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Sample records for cladocoleae micrantha kuijt

  1. [Impact of Mikania micrantha invasion on soil meso- and micro-invertebrate community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Guo-ming; Zhang, Jia-en; Xie, Jun-fang; Mao, Dan-juan; Xu, Hua-qin; Jiang, Wan-bing; Wen, Du-juan

    2011-07-01

    Mikania micrantha, a notorious exotic weed of Asteraceae family, has invaded successfully in southern China, and caused serious damages to native ecosystems. In this paper, a field survey was conducted in the Huolushan Forest Park of Guangzhou, China, aimed to understand the impact of M. micrantha invasion on the soil meso- and micro-invertebrate community. Three sampling sites were installed, including M. micrantha-invaded site, ecotone, and native vegetation site. Through four samplings in 2009, a total of 5206 soil meso- and micro-invertebrate individuals were collected, belonging to 4 phyla, 10 classes, and 19 orders, among which, Nematoda was the dominant group, and Acarina, Collembolan, and Rotifera were the common groups. M. micrantha invasion altered the characteristics of soil meso- and micro-invertebrate community structure. Compared with those at the other two sampling sites, the numbers of total individuals, Nematoda, and Acarina at M. micrantha-invaded site increased significantly, but the groups of soil meso- and micro-invertebrates had less change. At M. micrantha-invaded site, the density-group index (DG) of soil meso- and micro-invertebrates was significantly higher, Margalef richness index (D) and Simpson dominance index (C) tended to ascend, but Pielou evenness index (E) and Shannon index (H') tended to descend. The similarity coefficient of soil meso- and micro-invertebrate community between M. micrantha-invaded site and ecotone was higher than that between M. micrantha-invaded site and native vegetation site. The changes of local climate conditions, plant litters, root secretions, and soil physical-chemical properties caused by M. micrantha invasion could be the major contributing factors that altered the community structure of soil meso- and micro-invertebrates at M. micrantha-invaded site. PMID:22007466

  2. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

    2004-01-01

    Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstácul...

  3. [Control effects of Mikania micrantha alcohol extract on citrus red mite Panonychus citri].

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    Cen, Yijing; Pang, Xiongfei; Xu, Changbao; Deng, Qiaosheng

    2005-04-01

    This study showed that spraying 0.2 and 0.4 g x L(-1) Mikania micrantha alcohol extracts on Panonychus citri could significantly decrease the survival rates of P. citri eggs, larvae and nymphs, and 0.1 g x L(-1) M. micrantha alcohol extract could also significantly decrease the survival rates of larvae and nymphs. In a no-choice test, both the fecundity and the longevity of female P. citri fed on the leaves treated with all three test concentrations 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 g x L(-1) of M. micrantha alcohol extracts were significantly reduced, compared with those fed on alcohol-treated leaves. In a field experiment, the efficacy of M. micrantha alcohol extracts at three test concentrations was compared with water, alcohol, and 15% Pyridaben, an acaricide widely used in commercial control of red mite in sweet orange orchards. The survival rates of P. citri eggs, larvae and nymphs in all three M. micrantha treatments were lower than the control, and the interference index of population control (IIPC) was 0.518, 0.292 and 0.277, respectively, while the IIPC for the Pyridaben treatment was 0.945, with a control efficacy of only 5.52%. M. micrantha extract had an increased control effect with its increasing concentration, and was safer to natural enemies than 15% Pyridaben. The leaves in the three M. micrantha treatments were less damaged, and their color was much deeper than that of the other three treatments. Therefore, M. micrantha alcohol extract provided a better control of citrus red mite populations than Pyridaben. PMID:16011182

  4. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle

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    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and

  5. Intoxicação natural por Trema micrantha em caprinos Spontaneosu poisoning by Trema micrantha in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; Edson Moleta Colodel; Alexandre Paulino Loretti; André Mendes Correia; David Driemeier

    2003-01-01

    Dois caprinos confinados, que recebiam ração e pasto no cocho, morreram uma semana após serem alimentados com arbustos de plantas de diferentes espécies, entre os quais encontrava-se Trema micrantha. Apenas um animal foi necropsiado. Achados macroscópicos incluíram palidez generalizada da carcaça, hemorragias subcutâneas na região do esterno e escápula, fígado amarelado, friável e com lobulação evidente. Na superfície de corte, o fígado apresentou áreas vermelhas deprimidas entremeadas por ár...

  6. Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of Mikania micrantha H. B. K.

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    Yan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To isolate plant-derived compounds with antimicrobial activity from the leaves of Mikania micrantha, to determine the compounds configuration, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against eight plant pathogenic fungi (Exserohilum turcicum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Pseudoperonispora cubensis, Botrytis cirerea, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica, Fusarium solani, and Pythium aphanidermatum, and four plant pathogenic bacteria (gram negative bacteria: Ralstonia dolaanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae, Xanthomonas Campestris pv. Vesicatoria, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. Citri, and four bacteria (gram positive bacteria: Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Bacillus cereus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of M. micrantha were isolated using bioactivity- guided fractionation. The antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated by the inhibit hypha growth method and inhibit spore germination method. Characterization of antibacterial activity was carried out using the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. MIC and MBC were determined by the broth microdilution method. Six compounds - deoxymikanolide, scandenolide, dihydroscandenolide, mikanolide, dihydromikanolide, and m - methoxy benzoic acid - have been isolated from leaves of Mikania micrantha H. B. K. Deoxymikanolide, scandenolide, and dihydroscandenolide were new compounds. The result of bioassay showed that all of isolated compounds were effective against tested strains and deoxymikanolide showed the strongest activity. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The leaves of M. micrantha may be a promising source in the search for new antimicrobial drugs due to its efficacy and the broadest range. Meanwhile, adverse impact of M. micrantha will be eliminated.

  7. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  8. EVALUATION AND APPLICATION OF THE INVASIVE WEED MIKANIA MICRANTHA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REINFORCEMENT IN RECYCLED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

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    Yong-Long Chen,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mikania micrantha particle (MP and fiber (MF were added to recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE for producing natural fiber (or particle reinforced plastic composites (NFRPC by the flat-platen pressing process. The results showed that the flexural strength and stiffness of NFRPC were significantly improved through incorporating M. micrantha particle and fiber. Higher aspect ratio of reinforcement displayed stronger mechanical properties. The vertical density profile in composites significantly influenced the mechanical properties of NFRPC. A conventional V-shaped profile and a uniform vertical density profile (homo-profile were observed in MP and MF based NFRPC, respectively. Additionally, with increasing lignocellulose content, a more uniform vertical density profile and higher wood screw holding strength were observed. These results indicate M. micrantha particle and fiber are excellent reinforcements for NFRPC applications.

  9. Allelopathic potential of Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha on Brassica chinensis var. parachinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nornasuha; Ismail B., S.

    2015-09-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the allelopathic potential of the aqueous leaf extract and leaf debris (incorporated into the soil) of Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha on the germination indices and growth as well as the allelopathic effect response index of Brassica chinensis. Three concentrations each of the aqueous leaf extract (12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 g/L) and leaf debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) were used in the experiments. The treatments were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications, and the experiment was conducted twice. The aqueous leaf extracts of both species significantly inhibited all growth parameters of B. chinensis at 50.0 g/L concentration by more than 50% (compared to that by the control). In contrast, the leaf debris of both species at most of the concentrations showed significant stimulatory effects on all growth parameters of B. chinensis. However, M. micrantha leaf debris showed no significant effect on the fresh weight of B. chinensis at all concentrations. The total germination percentage of B. chinensis was significantly decreased as concentration of the aqueous leaf extracts of both species increased. The aqueous leaf extract of both species at concentrations higher than 25.0 g/L, significantly reduced the initial speed of germination as well as the cumulative speed of germination of B. chinensis. The allelopathic effect response index was negative for both species, indicating that the extracts of both species have inhibitory effects on the germination and seedling growth of B. chinensis. Results from the study suggested that the leaves of C. odorata and M. micrantha have phytotoxic properties and have potential for use directly or indirectly on susceptible weeds, and thereby reducing the use of chemical pesticides.

  10. Characterization of n-Hexane sub-fraction of Bridelia micrantha (Berth and its antimycobacterium activity

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    Samie Amidou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, is the most notified disease in the world. Development of resistance to first line drugs by MTB is a public health concern. As a result, there is the search for new and novel sources of antimycobacterial drugs for example from medicinal plants. In this study we determined the in vitro antimycobacterial activity of n-Hexane sub-fraction from Bridelia micrantha (Berth against MTB H37Ra and a clinical isolate resistant to all five first-line antituberculosis drugs. Methods The antimycobacterial activity of the n-Hexane sub-fraction of ethyl acetate fractions from acetone extracts of B. micrantha barks was evaluated using the resazurin microplate assay against two MTB isolates. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction was performed using 100% n-Hexane and Chloroform/Methanol (99:1 as solvents in order of increasing polarity by column chromatography and Resazurin microtiter plate assay for susceptibility tests. Results The n-Hexane fraction showed 20% inhibition of MTB H37Ra and almost 35% inhibition of an MTB isolate resistant to all first-line drugs at 10 μg/mL. GC/MS analysis of the fraction resulted in the identification of twenty-four constituents representing 60.5% of the fraction. Some of the 24 compounds detected included Benzene, 1.3-bis (3-phenoxyphenoxy (13.51%, 2-pinen-4-one (10.03%, N(b-benzyl-14-(carboxymethyl (6.35% and the least detected compound was linalool (0.2%. Conclusions The results show that the n-Hexane fraction of B. micrantha has antimycobacterial activity.

  11. THE POTENTILLO MICRANTHAE-QUERCETUM DALECHAMPII ASSOCIATION IN THE LOWER BASIN OF THE MOTRU RIVER - ROMANIA

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    COSTACHE IULIAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available From the geographical point of view, the Lower Basin of the Motru River lies in the western part of the Getic Piedmont, with the coordinates: 44055' north latitude and 23045' east longitude. The studied area covers 691 Km2. The physical-geographical position and the pedo-climatic particularities specific to the territory under research confer the vegetation a mosaic nature with a particular specificity, determined by the quite strong Balkan and sub-Mediterranean influences. With the territory under research located just on the line between the nemoral area (of the oak forests and the floor of the hilly common oak (up to the sub-Carpathian Hills, we cannot talk about the presence of the acidophilus common oak forests, which is characteristic to the sub-Carpathian region. In this transition area, between the altitudes (200 250 and 380 (402 m, we have identified mixed common oak forests, associated with Hungarian oak and Turkey oak, belonging to the association Potentillo micranthae-Quercetum dalechampii A.O.Horvát 1981 (Syn.: Potentillo micranthae-Quercetum (petraeae resp. dalechampii-cerris A.O.Horvát (1956 1959. The affiliation of these phytocoenoses to the above mentioned association is done according to its transition association nature, between the silvosteppe forests and the mesophyle, acidophilus forests in the sub-Carpathian area of Oltenia.

  12. The History and Status of the Study on Mikania micrantha%薇甘菊研究历史与现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸣光; 张炜银; 廖文波; 王伯荪; 昝启杰

    2000-01-01

    薇甘菊是一种危害极大的杂草,60年代末就已传入我国的海南,而传入广东大陆沿岸及邻近岛屿如香港、内伶仃岛等并造成较大生态危害是在80年代末期.90年代初期.论文从薇甘菊的危害性、生物学、生态学及防治等方面的研究进行综述.%Mikania micrantha is a perennial weed of Asteraceae originated from South America and Center America. It has invaded to Southeast Asia, Pacific region and South China. Because Mikania micrantha grows very fast and is hard to control, it has become one of the worlds worst weeds. In this paper,the history and status of the study on Mikania micrantha was reviewed. The research on Mikania micrantha mainly focused on biology, ecology, harm and control. Although it has gotten some progress about Mikania micrantha research, it is a tough task to solve Mikania micrantha problem.

  13. Intoxicação natural por Trema micrantha em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Colodel Edson Moleta; Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Correia André Mendes; Driemeier David

    2003-01-01

    Dois caprinos confinados, que recebiam ração e pasto no cocho, morreram uma semana após serem alimentados com arbustos de plantas de diferentes espécies, entre os quais encontrava-se Trema micrantha. Apenas um animal foi necropsiado. Achados macroscópicos incluíram palidez generalizada da carcaça, hemorragias subcutâneas na região do esterno e escápula, fígado amarelado, friável e com lobulação evidente. Na superfície de corte, o fígado apresentou áreas vermelhas deprimidas entremeadas por ár...

  14. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Traverso Sandra Davi; Corrêa André Mendes Ribeiro; Pescador Caroline Argenta; Colodel Edson Moleta; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Driemeier David

    2002-01-01

    Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. mic...

  15. REPELLENT AND OVIPOSITION DETERRENT ACTIVITIES OFTHE ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MIKANIA MICRANTHA AND ITS COMPOUNDS ON PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao-xinZhang; BingLing; Shao-yingChen; Guang-wenLiang; Xiong-feiPang

    2004-01-01

    Repellent and oviposition deterrent activities of the essential oil from Mikania micrantha and five volatile compounds including limonene, a-terpinene, linalool, B-caryophylene and verbenone on the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, was investigated in door and in net-house. The results showed that the essential oil of the M. micrantha had significant repellant effect (at flow 100-180 mL/min) and oviposition deterrent activity at dose 1020 uL/seedling for the DBM. In five volatile compounds, a-terpinene, limonene and linalool had significant effect on repellent and oviposition deterrent of the DBM moths, but verbenone and B-caryophylene, no significantly effect was observed in repellent and oviposition deterrent.

  16. Regeneration capacity of small clonal fragments of the invasive Mikania micrantha H.B.K.: effects of burial depth and stolon internode length.

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    Xiaoxia Li

    Full Text Available The perennial stoloniferous herbaceous vine Mikania micrantha H.B.K. is among the most noxious exotic invaders in China and the world. Disturbance can fragment stolons of M. micrantha and disperse these fragments over long distances or bury them in soils at different depths. To test their regeneration capacity, single-node stolon fragments with stolon internode lengths of 0, 3, 6 and 12 cm were buried in soil at 0, 2, 5 and 8 cm depths, respectively. The fragments were growing for nine weeks, and their emergence status, growth and morphological traits were measured. The results indicated that increasing burial depth significantly decreased survival rate and increased the emergence time of the M. micrantha plants. At an 8-cm burial depth, very few fragments (2.19% emerged and survived. Burial did not affect the total biomass and root to shoot ratio of the surviving M. micrantha plants that emerged from the 0- and 2-cm burial depths. Increasing internode length significantly increased survival rate and growth measures, but there was no interaction effect with burial depth for any traits measured. These results suggest that M. micrantha can regenerate from buried stolon fragments, and thus, disturbance may contribute to the spread of this exotic invader. Any human activities producing stolon fragments or facilitating dispersal should be avoided.

  17. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos

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    Traverso Sandra Davi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica a partir de 30g/kg de peso corporal. A alteração macroscópica mais significativa foi observada no fígado, que se apresentou friável, amarelado e com acentuado padrão lobular. Ao corte, havia áreas vermelhas, deprimidas e entremeadas por áreas mais claras. Em um animal, a coloração do fígado era vermelha, homogênea, mais clara que o normal e sem evidenciação do padrão lobular. Petéquias foram constatadas entre a escápula e o esterno, no epicárdio, no mediastino e nas serosas dos órgãos da cavidade abdominal. A principal alteração histológica foi necrose coagulativa centro-lobular que, em alguns casos, atingia todo o lóbulo, associada à congestão, hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes. No sistema nervoso, havia tumefação de neurônios, mais proeminente no córtex frontal, associado a edema perineuronal e perivascular.

  18. Phenolic constituents from the roots of Mikania micrantha and their allelopathic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiaolin; Xie, Haihui; Xiao, Huilin; Wei, Xiaoyi

    2013-07-31

    Four new thymol derivatives, 8,10-dihydroxy-9-benzoyloxythymol (1), 9-isobutyryloxy-10-hydroxythymol (2), 7,8,9,10-tetrahydroxythymol (3), and 7,8,10-trihydroxy-9-E-feruloyloxythymol (4), were isolated from the fresh roots of Mikania micrantha , along with 8,9,10-trihydroxythymol (5), 8,10-dihydroxy-9-acetoxythymol (6), 8,10-dihydroxy-9-isobutyryloxythymol (7), 8,10-dihydroxy-9-(2-methylbutyryloxy)thymol (8), 8,9-dehydro-10-hydroxythymol (9), 8-methoxy-9-hydroxythymol (10), ethyl caffeate (11), ethyl ferulate (12), 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (13), and mikanin (14). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The known thymol derivatives (5-10) were obtained from the genus Mikania for the first time. Allelopathic effects of these compounds on Arabidopsis thaliana seeds were evaluated by a filter paper assay. After the treatment at 0.1 mM for 4 days, the seed germination rate with compound 8 was 48% and the inhibitory rates of shoot growth with compounds 1, 2, 7-10, and 12 were over 40%. The IC50 values of compounds 1 and 8 on shoot growth were 342.5 and 625 μM, respectively. PMID:23822807

  19. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

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    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  20. Chemical diversity among populations of Mikania micrantha: geographic mosaic structure and herbivory.

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    Bravo-Monzón, Angel Eliezer; Ríos-Vásquez, Eunice; Delgado-Lamas, Guillermo; Espinosa-García, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Populations of the same species vary in their secondary metabolite content. This variation has been attributed to biotic and abiotic environmental conditions as well as to historical factors. Some studies have focused on the geographic variation of chemical diversity in plant populations, but whether this structure conforms to a central-marginal model or a mosaic pattern remains unclear. Furthermore, assessing the chemical diversity of invasive plants in their native distribution facilitates the understanding of their relationships with natural enemies. We examined the geographic variation of chemical diversity in Mexican populations of the bittervine weed Mikania micrantha and its relationship to herbivore damage. The foliar volatile terpenoid blend was analyzed in 165 individuals of 14 populations in the Pacific and Gulf of Mexico tropical watersheds. A cluster analysis grouped individuals with similar terpenoid blends into 56 compositional types. Chemical diversity was measured using the number of compounds and their concentration within the blends for individuals, and the number and frequency of compositional types for populations. A stepwise multiple regression analysis performed with geographic, climatic, and chemical diversity variables explained herbivore damage. However, population-level chemical diversity was the only variable found to be significant (β = -0.79, P = 0.042) in the model (R(2) = 0.89). A Mantel test using Euclidean distances did not indicate any separation by geographic origin; however, four barriers were identified using Monmonier's algorithm. We conclude that variation in population-level chemical diversity follows a mosaic pattern in which geographic factors (i.e., natural barriers) have some effect and that variation is also associated with the local intensity of herbivore attack. PMID:23942983

  1. Structural and physiological responses of two invasive weeds, Mikania micrantha and Chromolaena odorata, to contrasting light and soil water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Ling; Wen, Da-Zhi

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the requirement of light and soil water conditions in the invasion sites of two invasive weeds, Mikania micrantha and Chromolaena odorata, we investigated their structural and physiological traits in response to nine combined treatments of light [full, medium and low irradiance (LI)] and soil water (full, medium and low field water content) conditions in three glasshouses. Under the same light conditions, most variables for both species did not vary significantly among different water treatments. Irrespective of water treatment, both species showed significant decreases in maximum light saturated photosynthetic rate (P (max)), photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency, and relative growth rate under LI relative to full irradiance; specific leaf area, however, increased significantly from full to LI though leaf area decreased significantly, indicating that limited light availability under extreme shade was the critical factor restricting the growth of both species. Our results also indicated that M. micrantha performed best under a high light and full soil water combination, while C. odorata was more efficient in growth under a high light and medium soil water combination. PMID:19030958

  2. AFLP genome scan to detect genetic structure and candidate loci under selection for local adaptation of the invasive weed Mikania micrantha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available Why some species become successful invaders is an important issue in invasive biology. However, limited genomic resources make it very difficult for identifying candidate genes involved in invasiveness. Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae, one of the world's most invasive weeds, has adapted rapidly in response to novel environments since its introduction to southern China. In its genome, we expect to find outlier loci under selection for local adaptation, critical to dissecting the molecular mechanisms of invasiveness. An explorative amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genome scan was used to detect candidate loci under selection in 28 M. micrantha populations across its entire introduced range in southern China. We also estimated population genetic parameters, bottleneck signatures, and linkage disequilibrium. In binary characters, such as presence or absence of AFLP bands, if all four character combinations are present, it is referred to as a character incompatibility. Since character incompatibility is deemed to be rare in populations with extensive asexual reproduction, a character incompatibility analysis was also performed in order to infer the predominant mating system in the introduced M. micrantha populations. Out of 483 AFLP loci examined using stringent significance criteria, 14 highly credible outlier loci were identified by Dfdist and Bayescan. Moreover, remarkable genetic variation, multiple introductions, substantial bottlenecks and character compatibility were found to occur in M. micrantha. Thus local adaptation at the genome level indeed exists in M. micrantha, and may represent a major evolutionary mechanism of successful invasion. Interactions between genetic diversity, multiple introductions, and reproductive modes contribute to increase the capacity of adaptive evolution.

  3. Trema micrantha como causa de pneumopatia tóxica em ovinos: reprodução experimental

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    Flademir Wouters

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha em cinco ovinos é descrita. Quatro ovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos respiratórios acentuados e morte após ingestão da terceira dose de folhas da planta. As manifestações clínicas mais frequentes nesses casos foram taquipneia, dispneia, retração ritmada das narinas, mucosas cianóticas, corrimento nasal mucoso, hipertermia, aumento de volume abdominal bilateral e na região parotídea, incluindo crepitação à palpação, membros lateralmente afastados ao caminhar e decúbito esternal. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica para ovinos na dose de 20-50g/kg de peso animal. Na necropsia desses ovinos foram observados, além das mucosas cianóticas, enfisema subcutâneo em região cervical ventral ou porção mediastinal dorsal, pulmões não colabados, pesados, com impressão das costelas na superfície e conteúdo espumoso vermelho em traqueia e brônquios, além de múltiplas petéquias subpleurais. Na avaliação histológica predominaram alterações pulmonares, com espessamento de septos alveolares por proliferação difusa de pneumócitos tipo II, conferindo aspecto adenomatoso a algumas áreas. Os pneumócitos apresentavam núcleo volumoso, hipercromático, ora bizarro ou eram multinucleados, com nucléolos evidentes e, em algumas áreas, os pneumócitos estavam descamados para a luz alveolar, ora formando sincícios. Havia também proliferação do epitélio bronquiolar, com formação de mais de uma camada celular, núcleos hipercromáticos e volumosos e redução na quantidade de cílios. As alterações proliferativas dos pneumócitos e do epitélio bronquiolar foram evidenciadas pela imunomarcação anti-citoqueratina e anti-Ki-67 e, para a diferenciação entre pneumócitos e macrófagos alveolares, foi empregada imuno-histoquímica anti-mieloide/histiócitos (MAC387. Um ovino apresentou quadro clinico-patológico de insuficiência hepática aguda, com necrose hepatocelular

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis against phytopathogenic bacteria and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro, Diego A; Lizarraga, Emilio F; Ibatayev, Zharkyn A; Omarova, Akerke B; Suleimen, Yerlan M; Catalán, Cesar A N

    2016-09-01

    Essential oils from aerial parts of Acantholippia deserticola, Artemisia proceriformis, Achillea micrantha and Libanotis buchtormensis were analysed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were β-thujone (66.5 ± 0.2%), and trans-sabinyl acetate (12.1 ± 0.2%) in A. deserticola; α-thujone (66.9 ± 0.4%) in A. proceriformis; 1,8-cineole (26.9 ± 0.5%), and camphor (17.7 ± 0.3%) in A. micrantha and cis-β-ocimene (23.3 ± 0.3%), and trans-β-ocimene (18.4 ± 0.2%) in L. buchtormensis. The oils showed a weak antimicrobial effect (MIC100 > 1.5 mg/ml) on most phytopathogens tested. A moderate antimicrobial activity (MIC100 between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/ml) was displayed by the oils of A. deserticola, A. micrantha and L. buchtormensis on Septoria tritici and by the oil of A. deserticola on Septoria glycine. The antimicrobial activity was associated to the contents of β-thujone, trans-sabinyl acetate and trans-sabinol. Our results indicate that the tested essential oils have little inhibitory potency not suitable for use as plant protection products against the phytopathogens assayed. PMID:26404704

  5. The genomes of four novel begomoviruses and a new Sida micrantha mosaic virus strain from Bolivian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Patrícia Soares; Gotthardt, Diether; Schäfer, Benjamin; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Begomovirus is the largest genus within the family Geminiviridae and includes economically important plant DNA viruses infecting a broad range of plant species and causing devastating crop diseases, mainly in subtropical and tropical countries. Besides cultivated plants, many weeds act as virus reservoirs. Eight begomovirus isolates from Bolivian weeds were examined using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). An efficient, novel cloning strategy using limited Sau3A digestion to obtain tandem-repeat inserts allowed the sequencing of the complete genomes. The viruses were classified by phylogenetic analysis as typical bipartite New World begomoviruses. Four of them represented distinct new virus species, for which the names Solanum mosaic Bolivia virus, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2, and Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus are proposed. Three were variants of a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus (SimMV), SimMV-rho[BoVi07], SimMV-rho[Bo:CF1:07] and SimMV-rho[Bo:CF2:07], and one was a new variant of a previously described SimMV, SimMV-MGS2:07-Bo.

  6. Structure, histochemistry and phytochemical profile of the bark of the sobol and aerial stem of Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae - Hippocrateoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OLÍVIA MERCADANTE-SIMÕES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The bark of the underground stem of Tontelea micrantha (Mart. ex. Schult. A. C. Sm., a native Brazilian Cerrado species, is used in folk medicine for treating kidney ailments. The structures of the underground and the aerial stems were examined and their barks were analyzed for the presence of secondary metabolites. Bark fragments were processed according to conventional techniques in plant anatomy and their chemical compositions examined using histochemical and phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography, and high-efficiency liquid chromatography. The underground stem is a sobol with unusual cambial activity. Laticifers that secrete terpenoids were present in the cortex and phloem of both organs and can contribute to the identification of the species in field. Druses were present in both barks, but mono-crystals were only observed in the sobol. Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids occurred in both types of bark, but carotenoids were only detected in the sobol. The similarities between these two organs indicate that the aerial stem bark has potential medicinal use and represents a plausible alternative to harvesting the sobol, which could contribute to the preservation of natural populations of this species.

  7. Non-Additive effects on decomposition from mixing litter of the invasive Mikania micrantha H.B.K. with native plants.

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    Bao-Ming Chen

    Full Text Available A common hypothesis to explain the effect of litter mixing is based on the difference in litter N content between mixed species. Although many studies have shown that litter of invasive non-native plants typically has higher N content than that of native plants in the communities they invade, there has been surprisingly little study of mixing effects during plant invasions. We address this question in south China where Mikania micrantha H.B.K., a non-native vine, with high litter N content, has invaded many forested ecosystems. We were specifically interested in whether this invader accelerated decomposition and how the strength of the litter mixing effect changes with the degree of invasion and over time during litter decomposition. Using litterbags, we evaluated the effect of mixing litter of M. micrantha with the litter of 7 native resident plants, at 3 ratios: M1 (1∶4, = exotic:native litter, M2 (1∶1 and M3 (4∶1, = exotic:native litter over three incubation periods. We compared mixed litter with unmixed litter of the native species to identify if a non-additive effect of mixing litter existed. We found that there were positive significant non-additive effects of litter mixing on both mass loss and nutrient release. These effects changed with native species identity, mixture ratio and decay times. Overall the greatest accelerations of mixture decay and N release tended to be in the highest degree of invasion (mix ratio M3 and during the middle and final measured stages of decomposition. Contrary to expectations, the initial difference in litter N did not explain species differences in the effect of mixing but overall it appears that invasion by M. micrantha is accelerating the decomposition of native species litter. This effect on a fundamental ecosystem process could contribute to higher rates of nutrient turnover in invaded ecosystems.

  8. Micorriza arbuscular e nutrição fosfática na toxidez de zinco para a trema [Trema micrantha (L. Blum.] Arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus nutrition on zinc toxicity to trema [Trema micrantha (L. Blum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de micorriza arbuscular, do estado nutricional de P da planta e de concentrações crescentes de P em solução nutritiva na toxidez de Zn para Trema micrantha (L. Blum. Em um primeiro experimento, mudas de trema foram formadas em substrato que continha doses crescentes de P [0, 100, 200 e 400 mg dm-3 na forma de Ca(H2PO42] e um tratamento de inoculação com Glomus etunicatum (Ge. Após crescimento por 60 dias, as mudas foram transferidas para vasos com solução nutritiva de Clark, que continha 2, 75, 150 e 225 µmol L-1 de Zn, e mantidas por mais 40 dias, quando foram colhidas e avaliadas. Os efeitos do P na amenização da fitotoxidez de Zn foram avaliados em outro experimento, aplicando-se, simultaneamente e de forma combinada em solução, doses de P (0,07; 0,5; 1 e 2 mmol L-1 fornecido por diferentes fontes e de Zn (2, 75, 150 e 225 µmol L-1 na forma de ZnSO4.7H2O, nas quais foram cultivadas mudas de trema por 40 dias. Houve acentuada inibição no crescimento e na colonização micorrízica da trema em doses elevadas de Zn em solução (150 e 225 µmol L-1. Constatou-se que a melhoria da nutrição fosfática reduziu a translocação do Zn das raízes para a parte aérea, mas isto, assim como a colonização micorrízica, não resultou em favorecimento do crescimento da planta em condições de excesso deste metal em solução. No segundo experimento, verificou-se que a elevação na concentração de P em solução nutritiva promoveu melhoria no estado nutricional de P, conferindo proteção à planta do excesso de Zn. Como a especiação química da solução indicou que a aplicação de P não interferiu, de modo significativo, nas formas de Zn em solução, os resultados indicam que a ação amenizante do P ocorre na planta, possivelmente reduzindo a translocação do Zn das raízes para a parte aérea.The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of arbuscular

  9. Analysis on Influencing Factors for Hardwood Cuttage of Lonicera tatarica var. micrantha%小花忍冬硬枝扦插影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 季蒙; 王美珍; 乔福成

    2011-01-01

    Lonicera tatarica var.micrantha is a fine tree species with good ornament and strong stress resistance.In order to solve the great variation for differentiation of filial generation with seed breeding,combined with the characteristics of Lonicera tatarica var.micrantha,the hardwood cuttage experiment has been done with the treatments of different matrix,hormones and concentrations.The results show that matrix type,hormone type and the concentrations of hormone can directly influence the survival rate of cuttage,and the hormone types directly influence the growth of underground root.The average survival rate of cuttage can reach 70% by use of the combination of pearl salt ︰ sand = 1 ︰ 2,NAA,100 mg/L.Hormone ABT 2 of 100 mg/L can promote the growth of underground root system.%小花忍冬是观赏性和抗逆性兼具的优良树种之一。为了解决其种子繁殖子代分化变异大的问题,结合小花忍冬特性,通过不同基质、激素及不同浓度的处理,对其进行了硬枝扦插试验。结果表明:基质种类、激素种类、激素浓度都直接影响其扦插成活率,激素种类直接影响地下根系的生长量。其中,使用珍珠岩︰沙子=1︰2、NAA、100 mg/L组合,其扦插成活率均值达70%,效果最佳;使用激素ABT2号100 mg/L能较好地促进地下根系的生长。

  10. Suppression of the invasive plant mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha) by local crop sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) by means of higher growth rate and competition for soil nutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Clements, David Roy; Jin, Guimei; Chen, Aidong; Zhang, Fudou; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Background There are a variety of ways of increasing crop diversity to increase agricultural sustainability and in turn having a positive influence on nearby natural ecosystems. Competitive crops may provide potent management tools against invasive plants. To elucidate the competitive mechanisms between a sweet potato crop (Ipomoea batatas) and an invasive plant, mile-a-minute (Mikania micrantha), field experiments were carried out in Longchuan County of Yunnan Province, Southwest China, util...

  11. Vegetative Reproduction and Biomass Allocation Characteristics of Mikania micrantha H.B.K under Different Seedling Periods%薇甘菊不同时期的营养繁殖及其生物量分配特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天林; 申时才; 徐高峰; 张付斗; 张玉华

    2012-01-01

    薇甘菊是世界热带、亚热带地区最具危险性的外来植物之一,较强的无性生长与繁殖是其种群快速建立和扩散的主要原因.该实验采用生长期(40 d、30 d、20 d、10 d)和养分(1倍Hoagland’s营养液、清水+土壤、清水)二因子设计,探讨薇甘菊根、茎、叶的营养生长与繁殖和生物量分配特征.结果显示:(1)生长期对薇甘菊茎的存活率和养分对薇甘菊茎的净增生物量比例具有极显著影响(P<0.01),但对其他指标影响均不显著(P>0.05);生长期和养分互作除对薇甘菊根的存活率和茎的分枝数影响不显著外,对其他指标影响均达到极显著(P<0.01).(2)所有薇甘菊根处理中的存活率为0,茎的分枝数在各处理之间的差异不显著.(3)随着生长期和养分增加,薇甘菊茎和叶的存活率及其生物量逐渐提高,且茎的分枝长、叶的分枝长及其分枝数逐渐提高,但中等养分更有利于提高生长期较短的薇甘菊叶的存活率、分枝长、分枝数及生物量.研究表明,薇甘菊不同营养器官在不同生长期和养分条件具有不同的存活情况以及形态可塑性和生物量分配特征.%Being native to Central and South America, Mikania micrantha H. B. K is a perennial herb or semi-woody vine of Compositae. This plant has been considered one of the worst noxious weeds around the world and caused huge economic losses,serious ecological problems and biodiversity losses. The vegetative growth and reproduction is one of the most important reproduction strategies of M. micrantha. In this trial, the vegetative reproduction and biomass allocation characteristics of M. micrantha with two-factor experiments of different growth periods (40 d,30 d,20 d and 10 d) and nutrient solutions (1 Hoagland's, water + soil and water) were studied. The results showed that:(l)The growth period and nutrient had significant effect on stem survival rate and stem net biomass percentage of M

  12. 薇甘菊入侵对中小型土壤动物群落结构特征的影响%Impact of Mikania micrantha invasion on soil meso- and micro-invertebrate community structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全国明; 章家恩; 谢俊芳; 毛丹鹃; 徐华勤; 姜万兵; 文杜娟

    2011-01-01

    Mikania micrantha, a notorious exotic weed of Asteraceae family, has invaded successfully in southern China, and caused serious damages to native ecosystems.In this paper, a field survey was conducted in the Huolushan Forest Park of Guangzhou, China, aimed to understand the impact of M.micrantha invasion on the soil meso- and micro-invertebrate community.Three sampling sites were installed, including M.micrantha-invaded site, ecotone, and native vegetation site.Through four samplings in 2009, a total of 5206 soil meso- and micro-invertebrate individuals were collected, belonging to 4 phyla, 10 classes, and 19 orders, among which, Nematoda was the dominant group, and Acarina, Collembolan, and Rotifera were the common groups.M.micrantha invasion altered the characteristics of soil meso- and micro-invertebrate community structure.Compared with those at the other two sampling sites, the numbers of total individuals, Nematoda, and Acarina at M.micrantha-invaded site increased significantly, but the groups of soil meso- and micro-invertebrates had less change.At M.micrantha-invaded site, the density-group index ( DG) of soil meso- and micro-invertebrates was significantly higher, Margalef richness index ( D) and Simpson dominance index ( C) tended to ascend, but Pielou evenness index ( E) and Shannon index (H') tended to descend.The similarity coefficient of soil meso- and micro-invertebrate community between M. micrantha-invaded site and ecotone was higher than that between M.micrantha-invaded site and native vegetation site.The changes of local climate conditions, plant litters, root secretions, and soil physical-chemical properties caused by M.micrantha invasion could be the major contributing factors that altered the community structure of soil meso- and micro-invertebrates at M.micrantha-invaded site.%薇甘菊是菊科假泽兰属的恶性杂草,在我国华南地区已成功入侵并造成严重危害.为了解薇甘菊入侵对土壤动物的影响效应,采用

  13. Alterations in protein synthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 6301 in response to Calendula Micrantha extract with the Molluscicidal activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to the extract of the egyptian wild herb Calendula Micrantha, with the Molluscicidal activity, was examined in the unicellular no bacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 6301. growth and chlorophyll of the cells were only slightly affected by low plant extract concentrations but were drastically reduced by high concentration. the rate of protein synthesis progressively decreased by increasing extract concentration. the cells preferentially induced the synthesis of a limited number of polypeptides in response to the treatment. Among the induced polypeptides were those with apparent molecular weights of 161 K (161.000), 96.7 K, 93.4 K, 69.9 K, 59 K, 49 K, 45 K, 35 K, 32.4 K, 28 K, 24 K, 21.7 K, 18 K and 16 K based on their mobilities in gel electrophoresis. these initial studies suggest that the plant extract exerted certain stress which stimulated alteration in the pattern of protein synthesis in Synechococcus sp. some of induced polypeptides are similar to that known to occur in other stresses specially heat shock stress. 3 figs

  14. Study on the Fungicidal Activities of Extractions from Mikania micrantha%小花假泽兰提取物抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝彩琴; 冯俊涛; 张兴

    2011-01-01

    以石油醚、乙酸乙酯、乙醇对小花假泽兰茎叶进行依次提取.采用离体和活体试验法测定3种有机溶剂提取物对3种植物病原真菌的抑制活性.生长速率法试验结果表明:在干样0.09g/ml浓度下,乙酸乙酯提取物能显著抑制番茄灰霉病、苹果炭疽病、南瓜枯萎病3种病原真菌菌丝的生长,抑制率均在90%以上.组织法试验结果表明:在干样0.18g/ml浓度下,石油醚提取物对番茄果实灰霉病的治疗效果为63.55%,乙醇提取物保护效果为71.47%.对小麦白粉病的盆栽试验结果表明:石油醚提取物保护作用为81.26%,乙酸乙酯提取物治疗作用为62.07%.%The fungicidal activities of three extractions which extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol from Mikania micrantha were tested in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethyl acetate extraction was excellently against Botrytis cirerea, Glomerella cingulata, Fusarium bulbigenum in vitro at 0.09 g/ml, and the inhibitive rates were all greater than 90%. Organise method tests showed petroleum ether extraction had therapeutic effect of 63.55% against Botrytis cirerea in vivo at 0.18 g/m l, alcoholic extraction had higher protection effect of 71.47%; pot culture method tests showed that petroleum ether extraction had higher protection effect of 81.26% against Erysiphe graminis,the therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extraction was the best and the effect was 62.07%.

  15. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal O. Bessong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638 of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0–23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0–35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100% was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05, followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%. The MIC50 values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC90 values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to >0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05. Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  16. Adaptability and Reproductive Characteristics of Mikania micrantha H.B.K under Different Habitats%异质环境下入侵植物薇甘菊的适应性与繁殖特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高峰; 申时才; 张付斗

    2014-01-01

    地,显示薇甘菊可通过提高比叶面积(SLA)和叶干物质比例(LMF),降低茎干物质比例(SMF)来适应低光照和种间强竞争等不利生境;而在抛荒农田(样地Ⅷ)和河流边缘(样地Ⅸ和Ⅹ)有利于其生长的生境条件下,薇甘菊则通过相反的策略来适应环境。以上结果表明薇甘菊通过调节各功能性状之间的权衡来适应环境,对异质环境条件具有不同的生长与繁殖适应对策,具有强的生态适应性。%Mikania micrantha H.B.K is considered one of the world’s most invasive and destructive species, and its control and management has become a difficult problem in the world. Currently, many domestic and foreign research showed that invasive alien plants has stronger adaptation ability to the heterogeneous environment than native species. Research on adaptability and reproductive characteristics under different habitats has provided the scientific ways for implement effective monitoring, early-warning and control of M. micrantha. In this paper, we selected the 10 habitats which represented 4 population (woodland, wasteland, farmland and riverside) in full-bloom stage of M. micrantha, sexual reproduction, reproductive allocation and the major functional traits of specific leaf area (SLA), leaf mass fraction (LMF), specific stem density (SSD) and stem mass fraction (SMF) on M. micrantha under different habitats were measured. The results showed sexual reproduction and reproductive allocation were effected significantly of different habitats of M. micrantha. Total flower number, seed number, biomass allocation of stem of reproductive shoots and flower of barren field (plot Ⅷ) and riverside (plots Ⅸ and Ⅹ) were significantly higher than other plots, populations tend to sexual reproduction. However, the total flower number and seed number were decreased significantly, but the nutrition branches and leaf biomass allocation were significantly larger than the other plots

  17. Study on the allelochemicals of inhibiting Mikania micrantha growth from Cuscuta japonica%抑制薇甘菊生长的日本菟丝子化感物质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 肖辉林

    2012-01-01

    采用制备型高效液相色谱、重结晶等方法从有害植物日本菟丝子(Cuscuta japonica Choisy)的水浸液有机萃取物中分离出能显著抑制薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H.B.K.)种子萌发的化感物质,并采用核磁共振(1HNMR、13CNMR)法、质谱(MS)法等对其结构进行分析和鉴定.结果表明:能显著抑制薇甘菊种子萌发的日本菟丝子化感物质为桂皮酸(cinnamic acid)和3-苯基丙酸(3-phenylpropanoic acid).这2种化合物在菟丝子属的植物中属首次分离鉴定.这2种化感物质具有开发为生物源农药(如除草剂)的潜力.研究结果为人侵植物薇甘菊的防治提供了参考依据,也为日本菟丝子的开发利用开辟了一条新途径.%In this study, allelochemicals, which has the marked inhibition effects on the seed germination of Mikania micrantha H. B. K., were extracted and separated from Cuscuta japonica Choisy through recrystal and their structures were identified through the analyses of 'HNMR, 13CNMR and MS. The study indicates that the allelochemicals are cinnamic acid and 3-phenylpropanoic acid. These two compounds are the first time to be seperated and identified from the custuta plants. It is supposed that these two allelochemicals should be developed as new-type biological pesticides (such as herbicide). The results provide reference for the prevention and control of Mikania micrantha invasion, and for the new way to exploit and utilize C. japonica.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Growth Types and Reproductive Characteristics of Mikania micrantha%薇甘菊不同生长方式下的繁殖特征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张付斗; 李天林; 徐高峰; 吴迪; 张玉华

    2011-01-01

    Mikania micrantha is a highly invasive plant species in tropical and subtropical regions.To analyze the adaptability and plasticity of climbing and prostrating M.micrantha plants, we here performed field experiments on morphological characteristics, biomass allocation and reproduction of growth patterns under different environmental moisture conditions.Under moist conditions, climbing plants showed more biomass in the main stem and less in the branches than did prostrating plants.Under dry conditions, climbing plants invested less biomass in the main stem and branch than did prostrating plants.Under both wet and dry conditions, climbing plants had a reproductive investment of 0.429 and 0.342 g·g-1, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of prostrating plants under the same conditions.Sexual reproduction was the most important approach for climbing plants to produce offspring, which in wet and dry habitats accounted for 84.7% and 62.6%, respectively, of the population.Prostrating plants relied mainly on asexual reproduction to increase their population, with only 40.4% and 35.9% of the population produced by sexual reproduction in wet and dry habitats, respectively.Growth patterns and soil moisture had a significant impact on the biomass and reproduction allocation in plants.Climbing and prostrating M.micrantha plants use different reproductive strategies to adapt to environmental moisture conditions.%利用实验生态学方法,对攀缘生长与伏地生长的薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)的形态特征、生物量分配和繁殖特征进行了比较研究.结果表明:在潮湿生境条件下,攀缘生长的植株与伏地生长的植株相比对主茎的生物量投资较大,而对分枝茎的生物量投资则相对较小;但在干旱生境条件下,攀缘生长的植株对主茎和分枝茎的生物量投资均较伏地生长的植株小.在潮湿与干旱生境中.攀缘植株的繁殖投资分别为0.429 g·g-1和0.342 g·g-1,显著

  19. 入侵杂草薇甘菊的传粉昆虫及其访花行为研究%STUDY ON POLLINATING INSECTS OF MIKANIA MICRANTHA H. B. K AND THEIR FORAGING BEHAVIOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪岚; 沈浩; 叶万辉; 曹洪麟

    2011-01-01

    The pollinating insects of the invasive weed Mikania micrantha H. B. K. and their foraging behavior were observed in an open population in South China. A total of 30 insect species belonging to 19 families in 6 orders were identified as floral visitors and most of them were from Hymenoptera, Diptera and Hemiptera. Moreover, Apis sp. , Calliphoridae and Syrphidae were common and frequent floral visitors with Calliphoridae being the most frequent. The peaks of visiting frequency for Apis sp. were 9:00-10:00 and 15:00-16:00, while those for Calliphoridae and Syrphidae were both 11:00-12:00 and 14:00-15:00. Environmental factors and the plants (such as Polygunum chinense L. ) having the same floral period had certain influence on the visiting frequency of M. micrantha.%对入侵中国华南地区的薇甘菊的传粉昆虫及其访花行为的研究结果表明,薇甘菊的访花昆虫有30种,隶属于6目19科,以膜翅目、双翅目和半翅目为主.稳定的和访花频率较高的传粉者主要为蜜蜂、丽蝇和食蚜蝇,其中以丽蝇的访花频率为最高.蜜蜂的每日访花频率的高峰出现在9:00-10:00和15:00-16:00,而丽蝇和食蚜蝇则为11:00-12:00和14:00-15:00.环境因子和同花期植物(如薇甘菊的伴生种火炭母)对访花频率有一定的影响.

  20. Nutrição fosfática e micorriza arbuscular na redução da toxicidade de cádmio em trema [Trema micrantha (L. Blum.] Phosphate nutrition and arbuscular mycorrhiza on amelioration of cadmium toxicity in trema [Trema micrantha (L. Blum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da nutrição fosfática e da micorriza arbuscular na toxicidade de Cd em Trema micrantha (L. Blum. Em um primeiro experimento, mudas de trema foram formadas em substrato contendo doses crescentes de P (0, 100, 200 e 400 mg dm-3 e com um tratamento de inoculação com Glomus etunicatum. Após crescimento por 60 dias, essas mudas foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Clark sem Cd e suplementada com 5, 15 e 45 µmol L-1 de Cd e mantidas por mais 40 dias, quando os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados. As influências do P na amenização da fitotoxidez de Cd foram também avaliados em outro experimento, aplicando-se simultaneamente e de forma combinada em solução, doses de P (0,07; 0,5; 1; e 2 mmol L-1 e de Cd (0, 5, 10 e 15 µmol L-1. Houve acentuada inibição no crescimento e colonização micorrízica da trema mesmo na dose mais baixa de Cd em solução (5 µmol L-1. Constatou-se que a melhoria da nutrição fosfática favoreceu o crescimento da planta, sendo isso associado à redução da toxicidade de Cd, enquanto a inoculação com G. etunicatum não teve o mesmo efeito. Encontrou-se uma relação inversa entre o aumento no fornecimento de P em solução e a absorção e acúmulo de Cd na trema. Análise da especiação química da solução indicou que o P não interferiu na disponibilidade de Cd em solução, o que evidencia que a ação amenizante do P se deve às interações na planta, possivelmente reduzindo a translocação do Cd.In the present study the effects of phosphorus nutrition and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM were evaluated on Cd toxicity to Trema micrantha (L. Blum.. In a first experiment, trema seedlings were raised in a P-enriched substrate (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg dm-3 and with an AM treatment (inoculation with Glomus etunicatum. After sixty days of growth, plants were transferred to Clark nutrient solution either without Cd added or amended with this metal at

  1. Study on Control Efficiency of Combination of Glyphosate and 2,4-D in Mikania micrantha%草甘膦与2,4-D复配对薇甘菊防效的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高旭华; 方越; 沈雪峰; 陈勇; 陈明周

    2012-01-01

    为了明确草甘膦与2,4-D混配后防治薇甘菊的效果,采用温室盆栽试验,计算出2种除草剂复配后对薇甘菊的鲜重防效,结合等效线法评价二者的最佳配比.研究结果表明:2种药剂混用对薇甘菊具有增效作用,在草甘膦和2,4-D(153.75,175)到(170.65,161)两等效线坐标点之间范围地上部增效作用最明显,此两点的相互作用指数为1.58和1.60;而草甘膦和2,4-D(153.75,203.15)到(202.76,161)两等效线坐标点之间范围根部增效作用最明显,此两点相互作用指数为1.48和1.53.可见,草甘膦153.75~170.65 g a.i./hm2与2,4-D 161~175 g a.i./hm2的配比范围内对地上部的防效达到了最佳增效作用,而草甘膦153.75~202.76g a.i/hm2与2,4-D 161~203.15 g a.i./hm2的配比范围内对根部的防效达到了最佳增效作用.%To clarify the. Interaction of glyphosate and 2,4-D on the prevention and control of Mikania micrantha, the potting test was carried out in the Greenhouse. The control effects of the two herbicides on mikania micrantha were calculated. The best matching was evaluated by equivalent line. The results showed that there was significant synergisra on mikania micrantha with glyphosate and 2,4-D. The most obvious synergism on the shoot inhibition was between the scope of (153.75g a.I/hra2 to 170.65 g a.I./hm2) and (161 g a.I./hm2 to 175 g a.I./hm2), this index of interaction reached 1.58 and 1.60. But the most obvious synergism on the root inhibition was between the scope of (153.75 g a.I./hm2 to 202.76 g a.I./hm2)and (161 g a.I./hm2 to203.15 g a.I./hm2), the index of interaction reached 1.48 and 1.53. The best synergism ratio range of glyphosate and 2,4-D on shoot were 153.75 g a.i7hm2-170.65 g a.I./hm2, 161-175 g a.I./hm2 respectively, but the best synergism ratio range of glyphosate and 2,4-D on root were 153.75-202.76 g a.I./hm2 161-203.15 g a.I./hm2 respectively.

  2. 18%2,4-滴微乳剂防治非耕地薇甘菊田间药效试验%Field trials of 18%2,4-D micro-emulsion against Mikania micrantha in non-cultivated land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永禄; 刘晓亮; 唐文伟; 曾东强

    2014-01-01

    【目的】明确18%2,4-滴微乳剂对非耕地薇甘菊的防治效果,为其推广应用提供科学依据。【方法】设18%2,4-滴微乳剂540.0、324.0、202.5和162.0 g a.i./ha 4个处理,与常用化学除草剂41%草甘膦异丙胺盐水剂推荐剂量1845.0 g a.i./ha及空白对照处理进行比较,在薇甘菊生长旺期施药,并于药前和药后15、30 d调查薇甘菊覆盖度,药后45 d调查薇甘菊覆盖度和鲜重,计算薇甘菊覆盖度防效及鲜重防效,2009、2010年两年重复试验。【结果】18%2,4-滴微乳剂在供试剂量下对薇甘菊有良好的防除效果,其中162.0~202.5 g a.i./ha剂量处理后45 d对薇甘菊覆盖度防效达97.74%~100.00%,鲜重防效达98.80%~100.00%,显著高于对照药剂处理的防效。【结论】18%2,4-滴微乳剂可有效防除非耕地薇甘菊,推荐使用剂量为162.0~202.5 g a.i./ha。%[Objective]The control effect of 18%2,4-D micro-emulsion(ME) against Mikania micrantha in non-cultivated land was determined to provide references for its application and promotion. [Method]Four different treatments of 18%2,4-D ME (540.0, 324.0, 202.5 and 162.0 g a.i./ha) were sprayed on Mikania micrantha leaves at peak growth stage to compare their control effects with recommended levels of common chemical herbicide (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt aqueous solution 1845.0 g a.i./ha) and the control . The coverage of Mikania micrantha before and after spraying 15 and 30 days, and the cover-age and fresh weight of Mikania micrantha after spraying 45 days were measured to calculate the control efficiency. The experi-ment was repeated for two years (2009 and 2010). [Result]All the dosages of 18% 2,4-D ME in the experiments showed great control effects on Mikania micrantha. The control effects of 162.0-202.5 g a.i./ha of 18%2,4-D ME on coverage and fresh weight of M. micrantha in non-cultivated land were 97.74%-100.00%and 98.80%-100.00%on 45th day, which were signifi

  3. Influencia de cinco tipos de embalagens na germinaçao e no vigor de sementes de Angico - Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth)Brenan, Caixeta - Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam)Dc. e caroba-Jacaranda micrantha Cham. armazenadas em câmara fria e a temperatura ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Adson

    2013-01-01

    O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Silvicultura do Departamento de Silvicultura e Manejo da Universidade Federal do Paraná, com o intuito de apresentar informações que permitam estudar a viabilidade de lotes de sementes de angico vermelho -Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan, caixeta -Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam.) DC. Caroba – Jacaranda micrantha Cham., através de um armazenamento adequado. Após uma secagem inicial, em estufa a 42ºC por períodos de 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 e 8 ...

  4. Study on Bioactivity and Effect of 18% 2,4-D ME Against Alien Invasive Weed Mikania micrantha%2,4-滴微乳剂对外来入侵杂草薇甘菊的生物活性与防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜春来; 刘婕; 陈永; 黄献培; 周华城; 钟国华

    2012-01-01

    The bioactivity and effect of 18% 2,4-D ME against Mikania micrantha were investigated through the potting and field tests in this paper, which was helpful for screening more effective herbicides against this species of alien invasive weed. The value of ED90 inhibited 90% of M. Micrantha growth was calculated through the measurement of inhibition rate in the potting test, and the coverage control and fresh weight effectiveness was calculated to indicate the effect of 18% 2,4-D ME under field condition. The results of potting test showed that ED90 value in the 30th day was 1888.5 mL/hm2, which indicated 18% 2,4-D ME restrained the growth of M. Micrantha' s stem and leaf, and Edw about M. Micrantha fresh weight of overground part and roots were 1489.5 mL/hm2 and 2119.5 mL/hm2, respectively. The results in field experiment showed that the coverage control effects were more than 90% against M. Micrantha after 15 days and 30 days treatment with 18% 2,4-D ME from 900 to 2700 mL/hm2, which were significantly higher than that of 70% sulfometuron methyl WP in 262.5 g a.I./hm2, and were more than 90% after 45 days treatment with 1800, 2700 mL/hm2 of 18% 2,4-D ME, which had no significant difference with that of 70% sulfometuron methyl WP in 262.5 g ai/hm2. All these results indicated 18% 2,4-D ME in this test had obvious choice on M. Micrantha, which could kill M. Micrantha and protect other weeds. The tested 18% 2,4-D ME could deserve to be applied to control M. Micrantha in forest land, non-cultivated land and urban green land to protect and recovery of the ecological environment damaged by M. Micrantha.%为了寻找防除薇甘菊的高效药剂,测定了2,4-滴微乳对外来入侵杂草薇甘菊的生物活性和田间防治效果.通过测定抑制率求取抑制薇甘菊生长90%的有效剂量ED90,以覆盖度防效和鲜重防效为指标研究其田间防治效果.盆栽试验结果表明:喷施后30天,18%2,4-滴微乳剂(ME)抑制薇甘菊茎叶生长的ED90

  5. 薇甘菊入侵对深圳湾红树林生态系统碳储量的影响%Effect of invasion plants (Mikania micrantha H.B.K.) on carbon stock of mangrove ecosystem in Shenzhen bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛子龙; 赖梅东; 赵振业; 杨小毛

    2011-01-01

    外来植物入侵对生态系统碳过程的影响已经成为入侵生态学研究的热点问题.采用比较研究的方法分析了薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H.B.K.)入侵对深圳湾红树林生态系统碳储量的影响,分别设置红树林(Kandelia candel)群落、红树林-薇甘菊群落、薇甘菊群落以及光滩等样地,采集植被、凋落物和土壤剖面样品,分析生态系统各组分的碳储量变化.结果表明,薇甘菊入侵对红树林生态系统碳储量有着显著的影响,碳储量从未被入侵下215.73 tC/hm2减少到轻、高度入侵下的197.56tC/hm2和166.70 tC/hm2,分别减少8.42%和22.72%.其中植被和土壤碳储量显著减少,凋落物碳储量显著增加.薇甘菊入侵一方面导致红树林枯萎,减少植被生物量,增加凋落物量,另一方面促进了土壤微生物活动,使土壤有机碳分解释放,降低土壤碳储量.薇甘菊入侵后红树林碳储量的降低将大大削弱生态系统的碳汇功能.%Alien species invasion has become one of the most important globle environmental problems due to its tremendous effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Recently, many studies have devoted to documenting the impact of exotic plant invasion on different ecosystems. To examine the effects of alien plants (Mikania micrantha H.B.K.) invasion on carbon stock of mangrove (Kandelia candel) ecosystem, we collected vegetation, litter and soil samples in mangroves, mangroves-alien species and alien species, and we used comparative method to analyze the differences of ecosystem carbon stock under different stages of alien vegetation invasion. The results showed that Mikania micrantha invasion had significant effect on the carbon stock of mangrove ecosystem, and the carbon stock decreased with the increase of intrusion intensity. The carbon stock reduced from 215.73 tC/hm2 to 197.56 tC/hm2 (8.42%) and 166.70 tC/hm2 (22.72%) under light invasion and high invasion, with vegetation and soil

  6. 薇苷菊乙醇提取物对桔全爪螨种群的控制作用%Control effects of Mikania micrantha alcohol extract on citrus red mite Panonychus citri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑伊静; 庞雄飞; 徐长宝; 邓桥胜

    2005-01-01

    研究薇苷菊(Mikania micrantha)乙醇提取物对桔全爪螨(Panonychus citri)种群的控制作用,并比较其与常用杀螨剂哒螨灵的效果.在实验室用0.1、0.2、0.4 g·L-13个浓度提取物分别喷布桔全爪螨卵、幼螨和若螨,除了0.1 g·L-1浓度处理对卵没有效果外,该处理幼螨、若螨存活率以及另2个浓度处理3个螨态的存活率都显著下降.在非选择性试验条件下,用这3个浓度的提取物处理叶片饲养的桔全爪螨雌螨繁殖量显著减少,寿命也显著缩短.在田间用这3个浓度的提取物在20 d内连喷2次,桔全爪螨卵、幼螨和若螨的存活率都低于对照,干扰作用控制指数分别为0.518、0.292、0.277,即对种群增长控制的效果分别为48.2%、70.8%、72.3%,比15%哒螨灵乳油2000倍处理更有效控制桔全爪螨的田间种群.田间试验结果还表明,提取物处理的叶片比对照和哒螨灵处理的浓绿,而且对桔全爪螨的天敌较安全.

  7. Study on the active components of oviposition repellency of Mikania micrantha H.B.K.against citrus red mite, Panonychus citri McGregor%薇苷菊提取物对桔全爪螨的产卵驱避作用及有效组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑伊静; 庞雄飞; 凌冰; 孔垂华

    2004-01-01

    使用甲醇、乙酸乙酯、乙醚提取薇苷菊Mikania micrantha H.B.K.地上部植株并测试3种提取物对桔全爪螨Panonychus citri McGregor产卵的驱避作用,结果发现这些提取物处理后1d都有显著的产卵驱避效果,其中极性最强的甲醇提取物效果最好,处理后1d的产卵驱避率为74.22%.用乙醚、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、水依次对薇苷菊甲醇提取物进行萃取,生测结果表明只有极性最强的水萃取物具有显著的产卵驱避效果.进一步研究发现薇苷菊甲醇提取物经柱层析分离得到的6个组分中有3个对桔全爪螨有显著的产卵驱避作用,但效果都不及提取物,说明薇苷菊对桔全爪螨的产卵驱避作用是各组分共同作用的结果.用GC-MS对最有效组分的分析表明:2,2′-亚甲基双(6-叔丁基-4-甲基)苯酚是含量最大的成分,占70.24%,β-谷甾醇和岩藻甾醇也是有效成分,但含量较低,分别占12.03% 和 5.61%.

  8. THE POTENTILLO MICRANTHAE-QUERCETUM DALECHAMPII ASSOCIATION IN THE LOWER BASIN OF THE MOTRU RIVER - ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    COSTACHE IULIAN

    2007-01-01

    From the geographical point of view, the Lower Basin of the Motru River lies in the western part of the Getic Piedmont, with the coordinates: 44055' north latitude and 23045' east longitude. The studied area covers 691 Km2. The physical-geographical position and the pedo-climatic particularities specific to the territory under research confer the vegetation a mosaic nature with a particular specificity, determined by the quite strong Balkan and sub-Mediterranean influences. With the territory...

  9. Interactive Effect of Herbivory and Competition on the Invasive Plant Mikania micrantha

    OpenAIRE

    Junmin Li; Tao Xiao; Qiong Zhang; Ming Dong

    2013-01-01

    A considerable number of host-specific biological control agents fail to control invasive plants in the field, and exploring the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is important and helpful for the management of invasive plants. Herbivory and competition are two of the most common biotic stressors encountered by invasive plants in their recipient communities. We predicted that the antagonistic interactive effect between herbivory and competition would weaken the effect of herbivory on invasi...

  10. Novos sinônimos e uma nova combinação em Pusillanthus (Loranthaceae) New synonyms and a new combination in Pusillanthus (Loranthaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Claudenir Simões Caires; Kadja Milena Gomes-Bezerra; Carolyn Elinore Barnes Proença

    2012-01-01

    Uma revisão de Pusillanthus Kuijt para o Brasil é apresentada. O gênero monotípico recém-descrito ocorre na Venezuela, Guiana e Brasil. No Brasil, distribui-se somente na Caatinga, nos estados de Alagoas, Bahia e Paraíba. A nova combinação Pusillanthus pubescens (Rizzini) Caires é proposta e as espécies Phthirusa caatingae Rizzini, Pusillanthus trichodes (Rizzini) Kuijt e Struthanthus pubescens var. bahiensis Rizzini são tratadas como seus sinônimos taxonômicos. Uma prancha ilustrativa e um m...

  11. 不同颜色粘虫板诱集薇甘菊叶蝉的效果差异性比较%Effect Dissimilarity Comparison of Trapping Cicadellidae lived on Mikania micrantha by Using Different Color Sticky Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    泽桑梓; 季梅; 闫争亮; 周平阳; 弄扎

    2013-01-01

    为选定诱捕薇甘菊叶蝉Cicadellidae(种名待定)粘虫板的最佳颜色,解决人工助叶蝉迁移防控薇甘菊关键技术问题,以薇甘菊叶蝉为对象,自制红、兰、黄3种不同颜色的粘虫板在薇甘菊林地内进行田间诱捕试验.结果表明,粘虫板间距为10 m,大小为29.7 cm×19.7 cm的黄色单面粘虫板对薇甘菊叶蝉的诱集效果最好,ld可以诱集到薇甘菊叶蝉13.15±2.31(头),与红色、兰色粘虫板相比,差异性达到极显著水平;红色、兰色粘虫板诱集薇甘菊叶蝉值分别为1.46±0.50(头)和0.92±0.29(头),二者之间差异性不显著.

  12. Novos sinônimos e uma nova combinação em Pusillanthus (Loranthaceae New synonyms and a new combination in Pusillanthus (Loranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudenir Simões Caires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Uma revisão de Pusillanthus Kuijt para o Brasil é apresentada. O gênero monotípico recém-descrito ocorre na Venezuela, Guiana e Brasil. No Brasil, distribui-se somente na Caatinga, nos estados de Alagoas, Bahia e Paraíba. A nova combinação Pusillanthus pubescens (Rizzini Caires é proposta e as espécies Phthirusa caatingae Rizzini, Pusillanthus trichodes (Rizzini Kuijt e Struthanthus pubescens var. bahiensis Rizzini são tratadas como seus sinônimos taxonômicos. Uma prancha ilustrativa e um mapa de distribuição para o gênero no Brasil são apresentados, bem como estudos da arquitetura foliar, de superfícies de caule, folha e grãos de pólen usando Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura.A revision of Pusillanthus Kuijt for Brazil is presented. The recently described monotypic genus occurs in Venezuela, Guyana, and Brazil. In Brazil, it is distributed only within the Caatinga domain, in the states of Alagoas, Bahia and Paraíba. The new combination Pusillanthus pubescens (Rizzini Caires is proposed and the species Phthirusa caatingae Rizzini, Pusillanthus trichodes (Rizzini Kuijt, and Struthanthus pubescens var. bahiensis Rizzini are treated as its taxonomic synonyms. An illustrative plate and a distribution map for the genus in Brazil are presented, as well as information about leaf architecture, and stem, leaf, and pollen grain surfaces (based on scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Woody species recruitment under monospecific plantations of pioneer trees - facilitation or inhibition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade DFV

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The successional model of forest restoration is based on the facilitation process, in which the establishment of pioneer tree species favors the late successional tree species. We tested the hypothesis of facilitation through a case study, comparing tree species diversity in the understory of two Neotropical native tree species plantations, Trema micrantha (L. Blüme (Cannabaceae and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae. Results obtained under the plantations were compared with an adjacent area under spontaneous secondary succession, analyzing the ligneous plant diversity, soil physic-chemistry and shading. Additionally, the seed rain under the two plantations was analyzed. The area of spontaneous secondary succession and the area with T. micrantha had the highest ligneous plant diversity. The understory of T. micrantha plantation had the lowest light intensity and higher late successional species abundance. In addition, T. micrantha had higher plant diversity than S. molle, which could be explained at least partially by higher diversity in the seed rain. Higher litterfall and mineral content of leaves and twigs of T. micrantha did not coincide with higher topsoil mineral content under that species. Instead, soil under S. molle had higher level of P than the soil under T. micrantha. Data suggest that a high diversity of ligneous plants could be thrived by the spontaneous succession. On the other hand, T. micrantha had promoted a higher richness and abundance of late successional species, which could be related to a more pronounced shade effect, in agreement with the facilitation conception. The lowest diversity and density of ligneous plant species under S. molle characterizes an inhibition effect. T. micrantha could be included in restoration plans assembled with other species or combined with areas without intervention, whenever the spontaneous regeneration is possible.

  14. 不同光照及采食条件对薇甘菊和鸡屎藤叶片形态可塑性的影响%Effects of Different Light and Herbivory Conditions on Leaf Morphological Plasticity of Mikania micrantha and Paederia scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄乔乔; 李晓霞; 程汉亭; 范志伟; 沈奕德

    2013-01-01

    为探讨薇甘菊在生物控制的情况下对不同光照环境的入侵能力,本研究比较了不同光照强度(相对光强100%,14.72%)和模拟采食(每片叶片剪掉50%的叶面积,不剪叶)条件下薇甘菊叶片形态可塑性的变化,并将其与本地形态相似的藤本植物鸡屎藤进行对比.结果表明:遮阴显著增加了薇甘菊和鸡屎藤的叶面积,而模拟采食降低了薇甘菊的叶片面积和重量,却没有降低鸡屎藤的叶片面积和重量.遮阴显著增加了薇甘菊和鸡屎藤的比叶面积,增幅达近一倍,说明薇甘菊和鸡屎藤对光照条件的变化都有较强的可塑性反应.模拟采食并没有降低薇甘菊和鸡屎藤的这种表型可塑性的表达.本研究表明,尽管引入天敌可降低薇甘菊的生长,但薇甘菊仍可能通过调节自身的叶片形态特征来维持其对不同光照环境的入侵能力.

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Antiprotozoal and Antiviral Activities of Extracts from Argentinean Mikania Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Laurella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiprotozoal and antiviral activities of four Argentinean Mikania species. The organic and aqueous extracts of Mikania micrantha, M. parodii, M. periplocifolia, and M. cordifolia were tested on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, and dengue virus type 2. The organic extract of M. micrantha was the most active against T. cruzi and L. braziliensis exhibiting a growth inhibition of 77.6±4.5% and 84.9±6.1%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. The bioguided fractionation of M. micrantha organic extract led to the identification of two active fractions. The chromatographic profile and infrared analysis of these fractions revealed the presence of sesquiterpene lactones. None of the tested extracts were active against dengue virus type 2.

  16. A pharmacobotanical study of two medicinal species of Fabaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubo A Sonibare; Tolulope A Oke; Mike O Soladoye

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a pharmacobotanical study of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (Schum & Thonn) Benth (L. cyanescens) and Leptoderris micrantha Dunn (L. micrantha) which are two key medicinal plants from the family Fabaceae.Methods:The epidermal peel was obtained by soaking the leaf in concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) in a petri dish. Both surfaces were carefully mounted on clean glass slides and dehydrated by ethyl alcohol, and stained with safaranin O for 2 min. Transverse sections of plant leaf were obtained by free hand sectioning. Phytochemical screening for various constituents was carried out on the powdered leaves. Other parameters such as, moisture content, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, water and alcohol extractive values were obtained by standard techniques.Results:The distinctive features of the species include: the presence of stomata on both surfaces of L. cyanescens and the absence in L. micrantha. Presence of larger epidermal cells in both upper and lower surfaces of L. cyanescens [(35.25±1.64)í(31.25±2.36), (43.0±2.63)í(39.5±5.11)] respectively compared to L. micrantha. Glandular multicellular trichomes are present in L. micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Numerous trichomes surround the transverse section of the leaf of L.micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both species contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, steroids and flavonoids.Conclusions:The microscopic and phytochemical data provided in this study are useful for the standardization of the medicinal plants.

  17. Natural history of the mistletoe-feeding Thereus lomalarga (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, María Dolores; Robbins, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    The natural history and morphology of the immature stages of the butterfly Thereus lomalarga Robbins, Heredia & Busby are described and illustrated. The food plant is Oryctanthus alveolatus (H.B.K.) Kuijt (Loranthaceae). Chaetotaxy of the first instar is described and compared with that of three locally studied Thereus species. Larvae have four instars, and the dorsal nectary organ becomes functional in the third instar. They are facultatively tended by ants belonging to seven genera that are attracted to O. alveolatus by floral disc nectaries, honeydew producing Hemiptera, and secretory wounds produced by Hemiptera on the fleshy inflorescence rachis. The average period from egg to eclosion under lab conditions was 35.68 days. Females emerged before males. Adults of both sexes feed on nectar from the flowers of the food plant and on hemipteran secretions; adults were not observed feeding on other flowers. Campopleginae and Chalcidinae were the most important parasitoids.

  18. Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrus species: analysis of chromosome 2

    OpenAIRE

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Luro, François; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background The most economically important Citrus species originated by natural interspecific hybridization between four ancestral taxa (Citrus reticulata, Citrus maxima, Citrus medica, and Citrus micrantha) and from limited subsequent interspecific recombination as a result of apomixis and vegetative propagation. Such reticulate evolution coupled with vegetative propagation results in mosaic genomes with large chromosome fragments from the basic taxa in frequent interspecific heterozygosity....

  19. 78 FR 39698 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designating Critical Habitat for Three Plant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 63928) to list 15 species (13 plants and 2 animals) found on Hawaii Island as... to the Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Search for Docket No. FWS-R1-ES-2013... Bidens micrantha ssp. ctenophylla, which we proposed to list as endangered on October 17, 2012 (77...

  20. Screening of some medicinal plants from cameroon for beta-lactamase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Baurin, Stéphane; Frère, Jean-Marie; Ngassam, Pierre; Ngameni, Bathelemy; Azebaze, Anatole; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Watchueng, Jean; Goffin, Colette; Galleni, Moreno

    2007-03-01

    In efforts to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated 16 Cameroonian plants belonging to 10 families which were evaluated for anti-beta-lactamase activity. The investigation showed that extracts 2, 6, 3 and 5 of the 16 plants investigated presented interesting in vitro beta-lactamase inhibition (over 90%), respectively, of the beta-lactamases TEM-1, OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99. These extracts were from Mammea africana (all beta-lactamases), Garcinia lucida, G. kola (OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99), Bridelia micrantha (OXA-10, P99), Ochna afzelii (OXA-10, P99), Prunus africana (IMP-1) and Adenia lobata (TEM-1). After elimination of tannins (according to the European Pharmacopoeia) the extracts from B. micrantha, G. lucida and M. africana were tested further for their anti-beta-lactamase activity. The extracts from B. micrantha and G. lucida exhibited potent inhibitory activity, respectively, of beta-lactamase OXA-10 (IC(50) = 0.02 mg/mL) and P99 (IC(50) = 0.01 mg/mL). The anti-beta-lactamase activity of M. africana extract was weak. The isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents of G. lucida and B. micrantha will provide useful leads in the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors.

  1. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Hansen, Christian M.;

    2013-01-01

    ) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still...

  2. The bad biodiversity: alien plant species in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, SC; Corlett, RT

    2002-01-01

    The flora of Hong Kong has been well-surveyed since the mid nineteenth century and has had a long history of alien plant invasions. To the present day, more than 2130 wild plant species have been recorded, including 238 species that are probably naturalized alien species. Among them, Mikania micrantha, Ipomoea cairica, Eupatorium catarium, and Panicum maximum are most abundant. Naturalized alien plants are most prominent in human-disturbed habitats, such as abandoned farmland, wasteland and r...

  3. Comparison of leaf construction costs between three invasive species and three native species in South China

    OpenAIRE

    Liying Song; Changlian Peng; Shaolin Peng

    2009-01-01

    Construction cost is a quantifiable measure of energy demand for biomass production, and reflects specific growth strategies. Low construction cost is hypothesized to give plant invaders a growth advantage through efficient energy utilization. In this study, three invasive alien species (Mikania micrantha, Wedelia trilobata and Ipomoea cairica) and their co-occurring or phylogenetically related native species (Paederia scandens, Wedelia chinensis and Ipomoea pescaprae) in South China were use...

  4. Revision of Coelogyne section Fuliginosae (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelser, P.B.; Gravendeel, B.; Vogel, de, V.

    2000-01-01

    Section Fuliginosae Pfitzer & Kraenzl. of the genus Coelogyne Lindl. is revised. With the help of a pollen study, principal component and cluster analyses with morphological characters and a survey of some additional data, two species are recognized (C. fimbriata and C. triplicatula), including one dubious variety (C. fimbriata var. acuminata). Eleven names are reduced to synonymy. Three species formerly included in sect. Fuliginosae by several authors are excluded ( (C. micrantha, C. treutle...

  5. Growth but not photosynthesis response of a host plant to infection by a holoparasitic plant depends on nitrogen supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shen

    Full Text Available Parasitic plants can adversely influence the growth of their hosts by removing resources and by affecting photosynthesis. Such negative effects depend on resource availability. However, at varied resource levels, to what extent the negative effects on growth are attributed to the effects on photosynthesis has not been well elucidated. Here, we examined the influence of nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis responses of the host plant Mikania micrantha to infection by the holoparasite Cuscuta campestris by focusing on the interaction of nitrogen and infection. Mikania micrantha plants fertilized at 0.2, 1 and 5 mM nitrate were grown with and without C. campestris infection. We observed that the infection significantly reduced M. micrantha growth at each nitrate fertilization and more severely at low than at high nitrate. Such alleviation at high nitrate was largely attributed to a stronger influence of infection on root biomass at low than at high nitrate fertilization. However, although C. campestris altered allometry and inhibited host photosynthesis, the magnitude of the effects was independent of nitrate fertilizations. The infection reduced light saturation point, net photosynthesis at saturating irradiances, apparent quantum yield, CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, and maximum light-saturated rate of electron transport, and increased light compensation point in host leaves similarly across nitrate levels, corresponding to a similar magnitude of negative effects of the parasite on host leaf soluble protein and Rubisco concentrations, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and stomatal conductance across nitrate concentrations. Thus, the more severe inhibition in host growth at low than at high nitrate supplies cannot be attributed to a greater parasite-induced reduction in host photosynthesis, but the result of a higher proportion of host resources

  6. Growth but not photosynthesis response of a host plant to infection by a holoparasitic plant depends on nitrogen supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Xu, Shu-Jun; Hong, Lan; Wang, Zhang-Ming; Ye, Wan-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic plants can adversely influence the growth of their hosts by removing resources and by affecting photosynthesis. Such negative effects depend on resource availability. However, at varied resource levels, to what extent the negative effects on growth are attributed to the effects on photosynthesis has not been well elucidated. Here, we examined the influence of nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis responses of the host plant Mikania micrantha to infection by the holoparasite Cuscuta campestris by focusing on the interaction of nitrogen and infection. Mikania micrantha plants fertilized at 0.2, 1 and 5 mM nitrate were grown with and without C. campestris infection. We observed that the infection significantly reduced M. micrantha growth at each nitrate fertilization and more severely at low than at high nitrate. Such alleviation at high nitrate was largely attributed to a stronger influence of infection on root biomass at low than at high nitrate fertilization. However, although C. campestris altered allometry and inhibited host photosynthesis, the magnitude of the effects was independent of nitrate fertilizations. The infection reduced light saturation point, net photosynthesis at saturating irradiances, apparent quantum yield, CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, and maximum light-saturated rate of electron transport, and increased light compensation point in host leaves similarly across nitrate levels, corresponding to a similar magnitude of negative effects of the parasite on host leaf soluble protein and Rubisco concentrations, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and stomatal conductance across nitrate concentrations. Thus, the more severe inhibition in host growth at low than at high nitrate supplies cannot be attributed to a greater parasite-induced reduction in host photosynthesis, but the result of a higher proportion of host resources transferred to the parasite at

  7. Kemampuan Actinote anteas Doub. (Lepidoptera:Nymphalidae) Sebagai Serangga Pemakan Gulma

    OpenAIRE

    Reza, M. Isnar

    2011-01-01

    M. Isnar Reza, “The ability Actinote anteas Doub. (Lepidoptera:Nymphalidae) as a weed eating insect”, it was under supervised by Prof. Dr. Ir. Darma Bakti, MS and Ir. Marheni, MP. The objective of this study was to know the ability of Actinote anteas Doub. feed the Mikania micrantha and Chromolaena odorata and the status of Actinote anteas when experimented to the plant which it’s not kounds of weed. This research was conducted in Insectarium, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty...

  8. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in wild fruits from Northeastern Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the phenolic composition of wild fruits of Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree), Prunus spinosa (blackthorn), Rosa canina and Rosa micrantha (wild roses). Analyses were performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. Prunus spinosa fruits presented the highest concentration in phenolic acids (29.78 mg/100 g dry weight), being 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid the most abundant one, and flavone/ols (57.48 mg/100 g), among which quercetin3-O-rutinoside (15.63 mg/100 g) was the majority compound. (+)...

  9. Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

    1998-12-01

    Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

  10. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  11. Systematic revision of Platanthera in the Azorean archipelago: not one but three species, including arguably Europe’s rarest orchid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bateman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The Macaronesian islands represent an excellent crucible for exploring speciation. This dominantly phenotypic study complements a separate genotypic study, together designed to identify and circumscribe Platanthera species (butterfly-orchids on the Azores, and to determine their geographic origin(s and underlying speciation mechanism(s. Methods. 216 individuals of Platanthera from 30 Azorean localities spanning all nine Azorean islands were measured for 38 morphological characters, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy of selected flowers. They are compared through detailed multivariate and univariate analyses with four widespread continental European relatives in the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate, represented by 154 plants from 25 populations, and with the highly misleading original taxonomic descriptions. Physiographic and ecological data were also recorded for each study population. Key Results. Despite limited genetic divergence, detailed phenotypic survey reveals not one or two but three discrete endemic species of Platanthera that are readily distinguished using several characters, most floral: P. pollostantha (newly named, formerly P. micrantha occupies the widest range of habitats and altitudes and occurs on all nine islands; P. micrantha (formerly P. azorica occurs on eight islands but is restricted to small, scattered populations in laurisilva scrub; the true P. azorica appears confined to a single volcanigenic ridge on the central island of São Jorge. Conclusions. Although hybridity seems low, the excess of phenotypic over genotypic divergence suggests comparatively recent speciation. The most probable of several credible scenarios is that Azorean Platantheras represent a single migration to the archipelago of airborne seed from ancestral population(s located in southwest Europe rather than North America, originating from within the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate. We hypothesise that an initial

  12. Systematic revision of Platanthera in the Azorean archipelago: not one but three species, including arguably Europe's rarest orchid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Richard M; Rudall, Paula J; Moura, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims. The Macaronesian islands represent an excellent crucible for exploring speciation. This dominantly phenotypic study complements a separate genotypic study, together designed to identify and circumscribe Platanthera species (butterfly-orchids) on the Azores, and to determine their geographic origin(s) and underlying speciation mechanism(s). Methods. 216 individuals of Platanthera from 30 Azorean localities spanning all nine Azorean islands were measured for 38 morphological characters, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy of selected flowers. They are compared through detailed multivariate and univariate analyses with four widespread continental European relatives in the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate, represented by 154 plants from 25 populations, and with the highly misleading original taxonomic descriptions. Physiographic and ecological data were also recorded for each study population. Key Results. Despite limited genetic divergence, detailed phenotypic survey reveals not one or two but three discrete endemic species of Platanthera that are readily distinguished using several characters, most floral: P. pollostantha (newly named, formerly P. micrantha) occupies the widest range of habitats and altitudes and occurs on all nine islands; P. micrantha (formerly P. azorica) occurs on eight islands but is restricted to small, scattered populations in laurisilva scrub; the true P. azorica appears confined to a single volcanigenic ridge on the central island of São Jorge. Conclusions. Although hybridity seems low, the excess of phenotypic over genotypic divergence suggests comparatively recent speciation. The most probable of several credible scenarios is that Azorean Platantheras represent a single migration to the archipelago of airborne seed from ancestral population(s) located in southwest Europe rather than North America, originating from within the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate. We hypothesise that an initial anagenetic

  13. 3种植物提取物及其组合对稻田天敌群落的影响%Impact of Plant Extracts and Their Combination on the Natural Enemy Community in Paddy Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 梁广文; 曾玲

    2011-01-01

    The diversity index was used to evaluate the impact of plant extracts on natural enemy community in rice paddy fields. Results showed when alcohol extracts from Mikania micrantha Kunth or Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson at the concentration lower than 2.0 g· 100mL-1 were sprayed, the diversity index ( H') and evenness index ( E) of spider, predators and parasitoids all increased compared with water control, indicating that they were safe to these natural enemies. In contrast, the alcohol extracts from M. Micrantha and C. Odorata at the concentration higher than 2.0 g-100mL-1 had toxic effects on predator, spider and parasitoid to some extent; toxic effects grew steadily with increase in extract concentration and spray times. Azadirachtin, extracts from Melia azedarach L., and their different combination with the alcohol extracts from M. Micrantha and C. Odorata had strong toxic effects on natural enemy in paddy fields. Therefore, spraying concentration and times of these plant extracts should be reduced to protect natural enemy community.%应用生物多样性指数,评价了3种植物乙醇提取物及其组合对稻田主要天敌群落多样性的影响.结果表明,薇甘菊Mikania micrantha Kunth乙醇提取物2.0g·l00mL-1以下及其组合、香泽兰Chromolaena odorata (L.)King & Robinson乙醇提取物2.0g·100mL-1以下及其组合,蜘蛛、捕食性天敌昆虫和寄生性天敌昆虫的多样性指数(H')与均匀度指数(E)较清水对照均有不同程度的提高;薇甘菊乙醇提取物2.0g·100mL-1以上对捕食性天敌昆虫、香泽兰乙醇提取物2.0g·100mL-1以上对蜘蛛和寄生性天敌昆虫均有一定的毒杀作用,且随着浓度的提高和施用次数的增加,其毒杀作用增强;而印楝素(现代苦楝油Melia azedarach L.的提取物)与其他2种植物提取物(0.01g·mL-1)的不同组合均对稻田天敌类群均有较强的毒杀作用.因此建议降低香泽兰乙醇提取物与印楝素的使用浓度或

  14. Bioassay on oviposition repellency of non-preferable plant extracts against citrus red mite Panonychus citri%非嗜食植物提取物对桔全爪螨产卵的驱避性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑伊静; 庞雄飞; 周琼; 彭跃峰; 徐长宝

    2004-01-01

    The oviposition repellency of the alcohol extracts from 50 species of non-preferable plants and azadirachtin against citrus red mite ( Panonychus cirri ) was determined using laboratory bioassays. In choice tests, the extracts from 42 of the 50 plant species and 1% azadirachtin (2000×) significantly reduced oviposition 1d after treatment.The repellency effect of the extracts from the 42 plant species was better than that of azadirachtin. Mikania micrantha extract had the best result, with an Interference Index of Population Control (IIPC) of 0.087 1 d after treatment, and significantly reduced oviposition for 9 d, while the extracts from Sesbania cannabina, Allium tuberosum , Paederia scandens , Duranta erecta and Dicranopteris pedata also had good effects, with an oviposition repellency of over 70 % 1 d after treatment, and significantly reduced oviposition for 4 - 6 d. The effect became weaker as time went on. None of the extracts showed significant oviposition attraction.

  15. Trichomes morphology in petals of some Acanthaceae species.

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    Muhammad Amirul Aiman Ahmad Juhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary taxonomic study was carried out on seven Acanthaceae species namely as Andrographis paniculata, Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum, P. carruthersii,  Asystasia gangetica ssp. micrantha, Ruellia repens, Justicia comata and J. betonica. The study was undertaken to    investigate the morphology of trichomes present on the surfaces of flower petal. The variations found in this study are in their types and density. Based on observation, two forms of trichomes are present in all species studies which are glandular and non-glandular trichomes. There are seven types of trichomes found in this study. Trichomes types are shown to have systematic significance that can be used to differentiate and identify certain Acanthaceae species studied. 

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF GLYPHOSATE AND 2.4 D AMIN HERBICIDES TO CONTROL WEEDS UNDER Shorea selanica Bl. PLANTATION IN CARITA TRIAL GARDEN, BANTEN

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    Ari Wibowo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in Carita, West Java, to identify the effectiveness of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide to control weeds under Shorea selanica Bl. plantation. The trial was conducted through the application of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide with dosages of 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 liter per ha and compared with Glyphosate herbicide 5 liter per ha, manual treatment, and control (no treatment. The result showed that Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide could be used to control weeds in order to maintaining S. selanica Bl. plantation. Minimum dosage of 6 liter/ha was effective to control weeds such as Chromolaena odorata DC, Mikania micrantha Will, Lantana camara L, Imperata cylindrica Beauv., Melastoma malabathricum L, and Boreria latifolia Bl. Furthermore, there was no symptom of poison on S. selanica Bl. plantation after herbicide application with all dosages applied.

  17. A study of four medicinal plant complexes of Mexico and adjacent United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, E; Bye, R A

    1987-01-01

    A survey of medicinal herbs in markets of central and northern Mexico and southwestern United States revealed the existence of plant complexes of different species sharing common names, morphological and aromatic characteristics, and uses. Four complexes (with the "label" species listed first) discussed include: "cachani" with Roldana sessilifolia, Iostephane madrensis, Liatris punctata, Psacalium sp., and Potentilla sp.; "chuchupate" with Ligusticum porteri and Myroxylon balsamum; "hierba anís" with Tagetes lucida, T. filifolia, T. micrantha, Artemisia dracunculus, Pimpinella anisum, and Illicium verum; and "matarique" with Psacalium decompositum, P. peltatum, P. sinuatum, P. sp., and Acourtia thurberi. The distribution analysis of utilization and natural occurrence of plants in each complex indicated the presence of a dominant or "label" plant whose use extended beyond its natural range and which had substitutes derived from local plants that were not registered far beyond their respective natural ranges. PMID:3613608

  18. Mechanistic investigation in ultrasound induced enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of invasive biomass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Arup Jyoti; Agarwal, Mayank; Poudyal, Manisha; Goyal, Arun; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2016-08-01

    This study has assessed four invasive weeds, viz. Saccharum spontaneum (SS), Mikania micrantha (MM), Lantana camara (LC) and Eichhornia crassipes (EC) for enzymatic hydrolysis prior to bioalcohol fermentation. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomasses of weeds has been conducted with mechanical agitation and sonication under constant (non-optimum) conditions. Profiles of total reducible sugar release have been fitted to HCH-1 model of enzymatic hydrolysis using Genetic Algorithm. Trends in parameters of this model reveal physical mechanism of ultrasound-induced enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis. Sonication accelerates hydrolysis kinetics by ∼10-fold. This effect is contributed by several causes, attributed to intense micro-convection generated during sonication: (1) increase in reaction velocity, (2) increase in enzyme-substrate affinity, (3) reduction in product inhibition, and (4) enhancement of enzyme activity due to conformational changes in its secondary structure. Enhancement effect of sonication is revealed to be independent of conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis - whether optimum or non-optimum. PMID:26898160

  19. [Bioassay on oviposition repellency of non-preferable plant extracts against citrus red mite Panonychus citri].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yijing; Pang, Xiongfei; Zhou, Qiong; Peng, Yuefeng; Xu, Changbao

    2004-09-01

    The oviposition repellency of the alcohol extracts from 50 species of non-preferable plants and azadirachtin against citrus red mite (Panonychus citri) was determined using laboratory bioassays. In choice tests, the extracts from 42 of the 50 plant species and 1% azadirachtin (2000 x) significantly reduced oviposition 1d after treatment. The repellency effect of the extracts from the 42 plant species was better than that of azadirachtin. Mikania micrantha extract had the best result, with an Interference Index of Population Control (IIPC) of 0.087 1 d after treatment, and significantly reduced oviposition for 9 d, while the extracts from Sesbania cannabina, Allium tuberosum, Paederia scandens, Duranta erecta and Dicranopteris pedata also had good effects, with an oviposition repellency of over 70% 1 d after treatment, and significantly reduced oviposition for 4-6 d. The effect became weaker as time went on. None of the extracts showed significant oviposition attraction. PMID:15669510

  20. A floristic classification of the vegetation of a forest-savanna boundary in southeastern Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mapaure

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Chirinda Forest boundary was classified into eight types using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA. The moist forest comprises three types:  Strychnos mellodora-Chrysophyllum gonmgosanum Forest on deep dolerite soils; Chrysophyllum gorungosanum-Myrianthus holstii Forest on shallow dolerite soils; and  Teclea iiobilis-Ehretia cymosa Forest on drier, but deep dolerite soils. The non-forest vegetation comprises five types: Themeda triandra Grassland on shallow dolerite soils; Psidium guajava Bushland on sandstone; Bridelia micrantha-Harungana madagascariensis Mixed Woodland not restricted to any one particular soil type; Acacia karroo- Heteropyxis dehniae Woodland on shallow soils derived from sandstone but sometimes on dolerite; and  Julbemardia globiflora-Brachystegia spiciformis (Miombo Woodland on sandstone.

  1. Production of xylooligosaccharides from forest waste by membrane separation and Paenibacillus xylanase hydrolysis

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    Chun-Han Ko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Xylooligosaccharides (XO, derived from the alkaline (NaOH extractant of Mikania micrantha, were produced using multiple staged membrane separation and enzymatic xylanolysis. Staged nanofiltration (NMX, ultrafiltration (EUMX, and centrifugation (EMX processes for the ethanol precipitates were conducted. NMX recovered 97.26% of total xylose and removed 73.18% of sodium ions. Concentrations of total xylose were raised from 10.98 to 51.85 mg/mL by the NMX process. Recovered xylan-containing solids were hydrolyzed by the recombinant Paenibacillus xylanase. 68% XO conversions from total xylose of NMX was achieved in 24 hours. Xylopentaose (DP 5 was the major product from NMX and EMX hydrolysis. Xylohexaose (DP 6 was the major product from EUMX hydrolysis. Results of the present study suggest the applicability for XO production by nanofiltration, as NMX gave higher XO yields compared to those from a conventional ethanol-related lignocellulosic waste conversion process.

  2. Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica

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    Marcos G. Celli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica, an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  3. Detection and identification of the first viruses in chia (Salvia hispanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Marcos G; Perotto, Maria C; Martino, Julia A; Flores, Ceferino R; Conci, Vilma C; Pardina, Patricia Rodriguez

    2014-09-19

    Chia (Salvia hispanica), an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  4. INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES

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    Edi Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  5. Growth and chemical defense in three Asteraceae invasive weeds in lower subtropical China%三种菊科入侵植物的生长与化学防御的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪广艳; 朱丽薇; 牛俊峰; 赵秀华; 张振振; 赵培强

    2014-01-01

    A universal theory in ecology is that the allocations of limited resources to growth and defense are trade-off, while this theory appeared not to hold for invasive plants according to the previous studies. In this study, three invasive Asteraceae plant species in the Guangdong province i.e., Eupatorium odoratum, Mikania micrantha, Wedelia trilobata, and their congeneric or co-occurring native plant species i.e., Eupatorium chinensis, Paederia scandens, Wedelia chinensis were used to detect if there is a trade-off between growth and chemical defenses on the basis of carbon allocation, and investigate the trade-off relations between them. All the three invasive Asteraceae had higher relative growth rate (RGR) as compared to their related native counterparts, and M. micrantha had higher specific leaf area (SLA) as well. Two invasive Asteraceae (i.e., M. micrantha and W. trilobata) had higher condensed tannin content, while the other invasive species E. odoratum had higher total phenolics content, as compared to their native species. Our results indicate that the invasive plants have similar carbon assimilation but different carbon allocations between the growth and chemical defense, thus implying that the special underlying carbon utilization mechanism may be a key for their successful invasions.%“生活史理论”认为,植物可利用的资源总量是有限的,在植物的不同功能之间存在着此消彼长的权衡关系。入侵植物的生长和化学防御一般优于本地植物,那么其生长与化学防御之间是否存在权衡及其权衡关系怎样,目前尚不清楚。以广东省3种菊科入侵植物[三裂叶蟛蜞菊(Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.)、飞机草(Eupatorium odoratum)和薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)]为研究对象,并分别以近缘或伴生的本地植物[蟛蜞菊(Wedelia chinenses)、华泽兰(Eupatorium chinense)和鸡矢藤(Paederia scandens)]为对照,研究入侵植物的生长特性

  6. Dureza Rockwell da madeira de três espécies amazônicas submetidas a ensaios de apodrecimento acelerado Rockwell hardness of the wood of three Amazon species submitted to decay accelerated tests

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    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o emprego de ensaios de dureza Rockwell na caracterização da biodeterioração das madeiras de Simarouba amara (marupá, Cariniana micrantha (jequitibá e Dipteryx odorata (cumaru, submetidas ao ataque dos fungos apodrecedores Trametes versicolor (podridão branca e Gloeophyllum trabeum (podridão parda. Para tanto, corpos de prova de cada espécie amazônica foram submetidos a ensaios de apodrecimento acelerado, de acordo com a ASTM D2017 (2005, durante 20 semanas. A caracterização da dureza Rockwell foi realizada semanalmente até a 4ª semana e, posteriormente, a cada duas semanas, até a 20ª semana. Adicionalmente, foram determinadas as perdas de massa, conforme critérios estabelecidos pela ASTM D2017 (2005. Quanto aos resultados, destaca-se que a dureza Rockwell pode ser empregada como ferramenta principal na caracterização da biodeterioração da madeira, sendo sensível na predição dos estágios iniciais. Dentre as madeiras amazônicas, o cumaru apresentou a maior resistência natural aos fungos apodrecedores. Com relação aos fungos, a podridão parda atacou mais intensamente as três madeiras amazônicas.This study aimed to evaluate the use of Rockwell hardness in the characterization of the biodeterioration of Simarouba amara (marupá, Cariniana micrantha (jequitibá e Dipteryx odorata (cumaru woods, which were submitted to decay fungi Trametes versicolor (white rot and Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot. For this purpose, specimens of each Amazon species were submitted to decay fungi, according to ASTM D2017 (2005. The characterization of the Rockwell hardness was performed weekly until the fourth week, and then every two weeks until the twentieth week. Additionally, it was determined the mass loss, according to criteria established by ASTM D2017 (2005. The results indicated that the Rockwell hardness can be used as a primary tool in the characterization of the biodeterioration of wood, being sensitive in

  7. GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oils from Leaves of Three Asteraceae Invasive Plants%3种菊科入侵植物叶片精油成分的GC-MS分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季梅; 泽桑梓; 孙盟; 杨斌; 赵宁

    2012-01-01

    用同时蒸馏萃取法提取薇甘菊、紫茎泽兰和飞机草3种有害入侵植物叶片精油,用气相色谱-质谱进行精油化学组成的分析.结果表明,从3种有害入侵植物叶片精油中共鉴定出78种化合物,主要成分均为单萜类及倍半萜类,其中飞机草鉴定出化学成分50种,紫茎泽兰45种,薇甘菊50种.3种植物精油中都能检测到3-己烯-1-醇、α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、α-水芹烯、柠檬烯、反-罗勒烯、芳樟醇、α-胡椒烯、β-澄椒烯、β-石竹烯、α-香柠檬烯、α-石竹烯、α-姜烯、双环大香叶烯、荜澄茄油烯醇、橙花叔醇、石竹烯氧化物、库贝醇和马兜铃酮,部分化合物在医药领域开发利用前景广阔.%This paper reports the result of GC - MS analysis of the essential oils from the leaves of three Asteraceae invasive plants, namely, Mikania micrantha, Eupatorium adenophorum and Eupatorium odoratum. The essential oils from the leaves were extracted by simultaneous distillation and extraction. Totally 78 compounds were identified, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were found to be the major components. The kinds of compounds identified from Eupatorium odoratum, Eupatorium adenophorum and Mikania micrantha were 50, 45 and 50 respectively. The common components for three plants were 3 - Hexen - 1 - ol, α - Pinene, β - Pinene, α - Phellandrene, Limonene, trans - β - Ocimene, Linalool, α - Copaene, β - Cubebene, β - Caryophyllene, α - Bergamotene, α - Caryophyllene, α - Zingiberene, Bicyclogermacrene, Cubenol, Nerolidol, Caryophyllene oxide, Cubenol and Aristolane. Some of those compounds had utilization prospect in medicine development.

  8. 非寄主植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫嗅觉、取食及产卵行为的影响%The Influence of Non-Host Plant Volatiles on Olfactory, Feeding and Oviposition Behavior of Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 张茂新; 凌冰; 张世军; 丛斌; 梁广文

    2003-01-01

    选取5种黄曲条跳甲(Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius)的非寄主植物:薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H. B. K)、飞机草(Chromolaena odorata L.)、蟛蜞菊[Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merr.]、马缨丹(Lantana camara L.)和番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).应用四臂嗅觉仪测定了黄曲条跳甲成虫对各种挥发油的嗅觉反应.结果表明:5种植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫都具有很强的驱避作用.室内选择性试验结果进一步证实了几种植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫取食和产卵行为具有干扰作用.

  9. NOTES ON THE ASTERACEAE OF SUMATERA

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    SRI SUDARMIYATI TJITROSOEDIRDJO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An account of the tribe composition, endemic taxa, comparison with ad jacent areas and weedy Asteraceae of Sumatera is given. Based on the records of January 2000, there are 133 species of 74 genera in 11 tribes. The tribe Heliantheae is the largest, with 28% of the total number of the genera, followed by Astereae with 15%, Inuleae 12%, Senecioneae 10%, Anthemideae, Eupatorieae and Lactuceae 8%, the other tribes are represented by 4% or less. The most diverse genus is Blumea with 14 species. Other genera are only represented by 10 species or less, usually 4, or 3, or 2, and mostly by 1 species only. Thirty nine or about 53% are exotic genera and the native ones are less than half of the total number of the genera. In terms of indigenous and endemic species, Sumatera is richer than Java. There are 1 genus, 7 species and 2 varieties of Asteraceae endemic to Sumatera. A number of 43 important weed species were introduced from Tropical America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Among these Chromolaena odorata and Mikania micrantha are reported as the most noxious ones. List of the genera and species recorded in Sumatera is provided in this paper.

  10. Invasive Plant Species in the National Parks of Vietnam

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    Bernard Dell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of invasive plant species in national parks and forests in Vietnam is undocumented and management plans have yet to be developed. Ten national parks, ranging from uncut to degraded forests located throughout Vietnam, were surveyed for invasive plant species. Transects were set up along roads, trails where local people access park areas, and also tracks through natural forest. Of 134 exotic weeds, 25 were classified as invasive species and the number of invasive species ranged from 8 to 15 per park. An assessment of the risk of invasive species was made for three national parks based on an invasive species assessment protocol. Examples of highly invasive species were Chromolaena odorata and Mimosa diplotricha in Cat Ba National Park (island evergreen secondary forest over limestone; Mimosa pigra, Panicum repens and Eichhornia crassipes in Tram Chim National Park (lowland wetland forest dominated by melaleuca; and C. odorata, Mikania micrantha and M. diplotricha in Son Tra Nature Conservation area (peninsula evergreen secondary forest. Strategies to monitor and manage invasive weeds in forests and national parks in Vietnam are outlined.

  11. Influence of extracts from four plants on feeding choice of the 4th instar larvae of Actinote thalia pyrrha%四种植物提取物对艳婀珍蝶四龄幼虫取食选择的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲玲; 韩诗畴; 罗莉芬; 黄鸿

    2006-01-01

    用索氏抽提的方法,对薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H.B.K)、飞机草(Chromolaena odorata(L.))、港种矮脚奶白菜(Brassica chinensis L.)和南丰45天油青菜心(Brassica parachinensis Bailey)分别用甲醇、丙酮和正己烷进行提取,提取物对艳婀珍蝶4龄幼虫进行取食选择测定.试验结果表明,薇甘菊的不同溶剂提取物对艳婀珍蝶4龄幼虫的诱食率较高,其中对甲醇提取物的选择性最强,24h和48 h诱食率分别为93.65%和96.64%.4种植物中以丙酮提取物含有较多吸引艳婀珍蝶幼虫的共同物质.白菜和菜心的正己烷提取物对艳婀珍蝶4龄幼虫有拒食作用.

  12. Oxygen Isotopes in Tree Rings: A 345 Year Record of Precipitation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Baker, P. A.; Evans, M. N.

    2008-12-01

    The Amazon basin is one of the world's key centers of atmospheric convection and acts as an engine for global hydrologic circulation. Despite its importance, a paucity of high resolution climate data exists for this region, in large part due to a poor instrumental record. The oxygen isotopic measurement of meteoric water has been used extensively to reconstruct past temperatures derived from ice cores, corals, and tree rings but is only recently recognized as a precipitation proxy in the tropics. Here we present a continuous, highly resolved (intra-annual), 345 year oxygen isotopic record from the Madre de Dios department in Southeastern Peru. Using tropical hardwood species Dipteryx micrantha, we present oxygen (and carbon) isotopic data from digested tree ring cellulose. We also present some of the first intra-annual (early wood versus late wood) isotopic data on this old growth tropical species. We demonstrate the utility of Amazon tropical tree rings to accurately record rainfall. We also identify that this meteoric water was delivered to the region via the South American Low-level Jet (SALLJ), which develops over the Atlantic and is the major water source during the South American Summer Monsoon.

  13. Long-term persistence of pioneer species in tropical forest soil seed banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalling, J W; Brown, T A

    2008-10-05

    In tropical forests, pioneer species regenerate from seeds dispersed directly into canopy gaps, and from seeds that persisted in soil seed banks before gap formation. However, life-history models suggest that selection for long-term persistence of seeds in soil should be weak, as persistence incurs a fitness cost resulting from prolonged generation time. We use a carbon dating technique to provide the first direct measurements of seed persistence in undisturbed tropical forest seed banks. We show that seeds germinate successfully from surface soil microsites up to 38 years after dispersal. Decades-long persistence may be common in pioneers with relatively large mass, and appears to be unrelated to specific regeneration requirements. In Croton billbergianus, a sub-canopy tree that recruits in abundant small gaps, long-term persistence is associated with short-distance ballistic seed dispersal. In Trema micrantha, a canopy tree with widespread dispersal, persistence is associated with a requirement for large gaps that form infrequently in old-growth forest.

  14. Plant invasions in China: an emerging hot topic in invasion science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available China has shown a rapid economic development in recent decades, and several drivers of this change are known to enhance biological invasions, a major cause of biodiversity loss. Here we review the current state of research on plant invasions in China by analyzing papers referenced in the ISI Web of Knowledge. Since 2001, the number of papers has increased exponentially, indicating that plant invasions in China are an emerging hot topic in invasion science. The analyzed papers cover a broad range of methodological approaches and research topics. While more that 250 invasive plant species with negative impacts have been reported from China, only a few species have been considered in more than a handful of papers (in order of decreasing number of references: Spartina alterniflora, Ageratina adenophora, Mikania micrantha, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Solidago canadensis, Eichhornia crassipes. Yet this selection might rather reflect the location of research teams than the most invasive plant species in China. Considering the previous achievements in China found in our analysis research in plant invasions could be expanded by (1 compiling comprehensive lists of non-native plant species at the provincial and national scales and to include species that are native to one part of China but non-native to others in these lists; (2 strengthening pathways studies (primary introduction to the country, secondary releases within the country to enhance prevention and management; and (3 assessing impacts of invasive species at different spatial scales (habitats, regions and in relation to conservation resources.

  15. Taxonomic significance of leaf micromorphology in some selected taxa of Acanthaceae (Peninsular Malaysia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Aini, C. A. C.; Noraini, T.; Latiff, A.; Amirul-Aiman, A. J.; Ruzi, A. R.; Idris, S.

    2014-09-01

    Comparative leaf micromorphology study was conducted in eight taxa of Acanthaceae from Peninsular Malaysia. Eight chosen taxa were Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl, A. ilicifolius L., A. volubilis Wall, A. montanus T. Anderson, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees, Asystasia gangetica subsp. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu, Chroesthes longifolia (Wight) B. Hansen and Peristrophe roxburghiana (Schult.) Bremek. The objective of this study was to identify the leaf micromorphological characteristics that can be used in species identification and also as supportive data in classification. The procedures involved such as dehydration, critical point drying, gold coated and examination under scanning electron microscope. Findings in this study have demonstrated the similarities and variations in leaf micromorphological characteristics such as in type of epicuticular waxes, cuticular ornamentations, stomata characteristics and in the presence of trichomes. Six types of epicuticular waxes and five types of trichomes were observed. Variations in cuticular ornamentations and stomata structure can be used to differentiate species. One diagnostic character was found and proven to be very useful to identify Acanthus via the presence of simple trichomes (short-conicle like). In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that leaf micromorphological characteristics have taxonomic significance that can be useful in classifications and identification especially at species level.

  16. Wood quality of five species from cerrado for production of charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tattiane Gomes Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of wood and charcoal of some species from cerrado mineiro aiming the production of bioenergy and use in steel industry. Five wood species from cerrado located in Minas Gerais state were used. Basic density and lignin, total extractives, holocellulose and ash contents were evaluated. Charcoal and fixed carbon yields, contents of fixed carbon, volatile materials and ashes, higher heating value and apparent relative density were evaluated. An entirely randomized design with four repetitions was used in the evaluation of the experiment. Moreover, multivariate analysis of principle components was used. The species Casearia sylvestris and Luehea divaricata had the highest gravimetric yield of charcoal and fixed carbon, as much as high lignin contents in the wood. Charcoal made from Trema micrantha presented high heating value, but the lowest apparent relative density. The species Guazuma ulmifolia stood out due to high fixed carbon content and great potential for use in the steel industry, together with the specie Casearia sylvestris.

  17. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P; Catanéo, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; García-Jiménez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, René; González, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mélodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:21565018

  18. 铁线莲属研究随记(Ⅵ)%Notes on the genus Clematis (Ranunculaceae) (Ⅵ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文采

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the status of Clematis eriopoda Maxim. and sect. Atragenopsis Boiss. is discussed, and the species status of the former and the sectional status of the latter are recognized; two species (C. wenxianensis W. T. Wang, C. malacoclada W. T. Wang) and one variety (C. hastata Finet & Gagnep. var. micrantha W. T. Wang) are described as new;one species, C. tubulosa Turcz., which has been erroneously relegated into the synonymy under C. heracleifolia DC. by Fang and Wang for a long time, is reinstated; C. heracleifolia var. ichangensis Rehd. & Wils. is transferred to C. tubulosa, and a new combination, C.tubulosa var. ichangensis (Rehd. & Wils.) W. T. Wang, is made; the fruit description of C.glabrifolia K. Sun & M. S. Yan is given for the first time.%讨论了Clematis eriopoda Maxim.和sect.Atragenopsis Boiss.的地位,认为这二分类群均应成立;描述了2新种,1新变种;过去长期被归并的卷萼铁线莲C.tubulosa得到恢复;Clematis heracleifolia var.ichangensis被转移改作卷萼铁线莲的变种;首次给出光叶铁线莲Clematis glabrifolia的果实的形态描述.

  19. Interspecific variation in leaf pigments and nutrients of five tree species from a subtropical forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁRCIA BÜNDCHEN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation in the nutrient and pigment content of leaves from five tree species - of which three are perennial (Cupania vernalis, Matayba elaeagnoides and Nectandra lanceolata and two are deciduous (Cedrela fissilis and Jacaranda micrantha - in an ecotone between a Deciduous Seasonal Forest and a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Leaf samples were collected in the four seasons of the year to determine the content of macronutrients (N, K, P, Mg, Ca, S and photosynthetic pigments (Chla, Chlb, Chltot, Cartot, Chla:Chlb and Cartot:Chltot. The principal component analysis showed that leaf pigments contributed to the formation of the first axis, which explains most of the data variance for all species, while leaf nutrient contribution showed strong interspecific variation. These results demonstrate that the studied species have different strategies for acquisition and use of mineral resources and acclimation to light, which are determinant for them to coexist in the forest environment.

  20. Research progress on the mechanisms of invasion and spread of typical harmful plants in Hainan%海南典型有害植物的入侵扩散机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄乔乔; 沈奕德; 李晓霞; 范志伟

    2016-01-01

    The population explosion of harmful plants causes significant negative impacts to agricultural and forestry ecosystems, e-conomy and the environment. This paper reviews the mechanisms of invasion and spread of the typical invasive Mikania micrantha and Eupatorium catarium and the native exploding Merremia boisiana in Hainan to provide a scientific foundation for the research and management of harmful plants in Hainan. Natural and human caused clonal stolon fragments of M. micrantha have a high regenera-tion capacity, and the regeneration capacity and subsequent growth are positively associated with the resources stored in stolon inter-nodes and leaves. E. catarium can benefit more from resource addition than native plants, indicating that disturbance and fertilization in agriculture may promote the population advantage of E. catarium relative to natives. M. boisiana has spread to natural forests in Wuzhi Mountain frequented by tourists. Surveys and transplant experiment revealed that M. boisiana may establish in disturbed forest margins and near the tourist path, and then spread to the nearby natural forests facilitated by its creeping and climbing growth forms. These results highlight the importance of disturbance, human activities, high nutrient conditions and species traits in the population explosion of harmful plants. Future studies should systematically examine the mechanisms underlying the explosion of harmful plants and their control strategies in order to reduce the harmful effects and the spreading rate and provide a safety guarantee for the devel-opment of international tourism on the island.%有害植物成灾会对农林业生态系统、经济和环境造成巨大影响。本文对海南典型入侵植物薇甘菊、假臭草及土著灾变植物金钟藤的成灾扩散机理研究做一综述,以期为海南有害植物的研究和管理提供依据。自然及人为干扰造成的薇甘菊匍匐茎克隆片段有较高的再生能力,其再生

  1. Compatibilidade simbiótica de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares com espécies arbóreas tropicais Symbiotic compatibility of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with tropical tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pouyu-Rojas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A revegetação com espécies arbóreas é uma estratégia adequada, quando se pretende a reabilitação de terras degradadas. Entretanto, o estabelecimento e o crescimento destas em solos pobres em nutrientes dependem de diversos fatores como a capacidade de formar e beneficiar-se das micorrizas. No presente estudo, realizado em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Lavras, Minas Gerais- Brasil, avaliaram-se aspectos da relação fungos micorrízicos arbusculares e espécies arbóreas do sudeste brasileiro. Os fungos estudados foram: Scutellospora pellucida, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Entrophospora colombiana, Gigaspora gigantea, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, Scutellospora gregaria, Glomus clarum e isolados oriundos de agrossistemas e de mata, os quais foram inoculados em dezesseis espécies vegetais: Luehea grandiflora, Cecropia pachystachya, Schinus terebinthifolius, Machaerium nyctitans, Senna macranthera, Senna spectabilis, Solanum granuloso-leprosum, Caesalpinea ferrea, Tabebuia serratifolia, Maclura tinctoria, Guazuma ulmifolia, Acacia polyphylla, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Trema micrantha e Cedrela fissilis. Estas espécies apresentaram comportamento diferenciado em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos e às respostas em crescimento decorrentes da inoculação. A amplitude de eficiência simbiótica dos fungos variou muito, sendo o Gl. clarum, E. colombiana, S. pellucida e Gl. etunicatum os fungos de maior amplitude, beneficiando mais de 80 % das espécies vegetais estudadas, e a A. scrobiculata a espécie de comportamento mais restrito em relação aos hospedeiros. A análise da compatibilidade fungo-hospedeiro e o comportamento geral das espécies em associação indicam a ocorrência de seletividade diferenciada na rela��ão fungo-hospedeiro, existindo combinações de eficiência simbiótica muito variável para as plantas hospedeiras. A importância destes resultados para a

  2. Dieta y comportamiento alimentario de un grupo de mico maicero Cebus apella de acuerdo a la variación en la oferta de frutos y artrópodos, en la Amazonía colombiana Diet and feeding behavior of a group of brown capuchin monkeys Cebus apella according to fruits and arthropods availability, in the Colombian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Gómez-Posada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la abundancia de artrópodos y frutos maduros, con el comportamiento alimentario y dieta de un grupo de Cebus apella en la Amazonía colombiana durante 1999. La oferta de frutos se midió por transectos fenológicos y la abundancia de artrópodos por capturas manuales. La oferta de ambos recursos varió a lo largo del año, lo que permitió establecer tres períodos de disponibilidad combinada: abundancia, oferta intermedia y escasez. Se completaron 708 horas de seguimiento al grupo y con el método de barrido lento se determinó una dieta omnívora, siendo principalmente insectívora - frugívora (48.8% - 42.9%. Los maiceros consumieron 96 especies de plantas y la diversidad mensual de frutos en la dieta, no se correlacionó con la oferta de los mismos. En los meses de abundancia de recursos, tanto frutos como artrópodos fueron consumidos en altas cantidades, y los frutos presentaron una distribución agrupada. Durante los períodos de escasez de recursos, la dieta incluyó pocas especies de frutos, considerados clave, de difícil manipulación, como Cariniana micrantha (Lecythidaceae, y fue complementada con partes vegetales. A diferencia de otros estudios, durante la escasez de frutos, no se presentó el mayor consumo de artrópodos, puesto que éstos igualmente escaseaban. Los maiceros mostraron una dieta generalista - oportunista y utilizaron los recursos en la proporción en la que estuvieron disponibles. Así por ejemplo, los valores de selectividad para frutos fueron muy bajos, y las tasas de éxito de captura de artrópodos se correlacionaron con la disponibilidad de los mismos.The relation between the abundance of fruits and arthropods, and the diet and feeding behavior of a group of Cebus apella was studied in the Colombian Amazon during 1999. Fruit availability was measured using phenological transects, and the abundance of arthropods by using manual captures. The abundance of both resources varied

  3. A importância da identificação botânica nos inventários florestais: o exemplo do "tauari" (Couratari spp. e Cariniana spp. - Lecythidaceae em duas áreas manejadas no estado do Pará The importance of botanical identification in forest inventories: the example of "tauari" - Couratari spp. and Cariniana spp., Lecythidaceae - in two timber areas of the State of Pará

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    Lílian Costa Procópio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O nome vulgar adotado nos inventários florestais tem agrupado espécies distintas. Para exemplificar este problema, foram avaliadas as identificações de indivíduos comercialmente determinados como "tauari" em inventários de duas áreas manejadas de 100 ha nos pólos madeireiro central e leste do Estado do Pará. Características dendrológicas de cada espécie foram anotadas para diferenciá-las. Dados sobre a distribuição geográfica dessas espécies, as propriedades tecnológicas de sua madeira e a legislação atual para o manejo florestal são discutidos. O inventário feito no pólo madeireiro central registrou 112 indivíduos de "tauari" nominados como Couratari guianensis, e seis indivíduos de "tauari-cachimbo" determinados como Couratari sp. Depois de uma revisão botânica com material coletado de cada árvore, foi constatado que os indivíduos determinados como Couratari guianensis agrupavam três espécies: Couratari guianensis, C. oblongifolia e C. stellata, esta última com maior densidade relativa. O que antes constava como Couratari sp. agrupava as espécies Cariniana micrantha e Cariniana decandra. No pólo leste, o inventário contava 33 indivíduos, listados como "tauari" ou Couratari guianensis. Para estes, a identificação botânica mostrou o agrupamento de duas espécies: C. guianensis com maior densidade relativa e C. oblongifolia. Fora da área de estudo, foi registrada a ocorrência de C. tauari. Este estudo mostra que é possível separar as espécies utilizando aspectos dendrológicos (folhas, ramos e tronco. O inventário botânico é demonstrado como base para o conhecimento da diversidade e indispensável para assegurar o sucesso dos planos de manejo. No contexto jurídico, o agrupamento inviabiliza o cumprimento das leis brasileiras referentes ao manejo.The vernacular names usually used in commercial inventories may group together distinct species. To investigate this problem, the botanical identification

  4. Análise da estrutura de comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta amazônica de Terra Firme aplicada ao manejo florestal Analysis of the structure of tree communities of a amazonian forest applied to management

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    João Carlos Zenaide Oliveira Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar e descrever a estrutura das comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta de terra firme sob regime de manejo na Amazônia Oriental, localizada no município de Almeirim, Pará, Brasil. O levantamento florístico foi realizado em 1.400,30 ha de uma Unidade de Produção Anual (UPA, do Plano de Manejo Florestal da empresa ORSA Florestal. Todos os indivíduos com DAP > 30 cm foram inventariados, registrando-se 77.834 árvores distribuídas em 57 famílias, 229 gêneros e 556 espécies. Oito comunidades foram identificadas por meio de uma analise de agrupamento, apresentando alta diversidade e equibilidade florística (H" médio = 4,25 e J" médio = 0,75. As comunidades apresentaram 138 espécies comuns, 119 espécies de ocorrência exclusiva e 377 espécies raras, representadas por apenas um indivíduo. As espécies que mais se destacaram foram: Dinizia excelsa, Vouacapoua americana, Goupia glabra, Mouriri brachyanthera, Parinari excelsa, Manilkara bidentada, Tachigalia mymecophyla e Licania micrantha. Algumas espécies de valor comercial apresentaram variações importantes na densidade, sugerindo risco de extinção em comunidades onde as espécies apresentam densidade muito baixa. Sugerimos que os planos de manejo considerem as várias comunidades ecológicas encontradas nas UPAs evitando assim variações significativas, causadas pela exploração e seus impactos, na composição florística e estrutura das comunidades existentes.To demonstrate the importance of the ecological concept for forest management, the object of this work was to identify and describe the structure of tree communities of a tropical forest under management in the Eastern Amazonia, located in Almeirim municipality, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The floristic survey was undertaken in a terra-firme tropical forest of 1,400.30 hectares. All individuals with DBH > 30 cm were inventoried, registering 77,834 trees distributed in 57

  5. As espécies de tauari (Lecythidaceae em florestas de terra firme da Amazônia: padrões de distribuição geográfica, abundâncias e implicações para a conservação "Tauari" species (Lecythidaceae in non-flooded Amazon forest: patterns of geographic distribution, abundance, and implications for conservation

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    Lilian Costa Procópio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conhecer a distribuição de uma espécie é essencial para o conhecimento de sua ecologia e conservação. Neste estudo, foram levantadas a composição, a abundância, a estrutura diamétrica e a distribuição geográfica das espécies de tauari (Lecythidaceae, um dos grupos de árvores mais explorados na Amazônia. Foram utilizados dados de herbários para definir a área de distribuição das espécies e inventários em seis áreas do bioma (totalizando 401,25 ha para estimar abundâncias e estruturas diamétricas. Das 14 espécies ocorrentes na Amazônia, nove foram encontradas nos inventários. Couratari guianensis apresentou a maior área de distribuição contínua, porém sempre com densidades baixas. Couratari stellata apresentou a segunda maior área de distribuição, porém disjunta e, em geral, com densidades altas. Cariniana micrantha e Couratari multiflora apresentaram ampla distribuição e densidades variáveis, enquanto a maioria das demais espécies mostrou distribuição regional ou endêmica, e densidades menores que um indivíduo por hectare. A classificação das espécies em relação ao tipo de raridade divergiu daquelas descritas para Couratari guianensis e C. multiflora. Os resultados ressaltam a escassez de dados sobre espécies madeireiras nas regiões mais desmatadas da Amazônia, a necessidade do levantamento da abundância populacional local e regional para a melhor caracterização do seu padrão de distribuição e fornecem bases para a revisão das categorias e critérios de ameaças das espécies de Couratari na lista vermelha da IUCN.Understanding the range of a species is essential to understanding its ecology and conservation. In this study we collected data on the composition, abundance, diametric structure, and geographic distribution of "tauari" species (Lecythidaceae, which are among the most exploited timber trees of the Amazonian forest. We used herbarium data to define the areas of distribution and

  6. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Curk

    Full Text Available Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105 were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species

  7. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  8. Ovipositional deterrent activity of ethanol extracts of the non-preferable plants to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens%非嗜食植物乙醇提取物对褐飞虱产卵的驱避作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 梁广文; 曾玲

    2010-01-01

    应用干扰作用控制指数IIPC(intederence index of population control),评价47种非嗜食植物乙醇提取物对褐飞虱(Nilaparvata lugens)的产卵驱避效果.结果表明,处理后48 h,大多数供试植物提取物(浓度均为10.0 g/L)对褐飞虱均有较强的产卵驱避作用.其中山姜(Alpinia japonica)、长叶马兜铃(Aristolochia championii)、华南毛蕨(Cyclosorus parasiticus)等8种乙醇提取物处理的稻株上未见产卵;飞机草(Chromolaena odorata)、蒜(Allium sativum)、苍耳(Xanthium sibiricum)等9种植物的乙醇提取物的IIPC小于0.100;薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)、马缨丹(Lantana camara)、蓖麻(Ricinus communis)等13种植物的乙醇提取物的效果达80%以上.随着作用时间的延长,产卵驱避持续效果逐渐减弱,持续驱避作用时间为3 d.此外,随着提取物使用剂量的提高,产卵驱避作用增强,具有产卵驱避作用的浓度为10.0 g/L以上.

  9. 取食不同食料植物对安婀珍蝶的营养利用及中肠四种酶活力的影响%Effects of feeding on different food plants on nutritional utilization and midgut enzyme activities in Actinote anteas (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 韩诗畴; 郭明昉; 李丽英; 彭统序; 刘文惠; 罗莉芬

    2005-01-01

    分别用薇甘菊Mikania micrantha HBK、飞机草Chromolaena odorata L.、革命菜Gynura crepidioides Benth、菜心Brassicaparachinensis Bailey和白菜Brassica chinensis L.饲养安婀珍蝶Actinote anteas,计算各龄期试虫的存活率;测定不同食料植物对安婀珍蝶4龄幼虫的营养利用以及中肠中淀粉酶、海藻糖酶、蔗糖酶和羧酸酯酶活性的影响.结果表明:薇甘菊饲养的试虫,其4、5、6龄的存活率高于其他供试食料植物上的试虫;取食薇甘菊的安婀珍蝶4龄幼虫相对生长率和食物利用率明显高于取食其他3种食料植物的试虫,但其相对取食量明显较低;取食薇甘菊的安婀珍蝶4龄试虫羧酸酯酶比活力明显高于以其他3种植物为食的试虫;取食白菜的4龄试虫,其蔗糖酶、海藻糖酶和淀粉酶比活力较低.这些研究结果表明安婀珍蝶对革命菜、菜心和白菜存在不同程度的取食利用障碍,由此判定他们不会成为安婀珍蝶的寄主植物.

  10. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  11. Effects of semio-chemical of the non-host plant on brown planthopper( Nilaparvata lugens )%非嗜食植物次生化合物对褐稻虱实验种群的控制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟平生; 梁广文; 曾玲

    2004-01-01

    采用干扰作用控制指数(Interference index of population control,ⅡPC),研究了非嗜食植物乙醇提取物对褐稻虱(Nilaparvata lugens(Stal))实验种群的控制作用.结果表明,供试的26种植物乙醇提取物(1 gDW·100mL-1)中,大多数对褐稻虱种群有明显的产卵忌避作用和综合干扰控制作用.其中苍耳(Xanthium sibiricum Petr.et Widd)、甘草(Clycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)、飞机草(Chromolaena odorata)3种植物乙醇提取物的产卵忌避率达90%以上;薇苷菊(Mikannia micrantha H.B)、飞机草、苍耳等14种植物乙醇抽提物1 gDW·100mL-1对褐稻虱的综合ⅡPC小于0.1,表明对褐稻虱种群的控制效果达90%以上;同时部分植物乙醇提取物具有一定的毒杀作用,如薇苷菊、马樱丹(Lantana camaraL.)等乙醇提取物对褐稻虱1~2龄若虫的ⅡPC达到0.32~0.45,薇苷菊、尾叶桉(Eucalyptus urophlyla S.T.Blakely)、飞机草对3~5龄若虫的ⅡPC分别为0.40~0.50,即对褐稻虱1~2、3~5龄若虫分别具有55%~68%和50%~60%的毒杀效果.这些植物乙醇提取物可作为组建水稻植物保护剂的成分.

  12. Bronchospasmolytic activity of the extract and fractions of Asystasia gangetica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Ezike

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The bronchospasmolytic constituent of leaves of Asystasia gangetica (L. T. Anderson, sub-specie micrantha (Nees Ensermu (Acanthaceae was isolated by bio-activity-guided technique. The bronchospasmolytic effect of the fractions of the leaf extract as well as the isolate AG-1 was evaluated using histamine-induced contraction of the guinea pig trachea and pre-contracted trachea (pathological tissue. The results showed that the fractions and AG-1 inhibited contractions of the guinea pig trachea induced by histamine in a dose dependent manner. The isolated constituent, (AG-1 caused 82% inhibition of maximal contraction produced by histamine at a concentration of 400μg/ml. On histamine (8μg/ml pre-contracted trachea, cumulative doses of the fractions evoked a dose dependent relaxation.  Phytochemical analysis showed that the isolated compound (AG-1 tested positive to terpenoids while the fractions contained typical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. These findings suggest that the usefulness of leaves of A. gangetica in the treatment of asthma may derive from bronchospasmolytic effect of terpenoid compounds in the leaves.   Industrial relevance: Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in both children and adults; a prevalence rate of 5 – 10% has been reported for Nigeria.  Drugs used in the management include bronchodilators which are short-term relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs which are long-term controllers. Despite the availability of oral and inhaled medications, the prevalence of asthma is on the rise (NHLBI/WHO 1995. The challenge of developing new effective, safe and long lasting antiasthmatic drugs from natural products appears inevitable. The leaves of Asystasia gangetica L. (T. (Acanthaceae, a traditional anti-asthma remedy, offer great potential for the development of a novel anti-asthmatic agent. The leaves have been shown to possess

  13. 海南岛外来植物入侵现状及防控策略研究%Alien Invasion Plants in Hainan Island and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭宗波; 王春燕; 蒋英; 李建华; 麦全法; 蒋菊生

    2013-01-01

    海南属热带岛屿省份,其光、热、水自然资源充沛,生物多样性丰富,来自世界各地的许多外来植物都极易在海南岛安家落户.基于海南岛植物入侵防控及外来物种管理的需求,通过全岛集中拉网式调查与分散调查相结合,对海南外来入侵植物的种类、分布现状和危害情况进行调查.结果发现海南岛外来植物共约158种,隶属于39科117属.菊科(Asteraceae)、禾本科(Gramineae)、蝶形花科(Papilionaceae)、苋科(Amaranthaceae)、大戟科(Euphorbaiceae)等5个科的外来植物数量较多.国家环保总局公布的首批外来入侵植物薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)、飞机草(Eupatorium odoratum)、凤眼莲(Eichhornia crassipes)、假高粱(Sorghum halepense)、空心莲子草(Ahernanthera philoxeroides)在海南均有一定分布.其它如假臭草(Eupatorium catarium)、马缨丹(Lantana camara)、含羞草(Mimosa pudica)、蟛蜞菊(Wedelia trilobata)、假马鞭草(Stachytarpheta jamaicensis、阔叶丰花草(Borreria latifolia)、地毯草(Axonopus compressus)、草胡椒(Peperomia pellucida)等外来植物也在海南各地的不同生态系统中随处可见.从气候、土壤、植被、人为及自然干扰、交通与贸易等方面对海南外来生物入侵形成的原因进行分析,在此基础上提出包括建立风险评估和预警防御体系在内的一系列海南省外来物种防控与管理策略,以期为海南外来生物入侵的防范和生态安全提供科学依据.

  14. SNP mining in C. clementina BAC end sequences; transferability in the Citrus genus (Rutaceae, phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollitrault Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing availability of EST databases and whole genome sequences, SNPs have become the most abundant and powerful polymorphic markers. However, SNP chip data generally suffers from ascertainment biases caused by the SNP discovery and selection process in which a small number of individuals are used as discovery panels. The ongoing International Citrus Genome Consortium sequencing project of the highly heterozygous Clementine and sweet orange genomes will soon result in the release of several hundred thousand SNPs. The primary goals of this study were: (i to estimate the transferability within the genus Citrus of SNPs discovered from Clementine BACend sequencing (BES, (ii to estimate bias associated with the very narrow discovery panel, and (iii to evaluate the usefulness of the Clementine-derived SNP markers for diversity analysis and comparative mapping studies between the different cultivated Citrus species. Results Fifty-four accessions covering the main Citrus species and 52 interspecific hybrids between pummelo and Clementine were genotyped on a GoldenGate array platform using 1,457 SNPs mined from Clementine BES and 37 SNPs identified between and within C. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata and C. micrantha. Consistent results were obtained from 622 SNP loci. Of these markers, 116 displayed incomplete transferability primarily in C. medica, C. maxima and wild Citrus species. The two primary biases associated with the SNP mining in Clementine were an overestimation of the C. reticulata diversity and an underestimation of the interspecific differentiation. However, the genetic stratification of the gene pool was high, with very frequent significant linkage disequilibrium. Furthermore, the shared intraspecific polymorphism and accession heterozygosity were generally enough to perform interspecific comparative genetic mapping. Conclusions A set of 622 SNP markers providing consistent results was selected. Of the

  15. Influência da cobertura e do solo na composição florística do sub-bosque em uma floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, MG, Brasil Cover and soil influence at understory of a Seasonal Tropical Forest, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira-Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A relação ecológica planta-luz tem sido estudada desde o início do século XX. As análises da relação da luminosidade ao nível das comunidades florestais têm se valido de medições indiretas por meio de índices de cobertura, mas sem a aplicação da fotogrametria para estimar essa cobertura. Este trabalho foi idealizado para utilizar fotogrametria do dossel, tornando-a aplicável ao estudo da luminosidade no sub-bosque herbáceo-arbustivo. Teve como objetivos estabelecer a relação existente entre espécies do estrato herbáceo-arbustivo e a cobertura do dossel e averiguar a existência de correlações entre espécies, luminosidade e variáveis pedológicas. Para tanto, foram tiradas fotografias em preto e branco nos períodos seco e chuvoso, em 100 (1 m×1 m parcelas aplicadas para a amostragem da vegetação herbácea. Foram colhidas amostras de solo em cada parcela. A partir dos valores médios das medidas de cobertura estimada pelas fotografias dos períodos seco e chuvoso calculou-se o valor médio de cobertura para cada espécie amostrada. Por meio do teste "t" student e da Análise de Correspondência Canônica foram determinadas as relações entre as espécies, a luminosidade e as variáveis pedológicas no estrato herbáceo-arbustivo. A cobertura não foi significativamente diferente nas épocas seca e na chuvosa. Apenas três espécies, Heisteria silviani, Calathea brasiliensis e Psychotria conjugens, tiveram médias de cobertura significativamente maiores que a média amostral e outras três, Olyra micrantha, Lacistema pubescens e Pteris denticulata, tiveram médias menores. As distribuições de parcelas pelos valores de cobertura, de tamanho de clareiras e pelo número de clareiras mostraram-se similares às distribuições encontradas na literatura para outras florestas tropicais e, portanto, o método da fotogrametria revelou-se adequado para a avaliação da cobertura. Verificou-se que os teores de cálcio, magn

  16. Response of the herbaceous layer to snow variability at the south margin of the Gurbantonggut Desert of China%古尔班通古特沙漠南缘草本层对积雪变化的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范连连; 马健; 吴林峰; 徐贵青; 李彦; 唐立松

    2012-01-01

    草本层是古尔班通古特沙漠植物群落下层层片的构建者,冬季积雪提供了其生长发育所需要的主要水分,积雪的增加或减少对草本植物数量和生物量会产生显著的影响.该研究利用人工增减积雪的方法,在古尔班通古特沙漠南缘设置了5个不同厚度的积雪处理:0积雪、50%积雪、100%积雪、150%积雪和200%积雪,其中100%积雪为自然积雪.采用1m×1m的样方,对草本层片的物种数、盖度、密度、高度进行了调查,还采用收获法测定了草本层片的地上生物量和优势种小花荆芥(Nepeta micrantha)的单株地上生物量.对研究区内13个科29种草本植物的研究表明:1)单位面积出土幼苗数量跟积雪厚度呈显著正相关关系,草本层片的盖度、密度对积雪的变化响应显著,随着积雪增加,草本层片的密度和盖度呈递增趋势,而草本层片的平均高度呈递减趋势,但不同积雪处理间的物种数和总地上生物量没有显著差异;2)积雪厚度与优势种的株高和地上生物量呈显著负相关关系,积雪的增加导致优势种的单株生物量和株高显著降低;3)积雪厚度的变化主要影响了草本层片植物种子萌发的数量,但对物种数量没有显著影响.这表明:虽然积雪是草本植物的主要水分来源之一,但荒漠植物群落的草本植物对积雪的变化具有很强的缓冲能力,即使积雪很少,草本层片的物种构成也不会发生显著变化,草本层片的净初级生产力也保持相对稳定.%Aims The herbaceous layer is an important component of the plant community of China's Gurbantonggut Desert, and it primarily depends on early spring snow-melt water for germination and development. However, few studies have shown how the herbaceous layer responds to variability of precipitation. Generally, snow thickness changes in accordance to variability of precipitation. Therefore, our objective was to determine how snow

  17. Eficiência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares isolados de solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita no crescimento inicial de espécies nativas Efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from bauxite mine spoils on seedling growth of native woody species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Donizetti Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs, estabelecendo simbioses eficientes com plantas, desempenham papel importante na sustentabilidade dos ecossistemas e podem ser manejados para a revegetação bem sucedida de áreas degradadas. A eficiência da simbiose está relacionada não só aos genótipos dos simbiontes, i.e, FMA e espécie vegetal, como também às condições ambientais que influenciam a expressão da relação simbiótica. Assim, o primeiro passo visando ao manejo de simbioses eficientes é estudar a variabilidade de FMAs quanto à eficiência com diferentes espécies vegetais. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a colonização micorrízica e a eficiência simbiótica de isolados de FMAs obtidos de áreas de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação em dois ambientes (campo e serra, no crescimento de mudas de duas espécies pioneiras [aroeira (Schinus terebenthifolius e trema (Trema micrantha] e de duas espécies secundárias iniciais [açoita-cavalo (Luehea grandiflora e sesbânia (Sesbania virgata], em solo de baixa fertilidade. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, por 120 dias. Para cada espécie vegetal, foram aplicados 10 tratamentos de inoculação com FMAs (isolados de FMAs ou de sua mistura: Acaulospora longula, Paraglomus occultum, Glomus sp., Gigaspora sp., Acaulospora spinosa e a mistura destes, todos oriundos de área de campo; e Acaulospora scrobiculata, Paraglomus occultum, Glomus sp. e a mistura destes, todos oriundos de área de serra. Para comparação, foram acrescentados ainda um tratamento-referência inoculado com Glomus etunicatum eficiente e um tratamento não-inoculado como controle. Plantas de todas as espécies apresentaram crescimento reduzido na ausência de FMAs (controle, porém beneficiaram-se de modo diferenciado dos tratamentos de inoculação. Todos os isolados, ou sua mistura, foram eficientes em promover o crescimento de sesbânia, enquanto para trema e aroeira somente um isolado de Glomus

  18. Estrutura do sub-bosque herbáceo-arbustivo da mata da silvicultura, uma floresta estacional semidecidual no município de Viçosa-MG Understory structure of Silvicultura forest, a seasonal tropical forest in Viçosa, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos trabalhos em comunidades florestais, tradicionalmente são estudadas apenas a composição e a estrutura do componente arbóreo, relegando o estrato herbáceo-arbustivo ao esquecimento ou ao segundo plano. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever a estrutura fitossociológica desse estrato para entender suas relações sinecológicas e, por fim, estudar a distribuição dos indivíduos pelas classes de tamanho para inferir sobre fatores e processos determinantes da organização florestal da Mata da Silvicultura. Para o estudo da fitossociologia da área foram utilizados os parâmetros de abundância obtidos a partir de 100 m² de amostra subdividida em parcelas de 1 m². A estrutura fitossociológica horizontal considerou todos os indivíduos com CAP menor que 10 cm ou com altura maior que 20 cm. Os aspectos dinâmicos foram avaliados por meio da distribuição de tamanhos individuais expressos pelos diâmetros à altura do solo em cada população amostrada. Foram amostrados 1.193 indivíduos de 109 espécies, pertencentes a 41 famílias botânicas, resultando em um índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' de 3,38 e equabilidade (J' de 0,72, valores considerados altos para a heterogeneidade do estrato herbáceo-arbustivo. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Piper lucaeanum, Psychotria conjugens, Olyra micrantha, Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Ottonia leptostachya, Aparisthmium cordatum e Psychotria hastisepala. As famílias mais importantes (VI foram Rubiaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Monimiaceae, Leguminosae (Mimosoideae, Myrtaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae e Flacourtiaceae. Pela análise de distribuição de tamanhos foi levantada a hipótese de existirem dois grupos de espécies, segundo a estratégia que possuem de habitar o estrato herbáceo-arbustivo da Mata da Silvicultura. Um dos grupos seria formado pelas espécies que investem preferencialmente recursos energéticos no sistema caulinar e

  19. Research overview and trend on biological invasion in mangrove forests%红树林生物入侵研究概况与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈权; 马克明

    2015-01-01

    To examine our current understanding on biological invasions in mangrove forests, relevant information from lit-erature was reviewed and several key points were summarized based on the database of ISI Web of Science and the information analysis software HistCite. First, most of the studies have focused on the invasion of plant species in mangrove forests, and little attention are paid to other organisms. Secondly, there is an obvious bias on the lo-cations of study sites, with most being situated in the southern and southeastern coasts of China (especially in the Pearl River Estuary and west of the Leizhou Peninsula) and the southeastern coast and Hawaiian Islands of the United States. Thirdly, that whether Sonneratia apetala can result in invasion is still a hot but controversial topic. Introduction of this species should be cautious. Forth, Spartina alterniflora and Mikania micrantha are the most notorious invaders around the world; both possess fast growth rate, high reproductive and competitive capacity, and strong allelopathic effects. They have invaded mangrove forests and caused severe ecological consequences, and apparently deteriorated the microhabitat and changed the benthic organisms’ community. Fifth, Rhizophora mangle has invaded Hawaiian Islands as an exotic mangrove species, modified the sedimentary environment, and enriched the benthic organisms, but the impacts are yet to be considered at the global scale. In general, studies on biological invasions in mangrove forests are still at the infant stage and we know little about the underlying mechanisms of the invasions. Specific strategies are lacking for controlling the invasion. The state of invasion and corresponding impacts should be continually focused in future studies. Exploration of the mechanisms and con-trolling strategies of invasion in mangroves should be launched as soon as possible. The assessment of the effects of biological invasion on ecological services of mangroves should also be

  20. Weeds in Asparagus Plantations in Hainan and Their Control Techniques%海南芦笋园杂草种类调查及杂草防除技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 黄乔乔; 易克贤; 范志伟; 沈奕德; 程汉亭

    2014-01-01

    A syste matica l investigation of weeds was conducted in asparagus plantation of Hainan Province, and the dominant weed populations were determined. Then, weed control experiments were conducted. The results showed that there were 106 weed species belonging to 23 families in the asparagus garden. Of them, nine species were considered as dominant weeds, including Melinis repens, Panicum maximum, Imperata cylindrica, Digitaria setigera, Chromolaena odorata, Praxelis clematidea, Tridax procumbens and Mimosa pudica. Of the weed control strategies, coverage control and chemical control could control weeds to a certain degree:after 60d covering of nine plants, the control effect reached more than 60%. Covering the weed by cocered Pueraria lobata, Calopogonium mucunoides, Eupatorium odoratum, Mikania micrantha and Tithonia diversifolia increased the shoot number and the diameter of new shoots of asparagus. After application of four kinds of herbicides 60 d, Haloxyfop and acetochlor could control the weeds to a higher extent and were also safe to asparagus plants. In actual production practices, combining the covering and chemical weed control could control weeds to the maximum extent in the asparagus plantation.%系统调查海南芦笋种植区的主要杂草种类,明确芦笋园的杂草优势种群,并以此为基础进行盆栽芦笋化学除草药效试验及覆盖控草试验。结果表明,海南芦笋园常见杂草有21科106种,其中优势种群由马齿苋、红尾翎、短颖马唐、龙爪茅、牛筋草、砖子苗、假臭草、伞房花耳草及鳢肠9种构成。采用覆盖控草和化学除草可在一定程度上控制杂草的发生:覆盖9种植物60 d后,防效可达60%以上,且覆盖葛藤、毛蔓豆、飞机草、薇甘菊、肿柄菊后,芦笋抽笋数和新笋径围都显著高于其余各处理;施用4种除草剂60 d后,盖草能和乙草胺对盆栽芦笋的防效较高且安全。因此,在实际生产中,通过

  1. Flora asociada a la actividad melífera en apiarios al sur del departamento del Huila, macizo colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudas Lleras Agustín

    2006-12-01

    micrantha, Bidens pilosa, Baccharis nitida, Coffea arabica y Cedrela sp.. Adicionalmente se consideran como especies importantes de la flora melífera a Toxicodendron striatum, Viburnum cornifolium, Vismia baccifera, Hyptis pseudosinuata, Austroeupatorium inulaefolium e Inga cocleensis, que a diferencia de las anteriores presentan índices de importancia más bajos pero están presentes en las tres localidades muestreadas y poseen un amplio espectro de hábitats. Se presenta un catálogo digital con fotos de alta resolución de 109 especies, correspondientes a 44 familias, de los cuales 61 especies hacen parte de la flora melífera reconocida. Los resultados obtenidos permitirán escoger especies melíferas de mayor importancia para iniciar trabajos de calendarios florales y ofertas de néctar, además de proponer el manejo de especies poco comunes que además de poseer importancia melífera pueden generar otros beneficios ecológicos y financieros. Este trabajo junto con la caracterización de la vegetación de las mismas zonas, permitirán establecer la capacidad de carga apícola de acuerdo a la oferta ambiental de la zona.

  2. Communautés andines, biodiversité, pommes de terre natives, capucines tubéreuses et autres tubercules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledent, JF.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical Study of Two Medicinal Plants from Cameroon: Harungana madagascariensis and Bridelia micrantha; Chemical Transformations and Biological Activities of some Isolated Elements. Douze génotypes de pois (Asgrow, Jumbo, Lincoln, Merveille de Kelvedon, Purser, Rajai Torpe, Snajor Kosep Korai, Wando, Rondo, génotype local, Major Kosep Korai et Surgevil ont été étudiés pour leur résistance aux maladies (Oïdium, mildiou, anthracnose, brunissement, jaunisse apicale et leurs performances agronomiques (matières fraîches: racines, partie aérienne, nombre de branches fructifères/plante, nombre de fleurs/plante, nombre de gousses/plante, nombre de grains/gousse et rendements en grains/plante. La culture a été faite dans un milieu contrôlé (serre plastique sur tourbe noire durant 5,5 mois (octobre à avril. Les résultats obtenus montrent que seul le génotype Purser est résistant à toutes les maladies et que le génotype Surgevil est sensible uniquement à la jaunisse apicale. Par contre, le génotype local est sensible aux trois maladies les plus fréquentes (Oïdium, Mildiou et Anthracnose. En ce qui concerne la croissance végétative, c'est le génotype Asgrow qui a synthétisé le plus de matière fraîche, deux fois plus que la matière fraîche synthétisée par le génotype Purser. Toutefois, le rendement élevé en matière fraîche ne contribue pas à un taux de nouaison élevé. En effet, seuls les génotypes ayant donné un rendement faible en matière fraîche (Snajor Kosep Korai, Asgrow, Major Kosep Korai, Rajai Torpe et Purser ont eu le taux de nouaison le plus élevé, supérieur à 30%. Chez ce groupe, le bon rendement le plus élevé (&gt; 9 g/plante résulte du nombre de gousses/ plante (7,5 à 21,6 et du nombre de grains/gousse (2,8 à 4,92. De cette collection, le génotype Purser peut être retenu en raison de sa résistance à toutes les maladies et à ses bonnes performances agronomiques au profit des

  3. Studies on the chemical constituents and bioactivities of five Schisandra medicinal species and Elsholtzia bodinieri%五种五味子属药用植物及东紫苏的化学成分和生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉涛; 孙汉董

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents and bioactivities of six medicinal plants have been studied. In the study one hundred and one compounds, including twenty-six new compounds were isolated. Among these compounds, sixteen unique highly oxidized nortriterpenoids, belonging to an unprecedented new nortriterpenoid skeleton with a biosynthetically modified eight-membered ring, and unusual nortriterpenoids or bisnortriterpenoid skeletons, have been isolated from three Schisandra species. Interestingly, to date, no naturally occurring triterpenoids have been found to have such a highly modified oxidized norcycloartane skeleton.The bioactivities of compounds isolated from the genus Schisandra have been tested, including anti-HIV-1, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxities against C8166, MT-4 and K562 cells activities. SM-10 and SM-26 were found to show promising anti-HIV-1 activity and the selectivity index were 174.08 and 25.94, respectively.%对5种五味子属(Schisandra)药用植物(小花五味子Schisandra micrantha,狭叶五味子S. lancifolia,滇翼梗五味子S. henryi var. yunnanensis var. yunnanensis,复瓣黄龙藤S. Plena,华中五味子S. sphenanthera)和唇形科植物东紫苏(Elsholtzia bodinieri)的化学成分进行了研究,从中共分离鉴定了101个化合物,26个为新化合物.首次从3种五味子属植物中发现了3种高度氧化的新奇骨架类型.此外,还发现了18,19-sec-乌索酸型苷和17,20断裂并失去17位侧链的羊毛甾烷型和环阿尔廷型八降三萜等新的骨架类型.对分离得到的部分化合物进行了体外抗HIV-1、急毒、抗炎和抗肿瘤活性实验,发现部分化合物具有抗HIV-1活性.其中化合物SM-10和SM-26具有显著的抑制HIV-1病毒活性,选择指数分别为174.08和25.04,且毒性较小,作为作用于病毒与细胞结合和融合靶点的小分子化合物具有重要的意义.

  4. 中国湿地维管植物外来种现状分析%Analysis on the present status of wetland alien vascular plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪绅裕; 曾庆昌; 陶文琴; 杨礼香; 陈健辉; 王厚麟

    2014-01-01

    There are 1 942 species of generalized wetland vascular plants belonging to 177 families and 703 ge-nus in China .Among them, 185 species belonging to 54 families and 112 genus and about 9.53% are alien. Among the alien wetland species , there are 8 species classified as invasive alien species in China , all from A-merica.Spartina alterniflora, Eichhornia crassipes, and Alternanthera philoxeroides are typical wetland plants , the other 5 species listed as Mikania micrantha, Wedelia trilobata, Sorghum halepense, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and A.trifida have higher adaptive ability to wetland habitats .Most of the alien species about 56.22%are from America.Asteraceae has 17 genus and 21 species, Echinodorus has 14 species for the largest family and genus , respectively .There are only 10 species of tree types .Hydrophytes have 115 species for about 65.71% in herbs.To ensure the ecological safety , ecological effect risk assessments should be taken before introducing the cultivated species .%中国有广义的湿地维管植物177科703属1942种,其中185种(54科112属)为外来种,占9.53%.外来湿地植物中,有8种为中国外来入侵种,全部产自美洲,其中3种为典型的湿地植物,即互花米草( Spartina al-terniflora)、水葫芦( Eichhornia crassipes)和空心莲子草( Alternanthera philoxeroides),另5种菊科植物薇甘菊( Mi-kania micrantha)、三裂叶蟛蜞菊( Wedelia trilobata)、假高粱( Sorghum halepense)、豚草( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)和三裂叶豚草( A.trifida)的生态适应性强,可在湿地生长.源自美洲的104种,占56.22%为最多.菊科17属21种为最多,以刺果泽泻属( Echinodorus)的14种为最多.木本植物仅10种;草本植物中,以水生植物115种占65.71%为最多.为保障生态安全,对人为引种的外来湿地植物,应加强生态影响风险性评价.

  5. 广西金花茶炭疽病的病原鉴定及其寄主抗性评价%Identification of causal organism of yellow camellia anthracnose in Guangxi and evaluation of camellia species for host resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢玲; 黄思良; 岑贞陆; 黄连冬; 刘宇宁; ManojKumarSrivastavar; 李杨瑞

    2009-01-01

    于2003年首次在广西防城金花茶国家级自然保护区发现金花茶炭疽病,并从病叶上分离出金花茶炭疽菌;根据致病性测定和病原菌株形态观察结果,将其鉴定为Colletotrichum camelliae Mass.,由该菌引起的金花茶炭疽腐在广西属首次报道.为了寻找炭疽病的抗源,通过测定13种金花茶和3种山茶对金花茶炭疽病菌的抗性,结果表明:防城金花茶(C.chrysantha var.phaeopubisperma S.Y.Liang et Z.H.Tang)、东兴金花茶(C.tunghinensis Chang)、多瓣金花茶(C.multipetala S.Y.Liang et C.Z.Deng)、小花金花茶(C.micrantha S.Y.Liang et C.Y.Zhong)、顶生平果金花茶(C.pingguoensis var.teminalis(Liang et su)S.Y.Liang)5个种或变种表现抗病反应;博白大果油茶(Camellia gigantocarpa Hu et T.c.Huang)、红山茶(Camellia japonica Linn)的红露珍品种、金花茶(Camellia chrysantha(Hu)Tuyama)以及显脉金花茶(Camellia euphlebia Merr.ex Sealy)对Colletotrichum camelliae表现为免疫反应,这些抗性材料将为金花茶的种质改良提供优质抗源.%The vellow camellia anthracnose disease was observed for the first time in 2003 in Fangcheng Yellow Camellia National Natural Reserve,Fangchenggang city,Guangxi,China.The isolates from the affected leaves were obtained and their pathogenecity to yellow camellia leaves were confirmed.The pathogen was identified as Colletotrichum camelliae Mass.,based on the morphological and cultural characteristics as well as pathogenecity of the isolates.To evaluate the yellow camellia resistance to the pathogen,13 yellow camellia species and 3 camellia species have been evaluated for host resistance identification.The restilts showed that five moderately resistant species were confirmed,including Camellia chrysantha var.phaeopubisperma S.Y.Liang et Z.H.Tang,Camella tunghinensis Chang,Camellia multipetala S.Y.Liang et C.Z.Deng.Camellia mierantha S.Y.Liang et C.Y.Zhong and Camellia pingguoensis var.teminalis(Liang et su