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Sample records for cladocoleae micrantha kuijt

  1. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; André Mendes Ribeiro Corrêa; Milene Schmitz; Edson Moleta Colodel; David Driemeier

    2004-01-01

    Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstácul...

  2. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in cattle

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    Sandra Davi Traverso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Trema micrantha foram fornecidas a 13 bovinos. Dez deles receberam folhas verdes em dose única, dois receberam folhas verdes em doses fracionadas e um recebeu dose única de planta dessecada. Oito dos bovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos e seis morreram. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram a partir de 16 horas após a ingestão da planta. Os animais apresentavam apatia, anorexia, sialorréia, fraqueza progressiva, coma e morte. Sinais neurológicos, tais como pressionar a cabeça contra obstáculos e movimentos laterais da cabeça, foram observados em quatro animais. As mortes ocorreram entre 67 e 153 horas após o término da ingestão da planta. O achado de necropsia mais significativo foi observado no fígado que era friável com padrão lobular acentuado e com áreas de hemorragia, exceto um bovino, que apresentou o fígado difusamente vermelho escuro. Hemorragias petequiais nas serosas e edema da vesícula biliar foram alterações adicionais observadas com freqüência. Rins pálidos com pontos avermelhados na cortical foram observados em um bovino. O exame histológico revelou, em 5 animais, necrose de coagulação massiva associada à hemorragia centrolobular acentuada. Um animal apresentou necrose centrolobular. Dois animais apresentaram alterações nos rins, caracterizadas por necrose tubular renal. Altrações histológicas no sistema nervoso central, que consistiam de edema perineuronal e perivascular com basofilia e retração de neurônios, principalmente no córtex frontal, foram observadas em cinco bovinos. T. micrantha causou sinais clínicos com 50g/kg e morte a partir de 54g/kg de peso. As doses fracionadas e a planta dessecada não causaram sinais de intoxicação.Leaves of Trema micrantha were orally given to 13 cattle. Ten animals received green leaves in a single dose, two animals received green leaves in fractionated doses, and one received the dried leaves in a single dose. Eight animals showed clinical signs and

  3. Intoxicação natural por Trema micrantha em caprinos Spontaneosu poisoning by Trema micrantha in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Davi Traverso; Edson Moleta Colodel; Alexandre Paulino Loretti; André Mendes Correia; David Driemeier

    2003-01-01

    Dois caprinos confinados, que recebiam ração e pasto no cocho, morreram uma semana após serem alimentados com arbustos de plantas de diferentes espécies, entre os quais encontrava-se Trema micrantha. Apenas um animal foi necropsiado. Achados macroscópicos incluíram palidez generalizada da carcaça, hemorragias subcutâneas na região do esterno e escápula, fígado amarelado, friável e com lobulação evidente. Na superfície de corte, o fígado apresentou áreas vermelhas deprimidas entremeadas por ár...

  4. Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of Mikania micrantha H. B. K.

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    Yan Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To isolate plant-derived compounds with antimicrobial activity from the leaves of Mikania micrantha, to determine the compounds configuration, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against eight plant pathogenic fungi (Exserohilum turcicum, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Pseudoperonispora cubensis, Botrytis cirerea, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica, Fusarium solani, and Pythium aphanidermatum, and four plant pathogenic bacteria (gram negative bacteria: Ralstonia dolaanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae, Xanthomonas Campestris pv. Vesicatoria, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. Citri, and four bacteria (gram positive bacteria: Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Bacillus cereus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial constituents of the leaves of M. micrantha were isolated using bioactivity- guided fractionation. The antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated by the inhibit hypha growth method and inhibit spore germination method. Characterization of antibacterial activity was carried out using the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. MIC and MBC were determined by the broth microdilution method. Six compounds - deoxymikanolide, scandenolide, dihydroscandenolide, mikanolide, dihydromikanolide, and m - methoxy benzoic acid - have been isolated from leaves of Mikania micrantha H. B. K. Deoxymikanolide, scandenolide, and dihydroscandenolide were new compounds. The result of bioassay showed that all of isolated compounds were effective against tested strains and deoxymikanolide showed the strongest activity. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The leaves of M. micrantha may be a promising source in the search for new antimicrobial drugs due to its efficacy and the broadest range. Meanwhile, adverse impact of M. micrantha will be eliminated.

  5. Laxative activities of Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae leaf aqueous extract in rats

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    Djaman Joseph A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mareya micrantha (Benth. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae is a shrub that is commonly used in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa for the treatment of constipation and as an ocytocic drug. The present study was carried out to investigate the laxative activity of Mareya micrantha in albino's Wistar rats. Methods Rats were divided in 5 groups of 5 animals each, first group as control, second group served as standard (sodium picosulfate while group 3, 4 and 5 were treated with leaf aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (b.w., per os respectively. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight of the faeces matter. The effects of the leaves aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha and castor oil were also evaluated on intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation and ions secretion. Results Phytochemicals screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. The aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha applied orally (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o., produced significant laxative activity and reduced loperamide induced constipation in dose dependant manner. The effect of the extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o. was similar to that of reference drug sodium picosulfate (5 mg/kg, p.o. The same doses of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. produced a significant increase (p -, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ in the intestinal fluid (p Conclusions The results showed that the aqueous extract of Mareya micrantha has a significant laxative activity and supports its traditional use in herbal medicine.

  6. EVALUATION AND APPLICATION OF THE INVASIVE WEED MIKANIA MICRANTHA AS AN ALTERNATIVE REINFORCEMENT IN RECYCLED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE

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    Yong-Long Chen,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study Mikania micrantha particle (MP and fiber (MF were added to recycled high density polyethylene (rHDPE for producing natural fiber (or particle reinforced plastic composites (NFRPC by the flat-platen pressing process. The results showed that the flexural strength and stiffness of NFRPC were significantly improved through incorporating M. micrantha particle and fiber. Higher aspect ratio of reinforcement displayed stronger mechanical properties. The vertical density profile in composites significantly influenced the mechanical properties of NFRPC. A conventional V-shaped profile and a uniform vertical density profile (homo-profile were observed in MP and MF based NFRPC, respectively. Additionally, with increasing lignocellulose content, a more uniform vertical density profile and higher wood screw holding strength were observed. These results indicate M. micrantha particle and fiber are excellent reinforcements for NFRPC applications.

  7. Characterization of n-Hexane sub-fraction of Bridelia micrantha (Berth and its antimycobacterium activity

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    Samie Amidou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, is the most notified disease in the world. Development of resistance to first line drugs by MTB is a public health concern. As a result, there is the search for new and novel sources of antimycobacterial drugs for example from medicinal plants. In this study we determined the in vitro antimycobacterial activity of n-Hexane sub-fraction from Bridelia micrantha (Berth against MTB H37Ra and a clinical isolate resistant to all five first-line antituberculosis drugs. Methods The antimycobacterial activity of the n-Hexane sub-fraction of ethyl acetate fractions from acetone extracts of B. micrantha barks was evaluated using the resazurin microplate assay against two MTB isolates. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction was performed using 100% n-Hexane and Chloroform/Methanol (99:1 as solvents in order of increasing polarity by column chromatography and Resazurin microtiter plate assay for susceptibility tests. Results The n-Hexane fraction showed 20% inhibition of MTB H37Ra and almost 35% inhibition of an MTB isolate resistant to all first-line drugs at 10 μg/mL. GC/MS analysis of the fraction resulted in the identification of twenty-four constituents representing 60.5% of the fraction. Some of the 24 compounds detected included Benzene, 1.3-bis (3-phenoxyphenoxy (13.51%, 2-pinen-4-one (10.03%, N(b-benzyl-14-(carboxymethyl (6.35% and the least detected compound was linalool (0.2%. Conclusions The results show that the n-Hexane fraction of B. micrantha has antimycobacterial activity.

  8. La madera deTrema micrantha (L.) Blume de Veracruz, México

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Se estudió la anatomía microscópica, los índices hidráulicos y mecánicos de la madera de 28 árboles de Trema micrantha de cuatro localidades ubicadas en los municipios de Xico y Coatepec en el estado de Veracruz. Adicionalmente, se determinaron las características macroscópicas, la densidad relativa, el contenido de humedad y algunas pruebas de carpintería en probetas de diferentes tamaños de la madera de tres árboles, con el fin de proponer usos alternativos en zonas rurales. Los resultados ...

  9. In planta cloning of geminiviral DNA: the true Sida micrantha mosaic virus.

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    Jeske, Holger; Gotthardt, Diether; Kober, Sigrid

    2010-02-01

    The circular single-stranded DNAs of geminiviruses are multiplied efficiently and preferentially by rolling circle amplification (RCA), and can be diagnosed readily by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct sequencing of the RCA product. Two strategies are described for cloning geminiviruses from plants harboring mixed infections by using RCA and RFLP with plant-derived nucleic acids without the need for bacterial amplification. By combining both these approaches, the true Sida micrantha mosaic virus was identified. The advantages of maintaining the quasispecies nature of a virus during in planta cloning is discussed with respect to reliable virus identification and resistance breeding.

  10. Invasive chloroplast population genetics of Mikania micrantha in China: no local adaptation and negative correlation between diversity and geographic distance

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    Ting Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two fundamental questions on how invasive species are able to rapidly colonize novel habitat have emerged. One asks whether a negative correlation exists between the genetic diversity of invasive populations and their geographic distance from the origin of introduction. The other is whether selection on the chloroplast genome is important driver of adaptation to novel soil environments. Here, we addressed these questions in a study of the noxious invasive weed, Mikania micrantha, which has rapidly expanded in to southern China after being introduced to Hong Kong in 1884. Seven cpSSRs were used to investigate population genetics in twenty-eight populations of M. micrantha, which produced thirty-nine loci. The soil compositions for these populations, including Mg abundance, were measured. The results showed that M. micrantha possessed relatively high cpSSR variation and differentiation among populations. Multiple diversity indices were quantified, and none was significantly correlated with distance from the origin of introduction. No evidence for isolation by distance, significant spatial structure, bottlenecks, nor linkage disequilibrium was detected. We also were unable to identify loci on the chloroplast genome that exhibited patterns of differentiation that would suggest adaptive evolution in response to soil attributes. Soil Mg has only a genome-wide effect instead of being a selective factor, which highlighted the association between Mg and the successful invasion. This study characterizes the role of the chloroplast genome of M. micrantha during its recent invasion of southern China.

  11. THE POTENTILLO MICRANTHAE-QUERCETUM DALECHAMPII ASSOCIATION IN THE LOWER BASIN OF THE MOTRU RIVER - ROMANIA

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    COSTACHE IULIAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available From the geographical point of view, the Lower Basin of the Motru River lies in the western part of the Getic Piedmont, with the coordinates: 44055' north latitude and 23045' east longitude. The studied area covers 691 Km2. The physical-geographical position and the pedo-climatic particularities specific to the territory under research confer the vegetation a mosaic nature with a particular specificity, determined by the quite strong Balkan and sub-Mediterranean influences. With the territory under research located just on the line between the nemoral area (of the oak forests and the floor of the hilly common oak (up to the sub-Carpathian Hills, we cannot talk about the presence of the acidophilus common oak forests, which is characteristic to the sub-Carpathian region. In this transition area, between the altitudes (200 250 and 380 (402 m, we have identified mixed common oak forests, associated with Hungarian oak and Turkey oak, belonging to the association Potentillo micranthae-Quercetum dalechampii A.O.Horvát 1981 (Syn.: Potentillo micranthae-Quercetum (petraeae resp. dalechampii-cerris A.O.Horvát (1956 1959. The affiliation of these phytocoenoses to the above mentioned association is done according to its transition association nature, between the silvosteppe forests and the mesophyle, acidophilus forests in the sub-Carpathian area of Oltenia.

  12. Interactive effect of herbivory and competition on the invasive plant Mikania micrantha.

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    Li, Junmin; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Qiong; Dong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    A considerable number of host-specific biological control agents fail to control invasive plants in the field, and exploring the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is important and helpful for the management of invasive plants. Herbivory and competition are two of the most common biotic stressors encountered by invasive plants in their recipient communities. We predicted that the antagonistic interactive effect between herbivory and competition would weaken the effect of herbivory on invasive plants and result in the failure of herbivory to control invasive plants. To examine this prediction, thus, we conducted an experiment in which both invasive Mikania micrantha and native Coix lacryma-job i were grown together and subjected to herbivory-mimicking defoliation. Both defoliation and competition had significantly negative effects on the growth of the invader. However, the negative effect of 75% respective defoliation on the above- and below-ground biomass of Mikania micrantha was alleviated by presence of Coix lacryma-jobi. The negative effect of competition on the above- and below-ground biomass was equally compensated at 25%, 50% and 100% defoliation and overcompensated at 75% defoliation. The interactive effect was antagonistic and dependent on the defoliation intensity, with the maximum effect at 75% defoliation. The antagonistic interaction between defoliation and competition appears to be able to release the invader from competition, thus facilitating the invasiveness of Mikania, a situation that might make herbivory fail to inhibit the growth of invasive Mikania in the invaded community.

  13. Intoxicação natural por Trema micrantha em caprinos

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    Traverso Sandra Davi; Colodel Edson Moleta; Loretti Alexandre Paulino; Correia André Mendes; Driemeier David

    2003-01-01

    Dois caprinos confinados, que recebiam ração e pasto no cocho, morreram uma semana após serem alimentados com arbustos de plantas de diferentes espécies, entre os quais encontrava-se Trema micrantha. Apenas um animal foi necropsiado. Achados macroscópicos incluíram palidez generalizada da carcaça, hemorragias subcutâneas na região do esterno e escápula, fígado amarelado, friável e com lobulação evidente. Na superfície de corte, o fígado apresentou áreas vermelhas deprimidas entremeadas por ár...

  14. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) em caprinos

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    Traverso Sandra Davi; Corrêa André Mendes Ribeiro; Pescador Caroline Argenta; Colodel Edson Moleta; Cruz Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Driemeier David

    2002-01-01

    Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. mic...

  15. REPELLENT AND OVIPOSITION DETERRENT ACTIVITIES OFTHE ESSENTIAL OIL FROM MIKANIA MICRANTHA AND ITS COMPOUNDS ON PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA

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    Mao-xinZhang; BingLing; Shao-yingChen; Guang-wenLiang; Xiong-feiPang

    2004-01-01

    Repellent and oviposition deterrent activities of the essential oil from Mikania micrantha and five volatile compounds including limonene, a-terpinene, linalool, B-caryophylene and verbenone on the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, was investigated in door and in net-house. The results showed that the essential oil of the M. micrantha had significant repellant effect (at flow 100-180 mL/min) and oviposition deterrent activity at dose 1020 uL/seedling for the DBM. In five volatile compounds, a-terpinene, limonene and linalool had significant effect on repellent and oviposition deterrent of the DBM moths, but verbenone and B-caryophylene, no significantly effect was observed in repellent and oviposition deterrent.

  16. Intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos

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    Traverso Sandra Davi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sete caprinos receberam, por sonda esofágica, uma suspensão aquosa de folhas verdes de Trema micrantha moídas e um outro recebeu folhas verdes da planta à vontade. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram-se 2 dias após a ingestão e ocorreram em seis caprinos, cinco dos quais morreram em até 4 dias. Os animais doentes permaneciam longos períodos em estação, com cabeça baixa, olhar fixo, apáticos e inapetentes. Tenesmo, incoordenação e movimentos rítmicos laterais da cabeça também foram observados. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica a partir de 30g/kg de peso corporal. A alteração macroscópica mais significativa foi observada no fígado, que se apresentou friável, amarelado e com acentuado padrão lobular. Ao corte, havia áreas vermelhas, deprimidas e entremeadas por áreas mais claras. Em um animal, a coloração do fígado era vermelha, homogênea, mais clara que o normal e sem evidenciação do padrão lobular. Petéquias foram constatadas entre a escápula e o esterno, no epicárdio, no mediastino e nas serosas dos órgãos da cavidade abdominal. A principal alteração histológica foi necrose coagulativa centro-lobular que, em alguns casos, atingia todo o lóbulo, associada à congestão, hemorragia e alterações degenerativas nos hepatócitos circunjacentes. No sistema nervoso, havia tumefação de neurônios, mais proeminente no córtex frontal, associado a edema perineuronal e perivascular.

  17. Intoxicação por Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae em caprinos no Estado de Santa Catarina Poisoning by Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae in goats in the State of Santa Catarina

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    Aldo Gava

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e cinco caprinos, criados em piquetes, morreram nos cinco dias subsequentes ao fornecimento de folhas de Trema micrantha (fam.Ulmaceae, uma árvore com nome comum de grandiúva. Quatro caprinos foram necropsiados e amostras de vísceras foram coletadas para exame histológico. As principais alterações clínicas foram: apatia, anorexia, cabeça apoiada contra obstáculos, decúbito e morte. Achados macroscópicos incluíram sufusões no epicárdio e endocárdio; fígado levemente amarelado e com padrão lobular evidente e, em um caso, acompanhado de hemorragias multifocais. Na histologia observou-se necrose hepática, que variava de centrolobular a massiva, compatível com hepatopatia tóxica. No SNC havia satelitose, tumefação neuronal, edema periaxonal, perivascular. O diagnóstico de intoxicação por Trema micrantha foi baseado no quadro clínico e lesional de hepatite tóxica associado ao uso da planta para alimentação de caprinos.Twenty five goats, maintained in paddocks, had died in five subsequent days after have been offered leaves, mixed in the ration, of Trema micrantha, a tree commonly called grandiúva. Four animals were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Clinical signs included apathy, anorexia, head pressing against obstacles, decubitus and death. Macroscopic findings included suffusions in the epi- and endocardium, a yellowish liver with pronounced lobular pattern, in one goat, the liver presented additionally multiple visible hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed centrilobular to massive hepatic necrosis consistent with acute liver toxicosis. In the brain, satelitosis, neuronal swelling, and perineuronal and perivascular edema was found. The diagnosis of poisoning by Trema micrantha was based in the clinical picture characteristic of toxic hepatitis associated in the feeding of the plant to the goats.

  18. AFLP genome scan to detect genetic structure and candidate loci under selection for local adaptation of the invasive weed Mikania micrantha.

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    Ting Wang

    Full Text Available Why some species become successful invaders is an important issue in invasive biology. However, limited genomic resources make it very difficult for identifying candidate genes involved in invasiveness. Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae, one of the world's most invasive weeds, has adapted rapidly in response to novel environments since its introduction to southern China. In its genome, we expect to find outlier loci under selection for local adaptation, critical to dissecting the molecular mechanisms of invasiveness. An explorative amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP genome scan was used to detect candidate loci under selection in 28 M. micrantha populations across its entire introduced range in southern China. We also estimated population genetic parameters, bottleneck signatures, and linkage disequilibrium. In binary characters, such as presence or absence of AFLP bands, if all four character combinations are present, it is referred to as a character incompatibility. Since character incompatibility is deemed to be rare in populations with extensive asexual reproduction, a character incompatibility analysis was also performed in order to infer the predominant mating system in the introduced M. micrantha populations. Out of 483 AFLP loci examined using stringent significance criteria, 14 highly credible outlier loci were identified by Dfdist and Bayescan. Moreover, remarkable genetic variation, multiple introductions, substantial bottlenecks and character compatibility were found to occur in M. micrantha. Thus local adaptation at the genome level indeed exists in M. micrantha, and may represent a major evolutionary mechanism of successful invasion. Interactions between genetic diversity, multiple introductions, and reproductive modes contribute to increase the capacity of adaptive evolution.

  19. Trema micrantha como causa de pneumopatia tóxica em ovinos: reprodução experimental

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    Flademir Wouters

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A intoxicação experimental por Trema micrantha em cinco ovinos é descrita. Quatro ovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos respiratórios acentuados e morte após ingestão da terceira dose de folhas da planta. As manifestações clínicas mais frequentes nesses casos foram taquipneia, dispneia, retração ritmada das narinas, mucosas cianóticas, corrimento nasal mucoso, hipertermia, aumento de volume abdominal bilateral e na região parotídea, incluindo crepitação à palpação, membros lateralmente afastados ao caminhar e decúbito esternal. T. micrantha mostrou-se tóxica para ovinos na dose de 20-50g/kg de peso animal. Na necropsia desses ovinos foram observados, além das mucosas cianóticas, enfisema subcutâneo em região cervical ventral ou porção mediastinal dorsal, pulmões não colabados, pesados, com impressão das costelas na superfície e conteúdo espumoso vermelho em traqueia e brônquios, além de múltiplas petéquias subpleurais. Na avaliação histológica predominaram alterações pulmonares, com espessamento de septos alveolares por proliferação difusa de pneumócitos tipo II, conferindo aspecto adenomatoso a algumas áreas. Os pneumócitos apresentavam núcleo volumoso, hipercromático, ora bizarro ou eram multinucleados, com nucléolos evidentes e, em algumas áreas, os pneumócitos estavam descamados para a luz alveolar, ora formando sincícios. Havia também proliferação do epitélio bronquiolar, com formação de mais de uma camada celular, núcleos hipercromáticos e volumosos e redução na quantidade de cílios. As alterações proliferativas dos pneumócitos e do epitélio bronquiolar foram evidenciadas pela imunomarcação anti-citoqueratina e anti-Ki-67 e, para a diferenciação entre pneumócitos e macrófagos alveolares, foi empregada imuno-histoquímica anti-mieloide/histiócitos (MAC387. Um ovino apresentou quadro clinico-patológico de insuficiência hepática aguda, com necrose hepatocelular

  20. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha

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    Anthonio O Adefuye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 50 using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW. Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (R f values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42 on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC 50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3, 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7, and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials.

  1. Invasive Risk Assessment of Mikania micrantha H.B.K.to China%薇甘菊入侵中国的风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琼霞; 黄可辉

    2012-01-01

    为了为薇甘菊的检疫与控制提供依据,本文从国内外分布与重视程度、生物学特性、潜在的危害性、定殖与扩散的可能性、管理的难度等方面对薇甘菊入侵中国的风险性进行了定性分析.%To provide the basis for the quarantine and control of Mikania micrantha H. B. K. for our country, the invasive risk of Mikania micrantha to China was qualitatively analyzed from the following aspects in this paper: (1) the distribution and attention at home and abroad, (2) biological characteristics, (3) potential harmfulness, (4) the possibility of colonization and spread, (5) the difficulties of management.

  2. 薇甘菊在深圳湾的入侵路线及其生态特征%Ecological Characters and Invasion Route of Mikania micrantha in Shenzhen Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓梅; 杨逢建

    2011-01-01

    通过对入侵深圳湾沿岸的薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H. B. K.)野外调查及室内年龄结构的分析,对薇甘菊的自然状况、生境特点、入侵路线的分析,揭示了其在深圳湾的蔓延过程.发现深圳湾沿岸薇甘菊的入侵,是由于中华民俗村的建设,从外地带来的薇甘菊种源,通过中华民俗村逸散到深圳湾.深圳湾地区的拦海造田使海水退去,海水水位下降,红树林底土裸露,薇甘菊种子得以萌发,严重地危害红树林.%Age structure of Mikania micrantha invaded to Shenzhen Bay was analyzed in the laboratory based on the field survey. The present status, habitat characteristics, and invasion route of M. micrantha were analyzed, and the invasion process of M. micrantha was revealed. Results showed that the construction of China Folk Culture Village in Shenzhen resulted in the invasion of M. micrantha seeds brought from other areas. The M. micrantha seeds dispersed outward through the China Folk Culture Village. The cropland newly reclaimed from the enclosing seas resulted in the decline of seawater level. Thereby, the seeds of M. micrantha could germinate in the bare soil in mangrove forests, which caused a great damage to the mangrove forests in Shenzhen Bay.

  3. Microsatellite analyses of artificial and spontaneous dogrose hybrids reveal the hybridogenic origin of Rosa micrantha by the contribution of unreduced gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, Christiane M; Wissemann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    Dogroses are characterized by a unique meiosis system, the so-called canina meiosis, which facilitates sexual reproduction at odd-number ploidy. The mostly pentaploid somatic level of dogroses is restored by a merger of haploid sperm cells and tetraploid egg cells. We analyzed experimental hybrids between different dogrose species using microsatellites to determine pollen-transmitted alleles. This information was used to reconstruct the putative hybridogenic origin of Rosa micrantha and R. dumalis and to estimate the frequency of spontaneous hybridization in a natural population. We found no evidence for the hybrid origin of R. dumalis, but our data suggest that R. micrantha presumably arose by hybridization between R. rubiginosa and R. canina or R. corymbifera. We observed only hexaploid individuals of R. micrantha, thus the establishment of this hybridogenic species was favored when unreduced gametes contributed to their origin. We demonstrate that spontaneous hybrids originated infrequently from the parental species in a natural population, but hybridization was often associated with the formation of unreduced gametes. We postulate that unreduced gametes play a major role in the evolutionary success of dogrose hybrids because they provide highly homologous chromosomes crucial for bivalent formation during canina meiosis and thus ensuring this unique form of sexual reproduction.

  4. Salt tolerance of the invasive vine Mikania micrantha Kunth%入侵藤本薇甘菊的耐盐能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亮; 李鸣光; 韦萍萍

    2014-01-01

    Mikania micrantha Kunth is a noxious invasive species in tropical and subtropical regions. This weed has been found to grow on the coast of the Pearl River Delta and off-coast islands in China. In the present study, we assessed the salt tolerance of M. micrantha seeds, roots, and stems separately. Seed germination and seedling growth in different concentrations of NaCl were tested for three M. micrantha populations and six common species (Eupatorium catarium, Ageratum conyzoides, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Bidens pilosa, Pterocypsela indica, and Ipomoea triloba) in the Pearl River Delta. Seed germination of M. micrantha, E. catarium, A. conyzoides, and B. pilosa were tested after 3, 6, and 12 days of submergence in different concentrations of NaCl to determine whether seeds can be transferred by seawater. Responses of submerged cultured M. micrantha root and stem in different concentrations of NaCl were also recorded to determine whether the weed can disperse by vegetative propagation in coastal saline soils. Experiments produced the following results. 1) In general, the seed germination rates of M. micrantha did not differ significantly from those of the controls at ≤0.6% salinity, and the highest threshold value of 1.5% was greater than those for all control species. Radicle and seedling height growth rates of M. micrantha were less suppressed than those of control plants under the same salinity stress. 2) In comparison with controls, no significant decline in germination rate was observed in treated (submerged in up to 3.0%NaCl for up to 12 days) M. micrantha, A. conyzoides, or E. catarium, whereas submergence in 3.0%NaCl for 12 days caused a significant decline in B. pilosa. However, seedlings of all four tested species grew well. 3) All tested M. micrantha plants survived 0.5%salinity stress to root systems, with a decline in the average seedling height growth rate to 53.3%those of controls;95%of tested plants survived up to 1.0%salinity stress to root

  5. The genomes of four novel begomoviruses and a new Sida micrantha mosaic virus strain from Bolivian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyant, Patrícia Soares; Gotthardt, Diether; Schäfer, Benjamin; Krenz, Björn; Jeske, Holger

    2011-02-01

    Begomovirus is the largest genus within the family Geminiviridae and includes economically important plant DNA viruses infecting a broad range of plant species and causing devastating crop diseases, mainly in subtropical and tropical countries. Besides cultivated plants, many weeds act as virus reservoirs. Eight begomovirus isolates from Bolivian weeds were examined using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). An efficient, novel cloning strategy using limited Sau3A digestion to obtain tandem-repeat inserts allowed the sequencing of the complete genomes. The viruses were classified by phylogenetic analysis as typical bipartite New World begomoviruses. Four of them represented distinct new virus species, for which the names Solanum mosaic Bolivia virus, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 1, Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2, and Abutilon mosaic Bolivia virus are proposed. Three were variants of a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus (SimMV), SimMV-rho[BoVi07], SimMV-rho[Bo:CF1:07] and SimMV-rho[Bo:CF2:07], and one was a new variant of a previously described SimMV, SimMV-MGS2:07-Bo.

  6. Structure, histochemistry and phytochemical profile of the bark of the sobol and aerial stem of Tontelea micrantha (Celastraceae - Hippocrateoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OLÍVIA MERCADANTE-SIMÕES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The bark of the underground stem of Tontelea micrantha (Mart. ex. Schult. A. C. Sm., a native Brazilian Cerrado species, is used in folk medicine for treating kidney ailments. The structures of the underground and the aerial stems were examined and their barks were analyzed for the presence of secondary metabolites. Bark fragments were processed according to conventional techniques in plant anatomy and their chemical compositions examined using histochemical and phytochemical tests, thin layer chromatography, and high-efficiency liquid chromatography. The underground stem is a sobol with unusual cambial activity. Laticifers that secrete terpenoids were present in the cortex and phloem of both organs and can contribute to the identification of the species in field. Druses were present in both barks, but mono-crystals were only observed in the sobol. Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids occurred in both types of bark, but carotenoids were only detected in the sobol. The similarities between these two organs indicate that the aerial stem bark has potential medicinal use and represents a plausible alternative to harvesting the sobol, which could contribute to the preservation of natural populations of this species.

  7. Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-05-26

    Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored.

  8. The Potential Distribution of Quarantine Mikania micrantha in China%检疫性杂草薇甘菊在中国的适生性与分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琼霞; 黄振; 于文涛; 虞赟; 鲁志彤; 黄可辉

    2013-01-01

    根据薇甘菊的生物学特性,筛选影响薇甘菊的平均最高气温、平均气温、平均最低气温、降雨量、降雨日数及平均日照等6个气候风险因子.应用欧式距离的数学模型,评判薇甘菊适生区深圳与中国其他17个气候大区相应地点的30 a(1971~2000年)气候相似程度.应用农业气候相似等级标准法,对薇甘菊在我国的适生情况进行划分.结果表明:薇甘菊的适生区为:暖温带湿润大区、中亚热带湿润大区、南亚热带湿润大区、南亚热带亚湿润大区、边缘热带湿润大区、边缘热带亚湿润大区、高原亚温带湿润大区、高原亚温带亚湿润大区、北亚热带季风气候大区;次适生区为:暖温带亚湿润大区;非适生区为:寒温带湿润大区、中温带湿润大区、中温带亚湿润大区、中温带亚干旱大区、中温带干旱大区、暖温带极干旱大区、高原亚温带亚干旱大区.%The potential distribution area of the quarantine weed Mikania micrantha in China was assessed based on the biological characteristics of Mikania micrantha, using the homoelime approach. And 6 climate factors (the average maximum temperature, average temperate, average minimum temperature, annual precipitation, precipitation days and annual average sunshine time) were selected as the variables. Euclidean distance was used to evaluate the similarity of climate factors for 30 years (1971~2000) between Shenzhen, where is the distribution area of Mikania micrantha, and other 17 climate districts in China. The suitable distribution, less suitable distribution and unfit distribution of Mikania micrantha in China were concluded by agricultural climatic similarity and discriminant method. And the potential distribution map of Mikania micrantha in China was provided. The present study provided theoretical basis for the prevention and control of Mikania micrantha.

  9. Non-Additive effects on decomposition from mixing litter of the invasive Mikania micrantha H.B.K. with native plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Ming Chen

    Full Text Available A common hypothesis to explain the effect of litter mixing is based on the difference in litter N content between mixed species. Although many studies have shown that litter of invasive non-native plants typically has higher N content than that of native plants in the communities they invade, there has been surprisingly little study of mixing effects during plant invasions. We address this question in south China where Mikania micrantha H.B.K., a non-native vine, with high litter N content, has invaded many forested ecosystems. We were specifically interested in whether this invader accelerated decomposition and how the strength of the litter mixing effect changes with the degree of invasion and over time during litter decomposition. Using litterbags, we evaluated the effect of mixing litter of M. micrantha with the litter of 7 native resident plants, at 3 ratios: M1 (1∶4, = exotic:native litter, M2 (1∶1 and M3 (4∶1, = exotic:native litter over three incubation periods. We compared mixed litter with unmixed litter of the native species to identify if a non-additive effect of mixing litter existed. We found that there were positive significant non-additive effects of litter mixing on both mass loss and nutrient release. These effects changed with native species identity, mixture ratio and decay times. Overall the greatest accelerations of mixture decay and N release tended to be in the highest degree of invasion (mix ratio M3 and during the middle and final measured stages of decomposition. Contrary to expectations, the initial difference in litter N did not explain species differences in the effect of mixing but overall it appears that invasion by M. micrantha is accelerating the decomposition of native species litter. This effect on a fundamental ecosystem process could contribute to higher rates of nutrient turnover in invaded ecosystems.

  10. 小花五味子中抗HIV活性的木脂素类化合物%Anti-HIV Lignans from Schisandra micrantha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉涛; 韩全斌; 郑永唐; 王睿睿; 杨柳萌; 彭丽艳; 肖伟烈; 孙汉董

    2005-01-01

    目的:从小花五味子中发现具有抗HIV活性的化学成分.方法:采用多种柱层析分离进行化合物的分离和纯化,通过波谱分析鉴定化合物的结构,化合物的抗HIV-1活性通过对HIV-1感染C8166细胞致细胞病变的抑制试验得到.结果:从小花五味子的茎藤部分分离得到了4个木脂素,分别鉴定为micrantherin A (1), gomisin K3 (2), gomisin G (3)和vladinol F (4).化合物4具有显著的抗HIV-1活性,IC50= 3.51 μg/mL,选择指数为27.45.结论:化合物1为新的木脂素,化合物4的抗HIV-1活性值得进一步研究.%AIM: To find new natural compounds with anti-HIV activity from Schisandra micrantha. METHORD: The chemical constituents of Schisandra micrantha were isolated by various column chromatographic methods. Their structures were assigned by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR experiments, and their anti-HIV-1 activities and cytotoxicities were tested by microtiter syncytium formation infectivity assay. RESULT: Four lignans, micrantherin A (1), gomisin K3 (2), gomisin G (3), and vladinol F (4) were isolated from the leaves and stems of Schisandra micrantha. Vladinol F (4) was found to show potent anti-HIV-1 activity with IC50 value of 3.51 μg/mL and a selective index of 27.45. CONCLUSION: Micrantherin A (1) was a new lignan.

  11. Micorriza arbuscular e nutrição fosfática na toxidez de zinco para a trema [Trema micrantha (L. Blum.] Arbuscular mycorrhiza and phosphorus nutrition on zinc toxicity to trema [Trema micrantha (L. Blum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de micorriza arbuscular, do estado nutricional de P da planta e de concentrações crescentes de P em solução nutritiva na toxidez de Zn para Trema micrantha (L. Blum. Em um primeiro experimento, mudas de trema foram formadas em substrato que continha doses crescentes de P [0, 100, 200 e 400 mg dm-3 na forma de Ca(H2PO42] e um tratamento de inoculação com Glomus etunicatum (Ge. Após crescimento por 60 dias, as mudas foram transferidas para vasos com solução nutritiva de Clark, que continha 2, 75, 150 e 225 µmol L-1 de Zn, e mantidas por mais 40 dias, quando foram colhidas e avaliadas. Os efeitos do P na amenização da fitotoxidez de Zn foram avaliados em outro experimento, aplicando-se, simultaneamente e de forma combinada em solução, doses de P (0,07; 0,5; 1 e 2 mmol L-1 fornecido por diferentes fontes e de Zn (2, 75, 150 e 225 µmol L-1 na forma de ZnSO4.7H2O, nas quais foram cultivadas mudas de trema por 40 dias. Houve acentuada inibição no crescimento e na colonização micorrízica da trema em doses elevadas de Zn em solução (150 e 225 µmol L-1. Constatou-se que a melhoria da nutrição fosfática reduziu a translocação do Zn das raízes para a parte aérea, mas isto, assim como a colonização micorrízica, não resultou em favorecimento do crescimento da planta em condições de excesso deste metal em solução. No segundo experimento, verificou-se que a elevação na concentração de P em solução nutritiva promoveu melhoria no estado nutricional de P, conferindo proteção à planta do excesso de Zn. Como a especiação química da solução indicou que a aplicação de P não interferiu, de modo significativo, nas formas de Zn em solução, os resultados indicam que a ação amenizante do P ocorre na planta, possivelmente reduzindo a translocação do Zn das raízes para a parte aérea.The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of arbuscular

  12. Analysis on Influencing Factors for Hardwood Cuttage of Lonicera tatarica var. micrantha%小花忍冬硬枝扦插影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 季蒙; 王美珍; 乔福成

    2011-01-01

    Lonicera tatarica var.micrantha is a fine tree species with good ornament and strong stress resistance.In order to solve the great variation for differentiation of filial generation with seed breeding,combined with the characteristics of Lonicera tatarica var.micrantha,the hardwood cuttage experiment has been done with the treatments of different matrix,hormones and concentrations.The results show that matrix type,hormone type and the concentrations of hormone can directly influence the survival rate of cuttage,and the hormone types directly influence the growth of underground root.The average survival rate of cuttage can reach 70% by use of the combination of pearl salt ︰ sand = 1 ︰ 2,NAA,100 mg/L.Hormone ABT 2 of 100 mg/L can promote the growth of underground root system.%小花忍冬是观赏性和抗逆性兼具的优良树种之一。为了解决其种子繁殖子代分化变异大的问题,结合小花忍冬特性,通过不同基质、激素及不同浓度的处理,对其进行了硬枝扦插试验。结果表明:基质种类、激素种类、激素浓度都直接影响其扦插成活率,激素种类直接影响地下根系的生长量。其中,使用珍珠岩︰沙子=1︰2、NAA、100 mg/L组合,其扦插成活率均值达70%,效果最佳;使用激素ABT2号100 mg/L能较好地促进地下根系的生长。

  13. Effects of Mikania micrantha on Plant Community and Physical-chemical Properties of Soil%薇甘菊对入侵地植物群落及土壤理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双桃

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Mikania micrantha on plant community and physical-chemical properties of soil in its habitat were studied through the survey of community plots and laboratory analysis. The results showed that the invasion of M. micrantha changed the structure of plant community significantly and decreased the plant diversity. Meanwhile, it increased pH value and the content of available K and soil water, while had no obviouse effect on the contents of organic matter and alkali-hy-drolyzable nitrogen. Nutrition content in soil increased after the invasion, which could favor the growth of M. micrantha.%在野外样方调查和室内试验分析的基础上,通过测定物种多样性指数与土壤理化性质指标,分析了杂草薇甘菊(Mikaina micrantha H.B.K.)对入侵地植物群落与土壤理化性质的影响.结果表明,薇甘菊入侵后明显改变了入侵地的植物群落结构,使物种多样性显著降低;薇甘菊入侵显著提高了土壤pH值、速效钾含量以及土壤含水量,对土壤有机质和碱解氮等性质的影响不明显.薇甘菊入侵后土壤养分含量增加.形成了对自身生长有利的土壤环境.

  14. Vegetative Reproduction and Biomass Allocation Characteristics of Mikania micrantha H.B.K under Different Seedling Periods%薇甘菊不同时期的营养繁殖及其生物量分配特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天林; 申时才; 徐高峰; 张付斗; 张玉华

    2012-01-01

    薇甘菊是世界热带、亚热带地区最具危险性的外来植物之一,较强的无性生长与繁殖是其种群快速建立和扩散的主要原因.该实验采用生长期(40 d、30 d、20 d、10 d)和养分(1倍Hoagland’s营养液、清水+土壤、清水)二因子设计,探讨薇甘菊根、茎、叶的营养生长与繁殖和生物量分配特征.结果显示:(1)生长期对薇甘菊茎的存活率和养分对薇甘菊茎的净增生物量比例具有极显著影响(P<0.01),但对其他指标影响均不显著(P>0.05);生长期和养分互作除对薇甘菊根的存活率和茎的分枝数影响不显著外,对其他指标影响均达到极显著(P<0.01).(2)所有薇甘菊根处理中的存活率为0,茎的分枝数在各处理之间的差异不显著.(3)随着生长期和养分增加,薇甘菊茎和叶的存活率及其生物量逐渐提高,且茎的分枝长、叶的分枝长及其分枝数逐渐提高,但中等养分更有利于提高生长期较短的薇甘菊叶的存活率、分枝长、分枝数及生物量.研究表明,薇甘菊不同营养器官在不同生长期和养分条件具有不同的存活情况以及形态可塑性和生物量分配特征.%Being native to Central and South America, Mikania micrantha H. B. K is a perennial herb or semi-woody vine of Compositae. This plant has been considered one of the worst noxious weeds around the world and caused huge economic losses,serious ecological problems and biodiversity losses. The vegetative growth and reproduction is one of the most important reproduction strategies of M. micrantha. In this trial, the vegetative reproduction and biomass allocation characteristics of M. micrantha with two-factor experiments of different growth periods (40 d,30 d,20 d and 10 d) and nutrient solutions (1 Hoagland's, water + soil and water) were studied. The results showed that:(l)The growth period and nutrient had significant effect on stem survival rate and stem net biomass percentage of M

  15. 基于GIS的云南省薇甘菊潜在适生区研究%Study on Potential Suitable Area of Mikania micrantha in Yunnan Province based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小勇; 泽桑梓; 周晓; 季梅

    2015-01-01

    By using data of 1 172 Mikania micrantha distribution sites in the world, 27 environmental factors and MaxEnt model, prediction and quantitative analysis of Yunnan Mikania micrantha’ s different grades of suitable ar-eas were carried out.The results showed that Yunnan Mikania micrantha suitable areas were mainly distributed in south of 25 degrees north latitude, Pu’ er City, Dehong Prefecture and Honghe Prefecture had large areas of high-level suitable area.Lincang City, Xishuangbanna Prefecture and Wenshan Prefecture had large areas of middle-level suitable area.Yuxi City, Chuxiong Prefecture and Dali Prefecture had large areas of low-level suitable area. Yunnan Mikania micrantha suitable area classification threshold was reasonable, the classification results were con-sistent with actual situation in Yunnan.High-level suitable area was current basic existing area of Mikania micran-tha in Yunnan.Ecological and climatic conditions of different grades of suitable areas were also consistent with Mi-kania micrantha growth requirement.The study used the data from global 1 172 Mikania micrantha distribution points, including not only data from the origin places of central and south America, but also data from the invaded areas in Yunnan such as Dehong Prefecture, Baoshan City and Pu’ er City.This greatly enhanced the prediction reliability of potential distribution areas of Mikania micrantha in Yunnan.%利用全球1172个薇甘菊分布点、27个环境因子及MaxEnt模型,预测并定量分析云南省薇甘菊不同等级适生区域及其面积。结果表明,云南省薇甘菊适生区主要分布于北纬25°以南地区,普洱市、德宏州、红河州有大范围高适生区;临沧市、西双版纳州和文山州有大范围的中等适生区;玉溪市、楚雄州、大理州有较大面积的低适生区。云南省薇甘菊适生区等级划分采用阈值较为合理,等级划分结果符合云南省实际情况。高适生区基本都是

  16. 橡胶树黑团孢叶斑病菌培养滤液对薇甘菊的除草活性%Herbicidal Effect of Periconia heveae Culture Filtrate on Mikania micrantha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古鑫; 范志伟; 张国良; 黄乔乔; 程汉亭; 付卫东; 沈奕德; 刘丽珍

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The paper was to explore the herbicidal effect of Periconia heveae culture filtrate on Mikania micrantha. [ Method ] Through indoor bioassay method, the inhibitory effects of culture filtrates of seven kinds of plant disease fungi on seed germination and seedling growth of M. Micrantha were studied, and the security of P. Heveae culture filtrate on pepper ( Capsicum annuum) and tomato ( Solarium lycop-ersicum ) was also evaluated. [ Result ] The culture filtrates of P. Heveae had strong inhibitory effects on seed germination and the growth of root, shoot and seedling of M. Micrantha, and the inhibition rates were 72.7% , 93% , 32.4% , and 54.6% (fresh weight), respectively. Security tests showed that culture filtrates of P. Heveae were safe to seed germination and root and shoot growth of tomato, but they inhibited seed germination of pepper. [Conclusion] As potential biological herbicide, the culture filtrate and metabolites of P. Heveae is worthy of further development.%[目的]探讨橡胶树黑团孢叶斑病菌培养滤液对薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H.B.K.)的除草活性.[方法]采用室内生物活性 测定方法,研究了7种植物病害真菌培养滤液对恶性入侵杂草薇甘菊种子萌发和幼苗生长的抑制作用,并评价了橡胶树黑团孢叶斑病真菌培养滤液对辣椒和番茄的安全性.[结果]橡胶树黑团孢叶斑病病原真菌培养滤液对薇甘菊种子萌发以及根、茎、幼苗生长均有较强的抑制作用,抑制率分别达72.7%、93.0%、32.4%和54.6%(鲜重).橡胶树黑团孢叶斑病病原真菌培养滤液对番茄种子萌发和根茎生长均表现安全,而对辣椒种子萌发有抑制作用.[结论]橡胶树黑团孢叶斑病病原真菌毒素培养滤液及其代谢物值得作为生物除草剂进一步开发.

  17. 薇甘菊提取物对红脉穗螟的产卵忌避及杀卵作用%Oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of Mikania micrantha extracts on Tirathaba rufivena (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宝珠; 吕朝军; 钱军; 覃伟权; 苟志辉

    2014-01-01

    [Aim] This study aims to explore the repellent effect of Mikania micrantha on the palm pest Tirathaba rufivena.[Methods] The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of M.micrantha extracts with different solvents against T.rufivena were studied with bioassay methods in the laboratory.[Results] Among different solvent extracts,the M.micrantha extracts from hexane and chloroform had the highest oviposition deterrent activities against T.rufivena,with the deterrent rates of 43.64% and 44.20% in choice test,and 51.60% and 59.20% in non-choice test,respectively.All extracts showed ovicidal activities against T.rufivena,while the chloroform extract showed the strongest impact on hatchability with the lowest corrected egg hatching rate (53.39%) and caused the highest corrected mortality (42.64%) to the 1st instar larvae.Among the different solvent extracts of M.micrantha by chloroform extraction,the butanol extract showed the highest oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activity against T.rufivena.[Conclusion] M.micrantha extracts show a great application potential in ecological control of T.rufivena based on the oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity.%[目的]探讨入侵杂草薇甘菊Mikania micrantha对棕榈害虫红脉穗螟Tirathaba rufivena的产卵忌避活性.[方法]采用室内生物测定法,研究薇甘菊不同溶剂提取物对红脉穗螟的产卵忌避作用和杀卵活性.[结果]产卵忌避试验结果表明,薇甘菊各提取物中,以正己烷和三氯甲烷提取物对红脉穗螟的产卵忌避效果最好,两者的选择性忌避率分别为43.64%和44.20%,非选择性忌避率分别为51.60%和59.20%.对卵孵化率的影响显示,各溶剂提取物均对红脉穗螟具有一定的杀卵活性,其中三氯甲烷提取物对卵孵化率的影响最大,校正孵化率最低,仅为53.39%,而且三氯甲烷提取物引起的1龄幼虫的死亡率最高,可达42.64%.在薇甘菊三氯甲烷提取物的不同溶剂萃

  18. Study on the Fungicidal Activities of Extractions from Mikania micrantha%小花假泽兰提取物抑菌活性研究

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    郝彩琴; 冯俊涛; 张兴

    2011-01-01

    以石油醚、乙酸乙酯、乙醇对小花假泽兰茎叶进行依次提取.采用离体和活体试验法测定3种有机溶剂提取物对3种植物病原真菌的抑制活性.生长速率法试验结果表明:在干样0.09g/ml浓度下,乙酸乙酯提取物能显著抑制番茄灰霉病、苹果炭疽病、南瓜枯萎病3种病原真菌菌丝的生长,抑制率均在90%以上.组织法试验结果表明:在干样0.18g/ml浓度下,石油醚提取物对番茄果实灰霉病的治疗效果为63.55%,乙醇提取物保护效果为71.47%.对小麦白粉病的盆栽试验结果表明:石油醚提取物保护作用为81.26%,乙酸乙酯提取物治疗作用为62.07%.%The fungicidal activities of three extractions which extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol from Mikania micrantha were tested in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethyl acetate extraction was excellently against Botrytis cirerea, Glomerella cingulata, Fusarium bulbigenum in vitro at 0.09 g/ml, and the inhibitive rates were all greater than 90%. Organise method tests showed petroleum ether extraction had therapeutic effect of 63.55% against Botrytis cirerea in vivo at 0.18 g/m l, alcoholic extraction had higher protection effect of 71.47%; pot culture method tests showed that petroleum ether extraction had higher protection effect of 81.26% against Erysiphe graminis,the therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extraction was the best and the effect was 62.07%.

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Extracts of the Stem Bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae

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    Pascal O. Bessong

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a major risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial activity of the stem bark of Bridelia. micrantha on H. pylori isolated in South Africa. Extracts and clarithromycin were tested against 31 clinical strains, including a standard strain (NCTC 11638 of H. pylori, by measuring the diameters of the corresponding inhibition zones, followed by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC (using metronidazole, and amoxicillin as control antibiotics and the rate of kill. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also done. Inhibition zone diameters which ranged from 0–23 mm were observed for all five of the extracts and 0–35 mm for clarithromycin. Marked susceptibility of strains (100% was noted for the acetone extract (P < 0.05, followed by ethyl acetate extract (93.5%. The MIC50 values ranged from 0.0048 to 0.156 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.0048 to 0.313 mg/mL for the acetone extract. The MIC90 values ranged from 0.0048 to 2.5 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract and 0.078 to >0.625 mg/mL for the acetone extract, respectively. Insignificant statistical difference in potency was observed when comparing the crude ethyl acetate extract to metronidazole and amoxicillin (P > 0.05. Complete killing of strain PE430C by the ethyl acetate extract was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC and 0.2 mg/mL (4 × MIC at 66 and 72 h. For strain PE369C, 100% killing was observed at 0.1 mg/mL (2 × MIC in 66 and 72 h. The ethyl acetate extract could thus be a potential source of lead molecules for the design of new anti-Helicobacter pylori therapies as this study further confirmed the presence of phytochemicals including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins.

  20. Adaptability and Reproductive Characteristics of Mikania micrantha H.B.K under Different Habitats%异质环境下入侵植物薇甘菊的适应性与繁殖特性

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    徐高峰; 申时才; 张付斗

    2014-01-01

    Mikania micrantha H.B.K is considered one of the world’s most invasive and destructive species, and its control and management has become a difficult problem in the world. Currently, many domestic and foreign research showed that invasive alien plants has stronger adaptation ability to the heterogeneous environment than native species. Research on adaptability and reproductive characteristics under different habitats has provided the scientific ways for implement effective monitoring, early-warning and control of M. micrantha. In this paper, we selected the 10 habitats which represented 4 population (woodland, wasteland, farmland and riverside) in full-bloom stage of M. micrantha, sexual reproduction, reproductive allocation and the major functional traits of specific leaf area (SLA), leaf mass fraction (LMF), specific stem density (SSD) and stem mass fraction (SMF) on M. micrantha under different habitats were measured. The results showed sexual reproduction and reproductive allocation were effected significantly of different habitats of M. micrantha. Total flower number, seed number, biomass allocation of stem of reproductive shoots and flower of barren field (plot Ⅷ) and riverside (plots Ⅸ and Ⅹ) were significantly higher than other plots, populations tend to sexual reproduction. However, the total flower number and seed number were decreased significantly, but the nutrition branches and leaf biomass allocation were significantly larger than the other plots, and the value of stem biomass allocation is in the middle of the range when the population of invasive alien species M. micrantha in unfavorable light condition (such as sample I) and community structure(such as sample VI). Which showed to adapt the adverse habitats (such as sample I, IV, VI), invasive alien species M. micrantha enhanced the biomass allocation of stem on vegetative shoot and leaves, the population was more inclined to clonal propagation. there were also significant differences among

  1. Study on the allelochemicals of inhibiting Mikania micrantha growth from Cuscuta japonica%抑制薇甘菊生长的日本菟丝子化感物质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 肖辉林

    2012-01-01

    采用制备型高效液相色谱、重结晶等方法从有害植物日本菟丝子(Cuscuta japonica Choisy)的水浸液有机萃取物中分离出能显著抑制薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H.B.K.)种子萌发的化感物质,并采用核磁共振(1HNMR、13CNMR)法、质谱(MS)法等对其结构进行分析和鉴定.结果表明:能显著抑制薇甘菊种子萌发的日本菟丝子化感物质为桂皮酸(cinnamic acid)和3-苯基丙酸(3-phenylpropanoic acid).这2种化合物在菟丝子属的植物中属首次分离鉴定.这2种化感物质具有开发为生物源农药(如除草剂)的潜力.研究结果为人侵植物薇甘菊的防治提供了参考依据,也为日本菟丝子的开发利用开辟了一条新途径.%In this study, allelochemicals, which has the marked inhibition effects on the seed germination of Mikania micrantha H. B. K., were extracted and separated from Cuscuta japonica Choisy through recrystal and their structures were identified through the analyses of 'HNMR, 13CNMR and MS. The study indicates that the allelochemicals are cinnamic acid and 3-phenylpropanoic acid. These two compounds are the first time to be seperated and identified from the custuta plants. It is supposed that these two allelochemicals should be developed as new-type biological pesticides (such as herbicide). The results provide reference for the prevention and control of Mikania micrantha invasion, and for the new way to exploit and utilize C. japonica.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Growth Types and Reproductive Characteristics of Mikania micrantha%薇甘菊不同生长方式下的繁殖特征比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张付斗; 李天林; 徐高峰; 吴迪; 张玉华

    2011-01-01

    Mikania micrantha is a highly invasive plant species in tropical and subtropical regions.To analyze the adaptability and plasticity of climbing and prostrating M.micrantha plants, we here performed field experiments on morphological characteristics, biomass allocation and reproduction of growth patterns under different environmental moisture conditions.Under moist conditions, climbing plants showed more biomass in the main stem and less in the branches than did prostrating plants.Under dry conditions, climbing plants invested less biomass in the main stem and branch than did prostrating plants.Under both wet and dry conditions, climbing plants had a reproductive investment of 0.429 and 0.342 g·g-1, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of prostrating plants under the same conditions.Sexual reproduction was the most important approach for climbing plants to produce offspring, which in wet and dry habitats accounted for 84.7% and 62.6%, respectively, of the population.Prostrating plants relied mainly on asexual reproduction to increase their population, with only 40.4% and 35.9% of the population produced by sexual reproduction in wet and dry habitats, respectively.Growth patterns and soil moisture had a significant impact on the biomass and reproduction allocation in plants.Climbing and prostrating M.micrantha plants use different reproductive strategies to adapt to environmental moisture conditions.%利用实验生态学方法,对攀缘生长与伏地生长的薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)的形态特征、生物量分配和繁殖特征进行了比较研究.结果表明:在潮湿生境条件下,攀缘生长的植株与伏地生长的植株相比对主茎的生物量投资较大,而对分枝茎的生物量投资则相对较小;但在干旱生境条件下,攀缘生长的植株对主茎和分枝茎的生物量投资均较伏地生长的植株小.在潮湿与干旱生境中.攀缘植株的繁殖投资分别为0.429 g·g-1和0.342 g·g-1,显著

  3. Characteristics of the Seed Banks and Seedling Banks of Mikania micrantha-Invaded Soils Different in Type of Habitat%不同生境薇甘菊土壤种子库与幼苗库的特征

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    申时才; 徐高峰; 张付斗; 李天林; 金桂梅; 张玉华

    2013-01-01

    通过野外定点取样与萌发试验相结合的方法,研究云南德宏州陇川县不同生境薇甘菊入侵地区的土壤种子库与幼苗库的特征.结果表明,根据土壤种子库萌发后的植物鉴定结果,橡胶林、林地、灌丛、草地和河岸边这5种生境共统计到40种植物,隶属18科.不同生境薇甘菊入侵群落的物种组成、种子萌发特性与空间分布及其幼苗库存在明显差异,橡胶林、林地、灌丛、草地和河岸边的薇甘菊种子密度分别为75、109、165、124和53粒·m-2,且各生境间差异显著(P<0.05).室内萌发试验表明,薇甘菊土壤种子库萌发时间持续8周,其中第3~5周的萌发速度最快;土壤垂直方向上,0~2、>2~5、>5~10 cm深度土层薇甘菊种子分别占0~10 cm土层种子总数的81%、17%和2%.野外薇甘菊土壤幼苗库萌发时间持续6个月(5-10月),其中6-8月萌发速度较快.%Characteristics were studied of the seed banks and seedling banks of the five places that are different in habitats but all invaded by M.micrantha in Longchuan County,Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan Province,China,using the method of field sampling and germination test in laboratory.Results show that seeds in the soil samples germinated and were identified to be of 40 plant species belonging to 18 families.They differed in species composition,characteristics and spatial distribution of seed germination and seedling bank between habitats.The M.micrantha seed density of rubber forest,woodlot,bushland,grassland,and river bank,the five different habitats,was 75,109,165,124,and 53 seed · m-2,respectively,showing significant difference between them (P<0.05).The in-laboratory germination experiment shows that germination of M.micrantha seeds may last for 8 weeks,and concentrated during the period from the 3rd to the 5th weeks.Vertically,its seeds were concentrated mainly in the 0-2 cm soil layer,and then in the >2-5 cm layer,and the >5-10 cm

  4. Nutrição fosfática e micorriza arbuscular na redução da toxicidade de cádmio em trema [Trema micrantha (L. Blum.] Phosphate nutrition and arbuscular mycorrhiza on amelioration of cadmium toxicity in trema [Trema micrantha (L. Blum.

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    Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se os efeitos da nutrição fosfática e da micorriza arbuscular na toxicidade de Cd em Trema micrantha (L. Blum. Em um primeiro experimento, mudas de trema foram formadas em substrato contendo doses crescentes de P (0, 100, 200 e 400 mg dm-3 e com um tratamento de inoculação com Glomus etunicatum. Após crescimento por 60 dias, essas mudas foram transferidas para solução nutritiva de Clark sem Cd e suplementada com 5, 15 e 45 µmol L-1 de Cd e mantidas por mais 40 dias, quando os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados. As influências do P na amenização da fitotoxidez de Cd foram também avaliados em outro experimento, aplicando-se simultaneamente e de forma combinada em solução, doses de P (0,07; 0,5; 1; e 2 mmol L-1 e de Cd (0, 5, 10 e 15 µmol L-1. Houve acentuada inibição no crescimento e colonização micorrízica da trema mesmo na dose mais baixa de Cd em solução (5 µmol L-1. Constatou-se que a melhoria da nutrição fosfática favoreceu o crescimento da planta, sendo isso associado à redução da toxicidade de Cd, enquanto a inoculação com G. etunicatum não teve o mesmo efeito. Encontrou-se uma relação inversa entre o aumento no fornecimento de P em solução e a absorção e acúmulo de Cd na trema. Análise da especiação química da solução indicou que o P não interferiu na disponibilidade de Cd em solução, o que evidencia que a ação amenizante do P se deve às interações na planta, possivelmente reduzindo a translocação do Cd.In the present study the effects of phosphorus nutrition and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM were evaluated on Cd toxicity to Trema micrantha (L. Blum.. In a first experiment, trema seedlings were raised in a P-enriched substrate (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg dm-3 and with an AM treatment (inoculation with Glomus etunicatum. After sixty days of growth, plants were transferred to Clark nutrient solution either without Cd added or amended with this metal at

  5. Study on Control Efficiency of Combination of Glyphosate and 2,4-D in Mikania micrantha%草甘膦与2,4-D复配对薇甘菊防效的研究

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    高旭华; 方越; 沈雪峰; 陈勇; 陈明周

    2012-01-01

    为了明确草甘膦与2,4-D混配后防治薇甘菊的效果,采用温室盆栽试验,计算出2种除草剂复配后对薇甘菊的鲜重防效,结合等效线法评价二者的最佳配比.研究结果表明:2种药剂混用对薇甘菊具有增效作用,在草甘膦和2,4-D(153.75,175)到(170.65,161)两等效线坐标点之间范围地上部增效作用最明显,此两点的相互作用指数为1.58和1.60;而草甘膦和2,4-D(153.75,203.15)到(202.76,161)两等效线坐标点之间范围根部增效作用最明显,此两点相互作用指数为1.48和1.53.可见,草甘膦153.75~170.65 g a.i./hm2与2,4-D 161~175 g a.i./hm2的配比范围内对地上部的防效达到了最佳增效作用,而草甘膦153.75~202.76g a.i/hm2与2,4-D 161~203.15 g a.i./hm2的配比范围内对根部的防效达到了最佳增效作用.%To clarify the. Interaction of glyphosate and 2,4-D on the prevention and control of Mikania micrantha, the potting test was carried out in the Greenhouse. The control effects of the two herbicides on mikania micrantha were calculated. The best matching was evaluated by equivalent line. The results showed that there was significant synergisra on mikania micrantha with glyphosate and 2,4-D. The most obvious synergism on the shoot inhibition was between the scope of (153.75g a.I/hra2 to 170.65 g a.I./hm2) and (161 g a.I./hm2 to 175 g a.I./hm2), this index of interaction reached 1.58 and 1.60. But the most obvious synergism on the root inhibition was between the scope of (153.75 g a.I./hm2 to 202.76 g a.I./hm2)and (161 g a.I./hm2 to203.15 g a.I./hm2), the index of interaction reached 1.48 and 1.53. The best synergism ratio range of glyphosate and 2,4-D on shoot were 153.75 g a.i7hm2-170.65 g a.I./hm2, 161-175 g a.I./hm2 respectively, but the best synergism ratio range of glyphosate and 2,4-D on root were 153.75-202.76 g a.I./hm2 161-203.15 g a.I./hm2 respectively.

  6. 18%2,4-滴微乳剂防治非耕地薇甘菊田间药效试验%Field trials of 18%2,4-D micro-emulsion against Mikania micrantha in non-cultivated land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永禄; 刘晓亮; 唐文伟; 曾东强

    2014-01-01

    【目的】明确18%2,4-滴微乳剂对非耕地薇甘菊的防治效果,为其推广应用提供科学依据。【方法】设18%2,4-滴微乳剂540.0、324.0、202.5和162.0 g a.i./ha 4个处理,与常用化学除草剂41%草甘膦异丙胺盐水剂推荐剂量1845.0 g a.i./ha及空白对照处理进行比较,在薇甘菊生长旺期施药,并于药前和药后15、30 d调查薇甘菊覆盖度,药后45 d调查薇甘菊覆盖度和鲜重,计算薇甘菊覆盖度防效及鲜重防效,2009、2010年两年重复试验。【结果】18%2,4-滴微乳剂在供试剂量下对薇甘菊有良好的防除效果,其中162.0~202.5 g a.i./ha剂量处理后45 d对薇甘菊覆盖度防效达97.74%~100.00%,鲜重防效达98.80%~100.00%,显著高于对照药剂处理的防效。【结论】18%2,4-滴微乳剂可有效防除非耕地薇甘菊,推荐使用剂量为162.0~202.5 g a.i./ha。%[Objective]The control effect of 18%2,4-D micro-emulsion(ME) against Mikania micrantha in non-cultivated land was determined to provide references for its application and promotion. [Method]Four different treatments of 18%2,4-D ME (540.0, 324.0, 202.5 and 162.0 g a.i./ha) were sprayed on Mikania micrantha leaves at peak growth stage to compare their control effects with recommended levels of common chemical herbicide (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt aqueous solution 1845.0 g a.i./ha) and the control . The coverage of Mikania micrantha before and after spraying 15 and 30 days, and the cover-age and fresh weight of Mikania micrantha after spraying 45 days were measured to calculate the control efficiency. The experi-ment was repeated for two years (2009 and 2010). [Result]All the dosages of 18% 2,4-D ME in the experiments showed great control effects on Mikania micrantha. The control effects of 162.0-202.5 g a.i./ha of 18%2,4-D ME on coverage and fresh weight of M. micrantha in non-cultivated land were 97.74%-100.00%and 98.80%-100.00%on 45th day, which were signifi

  7. 薇甘菊入侵对深圳湾红树林生态系统碳储量的影响%Effect of invasion plants (Mikania micrantha H.B.K.) on carbon stock of mangrove ecosystem in Shenzhen bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛子龙; 赖梅东; 赵振业; 杨小毛

    2011-01-01

    外来植物入侵对生态系统碳过程的影响已经成为入侵生态学研究的热点问题.采用比较研究的方法分析了薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H.B.K.)入侵对深圳湾红树林生态系统碳储量的影响,分别设置红树林(Kandelia candel)群落、红树林-薇甘菊群落、薇甘菊群落以及光滩等样地,采集植被、凋落物和土壤剖面样品,分析生态系统各组分的碳储量变化.结果表明,薇甘菊入侵对红树林生态系统碳储量有着显著的影响,碳储量从未被入侵下215.73 tC/hm2减少到轻、高度入侵下的197.56tC/hm2和166.70 tC/hm2,分别减少8.42%和22.72%.其中植被和土壤碳储量显著减少,凋落物碳储量显著增加.薇甘菊入侵一方面导致红树林枯萎,减少植被生物量,增加凋落物量,另一方面促进了土壤微生物活动,使土壤有机碳分解释放,降低土壤碳储量.薇甘菊入侵后红树林碳储量的降低将大大削弱生态系统的碳汇功能.%Alien species invasion has become one of the most important globle environmental problems due to its tremendous effects on community structure and ecosystem function. Recently, many studies have devoted to documenting the impact of exotic plant invasion on different ecosystems. To examine the effects of alien plants (Mikania micrantha H.B.K.) invasion on carbon stock of mangrove (Kandelia candel) ecosystem, we collected vegetation, litter and soil samples in mangroves, mangroves-alien species and alien species, and we used comparative method to analyze the differences of ecosystem carbon stock under different stages of alien vegetation invasion. The results showed that Mikania micrantha invasion had significant effect on the carbon stock of mangrove ecosystem, and the carbon stock decreased with the increase of intrusion intensity. The carbon stock reduced from 215.73 tC/hm2 to 197.56 tC/hm2 (8.42%) and 166.70 tC/hm2 (22.72%) under light invasion and high invasion, with vegetation and soil

  8. 入侵植物薇甘菊与其本地同属种蔓泽兰的叶构建因子比较研究%Leaf Construction Traits of Invasive Species Mikania micrantha and Its Indigenous Congener M.cordata (Asteraceae) in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雄

    2010-01-01

    研究了华南地区外来入侵种薇甘菊Mikania micrantha H.B.Kunth和它的本地同属种假泽兰Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) B.L.Robinson的叶构建特性因子构建成本(Construction Cost,CC)、叶N含量以及叶面积干质量(Specific leaf area, SLA).两个种的叶性因子表现出以下的形式:本地种假泽兰的构建成本(CC)和单位叶面积的氮含量比外来种薇甘菊更高,比叶面(SLA)以及单位干质量的叶氮含量显著低于后者.无疑,低CC显示其低能耗及高资源利用率,这也可能是其快速生长并广泛传播的主要机理,因此,植物叶构建成本也可能是评价其入侵潜力的重要因子.

  9. 不同颜色粘虫板诱集薇甘菊叶蝉的效果差异性比较%Effect Dissimilarity Comparison of Trapping Cicadellidae lived on Mikania micrantha by Using Different Color Sticky Board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    泽桑梓; 季梅; 闫争亮; 周平阳; 弄扎

    2013-01-01

    为选定诱捕薇甘菊叶蝉Cicadellidae(种名待定)粘虫板的最佳颜色,解决人工助叶蝉迁移防控薇甘菊关键技术问题,以薇甘菊叶蝉为对象,自制红、兰、黄3种不同颜色的粘虫板在薇甘菊林地内进行田间诱捕试验.结果表明,粘虫板间距为10 m,大小为29.7 cm×19.7 cm的黄色单面粘虫板对薇甘菊叶蝉的诱集效果最好,ld可以诱集到薇甘菊叶蝉13.15±2.31(头),与红色、兰色粘虫板相比,差异性达到极显著水平;红色、兰色粘虫板诱集薇甘菊叶蝉值分别为1.46±0.50(头)和0.92±0.29(头),二者之间差异性不显著.

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Antiprotozoal and Antiviral Activities of Extracts from Argentinean Mikania Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Laurella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antiprotozoal and antiviral activities of four Argentinean Mikania species. The organic and aqueous extracts of Mikania micrantha, M. parodii, M. periplocifolia, and M. cordifolia were tested on Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes, Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes, and dengue virus type 2. The organic extract of M. micrantha was the most active against T. cruzi and L. braziliensis exhibiting a growth inhibition of 77.6±4.5% and 84.9±6.1%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. The bioguided fractionation of M. micrantha organic extract led to the identification of two active fractions. The chromatographic profile and infrared analysis of these fractions revealed the presence of sesquiterpene lactones. None of the tested extracts were active against dengue virus type 2.

  11. A pharmacobotanical study of two medicinal species of Fabaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mubo A Sonibare; Tolulope A Oke; Mike O Soladoye

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a pharmacobotanical study of Lonchocarpus cyanescens (Schum & Thonn) Benth (L. cyanescens) and Leptoderris micrantha Dunn (L. micrantha) which are two key medicinal plants from the family Fabaceae.Methods:The epidermal peel was obtained by soaking the leaf in concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) in a petri dish. Both surfaces were carefully mounted on clean glass slides and dehydrated by ethyl alcohol, and stained with safaranin O for 2 min. Transverse sections of plant leaf were obtained by free hand sectioning. Phytochemical screening for various constituents was carried out on the powdered leaves. Other parameters such as, moisture content, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, water and alcohol extractive values were obtained by standard techniques.Results:The distinctive features of the species include: the presence of stomata on both surfaces of L. cyanescens and the absence in L. micrantha. Presence of larger epidermal cells in both upper and lower surfaces of L. cyanescens [(35.25±1.64)í(31.25±2.36), (43.0±2.63)í(39.5±5.11)] respectively compared to L. micrantha. Glandular multicellular trichomes are present in L. micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Numerous trichomes surround the transverse section of the leaf of L.micrantha but absent in L. cyanescens. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that both species contain secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, tannins, saponins, steroids and flavonoids.Conclusions:The microscopic and phytochemical data provided in this study are useful for the standardization of the medicinal plants.

  12. Développements récents dans l’étude des premières populations néolithiques du Proche-Orient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Le Mort

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Depuis les fouilles pionnières de K. Kenyon à Jéricho (Kenyon et Holland 1981, la période s’étendant de 10 000 à 7 000 av. J.-C., qui a vu le développement de l’économie de production au Proche-Orient, étape décisive dans l’histoire du bassin méditerranéen, a fait l’objet de nombreux travaux, publiés sous la forme d’ouvrages ou d’articles de synthèse (par exemple, Cauvin 1994 ; Aurenche et Kozlowski 1999 ; Özdoğan et Basgelen 1999 ; Goring-Morris et Kuijt 2002 ; Guilaine et Le Brun 2003 ; Pe...

  13. Natural history of the mistletoe-feeding Thereus lomalarga (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, María Dolores; Robbins, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    The natural history and morphology of the immature stages of the butterfly Thereus lomalarga Robbins, Heredia & Busby are described and illustrated. The food plant is Oryctanthus alveolatus (H.B.K.) Kuijt (Loranthaceae). Chaetotaxy of the first instar is described and compared with that of three locally studied Thereus species. Larvae have four instars, and the dorsal nectary organ becomes functional in the third instar. They are facultatively tended by ants belonging to seven genera that are attracted to O. alveolatus by floral disc nectaries, honeydew producing Hemiptera, and secretory wounds produced by Hemiptera on the fleshy inflorescence rachis. The average period from egg to eclosion under lab conditions was 35.68 days. Females emerged before males. Adults of both sexes feed on nectar from the flowers of the food plant and on hemipteran secretions; adults were not observed feeding on other flowers. Campopleginae and Chalcidinae were the most important parasitoids.

  14. Screening of some medicinal plants from cameroon for beta-lactamase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Baurin, Stéphane; Frère, Jean-Marie; Ngassam, Pierre; Ngameni, Bathelemy; Azebaze, Anatole; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Watchueng, Jean; Goffin, Colette; Galleni, Moreno

    2007-03-01

    In efforts to find new bioactive beta-lactamase inhibitors, this study investigated 16 Cameroonian plants belonging to 10 families which were evaluated for anti-beta-lactamase activity. The investigation showed that extracts 2, 6, 3 and 5 of the 16 plants investigated presented interesting in vitro beta-lactamase inhibition (over 90%), respectively, of the beta-lactamases TEM-1, OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99. These extracts were from Mammea africana (all beta-lactamases), Garcinia lucida, G. kola (OXA-10, IMP-1 and P99), Bridelia micrantha (OXA-10, P99), Ochna afzelii (OXA-10, P99), Prunus africana (IMP-1) and Adenia lobata (TEM-1). After elimination of tannins (according to the European Pharmacopoeia) the extracts from B. micrantha, G. lucida and M. africana were tested further for their anti-beta-lactamase activity. The extracts from B. micrantha and G. lucida exhibited potent inhibitory activity, respectively, of beta-lactamase OXA-10 (IC(50) = 0.02 mg/mL) and P99 (IC(50) = 0.01 mg/mL). The anti-beta-lactamase activity of M. africana extract was weak. The isolation and the structural elucidation of the active constituents of G. lucida and B. micrantha will provide useful leads in the development of beta-lactamase inhibitors.

  15. Preliminary note on strength properties of Leucaena leucocephala from lalkua, Tarai Bhabar Forest Division, uP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, N.K.

    1982-03-01

    Based on physical and mechanical tests conducted on small clear specimens, the strength properties of Leucaena leucocephala in green condition are reported and compared with Fraxinus micrantha, Morus alba and Tectona grandis. In general, Leucaena leucocephala has given slightly lower strength properties except in some cases as compared to above species. (Refs. 6).

  16. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Hansen, Christian M.

    2013-01-01

    ) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still...

  17. Tropical storm off Myanmar coast sweeps reefs in Ritchie's Archipelago, Andaman

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnan, P.; Grinson-George, G.; Vikas, N.; Titus-Immanuel, T.; Goutham-Bharathi, M.P.; Anand, A.; VinodKumar, K.; SenthilKumar, S.

    chesterfieldensis was scarred; Tubastrea micrantha had bleached and most colonies had died (Fig. 2g) and the table coral, Acropora hya- cinthus was found to be flipped over. At Minerva Ledge several boulder corals (Porites spp.) were bro- ken off at their bases...

  18. Short-term parasite-infection alters already the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Min; Jin, Ze-Xin; Hagedorn, Frank; Li, Mai-He

    2014-11-04

    Native parasitic plants may be used to infect and control invasive plants. We established microcosms with invasive Mikania micrantha and native Coix lacryma-jobi growing in mixture on native soils, with M. micrantha being infected by parasitic Cuscuta campestris at four intensity levels for seven weeks to estimate the top-down effects of plant parasitism on the biomass and functional diversity of soil microbial communities. Parasitism significantly decreased root biomass and altered soil microbial communities. Soil microbial biomass decreased, but soil respiration increased at the two higher infection levels, indicating a strong stimulation of soil microbial metabolic activity (+180%). Moreover, a Biolog assay showed that the infection resulted in a significant change in the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that microbial biomass declined significantly with decreasing root biomass, particularly of the invasive M. micrantha. Also, the functional diversity indices of soil microbial communities were positively correlated with soil microbial biomass. Therefore, the negative effects on the biomass, activity and functional diversity of soil microbial community by the seven week long plant parasitism was very likely caused by decreased root biomass and root exudation of the invasive M. micrantha.

  19. Additions to Asian Myristicaceae: Endocomia, Gymnacranthera, Horsfieldia, Knema, and Myristica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    2002-01-01

    In the genus Horsfieldia 5 new taxa are proposed, viz. one from Vietnam: H. micrantha W.J. de Wilde, a new variety from Thailand: H. amygdalina Wall. var. macrocarpa W.J. de Wilde, one species from the Philippines: H. romblonensis W.J. de Wilde, one species and a new variety both from West Papua: H.

  20. Structure and ontogeny of the pericarp of six Eupatorieae (Asteraceae with ecological and taxonomic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marzinek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of cypselae and their accessory parts were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy for the species Campuloclinium macrocephalum, Chromolaena stachyophylla, Mikania micrantha, Praxelis pauciflora, Symphyopappus reticulatus, and Vittetia orbiculata, some of these being segregated from the genus Eupatorium. A layer of phytomelanin observed in the fruit appears to be secreted by the outer mesocarp into the schizogenous spaces between the outer and inner mesocarp; its thickness was observed to vary among the different species examined. The bristles of the pappus are vascularized, except in M micrantha, and have cells that are superficially projected and arranged acropetally; in S. reticulatus some of the projections are retrorse and a fracture line on the floral disk that is only seen in this species may indicate a double dispersal process. Numerous differences observed among the cypselae examined here reinforce earlier segregations of the genus Eupatorium sensu lato.A ontogênese das cipselas e de suas partes acessórias em Campuloclinium macrocephalum, Chromolaena stachyophylla, Mikania micrantha, Praxelis pauciflora, Symphyopappus reticulatus e Vittetia orbiculata, parte delas segregadas do gênero Eupatorium, foi estudada em microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. A camada de fitomelanina presente no fruto aparentemente é secretada pelo mesocarpo externo e possui espes-sura variavel entre as especies, depositando-se em espaco esquizógeno entre o mesocarpo externo e interno. As cerdas dos pápus são vascularizadas, exceto em . M. micrantha, e possuem células projetadas superficialmente, dispostas acropetamente; em S. reticulatus, algumas projeções são retrorsas e a presença de linha de fratura sob o disco floral, observada apenas nesta espécie, pode indicar processo duplo de dispersão. As numerosas diferencas registradas entre as cipselas estudadas reforcam se-gregações anteriores do gênero Eupatorium

  1. Morphology, taxonomy and distribution of the Early Cretaceous coral genus Holocoenia (Scleractinia) and its first record in the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Although ten species are currently assigned to the Early Cretaceous coral genus Holocoenia, its characteristics are poorly known. Using material from the type locality of the type species Astrea micrantha along with described and undescribed material from France, Mexico, Poland and Spain, the genus is revised. It has a cerioid form with small calices, compact septa, a styliform columella, and an incomplete septothecal to synapticulothecal wall. Provisionally, it is assigned to the family Tham...

  2. Differential host-finding abilities by a weed biocontrol insect create within-patch spatial refuges for nontarget plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Haley A; Lalonde, Robert G; De Clerck-Floate, Rosemarie A

    2014-10-01

    Many modern weed biocontrol insects exhibit transient "spillover" nontarget herbivory when and where insects are in high density, such as following biocontrol releases, or around dense target weed infestations. Understanding spatial patterns of herbivory is important for predicting efficacy and safety of biocontrol, as refuges from herbivory can buffer plants from population-level impacts. Here, we demonstrate that differential host-finding and arrestment behaviors by an oligophagous biocontrol insect lead to spatial refuges from nontarget herbivory around insect release points within mixed patches of target and nontarget plants. We created transient insect outbreaks by releasing large numbers of Mogulones crucifer Pallas (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) into naturally occurring rangeland patches of the nontarget plant Hackelia micrantha (Eastwood) J.L. Gentry with varying densities of its target weed Cynoglossum officinale L., and monitored spatial patterns of herbivory around release points after 4-7 wk. In complement, we conducted a mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiment to compare M. crucifer's target and nontarget host-finding and arrestment behaviors. For rangeland releases, 95% of nontarget herbivory occurred within 4.25 m of release points, independent of target plant density. Target herbivory occurred throughout our evaluation radii (up to 14 m), where maximum density of diffusing M. crucifer was 1/10 of that in the nontarget herbivory radius. In the MRR experiment, more weevils were recaptured on C. officinale (but not H. micrantha) than expected by chance. M. crucifer's lack of specialized nontarget host-finding and arrestment behaviors means that spatial refuges from herbivory are created for H. micrantha just meters away from sources of high weevil density.

  3. Growth but not photosynthesis response of a host plant to infection by a holoparasitic plant depends on nitrogen supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Shen

    Full Text Available Parasitic plants can adversely influence the growth of their hosts by removing resources and by affecting photosynthesis. Such negative effects depend on resource availability. However, at varied resource levels, to what extent the negative effects on growth are attributed to the effects on photosynthesis has not been well elucidated. Here, we examined the influence of nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis responses of the host plant Mikania micrantha to infection by the holoparasite Cuscuta campestris by focusing on the interaction of nitrogen and infection. Mikania micrantha plants fertilized at 0.2, 1 and 5 mM nitrate were grown with and without C. campestris infection. We observed that the infection significantly reduced M. micrantha growth at each nitrate fertilization and more severely at low than at high nitrate. Such alleviation at high nitrate was largely attributed to a stronger influence of infection on root biomass at low than at high nitrate fertilization. However, although C. campestris altered allometry and inhibited host photosynthesis, the magnitude of the effects was independent of nitrate fertilizations. The infection reduced light saturation point, net photosynthesis at saturating irradiances, apparent quantum yield, CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, and maximum light-saturated rate of electron transport, and increased light compensation point in host leaves similarly across nitrate levels, corresponding to a similar magnitude of negative effects of the parasite on host leaf soluble protein and Rubisco concentrations, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and stomatal conductance across nitrate concentrations. Thus, the more severe inhibition in host growth at low than at high nitrate supplies cannot be attributed to a greater parasite-induced reduction in host photosynthesis, but the result of a higher proportion of host resources

  4. Growth but not photosynthesis response of a host plant to infection by a holoparasitic plant depends on nitrogen supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hao; Xu, Shu-Jun; Hong, Lan; Wang, Zhang-Ming; Ye, Wan-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic plants can adversely influence the growth of their hosts by removing resources and by affecting photosynthesis. Such negative effects depend on resource availability. However, at varied resource levels, to what extent the negative effects on growth are attributed to the effects on photosynthesis has not been well elucidated. Here, we examined the influence of nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthesis responses of the host plant Mikania micrantha to infection by the holoparasite Cuscuta campestris by focusing on the interaction of nitrogen and infection. Mikania micrantha plants fertilized at 0.2, 1 and 5 mM nitrate were grown with and without C. campestris infection. We observed that the infection significantly reduced M. micrantha growth at each nitrate fertilization and more severely at low than at high nitrate. Such alleviation at high nitrate was largely attributed to a stronger influence of infection on root biomass at low than at high nitrate fertilization. However, although C. campestris altered allometry and inhibited host photosynthesis, the magnitude of the effects was independent of nitrate fertilizations. The infection reduced light saturation point, net photosynthesis at saturating irradiances, apparent quantum yield, CO2 saturated rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco, and maximum light-saturated rate of electron transport, and increased light compensation point in host leaves similarly across nitrate levels, corresponding to a similar magnitude of negative effects of the parasite on host leaf soluble protein and Rubisco concentrations, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency and stomatal conductance across nitrate concentrations. Thus, the more severe inhibition in host growth at low than at high nitrate supplies cannot be attributed to a greater parasite-induced reduction in host photosynthesis, but the result of a higher proportion of host resources transferred to the parasite at

  5. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  6. A study of weeds as potential inoculum sources for a tomato-infecting begomovirus in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, S S; Hallwass, M; Aquino, O M; Inoue-Nagata, A K

    2013-05-01

    Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) is the most important begomovirus species in Brazilian tomato production. Many weeds are associated with tomato, and some are hosts of begomoviruses. Only one species of weed, Nicandra physaloides, has been found to be infected with ToSRV. In this study, four weed species were investigated for their capacity to be infected by ToSRV and serve as a potential source of inoculum for tomato. Begomoviruses from naturally infected Crotalaria spp., Euphorbia heterophylla, N. physaloides, and Sida spp. were successfully transferred to tomato plants by biolistic inoculation. ToSRV was the major virus transferred to tomato. In contrast, other begomoviruses were transferred to weeds, such as Sida micrantha mosaic virus and Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus. Furthermore, a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus is reported. We also confirmed that Crotalaria spp., E. heterophylla, and Sida spp. are infected with ToSRV but at low viral titers and in mixed infections with weed-infecting begomoviruses. Thus, it was demonstrated that weeds are potential sources of ToSRV for tomato in central Brazil.

  7. Asteraceae de interés en la Melisopalinogía: Bosque montano de las yungas (Jujuy - Argentina Asteraceae of melissopalynological interest: Yungas montane forest (Jujuy, Argentina

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    A. C. Sánchez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción polínica de 17 especies de la familia Asteraceae, con una clave para su identificación. Estos materiales corresponden a la flora melífera del Bosque Montano en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas en Jujuy. El estudio constituye el primer aporte para lograr la determinación polínica de las especies de esta familia en las mieles del área. Las especies descriptas son: Ageratum conyzoides, Baccharis salicifolia, Bidens pilosa, Elephantopus mollis, Eupatorium arnottianum Eupatorium bupleurifolium, Eupatorium leavigatum, Mikania micrantha, Parthenium hysteriophorus, Senecio cremeiflorus, Senecio rudbeckiifolius, Stevia potreriensis, Tagetes terniflora, Verbesina lilloi, Vernonia squamulosa, Viguiera mollis, Viguiera pazensis, todas ellas nativas.The descriptions of 17 pollen types of the Asteraceae family with a key for its identification are presented. These materials correspond to the mellipherus flora of the Bosque Montano in the Phytogeographycal Province of the Yungas in Jujuy. This study constitutes the first contribution to obtain the determination of the pollen types of this family in the honeys of the area. The species are described: Ageratum conyzoides, Baccharis salicifolia, Bidens pilosa, Elephantopus mollis, Eupatorium arnottianum Eupatorium bupleurifolium, Eupatorium leavigatum, Mikania micrantha, Parthenium hysteriophorus, Senecio cremeiflorus, Senecio rudbeckiifolius, Stevia potreriensis, Tagetes terniflora, Verbesina lilloi, Vernonia squamulosa, Viguiera mollis, Viguiera pazensis, all native.

  8. Nontarget herbivory by a weed biocontrol insect is limited to spillover, reducing the chance of population-level impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catton, Haley A; Lalonde, Robert G; De Clerck-Floate, Rosemarie A

    2015-03-01

    Insects approved for classical biocontrol of weeds are often capable of using close relatives of their target weed for feeding, oviposition, or larval development, with reduced preference and performance. When nontarget herbivory occurs and is suspected to reduce survival, growth, or fecundity of individual plants, and insects are capable of reproducing on their nontarget host, characterization of spatial and temporal patterns of the occurrence and intensity of herbivory is valuable for predicting potential population-level effects. Here, we perform a novel post-release manipulative field experiment with a root-feeding biocontrol weevil, Mogulones crucifer, released in Canada to control the rangeland weed Cynoglossum officinale, to test for its ability to establish on the nontarget plant Hackelia micrantha. After Cynoglossum, M. crucifer exhibits its highest preference for and performance on Hackelia spp. We released M. crucifer on Canadian rangeland sites with naturally occurring populations of H. micrantha growing interspersed with the target weed or in the near absence of the target weed. Adult weevil feeding on surrounding plants was monitored for three summers after release (years 0, 1, and 2), and, subsequently, subsets of plants were destructively sampled to determine M. crucifer oviposition levels. Additional oviposition and larval development data were obtained from seven non-experimental sites where weevils were released zero, three, or four years earlier. M. crucifer was not detected on experimental sites without C. officinale after two years, and nontarget herbivory was restricted to rare, low-level spillover. Visible evidence of adult herbivory (i.e., scars on shoots) was associated with oviposition in 90% of targets but only 30% of nontarget plants. We infer, through ecological refuge theory, that nontarget population-level impacts from M. crucifer spillover are unlikely because of temporal, spatial, and probabilistic refuges from herbivory, and make

  9. Systematic revision of Platanthera in the Azorean archipelago: not one but three species, including arguably Europe’s rarest orchid

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    Richard M. Bateman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The Macaronesian islands represent an excellent crucible for exploring speciation. This dominantly phenotypic study complements a separate genotypic study, together designed to identify and circumscribe Platanthera species (butterfly-orchids on the Azores, and to determine their geographic origin(s and underlying speciation mechanism(s.Methods. 216 individuals of Platanthera from 30 Azorean localities spanning all nine Azorean islands were measured for 38 morphological characters, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy of selected flowers. They are compared through detailed multivariate and univariate analyses with four widespread continental European relatives in the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate, represented by 154 plants from 25 populations, and with the highly misleading original taxonomic descriptions. Physiographic and ecological data were also recorded for each study population.Key Results. Despite limited genetic divergence, detailed phenotypic survey reveals not one or two but three discrete endemic species of Platanthera that are readily distinguished using several characters, most floral: P. pollostantha (newly named, formerly P. micrantha occupies the widest range of habitats and altitudes and occurs on all nine islands; P. micrantha (formerly P. azorica occurs on eight islands but is restricted to small, scattered populations in laurisilva scrub; the true P. azorica appears confined to a single volcanigenic ridge on the central island of São Jorge.Conclusions. Although hybridity seems low, the excess of phenotypic over genotypic divergence suggests comparatively recent speciation. The most probable of several credible scenarios is that Azorean Platantheras represent a single migration to the archipelago of airborne seed from ancestral population(s located in southwest Europe rather than North America, originating from within the P. bifolia-chlorantha aggregate. We hypothesise that an initial

  10. Detection and identification of the first viruses in chia (Salvia hispanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Marcos G; Perotto, Maria C; Martino, Julia A; Flores, Ceferino R; Conci, Vilma C; Pardina, Patricia Rodriguez

    2014-09-19

    Chia (Salvia hispanica), an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  11. Detection and Identification of the First Viruses in Chia (Salvia hispanica

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    Marcos G. Celli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chia (Salvia hispanica, an herbaceous plant native to Latin America, has become important in the last 20 years due to its beneficial effects on health. Here, we present the first record and identification of two viruses in chia plants. The comparison of the complete nucleotide sequences showed the presence of two viral species with the typical genome organization of bipartite New World begomovirus, identified as Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 and Tomato yellow spot virus, according to the ICTV taxonomic criteria for begomovirus classification. DNA-A from Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 exhibited 96.1% nucleotide identity with a Bolivian isolate of Sida micrantha, and Tomato yellow spot virus showed 95.3% nucleotide identity with an Argentine bean isolate. This is the first report of begomoviruses infecting chia as well as of the occurrence of Sida mosaic Bolivia virus 2 in Argentina.

  12. Three distinct begomoviruses associated with soybean in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda R; Cruz, A R R; Faria, J C; Zerbini, F M; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2009-01-01

    We report the complete nucleotide sequences of geminiviruses of the genus Begomovirus infecting soybean (Glycine max) in central Brazil. Samples obtained from soybean plants collected at Santo Antonio de Goiás, Goiás State, showing typical symptoms of viral infection, were analyzed. Infection was confirmed by PCR-based amplification of a DNA-A fragment with universal begomovirus primers. Total DNA from infected plants was then subjected to rolling-circle amplification (RCA), and 2.6-kb molecules were cloned into plasmid vectors. Sequencing of the three DNA-A and two DNA-B clones thus obtained confirmed infection by three distinct begomoviruses: bean golden mosaic virus, Sida micrantha mosaic virus and okra mottle virus, the last of which was reported recently to be a novel virus infecting okra plants in Brazil. Begomovirus infection of soybean plants has been reported sporadically in Brazil and has generally not been considered to be of economic relevance.

  13. A floristic classification of the vegetation of a forest-savanna boundary in southeastern Zimbabwe

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    I. Mapaure

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Chirinda Forest boundary was classified into eight types using Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA. The moist forest comprises three types:  Strychnos mellodora-Chrysophyllum gonmgosanum Forest on deep dolerite soils; Chrysophyllum gorungosanum-Myrianthus holstii Forest on shallow dolerite soils; and  Teclea iiobilis-Ehretia cymosa Forest on drier, but deep dolerite soils. The non-forest vegetation comprises five types: Themeda triandra Grassland on shallow dolerite soils; Psidium guajava Bushland on sandstone; Bridelia micrantha-Harungana madagascariensis Mixed Woodland not restricted to any one particular soil type; Acacia karroo- Heteropyxis dehniae Woodland on shallow soils derived from sandstone but sometimes on dolerite; and  Julbemardia globiflora-Brachystegia spiciformis (Miombo Woodland on sandstone.

  14. Bioassay on oviposition repellency of non-preferable plant extracts against citrus red mite Panonychus citri%非嗜食植物提取物对桔全爪螨产卵的驱避性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑伊静; 庞雄飞; 周琼; 彭跃峰; 徐长宝

    2004-01-01

    The oviposition repellency of the alcohol extracts from 50 species of non-preferable plants and azadirachtin against citrus red mite ( Panonychus cirri ) was determined using laboratory bioassays. In choice tests, the extracts from 42 of the 50 plant species and 1% azadirachtin (2000×) significantly reduced oviposition 1d after treatment.The repellency effect of the extracts from the 42 plant species was better than that of azadirachtin. Mikania micrantha extract had the best result, with an Interference Index of Population Control (IIPC) of 0.087 1 d after treatment, and significantly reduced oviposition for 9 d, while the extracts from Sesbania cannabina, Allium tuberosum , Paederia scandens , Duranta erecta and Dicranopteris pedata also had good effects, with an oviposition repellency of over 70 % 1 d after treatment, and significantly reduced oviposition for 4 - 6 d. The effect became weaker as time went on. None of the extracts showed significant oviposition attraction.

  15. Impact of polyploidy on fertility variation of Mediterranean Arundo L. (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardion, Laurent; Verlaque, Régine; Rosato, Marcela; Rosselló, Josep A; Vila, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    Failure of seed production in the genus Arundo L. (Poaceae) is often attributed to polyploidy. This study tested the impact of two ploidy levels (2n=12 and 18x) on the fertility of four Mediterranean Arundo. Viable pollen was screened from its production to its germination, and seed occurrence was monitored in admixture or isolated conditions. In addition, insights on restructuration of polyploid genomes were analysed using molecular cytogenetics. Our results show that high ploidy levels do not automatically induce failure of sexual reproduction. The two ploidy levels are able to produce viable pollen and seed set depending on species and cultural conditions. The sterility of A. micrantha (2n=12x) and A. donax (2n=18x) is due to the early failures of gametogenesis steps. For 18x cytotypes of A. donaciformis and A. plinii, seed absence for isolated genotype vs. seed production in admixed culture support their auto-incompatibility.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF GLYPHOSATE AND 2.4 D AMIN HERBICIDES TO CONTROL WEEDS UNDER Shorea selanica Bl. PLANTATION IN CARITA TRIAL GARDEN, BANTEN

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    Ari Wibowo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out in Carita, West Java, to identify the effectiveness of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide to control weeds under Shorea selanica Bl. plantation. The trial was conducted through the application of Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide with dosages of 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 liter per ha and compared with Glyphosate herbicide 5 liter per ha, manual treatment, and control (no treatment. The result showed that Glyphosate and 2.4 D Amin Herbicide could be used to control weeds in order to maintaining S. selanica Bl. plantation. Minimum dosage of 6 liter/ha was effective to control weeds such as Chromolaena odorata DC, Mikania micrantha Will, Lantana camara L, Imperata cylindrica Beauv., Melastoma malabathricum L, and Boreria latifolia Bl. Furthermore, there was no symptom of poison on S. selanica Bl. plantation after herbicide application with all dosages applied.

  17. Production of xylooligosaccharides from forest waste by membrane separation and Paenibacillus xylanase hydrolysis

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    Chun-Han Ko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Xylooligosaccharides (XO, derived from the alkaline (NaOH extractant of Mikania micrantha, were produced using multiple staged membrane separation and enzymatic xylanolysis. Staged nanofiltration (NMX, ultrafiltration (EUMX, and centrifugation (EMX processes for the ethanol precipitates were conducted. NMX recovered 97.26% of total xylose and removed 73.18% of sodium ions. Concentrations of total xylose were raised from 10.98 to 51.85 mg/mL by the NMX process. Recovered xylan-containing solids were hydrolyzed by the recombinant Paenibacillus xylanase. 68% XO conversions from total xylose of NMX was achieved in 24 hours. Xylopentaose (DP 5 was the major product from NMX and EMX hydrolysis. Xylohexaose (DP 6 was the major product from EUMX hydrolysis. Results of the present study suggest the applicability for XO production by nanofiltration, as NMX gave higher XO yields compared to those from a conventional ethanol-related lignocellulosic waste conversion process.

  18. INVASIVE WEEDS IN BOGOR BOTANIC GARDENS, INDONESIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON SURROUNDING LANDSCAPES

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    Edi Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation areas with the objective for collection and exchange plant materials have been speculated as weed bank for surrounding areas. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize ruderal invasive weeds in the Bogor Botanic Gardens (BBG. Observations were conducted in all vak (collection blocks in the BBG in order to identify the weeds species, determine their invasiveness, dominance and distribution. Weeds associations with host plants were observed. Current weed control program and data of dead trees collection were analyzed in relevant to weed. Distribution of weeds outside BBG was observed by transects method following river and road directions. Results showed that there were seven invasive weeds, i.e., Cecropia adenopus (Cecropiaceae, Cissus nodosa Blume (Vitaceae, Cissus sicyoides Blume (Vitaceae, Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae, Ficus elastica Roxb. (Moraceae, Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae and Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen (Fabaceae. These seven weeds species invaded 41 out of 215 plant families in BBG. Six species of weeds, i.e., C. adenopus, C. nodosa Blume., C. sicyoides Blume., D. bulbifera L., M. micrantha H.B.K. and P. falcataria (L. Nielsen, were introduced as BBG collections for the first time while the F. elastica Roxb was considered as native. It is most likely that the weeds dispersal agents are the wind, birds, bats, visitors, and waters. All of these weeds existed in surrounding areas outside BBG. Given the detrimental impact of invasive weeds on the plant collection in BBG, it is necessary to develop long–term comprehensive control measures both inside and neighboring areas by involving other government authorities beyond BBG.

  19. Interspecific variation in leaf pigments and nutrients of five tree species from a subtropical forest in southern Brazil

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    MÁRCIA BÜNDCHEN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation in the nutrient and pigment content of leaves from five tree species - of which three are perennial (Cupania vernalis, Matayba elaeagnoides and Nectandra lanceolata and two are deciduous (Cedrela fissilis and Jacaranda micrantha - in an ecotone between a Deciduous Seasonal Forest and a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Leaf samples were collected in the four seasons of the year to determine the content of macronutrients (N, K, P, Mg, Ca, S and photosynthetic pigments (Chla, Chlb, Chltot, Cartot, Chla:Chlb and Cartot:Chltot. The principal component analysis showed that leaf pigments contributed to the formation of the first axis, which explains most of the data variance for all species, while leaf nutrient contribution showed strong interspecific variation. These results demonstrate that the studied species have different strategies for acquisition and use of mineral resources and acclimation to light, which are determinant for them to coexist in the forest environment.

  20. Leaf size indices and structure of the peat swamp forest

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    L.G. Aribal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size indices of the tree species in the peatland of Agusan del Sur in Mindanao in Philippines was examined to deduce the variation of forest structure and observed forest zonation.  Using raunkiaer and webb’s leaf size classification, the leaf morphometrics of seven tree species consistently found on the established sampling plots were determined.  The species includes Ternstroemia philippinensis Merr., Polyscias aherniana Merr. Lowry and G.M. Plunkett, Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque, Fagraea racemosa Jack, Ilex cymosa Blume, Syzygium tenuirame (Miq. Merr. and Tristaniopsis micrantha Merr. Peter G.Wilson and J.T.Waterh.The LSI were correlated against the variables of the peat physico-chemical properties (such as bulk density, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, pH; water (pH, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate; and leaf tissue elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Result showed a decreasing leaf size indices and a three leaf size category consisting of mesophyllous, mesophyllous-notophyllous and microphyllous were observed which corresponds to the structure of vegetation i.e., from the tall-pole forest having the biggest average leaf area of 6,142.29 mm2 to the pygmy forest with average leaf area of 1,670.10 mm2.  Such decreased leaf size indices were strongly correlated to soil nitrogen, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, phosphate in water, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant tissue.

  1. Long-term persistence of pioneer species in tropical forest soil seed banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalling, J W; Brown, T A

    2008-10-05

    In tropical forests, pioneer species regenerate from seeds dispersed directly into canopy gaps, and from seeds that persisted in soil seed banks before gap formation. However, life-history models suggest that selection for long-term persistence of seeds in soil should be weak, as persistence incurs a fitness cost resulting from prolonged generation time. We use a carbon dating technique to provide the first direct measurements of seed persistence in undisturbed tropical forest seed banks. We show that seeds germinate successfully from surface soil microsites up to 38 years after dispersal. Decades-long persistence may be common in pioneers with relatively large mass, and appears to be unrelated to specific regeneration requirements. In Croton billbergianus, a sub-canopy tree that recruits in abundant small gaps, long-term persistence is associated with short-distance ballistic seed dispersal. In Trema micrantha, a canopy tree with widespread dispersal, persistence is associated with a requirement for large gaps that form infrequently in old-growth forest.

  2. PEMANFAATAN SERESAH DAUN BAMBU (Dendrocalamus asper SEBAGAI BIOHERBISIDA PENGENDALI GULMA YANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN

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    Lutfy Ditya Cahyanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled weed growth in the early stages of crop establishment, can decrease final crop yield. Phytochemical compounds from bamboo’s (Dendrocalamus sasper leaves known as flavonoids, phenolic and coumarin that inhibit the growth and development of weeds. The objective of this study was to utilizing bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide for sustainable agricultural system. Weedy area used for observation of the effectiveness solution of bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide is 1 m², first area for solution of bamboo’s leaves litter 10%, the second area for solution of bamboo’s leaves litter 5% and third plot only distilled water as a control treatment. Weeds SDR observations was done before spraying and 7 days after spraying bamboo’s leaves litter. The selected plot is a plot with diverse species of weeds. Observations SDR weeds to determine the level of effectiveness of a solution of bamboo’s leaf litter, was conducted used quadrant plots Weed species that dominated on our plot are Mikania micrantha, Eleusine indica, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon stolon, Cynodon dactylon, Axonopus compressus dan Sanchus arvensis. Solution of bamboo’s leaves litter as bioherbicide are only capable controlled bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon, both at a dose of 5 % and 10 %. For other species, solution of bamboo’s leaves litter did not work at

  3. Antioxidant and antitopoisomerase activities in plant extracts of some Colombian flora from La Marcada Natural Regional Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Jaime; Correa, Yaned Milena; Cardona, Germán David; Mosquera, Oscar Marino

    2011-09-01

    Many plants have been used to treat some diseases and infections since time immemorial, and this potential has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry in the search of new analgesic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents, among other active agents. In order to contribute with bioprospection studies on the Colombian flora, 35 extracts from 13 plant species belonging to seven families (Apocynaceae, Cactaceae, Costaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae) were collected from La Marcada Natural Regional Park (LMNRP), Colombia. Dichloromethane, n-hexane and aqueous-methanol crude extracts were prepared and evaluated for their activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R52Y and RS321 strains in the yeast mutant assay and their antioxidant capacity through the DPPH test. The dichloromethane extract from Myriocarpa stipitata (Urticaceae) showed moderate inhibitory activity against the three S. cerevisiae strains tested. The capacity of the dichloromethane extract from M. stipitata to inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase I and to cause DNA damage was inferred from these results. In the DPPH assay, the n-hexane crude extract from Costus sp. (Costaceae) showed good antioxidant activity (48%); in addition, the crude dichloromethane and aqueous-methanol extracts from Rhipsalis micrantha (Cactaceae) showed moderate antioxidant activity with percentage of 29 and 21%, respectively.

  4. Immature Stages and Life Cycle of the Wasp Moth, Cosmosoma auge (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae under Laboratory Conditions

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    Gunnary León-Finalé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmosoma auge (Linnaeus 1767 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae is a Neotropical arctiid moth common in Cuban mountainous areas; however, its life cycle remains unknown. In this work, C. auge life cycle is described for the first time; also, immature stages are described using a Cuban population. Larvae were obtained from gravid wild females caught in Viñales National Park and were fed with fresh leaves of its host plant, the climbing hempweed Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asterales: Asteraceae, which is a new host plant record. Eggs are hemispherical and hatching occurred five days after laying. Larval period had six instars and lasted between 20 and 22 days. First and last larval stages are easily distinguishable from others. First stage has body covered by chalazae and last stage has body covered by verrucae as other stages but has a tuft on each side of A1 and A7. Eggs and larvae features agree with Arctiinae pattern. Pupal stage lasted eight days, and, in general, females emerge before males as a result of pupal stage duration differences between sexes.

  5. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

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    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  6. Biological factors influencing production of xanthones in Aphloia theiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthu, Pascal; Lubrano, Christian; Flavet, Laurence; Rahajanirina, Voninavoko; Behra, Olivier; Fromageot, Claude; Rabevohitra, Raymond; Roger, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    Xanthones, and more specifically mangiferin, are molecules used in cosmetics for their photoprotective and anti-aging properties. The richness in xanthones of Aphloia theiformis leaves, a common shrub in Madagascar, can reach almost 12% (in relation to dry biomass). Amongst the A. theiformis studied, two major groups of individuals have been determined: those presenting a high proportion of mangiferin (up to 80% of the xanthones) and those presenting a high proportion of polar xanthones (not yet identified). Our study shows that: i) for each subject, the xanthone content remains stable over time (no seasonal variation); ii) the majority of the trees developing in the light belong to the first group (rich in mangiferin), whereas the individuals growing in the undergrowth are richer in polar xanthones; iii) the distribution of the two groups seems not to have any correlation with taxonomy and, moreover, with the known varieties of A. theiformis, although the micrantha variety is richer in mangiferin. Overall, this information indicates that A. theiformis is a reservoir of xanthones and makes it possible to define a framework for its reasoned management.

  7. A importância da identificação botânica nos inventários florestais: o exemplo do "tauari" (Couratari spp. e Cariniana spp. - Lecythidaceae em duas áreas manejadas no estado do Pará The importance of botanical identification in forest inventories: the example of "tauari" - Couratari spp. and Cariniana spp., Lecythidaceae - in two timber areas of the State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Costa Procópio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O nome vulgar adotado nos inventários florestais tem agrupado espécies distintas. Para exemplificar este problema, foram avaliadas as identificações de indivíduos comercialmente determinados como "tauari" em inventários de duas áreas manejadas de 100 ha nos pólos madeireiro central e leste do Estado do Pará. Características dendrológicas de cada espécie foram anotadas para diferenciá-las. Dados sobre a distribuição geográfica dessas espécies, as propriedades tecnológicas de sua madeira e a legislação atual para o manejo florestal são discutidos. O inventário feito no pólo madeireiro central registrou 112 indivíduos de "tauari" nominados como Couratari guianensis, e seis indivíduos de "tauari-cachimbo" determinados como Couratari sp. Depois de uma revisão botânica com material coletado de cada árvore, foi constatado que os indivíduos determinados como Couratari guianensis agrupavam três espécies: Couratari guianensis, C. oblongifolia e C. stellata, esta última com maior densidade relativa. O que antes constava como Couratari sp. agrupava as espécies Cariniana micrantha e Cariniana decandra. No pólo leste, o inventário contava 33 indivíduos, listados como "tauari" ou Couratari guianensis. Para estes, a identificação botânica mostrou o agrupamento de duas espécies: C. guianensis com maior densidade relativa e C. oblongifolia. Fora da área de estudo, foi registrada a ocorrência de C. tauari. Este estudo mostra que é possível separar as espécies utilizando aspectos dendrológicos (folhas, ramos e tronco. O inventário botânico é demonstrado como base para o conhecimento da diversidade e indispensável para assegurar o sucesso dos planos de manejo. No contexto jurídico, o agrupamento inviabiliza o cumprimento das leis brasileiras referentes ao manejo.The vernacular names usually used in commercial inventories may group together distinct species. To investigate this problem, the botanical identification

  8. Dieta y comportamiento alimentario de un grupo de mico maicero Cebus apella de acuerdo a la variación en la oferta de frutos y artrópodos, en la Amazonía colombiana Diet and feeding behavior of a group of brown capuchin monkeys Cebus apella according to fruits and arthropods availability, in the Colombian Amazon

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    Carolina Gómez-Posada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la relación entre la abundancia de artrópodos y frutos maduros, con el comportamiento alimentario y dieta de un grupo de Cebus apella en la Amazonía colombiana durante 1999. La oferta de frutos se midió por transectos fenológicos y la abundancia de artrópodos por capturas manuales. La oferta de ambos recursos varió a lo largo del año, lo que permitió establecer tres períodos de disponibilidad combinada: abundancia, oferta intermedia y escasez. Se completaron 708 horas de seguimiento al grupo y con el método de barrido lento se determinó una dieta omnívora, siendo principalmente insectívora - frugívora (48.8% - 42.9%. Los maiceros consumieron 96 especies de plantas y la diversidad mensual de frutos en la dieta, no se correlacionó con la oferta de los mismos. En los meses de abundancia de recursos, tanto frutos como artrópodos fueron consumidos en altas cantidades, y los frutos presentaron una distribución agrupada. Durante los períodos de escasez de recursos, la dieta incluyó pocas especies de frutos, considerados clave, de difícil manipulación, como Cariniana micrantha (Lecythidaceae, y fue complementada con partes vegetales. A diferencia de otros estudios, durante la escasez de frutos, no se presentó el mayor consumo de artrópodos, puesto que éstos igualmente escaseaban. Los maiceros mostraron una dieta generalista - oportunista y utilizaron los recursos en la proporción en la que estuvieron disponibles. Así por ejemplo, los valores de selectividad para frutos fueron muy bajos, y las tasas de éxito de captura de artrópodos se correlacionaron con la disponibilidad de los mismos.The relation between the abundance of fruits and arthropods, and the diet and feeding behavior of a group of Cebus apella was studied in the Colombian Amazon during 1999. Fruit availability was measured using phenological transects, and the abundance of arthropods by using manual captures. The abundance of both resources varied

  9. 异源植物提取物对稻蚜的作用研究%Effect of crude of different origin extracts from plants on rice aphid Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨朗; 陈恩海; 黄立飞; 覃伟权; 方月兰

    2007-01-01

    Plant extracts including secondary compounds have become more and more popular at present. In the experiment, the repellent, tempted and lethal effect and toxicity of the plant extracts on Macrosiphum avenae (Fabricius) were studied in laboratory. The results showed that the repellent effects of Annona squamosa L., Cocos nucifer L. and Eupatorium odoratum L. on the settlement and feeding of rice aphid were high in 24 hours after treatment and the repellent index of the three plant extracts was under 0.5. The repellent index of Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen, Psidium littorale Raddi, Mikania Micrantha H.B, Mangifera indica L., Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels and Didhrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schlcht.in L. was above 1.0, which illuminated these plant extracts with tempting function on rice aphid. Moreover, the lethal effects of most of plant extracts on rice aphid were weak and only the survival index of Passiflora caerulea L. and Piper betle L. was lower than 0.5 after 24 hours, and just that of Piper betle L. was lower than 0.5 after 48 hours. With the prolongation of time, the survival index rice aphid decreased and the lethal effects of plant extracts was weakened.%植物异源次生物质在害虫生态控制中具有广阔的应用前景.本研究测定了19种异源植物提取物对稻蚜的忌避、引诱作用和致死作用,结果表明:处理24h 后,番荔枝Annona squamosa L.、椰子Cocos nucifer L.、飞机草Eupatorium odoratum L.等植物的提取物对稻蚜定居取食的干扰效果较好,忌避作用指数在0.5以下;人心果Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen、番石榴Psidium littorale Raddi、微苷菊Mikania Micrantha H.B、芒果Mangifera indica L.、黄皮Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels、鱼眼菊Didhrocephala bicolor (Roth) Schlcht.in L.等的忌避作用指数大于1,说明它们对稻蚜不再表现为忌避作用,而是引诱作用.绝大部分植物提取物对稻蚜的致死作用不强,处理后24h,仅西番莲Passiflora caerulea L

  10. Research progress on the mechanisms of invasion and spread of typical harmful plants in Hainan%海南典型有害植物的入侵扩散机理研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄乔乔; 沈奕德; 李晓霞; 范志伟

    2016-01-01

    The population explosion of harmful plants causes significant negative impacts to agricultural and forestry ecosystems, e-conomy and the environment. This paper reviews the mechanisms of invasion and spread of the typical invasive Mikania micrantha and Eupatorium catarium and the native exploding Merremia boisiana in Hainan to provide a scientific foundation for the research and management of harmful plants in Hainan. Natural and human caused clonal stolon fragments of M. micrantha have a high regenera-tion capacity, and the regeneration capacity and subsequent growth are positively associated with the resources stored in stolon inter-nodes and leaves. E. catarium can benefit more from resource addition than native plants, indicating that disturbance and fertilization in agriculture may promote the population advantage of E. catarium relative to natives. M. boisiana has spread to natural forests in Wuzhi Mountain frequented by tourists. Surveys and transplant experiment revealed that M. boisiana may establish in disturbed forest margins and near the tourist path, and then spread to the nearby natural forests facilitated by its creeping and climbing growth forms. These results highlight the importance of disturbance, human activities, high nutrient conditions and species traits in the population explosion of harmful plants. Future studies should systematically examine the mechanisms underlying the explosion of harmful plants and their control strategies in order to reduce the harmful effects and the spreading rate and provide a safety guarantee for the devel-opment of international tourism on the island.%有害植物成灾会对农林业生态系统、经济和环境造成巨大影响。本文对海南典型入侵植物薇甘菊、假臭草及土著灾变植物金钟藤的成灾扩散机理研究做一综述,以期为海南有害植物的研究和管理提供依据。自然及人为干扰造成的薇甘菊匍匐茎克隆片段有较高的再生能力,其再生

  11. Análise da estrutura de comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta amazônica de Terra Firme aplicada ao manejo florestal Analysis of the structure of tree communities of a amazonian forest applied to management

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    João Carlos Zenaide Oliveira Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar e descrever a estrutura das comunidades arbóreas de uma floresta de terra firme sob regime de manejo na Amazônia Oriental, localizada no município de Almeirim, Pará, Brasil. O levantamento florístico foi realizado em 1.400,30 ha de uma Unidade de Produção Anual (UPA, do Plano de Manejo Florestal da empresa ORSA Florestal. Todos os indivíduos com DAP > 30 cm foram inventariados, registrando-se 77.834 árvores distribuídas em 57 famílias, 229 gêneros e 556 espécies. Oito comunidades foram identificadas por meio de uma analise de agrupamento, apresentando alta diversidade e equibilidade florística (H" médio = 4,25 e J" médio = 0,75. As comunidades apresentaram 138 espécies comuns, 119 espécies de ocorrência exclusiva e 377 espécies raras, representadas por apenas um indivíduo. As espécies que mais se destacaram foram: Dinizia excelsa, Vouacapoua americana, Goupia glabra, Mouriri brachyanthera, Parinari excelsa, Manilkara bidentada, Tachigalia mymecophyla e Licania micrantha. Algumas espécies de valor comercial apresentaram variações importantes na densidade, sugerindo risco de extinção em comunidades onde as espécies apresentam densidade muito baixa. Sugerimos que os planos de manejo considerem as várias comunidades ecológicas encontradas nas UPAs evitando assim variações significativas, causadas pela exploração e seus impactos, na composição florística e estrutura das comunidades existentes.To demonstrate the importance of the ecological concept for forest management, the object of this work was to identify and describe the structure of tree communities of a tropical forest under management in the Eastern Amazonia, located in Almeirim municipality, in the state of Pará, Brazil. The floristic survey was undertaken in a terra-firme tropical forest of 1,400.30 hectares. All individuals with DBH > 30 cm were inventoried, registering 77,834 trees distributed in 57

  12. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests.

  13. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

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    Adrian Indreica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  14. Nuclear species-diagnostic SNP markers mined from 454 amplicon sequencing reveal admixture genomic structure of modern citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curk, Franck; Ancillo, Gema; Ollitrault, Frédérique; Perrier, Xavier; Jacquemoud-Collet, Jean-Pierre; Garcia-Lor, Andres; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Most cultivated Citrus species originated from interspecific hybridisation between four ancestral taxa (C. reticulata, C. maxima, C. medica, and C. micrantha) with limited further interspecific recombination due to vegetative propagation. This evolution resulted in admixture genomes with frequent interspecific heterozygosity. Moreover, a major part of the phenotypic diversity of edible citrus results from the initial differentiation between these taxa. Deciphering the phylogenomic structure of citrus germplasm is therefore essential for an efficient utilization of citrus biodiversity in breeding schemes. The objective of this work was to develop a set of species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the four Citrus ancestral taxa covering the nine chromosomes, and to use these markers to infer the phylogenomic structure of secondary species and modern cultivars. Species-diagnostic SNPs were mined from 454 amplicon sequencing of 57 gene fragments from 26 genotypes of the four basic taxa. Of the 1,053 SNPs mined from 28,507 kb sequence, 273 were found to be highly diagnostic for a single basic taxon. Species-diagnostic SNP markers (105) were used to analyse the admixture structure of varieties and rootstocks. This revealed C. maxima introgressions in most of the old and in all recent selections of mandarins, and suggested that C. reticulata × C. maxima reticulation and introgression processes were important in edible mandarin domestication. The large range of phylogenomic constitutions between C. reticulata and C. maxima revealed in mandarins, tangelos, tangors, sweet oranges, sour oranges, grapefruits, and orangelos is favourable for genetic association studies based on phylogenomic structures of the germplasm. Inferred admixture structures were in agreement with previous hypotheses regarding the origin of several secondary species and also revealed the probable origin of several acid citrus varieties. The developed species-diagnostic SNP

  15. Fungo micorrízico, fósforo e nitrogênio no crescimento inicial da trema e do fedegoso

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    M. E. Paron

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available De março de 1993 a junho de 1994, em vasos com amostra de um latossolo vermelho-escuro (LE argiloso fase cerrado, estudou-se a resposta da trema (Trema micrantha (LBlum. e do fedegoso (Senna macranthera Rich. a fósforo (P nitrogênio (N e à inoculação com o fungo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus etunicatum (Ge Becker & Gerdemann. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras (MG, por meio de dois experimentos. A inoculação com Ge resultou em efeitos positivos para o crescimento das espécies, sendo esse efeito menos evidente no fedegoso que se beneficiou mais dos fungos indígenas. Em plantas inoculadas, a dose de P necessária para atingir 80% do crescimento máximo (CM foi de 100 mg kg-1 de P no solo, para a trema, e de 80 mg kg-1 de P no solo, para o fedegoso, enquanto as plantas colonizadas pelos fungos indígenas requereram, respectivamente, 3,2 e 1,5 vezes mais P para atingir tal crescimento. Ambas as espécies apresentaram crescimento reduzido na ausência de P, porém tiveram grande crescimento quando receberam superfosfato. Por outro lado, a adição de N mineral não promoveu o crescimento das mudas. A adição de P solúvel e a introdução de G. etunicatum são importantes fatores para o crescimento inicial das espécies estudadas, em solo de baixa fertilidade natural.

  16. Efeito de Glomus etunicatum e fósforo no crescimento inicial de espécies arbóreas em semeadura direta

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    Flores-Aylas Waldo Wilfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da disponibilidade de P no solo, da micorriza formada por Glomus etunicatum e de Mycoform, um estimulante desta última, no crescimento e competição inicial de seis espécies arbóreas semeadas diretamente. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação com as espécies Senna macranthera (fedegoso, Guazuma ulmifolia (mutamba, Senna multijuga (cássia-verrugosa, Solanum granuloso-leprosum (gravitinga, Schinus terebenthifolius (aroeira e Trema micrantha (trema, em solo com níveis de P na solução considerados muito baixo, baixo e alto, com inoculação ou não do fungo micorrízico arbuscular G. etunicatum, além do tratamento G. etunicatum + Mycoform. O crescimento das mudas respondeu à inoculação em P muito baixo e baixo. As mudas apresentaram moderada dependência das micorrizas, não respondendo ao G. etunicatum em P alto. Gravitinga morreu em P muito baixo, mas foi dominante com P baixo e alto. Fedegoso foi dominante com P muito baixo, mostrando-se adaptado à baixa fertilidade. G. etunicatum influenciou a dominância das espécies, auxiliando as menos competitivas e gerando maior equilíbrio. Mycoform influenciou pouco o crescimento, nutrição e competição. O crescimento de espécies pioneiras semeadas diretamente é favorecido pela elevação do P e pelas micorrizas, as quais também favorecem o equilíbrio entre espécies.

  17. Notes on the family Brassicaceae in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry A GERMAN; Wen-Li CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A critical revision of the collections of Brassicaceae in some Chinese (PE, XJA, XJBI, XJFA, XJNM, XJU) and foreign (LE, P) herbaria is made. One genus, Neurotropis (DC.) E K. Mey., and 11 species, Alyssum szarabiacum Nyar., Barbarea stricta Andrz., Erysimum czernjajevii N. Busch, Erysimum kotuchovii D. German, Erysimum mongolicum D. German, Lepidium karelinianum A1-Shehbaz, Matthiola superba Conti, Neurotropis platycarpa (Fisch. & Mey.) E K. Mey., Ptilotrichum dahuricum Peschkova, Sisymbrium subspinescens Bunge, and Smelowskia micrantha (Botsch. & Vved.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, are reported from China for the first time. Six species, Aphragmus involucratus (Bunge) O. E. Schulz, Dontostemonperennis C. A. Mey., Goldbachia torulosa DC., Lepidium amplexicaule Willd., Neotorularia brevipes (Kar. & Kir.) Hedge & J. Leonard, and Parrya stenocarpa Kar. & Kir., are confirmed to occurr in China. Five species, Dontostemon integrifolius (L.) C. A. Mey., Draba zangbeiensis L. L. Lou, Lepidium alashanicum H. L. Yang, Sinapis arvensis L., and Strigosella brevipes (Btmge) Botsch., are reported as novelties for some provinces in China, and Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Borsch. occurs in Xinjiang, China. However, the occurrence of one genus, Pseudoarabidopsis Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, and four species, Draba huetii Boiss., Eutrema halophilum (C. A. Mey.) Al-Shehbaz & S. I. Warwick, Galitzkya spathulata (Steph. ex Willd.) V. Bocz., and Pseudoarabidopsis toxophylla (Bieb.) Al-Shehbaz, O'Kane & Price, could not be confirmed in China. The occurrence of six species, Aphragmus bouffordii Al-Shehbaz, Barbarea orthoceras Ledeb., Lepidium latifolium L., Ptilotrichum canescens (DC.) C. A. Mey., Strigosella hispida (Litv.) Botsch., and Strigosella scorpioides (Bunge) Botsch., is not confirmed in certain provinces of China. All names follow the latest taxonomic treatment for relevant groups; detailed morphological descriptions of the newly recorded taxa are provided; and distinguishing

  18. Modelagem matemática da decomposição da serapilheira em um estado transiente de reflorestamento

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    Arlete Cherobini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A ciclagem de nutrientes em um ecossistema é dos parâmetros mais importantes para avaliar suas características e problemas de manejo. Em ecossistemas florestais as espécies arbóreas exercem um papel dominante sobre os processos de transferência de nutrientes. Quando se considera a transferência de nutrientes do componente arbóreo para o compartimento solo, observa-se que esta pode ocorrer através de lixiviação das copas e caules pela água das chuvas, ou através da queda e decomposição da serapilheira. A serapilheira é formada pelo conjunto de folhas, ramos, flores, frutos e outros materiais biológicos que se depositam sobre o solo. Os nutrientes se transferem para o solo preponderadamente, através de decomposição da serapilheira. A decomposição da serapilheira é influenciada por diversos fatores intrínsecos (teor de nutrientes, proporção de lignina, razão entre nitrogênio e lignina, entre outros e extrínsecos (temperatura, umidade, pluviosidade, ação de animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e testar modelos matemáticos que descrevam a transferência de nutrientes através da queda e decomposição da serapilheira. Foi testado o modelo matemático para calcular a massa de serapilheira presente em um determinado intervalo de tempo, considerando uma função de entrada de massa e de decomposição da serapilheira, durante um ano, para um sistema transiente, ou seja, um reflorestamento. Para verificar o processo de decomposição da serapilheira, foram coletadas amostras produzidas por três espécies nativas: T. micrantha, Schinus molle L. e Heliocarpus americanus L. Amostras (1,0 a 2,0 g acondicionadas em tela de tecido com aberturas de 1 mm foram dispostas sob o plantio de grandiúva, objetivando comparar a degradação das folhas das três espécies em condições ambientais idênticas. Os dados obtidos foram analisados em função do ajuste aos modelos disponíveis para a decomposição de

  19. SNP mining in C. clementina BAC end sequences; transferability in the Citrus genus (Rutaceae, phylogenetic inferences and perspectives for genetic mapping

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    Ollitrault Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing availability of EST databases and whole genome sequences, SNPs have become the most abundant and powerful polymorphic markers. However, SNP chip data generally suffers from ascertainment biases caused by the SNP discovery and selection process in which a small number of individuals are used as discovery panels. The ongoing International Citrus Genome Consortium sequencing project of the highly heterozygous Clementine and sweet orange genomes will soon result in the release of several hundred thousand SNPs. The primary goals of this study were: (i to estimate the transferability within the genus Citrus of SNPs discovered from Clementine BACend sequencing (BES, (ii to estimate bias associated with the very narrow discovery panel, and (iii to evaluate the usefulness of the Clementine-derived SNP markers for diversity analysis and comparative mapping studies between the different cultivated Citrus species. Results Fifty-four accessions covering the main Citrus species and 52 interspecific hybrids between pummelo and Clementine were genotyped on a GoldenGate array platform using 1,457 SNPs mined from Clementine BES and 37 SNPs identified between and within C. maxima, C. medica, C. reticulata and C. micrantha. Consistent results were obtained from 622 SNP loci. Of these markers, 116 displayed incomplete transferability primarily in C. medica, C. maxima and wild Citrus species. The two primary biases associated with the SNP mining in Clementine were an overestimation of the C. reticulata diversity and an underestimation of the interspecific differentiation. However, the genetic stratification of the gene pool was high, with very frequent significant linkage disequilibrium. Furthermore, the shared intraspecific polymorphism and accession heterozygosity were generally enough to perform interspecific comparative genetic mapping. Conclusions A set of 622 SNP markers providing consistent results was selected. Of the

  20. Bronchospasmolytic activity of the extract and fractions of Asystasia gangetica leaves

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    A C Ezike

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The bronchospasmolytic constituent of leaves of Asystasia gangetica (L. T. Anderson, sub-specie micrantha (Nees Ensermu (Acanthaceae was isolated by bio-activity-guided technique. The bronchospasmolytic effect of the fractions of the leaf extract as well as the isolate AG-1 was evaluated using histamine-induced contraction of the guinea pig trachea and pre-contracted trachea (pathological tissue. The results showed that the fractions and AG-1 inhibited contractions of the guinea pig trachea induced by histamine in a dose dependent manner. The isolated constituent, (AG-1 caused 82% inhibition of maximal contraction produced by histamine at a concentration of 400μg/ml. On histamine (8μg/ml pre-contracted trachea, cumulative doses of the fractions evoked a dose dependent relaxation.  Phytochemical analysis showed that the isolated compound (AG-1 tested positive to terpenoids while the fractions contained typical constituents such as carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids and glycosides. These findings suggest that the usefulness of leaves of A. gangetica in the treatment of asthma may derive from bronchospasmolytic effect of terpenoid compounds in the leaves.   Industrial relevance: Asthma is currently a worldwide problem, with increasing prevalence in both children and adults; a prevalence rate of 5 – 10% has been reported for Nigeria.  Drugs used in the management include bronchodilators which are short-term relievers and anti-inflammatory drugs which are long-term controllers. Despite the availability of oral and inhaled medications, the prevalence of asthma is on the rise (NHLBI/WHO 1995. The challenge of developing new effective, safe and long lasting antiasthmatic drugs from natural products appears inevitable. The leaves of Asystasia gangetica L. (T. (Acanthaceae, a traditional anti-asthma remedy, offer great potential for the development of a novel anti-asthmatic agent. The leaves have been shown to possess

  1. 假臭草等12种植物对白花鬼针草幼苗的化感作用%Allelopathy of 12 Species Including Eupatorium catarium on Bidens alba Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志云; 梁水凤; 李东文; 冯卓森; 李伟华; 彭长连; 田兴山; 周先叶

    2011-01-01

    用具有化感作用或潜在抑草活性的12种植物的叶片水浸液对白化鬼针草(Bidens alba)幼苗进行处理,对其幼苗的生长进行研究,以期筛选出对白花鬼针草生长有较强抑制作用的植物种类.结果表明,12种供体植物叶片水浸液(0.05 g DW mL-1)均能显著抑制白花鬼针草幼苗的生长(P<0.05),综合化感效应(SE)均为负值(≤-0.2),抑制强度依次为假臭草(Eup atorium catarium)>胜红蓟(Ageratum conyzoides>海芋(Alocasia macrorrhiza)>水茄(Solanum torvum)>马缨丹(Lantana camara)>薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha)>构树(Broussonetia papyrifera)>南美蟛蜞菊(Wedelia trilobata)>三裂叶薯(Ipomoea triloba)>葛藤(Pueraria lobata)>鸡矢藤(Paederia scandens)>五爪金龙(lpomoea cairica),其中假臭草叶水浸液浓度仅为0.04 g DW mL-1时就可以使白花鬼针草死亡.假臭草和胜红蓟的茎水浸液也可以显著抑制白花鬼针草的生长(P<0.05),抑制效果略低于叶水浸液.回归分析表明,假臭草叶水浸液浓度与白花鬼针草的生物量等指标之间有线性回归关系(R2> 0.85,P<0.001),随着水浸液浓度的增加,白花鬼针草的生物量等指标下降.防除白花鬼针草时使用假臭草和胜红蓟的茎、叶水浸液,其有效浓度低且资源丰富,可作为白花鬼针草天然除草剂的主要资源植物.

  2. Response of the herbaceous layer to snow variability at the south margin of the Gurbantonggut Desert of China%古尔班通古特沙漠南缘草本层对积雪变化的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范连连; 马健; 吴林峰; 徐贵青; 李彦; 唐立松

    2012-01-01

    草本层是古尔班通古特沙漠植物群落下层层片的构建者,冬季积雪提供了其生长发育所需要的主要水分,积雪的增加或减少对草本植物数量和生物量会产生显著的影响.该研究利用人工增减积雪的方法,在古尔班通古特沙漠南缘设置了5个不同厚度的积雪处理:0积雪、50%积雪、100%积雪、150%积雪和200%积雪,其中100%积雪为自然积雪.采用1m×1m的样方,对草本层片的物种数、盖度、密度、高度进行了调查,还采用收获法测定了草本层片的地上生物量和优势种小花荆芥(Nepeta micrantha)的单株地上生物量.对研究区内13个科29种草本植物的研究表明:1)单位面积出土幼苗数量跟积雪厚度呈显著正相关关系,草本层片的盖度、密度对积雪的变化响应显著,随着积雪增加,草本层片的密度和盖度呈递增趋势,而草本层片的平均高度呈递减趋势,但不同积雪处理间的物种数和总地上生物量没有显著差异;2)积雪厚度与优势种的株高和地上生物量呈显著负相关关系,积雪的增加导致优势种的单株生物量和株高显著降低;3)积雪厚度的变化主要影响了草本层片植物种子萌发的数量,但对物种数量没有显著影响.这表明:虽然积雪是草本植物的主要水分来源之一,但荒漠植物群落的草本植物对积雪的变化具有很强的缓冲能力,即使积雪很少,草本层片的物种构成也不会发生显著变化,草本层片的净初级生产力也保持相对稳定.%Aims The herbaceous layer is an important component of the plant community of China's Gurbantonggut Desert, and it primarily depends on early spring snow-melt water for germination and development. However, few studies have shown how the herbaceous layer responds to variability of precipitation. Generally, snow thickness changes in accordance to variability of precipitation. Therefore, our objective was to determine how snow

  3. Genomic signature and cluster analysis of genetic diversity of alien invasive species%外来入侵物种的基因签名及其遗传多样性聚类分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈承杰; 朱平

    2013-01-01

      密码子的使用频率分布能够反映一定的生物特性,因而可作为一种基因签名。本文使用CGR方法来研究外来入侵物种不同组织序列的基因签名及遗传多样性聚类分析,首先得出了刺花莲子草(Alternanthera pungens),紫茎泽兰(Ageratina adenophora),水葫芦(Eichhornia crassipes),微甘菊(Mikania micrantha),土荆芥(Chenopodium ambrosioides),一枝黄花(Solidago canadensis)等6种外来入侵植物的31条序列核苷酸字串长k=1到k=6的情况,并选取k=3,即基因序列的密码子,作为生物特性的一个重要表达。并且构造序列间的CGR欧式距离,进而对外来入侵植物序列遗传多样性进行了聚类分析。通过对所获得的6种外来入侵植物的31条序列的基因签名,得出如下结果:CGR是一种简便且计算量小的方法,且基于CGR方法的基因签名,具有典型的生物特性;入侵植物的基因序列在密码子的使用上是非均衡的,且物种亲缘关系近的,则基因签名相似越高;而且基因签名也揭示出了密码子的第三位碱基偏好使用碱基T的现象,与一般物种密码子第三位碱基偏好G/C情况有强烈反差。此外,从获得的6个物种的31条序列聚类谱系图可以直观看出,入侵植物间存在着一定的亲缘关系,遗传多样性较丰富。由于我们所建立的基于CGR方法的基因签名,不仅能够反映植物特性和进化关系,而且能揭示序列中密码子和碱基的偏好使用情况,因而该方法有利于对外来入侵物种的遗传多样性分析、风险评估及预防控制等提供科学依据。%Alien invasive species had been a global eco-environmental problem, resulting in huge economic loss. The distribution of codon usage could reflect some biological characteristics, therefore it could be a genomic signature. The paper proposed a genomic signature-based approach, using CGR with word length of k=3, which

  4. Eficiência de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares isolados de solos de áreas de mineração de bauxita no crescimento inicial de espécies nativas Efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi isolated from bauxite mine spoils on seedling growth of native woody species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Geraldo Donizetti Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs, estabelecendo simbioses eficientes com plantas, desempenham papel importante na sustentabilidade dos ecossistemas e podem ser manejados para a revegetação bem sucedida de áreas degradadas. A eficiência da simbiose está relacionada não só aos genótipos dos simbiontes, i.e, FMA e espécie vegetal, como também às condições ambientais que influenciam a expressão da relação simbiótica. Assim, o primeiro passo visando ao manejo de simbioses eficientes é estudar a variabilidade de FMAs quanto à eficiência com diferentes espécies vegetais. Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a colonização micorrízica e a eficiência simbiótica de isolados de FMAs obtidos de áreas de mineração de bauxita em reabilitação em dois ambientes (campo e serra, no crescimento de mudas de duas espécies pioneiras [aroeira (Schinus terebenthifolius e trema (Trema micrantha] e de duas espécies secundárias iniciais [açoita-cavalo (Luehea grandiflora e sesbânia (Sesbania virgata], em solo de baixa fertilidade. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, por 120 dias. Para cada espécie vegetal, foram aplicados 10 tratamentos de inoculação com FMAs (isolados de FMAs ou de sua mistura: Acaulospora longula, Paraglomus occultum, Glomus sp., Gigaspora sp., Acaulospora spinosa e a mistura destes, todos oriundos de área de campo; e Acaulospora scrobiculata, Paraglomus occultum, Glomus sp. e a mistura destes, todos oriundos de área de serra. Para comparação, foram acrescentados ainda um tratamento-referência inoculado com Glomus etunicatum eficiente e um tratamento não-inoculado como controle. Plantas de todas as espécies apresentaram crescimento reduzido na ausência de FMAs (controle, porém beneficiaram-se de modo diferenciado dos tratamentos de inoculação. Todos os isolados, ou sua mistura, foram eficientes em promover o crescimento de sesbânia, enquanto para trema e aroeira somente um isolado de Glomus

  5. Estrutura do sub-bosque herbáceo-arbustivo da mata da silvicultura, uma floresta estacional semidecidual no município de Viçosa-MG Understory structure of Silvicultura forest, a seasonal tropical forest in Viçosa, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira Neto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Nos trabalhos em comunidades florestais, tradicionalmente são estudadas apenas a composição e a estrutura do componente arbóreo, relegando o estrato herbáceo-arbustivo ao esquecimento ou ao segundo plano. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever a estrutura fitossociológica desse estrato para entender suas relações sinecológicas e, por fim, estudar a distribuição dos indivíduos pelas classes de tamanho para inferir sobre fatores e processos determinantes da organização florestal da Mata da Silvicultura. Para o estudo da fitossociologia da área foram utilizados os parâmetros de abundância obtidos a partir de 100 m² de amostra subdividida em parcelas de 1 m². A estrutura fitossociológica horizontal considerou todos os indivíduos com CAP menor que 10 cm ou com altura maior que 20 cm. Os aspectos dinâmicos foram avaliados por meio da distribuição de tamanhos individuais expressos pelos diâmetros à altura do solo em cada população amostrada. Foram amostrados 1.193 indivíduos de 109 espécies, pertencentes a 41 famílias botânicas, resultando em um índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' de 3,38 e equabilidade (J' de 0,72, valores considerados altos para a heterogeneidade do estrato herbáceo-arbustivo. As espécies mais importantes (VI foram Piper lucaeanum, Psychotria conjugens, Olyra micrantha, Psychotria sessilis, Siparuna guianensis, Bambusa tuldoides, Ottonia leptostachya, Aparisthmium cordatum e Psychotria hastisepala. As famílias mais importantes (VI foram Rubiaceae, Piperaceae, Poaceae, Monimiaceae, Leguminosae (Mimosoideae, Myrtaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Meliaceae, Lauraceae e Flacourtiaceae. Pela análise de distribuição de tamanhos foi levantada a hipótese de existirem dois grupos de espécies, segundo a estratégia que possuem de habitar o estrato herbáceo-arbustivo da Mata da Silvicultura. Um dos grupos seria formado pelas espécies que investem preferencialmente recursos energéticos no sistema caulinar e

  6. Influência da cobertura e do solo na composição florística do sub-bosque em uma floresta estacional semidecidual em Viçosa, MG, Brasil Cover and soil influence at understory of a Seasonal Tropical Forest, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Augusto Alves Meira-Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A relação ecológica planta-luz tem sido estudada desde o início do século XX. As análises da relação da luminosidade ao nível das comunidades florestais têm se valido de medições indiretas por meio de índices de cobertura, mas sem a aplicação da fotogrametria para estimar essa cobertura. Este trabalho foi idealizado para utilizar fotogrametria do dossel, tornando-a aplicável ao estudo da luminosidade no sub-bosque herbáceo-arbustivo. Teve como objetivos estabelecer a relação existente entre espécies do estrato herbáceo-arbustivo e a cobertura do dossel e averiguar a existência de correlações entre espécies, luminosidade e variáveis pedológicas. Para tanto, foram tiradas fotografias em preto e branco nos períodos seco e chuvoso, em 100 (1 m×1 m parcelas aplicadas para a amostragem da vegetação herbácea. Foram colhidas amostras de solo em cada parcela. A partir dos valores médios das medidas de cobertura estimada pelas fotografias dos períodos seco e chuvoso calculou-se o valor médio de cobertura para cada espécie amostrada. Por meio do teste "t" student e da Análise de Correspondência Canônica foram determinadas as relações entre as espécies, a luminosidade e as variáveis pedológicas no estrato herbáceo-arbustivo. A cobertura não foi significativamente diferente nas épocas seca e na chuvosa. Apenas três espécies, Heisteria silviani, Calathea brasiliensis e Psychotria conjugens, tiveram médias de cobertura significativamente maiores que a média amostral e outras três, Olyra micrantha, Lacistema pubescens e Pteris denticulata, tiveram médias menores. As distribuições de parcelas pelos valores de cobertura, de tamanho de clareiras e pelo número de clareiras mostraram-se similares às distribuições encontradas na literatura para outras florestas tropicais e, portanto, o método da fotogrametria revelou-se adequado para a avaliação da cobertura. Verificou-se que os teores de cálcio, magn

  7. Communautés andines, biodiversité, pommes de terre natives, capucines tubéreuses et autres tubercules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledent, JF.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical Study of Two Medicinal Plants from Cameroon: Harungana madagascariensis and Bridelia micrantha; Chemical Transformations and Biological Activities of some Isolated Elements. Douze génotypes de pois (Asgrow, Jumbo, Lincoln, Merveille de Kelvedon, Purser, Rajai Torpe, Snajor Kosep Korai, Wando, Rondo, génotype local, Major Kosep Korai et Surgevil ont été étudiés pour leur résistance aux maladies (Oïdium, mildiou, anthracnose, brunissement, jaunisse apicale et leurs performances agronomiques (matières fraîches: racines, partie aérienne, nombre de branches fructifères/plante, nombre de fleurs/plante, nombre de gousses/plante, nombre de grains/gousse et rendements en grains/plante. La culture a été faite dans un milieu contrôlé (serre plastique sur tourbe noire durant 5,5 mois (octobre à avril. Les résultats obtenus montrent que seul le génotype Purser est résistant à toutes les maladies et que le génotype Surgevil est sensible uniquement à la jaunisse apicale. Par contre, le génotype local est sensible aux trois maladies les plus fréquentes (Oïdium, Mildiou et Anthracnose. En ce qui concerne la croissance végétative, c'est le génotype Asgrow qui a synthétisé le plus de matière fraîche, deux fois plus que la matière fraîche synthétisée par le génotype Purser. Toutefois, le rendement élevé en matière fraîche ne contribue pas à un taux de nouaison élevé. En effet, seuls les génotypes ayant donné un rendement faible en matière fraîche (Snajor Kosep Korai, Asgrow, Major Kosep Korai, Rajai Torpe et Purser ont eu le taux de nouaison le plus élevé, supérieur à 30%. Chez ce groupe, le bon rendement le plus élevé (&gt; 9 g/plante résulte du nombre de gousses/ plante (7,5 à 21,6 et du nombre de grains/gousse (2,8 à 4,92. De cette collection, le génotype Purser peut être retenu en raison de sa résistance à toutes les maladies et à ses bonnes performances agronomiques au profit des

  8. Studies on the chemical constituents and bioactivities of five Schisandra medicinal species and Elsholtzia bodinieri%五种五味子属药用植物及东紫苏的化学成分和生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉涛; 孙汉董

    2008-01-01

    The chemical constituents and bioactivities of six medicinal plants have been studied. In the study one hundred and one compounds, including twenty-six new compounds were isolated. Among these compounds, sixteen unique highly oxidized nortriterpenoids, belonging to an unprecedented new nortriterpenoid skeleton with a biosynthetically modified eight-membered ring, and unusual nortriterpenoids or bisnortriterpenoid skeletons, have been isolated from three Schisandra species. Interestingly, to date, no naturally occurring triterpenoids have been found to have such a highly modified oxidized norcycloartane skeleton.The bioactivities of compounds isolated from the genus Schisandra have been tested, including anti-HIV-1, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxities against C8166, MT-4 and K562 cells activities. SM-10 and SM-26 were found to show promising anti-HIV-1 activity and the selectivity index were 174.08 and 25.94, respectively.%对5种五味子属(Schisandra)药用植物(小花五味子Schisandra micrantha,狭叶五味子S. lancifolia,滇翼梗五味子S. henryi var. yunnanensis var. yunnanensis,复瓣黄龙藤S. Plena,华中五味子S. sphenanthera)和唇形科植物东紫苏(Elsholtzia bodinieri)的化学成分进行了研究,从中共分离鉴定了101个化合物,26个为新化合物.首次从3种五味子属植物中发现了3种高度氧化的新奇骨架类型.此外,还发现了18,19-sec-乌索酸型苷和17,20断裂并失去17位侧链的羊毛甾烷型和环阿尔廷型八降三萜等新的骨架类型.对分离得到的部分化合物进行了体外抗HIV-1、急毒、抗炎和抗肿瘤活性实验,发现部分化合物具有抗HIV-1活性.其中化合物SM-10和SM-26具有显著的抑制HIV-1病毒活性,选择指数分别为174.08和25.04,且毒性较小,作为作用于病毒与细胞结合和融合靶点的小分子化合物具有重要的意义.

  9. 中国湿地维管植物外来种现状分析%Analysis on the present status of wetland alien vascular plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪绅裕; 曾庆昌; 陶文琴; 杨礼香; 陈健辉; 王厚麟

    2014-01-01

    There are 1 942 species of generalized wetland vascular plants belonging to 177 families and 703 ge-nus in China .Among them, 185 species belonging to 54 families and 112 genus and about 9.53% are alien. Among the alien wetland species , there are 8 species classified as invasive alien species in China , all from A-merica.Spartina alterniflora, Eichhornia crassipes, and Alternanthera philoxeroides are typical wetland plants , the other 5 species listed as Mikania micrantha, Wedelia trilobata, Sorghum halepense, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and A.trifida have higher adaptive ability to wetland habitats .Most of the alien species about 56.22%are from America.Asteraceae has 17 genus and 21 species, Echinodorus has 14 species for the largest family and genus , respectively .There are only 10 species of tree types .Hydrophytes have 115 species for about 65.71% in herbs.To ensure the ecological safety , ecological effect risk assessments should be taken before introducing the cultivated species .%中国有广义的湿地维管植物177科703属1942种,其中185种(54科112属)为外来种,占9.53%.外来湿地植物中,有8种为中国外来入侵种,全部产自美洲,其中3种为典型的湿地植物,即互花米草( Spartina al-terniflora)、水葫芦( Eichhornia crassipes)和空心莲子草( Alternanthera philoxeroides),另5种菊科植物薇甘菊( Mi-kania micrantha)、三裂叶蟛蜞菊( Wedelia trilobata)、假高粱( Sorghum halepense)、豚草( Ambrosia artemisiifolia)和三裂叶豚草( A.trifida)的生态适应性强,可在湿地生长.源自美洲的104种,占56.22%为最多.菊科17属21种为最多,以刺果泽泻属( Echinodorus)的14种为最多.木本植物仅10种;草本植物中,以水生植物115种占65.71%为最多.为保障生态安全,对人为引种的外来湿地植物,应加强生态影响风险性评价.

  10. Flora asociada a la actividad melífera en apiarios al sur del departamento del Huila, macizo colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudas Lleras Agustín

    2006-12-01

    micrantha, Bidens pilosa, Baccharis nitida, Coffea arabica y Cedrela sp.. Adicionalmente se consideran como especies importantes de la flora melífera a Toxicodendron striatum, Viburnum cornifolium, Vismia baccifera, Hyptis pseudosinuata, Austroeupatorium inulaefolium e Inga cocleensis, que a diferencia de las anteriores presentan índices de importancia más bajos pero están presentes en las tres localidades muestreadas y poseen un amplio espectro de hábitats. Se presenta un catálogo digital con fotos de alta resolución de 109 especies, correspondientes a 44 familias, de los cuales 61 especies hacen parte de la flora melífera reconocida. Los resultados obtenidos permitirán escoger especies melíferas de mayor importancia para iniciar trabajos de calendarios florales y ofertas de néctar, además de proponer el manejo de especies poco comunes que además de poseer importancia melífera pueden generar otros beneficios ecológicos y financieros. Este trabajo junto con la caracterización de la vegetación de las mismas zonas, permitirán establecer la capacidad de carga apícola de acuerdo a la oferta ambiental de la zona.

  11. Weeds in Asparagus Plantations in Hainan and Their Control Techniques%海南芦笋园杂草种类调查及杂草防除技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓霞; 黄乔乔; 易克贤; 范志伟; 沈奕德; 程汉亭

    2014-01-01

    A syste matica l investigation of weeds was conducted in asparagus plantation of Hainan Province, and the dominant weed populations were determined. Then, weed control experiments were conducted. The results showed that there were 106 weed species belonging to 23 families in the asparagus garden. Of them, nine species were considered as dominant weeds, including Melinis repens, Panicum maximum, Imperata cylindrica, Digitaria setigera, Chromolaena odorata, Praxelis clematidea, Tridax procumbens and Mimosa pudica. Of the weed control strategies, coverage control and chemical control could control weeds to a certain degree:after 60d covering of nine plants, the control effect reached more than 60%. Covering the weed by cocered Pueraria lobata, Calopogonium mucunoides, Eupatorium odoratum, Mikania micrantha and Tithonia diversifolia increased the shoot number and the diameter of new shoots of asparagus. After application of four kinds of herbicides 60 d, Haloxyfop and acetochlor could control the weeds to a higher extent and were also safe to asparagus plants. In actual production practices, combining the covering and chemical weed control could control weeds to the maximum extent in the asparagus plantation.%系统调查海南芦笋种植区的主要杂草种类,明确芦笋园的杂草优势种群,并以此为基础进行盆栽芦笋化学除草药效试验及覆盖控草试验。结果表明,海南芦笋园常见杂草有21科106种,其中优势种群由马齿苋、红尾翎、短颖马唐、龙爪茅、牛筋草、砖子苗、假臭草、伞房花耳草及鳢肠9种构成。采用覆盖控草和化学除草可在一定程度上控制杂草的发生:覆盖9种植物60 d后,防效可达60%以上,且覆盖葛藤、毛蔓豆、飞机草、薇甘菊、肿柄菊后,芦笋抽笋数和新笋径围都显著高于其余各处理;施用4种除草剂60 d后,盖草能和乙草胺对盆栽芦笋的防效较高且安全。因此,在实际生产中,通过