, and a 10 to 20% concentration of O(2) for A. flavus. All species, except A. amstelodami and A. ruber, grew faster in air than in mixtures containing 10% O(2). High O(2) concentrations generally inhibited furrow production in the mycelial mats. In an atmosphere of 5 to 40% O(2) in the N(2) atmosphere, furrows formed in mycelial mats between 5 and 40% O(2) in the species except for A. ruber, A. repens, and A. amstelodami, which produced none in any concentration. As O(2) decreased below 20%, spore production was progressively decreased, colony color faded to white, and cleistothecia formation was suppressed. In CO(2)-O(2) mixtures radial growth of all species increased with each quantitative decrease of CO(2). All species except A. niger grew faster in air than in 10% CO(2). In contrast to N(2)-O(2) mixtures, the fungi formed furrows, sporulation and cleistothecial formation were suppressed, and colony color changed to white in higher O(2) concentrations.

  17. Keratinophilic fungi and other moulds associated with air-dust particles from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, S I; Moubasher, A H; Barakat, A

    1990-01-01

    One-hundred and eleven species and three species varieties belonging to 39 genera were collected from 50 dust samples on the five media used at 28 degrees C. Using the hair-baiting technique with horse hair, 10 species of Chrysosporium were isolated: C. asperatum, C. state of Arthroderma tuberculatum, C. indicum, C. inops, C. keratinophilum, C. merdarium, C. pannorum, C. queenslandicum, C. tropicum and C. xerophilum. True dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton verrucosum and Trichophyton sp. Also, numerous fungi tolerating high levels of cycloheximide were encountered, such as members of Acremonium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. On plates of glucose or cellulose Czapek-Dox agar (free from sucrose) the most frequent fungi were: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, A. flavus var. columnaris, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. sydowii, A. terreus, Chaetomium globosum, Cladosporium herbarum, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. oxalicum, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Ulocladium atrum. On plates of 50% sucrose or 10 and 20% NaCl-Czapek's agar, some interesting species were frequently encountered: Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. halophilicum, E. montevidensis, E. repens, E. rubrum and Scopulariopsis halophilica. The isolated fungi have been tested for osmophilicity and halophilicity, they showed different rates of growth on sucrose and sodium chloride-Czapek's medium of various osmotic potential.

  18. Fungi Isolated from Flue-cured Tobacco at Time of Sale and After Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, R E; Lucas, G B

    1969-03-01

    The fungi isolated from 100 samples of flue-cured tobacco from 12 markets in 2 tobacco belts comprised 11 genera, including 10 species of Aspergillus. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 62 samples of tobacco from Middle Belt markets was Alternaria, 40.6%; Aspergillus niger, 47.8%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Penicillium, 25.8%. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 38 samples of tobacco from Old Belt markets was Alternaria, 74.0%; Penicillium, 52.5%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Aspergillus ruber, 36.2%. Damaged (74 samples) and nondamaged (26 samples) stored tobacco yielded species of six genera of fungi, including eight species of Aspergillus. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from both damaged and nondamaged tobacco, whereas species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus were isoalted more frequently from nondamaged tobacco. The fungi that occurred in the highest population in damaged tobacco were Aspergillus repens, A. niger, A. ruber, and Penicillium species.

  19. Effects of N2-O2 and CO2-O2 Tensions on Growth of Fungi Isolated from Damaged Flue-Cured Tobacco 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Lucas, G. B.

    1970-01-01

    Ten fungi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. ruber, A. repens, A. amstelodami, Alternaria tenuis, Penicillium brevi-compactum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Chaetomium dolicotrichum, were isolated from moldy flue-cured tobacco and grown in various mixtures of N2-O2 or CO2-O2. A 1 to 5% concentration of O2 in an N2 atmosphere caused the greatest change in growth of the nine species, and a 10 to 20% concentration of O2 for A. flavus. All species, except A. amstelodami and A. ruber, grew faster in air than in mixtures containing 10% O2. High O2 concentrations generally inhibited furrow production in the mycelial mats. In an atmosphere of 5 to 40% O2 in the N2 atmosphere, furrows formed in mycelial mats between 5 and 40% O2 in the species except for A. ruber, A. repens, and A. amstelodami, which produced none in any concentration. As O2 decreased below 20%, spore production was progressively decreased, colony color faded to white, and cleistothecia formation was suppressed. In CO2-O2 mixtures radial growth of all species increased with each quantitative decrease of CO2. All species except A. niger grew faster in air than in 10% CO2. In contrast to N2-O2 mixtures, the fungi formed furrows, sporulation and cleistothecial formation were suppressed, and colony color changed to white in higher O2 concentrations. PMID:5461786

  20. Mycoflora and mycotoxin of hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) and walnut (Juglans regia L.) seeds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hafez, A I; Saber, S M

    1993-03-01

    Fifty-one species and 3 varieties appertaining to 20 genera were collected from 20 samples of each of hazelnut and walnut seeds on glucose- and 40% (W/V) sucrose-Czapek's agar at 25 degrees C and 45 degrees C with the most common mesophiles were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. oxalicum. Fusarium (represented by F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. oxysporum) was recovered from walnut seeds in moderate frequency (on glucose-Czapek's agar). Eurotium (E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. repens and E. rubrum) was completely absent on glucose agar, but it was isolated in high frequency from the two types of seeds on 40% sucrose-Czapek's agar. Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizomucor pusillus were the most common thermophilic fungi in hazelnut and walnut seeds on glucose agar at 45 degrees C. Humicola grisea var. themoidae and Thermoascus aurantiacus were encountered rarely from walnuts. The nuts samples were assayed for natural occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol by thin layer chromatography analysis. Aflatoxin was detected in 90% of hazelnut samples (25-175 micrograms/kg) and 75% of walnut samples (15-25 micrograms/kg). Zearalenone was detected in one sample of walnut (125 micrograms/kg). This is the first report for the presence of zearalenone in walnut. The other mycotoxins were not detected.

  1. Plant-microbe interactions: Plant hormone production by phylloplane fungi. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, T.; Ilvesoksa, J.; Rosenqvist, H.

    1993-06-23

    The molds Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides and the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from the leaves of three short-rotation Salix clones, were found to produce indole-3-acetic acid (a growth promoter of plants). Abscisic acid (a growth inhibitor of plants) production was detected in B. cinerea. The contents of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the leaves of the Salix clones and the amounts of fungal propagules in these leaves were also measured, in order to evaluate whether the amounts of plant growth regulators produced by the fungi would make a significant contribution to the hormonal quantities of the leaves. The content of abscisic acid, and to a lesser degree that of indole-3-acetic acid, showed a positive correlation with the frequency of infection by the hormone producing organisms. The amounts of hormone producing fungi on leaves that bore visible colonies were, however, not sufficiently high to support the argument that neither the fungal production of abscisic nor indole-3-acetic acid would to a significant degree contribute to the hormonal contents of the leaves of the Salix clones.

  2. Psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungi on bats and the presence of Geomyces spp. on bat wings prior to the arrival of white nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynnaun J A N; Miller, Andrew N; McCleery, Robert A; McClanahan, Rod; Kath, Joseph A; Lueschow, Shiloh; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Since 2006, Geomyces destructans, the causative agent of white nose syndrome (WNS), has killed over 5.7 million bats in North America. The current hypothesis suggests that this novel fungus is an invasive species from Europe, but little is known about the diversity within the genus Geomyces and its distribution on bats in the United States. We documented the psychrophilic and psychrotolerant fungal flora of hibernating bats prior to the arrival of WNS using culture-based techniques. A total of 149 cultures, which were obtained from 30 bats in five bat hibernacula located in four caves and one mine, were sequenced for the entire internal transcribed spacer (ITS) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) region. Approximately 53 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity were recovered from bat wings, with the community dominated by fungi within the genera Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geomyces, Mortierella, Penicillium, and Trichosporon. Eleven Geomyces isolates were obtained and placed in at least seven distinct Geomyces clades based on maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses. Temperature experiments revealed that all Geomyces strains isolated are psychrotolerant, unlike G. destructans, which is a true psychrophile. Our results confirm that a large diversity of fungi, including several Geomyces isolates, occurs on bats prior to the arrival of WNS. Most of these isolates were obtained from damaged wings. Additional studies need to be conducted to determine potential ecological roles of these abundant Geomyces strains isolated from bats.

  3. Results of mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of corn-based feed for dairy cow diet

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    Škrinjar Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fungal contamination was determined as well as total aflatoxin B1(AB1, ochratoxin A (OTA and zearalenon (ZEA levels in corn-based feed samples obtained from four different farms in Serbia (n=35 during one year. Mycotoxins were detected in feed using the VICAM fluorometric method. It was determined that 97.14% of all samples were contaminated with moulds which belonged to following genera: Absidia, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Mortierella, Oidiodendron, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Wallrothiella. A total of 58 different species were identified. Total mould count per 1 g ranged from 1.00 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - autumn, fresh corn silage - summer and corn grain silage - spring to 7.32 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - winter. Mycotoxins were isolated from 28.5% of samples: ZEA was found in summer (220-240 μg/kg and in spring (240 μg/kg in concentrate samples; OTA was detected in winter in dried corn silage (16 μg/kg and in spring (12 μg/kg; all samples were AB1 free.

  4. Diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Yun; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the diversity of fungal communities in nine different deep-sea sediment samples of the South China Sea by culture-dependent methods followed by analysis of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Although 14 out of 27 identified species were reported in a previous study, 13 species were isolated from sediments of deep-sea environments for the first report. Moreover, these ITS sequences of six isolates shared 84-92 % similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, which suggested that they might be novel phylotypes of genera Ajellomyces, Podosordaria, Torula, and Xylaria. The antimicrobial activities of these fungal isolates were explored using a double-layer technique. A relatively high proportion (56 %) of fungal isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among four marine pathogenic microbes (Micrococcus luteus, Pseudoaltermonas piscida, Aspergerillus versicolor, and A. sydowii). Out of these antimicrobial fungi, the genera Arthrinium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities, while genus Aureobasidium displayed only antibacterial activity, and genera Acremonium, Cladosporium, Geomyces, and Phaeosphaeriopsis displayed only antifungal activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable deep-sea-derived fungi in the South China Sea. These results suggest that diverse deep-sea fungi from the South China Sea are a potential source for antibiotics' discovery and further increase the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  5. Fungi pathogenic on wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. in northern Tunisia

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    N. Djebali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and life cycle of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L. and a survey of the pathogens of this plant are reported for the northern regions of Tunisia. Wild radish is a common weed of cereal crops and legumes. It germinates in early autumn (October, develops a rosette stage in November to December after which stem growth, fl owering and pod production occur through to May, with pod maturity completed in June. Fungus isolation from the foliar tissues exhibiting disease symptoms showed that wild radish was infected with the fungi Albugo candida, Alternaria spp. including A. brassicicola, and A. raphani, Erysiphe cruciferarum, Stemphylium herbarum, Peronospora parasitica and Phoma lingam. Ascochyta spp., Cercospora armoraciae, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Colletotrichum higginsianum are here reported from wild radish for the first time. Inoculation tests of pathogens on wild radish plants showed that the most injurious fungi were Alternaria raphani and Phoma lingam. The remaining pathogens were weakly to moderately aggressive on this weed. To access the pathogenic effect of fungi spontaneously infecting natural populations of wild radish, the weed was grown in a field experiment with and without the broad-spectrum systemic fungicide Carbendazim. Results showed a statistically significant two-fold decrease in the number and weight of seed pods in the non-treated plants, indicating that the reproductive potential of wild radish was naturally reduced by fungal infection. Foliar pathogenic fungi have a potential in the integrated weed management of wild radish, this role merits further investigations.

  6. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

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    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  7. Fungal contaminants in man-made water systems connected to municipal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaifciler, Duygu Göksay; Demirel, Rasime

    2018-04-01

    Water-related fungi are known to cause taste and odor problems, as well as negative health effects, and can lead to water-pipeline clogging. There is no legal regulation on the occurrence of fungi in water environments. However, much research has been performed, but further studies are needed. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the fungal load and the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi in man-made water systems (for homes, hospitals, and shopping centers) connected to municipal water in Istanbul, Turkey. The mean fungal concentrations found in the different water samples were 98 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL in shopping centers, 51 CFU/100 mL in hospitals, and 23 CFU/100 mL in homes. The dominant fungal species were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans and Fusarium oxysporum. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus westerdijkiae were only detected in the hospital water samples. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cladosporium cladosporioides were also detected in the samples. The study reveals that the municipal water supplies, available for different purposes, could thus contain mycotoxigenic fungi. It was concluded that current disinfection procedures may be insufficient, and the presence of the above-mentioned fungi is important for people with suppressed immune systems.

  8. Susceptibility of green and conventional building materials to microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah-Attipoe, J; Reponen, T; Salmela, A; Veijalainen, A-M; Pasanen, P

    2015-06-01

    Green building materials are becoming more popular. However, little is known about their ability to support or limit microbial growth. The growth of fungi was evaluated on five building materials. Two green, two conventional building materials and wood as a positive control were selected. The materials were inoculated with Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum, in the absence and presence of house dust. Microbial growth was assessed at four different time points by cultivation and determining fungal biomass using the N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) enzyme assay. No clear differences were seen between green and conventional building materials in their susceptibility to support microbial growth. The presence of dust, an external source of nutrients, promoted growth of all the fungal species similarly on green and conventional materials. The results also showed a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.81 to 0.88 between NAHA activity and culturable counts. The results suggest that the growth of microbes on a material surface depends on the availability of organic matter rather than the classification of the material as green or conventional. NAHA activity and culturability correlated well indicating that the two methods used in the experiments gave similar trends for the growth of fungi on material surfaces. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates

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    Aiko Hayashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m3 forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  10. Isolation and characterization of the environmental bacterial and fungi contamination in a pharmaceutical unit of mesenchymal stem cell for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Patricia Gálvez; González, María Bermejo; Martínez, Adolfina Ruiz; Lara, Visitación Gallardo; Naveros, Beatriz Clares

    2012-09-01

    Design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program is vital to assure the maintenance of acceptable quality conditions in a pharmaceutical manufacturing unit of human mesenchymal stem cells. Since sterility testing methods require 14 days and these cells are only viable for several hours, they are currently administered without the result of this test. Consequently environmental monitoring is a key element in stem cell banks for assuring low levels of potential introduction of contaminants into the cell products. The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the environmental microbiological quality in a pharmaceutical manufacturing unit of human mesenchymal stem cells production for use in advanced therapies. Two hundred and sixty one points were tested monthly during one year, 156 from air and 105 from surfaces. Among the 6264 samples tested, 231 showed contamination, 76.6% for bacteria and 23.4% for fungi. Microbial genuses isolated were Staphylococcus (89.7%), Microccocus (4.5%), Kocuria (3.2%) and Bacillus (2.6%). In the identification of fungi, three genuses were detected: Aspergillus (56%), Penicillium (26%) and Cladosporium (18%). The origin of the contamination was found to be due to personnel manipulation and air microbiota. For all sampling methods, alert limits were set and corrective measures suggested. Copyright © 2012 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE HONGOS ANTAGONISTAS A Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands EN BOSQUES DE ENCINO DE EL ARRAYANAL, COLIMA Y TECOANAPA, GUERRERO

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    Alejandra Almaraz-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar morfológica y molecularmente la micoflora que posee propiedades antagonistas sobre Phytophthora cinnamomi, asociada al suelo del bosque de encino (Quercus spp. de El Arrayanal, Colima, y de Tecoanapa, Guerrero. En estas localidades se realizaron dos muestreos de suelo colectándose muestras compuestas de suelo-raíz alrededor de los árboles con diferentes edades y condiciones sanitarias en rodales afectados por P. cinnamomi. Los hongos se identificaron morfológicamente mediante la técnica de dilución de suelo PDA-TS (papa-dextrosaagar-tergitol-estreztomicina. Con los aislamientos obtenidos se realizaron pruebas de antagonismo in vitro. Los aislamientos de Trichoderma, Cordyceps bassiana y Paecilomyces son los que ejercieron mejor biocontrol al reducir el desarrollo de P. cinnamomi mostrando mecanismos sobresalientes de competencia por espacio y micoparasitismo. Los hongos se caracterizaron molecularmente amplificando la región intergénica (ITS de los genes ribosomales mediante la técnica de amplificación por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Se reportan por vez primera a C. bassiana, Cladosporium tenuissimun y seis especies de Trichoderma asociadas al bosque de encino en México.

  12. Speleomycological research in underground Osówka complex in Sowie Mountains (Lower Silesia, Poland

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    Wojciech Pusz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osówka (Germ. Säuferhöhen, is one of the elements of the unfinished Nazi military complex called “Riese”. The total length of corridors of Osówka complex is about 1,700 m and its capacity amounts to 30,000 m3. As described geologically, Osówka is situated within the Sowie Mts. Massif which consists mostly of various gneisses with different structural characteristics, but with a constant mineral composition. The rock-forming minerals are feldspar (oligoclase, quartz, biotite and light micas, accesory minerals are garnet, sillimanite and dysten. Fine-grained shallow-sea deposits were probably a protolith of these rocks. The study aimed at first mycological evaluation of the air and the rocks in Osówka adit. The air samples were taken from one location outside the adit and from four locations inside of it. Mycological evaluation of the rocks inside the adit was performed using three different methods. Fifteen taxa of filamentous fungi were isolated from the internal air sampled, and several taxa - from the outside of the adit, whereas only eleven species were isolated from the rocks. Cladosporium spp. were the fungi most frequently isolated from internal atmosphere of the underground Osówka complex, and from the external air. On the other hand, the fungi most frequently isolated from the rocks were Aspergillus niger group (when using swab sampling procedure and Mucor spp. (from debris and rinse sampling procedure.

  13. Development of a Freeze-Dried Fungal Wettable Powder Preparation Able to Biodegrade Chlorpyrifos on Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Xiao, Ying; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Continuous use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos has resulted in harmful contaminations in environment and species. Based on a chlorpyrifos-degrading fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides strain Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711), a fungal wettable powder preparation was developed aiming to efficiently remove chlorpyrifos residues from vegetables. The formula was determined to be 11.0% of carboxymethyl cellulose-Na, 9.0% of polyethylene glycol 6000, 5.0% of primary alcohol ethoxylate, 2.5% of glycine, 5.0% of fucose, 27.5% of kaolin and 40% of freeze dried fungi by response surface methodology (RSM). The results of quality inspection indicated that the fungal preparation could reach manufacturing standards. Finally, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by this fungal preparation was determined on pre-harvest cabbage. Compared to the controls without fungal preparation, the degradation of chlorpyrifos on cabbages, which was sprayed with the fungal preparation, was up to 91% after 7 d. These results suggested this freeze-dried fungal wettable powder may possess potential for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos residues on vegetables and provide a potential strategy for food and environment safety against pesticide residues. PMID:25061758

  14. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.

  15. Sea salts as a potential source of food spoilage fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biango-Daniels, Megan N; Hodge, Kathie T

    2018-02-01

    Production of sea salt begins with evaporation of sea water in shallow pools called salterns, and ends with the harvest and packing of salts. This process provides many opportunities for fungal contamination. This study aimed to determine whether finished salts contain viable fungi that have the potential to cause spoilage when sea salt is used as a food ingredient by isolating fungi on a medium that simulated salted food with a lowered water activity (0.95 a w ). The viable filamentous fungi from seven commercial salts were quantified and identified by DNA sequencing, and the fungal communities in different salts were compared. Every sea salt tested contained viable fungi, in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.71 colony-forming units per gram of salt. In total, 85 fungi were isolated representing seven genera. One or more species of the most abundant genera, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium was found in every salt. Many species found in this study have been previously isolated from low water activity environments, including salterns and foods. We conclude that sea salts contain many fungi that have potential to cause food spoilage as well as some that may be mycotoxigenic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioprospección de hiperparásitos de Hemileia vastatrix en Guatemala

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    Soren S. Ramirez-Barillas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available La bioprospección de agentes de control biológico es una actividad primaria en la búsqueda de alternativas para el manejo de plagas y enfermedades; las reservas naturales dentro de plantaciones de café por las características de biodiversidad son aptas para albergar diversidad microbiana y entre ellos agentes biocontroladores. El estudio se realizó en 10 fincas con reservas naturales con café, cinco en el departamento de Guatemala, cuatro en Sacatepéquez y una en Chimaltenango, los muestreos se realizaron en época seca y lluviosa; se obtuvo, documentó y determinaron en laboratorio los agentes hiperparásitos: Cladosporium hemileiae Steyaert, y Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerm. Zare & W. Gams y además un insecto micófago Mycodiplosis sp. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae. Se evaluaron las cepas de los hongos hiperparásitos con el índice de velocidad de crecimiento micelial (IVCM y producción de conidiosporas. Se estableció que las mejores cepas de C. hemileiae fueron: Morán época seca parte baja, San Sebastián época seca y Guardabarranca parte alta; para L. lecanii fueron: San Sebastián época seca y Corral Viejo estación lluviosa parte baja.

  17. Evaluating the Biodeterioration Enzymatic Activities of Fungal Contamination Isolated from Some Ancient Yemeni Mummies Preserved in the National Museum

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    Khalid Mohammed Naji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophisticated mummification using chemical preservation was prevalent in ancient Yemeni civilization as noted in the 4th century B.C. mummies of the National Museum of Yemen, Sana’a, used in this study. Five of these mummies were used to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes produced as a result of fungal contamination. Forty-seven fungal species were isolated, thereby reflecting a high degree of contamination which may have resulted from the poor ventilation and preservation system. Aspergillus was the most common genus isolated (48.9%. Fifteen isolates exhibited ability to produce cellulase (EC; 3.2.1.4, Aspergillus candidus being the highest cellulose-producer. Pectin lyase (PL, EC; 4.2.2.2 and pectin methyl esterase (PME, EC; 3.1.1.11 were produced by Trichoderma hamatum, whereas chitinase (EC; 3.2.1.14 was produced by Aspergillus niger. Protease activity was noted by only Cladosporium herbarum. The higher activities of these fungal hydrolytic enzymes represent the major threats of biodeterioration including deteriorating linen bandages as well as the mummy bodies. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the preservation system of the mummies at the National Museum to minimize the contamination up to the lowest level and protect the mummies from biodeterioration.

  18. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Jobran M. Alqahtani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5% were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353 reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma. In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management.

  19. Comparación de la flora microbiana a partir de dos metodologías para el tratamiento de residuos sólidos domiciliarios en Garagoa, Boyacá

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    Astrid Johanna Castro Merchán

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en comparar la flora microbiana a partir de la metodología convencional implementada en Garagoa, Boyacá, para el tratamiento de residuos sólidos domiciliarios con una metodología experimental que consistió en humectar los residuos con agua en lugar de lixiviado, y no mezclar el material por tratar con otro de distintos tiempos de compostaje; para tal fin, se caracterizaron y determinaron los tamaños poblacionales de heterótrofas totales, pseudomonas, hongos y actinomicetos a partir de muestras tomadas en distintas etapas del proceso. De las distintas muestras analizadas se identificaron hongos de los géneros Cladosporium y Aspergillus, propios del proceso de compostaje, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis, Moniliella, Curvularia y levaduras del género Rhodothorula.En el agar ISP2 (para el aislamiento de actinomicetos se identificaron diversos morfotipos: bacilos esporulados, bacilos gramnegativos, cocobacilos, cocos grampositivos y una bacteria del género Streptomyces. De acuerdo con los resultados de los tamaños poblacionales de los grupos de microorganismos estudiados no se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos evaluados; sin embargo, el mayor promedio de los recuentos se presentó en el tratamiento experimental.

  20. Peculiarities of soil mycobiota composition in Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanova, N.M.; Zakharchenko, V.O.; Vasilevs'ka, A.Yi.; Skol'nij, O.T.; Nakonechna, L.T.; Artishkova, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    Soil mycobiota in zones of strong radiation control (Lyutizh region), nine stationaries in 30 km Chernobyl NPP zone and one in the vicinity of Kiev has been investigated. 180 species of 70 genera of micromycetes has been isolated and identified. The species of genera Penicillium, Mortierella, Trichoderma, Cladosporium dominated in all soils studied, and the species of genera Acremonium, Paecilomyces, Oidiodendron etc. were frequent. The comparison of the generic composition of micromycetes in localities studied has revealed their similarity. The characteristic feature for the mycobiota was regular revealing and specific variability of melanin-containing fungi. Many of them compose the reserve group of micromycetes. There was found new and rare species Acrodontium crateriforme (v.Beyma) de Hoog, Botryosporium longibrachiatum Oud., Chuppia sarcinifera Deighton, Harzia acremonioides Harz etc., with were not registered in these soils before the accident. The structure of the micromycete complexes presented as a correlation Pleiades has been established. Discovered Pleiades were formed mainly by melanin-containing fungi. According to the preliminary results the micro-mycetes complexes, taking into account their occurrence, can be used as indicators of unfavourable ecological soil state. To our mind, a search for such complexes may be conducted among of melanin-containing species as well as numerous species of genus Penecillium and related Paecilomyces

  1. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  2. Dermatomicosis en población de Manizales

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    G. E. Buitrago

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Se informa sobre el estudio micológico realizado en una población de 1.175 pacientes adultos remitidos por el servicio médico de la ciudad de Manizales. Fue posible establecer diagnóstico positivo en 779 pacientes (66,3%, con 72 (6,1% casos de pitiriasis versicolor, 1 (0,1% por Tineanigrapalmaris, 291 (24,8% micosiscutáneaspordermatofitos y 184 (15,7% casos de candidiasis. La distribución de frecuencia agrupó a 15 Microsporum, 101 Epidermophyton y 257 Trichophyton. Fueron 357 (95,7% antropofílicos, 10 (2,7% geofílicos y 6 (1,6% zoofílicos. Las especies aisladas fueron: M. canis, M. gypseum, E. floccosum, T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, T. tonsurans, T. verrucosum, Cladosporium werneckii, Malassezia furtur y otros. En el estudio de las onicopatías se encontraron: 82 (7,0% casos por dermatofitos 103 (8,8% casos por Candida albicans; en 46 (3,9% casos se aislaron hongos no dermatofitos incriminados como agentes patógenos oportunistas, por algunos autores. No hubo diagnóstico micológico en 10 (0,8% casos por obtenerse en los cultivos Mycelia sterilla, y fueron negativos 386 (32,8%. Se indican los procedimientos paraanálisis micológico y se mencionan consideraciones generales sobre la patología de la dermatofitos.

  3. Detecção, transmissão e patogenicidade de fungos em sementes de angico-vermelho (Parapiptadenia rigida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Angico-vermelho (Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan é uma espécie nativa de grande valor ecológico e econômico, importante para a recomposição de áreas degradadas. O presente trabalho avaliou incidência, transmissão e patogenicidade de fungos associados a sementes de angico-vermelho de distintas procedências do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Para isso, utilizaram-se três amostras de sementes, com as quais realizaram-se testes de germinação, sanidade empregando-se o método do papel-filtro (PF e de plaqueamento em batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA, transmissão e patogenicidade dos fungos. A germinação das sementes de angico-vermelho variou de 63 a 91 %. Os fungos considerados potencialmente patogênicos encontrados associados as sementes de angico-vermelho foram: Alternaria sp.; Botrytis sp.; Fusarium sp.; Cladosporium sp. e Pestalotia sp.; sendo que Fusarium sp. foi detectado em todas as amostras pelo método PF, e foi transmitido via semente causando má formação do sistema radicular e dos cotilédones e tombamento de pré emergência. Sua patogenicidade foi confirmada.

  4. Cross-reactivity among antigens of different air-borne fungi detected by ELISA using five monoclonal antibodies against Penicillium notatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H D; Lin, W L; Chen, R J; Han, S H

    1990-10-01

    Cross-reactivity among antigens of 12 genera of air-borne fungi, 13 species of Penicillium, and 5 species of Aspergillus was studied by ELISA using five monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Penicillium notatum. Epitopes recognized by all the five MoAbs were susceptible to treatment of mild periodate oxidation and may therefore be associated with carbohydrates. Furthermore, our results showed that there is cross-reactivity among antigens of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Eurotium species. By using these MoAbs, cross reactivity was not detected between antigens of Penicillium notatum and antigens of Fusarium solani, Alternaria porri, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Curvularia species, Nigrospora species, Aureobasidium pullulans, Wallemia species, Rhizopus arrhizus, and Candida albicans. Cross-reactivity among antigens of 11 species of Penicillium and 5 species of Aspergillus could be detected by ELISA using one of the five MoAbs (MoAb P15). The fact that there may be cross-reactivity among antigens of closely related fungi species should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergic diseases.

  5. Ibuprofen removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: treatment performance and fungal community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Luo, Jinxue; Lee, Zarraz May Ping; Gersberg, Richard M; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2016-01-01

    The treatment performance of ibuprofen (IBP)-enriched wastewater by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands planted with cattail (Typha angustifolia) and unplanted control mesocosms was investigated. Removal efficiencies of IBP were significantly (p fungal community in these wetland systems. The overall diversity of the fungal community was reduced under the IBP exposure. Taxonomic analysis revealed that 62.2% of the fungal sequences were affiliated with Basidiomycota, followed by Ascomycota (37.4%) at the phylum level. Uncultured fungus (48.2%), Chaetomium sp. (14.2%), Aspergillus sp. (12.4%), Trichoderma sp. (5.7%), Cladosporium sp. (5.4%), and Emericellopsis sp. (5.2%) were identified as dominant genera. At the genus level, a distinct profile of the fungal community in the IBP-enriched mesocosms was observed as compared to the control beds, and as well specific fungal genera were enhanced in the planted beds, regardless of IBP enrichment. However, despite these differences, the composition of the fungal community (as measured by Bray-Curtis similarity) was mostly unaffected by the significant IBP enrichment. On the other hand, a consistent similarity pattern of fungal community structure in the planted mesocosms suggests that the presence of higher macrophytes in the wetland systems may well help shape the fungal community structure.

  6. Concentration and Distribution Characteristics of Airborne Fungi in the Ambient Air of Milad Hospital, Blood Transfusion Organization and Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods Wastewater Treatment Plant

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    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Recently contact with bioaerosols has been presented as an important problem which endangers human being’s health. The aim of this investigation is to compare potential of separation of fungal aerosols in the air around Tehran’s Milad hospital, blood transfusion organization and waste water treatment plant of Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods. methods: this cross-sectional investigation was done in Milad hospital, blood transfusion organization and Tehran’s Shahrake Ghods waste water treatment plant within for 4 months. The sampling was done passively for 1 hour and once in 6 days. The culture medium was Sabouraud dextrose agar. Results: comparing selected sampling stations the most fungal density was for 100 meters after the last unit of waste water treatment plant (67 CFU and the least density was for Milad hospital (30 CFU. Dominant genera of fungal in waste water treatment plant and blood transfusion organization was related to Cladosporium (in order of 49% and 84% and in air around Milad hospital was related to Alternaria (47%. Conclusion: according to the results processing and operating sections in waste water treatment plant can be effective in fungal density and separation of bioaerosols. Therefore it seems to be vital that the responsible organizations should do necessary actions to develop guidelines and standards related to bioaerosols. Also appropriate administration of environmental health in waste water treatment plant can be an important factor in reduction of aerosol separation.

  7. Enzymatic activity of fungi isolated from crops

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    Wioletta A. Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To detect and assess the activity of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and to find differences in enzymograms between fungi isolated from wheat and rye samples and grown on Czapek-Dox Broth and Sabouraud Dextrose Broth enriched with cereal (wheat or rye. Isolated strains were also classified in the scale of biosafety levels (BSL. Material and methods: The study used 23 strains of fungi cultured from samples of wheat and rye (grain, grain dust obtained during threshing and soil collected in the Lublin region (eastern Poland. API ZYM test (bioMérieux was carried out according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Classification of BSL (Biosafety levels was based on the current literature. Results : High enzymatic activity was found in strains cultured in media containing 1% of wheat grain ( Bipolaris holmi, Penicillium decumbens and with an addition of 1% of rye grain ( Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, Alternaria alternata . The total number of enzymes varied depending on the type of media, and in most cases it was higher in the culture where an addition of cereal grains was used. Conclusions : Isolated strains of fungi reveal differences in the profiles of the enzyme assay. It can be assumed that the substrate enriched in grains stimulate the higher activity of mold enzymes. Key words: enzymatic activity, mold fungi, zymogram, biohazards.

  8. Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Contaminations in Iranian Alginate, Foreign Alginate and Speedex Used for Impression in Dentistry

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    Abbas Falah Tafti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Since impression materials usually contact with saliva, blood, and oral soft tissues, their microbial contamination are harmful in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial and fungal contamination in common impression materials. Materials and Methods: In current lab trial study, 5 different samples from each 4 impression materials were homogenized in 1 ml Tween 80 and then 100µl of each sample were cultured onto blood agar, EMB, or sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacterial and fungal cultures were incubated at 37º C and 30º C, respectively. The isolated bacterial and fungal colonies were enumerated and identified using specific diagnostic media and tests. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Totally 75% of samples had one or several bacterial contaminations. Iranian alginate and Speedex (putty were the most contaminated samples. On the other hand, Speedex (light body and foreign alginate showed lower contamination. Species of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacilluses, Corynebacteria, gram negative Citrobacter, Actinomycetes and Neisseria were isolated from the analyzed impression materials. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Sepdonium were the fungi isolated from impression materials. Statistical significant difference was shown between bacterial contamination of Iranian and foreign alginates (P=0.001. There was no statistical significant differences between the bacterial and fungal isolated colonies (CFU/gr of 4 tested impression materials (P=0.21. Conclusion: Several opportunistic bacteria and fungi were isolated from impression materials especially from Iranian alginate and Speedex putty which indicated their contamination.

  9. Organic farming increases richness of fungal taxa in the wheat phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2017-07-01

    Organic farming is often advocated as an approach to mitigate biodiversity loss on agricultural land. The phyllosphere provides a habitat for diverse fungal communities that are important for plant health and productivity. However, it is still unknown how organic farming affects the diversity of phyllosphere fungi in major crops. We sampled wheat leaves from 22 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical location and wheat cultivar. Fungal communities were described using amplicon sequencing and real-time PCR. Species richness was higher on wheat leaves from organically managed fields, with a mean of 54 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) compared with 40 OTUs for conventionally managed fields. The main components of the fungal community were similar throughout the 350-km-long sampling area, and seven OTUs were present in all fields: Zymoseptoria, Dioszegia fristingensis, Cladosporium, Dioszegia hungarica, Cryptococcus, Ascochyta and Dioszegia. Fungal abundance was highly variable between fields, 10 3 -10 5 internal transcribed spacer copies per ng wheat DNA, but did not differ between cropping systems. Further analyses showed that weed biomass was the strongest explanatory variable for fungal community composition and OTU richness. These findings help provide a more comprehensive understanding of the effect of organic farming on the diversity of organism groups in different habitats within the agroecosystem. © 2017 The Authors Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

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    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  11. The effect of treating wheat with Ethrel in conjunction with some fungicides on the susceptibility to fungal diseases and on the root zone mycoflora of this plant

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    Marian Michniewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cv. Grana grown under field conditions, in the early phase of the first node formation, was sprayed with Ethrel (0.35 ml/m2 and with the fungicides: Sportak 45 EC (0.1 ml/m2 and Bayleton Triple (0.2 g/m2 - separately and in conjunction with Ethrel. It was found that Ethrel reduced the plant's susceptibility to infection by Cercosporella herpotrichoides and by species of the genus Fusarium. The fungicides were more active and also reduced the susceptibility to infection by Erysiphe graminis and Puccinia triticina. The fungistatic effect of Ethrel and Sportak was synergistic only in the case of Cercosporella herpotrichoides. Other interactions between Ethrel and fungicides were not found. Ethrel and fungicides only slightly affected the mycoflora of the root but they completely eliminated the fungi of the genus Mucor from the rhizosphere and reduced the participation of isolates of the genus Alternaria and Cladosporium in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of wheat. The fungicides were more active than Ethrel. An interaction between Ethrel and fungicides in the reduction of fungi of the genus Fusarium in the rhizosphere was shown.

  12. Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M

    2008-05-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms.

  13. TRATAMENTOS TÉRMICO E QUÍMICO EM SEMENTES DE MULUNGU E EFEITOS SOBRE A QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA E FISIOLÓGICA

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    Mônica Danielly de Mello Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd. is a Fabaceae, popularly known as mulungu. Of the several species spread around the world about twelve are found in Brazil. Mainly in the Brazilian northeast the bark is used due to its sudorific, sedative and topical anesthetic properties. The presence of fungi in seed germination can reduce, causing the death of seedlings or transmit diseases to adult plants. The work has as objetive to test the thermotherapy and chemical treatment in the control of fungi associated with the mulungu seeds of three districts in the state of Paraiba. The sanity was carried by "Blotter test" and physiological quality of seeds was evaluated by germination, first germination counting and drymass. The heat treatment used was hot water at 60°C for 5, 10 and 20 minutes. The chemical treatment was done with the fungicide Captan® TS. It was used by treatment 100 seeds, which were incubated forseven days, the temperature of 22 ± 2 ° C and photoperiod of 12 hours. The qualitative and quantitative evaluate of the fungi associated with seed was done with the help of stereomicroscope and expressed as a percentage. In the samples examined, it was the incidence of fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium spp., Cladosporium sp., Rhizopus sp., Fusarium sp and Botritis sp. The results show that the heat and chemical treatments reduced significantly the germination and first count of the locations studied.

  14. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

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    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  15. Mycotoxicological and palynological profiles of commercial brands of dried bee pollen

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    Michele Valadares Deveza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPollen is used in the human diet as a food supplement because of its high nutritional value; however, this product is prone to fungal contamination that could potentially generate toxins that are harmful to human health. This study aimed to verify the floral diversity of commercial brands of bee pollen and their mycotoxicological safety for human consumption. A total of 27 bee pollen samples were analyzed; these samples represented commercial brands, either showing an inspection seal or not, marketed in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The analyzed parameters included floral diversity through palynological analysis, water activity, fungal counts, identification and toxigenic profiles. The palynological analysis identified nine plant families, of which the Asteraceae was predominant. Analysis of hygienic quality based on fungal load showed that 92% of samples were reproved according to the commercial, sanitary, and food safety quality indicators. Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most common genera. Toxigenic evaluation showed that 25% of the A. flavus strains produced aflatoxins. The high rate of contamination of products bearing an inspection seal emphasizes the need to monitor the entire procedure of bee pollen production, as well as to revise the current legislation to ensure safe commercialization of this product.

  16. Selection and identification of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene removal from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Espinosa, D V; Fernández-Perrino, F J; Arana-Cuenca, A; Esparza-García, F; Loera, O; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R

    2006-01-01

    This work investigated the identification and selection of fungi isolated from sugarcane bagasse and their application for phenanthrene (Phe) removal from soil. Fungi were identified by PCR amplification of ITS regions as Aspergillus terrus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. A primary selection of fungi was accomplished in plate, considering Phe tolerance of every strain in two different media: potato dextrose agar (PDA) and mineral medium (MM). The radial extension rate (r(r)) in PDA exhibited significant differences (p<0.05) at 200 and 400 ppm of Phe. A secondary selection of A. niger, C. cladosporoides, and P. glabrum sp. was achieved based on their tolerance to 200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm of Phe, in solid culture at a sugarcane bagasse/contaminated soil ratio of 95:5, in Toyamas, Czapeck and Wunder media. Under these conditions, a maximum (70%) Phe removal by A. niger was obtained. In addition C. cladosporioides and A. niger were able to remove high (800 ppm) Phe concentrations.

  17. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina

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    E.E. Aringoli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5-7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1 and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3 or per gram of sample (CFU g-1, respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively.

  18. Aerobiology of the built environment: Synergy between Legionella and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alum, Absar; Isaacs, Galahad Zachariah

    2016-09-02

    The modern built environment (BE) design creates unique ecological niches ideal for the survival and mutual interaction of microbial communities. This investigation focused on the synergistic relations between Legionella and the fungal species commonly found in BEs and the impact of these synergistic relationships on the survival and transmission of Legionella. A field study was conducted to identify the types and concentrations of fungi in BEs. The fungal isolates purified from BEs were cocultured with Legionella to study their synergistic association. Cocultured Legionella cells were aerosolized in an air-tight chamber to evaluate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) to inactivate these cells. Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Cladosporium were the most common fungi detected in samples that tested positive for Legionella. After coculturing, Legionella cells were detected inside fungal hyphae. The microscopic observations of Legionella internalization in fungal hyphae were confirmed by molecular analyses. UV disinfection of the aerosolized Legionella cells that were cocultured with fungi indicated that fungal spores and propagules act as a shield against UV radiation. The shield effect of fungal spores on Legionella cells was quantified at >2.5 log10. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, of Legionella cell presence inside fungi detected in an indoor environment. This symbiotic relationship with fungi results in longer survival of Legionella under ambient conditions and provides protection against UV rays. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India

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    RAM KEERTI VERMA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Soni KK, Pyasi A, Verma RK. 2011. Litter decomposing fungi in sal (Shorea robusta forests of central India. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 136-144. The present study aim on isolation and identification of fungi associated with decomposition of litter of sal forest in central India. Season wise successional changes in litter mycoflora were determined for four main seasons of the year namely, March-May, June-August, September-November and December-February. Fungi like Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were associated with litter decomposition throughout the year, while Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. oxysporum, Curvularia indica, and C. lunata were recorded in three seasons. Some fungi including ectomycorrhiza forming occur only in the rainy season (June-August these are Astraeus hygrometricus, Boletus fallax, Calvatia elata, Colletotrichum dematium, Corticium rolfsii, Mycena roseus, Periconia minutissima, Russula emetica, Scleroderma bovista, S. geaster, S. verrucosum, Scopulariopsis alba and four sterile fungi. Fungi like Alternaria citri, Gleocladium virens, Helicosporium phragmitis and Pithomyces cortarum were rarely recorded only in one season.

  20. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines and effect on quality of indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaifciler, Duygu Göksay; Cotuk, Aysin

    2014-06-01

    The microbiological quality in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) is considered to be important because patients and dental staff with suppressed immune systems are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from dental units (DUs). Opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas, Legionella, Candida, and Aspergillus can be present in DUWLs, while during consultations, bioaerosols can be dispersed in the air, thus resulting in effects on microbiological quality of indoor air. This present study represents microbiological air and water quality in dental offices (DOs) and also concerns the relationship between the quality of DO air and dental unit water. This study aimed to assess both the microbial quality of dental unit water and the indoor air in 20 DOs and to survey the effect on the quality of the indoor air with the existing microorganisms in dental unit water. Fourteen out of 20 (70 %) DUWLs were found to be contaminated with a high number of aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria. In terms of bacterial air contamination levels, in 90 % of DOs, a medium level (contamination was determined, while in terms of microfungal air contamination, in all DOs, a low level (contamination was determined. Potential infection or allergen agents, such as Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces were isolated from water and air samples. This study's determination of contamination sources and evaluation of microbial load in DOs could contribute to the development of quality control methods in the future.

  1. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

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    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  2. [Microbiological quality of the air in "small gastronomy point"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik-Stopczyńska, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was the estimation of microbial contamination of the air in "small gastronomy point". The study included three places, which have been separated on the ground of their function: 1. area of subsidiaries, 2. area of distribution (sale and serving meal), 3. area of consumption. The total numbers of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds were determined by sedimentation method. Taxonomy units of fungal aerosol were also estimated. The samples of air were collected in 16 investigation points in the morning (8-8.30) and in the afternoon (14-14.30). Four series of measurements were carried out and in general 128 of air samples were tested. The results showed that numbers of bacteria, yeasts and moulds were variable and received respectively 30-3397, 0-254 and 0-138 cfu x m(-3). Microbial contamination of air changed depending on area character (the highest average count of bacteria occurred in the air of consumption area and fungi in subsidiaries area), time of a day (contamination of the air increased in the afternoon) and determination date. Only in single samples the numbers of bacteria and fungi were higher than recommended level. Pigmentary bacteria had high participation in total count of bacteria and filamentous fungi were represented mostly by Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp.

  3. Culturable fungi in potting soils and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Doris; Lesch, Susanne; Buzina, Walter; Galler, Herbert; Gutschi, Anna Maria; Habib, Juliana; Pfeifer, Bettina; Luxner, Josefa; Reinthaler, Franz F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the spectrum and the incidence of fungi in potting soils and compost was investigated. Since soil is one of the most important biotopes for fungi, relatively high concentrations of fungal propagules are to be expected. For detection of fungi, samples of commercial soils, compost and soils from potted plants (both surface and sub-surface) were suspended and plated onto several mycological media. The resulting colonies were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results from the different sampling series vary, but concentrations on the surface of potted plants and in commercial soils are increased tenfold compared to compost and sub-surface soils. Median values range from 9.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/g to 5.5 × 10(5) CFU/g. The spectrum of fungi also varies in the soils. However, all sampling series show high proportion of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including potentially pathogenic species such as Aspergillus fumigatus. Cladosporium, a genus dominant in the ambient air, was found preferably in samples which were in contact with the air. The results show that potentially pathogenic fungi are present in soils. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid handling soils or potted plants in their immediate vicinity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web

  5. Evaluación de Hongos Antagonistas De Botrytis cinerea Pers., en Plantaciones de Mora, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Marín-Chacón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó el aislamiento, identificación y evaluación in vitro y en campo de hongos antagonistas de Botrytis cinerea Pers., en plantaciones de mora. La obtención de organismos antagonistas se hizo en Cartago en las localidades de La Luchita, Bajo Canet, Jardín y División durante el 2012. De los frutos se obtuvo un grupo de 43 aislamientos pertenecientes a 10 géneros distintos de los hongos: Aspergillus sp., Bispora sp., Cladosporium spp., Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia sp., Macrophoma sp., Paecilomyces spp., Pestalotia spp., Rhizoctonia sp., y Trichoderma spp. A todos los aislamientos se les realizaron pruebas de capacidad antagónica, mediante la técnica de cultivos duales, competencia por sustrato y antibiosis. Se seleccionaron solamente los aislamientos que superaron un 70% del PIC, y estos fueron 4 aislamientos (BC1, J14, J2.2 y J2.1 del género Trichoderma spp. Para las pruebas de campo se utilizaron 3 aislamientos (BC1, J2.2 y J2.1 del presente trabajo y 3 (BV1, SM13B y SM18 del mismo género previamente aislados. Las pruebas de campo se realizaron en el 2013. Los aislamientos de Trichoderma spp., que tuvieron estadísticamente (p≤0,0001 mayor efecto sobre B. cinerea fueron BV1 y BC1, los cuales dieron menos frutos enfermos.

  6. FUNGOS CAUSADORES DE PODRIDÕES PÓS-COLHEITA EM UVAS APIRÊNICAS NO PÓLO AGRÍCOLA DE JUAZEIRO-BA E PETROLINA-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RÚBIA BRITO CAMARGO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, postharvest diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are a major problem that causes damage to around 80% of the total fruit production. In the lower middle São Francisco river valley numerous studies on identification and control of fungal diseases during postharvest of grapes are needed, in order to minimize losses in this step. In this context, bunches of seedless varieties 'Crimson', 'Sonaka'; 'Superior' and 'Thompson' were collected from July to November 2009, in order to identify and quantify the incidence of pathogenic fungi. The grapes were collected on five farms which specialize in the production of table grapes for export, all located in Juazeiro - BA and Petrolina - PE. During this period, 10 samples were taken. In the fruit farm five plants were used for sampling, and removal of two bunches of grapes per plant, totaling 10 bunches per variety. Subsequently, they were sent to the laboratory of Plant Pathology at UNEB/DTCS where they were placed separately in a moist chamber for 48 hours at an average temperature of 23 ºC. After this period, isolations of berries and stems in Petri plates containing PDA - potato-dextrose-agar were carried out with 10 repetitions, which were placed on benches under laboratory conditions. From the 8th day on, the presence of Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, Lasiodiploidia theobromae was observed, which presented the highest incidence, as well as Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium expansum.

  7. Fungi in spices and mycotoxigenic potential of some Aspergilli isolated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcelo Valle; Parussolo, Gilson; Moro, Camila Brombilla; Bernardi, Angélica Olivier; Copetti, Marina Venturini

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify fungal species present in 200 samples of rosemary, fennel, cinnamon, clove, pepperoni, black and white pepper and oregano and evaluate the mycotoxigenic potential of the some Aspergilli isolated. Clove, black and white peppers were analyzed by direct plating. For rosemary, cinnamon, fennel, pepperoni pepper and oregano samples were used spread plate. Mycotoxigenic capacity was verified by the agar plug method. With the exception of clove, all the spices showed high fungal contamination, especially by Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. Frequency of toxigenic Aspergillus spp. was intense in white and black peppers, with presence of Aspergillus flavus (up to 32%), Aspergillus nomius (up to 12%), Aspergillus parasiticus (up to 4%), Aspergillus niger complex (up to 52%), Aspergillus ochraceus (up 12%) and Aspergillus carbonarius (up to 4%). 14,2% of A. flavus isolated from black pepper were aflatoxins producers. In the white pepper, 66.7% of A. flavus isolates and 100% of A. nomius were aflatoxigenic. Oregano showed the highest number of A. niger complex isolates (49), however, only 2.04% produced ochratoxin A. This study showed a huge fungal presence in spices, which could compromise the sensorial quality of these products and represent a hazard for consumers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

  9. Physiological aspects of fungi isolated from root nodules of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, S A; Abd-Alla, M H

    2000-03-01

    The present study was made to isolate and assess some physiological characteristics of root nodule-colonizing fungi. During this study, 17 fungal species were isolated from root nodule samples taken from faba bean plants (Vicia faba L.) collected from different sites at Assiut area (Egypt). The growth of faba bean plants in pots was significantly promoted by soil inoculation with most fungi. Growth was checked in pots with inocula of Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium moniliforme, F: oxysporium, F solani, Macrophominia phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani which were added separately. All growth-promoting fungi were capable of producing cellulase, pectin lyase, polygalacturonase, protease, urease, amidase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and arylsulfatase in growth medium supplemented with the corresponding substrates. Four fungal species, Aspergillus awamori, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Trichoderma koningii showed the highest rates of enzyme formation. The effect of the addition of six trace elements to the growth media at 30 micromol/ml on enzyme production revealed some dependency on species, enzyme and metal ion. Cd2+, Hg2+ and Zn2+ generally inhibited enzyme activity. Cu(1+), Fe3+ and Al3+ showed a stimulatory effect. Fungicides (afugan and tilt) and herbicides (brominal and fusilade) at 50 ppm generally promoted enzyme activity, but insecticides (kelthane and fenvalerate) caused some inhibition to enzyme activities. Salinization of the growth media with NaCl strongly inhibited the enzymatic activity of all fungi at concentrations between 0.5 and 1.5%.

  10. Fungicide contamination reduces beneficial fungi in bee bread based on an area-wide field study in honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jay A; Jajack, Andrew J; Rosselot, Andrew E; Smith, Terrance J; Yerke, Mary Clare; Sammataro, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation by fungi converts stored pollen into bee bread that is fed to honey bee larvae, Apis mellifera, so the diversity of fungi in bee bread may be related to its food value. To explore the relationship between fungicide exposure and bee bread fungi, samples of bee bread collected from bee colonies pollinating orchards from 7 locations over 2 years were analyzed for fungicide residues and fungus composition. There were detectable levels of fungicides from regions that were sprayed before bloom. An organic orchard had the highest quantity and variety of fungicides, likely due to the presence of treated orchards within bees' flight range. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Cladosporium (beneficial fungi) were the primary fungal isolates found, regardless of habitat differences. There was some variation in fungal components amongst colonies, even within the same apiary. The variable components were Absidia, Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Nigrospora, Paecilomyces, Scopulariopsis, and Trichoderma. The number of fungal isolates was reduced as an effect of fungicide contamination. Aspergillus abundance was particularly affected by increased fungicide levels, as indicated by Simpson's diversity index. Bee bread showing fungicide contamination originated from colonies, many of which showed chalkbrood symptoms.

  11. Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms in a tropical mangrove swamp oilfield location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benka-Coker, M.O.; Olumagin, A. [Benin Univ. (Nigeria). Dept. of Microbiology

    1995-12-31

    Waste drilling-fluid-utilising microorganisms were isolated from drilling-mud cuttings, soil and creek water from a mangrove swamp oilfield location in the Delta area of Nigeria using waste drilling-fluid as the substrate. Eighteen bacterial isolates obtained were identified as species of Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Serratia, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Nocardia, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas, while the genera of fungi isolated were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Fusarium. Even though drilling-fluid-utilising genera were in higher numbers in the soil than in the two other sources examined, the percentages of the total heterotrophic bacteria that utilised waste drilling-fluid were 6.02 in the drilling-mud cuttings, 0.83 in creek water and 0.42 in soil. The screen tests for biodegradation potential of the bacterial isolates showed that, even though all the isolates were able to degrade and utilise the waste fluid for growth, species of Alcaligenes and Micrococcus were more active degraders of the waste. The significance of the results in environmental management in oil-producing areas of Nigeria is discussed. (Author)

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P{<=}0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  13. Estimating the abundance of airborne pollen and fungal spores at variable elevations using an aircraft: how high can they fly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damialis, Athanasios; Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Konoglou, Maria; Akritidis, Ioannis; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Gioulekas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-16

    Airborne pollen and fungal spores are monitored mainly in highly populated, urban environments, for allergy prevention purposes. However, their sources can frequently be located outside cities' fringes with more vegetation. So as to shed light to this paradox, we investigated the diversity and abundance of airborne pollen and fungal spores at various environmental regimes. We monitored pollen and spores using an aircraft and a car, at elevations from sea level to 2,000 m above ground, in the region of Thesssaloniki, Greece. We found a total of 24 pollen types and more than 15 spore types. Pollen and spores were detected throughout the elevational transect. Lower elevations exhibited higher pollen concentrations in only half of plant taxa and higher fungal spore concentrations in only Ustilago. Pinaceae and Quercus pollen were the most abundant recorded by airplane (>54% of the total). Poaceae pollen were the most abundant via car measurements (>77% of the total). Cladosporium and Alternaria spores were the most abundant in all cases (aircraft: >69% and >17%, car: >45% and >27%, respectively). We conclude that pollen and fungal spores can be diverse and abundant even outside the main source area, evidently because of long-distance transport incidents.

  14. Microbial evaluation of fresh, minimally-processed vegetables and bagged sprouts from chain supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khaniki, Gholam Reza Jahed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran.

  15. Microbial Evaluation of Fresh, Minimally-processed Vegetables and Bagged Sprouts from Chain Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddi, Maryam Zare; Yunesian, Masud; Gorji, Mohamad Es'haghi; Noori, Negin; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial and fungal quality of minimally-processed vegetables (MPV) and sprouts. A total of 116 samples of fresh-cut vegetables, ready-to-eat salads, and mung bean and wheat sprouts were randomly collected and analyzed. The load of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was minimum and maximum in the fresh-cut vegetables and fresh mung bean sprouts respectively, corresponding to populations of 5.3 and 8.5 log CFU/g. E. coli O157:H7 was found to be absent in all samples; however,  other E. coli strains were detected in 21 samples (18.1%), and Salmonella spp. were found in one mung bean (3.1%) and one ready-to-eat salad sample (5%). Yeasts were the predominant organisms and were found in 100% of the samples. Geotrichum, Fusarium, and Penicillium spp. were the most prevalent molds in mung sprouts while Cladosporium and Penicillium spp. were most frequently found in ready-to-eat salad samples. According to results from the present study, effective control measures should be implemented to minimize the microbiological contamination of fresh produce sold in Tehran, Iran. PMID:25395902

  16. Antifungal Activities of Extracts from Selected Lebanese Wild Plants against Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abou-Jawdah

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine plant species growing wild in Lebanon were tested for their efficacy against seven plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaerotheca cucurbitae. Extracts of three of the plants, Origanum syriacum, Micromeria nervosa and Plumbago maritima, showed the highest levels of in vitro activity against spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungi tested. Inula viscosa showed high activity against spore germination but only moderate activity against mycelial growth. The other five plant species tested Calamintha origanifolia, Micromeria juliana, Ruta sp., Sideritis pullulans and Urginea maritima showed only moderate to low activity against these fungi. Preventive sprays with extracts of O. syriacum, M. nervosa, P. maritima and I. viscosa, applied at concentrations ranging between 4 and 8% to squash and cucumber seedlings, gave efficient protection against gray mold caused by B. cinerea and powdery mildew caused by S. cucurbitae. However, these extracts did not control green mold of citrus fruits caused by Penicillium sp. Thin layer chromatography revealed three inhibitory bands in extracts of O. syriacum, two in I. viscosa and only one in each of the other plants tested: M. nervosa, P. maritima, C. origanifolia and Ruta sp.

  17. Evaluation of the Effect of UV Radiation on the Fungal Species Before and After Surgery Operations in the Alborz Province Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tulabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital operating rooms are one of the most sensitive parts of hospital which observe their hygiene is very important. Fungal spores present in the hospital air can cause many nosocomial infections. The Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal pollution in the air of operation room in the Alborz Province selected hospitals. Methods: In this study, the operating rooms of two hospitals were selected according to the type of activity and hospitalized patients for sampling. Sampling was carried out before the first operation at 6 AM, when the operating room had been disinfected by UV light, and after the last operation at 12 PM, when the pollution was too much. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar according to open plate method. Results: The most fungi found in the hospitals operating rooms air were allocated to the Cladosporium, Penicillium, Mucor, and Aspergillus flavus genus which were equal to 36.8%, 18.47, 13.2, and 10.5%, respectively. The highest and lowest pollution rate was related to operating room and cosmetic surgery room, respectively. Conclusion: According to the obtained results, a positive pressure ventilation system can be a good option to control and prevention of nosocomial infections caused by fungi agents.

  18. Microscopic, chemical, and molecular-biological investigation of the decayed medieval stained window glasses of two Catalonian churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Gimeno-Torrente, Domingo; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose Luis; Ettenauer, Jörg; Sterflinger, Katja

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the decayed historical church window glasses of two Catalonian churches, both under Mediterranean climate. Glass surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their chemical composition was determined by wavelength-dispersive spectrometry (WDS) microprobe analysis. The biodiversity was investigated by molecular methods: DNA extraction from glass, amplification by PCR targeting the16S rRNA and ITS regions, and fingerprint analyses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Clone libraries containing either PCR fragments of the bacterial 16S rDNA or the fungal ITS regions were screened by DGGE. Clone inserts were sequenced and compared with the EMBL database. Similarity values ranged from 89 to 100% to known bacteria and fungi. Biological activity in both sites was evidenced in the form of orange patinas, bio-pitting, and mineral precipitation. Analyses revealed complex bacterial communities consisting of members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Fungi showed less diversity than bacteria, and species of the genera Cladosporium and Phoma were dominant. The detected Actinobacteria and fungi may be responsible for the observed bio-pitting phenomenon. Moreover, some of the detected bacteria are known for their mineral precipitation capabilities. Sequence results also showed similarities with bacteria commonly found on deteriorated stone monuments, supporting the idea that medieval stained glass biodeterioration in the Mediterranean area shows a pattern comparable to that on stone.

  19. Effects of Systemic Pesticides Imidacloprid and Metalaxyl on the Phyllosphere of Pepper Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinos Moulas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbes inhabiting the phyllosphere of crops are exposed to pesticides applied either directly onto plant foliage or indirectly through soil. Although, phyllosphere microbiology has been rapidly evolving, little is still known regarding the impact of pesticides on the epiphytic microbial community and especially on fungi. We determined the impact of two systemic pesticides (metalaxyl and imidacloprid, applied either on foliage or through soil, on the epiphytic fungal and bacterial communities via DGGE and cloning. Both pesticides induced mild effects on the fungal and the bacterial communities. The only exception was the foliage application of imidacloprid which showed a more prominent effect on the fungal community. Cloning showed that the fungal community was dominated by putative plant pathogenic ascomycetes (Erysiphaceae and Cladosporium, while a few basidiomycetes were also present. The former ribotypes were not affected by pesticides application, while selected yeasts (Cryptococcus were stimulated by the application of imidacloprid suggesting a potential role in its degradation. A less diverse bacterial community was identified in pepper plants. Metalaxyl stimulated an Enterobacteriaceae clone which is an indication of the involvement of members of this family in fungicide degradation. Further studies will focus on the isolation of epiphytic microbes which appear to be stimulated by pesticides application.

  20. Effects of simulated acid precipitation and liming on pine litter decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishac, Y.Z.; Hovland, J.

    1976-01-01

    The decomposition of withered lodgepole pine needles (Pinus contorta douglas) has been studied in a laboratory experiment. The needles were picked from trees that have been irrigated with simulated acid rain at pH 5.6 or 3.0. The soil beneath some of the trees was limed. The decomposition of the needles increased with temperature and incubation period. Liming of the soil retarded the decomposition of the needles that have been given rain at pH 3, while irrigation with 50 mm of water per month at pH 3 increased the decomposition compared with 25 mm/month. When needles were incubated in dilute sulphuric acid, the decomposition was reduced at pH 1.8 compared to the decomposition at pH 3.5. At pH 1.0 no decomposition occurred. Fungi were isolated from the needles. The different treatments did not seem to affect the composition of the fungal flora of the needles. The fungi were tested for their ability to decompose cellulose. The four most active cellulose decomposeres were Trichoderma harzianum, Coniothyrium sp., Cladosporium macrocarpum, and a sterile white mycelium. T. harzianum seemed to be more tolerant to acid conditions than the other fungi.

  1. Potential exposures associated with indoor marijuana growing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyny, John W; Serrano, Kate A; Schaeffer, Joshua W; Van Dyke, Mike V

    2013-01-01

    We entered a total of 30 indoor marijuana grow operations (IMGO) with law enforcement investigators in order to determine potential exposures to first responders. Samples for airborne fungal spores, volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were obtained as well as the identification of chemicals utilized in the IMGO. The chemicals utilized within the IMGOs were primarily pesticides and fertilizers with none showing high toxicity. Although several of the IMGOs had CO2 enrichment processes involving combustion, CO levels were not elevated. THC levels were identified on surfaces within the IMGOs and on the hands of the investigators. Surface levels ranged from indoor and outdoor samples with Cladosporium sp. the predominant outdoor species and Penicillium sp. the predominant indoor species. We concluded that the potential increase in fungal spore concentrations associated with the investigation and especially removal of the marijuana plants could potentially expose responders to levels of exposure consistent with those associated with mold remediation processes and that respiratory protection is advisable.

  2. Чувствительность микромицетов к тяжелым металлам

    OpenAIRE

    Кориновская, О.; Гришко, В.

    2011-01-01

    Определена чувствительность 33 видов микромицетов к азотнокислым соединениям купрума, плюмбума, цинка, никеля и кадмия. Чувствительными к минимальному содержанию (0,75 ПДК) тяжелых металлов в среде оказались Absidia butleri Lendn, Mortierella vanesae Dixon-Stewart, Cunninghamella echinulata Thaxte, Curvularia tuberculata Jain, Cladosporium cladosporiodes (Fresen) G. A. de Vries и Fusarium solani (C. Mart.) Appel et Wollenw, тогда как у Trixoderma longibrachiatiim Rifai, Alternaria alternatа (...

  3. Fungal endophytes from Acer ginnala Maxim: isolation, identification and their yield of gallic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, F-H; Jing, T-Z; Wang, Z-X; Zhan, Y-G

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate the endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala and screen isolates rich in gallic acid. After epiphytic sterilization, 145 fungal endophytes were isolated from the stem, annual twig and seed of Acer ginnala. The endophytes were grouped into ten different taxa, Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp., Phoma sp., Epicoccum sp., Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Trichoderma sp., Cladosporium sp. and a species of Pleosporales Incertae Sedis, by their morphological traits and ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The content and yield of gallic acid of 141 isolates were determined by HPLC. On average, the species of Pleosporales Incertae Sedis had the highest content and yield of gallic acid (13.28 mg g(-1) DW; 119.62 mg l(-1)), while Alternaria sp. had the lowest. Of 141 fungal endophytes from A. ginnala, Phomopsis sp. isolate SX10 showed both the highest content and the highest yield of gallic acid (29.25 mg g(-1) DW; 200.47 mg l(-1)). Endophytic fungi isolated from A. ginnala may be used as potential producers of gallic acid and other compounds with biological activities, or functioned as elicitors to produce natural compounds.

  4. Assessment of functional traits in the assemblage of endophytic fungi of anacardium othonianum rizzini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, P. S.; Senabio, J. A.; Soares, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Plants maintain symbiotic relationships with microorganisms as a strategy to withstand adversities. From this exchange, organisms receive photoassimilates and provide benefits to the plant. Anacardium othonianum Rizzini, locally known as caju-de-arvore-do-cerrado (tree cashew of the cerrado), is a tree species of the family Anacardiaceae nativeto the Midwest region of Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize the culturable endophytic fungal community, its functional traits and its association with the roots of A. othonianum. The roots of A. othonianum were fragmented (1 cm) and inoculated in medium for the isolation of endophytic microorganisms. The molecular identification of the isolates was performed through the partial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The endophytic isolates were tested for the synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA) and phosphate solubilization through the colorimetric method. The root fragments were cleared, stained and examined under a microscope. Structures characteristic of endomycorrhizal and endophytic microorganisms were found on the slides analyzed. A total of 67 fungal strains were isolated and identified in 12 species: Fusarium oxysporum, Bionectria ochroleuca, Periconia macrospinosa, Phomopsis lagerstroemiae, Penicillium kloeckeri, Eupenicillium shearii, Phomopsis asparagi, Penicillium pinophilum, Agaricomycetes sp., Diaporthe sp., Cladosporium cladosporioide sand Paecilomyces lilacinus. All the genera found have been reported in the literature as endophytic species. It can be concluded that A. othonianum maintains associations with endomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. Twelve endophytic strains were isolated from A. othonianum Rizzini, seven of which have potential for phosphate solubilization and IAA synthesis. (author)

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P≤0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  6. Gamma irradiation of cultural artifacts for disinfection using Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Yoon, Minchul; Kim, Dongho

    2012-01-01

    In this study, it has been investigated the disinfection of Korean cultural artifacts by gamma irradiation, simulating the absorbed dose distribution on the object with the Monte Carlo methodology. Fungal contamination was identified on two traditional Korean agricultural tools, Hongdukkae and Holtae, which had been stored in a museum. Nine primary species were identified from these items: Bjerkandera adusta, Dothideomycetes sp., Penicillium sp., Cladosporium tenuissimum, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium sp., Entrophospora sp., Aspergillus sydowii, and Corynascus sepedonium. However, these fungi were completely inactivated by gamma irradiation at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy on the front side. Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code was used to simulate the doses applied to these cultural artifacts, and the measured dose distributions were well predicted by the simulations. These results show that irradiation is effective for the disinfection of cultural artifacts and that dose distribution can be predicted with Monte Carlo simulations, allowing the optimization of the radiation treatment. - Highlights: ► Radiation was applied for the disinfection of Korean cultural artifacts. ► Fungi on the artifacts were completely inactivated by the irradiation. ► Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code was used to predict the dose distribution. ► This study is applicable for the preservation of cultural artifacts by irradiation.

  7. Bioactive metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. 1 and sp. 2, two endophytes associated with Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camila M; Silva, Geraldo H; Regasini, Luis O; Zanardi, Lisinéia M; Evangelista, Alana H; Young, Maria C M; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Araujo, Angela R

    2009-01-01

    In the course of our continuous search for bioactive metabolites from endophytic fungi living in plants from the Brazilian flora, leaves of Alibertia macrophylla (Rubiaceae) were submitted to isolation of endophytes, and two species of Penicillium were isolated. The acetonitrile fraction obtained in corn from a culture of Penicillium sp. 1 afforded orcinol (1). On the other hand, Penicillium sp. 1 cultivated in potato-dextrose-broth furnished two different compounds, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Val) (2) and uracil (3). The chromatographic fractionation of the acetonitrile fraction obtained from Penicillium sp. 2 led to three dihydroisocoumarins, 4-hydroxymellein (4), 8-methoxymellein (5) and 5-hydroxymellein (6). Compounds 5 and 6 were obtained from the Penicillium genus for the first time. Additionally, metabolites 1-6 were evaluated for their antifungal and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. The most active compounds 1 and 4 exhibited detection limits of 5.00 and 10.0 microg against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, respectively. Compound 2 showed a detection limit of 10.0 microg, displaying potent AChE inhibitory activity.

  8. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbevi, M. K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly ( P⩽0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp.

  9. Dermatophytes and saprobe fungi isolated from dogs and cats in the city of Fortaleza, Brazil

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    Paixão G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of saprobe fungi in dermatomycoses, as well as the determination of the incidence of dermatophytes in dogs and cats were studied. During a period of one year, 74 dogs and 18 cats, with cutaneous lesions suggesting mycoses were included in this study. The mycological analyses were conducted by direct microscopy and by fungal culture on Sabouraud agar, chloramphenicol Sabouraud agar and mycosel agar. Of the 92 samples, 21 resulted in positive cultures for dermatophytes. Dermatophyte fungi pure cultures were obtained from 13 samples. A simultaneous growth of dermatophytes plus saprobe fungi was observed in 8 of the samples. Of the remaining 71 samples, no fungal growth was observed in 10 samples, and at minimum the growth of one saprobe fungi in 61. One, two and three genera of saprobe fungi were isolated in 29, 30 and 2 samples, respectively. Microsporum canis was isolated in 6 (28.6 % and 10 samples (47.6 % from cats and dogs, respectively, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in 2 (9.5 % and 3 samples (14.3 % from cats and dogs, respectively. The following genera of saprobe fungi were also isolated: Alternaria sp (1.9%, Chaetomium sp (1.9%, Rhizopus sp (2.9%, Curvularia sp (3.9%, Candida sp (6.8%, Trichoderma sp (6.8%, Fusarium sp (7.8%, Cladosporium sp (8.7%, Penicillium sp (21.4% and Aspergillus sp (37.9%.

  10. Antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion of Laemostenus punctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) against cave-dwelling micromycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Marija; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Ćirić, Ana; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Živković, Nemanja; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2017-06-01

    The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium. Five isolates were selected for testing the antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion: Talaromyces duclauxi, Aspergillus brunneouniseriatus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, and Trichoderma viride. The microdilution method has been applied to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). The most sensitive isolate was Penicillium sp., while the other isolates demonstrated a high level of resistance to the tested agent. L. punctatus has developed a special mechanism of producing specific compounds that act synergistically within the secretion mixture, which are responsible for the antifungal action against pathogens from the cave. The results open opportunities for further research in the field of ground beetle defense against pathogens, which could have an important application in human medicine, in addition to the environmental impact, primarily.

  11. Isolation and evaluation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial ability from Phyllostachys edulis

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    Xiaoye Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi (30 isolates from bamboo branches were categorized into 12 genera, based on the blast analyses of ITS nrDNA sequence in GenBank and microscopic examination. The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of endophytic fungi. Inhibitory effects against clinical pathogens and phytopathogens have been screened for all the isolates preliminarily and strains tentatively identified as Cladosporium sphaerospermum (PE106, Simplicillium lanosoniveum (PE120, Curvularia sp. (PE127, Didymella sp. (PE128 and Penicillium cf. raistrickii (PE130 presented bioactivity against at least four tested pathogens using the agar diffusion method. Crude extracts of PE106, PE120, PE127 and PE130 displayed broad-spectrum activity against plant pathogenic fungi by mycelial radial growth test. All of the four isolates were found to have high bioactivity against the frequent plant pathogenic fungus Botryotinia fuckeliana, and two of the isolates (PE120 and PE130 also inhibited the growth of phytopathogen Thanatephorus cucumeris noteworthily. This study is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with branches of Ph. edulis.

  12. Incidence of fungus and physiological quality of seeds of Jatropha curcas L. after cryogenic storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Goldfarb

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of fungi in stored seeds of Jatropha curcas. The research was carried out at Cryogenic/UFCG, Sanity/UFPB and Cotton/Embrapa. The material for analysis showed an 8% water level, and 200 seeds were stored for treatment in cryogenic containers with nitrogen in the vapor and liquid phases. Four periods of crioconservation (0, 30, 60 and 90 days, were employed. After each period, the seeds were tested for sanity (Blotter test and germination. Superficial disinfestation, was carried out and seeds were distributed in Petri dishes, for incubation at 25 ± 2ºC, over a period of 7 days. The evaluation of the incidence of fungi was carried out in a stereoscopic microscope with observation of fungal structures, and values were expressed as percentages of seeds with fungus. The statistical experiment was completely randomized with temperature x days of storage. Analysis of variance was conducted and the means were compared by Tukey’s test at 5%. After 30 days of cryogenic storage, a greater incidence of Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. was detected. It was concluded that crioconservation at cryogenic temperatures did not reduce the incidence of fungus on Jatropha curcas seeds. The physiological quality was preserved during the cryoconservation.

  13. Seasonal variation of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spore concentrations in urban and suburban districts of the city of Szczecin, Poland

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    Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies,[i] Ganoderma[/i] may be the third genus, after [i]Alternaria[/i] and [i]Cladosporium[/i], the spores of which cause symptoms of allergy, and concentration is related to meteorological factors. The aerobiology of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spores in Szczecin in urban and suburban districts was examined using Lanzoni Volumetric Spore Traps in 2008–2010. [i]Ganoderma[/i] spores were present in the atmosphere on more than 90% of the days from June through September with peak concentrations in June, July and September. The number of days with spores was lower in the suburban district, while the total number of spores collected was higher there than in the urban district. Correlation and multiple regression analyses revealed weak relationships between [i]Ganoderma[/i] and meteorological conditions, while testing the significance of differences between the districts showed that urban development did not have a clear impact on the values of meteorological parameters. A significantly higher abundance of spores in the suburbs of Szczecin seemed to be conditioned by the closeness of potential area sources. This study indicates that a single measuring site in the city centre insufficiently reflected the dynamics and level of [i]Ganoderma[/i] spore concentration in peripheral districts.

  14. Fungal biocatalysts in the biofiltration of VOC-polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, Christian; Veiga, María C

    2004-09-30

    Gas-phase biofilters used for the treatment of waste gases were originally packed with compost or other natural filter beds containing indigenous microorganisms. Over the past decade much effort has been made to develop new carrier materials, more performant biocatalysts and new types of bioreactors. Elimination capacities reached nowadays are 5 to 10 times higher than those originally reported with conventional compost biofilters. With the recently developed inert filter beds, inoculation is a prerequisite for successful start-up and operation. Either non-defined mixed cultures or pure bacterial cultures have originally been used. The search for efficient fungal biocatalysts started only a few years ago, mainly for the biofiltration of waste gases containing hydrophobic compounds, such as styrene, alpha-pinene, benzene, or alkylbenzenes. In this review, recently isolated new fungal strains able to degrade alkylbenzenes and other related volatile organic pollutants are described, as well as their major characteristics and their use as biocatalysts in gas-phase biofilters for air pollution control. In biofiltration, the most extensively studied organism belongs to the genus Exophiala, although strains of Scedosporium, Paecilomyces, Cladosporium, Cladophialophora, and white-rot fungi are all potential candidates for use in biofilters. Encouraging results were obtained in most of the cases in which some of those organisms were present in gas-phase biofilters. They allow reaching high elimination capacities and are resistant to low pH values and to reduce moisture content.

  15. [Hazardous food-borne fungi and present and future approaches to the mycotoxin regulations in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Kosuke; Aihara, Maki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, various food-related accidents and health scares have dissipated trust in the food industry. Health hazards resulting from food contaminated with fungi is increasing. Food contamination by fungi causes many problems, especially in Japan, which relies on foreign countries for about 60% of its food: the contamination of imported food by fungi and mycotoxins constitutes a serious problem. As the quantity of imported food increases and changes in food distribution have occurred, so too has the number and type of fungi causing food-related damages; osmophilic and thermotolerant fungi, in addition to the mainstream fungi of genera Cladosporium, Pecinillium, and Aspergillus, have become a problem. Although European countries and the U.S. have recently conducted risk assessments for mycotoxins, Japan has not attained an international level in the determination of baseline values. However, in addition to risk management for Aflatoxin M1, Ochratoxin, T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin, and Fumonisin, determination of baseline values for mycotoxins is beginning in Japan. In this review, we summarize hazardous food-borne fungi, and present and future approaches to the mycotoxin regulations in Japan.

  16. Identifying airborne fungi in Seoul, Korea using metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Yoon; Fong, Jonathan J; Park, Myung Soo; Chang, Limseok; Lim, Young Woon

    2014-06-01

    Fungal spores are widespread and common in the atmosphere. In this study, we use a metagenomic approach to study the fungal diversity in six total air samples collected from April to May 2012 in Seoul, Korea. This springtime period is important in Korea because of the peak in fungal spore concentration and Asian dust storms, although the year of this study (2012) was unique in that were no major Asian dust events. Clustering sequences for operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identification recovered 1,266 unique OTUs in the combined dataset, with between 223᾿96 OTUs present in individual samples. OTUs from three fungal phyla were identified. For Ascomycota, Davidiella (anamorph: Cladosporium) was the most common genus in all samples, often accounting for more than 50% of all sequences in a sample. Other common Ascomycota genera identified were Alternaria, Didymella, Khuskia, Geosmitha, Penicillium, and Aspergillus. While several Basidiomycota genera were observed, Chytridiomycota OTUs were only present in one sample. Consistency was observed within sampling days, but there was a large shift in species composition from Ascomycota dominant to Basidiomycota dominant in the middle of the sampling period. This marked change may have been caused by meteorological events. A potential set of 40 allergy-inducing genera were identified, accounting for a large proportion of the diversity present (22.5᾿7.2%). Our study identifies high fungal diversity and potentially high levels of fungal allergens in springtime air of Korea, and provides a good baseline for future comparisons with Asian dust storms.

  17. Production of citreoviridin by Penicillium citreonigrum strains associated with rice consumption and beriberi cases in the Maranhão State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, C A R; Keller, K M; Oliveira, A A; Almeida, T X; Keller, L A M; Marassi, A C; Kruger, C D; Deveza, M V; Monteiro, B S; Nunes, L M T; Astoreca, A; Cavaglieri, L R; Direito, G M; Eifert, E C; Lima, T A S; Modernell, K G; Nunes, F I B; Garcia, A M; Luz, M S; Oliveira, D C N

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of Penicillium citreonigrum and citreoviridin present in rice samples from Maranhão State, Brazil, where an outbreak of beriberi was reported and 32 deaths occurred (7% of the notified cases died in 2006). The ability of P. citreonigrum to produce citreoviridin was assessed, and a total of 420 samples of 21 different kinds of rice were collected. Mycobiota isolation and identification, the ability of citreoviridin strains to produce toxin, and the natural occurrence of citreoviridin were established. Rice samples were found to have high fungal counts and showed increasing levels from 2004 to 2007 harvest years. The most frequent genus was Aspergillus followed by Penicillium and Cladosporium. Ten out of eleven strains of P. citreonigrum were able to produce citreoviridin. Three rice samples had levels of citreoviridin ranging from 12 to 96.7 ng g(-1), and two bran samples had levels of 128 and 254 ng g(-1). These samples contaminated with P. citreonigrum and citreoviridin were involved in the beriberi cases from Maranhão State. Monitoring rice for mycotoxins in areas where this substrate is the basic food is crucial to prevent outbreaks like the one reported in this study, to improve management practice, and to diminish exposure risk of humans to these harmful toxins.

  18. Mycoflora and aflatoxigenic species in derivatives of milled rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIMA Carlos A. P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty samples of rough rice stored for 6, 12 and 24 months in government authorized warehouses of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were simultaneously collected. After milling of the product, 90 samples (30 of polished rice, 30 of rice bran and 30 of rice hull were evaluated for their mycoflora, aflatoxigenic species and aflatoxin contamination. The following fungi, listed in decreasing order of frequency, were isolated on Potato-Dextrose Agar: Aspergillus spp., Nigrospora spp., Penicillium spp.; Fusarium spp.; Mucor spp.; Cladosporium spp.; Trichosporon spp. and non-sporulated fungi. The degree of fungal contamination (colony forming units per gram of product was lowest in polished rice, increasing progressively in samples of rice bran and rice hull. Among the Aspergillus species, A. flavus and A. candidus were isolated most frequently. Of the A. flavus isolates, 52.6% strains were found to be toxigenic and produced only Group B aflatoxins. Analysis of the 90 samples did not reveal the presence of aflatoxins in the rice derivatives.

  19. Microbiological quality of air in free-range and box-stall stable horse keeping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny-Koładka, Katarzyna

    2018-04-07

    The aim of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of air in three horse riding centers differing in the horse keeping systems. The air samples were collected in one facility with free-range horse keeping system and two with box stalls of different sizes. The samples were collected over a period of 3 years (2015-2017), four times per year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) to assess the effect of seasonal changes. The prevalence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, mold fungi, actinomycetes, Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli was determined by the air collision method on Petri dishes with appropriate microbiological media. At the same time, air temperature, relative humidity, and particulate matter concentration (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ) were measured. It was found that the horse keeping system affects the occurrence of the examined airborne microorganisms. Over the 3-year period of study, higher temperature and humidity, as well as particulate matter concentration-which notoriously exceeded limit values-were observed in the facilities with the box-stall system. The air sampled from the largest horse riding center, with the largest number of horses and the box-stall system of horse keeping, was also characterized by the heaviest microbiological contamination. Among others, bacteria from the following genera: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp., and E. coli and fungi from the genera Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Trichothecium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria were identified in the analyzed samples.

  20. Detection of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi in food storage refrigerators

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    Sema Sandikci Altunatmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the microbiological air quality (psychrotrophic bacteria and airborne fungi and distribution of fungi in different types of ready-to-eat (RTE food-storage refrigerators (n=48 at selected retail stores in the city of Edirne, Turkey. Refrigerators were categorized according to the type of RTE food-storage: meat products, vegetables, desserts, or a mix of food types. Microbiological quality of air samples was evaluated by using a Mas-100 Eco Air Sampler. Four refrigerators (all containing meat products, 8.3% produced air samples with undetectable microorganisms. The highest detected mean value of airborne psychrotrophic bacteria and fungi was 82.3 CFU/m³ and 54.6 CFU/m³, respectively and were found in mixed-food refrigerators. The dominant airborne fungal genera found were Penicillium (29.0%, Aspergillus (12.0%, Mucor (9%, Cladosporium (8%, Botyrtis (7%, and Acremonium (6%. By definition, RTE food does not undergo a final treatment to ensure its safety prior to consumption. Therefore, ensuring a clean storage environment for these foods is important to prevent food-borne disease and other health risks.

  1. Observations on the Early Establishment of Foliar Endophytic Fungi in Leaf Discs and Living Leaves of a Model Woody Angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa (Salicaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ling Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes are diverse and widespread symbionts that occur in the living tissues of all lineages of plants without causing evidence of disease. Culture-based and culture-free studies indicate that they often are abundant in the leaves of woody angiosperms, but only a few studies have visualized endophytic fungi in leaf tissues, and the process through which most endophytes colonize leaves has not been studied thoroughly. We inoculated leaf discs and the living leaves of a model woody angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa, which has endophytes that represent three distantly-related genera (Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Trichoderma. We used scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy to evaluate the timeline and processes by which they colonize leaf tissue. Under laboratory conditions with high humidity, conidia germinated on leaf discs to yield hyphae that grew epiphytically and incidentally entered stomata, but did not grow in a directed fashion toward stomatal openings. No cuticular penetration was observed. The endophytes readily colonized the interiors of leaf discs that were detached from living leaves, and could be visualized within discs with light microscopy. Although they were difficult to visualize within the interior of living leaves following in vivo inoculations, standard methods for isolating foliar endophytes confirmed their presence.

  2. Natural incidence of aflatoxins, mycological profile and molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic strains in chickpea flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Akram, A.; Qureshi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The mycological profile of retail chickpea flour (locall called Baisan), sold in the markets in the Rawalpindi district was studied. All the samples were tested for the contamination with aflatoxins. A total of 13 fungal species isolated from the flour and out of which, Aspergillus flavus was recorded the most common species (100%), followed by Rhizopus oryzea (50%), Aspergillus niger (40%), Penicilium digitatum (30%), Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium oxysporium, Mucor recemosus, M. petrinsularis and Rhizopus arrhizus (20% each), Aspergillus oryzea, Botritus cinerea, Mucor circineloides and Penicillium sp. (10% each). Aflatoxin B1 was found in only 20% of the samples ranging from 3.03-4.24ppb. The molecular characterization was carried out by using PCR using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers. The SSR amplification pattern clearly showed the genetic variability among the 10 strains of A. flavus. A dendrogram was generated through MVSP software program. Genotype AF04 was most diverse among all genotypes. The similarity value was ranged between 0.538 (53.8%)-0.938 (93.8%). (author)

  3. Correlation between soil chemical characteristics and soil-borne mycoflora in cucumber tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qudsia, H.; Javaid, A.; Mahmood, R.; Akhtar, N.

    2017-01-01

    Twelve soil samples were collected from fields of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) tunnels from various localities of Lahore and Shekhupura districts, Pakistan. Soil samples were analyzed for various characteristics viz. pH, EC/sub e/, organic matter, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Soil mycoflora was isolated using dilution plate method. Soil pH, EC/sub e/, organic matter, N, P and K were in the range of 7.42-8.13, 107-2520 (meu S cm-1), 0.98-1.40%, 0.039-0.070%, 7-357 mg kg/sup -1/ and 88-946 mg kg/sup -1/ in different soil samples, respectively. A total of 18 fungal species belonging to 10 genera viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Drechslera, Emericella, Fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, Penicillium and Sclerotium were isolated from various soil samples. Saprophytic fungi were more prevalent than pathogenic ones. Number of colonies of saprophytic fungi ranged from 360-2754 g/sup -1/ soil in different samples. In contrast, number of pathogenic fungal colonies were limited to 1-234 g/sup -1/ soil. Number of colonies of pathogenic fungi were positively and significantly correlated with soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. This study concludes that high nitrogen and organic matter in cucumber tunnels favour population of pathogenic fungi. (author)

  4. Aislamiento e identificación de microorganismos en biopelículas provenientes del Castillo de Chapultepec, Ciudad de México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de la Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Today microbiology is based on pure cultures and separate microorganisms, pure cultures really do not exist in nature, because that microorganism are combined into large colonies slimy (biofilms in which the various individuals establish relationships and dependencies. Only in the United State of America is estimated that biofilms cause billions of dollars in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. This paper presents the results of the isolation of microorganisms by microbiological and molecular methods, from biofilms located in the Castle of Chapultepec in Mexico City. In the biofilm coexist different genres of filamentous fungi such as Cladosporium, Mucor, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Rhodotorula and others in those biofilms; besides bacterial genera as Bacillus, Pantoea, Kokuria, etc. Many of these microbial genera have been widely reported as a participating in biodeterioration processes to monuments and others are reported as contributing to its restoration, so this work opens the door to future researches that allow biological restoration of monuments, conservation and development of new biotechnological processes.   Keywords: Microbiology; pure cultures; biofilms; isolation of microorganism; microbiological methods; biodeterioration processes. 

  5. Colony-PCR Is a Rapid Method for DNA Amplification of Hyphomycetes

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    Georg Walch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pure cultures identified with both classical morphological methods and through barcoding sequences are a basic requirement for reliable reference sequences in public databases. Improved techniques for an accelerated DNA barcode reference library construction will result in considerably improved sequence databases covering a wider taxonomic range. Fast, cheap, and reliable methods for obtaining DNA sequences from fungal isolates are, therefore, a valuable tool for the scientific community. Direct colony PCR was already successfully established for yeasts, but has not been evaluated for a wide range of anamorphic soil fungi up to now, and a direct amplification protocol for hyphomycetes without tissue pre-treatment has not been published so far. Here, we present a colony PCR technique directly from fungal hyphae without previous DNA extraction or other prior manipulation. Seven hundred eighty-eight fungal strains from 48 genera were tested with a success rate of 86%. PCR success varied considerably: DNA of fungi belonging to the genera Cladosporium, Geomyces, Fusarium, and Mortierella could be amplified with high success. DNA of soil-borne yeasts was always successfully amplified. Absidia, Mucor, Trichoderma, and Penicillium isolates had noticeably lower PCR success.

  6. Mycological Survey and Total Aflatoxin Analyze in Silage from Qaemshahr City (Northern Iran

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    M. Hashemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 42 samples of silage were collected in Qaemshahr city in Iran during fall 2011. Samples were tested by competitive ELISA for total aflatoxins. Seven samples (16.7% (Mean±se:1.24 from 42 silage samples were positive with total aflatoxin (1.1-27.3 ppb in Nov., Dec. and Oct. The highest contamination was observed in Oct., three samples (21.4% from 14 samples were contaminated with total aflatoxin by 22.2 ppb, 25.6 and 27.3 ppb. The culture results of samples showed that the most toxinigenic fungi among 57 colonies were Aspergillus sp. with fifteen (% 31.5, Fusarium sp. With thirteen (% 22.8, Alternaria spp. With twelve (21.05%, Penicillium spp. with nine (%15.78 and Acremonium sp. with five (8.77% and also the most nontoxigenic fungi were cladosporium spp. with fifteen (% 37.5, Rhizopus spp. with nine (% 22.5, Mucor spp. with six (15%, yeast with six (15% and Scopulariopsis spp. with four (10% colonies isolated in culture medium among 40 colonies of nontoxigenic fungi.

  7. Cave Entrance dependent Spore Dispersion of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Various Sediments of Iron Ore Cave in Brazil: a colloquy on human threats while caving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of fungi. The fungal community present in a cave also includes pathogenic and opportunistic species out of which some are also served as energy sources in such energy stared ecosystems. Studies on microbial diversity and their role on such energy starved ecosystem are scarce. The present study was aimed to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi present in the various sediment of an iron ore cave and to recognize them as pathogenic and/or opportunistic species. Further the impact of cave entrance on the spore depositions on various distances dependent sediments were analyzed. The results suggest a diverse microbial community inhabiting the cave and an influence of cave entrance over spore deposition on various sediments. We counted a total of 4,549 filamentous fungi that included 34 species of 12 genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Penicillium, Torula, Trichoderma, Mucor and Rhizopus. A positive significant relation was observed between spore deposition and distance from cave entrance (p= 0.001. Areas of potential mycoses risks were recognized. This is the first study on microbiological community of an iron ore cave in the country.

  8. High temperature effect on microflora of radish root-inhabited zone and nutrient solutions for radish growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodina, E. V.; Tirranen, L. S.

    The effect of high temperatures (35 and 45 °C) on microflora of the root zone of radish plants grown in phytotron was evaluated by the response of microorganisms from 9 indicator groups. Phytotron air temperature elevated to 35 °C for 20 hours caused no significant changes in qualitative and quantitative composition of the root microflora in experimental plants. By the end of the experiment, the species diversity of microflora had changed. The amount of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreased which can be interpreted as more stable co-existence of microflora with plants. The numbers of microbes from other indicator groups was in dynamic equilibrium. The plants' condition did not deteriorate either. Exposure to the temperature of 45 °C for 7 hours have been found to change the numbers and species diversity in the radish root zone microflora. The microorganisms were observed to increase their total numbers at the expense of certain indicator groups. Bacteria increased spore forms at the stage of spores. Colon bacillus bacteria of increased their numbers by the end of experiment by an order. By the end of experiment the roots of experiment plants had microscopic fungi from Mucor, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Cladosporium genera. The observed changes in the microbial complex seem to be associated with the changes of root emissions and general deterioration of the plants' condition. It is suggested that the response of the microorganisms can be indicative of the condition of plants under investigation.

  9. Chemical profile and biological potential of non-polar fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Otávio P; De Felício, Rafael; Rodrigues, Ana Helena B; Ambrósio, Daniela L; Cicarelli, Regina Maria B; De Albuquerque, Sérgio; Young, Maria Claudia M; Yokoya, Nair S; Debonsi, Hosana M

    2011-08-19

    The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh) Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract). The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6%) and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%). Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (-)-loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid), terpene derivatives, fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol), lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide), ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC(50) = 19.1 μg.mL-1 and trypomastigote IC(50) = 76.2 μg.mL-1). The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg) by TLC-bioautography.

  10. Chemical Profile and Biological Potential of Non-Polar Fractions from Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh Montagne (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

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    Hosana M. Debonsi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS evaluation of the hexanes and dichloromethane fractions from extracts of the red alga Centroceras clavulatum (C. Agardh Montagne. Twenty three compounds were identified, totaling ca. 42% of both fractions (0.18 g mass extract. The main constituents of the fractions were hexadecanoic acid (17.6% and pentadecanoic acid (15.9%. Several secondary metabolites with interesting biological activity, such as (--loliolide, neophytadiene, phytol were identified. In addition, several classes of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds (e.g., phenylacetic acid, terpene derivatives, fatty acids, halogenated compound (e.g., 2-chlorocyclohexenol, lignoids, steroids, esters, amides (e.g., hexadecanamide, ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes and alcohols were observed. The occurrence of several of these structural classes is described for the first time in this species. The same fractions analyzed by GC-MS, and a separate set of polar fractions, were evaluated against two life cycle stages (epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and against phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporiodes and C. sphaerospermum. The dichloromethane fraction was active against both T. cruzi forms (epimastigote IC50 = 19.1 μg.mL−1 and trypomastigote IC50 = 76.2 μg.mL−1. The hexanes and ethyl acetate fractions also displayed activity against both fungi species (200 μg by TLC-bioautography.

  11. Prevalence, Characterization, and Mycotoxin Production Ability of Fusarium Species on Korean Adlay (Coix lacrymal-jobi L. Seeds

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    Tae Jin An

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adlay seed samples were collected from three adlay growing regions (Yeoncheon, Hwasun, and Eumseong region in Korea during 2012. Among all the samples collected, 400 seeds were tested for fungal occurrence by standard blotter and test tube agar methods and different taxonomic groups of fungal genera were detected. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Fusarium, Phoma, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Cochliobolus and Leptosphaerulina. Fusarium species accounted for 45.6% of all species found; and, with phylogenetic analysis based on the combined sequences of two protein coding genes (EF-1α and β-tubulin, 10 Fusarium species were characterized namely, F. incarnatum (11.67%, F. kyushuense (10.33%, F. fujikuroi (8.67%, F. concentricum (6.00%, F. asiaticum (5.67%, F. graminearum (1.67%, F. miscanthi (0.67%, F. polyphialidicum (0.33%, F. armeniacum (0.33%, and F. thapsinum (0.33%. The Fusarium species were then examined for their morphological characteristics to confirm their identity. Morphological observations of the species correlated well with and confirmed their molecular identification. The ability of these isolates to produce the mycotoxins fumonisin (FUM and zearalenone (ZEN was tested by the ELISA quantitative analysis method. The result revealed that FUM was produced only by F. fujikuroi and that ZEN was produced by F. asiaticum and F. graminearum.

  12. A survey of fungi and some indicator bacteria in chlorinated water of indoor public swimming pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, R.; Hirn, J.

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-four water samples, of volume 500 ml, originating from six public indoor fresh water swimming pools were examined for the presence of fungi and some indicator bacteria by a membrane-filter method. Sabouraud-dextrose agar and selective Candida albicans-medium were used for isolation and identification of fungi. In all but one of the samples the free chlorine content was above 0.40 mg/l. No Candida albicans were detected. Molds and unidentified yeasts were isolated from 29 of the samples. The following species were recorded: Acremonium spp., ALternaria sp., Aspergillus spp., Candida guilliermondii, Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium spp., Clasterosporium sp., Fusarium spp., Geotrichium sp., Penicillium spp., Petriellidium boydii and Phoma spp. Their occurrence was sporadic, each species mostly appearing as single colonies only, with a maximum of 5 colonies. Bacterial growth was noticed in 15 samples, but only in the sample of low free chlorine content did this reach significant proportions. The study indicates that the standard of chlorination is, at least in general, an adequate measure against fungal contamination of swimming pool water. However, the spectrum of mold species encountered encourages a further search for possible indicator species among these organisms.

  13. Epiphitic microbiote and fungi contaminats from in vitro establishment of guajaba (Psidium guajava L.

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    Mayra Acosta-Suárez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The studying of contaminats micobiote on guajaba (Psidium guajava L. could help for creating schedule treatment of donator plants and its explants to eliminate or prevent the fungi contamination during guajaba micropropagation. The present work were focused on: qualitative evaluation of epiphytic micobiote from explants of Enana Roja cubana EEA 18-40 plants (treated and not treated with fungicide, to isolate, characterize and identify the filamentous fungi from in vitro establishment of nodal segments. For the filamentous identification was used the wet chamber method and preparations were observed in optic microscopic. PDA Petri dishes were used to cultivate the filamentous fungi at 28ºC and dark during 7 to 14 days. The cultural and morphological characteristics were used to identifying each isolate. Nine filamentous fungi genera were identify on donator plants without any fungicide application, the principal genera’s were: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Penicillium and Trichoderma. The application of Mancozeb 80 PH (7.5g.l-1 and Benomyl 50 PH (4g.l-1 was not effective on epiphytic contaminants micobiote elimination. All these genera’s with the exception of Nigrospora were detected during the establishment of nodal segments. However the disinfection with hypochlorite at 3% for 10 minutes and HgCl2 solution at 0.05% and 0.1% could reduced the 50% of al contaminates genera’s. Key words: micropropagation, microbiote contamination,filamentous fungi, surface dessinfectants.

  14. Fungos associados às sementes (Cariopses de cana-de-açúcar: métodos para detecção, incidência e relação entre incidência fúngica e ambiente de produção das sementes Sugarcane seedborne (Caryopses fungi: detection methods, incidence and relation between fungical incidence and seed production conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Dias Martins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos: determinar o método mais adequado para detecção e identificação de fungos associados às sementes (cariopses de cana-de-açúcar; caracterizar os fungos associados; verificar as incidências nessas sementes e relacionar a incidência fúngica nessas sementes com o ambiente onde foram produzidas. Para detecção do método mais adequado, foram comparados dois substratos, em placas de Petri: agar-água com papel quadriculado e papel de filtro. Utilizaram-se placas de Petri de plástico e de vidro do tipo pirex, para verificar a influência do recipiente. Também foram comparados dois regimes de luz (12 h luz branca fluorescente/12 h escuro e escuro contínuo. As sementes foram mantidas durante sete dias sob temperatura constante de 28 2ºC, quando se procedeu à avaliação. Os requisitos para comparação dos métodos foram sensibilidade, economicidade e praticidade. A partir do método determinado como o mais adequado, foi realizada análise sanitária de 29 cruzamentos dos anos de 2002, 2003 e 2004, caracterizando os fungos associados e verificando as incidências. Posteriormente, compararam-se estas incidências com as condições ambientes, de temperatura e umidade relativa, em que as sementes foram produzidas no programa de melhoramento genético. O método considerado mais adequado, de acordo com os parâmetros analisados, foi o do papel de filtro em placa de Petri de plástico e incubação sob regime de luz (12 h luz branca fluorescente/12 h escuro. Os fungos detectados foram: Alternaria alternata; Aspergillus sp.; Bipolaris sacchari; três grupos morfológicos distintos pertencentes ao gênero Bipolaris; dois grupos morfológicos de Cladosporium; Colletotrichum sp.; três grupos morfológicos de Curvularia; Epicoccum sp.; Fusarium verticillioides; Fusarium semitectum; Leptosphaerulina sp.; Nigrospora sp.; Penicillium sp.; Periconia sp.; Phoma herbarum; Rhizopus sp. e Trichoderma sp. Os mais

  15. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

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    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  16. Integument Mycobiota of Wild European Hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, R A; Adelantado, C; Arosemena, E L; Obón, E; Darwich, L; Calvo, M A

    2012-01-01

    There are some reports about the risk of manipulating wild hedgehogs since they can be reservoirs of potential zoonotic agents like dermatophytes. The aim of this study was to describe the integument mycobiota, with special attention to dermatophytes of wild European hedgehogs. Samples from spines and fur were cultured separately in Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) with antibiotic and dermatophyte test medium (DTM) plates. Nineteen different fungal genera were isolated from 91 cultures of 102 hedgehogs. The most prevalent genera were Cladosporium (79.1%), Penicillium (74.7%), Alternaria (64.8%), and Rhizopus (63.7%). A lower prevalence of Aspergillus (P = 0,035; χ (2) = 8,633) and Arthrinium (P = 0,043; χ (2) = 8,173) was isolated during the spring time and higher frequencies of Fusarium (P = 0,015; χ (2) = 10,533) during the autumn. The prevalence of Acremonium was significantly higher in young animals (70%, 26/37) than in adults (30%, 11/37) (P = 0,019; χ (2) = 5,915). Moreover, the majority of the saprophytic species that grew at the SDA culture were also detected at the DTM. Finally, no cases of ringworm were diagnosed and no dermatophytes spp. were isolated. Concluding, this study provides the first description of fungal mycobiota of the integument of wild European hedgehogs in Spain, showing a large number of saprophytic species and the absence of dermatophytes.

  17. Fungal contamination in white medical coats of dentistry professionals

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    Benicio Barros Brandão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The white medical coats used by health professionals may serve as a source of infection in health services because it is a potential vehicle for transmission of microorganisms. There are several studies that warn of the inherent dangers in bacterial contamination in lab coats, but there are few reports of fungal contamination in this personal protection equipment. Aims: The study aims to identify fungi in dental lab coats. Method: Samples were collected from ten dentists from a dentistry-school clinic of a higher education institution of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using sterile swab, soaked in saline contained in a test tube. Each sample was inoculated on chloramphenicol-containing Saboroud Dextrose agar and incubated at room temperature for fungal growth. Phenotypic and biochemical methods were used to identify the colonies. Results: Fungal growth was observed in all samples of the lab coats, and 19 isolates were counted. The genera Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most frequent in this study. The results emphasize the role of fungi as contaminants in lab coats; and, as an effective means of transmission of pathogens in the community. Conclusions: This study suggests a methodology for the proper washing and decontamination of the lab coat and advocates the need to implement more rigid norms in concern to the use of lab coats, as well as educational campaigns to guide dentists about the correct use of this Personal Protection Equipment (PPE. Keywords: Individual Protection Equipment. Fungi. Cross infection.

  18. Antifungal activity, main active components and mechanism of Curcuma longa extract against Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fusheng; Chen, Qin; Chen, Cheng; Yu, Xiaorui; Liu, Qingya; Bao, Jinku

    2018-01-01

    Curcuma longa possesses powerful antifungal activity, as demonstrated in many studies. In this study, the antifungal spectrum of Curcuma longa alcohol extract was determined, and the resulting EC50 values (mg/mL) of its extract on eleven fungi, including Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium tricinctum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Rhizopus oryzae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum, were 0.1088, 0.1742, 0.1888, 0.2547, 0.3135, 0.3825, 0.4229, 1.2086, 4.5176, 3.8833 and 5.0183, respectively. Among them, F. graminearum was selected to determine the inhibitory effects of the compounds (including curdione, isocurcumenol, curcumenol, curzerene, β-elemene, curcumin, germacrone and curcumol) derived from Curcuma longa. In addition, the antifungal activities of curdione, curcumenol, curzerene, curcumol and isocurcumenol and the synergies of the complexes of curdione and seven other chemicals were investigated. Differential proteomics of F. graminearum was also compared, and at least 2021 reproducible protein spots were identified. Among these spots, 46 were classified as differentially expressed proteins, and these proteins are involved in energy metabolism, tRNA synthesis and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, several fungal physiological differences were also analysed. The antifungal effect included fungal cell membrane disruption and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis, respiration, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and NADH oxidase. PMID:29543859

  19. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A

    2003-11-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  20. Microbial diversity on sedimentated rice fields due to coal mining activities in Tenggarong Seberang subdistrict of Kutai Kartanegara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfiansyah; Sopialena

    2018-04-01

    The results showed that on upland rice fields with sediment found five genus of fungus with number of colonies 4.0 x 103 cfu/g to 9.3 x 104 cfu/g; three bacterial families with number of colonies 7,1 x 104 cfu/g to 2,8 x 105 cfu/g; and five genera of nematodes with the amount of 2.6 x 102/kg of soil to 1.1 x103/kg of soil. In unpolished upland rice fields were found four genus of fungus with colonies of 2.4 x 103 cfu/g to 8.4 x 104 cfu/g, three bacterial families with number of colonies 1.2 x 105 cfu/g to 2.7 x 105 cfu/g and four genera of nematodes with the amount of 9.6 x 102/kg of soil to 1.1 x103/kg of soil. The most common microbes are Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Phytium and Trichoderma (fungi), Achromobacteraceae, Brevibacteriaceae, Micrococcaceae (Bacteria), as well as Dorylaimus, Hemicycliophora, Mononchus, Meloidogyne, Paratrichodorus, Radopholus, Rotylenchulus, Rhabditis, Seinura and Trichodorus (Nematodes). Fungi, bacteria and nematodes have a good role in the process of soil decomposition. The results of soil chemical analysis showed that soil fertility is lower in upland rice fields with sediments compare to those without sediment.