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Sample records for cladonia verticillaris raddi

  1. Gamma radiosensitivity of Cladonia verticillaris (RADDI) FR (Liquen) collected on sandy soils of Saloa, Pernambuco, Brazil; Radiossensibilidade gama de Cladonia verticillaris (RADDI) FR (Liquen) coletada sobre solos arenosos de Saloa, Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Silva, Helena; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Pereira, Eugenia, E-mail: eugenia.pereira@pq.cnpq.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Geograficas; Silva, Nicacio [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DBioq/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica; Maciel, Leonardo

    2011-10-26

    Liquens are organisms formed from a symbiosis relationship between a fungi and a algae. From this contact on the liquen substances are produced responsible by the most of benefits originated at the liquens. Viewing to increasing the production of his substances, Cladonia verticillaris (liquen) sample were submitted to gamma radiation and collected at 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days from the assembly of experiments and submitted the extraction of their phenols. The extracts were submitted to ascending chromatography on thin layer and seen at spectrophotometer Biochrom Libra S22. Cladonia verticillaris, when submitted to gamma radiation in laboratory, produced its secondary metabolites during all the experiment, but the radiation dose and the time of incubation influenced its metabolism and its consequent biosynthesis

  2. Effects of gamma radiation on chlorophyll content of Cladonia verticillaris (Raddi) Fr. (lichen) collected in different environments

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    Silva, Helena P. de B.; Martins, Monica C.B.; Pereira, Eugenia C.; Barbosa, Clarissa R.; Silva, Nicacio; Franca, Andre Luiz Teixeira de; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: barrosleny@hotmail.com, E-mail: monicabarmartins@hotmail.com, E-mail: verticillaris@gmail.com, E-mail: lissa_fer@hotmail.com, E-mail: nhsilva@uol.com.br, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Maciel, Leonardo N. de Q., E-mail: lenoquema@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Lichens are formed by symbiosis between a fungus (mycobiont) and an alga (photobiont, chloroficeae and or cyanobacteria). The radiosensitivity in lichens is not in proportion to the symbiotic organisms, and the algae layer is more radiosensitive than the fungi. Thus, in order check to algae radiosensitivity, sought to quantify the levels of chlorophyll from C. verticillaris samples with different doses of gamma radiation, since the amount of this pigment is closely related to the percentage of living algal cells. Lichen samples were collected in Saloa-PE and Alhandra- PE, sites that have similar physiognomic characteristics, but with different altitudes. C. verticillaris samples (12 g) of both sampling sites were subjected to gamma irradiator (Co{sup 60} - irradiator, Gammacell 200 Excel, dose rates 7.795 kGy) at 0, 10, 50, 100, 500, 1.000, 5.000 and 10.000 Gy. Lichens samples were collected (1.5 g) and stored separately for further analysis. The results indicated that the total production of chlorophyll in all samples exposed to gamma radiation was lower than non-irradiated samples, demonstrating that way that gamma radiation causes likely to damage/changes in physiological characteristics C. verticillaris. (author)

  3. Influence of gamma radiation on secondary metabolism in lichens Cladonia substellata and Cladonia verticillaris

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    Silva, Helena P.B.; Melo, Patryk; Primo, Dario; Vicalvi, Maria Claudia V. [Federal University of Pernambuco (CTG/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Graduate Program in Energy Technologies and Nuclear; Maciel, Leonardo N.Q. [First Space Seed, Recife, PE (Brazil); Pereira, Eugenia, E-mail: Eugenia.pereira@cnpq.pq.com.b [Federal University of Pernambuco (CFCH/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Geographic Sciences; Silva, Nicacio [Federal University of Pernambuco (CCB/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. of Biochemistry; Colaco, Waldeciro, E-mail: wcolaco@ufpe.com.b [Federal University of Pernambuco (CTG/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. Nuclear Energy

    2011-07-01

    Lichens are organisms formed from a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and an alga. These when submitted to different doses and types of radiation are encouraged to produce their substances in quantities different from those that would produce without the intervention of radiation. The objective of this research was to determine the influence of gamma rays on the production of usnic acid from Cladonia substellata and on the production of fumarprocetraric acid from Cladonia verticillaris. Lichens samples were submitted to gamma irradiation Co-60 source, receiving different doses (0, 5, 10, 50 and 100 Gy) of gamma irradiator. After six months samples were collected and submitted to the extraction of its phenols. The extracts were subjected to thin-layer chromatography, and read from Biochrom Libra S22 spectrophotometer. The qualitative assessment of the chemical composition of lichens stalks irradiated or not, revealed by thin layer chromatography production of usnic acid and fumarprocetraric throughout the experiment. Regarding the quantification of fumarprocetraric acid was observed a production significantly higher in extracts obtained from irradiated lichens, the largest production obtained by the dose of 50 Gy. As for the production of usnic acid, the highlight was the dose of 10 Gy. Thus we can conclude that the lichens Cladonia verticillaris and Cladonia substellata when submitted to gamma radiation in the laboratory, produce fumarprocetraric acid and usnic acid , respectively, but the radiation dose influences the metabolism and its subsequent biosynthesis. (author)

  4. Allelopathic and bioherbicidal potential of Cladonia verticillaris on the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, R C; Silva, N H; Santos, M G; Honda, N K; Falcão, E P S; Pereira, E C

    2012-10-01

    Responses to germination and initial growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) submitted to organic extracts and purified compounds of Cladonia verticillaris ("salambaia") were analyzed in this work. The experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions using extracts and pure compounds at different concentrations. None of the assays showed any influence on the germination of L. sativa seeds using C. verticillaris extracts; however, modifications in leaf area and seedling hypocotyl and root development occurred. In the growth experiments, seedlings exposed to ether or acetone extract showed diminished hypocotyl growth in detriment to the root stimulus, compared to controls. Increases in extract concentrations led to the formation of abnormal seedlings. To determine the allelochemicals of C. verticillaris, its principal components, fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids, were isolated and then analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). When the seedlings were exposed to the two acids separately, presented increased leaf area at all concentrations. In contrast, hypocotyl and root stimulus was observed only in the presence of protocetraric acid at different concentrations. Fumarprotocetraric as well as protocetraric acids, isolated and purified from C. verticillaris and Parmotrema dilatatum respectively, influenced the development of L. sativa seedlings at high concentrations, indicating a possible bioherbicide potential of these acids.

  5. Intracellular urease activity in the lichen Cladonia verticillaris, and its implication for toxicity.

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    de Vasconcelos, T L; Pereira, E C; da Silva, N H; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E

    2013-12-01

    Urea is currently used as a nitrogen fertilizer in many plant cultures, such as sugar cane. Several lichen species grow in the edges of the fields fertilized with urea. This implies that the hydrolysis of an excess of urea by soil bacteria or by the lichens themselves would increase the concentration of ammonia in the lichen thallus to a level that may be toxic to the photobiont. However, Cladonia verticillaris produces urease through positive feedback by urea supplied from the medium. This urease is partially secreted to the media or retained on the external surface of algal cells, as demonstrated herein by an adequate cytochemical reaction. This implies that ammonia produced by urea hydrolysis will be immediately dissolved in the water filling the intercellular spaces on the thallus. A possible protection mechanism against eventual ammonia toxicity, derived from the results described here, is also discussed.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Cladonia verticillaris Lichen Preparations on Bacteria and Fungi of Medical Importance

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    Dalila de Brito Marques Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia verticillaris lichen lectin (ClaveLL was purified using a previously established protocol and then evaluated for its potential antimicrobial activity. Initially, the autochthonous lichen was submitted to extraction with sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, followed by filtration and centrifugation to obtain crude extract. A salt fractionation was performed with 30% ammonium sulfate. After centrifugation, the protein fraction was loaded onto molecular exclusion chromatography using Sephadex G-100 matrix to purify active lectin. ClaveLL showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae assayed strains, with greater inhibitory effect on growth of E. coli (MIC of 7.18 μg mL−1. The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 57.4 μg mL−1 was detected against E. faecalis. The antifungal assay performed with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Trichosporon asahi evaluated crude extract, fraction, and ClaveLL preparations. ClaveLL was the most active against T. rubrum with an inhibition percentage of 35% compared to negative control (phosphate buffer. Extract and fraction showed better activity on growth inhibition of T. mentagrophytes (35%. The results indicate the potential of ClaveLL and other C. verticillaris preparations as antimicrobial agents useful for applications focusing on human health.

  7. Influência de poluentes atmosféricos em Belo Jardim (PE utilizando Cladonia verticillaris (líquen como biomonitor Influence of atmospheric pollutants in Belo Jardim (PE using Cladonia verticillaris (lichen as biomonitor

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    Fernando de Oliveira Mota Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia verticillaris used in this study was collected in the cerrado vegetation of Saloá (PE, Brazil and transplanted in plastic containers on soil from the collection place to Belo Jardim (PE that possesses lead smelters and battery industries. The experiments were disposed at eleven different places for evaluating the dispersion of pollutants and their effects on the biomonitor. The exposed lichens were collected over eight months and submitted to thin layer and high performance liquid chromatographies, and scanning electron microscopy. C. verticillaris placed in the vicinity of the emission sources demonstrated alteration in its metabolism, decreasing the production of its major compound, fumarprotocetraric acid, and deterioration of its external and internal surfaces.

  8. Contribution to the Cladonia mycota of Greece,including Cladonia graeca sp. nov.%Contribution to the Cladonia mycota of Greece, including Cladonia graeca sp.nov.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harrie J.M.SIPMAN; Teuvo AHTI

    2011-01-01

    From mid-elevation pine forest on the Aegean Sea island of Thasos 8 additional Cladonia species for the lichen mycota of Greece are reported.Most have a wide distribution in Europe and reach their southern limit in Greece.From schistose rock in the same area and on Evvia a new species is described,Cladonia graeca,which is probably related to C.macrophylla and C.decorticata but contains fumarprotocetraric acid instead of psoromic or perlatolic acid.

  9. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

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    CHEN Qian; LIN Xin; CAI YuJun; LI ZhiXiao

    2001-01-01

    @@ Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.

  10. Structural Analysis of Polysaccharide from Cladonia furcatar and Its Activities

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    CHEN; Qian

    2001-01-01

    Cladonia furcatar is a member of the lichens genus Cladonia. Japanese scientific researchers [1] made a great achievement in selecting lichens as anticancer agent and polysaccharides are generally considered to be their main bioactive constituents. Recently, Iacomini et al[2] have investigated the members of the genus Cladonia, a mannose-containing polysaccharide was isolated from Cladoniafurcatar. We now report the new chemical structure of polysaccharide from Cladoniafurcatar and its activities.  ……

  11. Note on Cladonia species (lichenized Ascomycota from Ardahan province (Turkey

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    Piotr Osyczka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the first report on Cladonia species from Ardahan, a north-eastern province of Turkey. A circumpolar boreal-low arctic species, Cladonia acuminata, rarely reported from Asia, and the recently described Cladonia monomorpha are reported as new for Turkey. Their detailed descriptions and taxonomical remarks are provided. Localities of other ascertained Cladonia species in the province supplement the knowledge of their distribution patterns in the country. In addition, the typically corticolous/lignicolous species Vulpicida pinastri is mentioned as also growing on primary squamules and podetia of C. pyxidata.

  12. Prion protein degradation by lichens of the genus Cladonia

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    Bennett, James P.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Johnson, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been discovered that lichens contain a serine protease capable of degrading the pathogenic prion protein, the etiological agent of prion diseases such as sheep scrapie and cervid chronic wasting disease. Limited methods are available to degrade or inactivate prion disease agents, especially in the environment, and lichens or their serine protease could prove important for management of these diseases. Scant information is available regarding the presence or absence of the protease responsible for degrading prion protein (PrP) in lichen species and, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that PrP degradation activity in lichens is phylogenetically-based by testing 44 species of Cladonia lichens, a genus for which a significant portion of the phylogeny is well established. We categorized PrP degradation activity among the 44 species (high, moderate, low or none) and found that activity in Cladonia species did not correspond with phylogenetic position of the species. Degradation of PrP did correspond, however, with three classical taxonomic characters within the genus: species with brown apothecia, no usnic acid, and the presence of a cortex. Of the 44 species studied, 18 (41%) had either high or moderate PrP degradation activity, suggesting the protease may be frequent in this genus of lichens.

  13. CONTRIBUCION AL CONOCIMIENTO DEL GENERO CLADONIA (CLADONIACEAE-LIQUENES DE ARGENTINA Y REGIONES LIMITROFES

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    Lidia I. Ferraro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cladonia subradiata (Vain. Sandst. se reporta como nueva para la Argentina y Paraguay, C.turgidior (Nyl. Ahti a la Argentina, y C.peziziform, es (With. Laundon a Paraguay. Cladonia ramulosa (With. Laundon y C.humilis (With. Laundon se reporta por primera vez desde el norte de Argentina. Cinco especies de Cladonia son ahora reconocidos en la provincia de Corrientes; se proporciona una clave e ilustraciones

  14. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

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    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida. Methods By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida (Candida albicans; Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non-Candida albicans (Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant (p < 0,001). Conclusion The aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin.

  15. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

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    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  16. CLADONIA LIBIFERA,A LICHEN SPECIES NEW TO CHINA%石蕊属一中国新记录种

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    杨勇; 阿不都拉·阿巴斯

    2003-01-01

    @@ During a field expedition to Zhaosu County of Xinjiang Province in 2000, several lichen species havebeen collected. Among them, Cladonia libifera is recorded as new to China. Cladonia libifera Savicz, Novosti Sist. Nizs. Rast.: 167 (1965). Primary squamules persistent and soon disappearing, small to middle-sized,2-5mm long, 2~4mm broad,crenate or incised, sinuate, flat or involuting, ascending, esorediating.

  17. Cladonia lichens on extensive green roofs: evapotranspiration, substrate temperature, and albedo.

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    Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Green roofs are constructed ecosystems that provide ecosystem services in urban environments. Shallow substrate green roofs subject the vegetation layer to desiccation and other environmental extremes, so researchers have evaluated a variety of stress-tolerant vegetation types for green roof applications. Lichens can be found in most terrestrial habitats.  They are able to survive extremely harsh conditions, including frequent cycles of desiccation and rehydration, nutrient-poor soil, fluctuating temperatures, and high UV intensities. Extensive green roofs (substrate depth green roofs.  In a modular green roof system, we tested the effect of Cladonia lichens on substrate temperature, water loss, and albedo compared to a substrate-only control. Overall, the Cladonia modules had significantly cooler substrate temperatures during the summer and significantly warmer temperatures during the fall.  Additionally, the Cladonia modules lost significantly less water than the substrate-only control. This implies that they may be able to benefit neighboring vascular plant species by reducing water loss and maintaining favorable substrate temperatures.

  18. Substâncias isoladas das folhas de Bauhinia microstachya (Raddi Macbr. (Caesalpiniaceae

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    E.M. Bianco

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é relatado o isolamento de três substâncias das folhas de Bauhinia microstachya (Raddi Macbr., Caesalpiniaceae, incluindo dois constituintes isolados pela primeira vez nesta espécie, a vitexina e o hidrocarboneto hexatriacontano. As estruturas desses compostos foram estabelecidas através de estudos de RMN- 1H 1D, 2D e EM.

  19. Relationship between atmospheric ammonia concentration and nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2014-01-01

    From April 2006 to April 2007, the geographical and seasonal variation in nitrogen content in terricolous lichen (Cladonia portentosa) and atmospheric ammonia concentrations were measured at five heathland sites. The seasonal variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was small, even though...... there was a large seasonal variation in the air concentration of ammonia. A sizable local variation in the nitrogen content of the lichen was found even at the scale of a few kilometres. The nitrogen content in the lichen showed a high correlation to the yearly mean value of the measured ammonia concentration...

  20. Algal carbohydrates affect polyketide synthesis of the lichen-forming fungus Cladonia rangiferina.

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    Elshobary, Mostafa E; Osman, Mohamed E; Abo-Shady, Atef M; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Sorensen, John; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2016-01-01

    Lichen secondary metabolites (polyketides) are produced by the fungal partner, but the role of algal carbohydrates in polyketide biosynthesis is not clear. This study examined whether the type and concentration of algal carbohydrate explained differences in polyketide production and gene transcription by a lichen fungus (Cladonia rangiferina). The carbohydrates identified from a free-living cyanobacterium (Spirulina platensis; glucose), a lichen-forming alga (Diplosphaera chodatii; sorbitol) and the lichen alga that associates with C. rangiferina (Asterochloris sp.; ribitol) were used in each of 1%, 5% and 10% concentrations to enrich malt yeast extract media for culturing the mycobiont. Polyketides were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and polyketide synthase (PKS) gene transcription was measured by quantitative PCR of the ketosynthase domain of four PKS genes. The lower concentrations of carbohydrates induced the PKS gene expression where ribitol up-regulated CrPKS1 and CrPKS16 gene transcription and sorbitol up-regulated CrPKS3 and CrPKS7 gene transcription. The HPLC results revealed that lower concentrations of carbon sources increased polyketide production for three carbohydrates. One polyketide from the natural lichen thallus (fumarprotocetraric acid) also was produced by the fungal culture in ribitol supplemented media only. This study provides a better understanding of the role of the type and concentration of the carbon source in fungal polyketide biosynthesis in the lichen Cladonia rangiferina.

  1. EVALUATION OF THE CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITYOF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SCHINUS TEREBINTHIFOLIUS RADDI

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    A. Arnobio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy consists in all pharmaceutical preparation using certain part of plants as a feedstock with known pharmacological effects for medicinal purposes. In order to a better understanding of the biological effects associated with herbal medicines, many scientific studies have been conducted and developed in recent years. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira is native from Peru and is also found in Europe, Asia and some Latin American countries. This herbal remedy was chosen for study because of its wide use and interesting pharmacological actions. Among the effects documented in the literature, they are a potent antimicrobial agent. Its use as hydroalcoholic extract showed positive effect on cystotomy healing in rats and the studies indicate that Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi vaginal gel is effective and safe for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. The experimental model discussed in this study was the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC in different strains of protozoa. Evaluation of the effects of the extract with Trypanosomacruzi and Leishmaniaamazonensis strains was conducted at different concentrations of a dilution series to allow a more sensitive analysis, in a wide concentration range. A static or toxic action can be distinguished by the color reaction which is involved rezazorina. The results indicate that in none of the tested strains were observed cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract. There was also no inhibitory action on the development of tested strains.

  2. Antibacterial activity of lichen Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola, and Cladonia verticillata

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    Gunasekaran, Saranyapiriya; Rajan, Vinoshene Pillai; Samsudin, Mohd. Wahid; Din, Laily; Ramanathan, Surash; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antibacterial activity of extract and chemical constituents of Usnea rubrotincta, Ramalina dumeticola and Cladonia verticillata. Extracts of U. rubrotincta and R. dumeticola showed promising antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The lowest value of MIC (15.63 μg/mL) was observed for the acetone extract of U. rubrotincta against B. subtilis. While extract of C. verticillata was neither active against gram positive nor gram negative bacteria at the highest tested concentration of 500 μg/m. This is the first evaluation of antibacterial activity of lichens found in Malaysia and to our knowledge, this is the first report of antibacterial

  3. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis

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    Stanojković Tatjana P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity of the acetone extracts of the lichens Cladonia furcata, Lecanora atra and Lecanora muralis. Methods Antioxidant activity was evaluated by five separate methods: free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, reducing power, determination of total phenolic compounds and determination of total flavonoid content. The antimicrobial activity was estimated by determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration by the broth microdilution method against six species of bacteria and ten species of fungi. Anticancer activity was tested against FemX (human melanoma and LS174 (human colon carcinoma cell lines using MTT method. Results Of the lichens tested, Lecanora atra had largest free radical scavenging activity (94.7% inhibition, which was greater than the standard antioxidants. Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power and superoxide anion radical scavenging. The strong relationships between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and the antioxidant effect of tested extracts were observed. Extract of Cladonia furcata was the most active antimicrobial agent with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.78 to 25 mg/mL. All extracts were found to be strong anticancer activity toward both cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8.51 to 40.22 μg/mL. Conclusions The present study shows that tested lichen extracts demonstrated a strong antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. That suggest that lichens may be used as as possible natural antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer agents to control various human, animal and plant diseases.

  4. 太白花化学成分的研究%Chemical constituents of Cladonia stellaris

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    王晓玲; 杨伯伦

    2004-01-01

    Object To study the chemical constituents in lichen plant of Cladonia stellaris. Methods C. Stellaris was extracted with petroleum ether,separated and purified by column chromatography and preparative TLC on silica gel. All the compounds were identified on the basis of spectral analysis. Results Six compounds were obtained. Their structures were characterized as usnic acid(Ⅰ),evinic acid (Ⅱ),perlatolic acid(Ⅲ),olivetoric acid (Ⅳ),2-hydroxyl-4-methoxyl-6-pentyl benzoic acid(Ⅴ) and 2,4-dihydroxyl benzoic acid (Ⅵ),respectively. Conclusion Compounds Ⅱ and Ⅳ were isolated from C. Stellaris for the first time.%目的研究地衣植物太白花(又称雀石蕊)Cladonia stellaris的化学成分.方法太白花经石油醚提取,采用硅胶柱色谱和硅胶制备TLC分离纯化,波谱分析鉴定结构.结果从太白花的石油醚部分得到6个化合物,分别鉴定为:松萝酸(Ⅰ)、去甲环萝酸(Ⅱ)、珠光酸(Ⅲ)、漂红梅衣酸(Ⅳ)、2-羟基-4-甲氧基-6-正戊基苯甲酸(Ⅴ)和2,4-二羟基-6-正戊基苯甲酸(Ⅵ).结论化合物Ⅱ和Ⅳ为首次从太白花中分离得到.

  5. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) exocarp.

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    Feuereisen, Michelle M; Hoppe, Julia; Zimmermann, Benno F; Weber, Fabian; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2014-07-02

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phenolic composition of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) exocarp extract. Using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis, four anthocyanins, three biflavonoids, gallic acid, and two types of hydrolyzable tannins (galloyl glucoses, galloyl shikimic acids) were tentatively identified. The structure of the so far unknown 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside was elucidated by 2D NMR. Within the group of gallotannins, galloyl shikimic acids with uncommon degrees of galloylation (tetra- to hexagalloyl shikimic acids) were detected. Among the biflavonoids, I3',II8-biapigenin (amentoflavone), I6,II8-biapigenin (agathisflavone), and II-2,3-dihydro-I3',II8-biapigenin were identified, which have already been described for Anacardiaceae. From the results of the present study together with previous findings on the phenolic profile of other Anacardiaceae plants, it is concluded that 7-methoxylated flavonoids are a chemotaxonomic trait frequently found in this family.

  6. Produção de metabólitos bioativos pelo líquen Cladonia substellata Vainio Production of bioactive metabolites from lichen Cladonia substellata Vainio

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    Sheyla Mara Ribeiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando comparar a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos brutos de Cladonia substellata, proveniente dos Estados de Minas Gerais e Pará, Brasil, utilizou-se o método de difusão em meio sólido. Extratos etéreo, clorofórmico e acetônico foram testados contra patógenos humanos e fitopatógenos na concentração de 1,0 mg/mL, 0,1 mg/mL e 0,01 mg/mL. Os extratos foram submetidos à cromatografia em camada delgada, e o princípio ativo atribuído através de biocromatografia. Os resultados demonstraram que as sete espécies de fungos testadas foram resistentes aos extratos de C. substellata procedente do Pará, porém, quatro destas espécies mostraram-se sensíveis aos extratos etéreo e clorofórmico da amostra de Minas Gerais. Todos os extratos foram ativos contra as mesmas espécies de bactérias, entretanto os extratos da amostra procedente de Minas Gerais demonstraram melhor atividade. Das bactérias inibidas, Staphylococcus aureus mostrou-se a menos sensível, ao contrário das fitopatógenas que apresentaram grande sensibilidade. Os testes cromatográficos revelaram a presença de ácido úsnico em todos os extratos, porém, em maior quantidade na amostra do Pará. O biocromatograma revelou este ácido como princípio ativo da espécie, além de sua ação sinérgica com o ácido norestíctico, na amostra de Minas Gerais, justificando sua maior atividade.This work purposed to make a comparison between antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from Cladonia substellata, collected at Minas Gerais and Pará States, Brazil, using the diffusion solid medium methods. Ether, chloroform, and acetone extracts, at 1 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, and 0.01 mg/mL, were tested against human pathogens and phytopathogens. The extracts were submitted to thin layer chromatography and their active principles attributed by biochromatography. The results demonstrated that the seven fungi species tested were no sensitive to extracts from C. substellata from Pará. On

  7. Ontogeny and Structure of the Pericarp of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae

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    Sandra Maria Carmello-Guerreiro

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a globose red drupe with friable exocarp when ripe and composed of two lignified layers: the epidermis and hypodermis. The mesocarp is parenchymatous with large secretory ducts associated with vascular bundles. In the mesocarp two regions are observed: an outer region composed of only parenchymatous cells and an inner region, bounded by one or more layers of druse-like crystals of calcium oxalate, composed of parenchymatous cells, secretory ducts and vascular bundles. The mesocarp detaches itself from the exocarp due to degeneration of the cellular layers in contact with the hypodermis. The lignified endocarp is composed of four layers: the outermost layer of polyhedral cells with prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, and the three innermost layers of sclereids in palisade.O fruto de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi é uma drupa vermelha, globosa, com exocarpo friável quando maduro e composto de duas camadas lignificadas: a epiderme e a hipoderme. O mesocarpo é parenquimático com grandes canais secretores associados aos feixes vasculares. No mesocarpo distinguem-se duas regiões uma externa composta apenas de células parenquimáticas e uma interna, delimitada por uma ou mais camadas de células contendo cristais de oxalato de cálcio do tipo drusa, composta de células parenquimáticas, canais secretores e feixes vasculares. O mesocarpo desprende-se do exocarpo devido à degeneração das camadas celulares em contato com a hipoderme. O endocarpo é lignificado e composto de quatro camadas: uma mais externa de células poliédricas com cristais prismáticos de oxalato de cálcio e três mais internas de esclereides em paliçada.

  8. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf's essential oil from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi

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    A.B. Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial potential of leaf's essential oil (EO from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 fg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals.

  9. Strong fungal specificity and selectivity for algal symbionts in Florida scrub Cladonia lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahr, Rebecca; Vilgalys, Rytas; Depriest, Paula T

    2004-11-01

    Symbiosis is a major theme in the history of life and can be an important force driving evolution. However, across symbioses, it is difficult to tease apart the mechanisms that structure the interactions among potential partners. We used genetic similarity and frequency-based methods to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the patterns of association among several co-occurring Cladonia lichen fungi and their algal photobionts in six disjunct Florida scrub sites. The patterns of association were described by the degree of specificity, i.e. the phylogenetic range of associated partners, and of selectivity, i.e. the frequency of association among partners. Six fungal species associated with only one algal internal transcribed spacer clade, with the remaining two fungi being associated with two algal clades. In all cases, the fungi associated in unequal frequencies with the observed algal photobiont genotypes within those clades--suggesting that both specificity and selectivity were higher than expected. Fungal species can be grouped into three significantly different specificity classes: photobiont specialists, intermediates and generalists. In contrast to the pronounced specificity for photobionts among fungal species, the different Florida scrub sites do not harbour distinct photobiont pools, and differential photobiont availability cannot explain the patterning of lichen associations at this spatial scale. Therefore, we conclude that fungal specificity and selectivity for algal photobionts are major factors in determining the local composition of symbiotic partnerships.

  10. Efeitos do sombreamento na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi

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    M.S. Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de analisar as alterações na anatomia foliar de Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms e Schinnus terebinthifolius Raddi quando cultivadas em ambientes de sombra moderada ou densa, simulando as condições naturais encontradas em sistemas agroflorestais tradicionais do sul da Bahia, Brasil. Plantas das duas espécies, com aproximadamente um ano de idade, foram cultivadas em casa de vegetação sob quatro níveis de sombreamento (25%, 17%, 10% e 5%. Estudos anatômicos do limbo foliar foram realizados a partir de material incluído em parafina e seccionado em micrótomo rotativo. Os diferentes níveis de sombreamento ocasionaram alterações na estrutura do mesofilo de ambas as espécies, com diferenças significativas na espessura do parênquima paliçádico, limbo foliar, e densidade estomática. Nas condições em que o experimento foi realizado os resultados obtidos indicaram que G. integrifolia apresenta maior capacidade de aclimatação a ambientes de sombra moderada e densa do que S. terebinthifolius, sendo mais indicada para o cultivo em sistemas agroflorestais pré-estabelecidos.

  11. The revision of specimens of the Cladonia pyxidata-chlorophaea group (lichenized Ascomycota from northeastern Poland deposited in the herbarium collections of University in Bialystok

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    Anna Matwiejuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeastern Poland, the chemical variation of the Cladonia chlorophaea-pyxidata group was much neglected, as TLC has not been used in delimitation of species differing in the chemistry. As a great part of herbal material of University in Bialystok from NE Poland was misidentified, I found my studies to be necessary. Based on the collection of 123 specimens deposited in Herbarium of University in Bialystok, nine species of the C. pyxidata-chlorophaea group are reported from NE Poland. The morphology, secondary chemistry, and ecology of examined lichens are presented and the list of localities is provided. The results revealed that C. fimbriata is the most common species in the northeastern Poland, comprising around 33% of the studied specimens. Cladonia conista, C. cryptochlorophaea, and C. merochlorophaea are known only from very few locations. This study shed light on the role of the lichens substances to diagnosis of the species of C. pyxidata-chlorophaea group.

  12. Use of cacti as heat sources by thermoregulating Mabuya agilis (Raddi) and Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Lacertflia, Scincidae) in two restinga habitats in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Lizards may benefit from gain of heat from contact with the substrate via conduction. In this study, evidence that the lizards Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823) and Mabuya macrorhynclui Hoge, 1946 (Scincidae) inhabiting two restinga habitats in southeastern Brazil (Grussaf, Rio de Janeiro and Praia das Neves, Espfrito Santo), may shift microhabitat preferences along the day, and that such shifts may be related to the use of cacti surfaces as direct sources of heat is presented. For both species, bo...

  13. Cladonia lichens on extensive green roofs: evapotranspiration, substrate temperature, and albedo [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2ha

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    Amy Heim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are constructed ecosystems that provide ecosystem services in urban environments. Shallow substrate green roofs subject the vegetation layer to desiccation and other environmental extremes, so researchers have evaluated a variety of stress-tolerant vegetation types for green roof applications. Lichens can be found in most terrestrial habitats.  They are able to survive extremely harsh conditions, including frequent cycles of desiccation and rehydration, nutrient-poor soil, fluctuating temperatures, and high UV intensities. Extensive green roofs (substrate depth <20cm exhibit these harsh conditions, making lichens possible candidates for incorporation into the vegetation layer on extensive green roofs.  In a modular green roof system, we tested the effect of Cladonia lichens on substrate temperature, water loss, and albedo compared to a substrate-only control. Overall, the Cladonia modules had significantly cooler substrate temperatures during the summer and significantly warmer temperatures during the fall.  Additionally, the Cladonia modules lost significantly less water than the substrate-only control. This implies that they may be able to benefit neighboring vascular plant species by reducing water loss and maintaining favorable substrate temperatures.

  14. Cladonia lichens on extensive green roofs: evapotranspiration, substrate temperature, and albedo [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2v4

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    Amy Heim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are constructed ecosystems that provide ecosystem services in urban environments. Shallow substrate green roofs subject the vegetation layer to desiccation and other environmental extremes, so researchers have evaluated a variety of stress-tolerant vegetation types for green roof applications. Lichens can be found in most terrestrial habitats.  They are able to survive extremely harsh conditions, including frequent cycles of desiccation and rehydration, nutrient-poor soil, fluctuating temperatures, and high UV intensities. Extensive green roofs (substrate depth <20cm exhibit these harsh conditions, making lichens possible candidates for incorporation into the vegetation layer on extensive green roofs.  In a modular green roof system, we tested the effect of Cladonia lichens on substrate temperature, water loss, and albedo compared to a substrate-only control. Overall, the Cladonia modules had significantly cooler substrate temperatures during the summer and significantly warmer temperatures during the fall.  Additionally, the Cladonia modules lost significantly less water than the substrate-only control. This implies that they may be able to benefit neighboring vascular plant species by reducing water loss and maintaining favorable substrate temperatures.

  15. Efeito fungicida dos óleos essenciais de Schinus molle L. e Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, do Rio Grande do Sul Antifungal effect of Schinus molle L., Anacardiaceae, and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, essential oils of Rio Grande do Sul

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    Ana C. Atti dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Uma das alternativas para reduzir o uso de agrotóxicos pode ser a utilização de óleos essenciais para o controle de doenças e pragas que afetam a produção agrícola. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito fungicida dos óleos essenciais de Schinus molle L. e Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, espécies nativas amplamente distribuídas na região. Os óleos foram extraídos por hidrodestilação e analisados por cromatografia gasosa. Os fungos fitopatógenos Alternaria spp., Botrytis spp., Colletotrichum spp. e Fusarium spp., foram isolados a partir de gérberas e rosas com sintomas de doença e os ensaios de atividade antifúngica foram realizados através da técnica de difusão em disco e os dados analisados pelo teste de Tukey e Duncan a 5%. Em geral o óleo essencial de S. molle foi efetivo para os quatro fungos testados, nas quatro diluições utilizadas e para todos os tempos avaliados e o óleo essencial de S. terebinthifolius apresenta efeito fungicida mais pronunciado contra Botrytis spp., a partir de testes in vitro.One of the alternatives to reduce the use of pesticides may be the use of essential oils to control diseases and pests that affect agricultural production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fungicide effect of essential oils of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifoliusRaddi, native species widely distributed in the region. The oils were extracted by hydro distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography. The phytopathogenic fungi Alternariaspp., Botrytisspp., Colletotrichumspp. and Fusarium spp., were isolated from "gerberas" and roses with symptoms of disease and antifungal activity of the tests were carried out by the technique of spreading disk. The data was analyzed by Tukey and Duncan tests to 5%. In general, the essential oil of S. mollewas effective for the four fungi tested, for the four dilutions used and for all the times evaluated. The essential oil of S. terebinthifolius presents

  16. Efeito da schinus terebinthifolius raddi sobre o processo de reparo tecidual das lesões ulceradas induzidas na mucosa bucal do rato = Effect of the schinus terebinthifolius raddi in the process of tissular repair in ulcers induced in mucosa oral of the rat

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    Ribas, Marina de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Os grupos controles não receberam nenhum tipo de tratamento e os grupos experimentais foram tratados com o extrato da folha de Schinus terebinthifoLius Raddi. As informações obtidas foram analisadas estatisticamente através do teste de Kruskal-Wallis e comparações múltiplas, utilizando probabilidade de p > 0,05. Na análise dos resultados obtidos do efeito do extrato, observou-se que as úlceras nos grupos experimentais, quando comparadas às dos grupos controles, mostraram fechamento epitelial acelerado, maior proliferação vascular e fibroblástica. A Schinus terebenthifoüus Raddi mostrou ter efeito positivo no processo de reparo tecidual

  17. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Raddi (Lacertilia, Scincidae at the restinga of Grumari, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

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    Davor Vrcibradic

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the ecology of the skink Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 at the restinga habitat of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are studied. Most of the lizards were first sighted on the ground, though a few were using perches (mainly cacti up to 30 cm high. Mean body temperature in activity was 33.1 ± 2.4ºC and was significantly correlated to air temperature. There was sexual dimorphism in size (snout-vent length - SVL, with females growing larger than males. Frequency of broken tails was high overall (83% and did not differ between sexes. Females and males are sexually mature at 49 mm and 47 mm SVL, respectively. Brood size averaged 3.2 ± 1.0 (range 1-5 and was positively and significantly related to female SVL (r = 0.65, p = 0.001. Relative clutch mass (RCM of seven gravid females averaged 0.250 ± 0.042, being relatively low compared to those of other congeners. The diet of M. agilis was composed basically of arthropods, with relatively large and soft-bodied arthropods such as spiders, caterpillars and homopterans being the most important prey. The results of our work confirm and expand the knowledge of ecological tendencies previously observed for M. agilis in other areas.

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Volatile Extracts from Leaves and Fruits of Schinusterebinthifolius Raddi from Tunisia

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    Alessandra Piras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile oils composition from leaves and ripe fruits of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi growing in Tunisia were investigated using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Volatile oil extraction was achieved by hydrodistillation (HD using a Clevenger apparatus and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide. All plant organs, gave SFE extracts chiefly composed by a -pinene, a -phellandrene, b -phellandrene, germacrene D and bicyclogermacrene. In the case of the fruits, both extraction techniques gave volatile oils of similar composition; whereas the comparison between the HD and SFE leave oils revealed important differences in the content of a -pinene (6.1 % vs traces, a -phellandrene (22.7 % vs 0.8 % and b -phellandrene (14.6 % vs 1.2 %. All volatile samples were evaluated against yeasts and dermatophyte strains, being more active against Cryptococcus neoformans, particularly the volatile oil from the fruits, with MIC values of (0.32-0.64 mg/mL.Moreover, this oil revealed an inhibitory effect on germ tube formation in C. albicans at sub-inhibitory concentration. At the concentration of MIC/8 the inhibition of filamentation was more than 70 %.

  19. Effects of nitrogen deposition and soil fertility on cover and physiology of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd., a lichen of biological soil crusts from Mediterranean Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: raul.ochoa@ccma.csic.e [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Manrique, Esteban [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We are fertilizing a thicket with 0, 10, 20 and 50 kg nitrogen (N) ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in central Spain. Here we report changes in cover, pigments, pigment ratios and FvFm of the N-tolerant, terricolous, lichen Cladonia foliacea after 1-2 y adding N in order to study its potential as biomarker of atmospheric pollution. Cover tended to increase. Pigments increased with fertilization independently of the dose supplied but only significantly with soil nitrate as covariate. {beta}-carotene/chlorophylls increased with 20-50 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} (over the background) and neoxanthin/chlorophylls also increased with N. (Neoxanthin+lutein)/carotene decreased with N when nitrate and pH seasonalities were used as covariates. FvFm showed a critical load above 40 kg N ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1}. Water-stress, iron and copper also explained variables of lichen physiology. We conclude that this tolerant lichen could be used as biomarker and that responses to N are complex in heterogeneous Mediterranean-type landscapes. - Research highlights: We are providing evidence of the potential use of the crust-forming lichen Cladonia foliacea as biomarker of atmospheric pollution in Mediterranean ecosystems of Europe, which are understudied with regard to this topic. Pigment concentration increased with N addition and FvFm, used as indicator of physiological status, showed a critical load above 20 kg N ha{sup -1} y{sup -1}. Soil nitrate and pH were important in modulating responses to simulated N pollution and other soil parameters (micro-nutrients, water content...) also explained variables of lichen physiology. We conclude that Cladonia foliacea could be used as biomarker and that responses to N are complex in heterogeneous Mediterranean-type landscapes. - Nitrogen deposition and soil variables affect the physiology of terrestrial Mediterranean lichens.

  20. Chemical composition and anticancer and antioxidant activities of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi berries essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Houcine; Romdhane, Mehrez; Souchard, Jean Pierre; Cazaux, Sylvie; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2010-08-01

    Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation from berries of Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi originating from southern of Tunisia and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Among 57 and 62 compounds (%[mg/100 g dry matter]) identified in these oils, the main were alpha-phellandrene (46.52%[1256.15] and 34.38%[859.60]), beta-phellandrene (20.81%[561.74] and 10.61%[265.15]), alpha-terpineol (8.38%[226.26] and 5.60%[140.03]), alpha-pinene (4.34%[117.29] and 6.49%[162.25]), beta-pinene (4.96%[133.81] and 3.09%[77.30]) and p-cymene (2.49%[67.28] and 7.34%[183.40]), respectively. A marked quantity of gamma-cadinene (18.04%[451.05]) was also identified in the S. terebinthifolius essential oil whereas only traces (0.07%[1.81]) were detected in the essential oil of S. molle. The in vitro antioxidant and antiradical scavenging properties of the investigated essential oils were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Essential oil of S. terebinthifolius expressed stronger antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, with an IC(50) of 24 +/- 0.8 mg/L, compared to S. molle (IC(50)= 257 +/- 10.3 mg/L). Essential oils were also evaluated for their anticancer activities against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). S. terebinthifolius essential oil was more effective against tested cell lines (IC(50)= 47 +/- 9 mg/L) than that from S. molle (IC(50)= 54 +/- 10 mg/L). Suggestions on relationships between chemical composition and biological activities are outlined.

  1. Use of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo.yara@gmail.com, E-mail: tadeu1903@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  2. Chemical composition of essential oil from ripe fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and evaluation of its activity against wild strains of hospital origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, E R; dos Santos, R B; Lacerda Júnior, V; Martins, J D L; Greco, S J; Cunha Neto, A

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil (EO) composition of ripe fruit of S. terebinthifolius Raddi was analyzed by GC-MS. The oil extraction yielded 6.54 ± 1.06% (w/w). Seventeen compounds were identified, accounting for 91.15% of the total oil, where monoterpenes constituted the main chemical class (85.81%), followed by sesquiterpenes (5.34%). The major monoterpene identified was δ-3-carene (30.37%), followed by limonene (17.44%), α-phellandrene (12.60%) and α-pinene (12.59%). Trans-caryophyllene (1.77%) was the major sesquiterpene identified. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against wild strains of hospital origin (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella oxytoca, Corynebacterium sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Enterobacter agglomerans, Bacillus sp., Nocardia sp. and Streptococcus group D). The essential oil of the ripe fruit of S. terebinthifolius Raddi has shown to be active against all tested wild strains, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 3.55 μg/mL to 56.86 μg/mL. However, it has revealed some differences in susceptibility: the general, Gram-positive species showed greater sensitivity to the action of EO, which is probably due to the lower structural complexity of their cell walls.

  3. 牛耳秋海棠的组培快繁研究%Research on the Tissue Culture About Begonia sanguinea Raddi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹芳凤; 王冠; 张宵娟; 连芳青

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the rapid propagation and factory production of Begonia sanguinea Raddi ,taking leaves of Begoniasanguinea Raddi as explants ,the tissue culture of Begoniasanguinea Raddi was studied .The results showed that the optimum sterilization time of explants were 8 s by 75% alcohol and 6~7 min by 0 .1%mercuric chloride with a drop of Tween;The optimized medium for callus induction and differentiation was MS+6‐BA 0 .5~1 .0 mg·L‐1 +NAA 0 .1 mg·L‐1 ,the induction rate was 85 .42% ~87 .08% ;The optimal mul‐tiplication medium was MS+6‐BA 1 .0 mg·L‐1 +NAA 0 .1 mg·L‐1 ,the multiplication coefficient was as high as 42 .43 .%为促进牛耳秋海棠的快繁及工厂化生产,以牛耳秋海棠的叶片为外植体,对其离体再生培养技术进行了研究。结果表明:牛耳秋海棠最佳消毒方法为75%酒精消毒8 s ,0.1%的HgCl2消毒6~7 min(滴加一滴吐温);牛耳秋海棠愈伤组织诱导和分化的最佳培养基为MS+6‐BA0.5~1.0 mg·L‐1+ NAA0.1 mg·L‐1,诱导率达85.42%~87.08%;牛耳秋海棠不定芽增殖的最适宜培养基是MS+6‐BA1.0 mg·L‐1+ NAA0.1 mg·L‐1,增殖倍数高达42.43。

  4. USE OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi IN PRE- AND POST-MILKING ANTISEPSIS OF THE TEAT IN DAIRY COWS

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    Ângela Faccin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as an alternative treatment for health problems. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi is a median tree that belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. The antibacterial effect of leaves extract of this plant has already been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to test a substance derived from this plant to be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis. The hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian pepper tree was used in opposite quarters for twelve consecutive weeks, and commercial iodine was used as control. None of the indices analyzed – black background mug, CMT, intramammary infections, skin health, and teat health – showed a statistical difference between the treatments, suggesting that the plant extract can be used in pre- and post-milking teat antisepsis, as a substitute for conventional products for herds in an agroecological production system.

  5. Conflitos socioambientais no extrativismo da aroeira (Schinus terebebinthifolius Raddi, Baixo São Francisco - Sergipe/Alagoas

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    Nádia Batista de Jesus

    2012-12-01

    garantice el diálogo y cooperación entre los actores involucrados.This research paper has investigated the socio-enviromental conflicts in the extractivism of aroeira (Schinus terebebinthifolius Raddi in the lower São Francisco river, the states of Sergipe and Alagoas. In order to carry out this research, which spanned ten years starting in 2001 and ending in 2011, we resorted to interviews with the actors involved in the extractivism of aroeira as well as documental research. Data were analysed on the basis of conduct towards extractivism and classification of conflict. The lack of standard procedures in the management of the species is a key factor in bringing about conflicts arising in the appropriation of and access to aroeira. The fishermen who are also engaged in extractivism collect it for its economic value, whereas the processing/exporting companies focus on its role as merchandise. The different spheres of government tend to disagree on which one is entitled to regulate licencing and supervising of extractivism. The need has been found to design a sustainable forest management for the species in which both dialogue and cooperation among all actors involved have a place.

  6. Effect of metal stress on photosynthetic pigments in the Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens Cladonia humilis and Stereocaulon japonicum growing in Cu-polluted sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Yoshitani, Azusa; Itoh, Kiminori

    2013-11-01

    To understand the ecology and physiology of metal-accumulating lichens growing in Cu-polluted sites, we investigated lichens near temple and shrine buildings with Cu roofs in Japan and found that Stereocaulon japonicum Th. Fr. and Cladonia humilis (With.) J. R. Laundon grow in Cu-polluted sites. Metal concentrations in the lichen samples collected at some of these sites were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). UV-vis absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the lichen samples were measured, and the pigment concentrations were estimated from the spectral data using equations from the literature. Secondary metabolites extracted from the lichen samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photodiode array detector. We found that S. japonicum and C. humilis are Cu-hyperaccumulating lichens. Differences in pigment concentrations and their absorption spectra were observed between the Cu-polluted and control samples of the 2 lichens. However, no correlation was found between Cu and pigment concentrations. We observed a positive correlation between Al and Fe concentrations and unexpectedly found high negative correlations between Al and pigment concentrations. This suggests that Al stress reduces pigment concentrations. The concentrations of secondary metabolites in C. humilis growing in the Cu-polluted sites agreed with those in C. humilis growing in the control sites. This indicates that the metabolite concentrations are independent of Cu stress.

  7. Use of cacti as heat sources by thermoregulating Mabuya agilis (Raddi and Mabuya macrorhyncha Hoge (Lacertflia, Scincidae in two restinga habitats in southeastern Brazil

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    Davor Vrcibradic

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lizards may benefit from gain of heat from contact with the substrate via conduction. In this study, evidence that the lizards Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 and Mabuya macrorhynclui Hoge, 1946 (Scincidae inhabiting two restinga habitats in southeastern Brazil (Grussaf, Rio de Janeiro and Praia das Neves, Espfrito Santo, may shift microhabitat preferences along the day, and that such shifts may be related to the use of cacti surfaces as direct sources of heat is presented. For both species, body temperature (Tb was always significantly correlated (p < 0,05 with air temperature (Ta. Tb was significantly correlated (p < 0,0.5 with substrate temperature (Ts for M. agilis collected on cacti, but not for specimens collected on the ground. For M. macrorhyncha collected on cacti, both Ta and Ts were more important in conjunction than separately, in explaining lizard Tb. Use of cacti as perches by M. agilis was more frequent during late afternoon when environmental temperatures are declining, but such a trend was not evident for M. macrorhynclui. We suggest that the use of cacti as direct heat sources may be more evident in the ground-dwelling M. agilis than in the scansorial M. macrorhynclui.

  8. Effect of soil contaminated by diesel oil on the germination of seeds and the growth of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae Seedlings

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    Cleusa Bona

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil polluted by diesel oil on the germination of seeds and the growth of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi seedlings was analyzed at different times after contamination of the soil. The experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions, with four treatments and five repetitions. The four treatments included: soil contaminated 30 (T30, 90 (T90 or 180 (T180 days before planting as well as a non-polluted soil (T0 (control. Soil saturated to 50% of its maximum retention capacity (MRC was contaminated with diesel oil at a rate of 92.4 mL per kg. The germination rate and germination speed index (GSI were significantly affected only in T30. The development of the plants was affected significantly in all the treatments, with reductions of biomass and eophyll area. It could be concluded that diesel oil significantly affected the germination, GSI and seedling growth of S. terebinthifolius, but the toxic effect decreased over the time.

  9. Effect of copper stress on cup lichens Cladonia humilis and C. subconistea growing on copper-hyperaccumulating moss Scopelophila cataractae at copper-polluted sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Yoshitani, Azusa; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Sakurai, Haruka; Itoh, Kiminori

    2012-10-01

    We investigated lichen species in the habitats of the copper (Cu)-hyperaccumulating moss Scopelophila cataractae and found that the cup lichens Cladonia subconistea and C. humilis grow on this moss. We performed X-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS) analysis of lichen samples and measured the visible absorption spectra of the pigments extracted from the samples to assess the effect of Cu stress on the cup lichens. The chlorophyll a/b ratio and degradation of chlorophyll a to pheophytin a were calculated from the spectral data. X-ray fluorescence analysis indicated that Cu concentrations in cup lichens growing on S. cataractae were much higher than those in control samples growing on non-polluted soil. Moreover, Cu microanalysis showed that Cu concentrations in parts of podetia of C. subconistea growing on S. cataractae increased as the substrate (S. cataractae) was approached, whereas those of C. humilis growing on S. cataractae decreased as the substrate was approached. This reflects the difference in the route of Cu ions from the source to the podetia. Furthermore, ICP-MS analysis confirmed that C. subconistea growing on S. cataractae was heavily contaminated with Cu, indicating that this lichen is Cu tolerant. We found a significant difference between the visible absorption spectra of pigments extracted from the Cu-contaminated and control samples. Hence, the spectra could be used to determine whether a cup lichen is contaminated with Cu. Chlorophyll analysis showed that cup lichens growing on S. cataractae were affected by Cu stress. However, it also suggested that the areas of dead moss under cup lichens were a suitable substrate for the growth of the lichen. Moreover, it suggested that cup lichens had allolepathic effects on S. cataractae; it is likely that secondary metabolites produced by cup lichens inhibited moss growth.

  10. Dieta e uso de habitat da jararaca-do-brejo, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridade em domínio subtropical do Brasil Diet and habitat use of swamp racer snake, Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi (Serpentes, Colubridae in subtropical domains of Brazil

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    Pedro T. Leite

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A serpente Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 é um grande colubrídeo neotropical que habita áreas abertas na América do Sul. Sua dieta é composta principalmente por anfíbios, mas inclui outros itens como mamíferos e lagartos. A dissecção de 224 espécimes desta serpente, provenientes dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina e Paraná, preservados em coleções herpetológicas do Brasil e um estudo de campo entre 1996 e 1998, fornecem informações sobre os hábitos alimentares e uso de habitat dessa serpente em domínio subtropical no Brasil. Essa serpente alimenta-se de anfíbios (80%, em sua maioria da família Leptodactylidae, mamíferos (10% e lagartos (2%. Foi verificada mudança ontogenética na dieta de M. bifossatus, o tamanho das presas ingeridas aumenta com o aumento de tamanho da serpente. Essa espécie ocorre principalmente em áreas abertas, algumas vezes perto de áreas antrópicas em domínio subtropical no Brasil.Mastigodryas bifossatus Raddi, 1820 is a large neotropical colubrid snake that inhabits open areas in South America. The diet is mainly composed by frogs, but it includes other items like mammals and lizards. The dissection of 224 specimens of this snake, proceeding from the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná, stored in herpetological collections in Brazil and a field study between 1996 and 1998, provided information on dietary habits and habitat use of this snake in subtropical domains in Brazil. This snake eats mainly amphibians of the family Leptodactylidae (80%, mammals (10% and lizards (2%. There is ontogenetic diet shift in M. bifossatus, as the snake grows, the range of preys grows as well. M. bifossatus occur in open areas.

  11. Ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, de um fitoterápico composto (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill Phase I clinical toxicological assays of a complex herbal medicine (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour and Eucaliptus globulus Labill

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    Patrícia Trindade C. Paulo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foram realizados ensaios clínicos toxicológicos, fase I, do produto fitoterápico composto pelas plantas medicinais Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour e Eucalyptus globulus Labill. O estudo foi realizado no Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley/UFPB/PB e, para isto, foram selecionados 28 voluntários sadios, sendo 14 homens e 14 mulheres que ingeriram por via oral, ininterruptamente durante 8 semanas, 15 mL do produto, três vezes ao dia; e no 3º e 7º dia, 3ª e 6ª semanas e 24 h após a 8ª semana, foram feitas avaliações clínicas e laboratoriais para análise da toxicidade aguda e crônica. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que os pacientes não apresentaram alterações clínicas, laboratoriais e reações adversas significantes, apenas pequenas alterações foram detectadas no sangue através da aspartato transaminase (AST e fosfatase alcalina no grupo feminino para um p In this study, phase I clinical toxicological assays of the herbal medicine composed of the medicinal plants Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Plectranthus amboinicus Lour and Eucaliptus globulus Labill were performed. The study was carried out at Hospital Universitário Lauro Wanderley/UFPB/PB/Brazil and for this purpose, 28 healthy volunteers were chosen, 14 men and 14 women who ingested 15 mL of the medicine per oral, with no interruption, three times a day; and on the 3rd and 7th days, on the 3rd and 6th weeks and 24h after the 8th week, clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed to analyze the acute and chronic toxicity. As results, the patients did not show significant clinical and laboratory alterations and adverse reactions, only little alterations were detected in blood through aspartate transaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase in the female group to a p < 0.05; however, these values are according to the normality standard for adult individuals. It can be concluded that these data, complementary to those

  12. Characterization of a transcriptome from a non-model organism, Cladonia rangiferina, the grey reindeer lichen, using high-throughput next generation sequencing and EST sequence data

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    Junttila Sini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lichens are symbiotic organisms that have a remarkable ability to survive in some of the most extreme terrestrial climates on earth. Lichens can endure frequent desiccation and wetting cycles and are able to survive in a dehydrated molecular dormant state for decades at a time. Genetic resources have been established in lichen species for the study of molecular systematics and their taxonomic classification. No lichen species have been characterised yet using genomics and the molecular mechanisms underlying the lichen symbiosis and the fundamentals of desiccation tolerance remain undescribed. We report the characterisation of a transcriptome of the grey reindeer lichen, Cladonia rangiferina, using high-throughput next-generation transcriptome sequencing and traditional Sanger EST sequencing data. Results Altogether 243,729 high quality sequence reads were de novo assembled into 16,204 contigs and 49,587 singletons. The genome of origin for the sequences produced was predicted using Eclat with sequences derived from the axenically grown symbiotic partners used as training sequences for the classification model. 62.8% of the sequences were classified as being of fungal origin while the remaining 37.2% were predicted as being of algal origin. The assembled sequences were annotated by BLASTX comparison against a non-redundant protein sequence database with 34.4% of the sequences having a BLAST match. 29.3% of the sequences had a Gene Ontology term match and 27.9% of the sequences had a domain or structural match following an InterPro search. 60 KEGG pathways with more than 10 associated sequences were identified. Conclusions Our results present a first transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly for a lichen species and describe the ongoing molecular processes and the most active pathways in C. rangiferina. This brings a meaningful contribution to publicly available lichen sequence information. These data provide a first

  13. EFEITO HIPOGLICÊMICO DE ALIMENTOS RICOS EM FIBRA SOLÚVEL. ESTUDO COM GILÓ (SOLANUM GILO, RADDI

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    MáRCIA BARRETO SILVA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Dietas com alto teor de fibra têm apresentado resultados positivos em experimentos realizados com diabéticos (animais e humanos, melhorando a tolerância à glicose, reduzindo a hiperglicemia pós-prandial e a taxa secretória de insulina. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o efeito hipoglicêmico do jiló (Solanum gilo, Raddi, em função da pectina nele encontrado, e compará-lo ao efeito da aveia (rica em β-glucans. O experimento foi realizado em um período de 42 dias, com ratos machos, adultos, da linhagem Wistar, normais e diabéticos (por indução com aloxana, alimentados com rações de caseína, de jiló e de aveia. Foi determinada a composição centesimal das rações e discriminados os componentes da fração fibra da dieta. A glicose sangüínea foi determinada pelo método da glicose oxidase. Os resultados obtidos foram tratados estatisticamente utilizando-se o modelo GLIM - Generalized Linear Models. Apesar de a redução do nível de glicose sangüínea não ter sido significativa, a 5% de probabilidade, observou- se que o jiló possui uma maior tendência do que a aveia em reduzir os níveis de glicose. Estes resultados sugerem a recomendação da inclusâo de jiló, em concentrações maiores que a utilizada, nas refeições de indivíduos diabéticos.

  14. Avaliação do efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira no processo de cicatrização da linea alba de ratos Evaluation of the hydro-alcoholic Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Aroeira extract in the healing process of the alba linea in rats

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    José Aldemir Teixeira Nunes Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o processo de cicatrização da parede abdominal de ratos após a injeção intraperitoneal do extrato hidroalcóolico de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 40 ratos da linhagem Wistar, distribuídos em dois grupos de 20 animais, cada um subdividido em dois subgrupos. Estes ratos foram mortos no 3º e 7º dias após a aplicação intraperitoneal do extrato. No grupo experimento, injetou-se uma única dose de extrato hidroalcoólico de Aroeira (100 mg por quilo de peso do animal e no grupo controle uma única dose de solução salina isotônica a 0.9%. Após a morte dos animais, realizou-se o inventário da cavidade peritoneal à procura de aderências, seguido da ressecção da parede abdominal anterior englobando a ferida operatória para análise. As aderências foram classificadas pelos critérios de adesão de Nair. Realizou-se avaliação tensiométrica da parede abdominal através da medida da carga máxima suportada e da deformação máxima, medidos em máquina universal de ensaios do tipo Tiratest. Por fim, a avaliação histológica foi realizada através da coloração hematoxilina-eosina, com análise dos parâmetros: inflamação aguda, inflamação crônica, necrose isquêmica, reação gigantocelular do tipo corpo estranho, proliferação fibroblástica, fibrose, reepitelização e coaptação das bordas da sutura. RESULTADOS: A avaliacão macroscópica não revelou presença de aderências significativas entre a linha alba e as vísceras intra-abdominais nos grupos de estudo. A tensiometria demonstrou aumento significativo das variáveis carga máxima e deformação máxima (p=0,006 e p=0,000 respectivamente entre os grupos controle e experimento de sete dias. A avaliação histológica intergrupos (controle e experimento de três e sete dias não demonstrou alteração significativa para os parâmetros neoformação vascular, necrose, fibrose, reepitelização e coaptação das bordas da

  15. Efeito de diferentes substratos na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de jiloeiro (Solanum gilo RADDI, cultivar verde claro Effect of different substrata in the germination of seeds and initial growing of jiló (Solanum gilo RADDI, cv. verde claro

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    Bruno Galvêas Laviola

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes substratos na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de jiló (S. gilo Raddi, cultivar Verde-Claro. Foi utilizado o delineamento estatístico inteiramente casualizado com quinze tratamentos, quatro repetições, considerando-se como unidade experimental 100 sementes. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização dos substratos: resíduos de mineração de calcário com NPK adicional (S1, resíduos de mineração de calcário com NPK e lodo adicional (1:1 v/v (S2, resíduos de mineração de calcário com NPK e esterco bovino adicional (1:1 v/v (S3, resíduos de mineração de calcário com NPK e composto orgânico adicional (1:1 v/v (S4, argissolo vermelho-amarelo com calagem e NPK adicional (S5, argissolo vermelho-amarelo com calagem, NPK e lodo adicional (1:1 v/v (S6, argissolo vermelho-amarelo com calagem, NPK e composto orgânico adicional (1:1 v/v (S7, argissolo vermelho-amarelo com calagem, NPK e esterco bovino adicional (1:1 v/v (S8, argissolo (pastagem (S9, solo de várzea (S10; areia lavada (S11, cambissolo haplico eutrófico (S12, substrato comercial (PlantmaxR (S13, resíduos de mineração de calcário (S14 e argissolo vermelho-amarelo eutrófíco (S15. Aos 18 dias, avaliaram-se: porcentagem de germinação, índice de velocidade de emergência, massa da matéria fresca da parte aérea e da radícula e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea e da radícula. Os substratos que apresentaram os melhores resultados de germinação das sementes foram argissolo vermelho-amarelo com calagem, NPK e esterco bovino adicional, solo de várzea e cambissolo haplico eutrófico. Entretanto, o substrato comercial PlantmaxR foi o melhor substrato na produção da massa da matéria seca das plântulas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different substrates in the germination and the initial growing of garden egg seeds (S. gilo Raddi, cv. Verde Claro. The experimental design

  16. Produção de frutos e características morfofisiológicas de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi., na região do baixo São Francisco, Brasil

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    Danilla Cristina Lemos Souza

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com potencial econômico, como é o caso da aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi., requerem a seleção de indivíduos com características superiores para uso em projetos de restauração florestal e para o estabelecimento de plantios comerciais. Estas plantações podem contribuir para a sustentabilidade de populações naturais de espécies nos fragmentos florestais remanescentes, em áreas de preservação permanente, reservas legais ou outras áreas de importância ecológica. Foi avaliada a produção de frutos, morfometria e viabilidade de sementes de 15 indivíduos de aroeira, em diferentes fragmentos, na região do Baixo São Francisco sergipano. A produção de frutos foi estimada pelo índice de intensidade de Fournier e as características morfométricas foram obtidas com paquímetro e balança analítica digital. A viabilidade e o vigor foram avaliados por meio da porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, sob condições controladas. Os resultados da produção de frutos foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p <0,05. Para as demais variáveis foi utilizado o teste de Scott-Knott (p <0,05. Os indivíduos diferiram em índices de Fournier (índices 1, 2, 3 e 4 e no tamanho de frutos e sementes. A germinação variou de 0 a 83% e o IVG de 0,00 a 0,98. As diferenças fenotípicas observadas entre os indivíduos para a produção de frutos e características morfofisiológicas podem ser exploradas em restauração florestal e estabelecimento de testes de procedências/progênies, visando à discriminação de material superior para futuros plantios comerciais.

  17. Atividade antimicrobiana de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi Antimicrobial activity of Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi

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    Cláudia Helena Degáspari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho analisar a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos aquoso e alcoólico obtidos de frutos da Schinus terebenthifolius ou aroeira-vermelha, diretamente ligados à quantidade de compostos fenólicos existentes nesses extratos. Pelos testes, verificou-se que o extrato alcoólico apresentou efeito inibitório sobre o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e Bacillus cereus, já o extrato aquoso não apresentou efeito inibitório sobre os crescimento dos microrganismos testados. O extrato alcoólico mostrou-se com quantidade significativa da flavona apigenina, além de ácido elágico, ao passo que no extrato aquoso foi observada a presença da flavanona naringina.This research analyzed the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts obtained from Schinus terebenthifolius fruits or aroeira-vermelha, directly linked to the amount of phenolics compouds existent in these extracts. The tests showed that the alcoholic extract presented an inibitory effect to the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, and the aqueous extract didn't present inibitory effect to the growth of the tested microorganisms. The alcoholic extract was shown with a significant amount of the flavone apigenin, besides ellagic acid and siringic acid, while in the aqueous extract was observed the flavanone naringine.

  18. Polar phenolic constituents from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae); Constituintes fenolicos polares de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceruks, Melina; Romoff, Paulete; Favero, Oriana A.; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: joaolago@iq.usp.br

    2007-05-15

    The EtOH extract from the leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius showed anti-radicalar potential in the DPPH test. It was partitioned between n-BuOH:H{sub 2}O (1:1) and these two phases were also evaluated for anti-radicalar activity. The active n-BuOH phase was partitioned between EtOAc:H{sub 2}O (1:1) and the active EtOAc phase was submitted to chromatographic procedures to afford five active phenolic compounds: ethyl gallate, methyl gallate, quercitrin, myricetrin and myricetin. The structures of these compounds were established by NMR spectral data analysis. (author)

  19. Biomonitoring of air quality in the metropolitan region of Recife, PE, Brazil; Biomonitoracao da qualidade do ar na Regiao Metropolitana do Recife, PE

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    Santos, Thiago Oliveira dos

    2016-08-01

    The interest on questions related to environmental conservation has increased in recent decades, being air pollution one of the main public health problems in huge urban centers. Major part of this atmospheric contamination is caused by gaseous pollutants and inhalable particulate matter. One of the main sources is the burning of fossil fuels mainly emitted by motor vehicles. Some organisms, like lichen and atmospheric bromeliad, are able to accumulate chemical elements in their tissues, thereby becoming excellent tools for air quality studies of monitoring. The present work evaluated the air quality in the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) using the lichen Cladonia verticillaris and the bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata, through the quantification of chemical elements associated to vehicles traffic. The biomonitors were transferred to 40 points distributed in the RMR with different intensities of the vehicle traffic. After the exposition period of six months, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Pb, Sb, Sr, Th, V and Zn were quantified by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The organisms were complementary, being appropriated tools for monitoring the air quality. The vehicle traffic was considered one of the major contributor for increasing chemical elements in the RMR urban atmosphere. (author)

  20. Isolation and evaluation of cytotoxic potential of phenolic derivatives from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae); Isolamento e avaliacao do potencial citotoxico de derivados fenolicos de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Jeferson S.; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Matsuo, Alisson L., E-mail: joao.lago@unifesp.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Micro, Imuno e Parasitologia

    2012-07-01

    The EtOH extract from leaves of S. terebinthifolius was subjected to partition between EtOH:H{sub 2}O and hexane, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, and EtOAc. The phases obtained were evaluated in vitro against human tumoral cell lines and the EtOAc phase exhibited activity. Chromatographic procedures afforded gallic acid (1), methyl (2) and ethyl (3) gallates, trans-catechin (4), quercitrin (5), and afzelin (6), being the first occurrence of 1, 4 and 6 in S. terebinthifolius. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation of 1 - 6 indicated that gallic acid (1) displayed higher activity than ethyl gallate (3) against HL-60 and HeLa cells, while compounds 2, 4 - 6 were inactive. (author)

  1. Teor de fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante das sementes da Carpotroche brasiliensis (Raddi)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    p. 170-176 Introdução: A Carpotroche brasiliensis é uma árvore nativa brasileira, utilizada na medicina popular. Objetivo: avaliar a qualidade nutricional, fatores antinutricionais, teor de compostos fenólicos e determinar atividade antioxidante das sementes da planta. Metodologia: As sementes foram divididas em amostra natural (CB) e liofilizada (CBL). A composição centesimal e teor de ácido oxálico foram realizados em triplicata, segundo normas do Instituto Adolfo Lutz. O ácido ...

  2. Utilização de biossólido no crescimento inicial de mudas de aroeira (Schinus terebynthifolius Raddi Utilization of sewage sludge in the seedling growth of aroeira (Schinus terebynthifolius Raddi seedlings

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    Rafaela Simão Abrahão Nóbrega

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o uso do biossólido como componente do substrato para crescimento inicial de mudas de aroeira. Os substratos foram compostos de amostras de Neossolo Quartzarênico e de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo coletadas na profundidade de 0,2 a 0,5 m, acrescidos do biossólido produzido pela Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto (ETE de Serrania, MG, nas seguintes proporções de solo:biossólido (%: 100:0; 80:20; 60:40; 40:60; e 20:80, sem a utilização de fertilização mineral. Após 30 dias da semeadura, foi feito o desbaste deixando-se uma planta por tubete, e, no final do período de 60 dias, as mudas foram coletadas para a determinação da massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, das raízes (MSR e total (MST, diâmetro de colo (D, altura das plantas (H, área foliar (A, relação altura da parte aérea com diâmetro do colo (H/D e peso da massa seca da parte aérea com peso da massa seca da raiz (MSPA/MSR. O biossólido melhorou a fertilidade dos substratos, aumentando os teores de P, K, Ca, Mg, soma de bases, CTC, matéria orgânica e teores de micronutrientes, fato que proporcionou aumento no D, A, MSPA, MSR, MST, H, MSPA/MSR das mudas de aroeira, sendo que esses efeitos variaram de acordo com as proporções de biossólido empregadas. O crescimento máximo das mudas foi obtido com a proporção de 63:37, tanto para Neossolo Quartzarênico quanto Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. A concentração de metais pesados em todos os substratos ficou abaixo dos limites estabelecidos pela CETESB.This work aimed to evaluate sewage sludge as substrate component for aroeira seedling growth. Substrates were composed of soil samples collected at 0.2-0.5 m depth from a Quartzarenic Neosol or from a Red-Yellow Latosol, with sewage sludge produced by the Sewage Treatment Station (Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE located in Serrania, Minas Gerais, in five proportions: 100:0; 80:20; 60:40; 40:60 and 20:80, being all without mineral fertilizers. Thirty days after sowing, thinning was carried out to one plant per pot. Aroeira growth after 60 days was evaluated by shoot and root dry weight, total dry matter, stem diameter, plant height, leaf area, shoot height/stem and diameter shoot/root ratio. Amendments with sewage sludge increased substrate fertility as indicated by P, K, Ca, Mg concentrations, CEC and SB values, organic matter and micronutrient contents, which promoted growth of stem diameter, plant height, shoot and root dry weight, total dry matter, leaf area, and shoot/root ratio in aroeira seedlings . The effect of sewage sludge on aroeira seedlings growth varied according to the different proportions of sewage sludge. Maximum growth was obtained with the proportion 37% of sewage sludge + 63% of Quartzarenic Neosol or Red-Yellow Latosol. Heavy metal concentration in all substrates was below the limits allowed by CETESB.

  3. Biologia floral e fenologia reprodutiva de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae em Restinga do Norte Fluminense Floral biology and reproductive phenology of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae in the restinga of northern Rio de Janeiro State

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    Lorena Farizel Cesário

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A fenologia reprodutiva, a morfologia floral e o sistema reprodutivo de Schinus terebinthifolius foram investigados em duas fisionomias de vegetação da restinga de Grussaí/Iquipari, Rio de Janeiro, no período de janeiro a dezembro/2004. Schinus terebinthifolius apresentou estratégia de florescimento do tipo cornucópia, com dois picos de floração ao ano na estação chuvosa, e frutificou no período seco. A análise morfológica das flores e os experimentos de polinização confirmaram que esta espécie é dióica e apresenta reprodução xenógama obrigatória. Ocorreu alta sincronia entre plantas masculinas e femininas, considerada importante estratégia para espécies dióicas. Não houve diferença entre a frutificação por polinização natural e polinização cruzada, nem entre as duas fitosionomias estudadas, sendo os valores encontrados menores do que os observados em outros trabalhos.Reproductive phenology, floral morphology and the reproductive system of Schinus terebinthifolius were investigated in two physiognomies of restinga vegetation at Grussai/Iquipari, Rio de Janeiro, from January to December/2004. Schinus terebinthifolius had cornucopia flowering strategy, with two flowering peaks during the year, both in the rainy season; fruit was set in the dry period. Morphological analysis of the flowers and pollination experiments confirmed dioicism and obligatory xenogamy in this species. High synchrony between male and female plants occurred, an important strategy for dioecious species. No difference in fruit set was found between natural and cross pollinations in the two physiognomies studied, indicating lower values than those observed in others studies.

  4. STUDY ON NEW RECORDED GENERA OF HEPATICAE IN HEBEI PROVINCE,CHINA--Ⅰ.FRULLANIA RADDI%河北省苔类植物新纪录属的研究--Ⅰ.耳叶苔属(Frullania Raddi)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建成; 崔彦伟

    2002-01-01

    在研究标本和文献的基础上,对河北省苔类植物新纪录属--耳叶苔属Frullania Raddi进行了首次报道,其中包括达乌里耳叶苔F. davurica、达乌里耳叶苔凹叶变种F. davurica var. concava、石生耳叶苔F. inflata、盔瓣耳叶苔F. muscicola、陕西耳叶苔F. schensiana、塔拉大克耳叶苔F. taradakensis、远东耳叶苔F. fauriana和筒瓣耳叶苔F. diversitexta等7种1变种.本文对它们的生境和地理分布作了初步讨论,并编制了河北省耳叶苔属植物的分种检索表.

  5. Insecticidal activity of the essential oil from fruits and seeds of Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi against African malaria vectors

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    Mosha Franklin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative insecticides for the control of malaria and filarial vectors are of paramount need as resistance is increasing among classes of insecticides currently in use in the public health sector. In this study, mosquitocidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolia essential oil against Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus was assessed in laboratory, semi- field and full- field conditions Method Twenty third instar larvae of both Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to different dosages of plant extract in both laboratory and semi- field environments. Observation of the mortality response was assessed at intervals of 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Adult semi- gravid female mosquitoes were exposed to papers treated with S. terebinthifolia and compared with WHO standard paper treated with alphacypermethrin (0.05%. Results Gas chromatography, coupled to mass spectrometry, identified 15 compounds from S. terebinthifolia extracts, the most abundant identified compound was δ-3-carene (55.36% and the least was γ-elemene (0.41%. The density of the oil was found to be 0.8086 g/ml. The effective dosages in the insectary ranged from 202.15 to 2625.20 ppm and were further evaluated in the semi- field situation. In the laboratory, the mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus ranged from 0.5 to 96.75% while for An. gambiae s.s it was from 13.75 to 97.91%. In the semi- field experiments, the mortality rates observed varied for both species with time and concentrations. The LC50 and LC95 value in the laboratory was similar for both species while in the semi- field they were different for each. In wild, adult mosquitoes, the KT50 for S. terebinthifolia was 11.29 minutes while for alphacypermethrin was 19.34 minutes. The 24 hour mortality was found to be 100.0% for S. terebinthifolia and 75.0% for alphacypermethrin which was statistically significant (P Conclusion The efficacy shown by essential oils of fruits and seeds of S. terebinthifolia has given an opportunity for further investigation of individual components of these plant extracts and to evaluate them in small- scale field trials.

  6. The essential oil of Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi in larval control of Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762

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    Silva Ary G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and its allies, such as Stegomyia, to transmit diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, makes them important in public health. This study aims to evaluate the use of the essential oil of Brazilian pepper in biological control of by assessing and quantifying the larvicidal effect against S. aegypti, the only available access to dengue control, and test its risk of genotoxicity with Salmonella typhimurium as an indicator of safety for its environmental use. Results The density of the oil was 0.8622 g mL-1. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed six major constituents: δ-3-carene (55.43%, α-pinene (16.25%, sylvestrene (10.67%, germacrene D (2.17, β-myrcene (1.99%, and isoterpinolene (1.4%. The minimum inhibitory dose to larvae development was 862.20 μg mL-1. The median lethal dose (LD50 of the essential oil for larvae was between the concentrations of 172.44-344.88 μg mL-1. There was no mutagenic risk for the essential oil, since there were no biochemical or morphological changes in S. typhimurium after exposure to the essential oil. Conclusions The minimum inhibitory essential oil concentration and the median lethal dose pointed to the value of the use of water dispersions of Brazilian pepper essential oil as an environmental safe natural larvicidal for S. aegypti.

  7. In vitro trypanocidal evaluation of pinane derivatives from essential oils of ripe fruits from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartorelli, Patricia; Santana, Jefferson S.; Guadagnin, Rafael C.; Lago, Joao Henrique G., E-mail: joao.lago@unifesp.br [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema - SP (Brazil); Pinto, Erika G. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tempone, Andre G. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Stefani, Helio A. [Departamento de Farmacia, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Marisi G. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas - MG (Brazil); Silva, Adalberto M. da [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Essential oils of ripe fruits from Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), obtained using a pilot extractor and a Clevenger apparatus were chemically characterized. Due the high amount of (-)-{alpha}-pinene in both oils, this monoterpene was tested against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, showing a moderate potential (IC{sub 50} 63.56 {mu}g/mL) when compared to benznidazole (IC{sub 50} 43.14 {mu}g/mL). Otherwise, (-)-{alpha}-pinene oxide did not showed anti-trypanosomal activity (IC{sub 50} > 400 {mu}g/mL) while (-)-pinane showed an IC{sub 50} of 56.50 mg/mL. The obtained results indicated that the epoxidation of {alpha}-pinene results to the loss of the anti-parasitic activity while its hydrogenation product, contributed slightly to the increased activity. (author)

  8. Isolamento e avaliação do potencial citotóxico de derivados fenólicos de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae

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    Jeferson S. Santana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The EtOH extract from leaves of S. terebinthifolius was subjected to partition between EtOH:H2O and hexane, CH2Cl2, and EtOAc. The phases obtained were evaluated in vitro against human tumoral cell lines and the EtOAc phase exhibited activity. Chromatographic procedures afforded gallic acid (1, methyl (2 and ethyl (3 gallates, trans-catechin (4, quercitrin (5, and afzelin (6, being the first occurrence of 1, 4 and 6 in S. terebinthifolius.In vitro cytotoxic evaluation of 1 - 6 indicated that gallic acid (1 displayed higher activity than ethyl gallate (3 against HL-60 and HeLa cells, while compounds 2, 4 - 6 were inactive.

  9. Área de tecidos de folhas e caules de Axonopus scoparius (Fluggüe Kuhlm. e Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi Kuhlm

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    Lima Lenir Maristela Silva

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a área ocupada pelos principais tecidos presentes em folhas (lâminas e bainhas e caules de cultivares das espécies Axonopus scoparius e Axonopus fissifolius, em dois estádios de desenvolvimento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (seis e vinte semanas de crescimento e cinco repetições. O tecido vascular lignificado + esclerênquima foi encontrado em maior concentração no limbo e no caule, seguidos pela quilha e bainha. Com a maturidade, houve incremento na deposição de lignina na maior parte dos tecidos estudados de A. scoparius, sendo o caule o órgão mais afetado. Isso não foi observado com os cvs. de A. fissifolius. A maior área de tecido epidérmico foi encontrada no limbo, representando mais de 20% para os cvs. de A. scoparius e cerca de 16% para os de A. fissifolius. A maior área de tecido lignificado e epidérmico, presente nas frações foliares de A. fissifolius, constitue barreiras adicionais que dificultam a digestibilidade ruminal, em relação às folhas de A. scoparius. O tecido parenquimático ocupou grandes áreas (acima de 80% do caule, principalmente no primeiro corte. Houve redução na participação desse tecido na área total do caule, acompanhada pelo incremento na área de tecido lignificado, com o envelhecimento das plantas. Foi determinado que a anatomia dos diversos órgãos das plantas não permite estabelecer diferenças mais claras entre os cultivares das espécies estudadas.

  10. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil

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    Cinara Oliveira D′Sousa′ Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schinus terebinthifolius is widely used in traditional medicine by Brazilian quilombola and indigenous communities for treatment of several diseases. Extracts from different tissues are being used to produce creams to treat cervicitis and cervicovaginitis. However, most studies are limited to the assessment of the essential oils and extracts obtained from the leaves. Objective: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities, to assess the phytochemical profile and to quantify total phenolic compounds of various extracts prepared from S. terebinthifolius grown in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Extracts were obtained by hot continuous extraction (soxhlet and by maceration. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed using the Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant properties were assessed by 2,2 diphenyl 1 picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening was performed as described by in the literature and antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212 was determined by the microdilution broth assay. Results: Extraction method greatly affected the metabolite profile of the extracts. Antioxidant activity varied between 21.92% and 85.76%, while total phenols ranged between 5.44 and 309.03 mg EAG/g of extract. Leaf extract obtained with soxhlet showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 15.62 μg/mL, while stem extract obtained by maceration was able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis at 62.5 μg/mL. Stem bark extracts showed a MIC of 500 μg/mL for both extraction methods, while no inhibition was observed for fruit extracts. Conclusion: In general, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were higher in samples obtained by soxhlet. Our results provide important clues in order to identify alternative sources of bioactive compounds that can be used to develop new drugs.

  11. FERTILIZANTE DE LIBERAÇÃO LENTA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Anadenanthera peregrina (L. Speg. (ANGICO-VERMELHO E Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (AROEIRA-VERMELHA

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    Überson Boaretto Rossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the development of two native species, Anadenanthera peregrina and Schinus terebinthifolius, submitted to doses of slow-release fertilizer formulation 13-06-16, an experiment was conducted in greenhouse using a mixture of raw materials with organic compost, vermiculite and plantmax to compose base substrate. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. The treatments were : T1-0 kg (control, T2-2 kg, 4 kg-T3 , T4-6 kg, T5-8 kg and T6 – 10 kg slow release fertilizer per cubic meter of base substrate . Was evaluated at 189 days after sowing the total height, stem diameter, fresh weight of shoot, dry shoot biomass, root dry biomass, total biomass, the relationship between height and stem diameter and quality index Dickson. The resultssuggest that application of slow release fertilizer leads to significant gains in growth in both species, with the best doses from 6.68 to 5.54 kg m-3 for Anadenanthera peregrina species, and from 8.38 to 14,42 kg m-3 for Schinus terebinthifolius.

  12. Avaliação da ação da Aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi na cicatrização de feridas cirúrgicas em bexiga de ratos Evaluation of the aroreira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi in the healing process of surgical incision in the bladder of rats

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    Periguari Luiz Holanda de Lucena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação cicatrizante do extrato hidroalcoólico da aroeira em bexigas de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 40 ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, divididos em dois grupos de 20, denominados grupo aroeira (GA e grupo controle (GC. Todos foram submetidos à incisão abdominal mediana com cistotomia de 1 cm, seguida de cistorrafia em plano único com pontos separados de poliglactina 910 5-0 (Vicryl®. Após este procedimento, nos animais GA injetou-se 100mg por quilo de peso de extrato hidroalcoólico da aroeira na cavidade peritoneal e nos GC injetou-se 1 ml por quilo de peso de solução salina a 0,9% . Cada grupo foi dividido em dois sub-grupos de 10 animais de acordo com a data da morte: sub-grupo A3 e C3, sacrificados no 3º dia pós-operatório e sub-grupo A7 e C7, sacrificados no 7º dia. A parede, a cavidade abdominal e a sutura da bexiga foram avaliadas macroscopicamente. Amostras de tecido da bexiga foram retiradas e analisadas histologicamente, utilizando a coloração de Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE e tricrômio de Masson. RESULTADOS: Na análise macroscópica observou-se infecção na incisão cirúrgica em três ratos do GC e em um do GA, e aderências peritoneais em 29 ratos do GC controle e 17 no GA. A avaliação microscópica mostrou processo inflamatório agudo mais severo no 3° (p=0,045 e no 7° dia (p=0,002. Evidenciou-se ainda diferença estatística nos parâmetros utilizados para a avaliação histológica da cicatrização da bexiga nas variáveis colagenização (p = 0.001, reepitelização (p = 0,046 e neoformação (p = 0 nos subgrupos GC e GA no 3º dia e na variável neoformação vascular (p=0,001 no subgrupo do 7º dia. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de extrato hidroalcoólico de aroeira mostrou efeito cicatrizante favorável nas cistotomias em ratos.PURPOSE: To evaluate the hydroalcoholic aroeira extract in the healing process of surgical incisions in the bladder of rats in an experimental comparative study. METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were used. All of them underwent a median abdominal incision, with an 1cm cistotomy, followed by one plan suture with separated stitches of poliglactine 910 5-0. The animals were then divided into two groups of 20 rats each, and named the aroeira group (GA and the control group (GC. In the first one, 80% hydro-alcoholic plant extract was injected in the peritoneal cavity, in a one dose of 100mg/kg. The second group, a 0.9% saline solution was injected in place of aroeira extract. Each group was divided into two subgroups (SGA and SGC of 10 animals. According to their scheduled death, they were named subgroups SGA3 and SGC3 when killed in the 3th day after surgery and subgroups SGA7 and SGC7 in the 7th day. The abdominal cavity and the bladder suture were macroscopically evaluated. RESULTS: The microscopic analysis of the surgical incision in the bladder was performed by means of the hematoxilin-eosine stain and the trichrome of Masson. The macroscopic analysis showed an infection in the surgical incision in three rats of the SGC group and in one of the SGA, and peritoneal adhesion in the 26 rats belonging nine to SGC and 17 in the SGA. The microscopic evaluation revealed a more severe acute inflammation process in the SGC on the 3th (p=0.045 and in the 7th (0=0.002 days. In the SGA, a more significant colagenization (p=0.001 could be seen, as far as the evidence of vascular neoformation (p=0.002 on the 3th day. Chronic inflammatory reaction (p=0.006 and a more intense vascular neoformation (p=0.001 were observed in the 7th day. CONCLUSION: The hydroalcoholic aroeira extract have a favorable effect in the healing process of cystotomies done in rats.

  13. Avaliação do extrato hidroalcoólico de Aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi no processo de cicatrização de feridas em pele de ratos Evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of Aroeira (Shinus Terebinthifolius Raddi in the healing process of wound skin in rats

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    Manoel Lages Castelo Branco Neto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito cicatrizante da administração tópica do extrato hidroalcoólico de aroeira em feridas abertas na região dorsocostal de ratos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 60 ratos Wistar, machos, que tiveram retirado fragmentos de pele com dois centímetros de diâmetro, sob anestesia inalatória com éter etílico. Foram divididos em dois grupos de 30 animais: o grupo aroeira, que recebeu aplicação do extrato hidroalcoólico da planta, e o grupo controle, que recebeu aplicação de solução salina a 0,9%. Cada grupo foi subdividido em 3 com 10 animais cada para serem observados aos sete, 14 ou 21 dias. As áreas das lesões foram analisadas pelo aspecto macroscópico e por planimetria digital. Os espécimes ressecados das feridas foram analisados por microscopia ótica em colorações de hematoxilina-eosina e tricrômio de Masson. RESULTADOS: Os achados macroscópicos demonstraram reepitelização completa mais precoce no grupo controle aos 14 dias. Pela planimetria digital as áreas médias das feridas dos ratos do grupo controle (0,5278 cm² foram menores que as das feridas dos ratos do grupo aroeira (0,6897 cm², com significância estatística aos 14 dias de pós-operatório (p=0,036. O estudo histológico demonstrou diferença estatística (p=0,023 em relação às células mononucleares no 14º dia de avaliação, com maior número no grupo aroeira, não havendo diferenças significantes em relação aos outros parâmetros em nenhum dos dias estudados. CONCLUSÃO: O extrato hidroalcoólico de aroeira retardou a reepitelização das feridas da pele dos ratos.PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing effect of the topic administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of aroeira in open wounds in the dorsocostal region of rats. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats, males, were used. In all animals one skin fragment was removed, with two centimeters in diameter. Inhalatory anesthesia with ethyl ether was done, The rats were divided in two groups of 30 animals: aroeira group, submitted to an topic application of the hydralcoholic extract of the plant, and control group, with the same process but with 0.9% saline solution. Each group was divided in three sub-groups of 10 animals according to the period of observation: 7, 14 and 21 days. The areas of the injuries were analyzed by the macrocospic aspect and digital planimetry, and the resected segments of the wounds were studied by optic microscopy stainned with hematoxilin-eosine and trichromium of Masson. RESULTS: The macrocospic findings showed early complete reepitelization in the control group by the 14th day. According to the digital planimetry the average wound areas of the rats from the control group (0.5278 cm² had been smaller than those from the wounds of the rats of the aroeira group (0.6897 cm², with statistical significance to the 14th day (p=0.036. The hystologic study showed statistical difference (p=0.023 regarding the mononuclear cells in 14th day of evaluation, with larger number in the aroeira group, without significant differences regarding other parameters in all the remaining days. CONCLUSION: The topic use of the hydralcoholic extract of aroeira delayed the reepitelization of the skin wounds in rats.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation of the {sup 60} Co on antimicrobial action of plant extracts of bark and leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi; Efeitos da radiacao gama do {sup 60} Co sobre a acao antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais de cascas e folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edvane Borges da; Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Jeniffer Maiza de Souza [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Xisto, Kesia; Araujo, Rosilma de Oliveira [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (DA/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential for antimicrobial activity in vitro of extracts of bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius treated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. 5,0 doses were used; 7.5 and 10 kGy, being held non-irradiated controls. To determine the antimicrobial activity was applied to the disc diffusion technique to evaluate the diameter of the inhibition zones against Gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, alcohol-acid-resistant and yeast. Antimicrobial activity was considered significant for halos ≥ 15 mm. The results indicate an intensification of antimicrobial action of bark extracts, the 5.0 kGy, against S. aureus. Was held the micro dilution in broth to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of peels extracts, compared to eight clinical isolates of S. aureus. The MBC values showed that ionizing radiation did not produce the increased of anti bacteriostatic action of S. terebinthifolius, but the results indicated that S. terebinthifolius bark extracts can be used as an antimicrobial agent and ionizing radiation as an important alternative in this conservation feature.

  15. Influência da contaminação do solo por cobre no crescimento e qualidade de mudas de açoita-cavalo (Luehea divaricata Mart. & Zucc. e aroeira-vermelha (Schinus therebinthifolius Raddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper contamination has become common in areas of mining and grape culture in Rio Grande do Sul. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the dose of copper on growth and seedling quality of acoita-cavalo and aroeira-vermelha. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (2 x 5, using two forestry species and five copper doses: 0, 64, 128, 192 and 256 mg kg-1 of soil, with five replications. Plant height, collar diameter, dry mass weight of root system and shoot, length and surface specific area of root system and index of seedlings quality were evaluated and relation between shoot height and haste diameter, shoot height and shoot dry mass weight and Dickson quality index were assessed. The results showed that the copper doses tested did not change the quality of aroeira-vermelha seedlings but acoita-cavalo displayed better quality with the application of 64 mg kg-1 Cu. Copper primarily affected the acoita cavalo and aroeira-vermelha root system. Aroeira vermelha was more tolerant to copper toxicity than acoita-cavalo and displayed better quality at higher copper doses.

  16. Biology, host specificity tests, and risk assessment of the sawfly Heteroperreyia hubrichi, a potential biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract. Heteroperreyia hubrichi Malaise (Hymenoptera: Pergidae), a foliage feeding sawfly of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), was studied to assess its suitability as a classical biological control agent of this invasive weed in Hawaii. Nochoice host-specificity tests we...

  17. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  18. Avaliação energética e econômica da substituição de tubetes de plástico por tubetes biodegradáveis na produção de mudas de aroeira - Schinus terebinthifokius Raddi

    OpenAIRE

    Iatauro, Ricardo Antoniolli [UNESP

    2004-01-01

    Os tubetes ou células de germinação disponíveis hoje no mercado são de derivados do petróleo como o polietileno e o poliestireno tipo isopor, um recurso não renovável. Focalizando o mercado de produtos alternativos, anteriores pesquisas com subprodutos e resíduos agroindustriais resultaram em um material biodegradável com o qual foi possível confeccionar tubetes com volume reduzido (26 cm3) em relação aos convencionais (55 cm3). O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar os tubetes biodegradáveis com...

  19. Arundinella (Gramineae) in Malesia with notes on other taxa and on aluminium accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Arundinella Raddi (Gramineae) is revised for Malesia. There are seven species. A survey of the complicated taxonomic and nomenclatural history of the genus is given. A new species for Taiwan is described and notes are provided on sundry other ones. There is a key to the Malesian and some non-Malesia

  20. Brazilian peppertree seed-borne pathogen Neofusicoccum batangarum a potential biocontrol agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive exotic Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) has become a serious threat to the delicate ecosystem of Everglades National Park. More than 4,000 acres land in the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID) area within the Park has been infested with Brazilian pep...

  1. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera:Notodontidae) a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    During surveys for natural enemies that could potentially be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper) which is invasive in the USA, the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the ...

  2. Natural enemies of Brazilian peppertree (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) from Argentina: their possible use for biological control in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree (BP) (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) is a perennial tree native to Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. The plant was introduced into the USA before 1900. Originally grown as an ornamental, BP is now considered a noxious plant in Hawaii and Florida, where it is ranked...

  3. The leafmining Leurocephala schinusae (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae): Not suitable for the biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales Anacardiaceae)in continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurocephala schinusae Davis & Mc Kay (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The host range was determined by ...

  4. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Greece collected by M. Skytte Christiansen, Svend Rungby and other Danish botanists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Seventy six taxa are reported from 20 localities in Greece. Six taxa are new to Atika (Caloplaca herbidella, Cladonia foliacea, C. subrangiformis, Fulgensia bracteata, Pertusaria amara and Ramalina fastigiata), one is new to the Saronikos Kolpos island Aigina (Cladonia foliacea), one is new...... to the NE Aegean island Lesvos (Umbilicaria spodochroa) and three and 21 taxa are new to the Dodekanisos islands of Kos and Rodos, respectively (Kos: Arthonia cf. punctiformis, Arthopyrenia punctiformis and Collema crispum var. metzleri; Rodos: Arthonia meridionalis, Aspicilia calcarea var. reagens, Bacidia...... septentrionalis, Schismatomma decolorans, Thelopsis isiaca, Vouauxiella lichenicola and Xanthoria calcicola). Umbilicaria spodochroa is confirmed for Greece....

  5. [Distribution of Mycotoxins and Usnic Acid in the Thalli of Epigenous Lichens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, G P; Burkin, A A

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of mycotoxins anc unic acid in the thallus of epigenous fruticose lichens Alectoria ochroleuca; several species of the genera Cladonia, Cotraria, and Flavocetraria; foliose lichens Nephroma arcticum; and six species of the genus Peltigera were studied by mnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mycotoxin content was lower in the top or apical parts of the thalli than in the basal parts and in dead areas. Differences in the distribution of usnic acid were insignificant in the majority of species, but in Cladonia stellaris and N. arcticum lichens the content of this metabolite in the upper and pc ripheral areas was higher than in the basal parts.

  6. Bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1962-01-01

    Abeywickrama, B. A.: A provisional check list of the flowering plants of Ceylon (Ceylon J. Sc., Biol. Sec. 2, 1959, 119- 240). Ahti, T.: Taxonomic studies on reindeer lichens (Cladonia, subg. Cladina) (Ann. Bot. Soc. Zool. Bot Fenn. Vanamo 32¹, 1961, 1-160, many fig.). Also map of C. mitis, p. 121.

  7. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, E.; Brouwer, E.; Kooijman, A.; Blindow, I.; Esselink, H.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitab

  8. Notitie over het uitplanten van korstmossen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraerdts, W.H.J.M.; Ketner-Oostra, H.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    In de voormalige tuin van Wim Geraedts (Wijchen, Gelderland) blijkt het uitplanten van korstmossen een sukses te zijn. Het gaat om enkele Cladonia-soorten, een Cladina- en twee Peltigera-soorten. Het biotoop waarin ze uitgezet zijn, ligt op een wal van heideplaggen om een kunstmatig hoogveentje met

  9. Microbiome change by symbiotic invasion in lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Stefanie; Wedin, Mats; Fernandez-Brime, Samantha; Cronholm, Bodil; Westberg, Martin; Weber, Bettina; Grube, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSC) seal the soil surface from erosive forces in many habitats where plants cannot compete. Lichens symbioses of fungi and algae often form significant fraction of these microbial assemblages. In addition to the fungal symbiont, many species of other fungi can inhabit the lichenic structures and interact with their hosts in different ways, ranging from commensalism to parasitism. More than 1800 species of lichenicolous (lichen-inhabiting) fungi are known to science. One example is Diploschistes muscorum, a common species in lichen-dominated BSC that infects lichens of the genus Cladonia. D. muscorum starts as a lichenicolous fungus, invading the lichen Cladonia symphycarpa and gradually develops an independent Diploschistes lichen thallus. Furthermore, bacterial groups, such as Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria, have been consistently recovered from lichen thalli and evidence is rapidly accumulating that these microbes may generally play integral roles in the lichen symbiosis. Here we describe lichen microbiome dynamics as the parasitic lichen D. muscorum takes over C. symphycarpa. We used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene and photobiont-specific ITS rDNA sequencing to track bacterial and algal transitions during the infection process, and employed fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize bacteria in the Cladonia and Diploschistes lichen thalli. We sampled four transitional stages, at sites in Sweden and Germany: A) Cladonia with no visible infection, B) early infection stage defined by the first visible Diploschistes thallus, C) late-stage infection with parts of the Cladonia thallus still identifiable, and D) final stage with a fully developed Diploschistes thallus, A gradual microbiome shift occurred during the transition, but fractions of Cladonia-associated bacteria were retained during the process of symbiotic reorganization. Consistent changes observed across sites included a notable decrease in the relative abundance of

  10. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti; Marcela de Souza Alves; Laurine Cristina Paulo da Silva; Daiane dos Santos Patrocínio; Mirza Nalesso Sanches; Douglas Siqueira de Almeida Chaves; Marco Andre Alves de Souza

    2015-01-01

    AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h) were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w) and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%), α-pinene (28.1%) and...

  11. Australian atmospheric lead deposition reconstructed using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions of archival lichen and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K; Wu, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Lead concentrations and their isotopic compositions were measured in lichen genera Cladonia and Usnea and fungi genus Trametes from the Greater Sydney region (New South Wales, Australia) that had been collected and archived over the past 120 years. The median lead contents were elevated in lichens and fungi prior to the introduction of leaded petrol (Cladonia 12.5 mg/kg; Usnea 15.6 mg/kg; Trametes 1.85 mg/kg) corresponding to early industrial development. During the use of leaded petrol for automobiles in Australia from 1932 to 2002, total median lead concentrations rose: Cladonia 18.8 mg/kg; Usnea 21.5 mg/kg; Trametes 4.3 mg/kg. Following the cessation of leaded petrol use, median total lead concentrations decreased sharply in the 2000s: Cladonia 4.8 mg/kg; Usnea 1.7 mg/kg. The lichen and fungi isotopic compositions reveal a significant decrease in (206)Pb/(207)Pb values from the end of 19th century to the 1970s. The following decades were characterised by lower allowable levels of lead additive in fuel and the introduction of unleaded petrol in 1985. The environmental response to these regulatory changes was that lichen and fungi (206)Pb/(207)Pb values increased, particularly from 1995 onwards. Although the lead isotope ratios of lichens continued to increase in the 2000s they do not return to pre-leaded petrol values. This demonstrates that historic leaded petrol emissions, inter alia other sources, remain a persistent source of anthropogenic contamination in the Greater Sydney region.

  12. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Marković

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+ bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  13. Hepáticas talosas do Parque Nacional da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Denise P. da Costa

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Onze especies de hepáticas talosas são mencionadas para o Parque Nacional da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Dumortiera hirsuta (Sw. Nees, Marchantia papillata Raddi, Metzgeria aurantiaca Steph., M. dichotoma (Sw. Nees, M.furcata (L. Dum., Monoclea forsteri Hook. Riccardia cataractarum (Spruce Hell, R. chamedryfolia (With. Grolle, Symphyogyna aspera Steph. ex Evans, S. brasitiensis Nees & Mont, e S. podophylla (Thumb. Mont. & Nees. Metzgeria aurantiaca e Riccardia cataractarum estão sendo mencionadas pela primeira vez para o Rio de Janeiro. Descrição, e distribuição geográfica brasileira para cada espécie são apresentadasEleven species of thallose liverworts are mentioned for the Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Dumortiera hirsuta (Sw. Nees, Marchantia papillata Raddi, Metzgeria aurantiaca Steph., M. dichotoma (Sw. Nees, M.furcata (L. Dum., Monoclea forsteri Hook. Riccardia cataractarum (Spruce Hell, R. chamedryfolia (With. Grolle, Symphyogyna aspera Steph. ex Evans, S. brasiliensis Nees & Mont., and S. podophylla (Thumb. Mont. & Nees. Metzgeria aurantiaca and Riccardia cataractarum are mentioned for the first time for Rio de Janeiro State. Description, and Brazilian geographical distribution for each taxon are presented

  14. Determination of element composition of three lichens and their distribution in King George Island, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cross-section slices of Usnea antarctica Du Rietz, Usnea aurantiaco-atra (Jacq.) Bory. and Cladonia sp. at upper, middle and basal positions were prepared, respectively. The element composition and relative content were determined by SEM and EDS at the surface, intermediate and inner layers in each slice, respectively. The result indicated that the composition of element is mostly same in these lichens. The relative content of Al, Si, K and Ca elements is high, and P is close at each position. The result is of benefit to study the structure and physiological characteristics of lichens, and to analyze geological environment in Antarctica.

  15. Screening de atividade citotóxica de extratos liquênicos: cladoniaceae Screening of cytotoxic activity of lichen crude extracts: cladoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silene C. Nascimento

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Extratos etéreos, acetônicos , metanólicos e aquosos de Cladonia substellata, C. crispatula e Cladina dendroides ocorrentes em solos arenosos de tabuleiros (cerrado no Estado da Paraíba (Brasil, foram testados contra células PC3 e MDA-MB231 obtidas de adenocarcinoma prostático e mamário (humanos, bem como células P388 e L1210 provinientes de leucemia murina. Os resultados demonstraram uma maior eficácia dos extratos de C. substellata frente às quatro células testadas. Esta espécie e a Cladina dendroides, exceto seu extrato metanólico, apresentaram IC50 inferiores a 50(µg/ml, o que indica atividade satisfatória. Os extratos de C. crispatula não exerceram inibição relevante frente às células estudadas. Testes cromatográficos revelaram, em maior quantidade, a presença dos ácidos úsnico e estítico em C. substellata; ácido tamnólico em C. crispatula; atranorina e os ácidos protocetrárico e fumarprotocetrárico em C. dendroides, o que se supõe ser o princípio ativo dessas espécies.Ethereous, acetonic and methanolic crude extracts from Cladonia substellata, C. Crispatula and Cladina dendroides occured on sandy soil of Paraíba State - Brazil, were tested against PC3 and MDA-MB231 cells from prostatic and breast human adenocarcinom, and P388 and L1210 cells from murine leukemia.The results showed the highest inhibition of Cladonia substellata extracts against the four tested cells. This specie and Cladina dendroides, except its methanolic extract, presented IC50 lower than 50µg/ml that indicates a satisfactory activity. Cladonia crispatula extracts did not exert inhibition on the studied cells. Chromatographic tests revealed the presence, in highest content, of usnic an stictic acids in C. substellata; thamnolic acid in C. crispatula protocetraric and fumarprocetraric acids and atranorin in C. dendroides, what one may suppose to be the active principles of the studied species.

  16. DOMINANCE PATTERN CHANGES OF A LICHEN-RICH CORYNEPHORUS GRASSLAND IN THE INLAND OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. LEPPING

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the pattern changes of a Corynephorion-grassland during the period 1981-2004. All 2-3 years the dominant moss- and lichen microcommunity (mc types and the dominant grass species were recorded in all 936 square meter subplots of a 26 m x 36 m plot. The study site is situated in the National Park “De Hoge Veluwe”, the Netherlands. The area is roamed mainly by deer and wild sheep. Climate is oceanic. Main purpose of the study is long-term monitoring of vegetation dynamics in relation to grazing and climate. In 1981 the densely vegetated plot was mainly dominated by the Cladonia glauca – Trapeliopsis granulosa mc type (5, the Cladonia glauca mc type with reindeer lichens (6 and the Cladonia portentosa mc type (8 and the grasses Corynephorus canescens (C and Festuca filiformis (F. The subplot dominance of Corynephorus canescens appeared positively correlated with that of mc type 5, whereas the subplot dominance of Festuca filiformis was correlated with those of mc types 6 and 8. The Campylopus introflexus mc type (4 was dominant in one subplot only. During 1981-1984 the subplot dominance frequency of mc types 6 and 8 increased, while that of mc type 5 decreased. These changes are in line with known progressive succession features of the Spergulo-Corynephoretum. During 1984-1994 almost all mc types from 1981 disappeared and in 1994 the plot was almost completely dominated by the Campylopus introflexus mc type (4 and Corynephorus canescens. In the beginning of this period (1985, 1986, 1987 some winter months were very cold and dry (continental. Thereafter the oceanic Festuca filiformis and Cladonia portentosa (mc type 8 died off. Moreover game density in the National Park increased. The resulting open places with sand and litter were easily occupied by the highly invasive neophytic moss Campylopus introflexus (mc type 4. From 1994 onwards we observe again a development towards the situation of 1981.The dominance frequency of

  17. Effects of substrate differences on water availability for Arctic lichens during the snow-free summers in the High Arctic glacier foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takeshi; Kudoh, Sakae; Uchida, Masaki; Tanabe, Yukiko; Inoue, Masakane; Kanda, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    We used observational and experimental analyses to investigate the photosynthetic activity and water relationships of five lichen species attached to different substrates in a glacier foreland in the High Arctic, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79°N) during the snow-free season in 2009 and 2010. After the rains ceased, lichens and their attached substrates quickly dried, whereas photosynthetic activity in the lichens decreased gradually. The in situ photosynthetic activity was estimated based on the relative electron transportation rate (rETR) in four fruticose lichens: Cetrariella delisei, Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia arbuscula ssp. mitis, and Cladonia pleurota. The rETR approached zero around noon, although the crustose lichen Ochrolechia frigida grown on biological soil crust (BSC) could acquire water from the BSC and retain its WC to perform positive photosynthesis. The light-rETR relationship curves of the five well-watered lichens were characterized into two types: shade-adapted with photoinhibition for the fruticose lichens, and light-adapted with no photoinhibition for O. frigida. The maximum rETR was expected to occur when they could acquire water from the surrounding air or from substrates during the desiccation period. Our results suggest that different species of Arctic lichens have different water availabilities due to their substrates and/or morphological characteristics, which affect their photosynthetic active periods during the summer.

  18. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1 was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%, from different parts of the following species: Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, Bignoniaceae, Tapirira guianensis Aubl., Anacardiaceae, Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Anacardiaceae, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, Gomphrena elegans Mart., Amaranthaceae, Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., Arecaceae, Eugenia uniflora L., Myrtaceae, and Annona dioica A. St.-Hil., Annonaceae. Extracts of at least two tested cell strains were considered to be highly active since their inhibition rate was over 75%.

  19. Plantas utilizadas na medicina popular brasileira com potencial atividade antifúngica Plants with potencial antifungal activity employed in Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Fenner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico etnobotânico sobre plantas utilizadas pela população brasileira no tratamento de sinais e sintomas relacionados às infecções fúngicas. Foram citadas 409 espécies, distribuídas em 98 famílias, com maior concentração em Fabaceae e Asteraceae. Para as dez espécies mais citadas, foi realizada uma busca relativa a estudos de atividade antifúngica na base de dados MEDLINE-PubMed. Somente foram encontrados estudos para Phytolacca americana L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mirabilis jalapa L., Schinus molle L. Entre as dez espécies mais utilizadas, seis correspondem a espécies nativas: Anacardium occidentale L., Cecropia peltata L., Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthinfolius Raddi, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo.The aim of this work was to draw up a list of plants used by Brazilian population for the treatment of signs and symptoms related to fungal infections and to verify the existence of scientific data related to the antifungal activity in the databasis MEDLINE-PubMed. Four hundread and nine species were listed, which are distributed in ninety eight families, mainly Fabaceae and Asteraceae. Among the more frequently mentioned species (10, only four were evaluated regarding to the antifungal activity: Phytolacca americana L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mirabilis jalapa L. and Schinus molle L. From those ten species, six are native (Anacardium occidentale L., Cecropia peltata L., Schinus molle L., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo.

  20. Pteridófitas da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil: Dennstaedtiaceae Pteridophytes of the North-western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: Dennstaedtiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R Siqueira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho faz parte de uma série de estudos sobre pteridófitas da região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo. Os representantes da família Dennstaedtiaceae são encontrados principalmente nas margens das matas ciliares e em barrancos úmidos e sombreados, com exceção de Pteridium que geralmente ocorre em lugares abertos e ensolarados. Ocorrem na região os gêneros Dennstaedtia com duas espécies (D. cicutaria (Sw. Moore e D. globulifera (Poir. Hieroni, Lindsaea com três espécies (L. lancea (L. Bedd., L. quadratigularis Raddi e L. striata (Sw. Dryand. e Pteridium com uma espécie e variedade (P aquilinum (L. Kuhn var. arachnoideum (Kaulf. Brade. Descrições, ilustrações, chaves de identificação, bem como distribuição geográfica e habitats de cada espécie são apresentados.This work is part of a series of studies on pteridophytes of the North-western region of the State of São Paulo. The representatives of the family Dennstaedtiaceae are found mainly at the margins of the ciliary forests as well as in humid and shaded ravines, except for Pteridium which, generally occurs in open and sunny places. The genera Dennstaedtia with two species (D. cicutaria (Sw. Moore and D. globulifera (Poir. Hieroni, Lindsaea with three species (L. lancea (L. Bedd., L. quadrangular is Raddi and L. stricta (Sw. Dryand., and Pteridium with a species and variety (P aquilinum (L. Kuhn var. arachnoideum (Kaulf. Brade, have been found in this region. Descriptions, illustrations, identification keys, geographical distribution, and habitats of each species are presented.

  1. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements Around Ulan-Bator City Studied by Moss and Lichen Biomonitoring Technique and INAA

    CERN Document Server

    Ganbold, G; Gundorina, S F; Frontasyeva, M V; Ostrovnaya, T M; Pavlov, S S; Tsendeekhuu, T

    2005-01-01

    For the first time the moss and lichen biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution in Mongolia (Ulan-Bator, the capital city). INAA at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the content of 35 elements in moss and lichen biomonitors. Samples collected at sites located 10-15 km from the center of Ulan-Bator were analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using epithermal neutrons. The mosses (\\textit{Rhytidium rugosum}, \\textit{Thuidium abietinum}, \\textit{Entodon concinnus}) and lichens (\\textit{Cladonia stellaris}, \\textit{Parmelia separata}) were used to study the atmospheric deposition of trace elements. It was shown that the suggested types of mosses could be used as suitable biomonitors to estimate the concentration levels of heavy metals and trace elements in Ulan-Bator atmospheric deposition. The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some European countries.

  2. Analysis of {sup 129}I in lichens by accelerator mass spectrometry through a microwave-based sample preparation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Guzman, J.M. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain); Lopez-Gutierrez, J.M., E-mail: lguti@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain); Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, c/. Virgen de Africa 7, 41011 Seville (Spain); Pinto, A.R. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain); Holm, E. [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, S-22185 Lund (Sweden); Garcia-Leon, M. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain); Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Avda. Reina Mercedes, s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The presence of {sup 129}I in the environment has been strongly influenced by the artificial nuclear emissions since the beginning of the nuclear era in the mid 20th century. In order to know more about the different sources and their relative impact in different zones, it is necessary to complete the amount of measurements of this radionuclide in environmental samples. In this work, {sup 129}I has been determined in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) from Rogen Lake in Central Sweden. A method based on microwave digestion was developed for these measurements in order to improve speed and reduce contamination. Based on this method, {sup 129}I concentrations in some lichen samples from Lake Rogen (Sweden) have been measured, showing the impact of the Chernobyl accident and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

  3. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

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    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  4. Carotenoids in certain lichens of Białowieża Forest

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    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Column-, and thin-layer chromatography revealed the presence of the following carotenoids in the thalli of 29 lichen species from Białowieża Forest: α-carotene, β-carotene, α-cryptoxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, 3'-epilutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene monoepoxide, lutein epoxide, antheraxanthin, 3'-hydroxyechinenone, α-doradexanthin, canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, neoxani thin, violaxanthin and mutatoxanthin. The total content of carotenoids ranged from 16.83 (Cladonia rangiferina to 92.98 µg g dry wt (Xanthoria parietina. There were differences in carotenoid composition, concentration of each carotenoid, and in the total content in the thalli of four species collected from niches with different insolation.

  5. Natural Mongolian Pine Forests in the Great Xing'an Mountains, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Zhiqiang; Liu Tong; Zhou Lin

    2003-01-01

    Based upon 134 reléves, the vegetation of the forests with Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) of the Great Xing'an Mountains in the northeast China was classified into 3 communities, 7 types and 4 subtypes by numerical cluster analysis. 1) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Populus davidiana-community was found on relatively dry sites. It was subdivided into a Quercus mongolica-type, consisting of a Adenophora tetraphylla subtype, a Pulsatilla dahurica subtype, and a pure type; 2) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Rhododendron dauricum-community occurred on medium dry sites. It included a Calamagrostis angustifolia type, consisting of a Cladonia arbuscula subtype, a pure subtype, and a Rubus idaeus-type; 3) The Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica-Ledum palustre-community was found on periodically wet sites. It included a Picea koraiensis type, a Vaccinium uliginosum type, and a pure type.

  6. Biomonitoring of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Emel, E-mail: emel.sert@mail.ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ugur, Aysun, E-mail: aysun.ugur@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Ozden, Banu, E-mail: banu.ozden@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sac, Mueslim Murat, E-mail: muslum.murat.sac@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Camgoez, Berkay, E-mail: berkay.camgoz@ege.edu.tr [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-15

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatagan (Mugla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 {+-} 7-593 {+-} 21 and 97 {+-} 5-364 {+-} 13 Bq kg{sup -1}, for mosses the ranges for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb are 124 {+-} 5-1125 {+-} 38 and 113 {+-} 4-490 {+-} 17 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatagan (Mugla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitoemer - Tuncbilek (Kuetahya) sites. {sup 210}Po concentrations were found higher than {sup 210}Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations. - Highlights: > Lichens and mosses have been used as biomonitors of 210Po and 210Pb deposition. > The morphology of lichens and mosses does not vary with seasons. > Lichens and mosses retain and accumulate pollutants deposited from the atmosphere. > Canopy is an important factor causing differences in the concentrations of radionuclides.

  7. Biomonitoring of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb using lichens and mosses around coal-fired power plants in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Emel; Uğur, Aysun; Ozden, Banu; Saç, Müslim Murat; Camgöz, Berkay

    2011-06-01

    Mosses and lichens are useful biological indicators of environmental contamination for a variety of metals and radionuclides of both natural and artificial origin. These plants lack a well-developed root system and rely largely on atmospheric deposition for nourishment. Therefore in the study, different lichens (Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia foliacea) and mosses (Homalothecium sericeum, Hypnum lacunosum, Hypnum cupressiforme, Tortella tortuosa, Didymodon acutus, Syntrichia ruralis, Syntrichia intermedia, Pterogonium graciale, Isothecium alopecuroides, Pleurochatae squarrosa) were collected around the Yatağan (Muğla), Soma (Manisa), Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) coal-fired power plants and investigated for potential use as biomonitors for (210)Po and (210)Pb deposition. While the activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb in lichens are in the ranges of 151 ± 7-593 ± 21 and 97 ± 5-364 ± 13 Bq kg(-1), for mosses the ranges for (210)Po and (210)Pb are 124 ± 5-1125 ± 38 and 113 ± 4-490 ± 17 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the study, the moss samples were observed to accumulate more (210)Po and (210)Pb compared to lichens. While the most suitable biomonitor was a moss species (H. lacunosum) for Yatağan (Muğla), it was another moss species (S. intermedia) for Soma (Manisa) and Seyitömer - Tunçbilek (Kütahya) sites. (210)Po concentrations were found higher than (210)Pb concentrations at the all sampling stations.

  8. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torstein H. Garmo

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of 45 samples of different species of lichen are reported. Mean content (g/100 g dry matter of the main nutrients was: crude protein 4.2, crude fat 3.2, crude fibre 16.6, ash 1.9, Ca 0.15, P 0.09, Mg 0.05, K 0.13, Na 0.035, S 0.07. The content of microminerals (mg/kg dry matter was: Cu 2.5, Mo 0.11, Zn 27.2, Se 0.12, Fe 898, Mn 154. The mean in vitro dry matter digestibility was 35%. However, the in vitro method do underestimate the dry matter digestibility of lichens. Stereocaulon spp. showed higher levels of crude protein, P, S, Cu and Mo than Cetraria spp. and Cladonia spp. Cetraria nivalis showed higher digestibility and contained more NFE, ash, Ca, Mg, but less crude fibre than Cladonia stellaris. Lichens contained less amounts of most nutrients compared with grasses (Fig. 1, exept for crude fat, NFE, Se and Fe.Kjemisk innhald og in vitro fordøyelsesgrad av lav.Abstract in Norwegian / Samandrag: Kjemisk innhald og in vitro fordøyelsesgrad av tørrstoffet er bestemt i 45 prøver av beitelav frå to stader i Sør-Noreg. Middel innhald (g/100g tørrstoff av følgjande næringsstoff var: protein 4.2, feitt 3.2, trevlar 16.6, oske 1.9, kalsium 0.15, fosfor 0.09, magnesium 0.05, kalium 0.13, natrium 0.035, svovel 0.07. Innhaldet (mg/kg tørrstoff av mikronæringsstoffa var: kopar 2.5, molybden 0.11, sink 27.2, selen 0.12, jern 898 og mangan 154. Den midlare fordøyelsesgraden av tørrstoffet i lav-prøvene var 35%, men in vitro fordøyelsesanalyser undervurderer fordøyelsesgraden av lav. Det var ein stor variasjon mellom dei ulike lavartane for dei fleste næringsstoffa og fordøyelsesgraden. Stereocaulon spp. inneheldt meir protein, fosfor, svovel, kopar og molybden enn Cetraria spp. og Cladonia spp. Gulskinn hadde høgare fordøyelsesgrad, og innehaldet av NFE, oske, kalsium og magnesium var høgre enn i kvitkrull, medan trevleinnhaldet var størst i kvitkrull. Lav inneheldt

  9. Digestion of energy and nutrients in Svalbard reindeer

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    Hans Staaland

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding trials with 5 male Svalbard reindeer, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik were conducted at the Man and the Biosphere (MAB Research Station in Adventdalen, Svalbard. Five different diets were used, 1: commercial reindeer food, (RF-71, 2: a mixture of locally harvested grasses and sedges (mainly Dupontia pelligera and Eriphorum scheusczeri, 3: a pure moss (Pleurozium scheberi diet, 4: a lichen diet using the dominant Svalbard species Cetraria delisei, and 5: a mixed diet of RF-71, moss (P. schreberi and lichens (mainly Cladonia alpestris and Cladonia rangiferina. When fed the RF-71 diet the digestibility by Svalbard and Norwegian reindeer were similar with respect to dry matter (DM 75 v 74% and crude protein (CP 74 v 70% as were the availabilities of P (72 v 76% a and Ca (18 v 36% in the diet. The mixture of grasses and sedges was highly digestible with respect to DM ((66,5% but had low availabilities of Ca (12%, Mg (10% and P (-11%. DM digestibility of the lichen C delisei was low (33% however this lichen could constitute a good source of Ca. Moss palatability was very low (174-252 g or 9-13g/kg 0 75 intake daily. DM, CP and energy digestibilities, respectively 48, 53 and 49%, and the availabilities of P (66% and Ca (20% were indicative that they could add to the energy and protein intake while contributing significantly to nutrient balance of Svalbard reindeer when present in a mixed diet.Fordøyelse av energi og næringsstoffer hos Svalbard-rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Ved MAB-stasjonen i Adventdalen på Svalbard ble det utført foringsforsøk med fem voksne bukker av Svalbardrein, Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus Vrolik. Det ble nyttet fem forskjellige forty per, 1: pelletert reinfor, RF71, 2: en blanding av gras og siv høstet i Adventdalen (vesentlig Dupontia pelligera og Eriophorum scheuchzeri, 3: en ren mosediett (Pleurozium schreberi, 4: lav av den vanlige Svalbard -arten, Cetraria delisei, 5: en blandet diett av RF

  10. Análise comparativa de fragmentos identificáveis de forrageiras, pela técnica micro-histológica Comparative analysis of identifiable fragments of forages, by the microhistological technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela de Oliveira Bauer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, verificar, pela técnica micro-histológica, diferenças entre espécies forrageiras quanto ao percentual de fragmentos identificáveis, em função do processo digestivo e da época do ano. Lâminas foliares frescas recém-expandidas, correspondentes à última e à penúltima posição no perfilho, das espécies Melinis minutiflora Pal. de Beauv (capim-gordura, Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees Stapf. (capim-jaraguá, Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. (capim-braquiária, Imperata brasiliensis Trin. (capim-sapé, de Medicago sativa L. (alfafa e de Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (aroeira, amostradas nos períodos chuvoso e seco, foram digeridas in vitro e preparadas de acordo com a técnica micro-histológica. Observou-se que as espécies apresentaram diferenças marcantes na porcentagem de fragmentos identificáveis e que a digestão alterou estas porcentagens em torno de 10 %; que o período de amos­tragem não influenciou a porcentagem de fragmentos identificáveis para a maioria das espécies; que a presença de pigmentos e a adesão da epiderme às células dos tecidos internos da folha prejudicaram a identificação dos fragmentos; e que a digestão melhorou a visualização dos fragmentos dos capins sapé e jaraguá e da aroeira, mas prejudicou a do capim-braquiária e, principalmente, a da alfafa.The objetive of this study was to verify differences among forages species in relation to the percentage of identifiable fragment as affected by the digestion process and season. Fresh last expanded leaf lamina samples of the species Melinis minutiflora Pal. de Beauv (Molassesgrass, Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees Stapf. (Jaraguagrass, Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. (Signalgrass, Imperata brasilienses Trin. (Sapegrass, and foliar laminas of Medicago sativa L. (Alfalfa and Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi (Aroeira, sampled in the rainy and dry seasons, were digested in vitro and prepared according to the microhistological technique. The

  11. Effect of the activity of the Brazilian polyherbal formulation: Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl and Schinus terebinthifolius Radd in inflammatory models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina C.P. Medeiros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian polyherbal formulation (BPF is composed by dyes of Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi in alcohol at 13.3° GL. The formulation is popularly used in Paraíba state, Brazil since 1889 and it is used as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the polyherbal formulation. For this purpose it was used the12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA and capsaicin-induced mouse ear edema and the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The BPF at dose of 26 mL/Kg inhibited both 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA and capsaicin-induced ear edema by 49% (p O medicamento fitoterápico brasileiro - BPF é composto de corantes das plantas Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Peltodon radicans Pohl e Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi em alcool a 13,3° GL. Este medicamento é popularmente usado no estado da Paraíba, Brasil desde 1889 como anti-séptico e antiinflamatório. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a propriedade antiinflamatória deste medicamento fitoterápico. Para tal, foram utilizadas as técnicas de edema de orelha em camundongos induzido por 12-O-tetradecanoilforbol 13-acetato (TPA ou capsaicina e o edema de pata de rato induzido por carragenina. O BPF na dose de 26 mL/kg inibiu tanto edema de orelha induzido por TPA como por capsaicina a 49% (p < 0.05 e 24% (p < 0.01 respectivamente. Estudos preliminares utilizando a técnica de edema de pata induzido por carragenina demonstraram que a administração oral também inibiu o edema de pata em aproximadamente 29%. Os resultados demonstraram que o medicamento fitoterápico brasileiro (BPF apresentou propriedades antiinflamatórias e a melhor dose foi aquela que é usada pela população.

  12. Ecomorphometric structure of Restinga da Marambaia lizard community, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil Estrutura ecomorfométrica da comunidade de lagartos da Restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In restinga areas of Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, we recorded nine species of lizards, grouped in four families. The morphometric analysis suggested an invasion-structured pattern, with two distinct groups of species in the community: the "ground-runners", composed of animals with robust bodies and long limbs, represented by Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820, Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758, Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000 and Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839; and the "hiders", composed of small-bodied animals with short limbs, represented by Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818, Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845, Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 and M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1947. The morphological relationships within the restinga lizard community reflect the influence of the habitat physical structure: bromeliad availability and other refugia, used by the "hiders", and the distribution of open areas, used by the "ground-runners". Our results also indicate that the restingas hold "ecomorphological spaces" (vacant niches available for occupation by additional lizard species.Em áreas de restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, foram registradas nove espécies de lagartos, pertencentes a quatro famílias. A análise morfométrica sugeriu um padrão de estruturação por invasão, com dois grupos distintos de espécies compondo a comunidade: os "corredores de chão", formado pelos animais de corpo mais robusto e membros mais longos, representados por Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820, Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758, Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938,Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000 e Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839; e os "escondedores", reunindo lagartos de menor tamanho e membros mais curtos, representados por Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818, Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845, Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 e M. macrorhyncha

  13. Characteristics of Community Structure in Ergun Meadow Steppe under Different Utilization Types -Use of Power Law%不同利用方式下额尔古纳草原群落结构特征的研究-幂乘方法则的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕杰; 陈俊

    2011-01-01

    利用幂乘方法则定量地探明内蒙古自治区呼伦贝尔额尔古纳草原在刈割和放牧2种利用方式下,植被的空间分布特性及其群落的物种组成、物种多样性等.结果表明:割草地和放牧地的构成植物种对幂乘方法则具有很好的吻合性;2种不同利用方式下的草地均呈现了比随机分布强的空间异质性,且割草地的物种数、物种多样性指数(H')、均匀度指数(J')和群落整体的空间异质性指数(δ0)均大于放牧地;草地在放牧利用后,轮叶委陵菜(Potentilla verticillaris)、蒲公英(Taraxacum of ficinale)、车前(Plantago asiatica)等退化草地的指标植物种增加,而冰草(Agropyron cristatum)、无芒雀麦(Bromus inermis)和羊茅(Festuca ovina)等禾本科优良牧草只在割草地出现.%The spatial distribution, species composition, species diversity, utilization types of both mowing and grazing were studied quantitatively in Ergun meadow steppe of Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Results showed that composing plant species in the mowing and grazing meadow steppes followed the power law. There was a stronger spatial heterogeneity in the meadow steppes under two different use patterns than in the random distribution. The number of species, species diversity index (H′) ,evenness index (J′) and spatial heterogeneity index of the whole community (δc) on the mowing meadow steppe were all higher than those in the grazing meadow steppe. Indicator plant species of degenerated grassland such as Potentilla verticillatus, Taraxacum officinale and Plantago asiatica increased in the meadow steppe after grazing. Otherwise, only high quality Gramineae plants such as Agropyron cristatum, Bromus inermis and Festuca ovina appeared in the mowing meadow steppe.

  14. Evolution of angular-momentum-losing exoplanetary systems - Revisiting Darwin stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Cilia; Lanza, Antonino-Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The dynamical evolution of planetary systems, after the evaporation of the accretion disk, is the result of the competition between tidal dissipation and the net angular momentum loss of the system. In the case of multiple systems, gravitational interaction between planets must also be taken into account. However, even focusing on single companion systems, the description of the diversity of orbital configurations, and correlations between parameters of the observed system, (e.g. in the case of hot Jupiters) is still limited by our understanding of tidal dissipation and its interplay with magnetic braking.Using energy considerations only, I will present a new characterisation of the tidal equilibrium that is valid when the total angular momentum of the system is not conserved. This implies a remarkably different evolution of the planet's semi-major axis depending on the properties of the stellar host. I apply this theory to a sample of planetary systems and discuss their evolution using a particularly simple graphic approach that generalizes the classic Darwin tidal diagrams. This can help constraining theories of tidal dissipation and testing models of planetary formation. This kind of studies rely on the determination of stellar raddi, masses and ages. Major advances will thus be obtained with the results of the PLATO 2.0 mission, selected as the next M-class mission of ESA's Cosmic Vision plan, that will allow the complete characterization of host stars using asteroseismology.

  15. Volatiles composition and extraction kinetics from Schinus terebinthifolius and Schinus molle leaves and fruit

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    Adriano dos Santos Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEssential oils extracted from Schinus molle L. and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, leaves and fruit hydrodistillation, as well as, their chemical composition and extraction kinetic were evaluated. For this proposal, 6 h extraction and aliquots collected at sequencing different times (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 6 h were carried out allowing calculating accumulated content (% w/w and verifying essential oil chemical profile. β-caryophyllene (35.2%, α-pinene (28.1% and germacrene D (15.5% represent S. terebinthifolius dried leaves essential oil major components, as well as, α-pinene (44.9%, germacrene D (17.6% and β-pinene (15.1% in the fruit. Cubenol (27.1%, caryophyllene oxide (15.3% and spathulenol (12.4% represent S. molle dried leaves essential oil major components, and β-pinene (36.3% α-pinene (20.3%, germacrene D (12.1% and spathulenol in the fruit. Essential oil extraction kinetics showed a hyperbolic distribution; monoterpene content presented exponential decay in time function and sesquiterpene showed exponential growth. Faster monoterpene extraction than the sesquiterpene extraction was observed, however, both presented increasing exponential distribution.

  16. Cytomorphological characteristics influence the ecological distribution of Solanum species in Nigeria

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    Olatunji Afolabi Oyelana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic relationship of species in the genus Solanum L has remained unresolved due to species’ large size, similar morphology and a constantly expanding genome. The representative species in Nigeria were assessed on the basis of morphological characterization, cytological expression and crossing experiments to ascertain extent of species relationship. The diploid (2n = 24 included the two varieties of Solanum melongena L, S. gilo Raddi, S. aethiopicum L, S. torvum SW, S. macrocarpon L, S. anguivi Lam. and S. erianthum Don while the two subsp of S. scabrum L revealed a tetraploid (2n = 48 condition. The species were tree-like (S. erianthum, small tree (S. torvum or shrubs with herbaceous stems (S. aethiopicum or woody with and/or without spines (S. anguivi, with inflorescence either racemose (S. melongena or umbellate (S. macrocarpon. The depth of leaf lobe was reduced to serration (S. scabrum subsp erectum or entire in S. scabrum subsp scabrum. The F1 diploid hybrids (2n = 24 were intermediate in height while the triploid hybrid (2n = 72 was seedless and deviated significantly in growth. The definition of species status followed through seven (7 accessions and based on the extent of meiotic irregularities, doubling of chromosome number and reduction in both the axes of inflorescence and depth of leaf margin. The choice of species within the genus for the purpose of hybridization is now largely reinforced by regularity in meiosis.

  17. A deep catalogue of classical Be stars in the direction of the Perseus Arm: spectral types and interstellar reddenings

    CERN Document Server

    Raddi, R; Steeghs, D; Wright, N J; Drake, J J; Barentsen, G; Fabregat, J; Sale, S E

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 247 photometrically and spectroscopically confirmed fainter classical Be stars (13 < r < 16) in the direction of the Perseus Arm of the Milky Way (-1 < b < +4, 120 < l < 140). The catalogue consists of 181 IPHAS-selected new classical Be stars, in addition to 66 objects that were studied by Raddi et al. (2013) more closely, and 3 stars identified as classical Be stars in earlier work. This study more than doubles the number known in the region. Photometry spanning 0.6 to 5 micron, spectral types, and interstellar reddenings are given for each object. The spectral types were determined from low-resolution spectra (lambda / Delta-lambda ~ 800-2000), to a precision of 1-3 subtypes. The interstellar reddenings are derived from the (r - i) colour, using a method that corrects for circumstellar disc emission. The colour excesses obtained range from E(B-V) = 0.3 up to 1.6 - a distribution that modestly extends the range reported in the literature for Perseus-Arm open clust...

  18. Saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii: biological activities

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    Magalhães Aderbal Farias

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of saponins and the molluscicidal activity of the roots, leaves, seeds and fruits of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Leguminosae against Biomphalaria glabrata adults and eggs were investigated. The roots, seeds and fruits were macerated in 95% ethanol. These extracts exerted a significant molluscicidal activity against B. glabrata, up to a dilution of 100 mg/l. Four mixtures (A2, B2, C and D of triterpenoid oleanane type saponins were chromatographically isolated from the seed and fruit extracts. Two known saponins (1 and 2 were identified as beta-D-glucopyranosyl-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->3- beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28 -oate, and beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1->3-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 ->3]-3beta-hydroxyolean-12-ene-28-oate, respectively. These two saponins were present in all the mixtures, together with other triterpenoid oleane type saponins, which were shown to be less polar, by reversed-phase HPLC. The saponin identifications were based on spectral evidence, including ¹H-¹H two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple-bond connectivity experiments. The toxicity of S. langsdorffii saponins to non-target organisms was prescreened by the brine shrimp lethality test.

  19. Flammability of tree species for use in fuelbreaks at forest fires prevention

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    Bruna Kovalsyki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among several silvicultural measures of forest fires prevention, fuelbreaks stands out. These structures are used to reduce and/or prevent fire spread. They consist of plantations with lower flammability species than the main species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the flammability of Psidium cattleianum Sabine., Ligustrum lucidum W. T. Aiton., Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. and Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, for potential use in fuelbreaks. In this research Pinus taeda L. was used as control. Samples consisted of 1 g of fine material (< 0.7 cm of diameter newly collected. Samples burning were performed in epiradiator, under temperature between 250 °C and 350 °C. It was carried out 50 replications for each species. It was analyzed ignition frequency, time to ignition, combustion duration, combustion index, and it was also determined flammability value. P. taeda presents a very high combustion intensity and was classified as a flammable species. The other species were considered poorly flammable. S. terebinthifolius and B. glabra indicated low combustion intensity, L. lucidum medium and P. cattleianum high combustion intensity. In this context, it was concluded that these species have potential to be used in fuelbreaks to prevent forest fires.

  20. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-05

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  1. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae

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    Michael Pogue

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad and P. longiformis Pogue (Brazil are described: P. asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia, P. medialba sp. n. (Argentina, P. similis sp. n. (Brazil, P. sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and P. tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of P. nana (Walker (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos as a valid species and revised synonyms P. indefatigabilis Schaus and P. isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of P. nana instead of P. arcigera. New host records for P. sinuosa and P. nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of P. obrotunda (Guenée are illustrated.

  2. Preferência Floral de Vespas (Hymenoptera, Vespidae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2012-03-01

    Abstract Wasps integrate the floral visitors’ community and they can constitute a representative portion of the pollinators. For this reason, it was aimed to know and to analyze the floral preference of the Vespidae species and to investigate the use of floral resources for these wasps. The collects were performed between 2001 and 2008 in different localities of Rio Grande do Sul state (Estrela Velha, Santa Cruz do Sul, São Francisco de Paula e Sinimbu between 08:00 at 17:00 hours, utilizing entomological nets to catch the flower-visiting wasps. The collected specimens were deposited at the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (CESC. 1.483 specimens were captured belonging to 73 wasp species, whose 78.9% were Polistinae (30 species and 21.1% Eumeninae (43 species, visiting the flowers of 33 plant species classified in 16 botanical families; the families with the larger number of plant species were Asteraceae (12, Fabaceae (4 and Apiaceae (3. The plant species with the largest number of wasps collected was Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (616, followed by Eryngium pandanifolium L. (137 and Eryngium horridum Spreng (122. The analysis of the trophic niche overlap of 26 species with four or more visited plant species, showed an overlap equal or higher than 50% in six cases.

  3. EFEITO DE DIFERENTES MADEIRAS SOBRE A COMPOSIÇÃO DA AGUARDENTE DE CANA ENVELHECIDA

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    DIAS Silvia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram dosados compostos fenólicos por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência em aguardente de cana estocada por seis meses em barris de 20 L, das madeiras brasileiras amburana - Amburana cearensis (Fr. All. A.C. Smith; bálsamo - Myroxylon peruiferum L.F.; jequitibá Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze; jatobá - Hymenaea spp; ipê - Tabebuia spp e carvalho europeu - Quercus sp. Constatou-se que cada madeira introduziu predominantemente compostos fenólicos específicos na bebida: a ácidos elágico e vanílico no carvalho; b ácido vanílico e sinapaldeído na amburana; c vanilina e ácido elágico no bálsamo; d ácido gálico no jequitibá, e coniferaldeído no jatobá e f ácidos siríngico e vanílico e coniferaldeído no ipê.

  4. Nematode assemblages of some insular and continental lizard hosts of the genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae along the eastern Brazilian coast

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    Carlos Frederico D. Rocha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematode assemblages associated to three species of lizards of the genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826 [M. agilis (Raddi, 1823, M. caissara Rebouças-spieker, 1974 and M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946] from three mainland sites and three island sites along the eastern Brazilian coast were analyzed. A total of six nematode species were recorded, with total nematode richness varying from one to four and overall nematode prevalences varying from 6.7% to 90.5% among host populations. Number of nematode species per host individual (including all hosts, infected and uninfected varied among host populations from 0.07 to 1.05, but most infected lizards in all six host populations harbored a single nematode species. Both insular and continental populations of Mabuya spp. exhibited generally poor nematode assemblages, and no clear tendency for insular host populations to have more depauperate nematode faunas and/or lower infection rates compared to mainland ones (or vice versa was evident on the basis of the present data.

  5. Biology and host range of Tecmessa elegans (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), a leaf-feeding moth evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleiro, Marina; Mc Kay, Fernando; Wheeler, Gregory S

    2011-06-01

    During surveys for natural enemies that could be used as classical biological control agents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Brazilian pepper), the caterpillar, Tecmessa elegans Schaus (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae), was recorded feeding on the leaves of the shrub in South America. The biology and larval and adult host range of this species were examined to determine the insect's suitability for biological control of this invasive weed in North America and Hawaii. Biological observations indicate that the larvae have five instars. When disturbed, the late instar larvae emit formic acid from a prothoracic gland that may protect larvae from generalist predators. Larval host range tests conducted both in South and North America indicated that this species feeds and completes development primarily on members of the Anacardiaceae within the tribe Rhoeae. Oviposition tests indicated that when given a choice in large cages the adults will select the target weed over Pistacia spp. However, considering the many valued plant species in its host range, especially several North American natives, this species will not be considered further for biological control of S. terebinthifolius in North America.

  6. Evaluation of a preservative system in a gel containing hydroalcoholic extract of Schinus terebinthifolius

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    Túlio Flávio A. L. Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, microbial contamination is one of the major problems faced by the phytomedicine industry with respect to the quality of the raw materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a preservative system in a formulation with hydrogel containing hydroalcoholic extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae ("aroeira" or "Brazilian Peppertree", through the challenge test. The extracts were prepared by maceration at a ratio of 1:10 plant/solvent in 40% alcohol. Gel samples were artificially contaminated with separate inocula of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the number of viable microorganisms determined in triplicate by the "pour plate" method for counting colonies at 0, 24 and 48h, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The addition of the preservatives (methyl and propylparaben in the "aroeira" gel proved to be effective against the studied species when the samples were evaluated using the challenge test. According to the criterion A of the European Pharmacopoeia, it was verified that the hydrogel product showed good conservation in a 28 days period.

  7. Acidification in the mountains ?; Foersurning i fjaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degerman, E. [National Board of Fisheries, Drottningholm (Sweden). Inst. of Freshwater Research; Engblom, E.; Lingdell, P.E. [Limnodata AB, Skinnskatteberg (Sweden); Melin, E.; Olofsson, E. [Haerjedalens Kommun, Sveg (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The present paper is a literature review dealing with the extent of acidification in the Swedish mountain range. The first effects of acidification were noted in the beginning of the 1960`s in the Fulufjaell area in the southernmost part of the mountain range. Since then many studies have been published indicating that the extent of acidification and the negative effects of biota were widespread. However, many scientists have claimed that there is no acidification in the area and that acid surges following snow melt have always been a problem to the fauna due to natural dilution of the water. This is contradicted by this paper. Acidification in this area is caused by anthropogenic emissions of acidifying substances. It is shown that the mountain area has a higher load of airborne pollutants than the surrounding lowland. Lakes are not as badly affected as streams, but an overall loss of alkalinity is found in the entire mountain range and several small ephemeral lakes in the southern part of the range have lost alkalinity completely. There are indications that acidification also affects lichens (Cladonia spp.) negatively, and it is suspected that the abundance of epilithic green algae has increased in streams. Relatively few objects have been limed so far. Re colonization of benthos, fish and birds has been noted after liming. It is recommended that the liming programme is extended. The ultimate goal should be to achieve a pH above 5 in snow to avoid harmful effects to the most sensitive water bodies. 307 refs

  8. Phytase activity in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Niall F; Crittenden, Peter D

    2015-10-01

    Phytase activity was investigated in 13 lichen species using a novel assay method. The work tested the hypothesis that phytase is a component of the suite of surface-bound lichen enzymes that hydrolyse simple organic forms of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) deposited onto the thallus surface. Hydrolysis of inositol hexaphosphate (InsP6 , the substrate for phytase) and appearance of lower-order inositol phosphates (InsP5 -InsP1 ), the hydrolysis products, were measured by ion chromatography. Phytase activity in Evernia prunastri was compared among locations with contrasting rates of N deposition. Phytase activity was readily measurable in epiphytic lichens (e.g. 11.3 μmol InsP6 hydrolysed g(-1)  h(-1) in Bryoria fuscescens) but low in two terricolous species tested (Cladonia portentosa and Peltigera membranacea). Phytase and phosphomonoesterase activities were positively correlated amongst species. In E. prunastri both enzyme activities were promoted by N enrichment and phytase activity was readily released into thallus washings. InsP6 was not detected in tree canopy throughfall but was present in pollen leachate. Capacity to hydrolyse InsP6 appears widespread amongst lichens potentially promoting P capture from atmospheric deposits and plant leachates, and P cycling in forest canopies. The enzyme assay used here might find wider application in studies on plant root-fungal-soil systems.

  9. A hypothesis to explain lichen-Rangifer dynamic relationships

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    Eldar Gaare

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A small group of fruticous lichen species, viz. Cetraria nivalis, Cladonia mitis, C. stellaris, and Stereocaulon paschale forms extensive mats in the most winter habitats of Rangifer tarandus populations in Norway. The plant communities accessible for grazing are often found on easily drained, moraine ridges. These lichen species are perennial, lying on the ground while growing slowly at the top. As they decompose they add humus to the top of the soil profile. The lichen mats catch all water from small showers, thus preventing vascular plants from obtaining a more regular water supply. Grazing removs whole plants and gradually makes larger and larger holes in the lichen mats. Wind and water erode the humus, with only coarse gravel remaining. This diminishes the soil water storage capacity. Without grazing, lichens will gradually build a humus layer, which would improve the soil water storage capacity. In time vascular plants then would take the place of the lichens. I propose the hypothesis that by (over-grazing Rangifer improve their winter pastures by making conditions more favourable for lichens than for vascular plants.The fact that lichens are more scarce on habitats with more and regular precipitation, 1 in more oceanic climates, 2 on soils with more silt, and 3 on bird perches with thick peat due to regular fertilising, support this hypothesis.

  10. Recognition- and defense-related gene expression at 3 resynthesis stages in lichen symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, Sarangi N P; Piercey-Normore, Michele D

    2015-01-01

    Recognition and defense responses are early events in plant-pathogen interactions and between lichen symbionts. The effect of elicitors on responses between lichen symbionts is not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the difference in recognition- and defense-related gene expression as a result of culture extracts (containing secreted water-soluble elicitors) from compatible and incompatible interactions at each of 3 resynthesis stages in the symbionts of Cladonia rangiferina. This study investigated gene expression by quantitative PCR in cultures of C. rangiferina and its algal partner, Asterochloris glomerata/irregularis, after incubation with liquid extracts from cultures of compatible and incompatible interactions at 3 early resynthesis stages. Recognition-related genes were significantly upregulated only after physical contact, demonstrating symbiont recognition in later resynthesis stages than expected. One of 3 defense-related genes, chit, showed significant downregulation in early resynthesis stages and upregulation in the third resynthesis stage, demonstrating a need for the absence of chitinase early in thallus formation and a need for its presence in later stages as an algal defense reaction. This study revealed that recognition- and defense-related genes are triggered by components in culture extracts at 3 stages of resynthesis, and some defense-related genes may be induced throughout thallus growth. The parasitic nature of the interaction shows parallels between lichen symbionts and plant pathogenic systems.

  11. Anti-oxidation activity of ethanol extracts from natural thalli of lichens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kojiro HARA; Marie ENDO; Hiroko KAWAKAMI; Masashi KOMINE; Yoshikazu YAMAMOTO

    2011-01-01

    Screening test on anti-oxidation activity using 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) was performed for 99 ethanol extracts of 85 species of natural thalli of lichens in order to find novel anti-oxidation compounds.The 17 extracts of natural thalli showed high anti-oxidation activity.Among them,the activities of extracts from Hypogymnia vittata,Peltigera aphthosa,Nephromopsis ornata,Pseudevernia furfuracea,Cladonia vulcani and Peltigera elizabethae were higher.Extracts of Peltigera spp.showed higher activity than those of other genera.The ethanol extract of P.aphthosa had been separated into ethyl acetate-soluble and water-soluble fractions.Two anti-oxidative spots were found only in the water-soluble fractions by thin-layer chromatography.The compound in the lower spot had the same Rf value,UV spectrum,and color as authentic solorinine that was previously found as a unique quaternary ammonium compound from Peltigera spp.We now report that the hydrophilic lichen substance,solorinine showed a nearly same anti-oxidation activity (EC50=120μmol/Lol/L) as standard antioxidant Trolox (EC50=150μmol/L).

  12. Managing fire for woodland caribou in Jasper and Banff National Parks

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    Landon Shepherd

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou populations in Jasper (JNP and Banff National Parks (BNP have declined since the 1970s, coincident with reduced fire activity in both parks, relative to historic levels. Some researchers have suggested that long periods without fire may cause habitat deterioration for woodland caribou, primarily by reducing available lichen forage. We examined winter habitat selection by woodland caribou at coarse and fine scales based on GPS-derived telemetry data and used models that included stand origin (decade, topography, and several stand structure variables that are related to time since fire, to explore relationships among caribou, lichen, and fire history. Based on the relationships illustrated by the models, we assessed how fire management could be applied to caribou conservation in JNP and BNP. At a coarse scale, caribou selected old forest (> 75 years in landscapes that have likely experienced less frequent wildfire. While the abundance of Cladonia spp. influenced caribou use at fine scales, a preference for areas with older trees within stands was also significant. We conclude that short-term habitat protection for woodland caribou in JNP and BNP likely requires fire exclusion from caribou range.

  13. Insights into past atmospheric lead emissions using lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in historic lichens and fungi (1852-2008) from central and southern Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liqin; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Handley, Heather K.; Gulson, Brian L.

    2016-08-01

    Lead concentrations and lead isotopic compositions were determined in historic central and southern Victoria, Australia lichen (Cladonia and Usnea) and fungi (Trametes) samples collected between 1852 and 2008 to evaluate long-term atmospheric lead contamination sources. The data are grouped into four time intervals of 1850-1931, 1932-1984, 1985-2001 and 2002-2008 corresponding to the history of leaded petrol use in Australia. Elevated lichen and fungi lead concentrations and relatively high isotopic compositions from the period 1850-1931 are attributed to lithogenic sources, gold mining activities and early industrialisation. Significant increases in lichen and fungi lead concentrations and concomitant lower lead isotopic compositions correspond to the marked increase in lead emissions from leaded petrol use after 1932. Following the end of leaded petrol use in 2002 lead isotopic composition values 'recover' toward more lithogenic values. However, the lead isotopic composition data indicate that the environmental impact from leaded petrol emissions persists in contemporary samples dated to 2002-2008. Overall, the data reveal that herbarium lichens and fungi from central and southern Victoria can be used as proxies for environmental lead emissions over the past 150 years.

  14. Ultrastructural Analysis of Leishmania infantum chagasi Promastigotes Forms Treated In Vitro with Usnic Acid

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    João S. B. da Luz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is considered by the World Health Organization as one of the infectious parasitic diseases endemic of great relevance and a global public health problem. Pentavalent antimonials used for treatment of this disease are limited and new phytochemicals emerge as an alternative to existing treatments, due to the low toxicity and cost reduction. Usnic acid is uniquely found in lichens and is especially abundant in genera such as Alectoria, Cladonia, Evernia, Lecanora, Ramalina, and Usnea. Usnic acid has been shown to exhibit antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of usnic acid on Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes and the occurrence of drug-induced ultrastructural damage in the parasite. Usnic acid was effective against the promastigote forms (IC50 = 18.30 ± 2.00 µg/mL. Structural and ultrastructural aspects of parasite were analyzed. Morphological alterations were observed as blebs in cell membrane and shapes given off, increasing the number of cytoplasmic vacuoles, and cellular and mitochondrial swelling, with loss of cell polarity. We concluded that the usnic acid presented antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum chagasi and structural and ultrastructural analysis reinforces its cytotoxicity. Further, in vitro studies are warranted to further evaluate this potential.

  15. Production of ribitol by alginate-immobilized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, E.C.; Molina, M.C.; Pedrosa, M.M.; Solas, M.T.; vicente, C.; Legaz, M.E. [Laboratorio de Fisiologia, Facultad de Biologia, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-01

    Cells of the lichen Cladonia verticillatis have been immobilized in calcium alginate and incubated for 15 days in light on different con centrations of sodium bicarbonate in order to produce lichen polyols. Sugars and polyols secreted to the medium were extracted and analyzed by HPLC. Production and secretion of both ribitol and glucose were very high by entrapped cells incubated on 10 mM sodium bicarbonate but the replacement of calcium by sodium in the alginate matrix produced the disorganization of the immobilized system in a period no longer tan 5 days. however, incubation of the entrapped cells on 1 mM sodium bicarbonate preserved the structure of the innert matrix although only ribitol was produced and secreted to the medium. Entrapment in sodium alginate maintained cell vitality although chloroplast disorganization of the phycobiont became evident. Moreover, contact between myco- and phycobiont has also been altered during immobilization since algal ribitol was not converted into mannitol by the fungal partner. 19 refs.

  16. Registro de novos hospedeiros de Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (Nota Científica. A register of new hosts of Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae in the State of São Paulo (Scientific Note.

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    Thiago Borges CONFORTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis éespécie nativa da América do Sul e é pragaprimária de espécies arbóreas exóticas e nativas.No município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo,durante pesquisa realizada nos anos de 2004,2005 e 2006, visando descobrir a causa damortalidade de árvores que compõem o dossel defragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual noBosque dos Jequitibás e na Mata Santa Genebra,foi coletado material associado a várias espéciesarbóreas ainda não registradas na literatura.Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S. F. Bl ake,Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong,Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br., Caesalpiniapluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporum undulatumVent., Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook Raf.,Mangifera indica L., Croton floribundus Spreng.,Croton piptocalyx Müll. Arg., Cariniana legalis(Mart. Kuntze, Luetzelburgia guaissaraToledo, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J. F.Macbr., Ficus benjamina L., Platypodium elegansVogel, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze,Machaerium stipitatum (DC. Vogel, Centrolobiumtomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Pachira aquaticaAubl., Inga cf. vera Willd. ssp. affinis (DC. T.D.Penn., são registradas pela primeira vez comohospedeiros de M. mutatus no stado de São Paulo,Brasil. Plantas hospedeiras referidas em bibliografiatambém são relacionadas.Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis isnative from South America and it is a primary pestof native and exotic trees. In the county ofCampinas, state of São Paulo, during researchcarried out in the years of 2004, 2005 and 2006aiming at to discover the cause of the mortality oftrees that compose the canopy of fragments ofSemideciduous Forest in the Bosque dos Jequitibásand Mata Santa Genebra, was collected materialassociated with some species still not recorded inthe literature. Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S.F. Bl ake, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.Morong, Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br.,Caesalpinia pluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporumundulatum Vent., Delonix

  17. Citogenética de algumas espécies frutíferas nativas do nordeste do Brasil Cytogenetics of some species of native fruits from northeast Brazil

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    Erllens Éder-Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o cariótipo de seis espécies de frutíferas nativas do Brasil por meio da análise do número e morfologia cromossômica das mesmas. As pontas de raízes jovens foram pré-tratadas com 8-hidroxiquinolina 0,002M, esmagadas em ácido acético 45% e coradas convencionalmente com Giemsa. O material estudado apresentou cariótipo simétrico, com cromossomos pequenos, medindo de 0,6 a 2,5µm, predominantemente metacêntricos a submetacêntricos com uma a duas constrições secundárias visíveis em todas as espécies, exceto em Bromelia karatas, onde não foi possível identificar a morfologia cromossômica ou a presença de constrições secundárias. Na família Myrtaceae, observou-se um complemento cromossômico diplóide com 2n=98 em Psidium arboreum Vell. e 2n=44 em P. araça Raddi; na família Bromeliaceae, 2n=50 em Bromelia karatas L.; na família Malvaceae, 2n=16 para Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.; na família Sapindaceae, 2n=32 em Talisia esculenta Radlk., e, na família Caricaceae, 2n=18 em Jaracatia spinosa (Aubl. A. DC. Todos os dados cromossômicos apresentados neste trabalho são inéditos, exceto para a espécie T. esculenta, que teve seu registro prévio confirmado. As espécies possuem potencial para utilização no melhoramento de plantas, e uma inversão em heterozigoze parece estar envolvida na evolução cariotípica de Guazuma ulmifolia.This work aimed to characterize the karyotype of six species of native fruits from Brazil through number and chromosome morphology analysis. The young root tips were pretreated with 8-hydroxiquinolin 0.002M, squashed in 45% acetic acid, and conventionally stained with Giemsa. All species showed symmetrical karyotype with small chromosomes and 0.6-2.5µm of length, mainly meta to sub-metacentric ones with one to two secondary visible constrictions in all species, except in Bromelia karatas in which it was not possible to identify the chromosome

  18. Produção de mudas de essências florestais em diferentes substratos e acompanhamento do desenvolvimento em campo Yield of seedling species forestry of four using different substrates and development in field

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    Rone Batista de Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o efeito de substratos com diferentes características físicas e químicas na formação de mudas e o desenvolvimento no campo das espécies Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro rosa, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden (eucalipto, Acacia holocericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don (acácia e Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeirinha, produzidas em tubetes de 55 cm³. Os substratos no viveiro foram constituídos de diversas combinações dos seguintes materiais: húmus de minhoca, esterco bovino curtido, esterco de galinha, turfa, casca de amendoim processada, casca de arroz carbonizada e palha de café. Na primeira etapa foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Foram avaliadas as variáveis morfológicas das mudas e suas relações. O delineamento estatístico no campo foi em blocos, em parcelas subdivididas e as covas foram preenchidas com dois diferentes tipos de adubações - esterco bovino e esterco bovino + condicionador de solo. Nessa etapa, foram avaliadas as variáveis altura e diâmetro das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de média (Newman-Keuls 5%. Conforme os resultados obtidos na etapa de viveiro, os substratos que podem ser recomendados para produção de mudas das espécies estudadas foram os à base de Húmus de minhoca, casca de amendoim processada e turfa. Na etapa de campo, a adubação com esterco bovino + condicionador de solo proporcionou maiores valores das variáveis em todas as espécies, com exceção da altura das plantas para a acácia.This experiment was installed with the aim of evaluating the substrates effect with different chemical and physical characteristics in the formation of seedling of Cedrela fissilis Vell. (cedro rosa, Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden (eucalipto, Acacia holocericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don (acacia and Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (aroeirinha produced in tubes of 55 cm³. The substrates had been constituted of

  19. Conservação do jiló em função da temperatura de armazenamento e do filme de polietileno de baixa densidade Jilo conservation as a function of storage temperatures and plastic packing

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    Cláudio Rodrigo Lacerda Neres

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e da embalagem plástica na conservação de jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi, cv. 'Tinguá'. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e cinco frutos por parcela. Os frutos foram armazenados em três temperaturas, 25 °C ± 2 °C (ambiente; 13 °C e 5 °C, embalados e não embalados em sacos de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD com 80 µm de espessura. Avaliaram-se a perda de massa fresca, a injúria por frio, a coloração da casca, os teores de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e a acidez total titulável (ATT. A perda de massa foi de 2,37%, 0,91% e 0,84% por dia, nos frutos armazenados sem a proteção do PEBD, a 25 °C ± 2 °C, 13 °C e 5 °C respectivamente; nos frutos embalados, as perdas foram de 0,079%, 0,037% e 0,029% respectivamente. Frutos armazenados a 25 °C ± 2 °C, sem PEBD, apresentaram teores menores de SST, enquanto os armazenados a 5 °C, com PEBD, os teores foram maiores. Nos frutos com PEBD, houve aumento linear nos teores de ATT a 5 °C e 13 °C e quadrático a 25 °C ± 2 °C. Frutos armazenados sem PEBD a 25 °C ± 2 °C, a partir do nono dia, apresentaram teores menores de ATT. Nessas mesmas condições, houve rápida mudança na coloração, a partir do terceiro dia. Na temperatura de 5 ºC, sem e com PEBD, os frutos apresentaram sintomas da injúria por frio após seis dias de armazenamento.The research work was aimed at evaluating the effect of storage temperatures and plastic packing on jilo (Solanum gilo Raddi cv. 'Tinguá' conservation. The experiment was set up in a complete randomized design with three replications and five fruit/replications. The fruits were stored at 25 °C (openenvironment; 13 °C and 5 °C, wrapped or not wrapped in bags of low density polyethylene (LDPE with 80 µm thickness. Loss of fresh mass, chilling injury, peel color, total soluble solids content (TSS and tritable total

  20. Estudo in vitro da ação antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas contra Enterococcus faecalis In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

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    Edja Maria Melo de Brito Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos estudos têm sido realizados para avaliar o potencial terapêutico das plantas. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antimicrobiana dos extratos etanólicos da aroeira-da-praia (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, da aroeira-do-sertão (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., da ameixa-do-mato (Ximenia americana L., da quixabeira (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.] e do hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl a 2,5%, contra o Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado teste de difusão em ágar, pelo método do poço, utilizando-se como controle positivo a clorexidina a 0,12%. Os microrganismos foram semeados em caldo BHI e incubados a 37ºC por 24 horas. Posteriormente, as suspensões microbianas foram semeadas em placas Petri, com ágar Mueller Hinton, sendo confeccionados seis poços equidistantes. As placas foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente por 2 horas, para ocorrer a pré-difusão das substâncias, e incubadas a 37ºC por 48 horas. Foram feitas as análises e medições dos halos de inibição em triplicata e os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente (teste de análise de variância [ANOVA]. RESULTADOS: A quixabeira apresentou os menores halos de inibição (teste t, p INTRODUCTION: Several studies have evaluated the therapeutic benefits of plants. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, aroeira (Astronium urundeuva [Fr. All.] Engl., Olacaceae (Ximenia americana L., quixaba (Syderoxylum obtusifolium [Roem et Schult.], and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl 2.5% against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212. METHODS: The agar diffusion test was performed and 0.12% chlorhexidine was applied as positive control. The microorganisms were allowed to grow in a brain-heart infusion broth (BHI and incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours. Subsequently, the microbial suspensions were seeded on Petri dishes

  1. A citometria de fluxo como instrumento de avaliação da atividade imunomodulatória de extratos e substâncias isoladas de plantas medicinais Flow cytometry as instrument for evaluating the immunopotential of medicinal plant extracts and their isolated compounds

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    Julio C. Machado Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A citometria de fluxo vem se consolidando como metodologia para vários estudos de atividade celular e, nesse trabalho, ela foi empregada para avaliar as ações da fitohemaglutinina, dos alcalóides vimblastina e vindolina e dos extratos de Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert, Bauhinia microstachya (Raddi Machr. e Himatanthus lancifolius (Muell. Arg. Woodson, conhecidos popularmente no Brasil como camomila, escada-de-macaco e agoniada, respectivamente, sobre a imunomodulação de células mononucleares humanas, comparando-se o desempenho obtido com as alterações morfológicas relacionadas à ativação e proliferação dessas células in vitro. Os resultados demonstram que foi possível identificar, pela metodologia proposta, os efeitos proliferativos estimulantes já descritos para a fitohemaglutinina e para o extrato de C. recutita, assim como para o extrato de B. microstachya, observado pela primeira vez nesse trabalho. A conhecida atividade inibitória da vimblastina sobre a proliferação de linfócitos induzida por fitohemaglutinina, em contraste como a ausência de efeitos da vindolina, também puderam ser evidenciadas. Efeito inibitório foi observado para o extrato de H. lancifolius devido à sua ação tóxica sobre o sistema. Os resultados apresentados sugerem que a citometria de fluxo pode ser usada como uma alternativa metodológica quando se deseja investigar a ação de substâncias puras ou de extratos de plantas sobre a imunomodulação de células mononucleares humanas.Flow cytometry has been widely applied for studying several cellular activities. In this work it has been used to evaluate the effects of phytohemagglutinin, vinblastine, and vindoline upon human mononuclear cells immunomodulation. The same protocol was used to investigate the effects of extracts prepared from Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert, Bauhinia microstachya (Raddi Machr., and Himatanthus lancifolius (Muell. Arg. Woodson, plants popularly known in Brazil

  2. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

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    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  3. Hosting Capacity of Horticultural Plants for Insect Pests in Brazil Capacidad de Alojamiento de Plantas Hortícolas para Plagas de Insectos en Brasil

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    Germano L.D Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Factors such as fertilization, allelochemicals, trichomes, weather, and natural enemies can influence pest populations. Thus, it is necessary to understand the factors that predispose vegetable species to pests and the role of polyculture, crop rotation, and neighboring plants. The objective of this research was to study the hosting capacity for pests of Abelmoschus esculentus (L., Brassica oleracea L. vars. acephala and capitata, Capsicum annuum L., Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne, Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucumis sativus L., Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Solanum gilo Raddi and Solanum melongena L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L. The higher density of Bemisia tabaci (Genn. adults on C. sativus can be due to the higher amount of pentacosane and octacosane in this plant. The occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae (L. only in Brassica spp. can be accounted for by the nonacosane of these plants. The low trichome density and greater palmitic acid level can explain the greatest damage by Aphis gossypii Glover in A. esculentum. Empoasca sp. was more frequent in P. vulgaris followed by A. esculentum, which are plants with lower K content. Solanum melongena was attacked more by Hydrangea similis (Walker and Epitrix sp. perhaps because of higher palmitic acid and 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic methyl ester concentrations in their leaves. Frankliniella sp. exhibited more damage in C. sativus probably owing to higher pentacosane and octacosane in its leaves. Sistena sp. was more frequent in C. maxima and had higher octadecane levels and trichome density. The presence of ¥-humulene and hexacosane can explain the damage by Tuta absoluta (Meyrick on L. esculentum.Factores tales como la fertilización, aleloquímicos, tricomas, el clima y los enemigos naturales pueden influir en las poblaciones de plagas. Por lo tanto, es necesario comprender los factores que predisponen a las especies vegetales a las plagas y el papel de policultivos, rotación de cultivos y las plantas

  4. Cinética da degradação ruminal dos carboidratos de quatro gramíneas tropicais em diferentes idades de corte e doses de adubação nitrogenada: técnica de produção de gases Kinetic parameters of carbohydrates ruminal degradation of four tropical grasses in different cutting ages and nitrogen fertilizer levels

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    Edenio Detmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste experimento avaliar a cinética de degradação ruminal dos capins setária (Setaria anceps Stapf, hemarthria (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, angola (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. e acroceres (Acroceras macrum Stapf. adubados com 0, 100, 200, 300 ou 400 kg de N/ha e colhidos aos 28, 42, 56 ou 70 dias de idade. Os resultados foram avaliados por intermédio de análise de fatores. Após redução e avaliação da variação conjunta total das variáveis, optou-se pela adoção de três fatores, que englobaram 86,4% da variação total: o primeiro fator (Fator 1 associou-se ao volume de gás oriundo das frações de lenta e de rápida degradação e à taxa de degradação da fração rapidamente degradável (Vf1, Vf2 e k2; o segundo fator (Fator 2 associou-se à taxa de degradação de lenta digestão e à latência (k1 e L; e o terceiro fator (Fator 3, por sua vez, associou-se à digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS. Os parâmetros da cinética de degradação foram influenciados pelas idades de corte. A digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca reduziu com o avançar da idade das plantas. A adubação nitrogenada não promoveu respostas evidentes nos parâmetros avaliados. O capim-hemarthria se destacou dos demais em virtude de maior digestibilidade.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of levels 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg of nitrogen/ha and cutting ages of 28, 42, 56 and 70 days on the kinetic parameters of ruminal degradation of carbohydrate of the following tropical forages: Setaria grass (Setaria anceps Stapf, Limpo grass (Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, California grass (Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. and Nilo grass (Acroceras macrum Stpaf. The results were submitted to a factor analysis. After reduction and evaluation of the combined variation from the total variables, three factors comprising 86.44% of the total variation were considered

  5. Crescimento inicial, níveis críticos de fósforo e frações fosfatadas em espécies florestais Initial growing, phosphorus critical levels and phosphate fractions in forest species

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    LUIZ ARNALDO FERNANDES

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento de plântulas, os níveis críticos de P e algumas frações fosfatadas, em três espécies florestais submetidas a quatro doses de P. Mudas de aroeirinha (Schinus terenbinthifolius Raddi, paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hill. e jambolão (Syzygium jambolanum Lam. foram cultivadas em um Latossolo Variação Una, onde foram aplicados 0, 150, 300 e 600 mg dm-3 de P. Aos 180 dias após a germinação, as plantas foram colhidas e submetidas às análises químicas. Sob todas as doses de P, a paineira produziu maior biomassa da parte aérea e das raízes em comparação à aroeirinha e jambolão, além de apresentar maiores teores de P orgânico (Po e maior participação relativa do P orgânico (Po em relação ao P total solúvel em ácido em todos os níveis de fertilização fosfatada. O melhor crescimento da paineira foi atribuído a uma maior eficiência nos ajustes metabólicos desta espécie em relação à nutrição fosfatada, o que indica que esta espécie pode ser plantada em solos com diferentes níveis de P.An experiment under greenhouse conditions was carried out at Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to evaluate the growth of seedlings, phosphorus critical levels and phosphate fractions, in forest species growing under four phosphorus levels. Seedlings of Schinus terenbinthifolius Raddi (aroeirinha, Chorisia speciosa St. Hill. (paineira and Syzygium jambolanum Lam. (jambolão were cultivated on an Oxisol fertilized with 0, 150, 300 and 600 mg dm-3 of P. The seedlings were harvested 180 days after germination and analysed for P forms. In all levels of phosphorus addition, the paineira produced higher aerial and root biomass than aroeirinha and jambolão, and presented higher contents of organic phosphorus and higher relative participation of organic phosphorus in the total acid soluble phosphorus under all phosphorus

  6. CONSUMER PROFILE AND PRICE VARIATION OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PERFIL DO CONSUMIDOR E OSCILAÇÕES DE PREÇOS DE PRODUTOS AGROECOLÓGICOS

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    Érika Lidia Silva Cavalcante

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The consumption of natural foods has increased significantly all over the world, and the term “organic” has acquired great importance. Thus, this study tried to identify the consumer profile of organic foods in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil, in order to find out the main difficulties faced to purchase this kind of product. Prices for organic and conventional foods were also compared. The main problem mentioned by the people questioned about the difficulties for consuming this kind of product was the price factor, followed by its availability. Pumpkin (Curcubita moschata, eggplant (Solanum melongena, beetroot (Beta vulgaris L., carrot (Daucus carota L., jiló (Solanum gilo Raddi, and cucumber (Cucumis sativu were the products that showed the highest percent variation in price (conventional x organic.

    Em todo o mundo, o consumo de alimentos naturais tem aumentado significativamente, e o termo “orgânico” tem se destacado. Em face disto, buscou-se conhecer o perfil do consumidor de alimentos orgânicos, no município de Goiânia (GO, bem como saber quais são as principais dificuldades por ele encontradas, na aquisição destes produtos. Fez-se, também, um levantamento de preços, a fim de serem comparados alimentos orgânicos e convencionais. O principal problema apontado pelos entrevistados, quanto à dificuldade no consumo, foi o fator preço, seguido pela disponibilidade de produtos. Abóbora (

  7. Desempenho de cultivares de jiló em casa de vegetação Performance of jilo cultivars in glasshouse conditions

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    Maria do Carmo de Salvo Soares Novo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi instalado em vasos plásticos, em casa de vegetação em Campinas (SP. Duas cultivares comerciais de jiló - Solanum gilo Raddi - (Comprido Verde-Claro e Esmeralda e duas introduzidas pelo IAC (Bernacci e Cardoso foram avaliadas em relação ao desenvolvimento vegetativo e à produtividade. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno com 128 células e, o transplantio foi realizado aos 40 dias após a semeadura quando estavam no estádio de quatro a cinco folhas definitivas. Aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após o transplantio, avaliaram-se o número de folhas, a altura, a área foliar e as biomassas fresca e seca da parte aérea. Após o início da frutificação, semanalmente, foram colhidos os frutos e avaliaram-se diâmetros, comprimentos e biomassa fresca. As cultivares de jiló Esmeralda e Comprido Verde-Claro produziram frutos mais precoces em relação às cultivares Bernacci e Cardoso. Estas últimas produziram frutos por período mais prolongado. O jiló 'Cardoso' foi o mais produtivo quanto ao número total de frutos e à biomassa fresca total. As cultivares Bernacci e Cardoso da coleção do IAC, com potencial para o melhoramento genético, podem ainda ser utilizadas no sistema de produção de subsistência ou na agricultura familiar que são os sistemas tradicionais de cultivo de jiló.The experiment was carried out in plastic pots in a glasshouse, in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. Two commercial Solanum gilo Raddi cultivars (Comprido Verde-Claro and Esmeralda and two introduced by IAC (Bernacci and Cardoso were evaluated as to their vegetative development and fruit yield. The transplantings were produced in polystyrene trays with 128 cells and the transplant was done 40 days after sowing when the plants had four or five true leaves. The number of leaves, the height, leaf area and the fresh and dry shoot weight were evaluated 30, 60 and 90 days after transplant. Weekly, after fruiting began, the fruits were

  8. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  9. Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Dias Gois

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pigs with diets containing increasing levels of Brazilian red pepper essential oil ( Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on the physical attributes, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of precooked meat. Seventy-two weanling pigs (5.7±0.8kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design experiment with four treatments, six replicates per treatment, and three animals per experimental unit (pen. Animals were fed with a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500mg kg-1 Brazilian red pepper essential oil during the 35-d experimental period. At the end of the experiment, one animal per experimental unit (16.4±2.2kg was slaughtered to sample Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis. Dietary supplementation of Brazilian red pepper had no effect (P>0.05 on pork meat color, pH, cooking loss and shear force. Inclusion of essential oil in the diet provided a linear increase (P<0.05 of the saturated fatty acids content of L. dorsi, especially myristic (C14:0 and stearic (C18:0 fatty acids. Utilization of essential oil in pig diets reduced significantly the production of secondary lipid oxidation compounds measured as TBARS in raw pork meat (P<0.001 and immediately after cooking (P<0.001. However, during 8-d storage assay, the addition of essential oil in the diet did not protect pork meat lipids from oxidation. Therefore, Brazilian red pepper added to pig diets increased the saturated fatty acids content and reduced lipid oxidation in fresh meat and short-term heat treatment without affecting pork meat physical attributes.

  10. Pastagens arborizadas no projeto de assentamento benfica, município de Itupiranga, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Moreira dos Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Na microrregião de Marabá, PA, as pastagens dos agricultores familiares apresentam alta diversidade de árvores e palmeiras que têm papel importante tanto para limitação da degradação da biodiversidade quanto para suas utilidades. O trabalho foi realizado em 26 propriedades, onde 62 pastagens foram visitadas junto com o agricultor. Em cada pastagem foram repertoriadas todas as árvores e palmeiras presentes. Setenta e uma espécies foram encontradas, pertencentes a 32 famílias, das quais nove se destacaram com maior número de espécies: Caesalpiniaceae (11, Mimosaceae (10, Arecaceae (4, Lecythidaceae (4, Bignoniaceae (3, Fabaceae (3, Moraceae (3, Sapotaceae (3 e Sterculiaceae (3; 20 famílias apresentaram uma única espécie. Vinte e quatro espécies (34% do total pertenceram às três famílias Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae e Mimosaceae. As espécies arborescentes são conservadas principalmente em razão dos usos diversos na propriedade. Das 21 espécies, indicadas para arborização de pastagens de agricultores desta e de outras comunidades, nove espécies são particularmente recomendadas pela resistência ao fogo e para muitos anos de pastagem, pelo fato de ter dois usos ou mais: Caryocar villosum (Aubl. Pers., Bertholletia excelsa H. B. K., Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng., Oenocarpus distichus Mart., Astrocaryum tucuma Mart., Swartzia flaemingii Raddi, Apeiba tibourbou Aubl., Cenostigma tocantinum Ducke e Spondias mombin L.

  11. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  12. Efeito da inundação lateral sobre a distribuição da vegetação ripária em um trecho do rio Cuiabá, MT

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    Ricardo Keichi Umetsu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos hidrológicos e fitossociológicos foram realizados num perfil topográfico de 550 m instalado perpendicularmente ao rio Cuiabá, no Município de Rosário Oeste, MT, para analisar a influência da inundação sobre a distribuição da vegetação ripária. Utilizando os dados fluviométricos da estação de Rosário Oeste de 1966 a 2003, um modelo hidrológico de remanso em regime subcrítico foi ajustado, permitindo estabelecer a série hidrológica na área de estudo. A partir dessa série, os intervalos de recorrência nessa área foram obtidos. Os resultados sugeriram que a margem do canal principal, o canal secundário e o dique marginal, a planície de inundação e o terraço alagam a cada ~1 1,7 ano, ~1,77 2,8 anos, ~3 anos e de ~3,25 a ~39 anos, respectivamente. A espécie Combretum leprosum Mart. (Combretaceae apresentou maior VI na margem do canal principal, Callisthene fasciculata (Spr. Mart. (Vochysiaceae na margem do canal principal e no terraço e Licania parvifolia Huber (Chrysobalanaceae, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze. (Lecythidaceae e Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae na planície de inundação. Os resultados indicaram que a frequência e, principalmente, o tempo de alagamento são os principais determinantes ecológicos da distribuição das espécies vegetais ao longo do perfil topográfico.

  13. Temperature-dependent development and potential distribution of Episimus utilis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a candidate biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Veronica; Cuda, James P; Overholt, William A; Diaz, Rodrigo

    2008-08-01

    The invasive Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi), native to South America, is widely established throughout central and south Florida. The defoliating leaflet-roller Episimus utilis Zimmerman was selected as potential biocontrol agent of this invasive species. The objectives of this study were to determine development rate and survival of E. utilis at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 33, and 35 degrees C) and generate prediction maps of the number of generations per year this species may exhibit in the United States. The rate of development of E. utilis as a function of temperature was modeled using linear regression to estimate a lower developmental threshold of 9.6 degrees C and the degree-day requirement of 588. The Logan nonlinear regression model was used to estimate an upper developmental threshold of 33 degrees C. Cold tolerance of E. utilis was examined using all insect stages, and each stage was exposed to three constant temperatures (10, 5, 0 degrees C) for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 d (or until all insects died). The pupal stage was the most cold tolerant with 100% mortality after 12 d at 0 degrees C. The pupal lethal times at 5 (Ltime50 = 10 d, Ltime90 = 28 d) and 0 degrees C (Ltime50 = 5 d, Ltime90 = 9 d) were used to generate isothermal lines to predict favorable regions for E. utilis establishment. A GIS map was generated to predict the number of generations of E. utilis (range, 0.5-9.8) across all Brazilian peppertree range in the United States. The potential for establishment of E. utilis and its probable distribution in the continental United States was examined.

  14. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, D.F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Silva Alves da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in the Tamanduá Forest Genetic Reserve, in Brasília, Brazil, comprised mainly by gallery forest. It aimed to assess the floristic composition, natural regeneration and the spatial distribution of the main woody species in the undergrowth. The species were Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott and Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, all considered priorities for in situ conservation. Five transects were used, each 10 meters wide, laid perpendicular to the main watercourse in the studied area. A total of 21,482 regenerants per hectare were found in 69 species, 53 genera and 39 families. The families which had the largest numbers of species as seedlings were, in descending order, Leguminosae (Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae and Meliaceae. Surveying of young individuals, the dominant families with higher importance value (IV were as follows: Meliaceae (32.78 %, Rubiaceae (13.92 %, Burseraceae (13.76 %, Rutaceae (8.54 % and Hippocrateaceae (6.36 %, accounting for 75.36 % of total IV and 78.56 % of cover. All target species studied were represented among regenerants, especially Cariniana estrelllensis. However, only Copaifera langsdorffii and Virola sebifera were found among young individuals. A mixture quotient of 1:3 was calculated and indicates a forest rich in species, when compared to other similar forest formations. The spatial distribution of the regenerant species showed different patterns.

  15. Interspecific variation in vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in pioneer and non-pioneer species used in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Daniele R; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-09-01

    Reforestation projects have gained interest over recent years due to the loss of biodiversity in tropical regions as a result of large deforestation by anthropogenic actions. However, better knowledge on the tolerance of plant species to environmental stresses is needed for reforestation success. Here, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity, in terms of vitamin E accumulation, of five pioneer (Platypodium elegans Vogel, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil, Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. and Aegiphila sellowiana Cham.) and five non-pioneer (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Cedrela fissilis Vell., Genipa americana L., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Hymenaea courbaril L.) species, in relation to the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. Furthermore, we examined differences between sun and shade leaves on vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation. Pioneer plants showed on average 33% higher malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, than non-pioneer species, but no significant differences in vitamin E contents. In contrast, a marked interspecific variation was observed in the levels of α-tocopherol and its precursor, γ-tocopherol. Natural variation revealed interesting relationships between vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. The pioneer species, P. elegans, did not accumulate α-tocopherol and displayed the highest levels of malondialdehyde. Sun and shade leaves accumulated vitamin E levels to a similar extent, except for the pioneer L. pacari and the non-pioneer C. langsdorffii, the former accumulating more α-tocopherol in sun leaves and the latter in shade leaves. We conclude that interspecific variation is higher than both leaf type and successional-group variation in terms of vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E levels, particularly those of α-tocopherol, negatively correlate with the extent of lipid

  16. Degradation of the Disease-Associated Prion Protein by a Serine Protease from Lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, Steven M.; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, Richard A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted. PMID:21589935

  17. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, C.M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  18. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J; Bennett, James P; Biro, Steven M; Duque-Velasquez, Juan Camilo; Rodriguez, Cynthia M; Bessen, Richard A; Rocke, Tonie E

    2011-05-11

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE) inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE). Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE)-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE) and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  19. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Johnson

    Full Text Available The disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE, the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrP(TSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrP(TSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrP(TSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrP(TSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  20. What influences heavy metals accumulation in arctic lichen Cetrariella delisei in Svalbard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgrzyn, Michał; Wietrzyk, Paulina; Lisowska, Maja; Klimek, Beata; Nicia, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify variations in heavy metal concentrations in Cetrariella delisei along a transect from a High Arctic glacier forehead to the shoreline as well as determine the main environmental factors influencing the deposition of heavy metals in arctic lichens. The macrolichen Cetrariella delisei appears to be an interesting alternative to those lichen species used in the past (e.g. Flavocetraria nivalis, Cladonia sp.) for heavy metal biomonitoring purposes in the Arctic: it is widely distributed, easy to identify and reluctantly grazed by reindeer. Fieldwork was conducted in the summer of 2012 in the Kaffiøyra Plain, Oskar II Land, NW Spitsbergen. C. delisei and soil samples were collected from 5 localities. Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd were measured in each sample. A bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for all the analyzed elements. The BAFs for Cu, Mn, and Ni showed a relatively low accumulation level in lichen thalli. On the other hand, the BAFs for Cr, Pb, and Zn, revealed an increased accumulation level in C. delisei. The Cd content in lichen is almost equal to its level in the soil. The statistical analyses covered three environmental factors: soil pH, substrate type and distance from the shoreline. The data were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test, canonical correspondence analysis and a permutation test. The results show that distance from the shoreline had the greatest influence on the majority of the heavy metal concentrations in the lichen thalli and the soil. However, the level of Mn accumulated in the soil is determined by its source in the glacier. Moreover, the soil pH had the greatest effect on the Cd accumulated in the soil and the Mn accumulated in the lichen thalli.

  1. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, W.B.; Dale, B.W.; Adams, L.G.; McElwain, D.E.; Joly, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ???60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  2. Degradation of the disease-associated prion protein by a serine protease from lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Bennett, James P.; Biro, S.M.; Duque-Velasquez, J. C.; Rodriguez, Cynthia M.; Bessen, R.A.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE), the probable etiological agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), is resistant to degradation and can persist in the environment. Lichens, mutualistic symbioses containing fungi, algae, bacteria and occasionally cyanobacteria, are ubiquitous in the environment and have evolved unique biological activities allowing their survival in challenging ecological niches. We investigated PrPTSE inactivation by lichens and found acetone extracts of three lichen species (Parmelia sulcata, Cladonia rangiferina and Lobaria pulmonaria) have the ability to degrade prion protein (PrP) from TSE-infected hamsters, mice and deer. Immunoblots measuring PrP levels and protein misfolding cyclic amplification indicated at least two logs of reductions in PrPTSE. Degradative activity was not found in closely related lichen species or in algae or a cyanobacterium that inhabit lichens. Degradation was blocked by Pefabloc SC, a serine protease inhibitor, but not inhibitors of other proteases or enzymes. Additionally, we found that PrP levels in PrPTSE-enriched preps or infected brain homogenates are also reduced following exposure to freshly-collected P. sulcata or an aqueous extract of the lichen. Our findings indicate that these lichen extracts efficiently degrade PrPTSE and suggest that some lichens could have potential to inactivate TSE infectivity on the landscape or be a source for agents to degrade prions. Further work to clone and characterize the protease, assess its effect on TSE infectivity and determine which organism or organisms present in lichens produce or influence the protease activity is warranted.

  3. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  4. Effects of gaseous air pollutants on the Danish plant community; Gasformige luftforureningers effekter paa det danske plantesamfund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnsen, I.; Ro-Poulsen, H. [Institut for Oekologisk Botanik, Koebenhavns Universitet (DK); Soechting, U. [Institut for Sporeplanter, Koebenhavns Universitet (DK); Mortensen, L. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afdeling for Forureningskilder og Luftforurening (DK)

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of the project was to investigate the importance, for Danish non-agricultural vegetation, of the gaseous air pollutants: Ozone, Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Dioxide. Investigations were based on experiments in open-top chambers, where the climatic conditions are very close to those in the ambient surroundings. The air in the chambers were charcoal filtered, ambient, or added extra amounts of one er more of the three gasses to simulate elevated levels of the occurring variation. In the chamber bottoms the following plants were grown individually: Cladonia portentosa, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina, Empetrum nigrum, Calluna vulgaris, and finally, Fagus sylvatica, and Pices abies. Reindeer moss did not take up substantial amounts of nitrogen from the air. Fumigation with sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dixode, seems to cause washout of ions from the thallus. Ozone effects was observed, for the first time, on natural Danish herbs and shrubs. Large interspecific sensitivity variation was seen. For M. lupulina and C. vulgaris, the above-ground biomass increment was reduced by 40% and 25%, respectively, by a constant daytime additon of approximately 40 ppb ozone to the ambient concentrations. Neither L. corniculatus or E. nigrum seemed to be affected. P. abies was affected by the same ozone level, which caused disturbances to the growth of shoots and needles. Bud burst and shoot elongation was delayed, and a persistent reduction of needle length was found during two years experiments. F. sylvatica seemed to be very ozone sensitive, showing a marked reduced diameter increment and early senescense. (AB) 31 refs.

  5. Biogeochemical indicators of elevated nitrogen deposition in semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Bowker, Matthew A; Maestre, Fernando T; Pérez-Corona, M Esther; Theobald, Mark R; Vivanco, Marta G; Manrique, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition has doubled the natural N inputs received by ecosystems through biological N fixation and is currently a global problem that is affecting the Mediterranean regions. We evaluated the existing relationships between increased atmospheric N deposition and biogeochemical indicators related to soil chemical factors and cryptogam species across semiarid central, southern, and eastern Spain. The cryptogam species studied were the biocrust-forming species Pleurochaete squarrosa (moss) and Cladonia foliacea (lichen). Sampling sites were chosen in Quercus coccifera (kermes oak) shrublands and Pinus halepensis (Aleppo pine) forests to cover a range of inorganic N deposition representative of the levels found in the Iberian Peninsula (between 4.4 and 8.1 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). We extended the ambient N deposition gradient by including experimental plots to which N had been added for 3 years at rates of 10, 20, and 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). Overall, N deposition (extant plus simulated) increased soil inorganic N availability and caused soil acidification. Nitrogen deposition increased phosphomonoesterase (PME) enzyme activity and PME/nitrate reductase (NR) ratio in both species, whereas the NR activity was reduced only in the moss. Responses of PME and NR activities were attributed to an induced N to phosphorus imbalance and to N saturation, respectively. When only considering the ambient N deposition, soil organic C and N contents were positively related to N deposition, a response driven by pine forests. The PME/NR ratios of the moss were better predictors of N deposition rates than PME or NR activities alone in shrublands, whereas no correlation between N deposition and the lichen physiology was observed. We conclude that integrative physiological measurements, such as PME/NR ratios, measured on sensitive species such as P. squarrosa, can provide useful data for national-scale biomonitoring programs, whereas soil acidification and soil C and N storage

  6. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818.

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    Mônica C B Martins

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina. To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100% without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  7. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mônica C B; Silva, Monique C; Silva, Luanna R S; Lima, Vera L M; Pereira, Eugênia C; Falcão, Emerson P S; Melo, Ana M M A; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  8. [Phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of Finca Zíngara, Cali, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Edier Soto; Lücking, Robert; Rojas, Ana Bolañios

    2012-06-01

    Lichenized fungi or lichens are organisms that have been little studied in the tropics and which distribution is affected by microenvironmental factors and substrate characteristics. The present study aimed to identify phorophyte specificity and microenvironmental preferences of corticolous lichens in five phorophyte species from premontane forest of the farm Finca Zingara in Cali, Colombia. For this, five individuals were selected from five tree species (phorophytes). Lichen species present in a 0.50x0.20m2 quadrant located in the trunk of each tree at a height of 1.3m were identified. Substrate parameters such as bark pH, Diameter Breast Height (DBH) and bark structure were measured. Also, microenvironmental factors including temperature, humidity and irradiance were determined. In order to detect phorophyte preferences, a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and indicator species analysis were made. Spearman correlation analysis was used to assert the relationship between environmental variables and groupings found in the NMS. A total of 69 species of lichens were found, of which 37 were identified to species, 18 to genera and 14 were not determined because they were sterile or had no spores. NMS showed that some individuals of the same tree species were grouped alongside the analysis dimensions, and they were related with the factors of light intensity, temperature and DBH. Only three lichens with preference for certain tree species were found (Arthonia microsperma by Meriania sp., Cladonia ceratophylla and sorediado 8 by Clusia sp.), suggesting absence of phorophyte preferences. Thus, it can be concluded that lichens from the study area do not show phorophyte preference, but their distribution is affected by light, temperature and DBH.

  9. Atmospheric deposition studies of heavy metals in Arctic by comparative analysis of lichens and cryoconite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Mohan; Sharma, Jagdev; Gawas-Sakhalkar, Puja; Upadhyay, Ajay K; Naik, Simantini; Pedneker, Shailesh M; Ravindra, Rasik

    2013-02-01

    Lichens and cryoconite (rounded or granular, brownish-black debris occurring in holes on the glacier surface) from Ny-Ålesund were used for understanding the elemental deposition pattern in the area. Lichen samples collected from low-lying coastal region and cryoconite samples from high altitudinal glacier area were processed and analysed for elements such as aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cesium (Cs), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results showed that heavy metals, Al and Fe, are present in high concentration in the cryoconite samples. Al was also present in high amounts in seven of the eight lichen samples studied. The general scheme of elements in the decreasing order of their concentrations for most of the cryoconite samples was Al > Fe > Mn > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > As > Cs > Cd while that for the lichen samples was Al > Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Cs > Cr > Ni > V > Co > As > Cd. Similarity in trends in the two sample types confirms that the environment indeed contains these elements in that order of concentration which overtime got accumulated in the samples. Overall comparison showed most elements to be present in high concentrations in the cryoconite samples as compared to the lichen samples. Within the lichens, elemental accumulation data suggests that the low-lying site (L-2) from where Cladonia mediterranea sample was collected was the most polluted accumulating a number of elements at high concentrations. The probable reasons for such deposition patterns in the region could be natural (crustal contribution and sea salt spray) and anthropogenic (local and long-distance transmission of dust particles). In the future, this data can form a baseline for monitoring quantum of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in lichens and cryoconite of Svalbard, Arctic.

  10. Plutonium concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in biota collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska: recent measurements using ICP-SFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V; Dasher, Douglas

    2013-10-01

    Three underground nuclear tests, including the Unites States' largest, were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Monitoring of the radiological environment around the island is challenging because of its remote location. In 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) became responsible for the long term maintenance and surveillance of the Amchitka site. The first DOE LM environmental survey occurred in 2011 and is part of a cycle of activities that will occur every 5 years. The University of Alaska Fairbanks, a participant in the 2011 study, provided the lichen (Cladonia spp.), freshwater moss (Fontinalis neomexicanus), kelp (Eualaria fistulosa) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) samples from Amchitka Island and Adak Island (a control site). These samples were analyzed for (239)Pu and (240)Pu concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Plutonium concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were generally consistent with previous terrestrial and marine studies in the region. The ((239)+)(240)Pu levels (mBq kg(-1), dry weight) ranged from 3.79 to 57.1 for lichen, 167-700 for kelp, 27.9-148 for horse mussel, and 560-573 for moss. Lichen from Adak Island had higher Pu concentrations than Amchitka Island, the difference was likely the result of the higher precipitation at Adak compared to Amchitka. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher in marine samples compared to terrestrial and freshwater samples (t-test, p Pu occurred into the North Pacific Ocean, likely from the Marshall Island high yield nuclear tests, but other potential sources, such as the Kamchatka Peninsula Rybachiy Naval Base and Amchitka Island underground nuclear test site cannot be ruled out.

  11. Antioxidant activity, total phenols and flavonoids of lichens from Venezuelan Andes.

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    Claudia M. Plaza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context:The biological potential of lichens has been documented through their use in traditional medicine. Secondary lichen metabolites exert a wide variety of biological actions, including their use as antioxidants. Aims:To evaluate the antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids of four lichen fungal taxa collected in Mérida (Venezuela, and statistically evaluate the correlation between the antioxidant activity and the amount of phenols and flavonoids in the samples. Methods: Extracts were prepared with water, ethanol and dichloromethane from Cladonia aff. rappii, Cora aff. glabrata, Peltigera laciniata and Thamnolia vermicularis. The antioxidant capacity assessment was determined using DPPH• radical method and reducing power, with ascorbic acid as control. Total phenols were determined by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu method with gallic acid. Total flavonoids were estimated according to the modified Dowd method, using quercetin as standard. Results:The ethanolic extracts of the tested lichens showed the highest scavenging activity and reducing power compared to water and dichloromethane extracts at 4 mg/mL. The highest antiradical power value was found in ethanolic extract of Peltigera laciniata (2.28 mL/mgand the lowest in dichloromethane extract of Cora aff. glabrata (0.30 mL/mg. The correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content was moderate. The flavonoids content of ethanolic extracts was highly significant but negative (p < 0.05. There was good correlation in dichloromethane extracts. The ethanolic extract of P. laciniata exhibited the highest antiradical activity despite showing the lowest flavonoid content. Conclusions: The ethanolic extracts of lichens tested showed to have the higher antioxidant activity and may be used as natural sources of new antioxidants.

  12. Estimation of light use efficiency for the prediction of forest productivity from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddi, Sabrina; Magnani, Federico; Pippi, Ivan

    2002-06-01

    The gross primary productivity of natural ecosystems (GPP) can be expressed as the product of the amount of radiation absorbed by the green canopy (APAR) by the radiation use efficiency (). The fraction of incoming radiation that is intercepted by the canopy can be readily determined from remotely sensed data by means of spectral indexes such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; Waring &Running 1998; Raddi, Magnani &Pippi 1998). Light use efficiency, however, is also known to be highly variable among species and as a result of environmental conditions. A proper determination of ɛ is therefore a key precondition for the realistic assessment of ecosystem productivity. Several different approaches have been proposed over the years to estimate light use efficiency. Because of the relationship between protein content and leaf photosynthetic potential, the remote sensing of foliar nitrogen content has been applied to estimate maximum assimilation rates, as an input for ecosystem models. Chlorophyll content, which can be more easily determined in the visible range, is also often used as a proxy for nitrogen concentration. This approach takes into account only the effects of soil fertility on ɛ. In contrast, the effects on ɛ of microclimatic factors can be estimated from complex forest ecosystem models, driven by records of local environmental conditions and species-specific parameters.In order to estimate regional productivity from RS data, models can be run for each pixel of interest, or they can be applied over a limited number of representative areas to obtain a robust empirical relationship between ɛ and key environmental variables. Finally, foliar photosynthesis can be directly estimated from leaf reflectance in the blue-green region, through indexes such as the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI; Gamon, Penuelas &Field 1992). The index has a clear functional basis, because of the well-known correlation between nonphotochemical quenching of absorbed

  13. Caracterização florística, fitossociológica e regeneração natural do sub-bosque da reserva genética florestal Tamanduá, DF.

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    José Alves da Silva

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, desenvolvido na Reserva Genética Florestal Tamanduá, DF, teve como objetivo efetuar o levantamento fitossociológico, composição florística e distribuição espacial dos indivíduos das espécies arbóreas ocorrentes no sub-bosque da Reserva, focalizando Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi O. Kuntze, Apuleia leiocarpa (Vogel J. F.Macbr., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan, Virola sebifera Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril var. stilbocarpa (Hayne Lee & Lang., Aspidosperma discolor A. St. Hil., Astronium fraxinifolium Schott e Schefflera morototoni B. Maguire, Stey. & Frodin, consideradas prioritárias para conservação in situ. Foram utilizados cinco transectos com 10 m de largura cada, alocados eqüidistantes e de comprimento variável, demarcados perpendicularmente ao curso da drenagem principal. Foram encontrados 21.482 regenerantes ha-1 em 69 espécies vegetais, 53 gêneros e 39 famílias botânicas. Em número de espécies, as famílias que mais se destacaram entre os regenerantes foram, em ordem decrescente, Leguminosae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae e Meliaceae. Entre os jovens, as famílias com maiores valor de importância (VI foram pela ordem Meliaceae (32,78 %, Rubiceae (13,92 %, Burseraceae (13,76 %, Rutaceae (8,54 % e Hippocrateaceae (6,36, totalizando 75,36 % de valor de importância e 78,56 % de valor de cobertura. Todas as espécies objeto deste trabalho ocorreram entre os regenerantes, destacando-se Cariniana estrellensis, porém, apenas Copaifera lagsdorffii e Virola sebifera ocorreram entre os indivíduos jovens. O quociente de mistura de 1:3 indicou tratar-se de uma mata rica em espécies, comparativamente a outros tipos florestais. A distribuição espacial dos regenerantes das espécies em questão mostrou padrões diferenciados.

  14. Estrutura da vegetação herbácea em paisagens ciliares no sul de Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Aline Votri Guislon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As características estruturais e ecológicas da vegetação herbácea fazem com que ela seja sensível às alterações do ambiente, atuando como indicador da qualidade ambiental. No entanto, o estudo dessa comunidade ainda é incipiente em regiões neotropicais. Este estudo descreve a florística e os aspectos fitossociológicos da vegetação herbácea terrícola na mata ciliar de sete rios, no município de Urussanga, sul do estado de Santa Catarina, além de analisar e quantificar o status do conhecimento científico relacionado às herbáceas terrícolas no Brasil. Foram levantadas 320 unidades amostrais de 4 m², nas quais todos os indivíduos foram identificados e dados relacionados aos parâmetros fitossociológicos foram coletados. A amostragem resultou em 58 táxons, 38 pertencentes às angiospermas e 20 às samambaias, distribuídos em 25 famílias botânicas. Poaceae apresentou maior riqueza, com 11 espécies. Estruturalmente, destacaram-se Goeppertia monophylla (Vell. Borchs. e S. Suárez, Blechnum brasiliense Desv. e Heliconia farinosa Raddi. A forma de vida mais frequente foi a hemicriptófita reptante. Os resultados revelam uma elevada riqueza de herbáceas terrícolas adaptadas às condições climáticas das matas ciliares, contribuindo para a diversidade da flora regional. Quanto à produção científica, foram encontrados 50 trabalhos indexados nas bases de dados eletrônicas (1990 a 2015, com destaque ao ano de 2011, que teve maior produção científica enfocando as herbáceas terrícolas. Embora com baixo número, a quantidade de indexações tende a crescer, em virtude do avanço da tecnologia de acesso às bases de dados e pela crescente adesão de periódicos em portais de busca.

  15. Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo: II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande

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    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1952-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3. The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3. It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf, capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth, capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd. and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes, capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash, seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes.

  16. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    pepper tree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), ti plant, Cordyline terminate (L.) Chev.(Liliales: Liliaceae), guava and several Citrus spp. were identified as preferred roosting hosts for oriental fruit fly. Guava had not previously been identified as a preferred roosting host for melon fly. Other than for the use of panax as a roosting host, there has previously been little attention to roosting hosts for oriental fruit fly. Establishment of preferred roosting hosts as crop borders may help to improve suppression of both fruit fly species by providing sites for bait spray applications. Further research is needed to assess the use of vegetation bordering other host crops as roosting hosts, especially for oriental fruit fly.

  17. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  18. Plantas lenhosas da Floresta Ombrófila Mista do Parque Municipal das Araucárias – Guarapuava (PR / Woody plants of the Mixed Ombrophylous Forest the Araucaria Municipal Park - Guarapuava (PR

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    Juliano Cordeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento florístico das espécies lenhosas da uma área de 41 ha de Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM do Parque Municipal das Araucárias, localizado em Guarapuava (PR com coordenadas geográficas 25º 20’ 44” e 25º 21’ 35” de latitude Sul e 51º 27’ 31” e 51º 28’ 16” de longitude Oeste. O patamar altimétrico do Parque fica em torno dos 1070 m.s.n.m., o predomínio é relevo suave ondulado e solo do tipo Latossolo Bruno Ácrico Húmico. O levantamento foi realizado de mar/04 a out/08 com média de uma visita a cada vinte dias. Foram identificadas 107 espécies, pertencentes a 77 gêneros e 41 famílias botânicas, distribuídos nas formas biológicas de microfanerófitos (n=44, mesofanerófitos (n=39, nanofanerófitos (n=15, lianas (n=8 e megafanerófito (n=1. As famílias que apresentaram maior diversidade foram: Solanaceae com 12 espécies, Myrtaceae com nove, Fabaceae com oito, Bignoniaceae com seis, Asteraceae com cinco. Estas famílias agruparam 37,4% das espécies, enquanto que as outras 38 famílias responderam por 62,6% da diversidade. Aproximadamente 60,5% das famílias são representadas por apenas uma espécie cada. Considerando o critério a frequência Allophylus edulis (A. St.-Hil., A. Juss & Cambess. Hieron. ex Niederl., Casearia decandra Jacq., Cedrela fissilis Vell., Cinnamodendron dinisii Schwacke, Jacaranda puberula Cham., Matayba elaeagnoides Radlk., Ocotea porosa (Nees & Mart. Barroso, Ocotea puberula (Rich. Nees, Ocotea pulchella (Nees Mez, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Vernonanthura discolor (Spreng. H. Rob. e Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. podem ser consideradas espécies companheiras da Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze na florística da FOM. Os dados quanto ao total de espécies da FOM ainda são incompletos. Faz-se necessário que levantamentos sejam direcionados aos escassos remanescentes que restam e que o critério amostral estenda-se sobre todas as formas biol

  19. Multi-element Composition of Terricolous Lichens in the Northwest European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Vasyukova, E. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zamber, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Lichens (fungi living with an alga or cyanobacterium) absorb substances, including trace elements through dry and wet deposition, often to very high concentrations, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous lichens (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) collected in 2004-2006 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia and Arkhangelsk Region of NW Russia. 31 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher, in order to exclude any contamination of trace metals. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack). Major element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and trace element concentrations by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. For instance, these elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens and EF by these elements were registered in Lovozersky Tundry (Kola Peninsula) and in Paanayarvi area (NW Karelia). Lichens here are polluted by Monchegorsk and Nickel Cu-Ni smelters. In the vicinity of Kostomukshsky Ore-dressing Mill lichens

  20. Aspects of the ecology of mat-forming lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Crittenden

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Lichen species in the genera Cladonia (subgenus Cladina, Cetraria, Stereocaulon and Alectoria are important vegetation components on well-drained terrain and on elevated micro-sites in peatlands in boreal-Arctic regions. These lichens often form closed mats, the component thalli in which grow vertically upwards at the apices and die off in the older basal regions; they are therefore only loosely attached to the underlying soil. This growth habit is relatively unusual in lichens being found in <0.5% of known species. It might facilitate internal nutrienr recycling and higher growth rates and, together with the production of allelochemicals, it might underlie the considerable ecological success of mat-forming lichens; experiments to critically assess the importance of these processes are required. Mat-forming lichens can constitute in excess of 60% of the winter food intake of caribou and reindeer. Accordingly there is a pressing need for data on lichen growth rates, measured as mass increment, in order to help determine the carrying capacity of winter ranges for rhese herbivores and to better predict recovery rates following grazing. Trampling during the snow-free season fragments lichen thalli; mat-forming lichens regenerate very successfully from thallus fragments provided trampling does nor re-occur. Frequent recurrence of trampling creates disturbed habitats from which lichens will rapidly become eliminated consistent with J.P. Grime's CSR strategy theory. Such damage to lichen ground cover has occurred where reindeer or caribou are unable to migrate away from their winter range such as on small islands or where political boundaries have been fenced; it can also occur on summer range that contains a significant lichen component and on winter range where numbers of migrarory animals become excessive. Species of Stereocaulon, and other genera that contain cyanobacteria (most notably Peltigera and Nephroma, are among the principal agents of

  1. Impacts of introduced Rangifer on ecosystem processes of maritime tundra on subarctic islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark; Miles, A. Keith; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Eviner, Valerie T.

    2016-01-01

    Introductions of mammalian herbivores to remote islands without predators provide a natural experiment to ask how temporal and spatial variation in herbivory intensity alter feedbacks between plant and soil processes. We investigated ecosystem effects resulting from introductions of Rangifer tarandus (hereafter “Rangifer”) to native mammalian predator- and herbivore-free islands in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. We hypothesized that the maritime tundra of these islands would experience either: (1) accelerated ecosystem processes mediated by positive feedbacks between increased graminoid production and rapid nitrogen cycling; or (2) decelerated processes mediated by herbivory that stimulated shrub domination and lowered soil fertility. We measured summer plant and soil properties across three islands representing a chronosequence of elapsed time post-Rangifer introduction (Atka: ~100 yr; Adak: ~50; Kagalaska: ~0), with distinct stages of irruptive population dynamics of Rangifer nested within each island (Atka: irruption, K-overshoot, decline, K-re-equilibration; Adak: irruption, K-overshoot; Kagalaska: initial introduction). We also measured Rangifer spatial use within islands (indexed by pellet group counts) to determine how ecosystem processes responded to spatial variation in herbivory. Vegetation community response to herbivory varied with temporal and spatial scale. When comparing temporal effects using the island chronosequence, increased time since herbivore introduction led to more graminoids and fewer dwarf-shrubs, lichens, and mosses. Slow-growingCladonia lichens that are highly preferred winter forage were decimated on both long-termRangifer-occupied islands. In addition, linear relations between more concentrated Rangifer spatial use and reductions in graminoid and forb biomass within islands added spatial heterogeneity to long-term patterns identified by the chronosequence. These results support, in part, the hypothesis that

  2. Discrimination of lichen genera and species using element concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of organic chemistry in the classification of lichens is well established, but inorganic chemistry has been largely overlooked. Six lichen species were studied over a period of 23 years that were growing in 11 protected areas of the northern Great Lakes ecoregion, which were not greatly influenced by anthropogenic particulates or gaseous air pollutants. The elemental data from these studies were aggregated in order to test the hypothesis that differences among species in tissue element concentrations were large enough to discriminate between taxa faithfully. Concentrations of 16 chemical elements that were found in tissue samples from Cladonia rangiferina, Evernia mesomorpha, Flavopunctelia flaventior, Hypogymnia physodes, Parmelia sulcata, and Punctelia rudecta were analyzed statistically using multivariate discriminant functions and CART analyses, as well as t-tests. Genera and species were clearly separated in element space, and elemental discriminant functions were able to classify 91-100 of the samples correctly into species. At the broadest level, a Zn concentration of 51 ppm in tissues of four of the lichen species effectively discriminated foliose from fruticose species. Similarly, a S concentration of 680 ppm discriminated C. rangiferina and E. mesomorpha, and a Ca concentration of 10 436 ppm discriminated H. physodes from P. sulcata. For the three parmelioid species, a Ca concentration >32 837 ppm discriminated Punctelia rudecta from the other two species, while a Zn concentration of 56 ppm discriminated Parmelia sulcata from F. flaventior. Foliose species also had higher concentrations than did fruticose species of all elements except Na. Elemental signatures for each of the six species were developed using standardized means. Twenty-four mechanisms explaining the differences among species are summarized. Finally, the relationships of four species based on element concentrations, using additive-trees clustering of a Euclidean

  3. Quantitative Classification of Epiphytic Lichen Communities in Tumur Peak National Natural Reserve%新疆托木尔峰国家级自然保护区树附生地衣群落数量分类1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾尼瓦尔·吐米尔; 阿不都拉·阿巴斯

    2015-01-01

    在托木尔峰国家级自然保护区(海拔2200~3000 m)设置25个20 m×20 m的样地,调查样地内树附生地衣种类、地衣盖度和生境指标。以地衣种盖度为指标,应用除趋势对应分析法( DCA)和双向指示种分析法( TWINSPAN)对树附生地衣群落进行数量分类。根据数量分类结果并综合生境特征,将保护区树附生地衣划分为4个群落类型。群落A:茎口果粉衣( Chaenotheca stemonea ( Ach.) Muell)+黑蜈蚣衣( Phaeophyscia nigricans ( Flk.) Moberg)+枪石蕊群落(Cladonia coniocraea (Floerke) Spreng.);群落B:黄烛衣(Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein.)+粉粒树花( Ramalina pollinaria ( Westr.) Ach).+中国树花( R.sinensis Jatta.);群落C:柯贝尔副茶渍( Lecania koerberi-ana Lahm.)+金黄茶渍( Candelariella aurella ( Hoffm.) Zahlbr.)+粗糙猫耳衣( Lepot gium brebisonii Mont.apud Webb.);群落D:斑面蜈蚣衣( Physcia aiop lia ( Humb.) Furnr.)+类锈橙衣( Caloplaca ferrugineoides ( H.Magn))+污白雪花衣( Anophychia ulto hir coied s ( Vain.) Vain.)。群落B和群落C的相似性最高,相似性系数为0.918;群落C和群落D的相似性系数为0.649;群落A与群落D相似性系数最低,相似性系数为0.264。树附生地衣的分布与海拔的关系较密切,高海拔和低海拔地带树附生地衣群落物种组成具有显著性差异。%We set 25 quadrats of 20 m×20 m at different altitudes along an altitudinal gradient of 2 200-3 000 m in Tumur Peak National Natural Reserve in Xinjiang .We identified lichen species in each quadrat and measured the lichen coverage of the quadrat combined with several environmental indices .We used the detrended correspondence analysis ( DCA) and two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN)methods to classify the epiphytic lichens communities

  4. 异源植物提取物对稻蚜的作用研究%Effect of crude of different origin extracts from plants on rice aphid Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朗; 陈恩海; 黄立飞; 覃伟权; 方月兰

    2007-01-01

    Plant extracts including secondary compounds have become more and more popular at present. In the experiment, the repellent, tempted and lethal effect and toxicity of the plant extracts on Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius) were studied in laboratory. The results showed that the repellent effects of Annona squamosa L., Cocos nucifer L. and Eupatorium odoratum L. on the settlement and feeding of rice aphid were high in 24 hours after treatment and the repellent index of the three plant extracts was under 0.5. The repellent index of Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen, Psidium littorale Raddi, Mikania Micrantha H.B, Mangifera indica L., Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels and Didhrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schlcht.in L. was above 1.0, which illuminated these plant extracts with tempting function on rice aphid. Moreover, the lethal effects of most of plant extracts on rice aphid were weak and only the survival index of Passiflora caerulea L. and Piper betle L. was lower than 0.5 after 24 hours, and just that of Piper betle L. was lower than 0.5 after 48 hours. With the prolongation of time, the survival index rice aphid decreased and the lethal effects of plant extracts was weakened.%植物异源次生物质在害虫生态控制中具有广阔的应用前景.本研究测定了19种异源植物提取物对稻蚜的忌避、引诱作用和致死作用,结果表明:处理24h 后,番荔枝Annona squamosa L.、椰子Cocos nucifer L.、飞机草Eupatorium odoratum L.等植物的提取物对稻蚜定居取食的干扰效果较好,忌避作用指数在0.5以下;人心果Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen、番石榴Psidium littorale Raddi、微苷菊Mikania Micrantha H.B、芒果Mangifera indica L.、黄皮Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels、鱼眼菊Didhrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schlcht.in L.等的忌避作用指数大于1,说明它们对稻蚜不再表现为忌避作用,而是引诱作用.绝大部分植物提取物对稻蚜的致死作用不强,处理后24h,仅西番莲Passiflora caerulea L

  5. Lichens as biomonitor of atmospheric aerosol composition in the Northwest European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir P.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Zamber, Natalia S.; Konov, Konstantin G.; Starodymova, Dina P.

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that aerosols are of importance for atmospheric chemistry and climate of the Arctic. At the coasts of Arctic seas and in their catchment areas delivery of chemical elements and compounds are registered in natural archives, for example in lichens. Lichens absorb substances, including trace elements, through dry and wet deposition, and have been widely used as biomonitors. We studied multi-element composition of terricolous (mostly of genera Cladonia and Cetraria) and fruticose epiphytic (mostly of genera Alectoria, Usnea and Bryoria) lichens collected in 2004-2009 in Kola Peninsula, Karelia, Arkhangelsk Region and Komi Republic of NW Russia, mostly in the frame of International Polar Year activity. About 110 samples were analyzed. The unwashed lichen samples were air dried and homogenised to a fine powder in an agate crusher. Samples were treated in a four-step chemical digestion procedure (full dissolution via acid attack) and element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parts of dry samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). An enrichment factor (EF) was calculated for each element (X) relative to the composition of earth's crust: EF = ((X/Al) in lichen) / ((X/Al) in the earth's crust). Al was used as a crustal indicator. In most samples contents of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U are at the background level and their EFs are less than 10. These low EF values indicated that, relative to average values for crustal rocks, there was no enrichment of these elements in the lichen concerned. For some elements (Se, Cd, Zn, Sb, Pb, As, Ni, Cu) consistently higher EF values were obtained. These higher values were interpreted in terms of sources of both anthropogenic and natural sources other than crustal rock and (or) soil. These elements could be derived by long-range atmospheric transport. Highest concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb in lichens

  6. Environmental monitoring program for the Ormen Lange Onshore Processing Plant and the Reserve Power Plant at Nyhamna, Gossa. Monitoring of vegetation and soil: re-analyses and establishment of new monitoring plots in 2010.; Miljoeovervaakingsprogram for Ormen Lange landanlegg og Reservegasskraftverk paa Nyhamna, Gossa. Overvaaking av vegetasjon og jord: gjenanalyser og nyetablering av overvaakingsfelter i 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarrestad, P.A.; Bakkestuen, V.; Stabbetorp, O.E.; Myklebost, Heidi

    2011-07-01

    conducted for three distinct habitats: wet oligotrophic heathland, and hummocks and lawns on raised bogs. The site in hummocks was established in 2010, whereas the other sites were re-analyzed with the same methods as in 2008. The parameters are monitored within delimited plots. The vegetation is monitored in permanently marked plots (0.5m x 0.5m), ten for each vegetation type at each site, in total 60 plots. In each plot the abundance of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are recorded, as well as the cover of the vegetation layers. Plant growth is measured in each site for 20 individuals of Betula nana, Calluna vulgaris, and Sphagnum capillifolium. Five samples of each of Racomitrium lanuginosum, Sphagnum capillifolium and Cladonia arbuscula from each site are collected and analyzed for plant nutrient content and the heavy metals copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Ten soil samples are collected from each habitat at each site and analyzed for ph, Kjeldahl nitrogen, exchangeable elements, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation, a total of 30 samples from each site. The heavy metals Cu, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Zn are measured in samples of peat mud, 10 samples from each site. Peat water is analyzed for chemical nutrients and heavy metals, 10 samples from each site. The chemical analyses are conducted at the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute and NILU. There is still no indication that any pollution has affected the species composition of the vegetation. The vegetation is stable at both sites, both in wet heathland and in lawns on raised bogs. A few species occurring at low frequency in 2008 were not recorded in 2010, and some previously unrecorded species were found. This is normal for re-analyses of vegetation. There were significant differences in plant growth for Betula nana and Calluna vulgaris between the two sites, with highest growth rate at Aukra. This is most likely due to better climatic. (Author)

  7. Development and hydrology of biological soil crusts -- first results from a surface inoculation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhailova, Larysa; Raab, Thomas; Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Representing a set of various micro-biocoenoses, biocrusts often reside in adjacent patches, which not necessarily relate to structural elements of the habitat, like (micro-) topography or vegetational patterns. Such biocrust patches may become more stable through the formation of mutually dependent ecohydrological regimes. For example, algal patches inhibiting infiltration and generating runoff alternate with runoff-receiving moss patches possessing high water holding capacities. Here, we preliminarily report on a lysimeter field experiment where natural biocrust isolates were used for surface inoculation to (I) prove stochastic vs. deterministic biocrust development and (II) to quantitatively relate biocrust development to soil hydrology. Lysimeter sand was collected from 3-4 m below surface at natural dune outcrops in south-eastern Brandenburg, Germany (Glashütte (GLA) and Neuer Lugteich (LUG)), where biocrust samples were collected at the respective dune bases. The lysimeters were designed to prevent runoff. In a completely randomized full-factorial design, three factors were considered. (A) Inocolum in three treatments (bare control, mosses, algae), (B) mineral substrate texture in two treatments (GLA: 55% and LUG: 79% particles >630 μm), and (C) surface compaction in two treatments (control, 41.5 kN m-2 for 30 seconds). The samples were kept dry and re-moistened to -60 hPa two days before inoculation. After a species inventory, the inoculate was isolated by gently washing off sand particles from the biocrust samples. Algal/lichen crusts were dominated by Zygogonium ericetorum and Cladonia sp. at both sites. All moss crusts were dominated by Polytrichum piliferum and Ceratodon purpureus, whereas Brachythecium albicans was present at GLA only. 20 g of homogenized moist inoculate were spread over the surface of each lysimeter (Ø 19 cm, 22 cm depth). We performed autochthonous inoculation, i.e. biocrust isolates collected from GLA were used for inoculation of

  8. Cesium-137 as a tracer of soil turbation: example of the taiga landscapes of the Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usacheva, Anna A.; Semenkov, Ivan N. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences, 119017, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    (130 - 150 Bq*km{sup -1}) to sedge-sphagnum and shrub-polytric (75 - 95 Bq*km{sup -1}) and lichens - Cladonia sp. and Cetraria sp. (50 Bq*km{sup -1}). Accumulation of {sup 137}Cs in topsoil is typical for the studied soil cross-over. But this feature is broken due to organic matter movement to subsoil by cryoturbations and windfalls in case this organic matter was contaminated by cesium-137. Cesium-137 activity does not exceed 3.5 Bq*kg{sup -1} in soil turbations. It is found only in soil turbations, which rich in organic matter. The identified activity levels correspond to the theoretical values that are observed in the buried organic material. Cesium-137 detection is possible in turbation formed after the middle of the XX century. It allows identification of current soil turbation. (authors)

  9. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities can strongly affect ecosystem properties by destruction of naturally developed soils and removal of vegetation. The unstructured substrates show high bulk densities, compaction, low water infiltration rates, reduced water holding capacities and higher susceptibility to wind and water erosion. In the initial stage of the ecosystem development, the post-mining sites are open areas without or with a low cover of higher vegetation. It is well-known that biocrusts are able to colonize the soil surface under such extreme conditions without human support and affect soil hydrological processes such as water infiltration, run-off or re-distribution. Investigations were conducted on two former lignite open-cast mining sites, an artificial sand dune on the reclaimed watershed Welzow "Neuer Lugteich" and a reforestation area in Schlabendorf (Brandenburg, north-east Germany). The aim was to relate the hydrological characteristics of the topsoil to successional stages of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils and their influence on repellency index and water holding capacity compared to pure mining substrate. Our study emphasized the influence of changing successional stages and species composition of biological soil crusts, forming a small-scale crust pattern, on water repellency and retention on sandy soils in temperate climate. Different successional stages of soil crusts were identified from initial scattered green algae crusts, dominated by Zygogonium spec. and Ulothrix spec., and more developed soil crusts containing mosses such as Ceratodon purpureus and Polytrichum piliferum. Lichens of the Genus Cladonia were more pronouncedly contributed to biocrusts at later and mature stages of development. The repellency index on the one hand increased due to the cross-linking of sand particles by the filamentous green algae Zygogonium spec. which resulted in clogging of pores, and on the other hand decreased with the occurrence of moss plants due to absorption

  10. Biodiversity impact of the aeolian periglacial geomorphologic evolution of the Fontainebleau Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, M.; Liron, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    species among them 1350 flowering plants, some 460 mosses, about 500 algae, 675 lichens, 2.700 fungus, plus the insects, the birds, the mammals and batrachians (Testut et al., 1998). This exceptional biodiversity has been recognized in 1998 by the creation of a reserve of "Man and Biosphere" under the aegis of UNESCO. The "platières" landscapes are of special interest for biodiversity. The acidic soils on the sandstone "platières" are mainly covered by Atlantic moors. The dry moors with Calluna vulgaris and Erica cinerea relate to the Ulici-Ericion cinereae and the wet peaty moors are linked to the Ulici-Ericion tetralicis (Habitats 31.11 and 31.2 of the Corine Biotope Code). These dry and peaty moors interweave in a complex patchwork depending on the local, even metric scale, topography and soil moisture. The main interest in the flora of the "platières" lies in the vegetation of the network of pools, which develop in the sandstone depressions (Liron & Thiry, 2005). These wet zones include seven Natural Habitats of Community interest and nearly twenty protected plants species. The temporary ponds (Habitat 22.31 of the Corine Biotope Code), with an irregular hydraulic regime, favor a suite of annual plants, outstanding "intermittent" species, such as the endemic Franco-Iberian Ranunculus nodiflorus. In the acidic and oligotrophic waters of the permanent pools develop Utricularia australis along with Potamogeton polygonifolius. The peaty zones are valuable for their bryophyte biodiversity. For example thirteen species of Sphagnum (30 % of the European flora) have been recorded including Sphagnum magellanicum which is a rare species in the lowlands. There is also a wealth of bryophytes and lichens on the strata, with for instance fifty species of the lichen genus Cladonia. This species richness is strengthened by the limited area of the "platières" which represent only 15-20% of the whole massif. Main biodiversity interest is related to the almost bare "platières" of