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Sample records for cla effect modulation

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddini Feitoza

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.

  2. Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    mechanisms that may account for its protective activity. CLA , a collective term that refers to conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid, is a...hypothesis is that CLA affects the processes of clonal expansion and/or clonal selection via modulating genetic and/or epigenetic mechanisms obligatory for, or...minutes at 4’, and the supernatant decanted and extracted twice with 24:1 chlroform/isoamyl alchohol . Nucleic acids were precipitated by the addition

  3. Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    experiment). 8 Thompson, H.J. (146-38-3497) Table 1. Mammary cancer prevention by CLA in rats fed either an unsaturated fat or a saturated fat dieta ...Mammary cancer prevention by different levels of CLA in rats fed a 20% corn oil dieta Tumor Total No. CLA incidence of tumors % inhibitionb 93.3% 87 0.5

  4. Fatty acid composition of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) during maturation: effect of the lipid modulators trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10,c12 CLA) and forskolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, E G; Alves, S P; Marques, C C; Baptista, M C; Horta, A E M; Bessa, R J B; Pereira, R M

    2013-05-01

    The effect of maturation and of two lipid modulators supplementation along in vitro maturation (IVM) on fatty acid (FA) and dimethylacetal (DMA) composition of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were studied. Abattoir-derived immature COC were analyzed for FA and DMA or submitted to IVM as follows: control group; t10,c12 CLA group, t10,c12 CLA supplementation for 44 h; Forskolin group, forskolin supplementation during the initial 2 h; t10,c12 CLA + forskolin group, t10,c12 CLA for 44 h and forskolin for just 2h. Each experimental group had five replicates. FA analysis of oocytes, cumulus cells (CC), follicular fluid, and culture media were performed by gas-liquid chromatography. Oocytes and their CC had different FA composition. Oocytes were richer in saturated FA (SFA) preferentially maintaining their FA profile during maturation. Mature CC had the highest polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) content. Five individual and total SFA, and monounsaturated FA (MUFA), notably oleic acid (c9-18:1), percentages were lower (P ≤ 0.023) in mature than in immature CC. t10,c12 CLA was accumulated by COC from t10,c12 CLA and t10,c12 CLA + forskolin groups, mostly in CC where MUFA and an eicosatrienoic isomer decreased (P ≤ 0.043). Nevertheless, PUFA or FA and DMA total content were not affected. Arachidonic acid was reduced in t10,c12 CLA + forskolin CC and hexadecanal-DMA-16:0 in t10,c12 CLA CC. Forskolin alone increased (P ≤ 0.043) c9-18:1 in oocytes. In conclusion, maturation process clearly changed porcine COC FA and DMA profiles, mostly of CC, also more susceptible to modifications induced by t10,c12 CLA. This possibility of manipulating COC lipid composition during IVM could be used to improve oocyte quality/cryopreservation efficiency.

  5. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V; Williams, Paul J; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-09-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 months old C57BL/6 female mice fed for 6 months with 10% corn oil (CO), 9.5% CO + 0.5% c9t11-CLA, 9.5% CO + 0.5% t10c12-CLA or 9.5% CO + 0.25% c9t11-CLA + 0.25% t10c12-CLA. Mice fed a t10c12-CLA diet maintained a significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) in femoral, tibial and lumbar regions than those fed CO and c9t11-CLA diets as measured by dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The increased BMD was accompanied by a decreased production of osteoclastogenic factors, that is, RANKL, TRAP5b, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum. Moreover, a significant reduction of high fat diet-induced bone marrow adiposity was observed in t10c12-CLA fed mice as compared to that of CO and c9t11-CLA fed mice, as measured by Oil-Red-O staining of bone marrow sections. In addition, a significant reduction of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing pit formation was observed in t10c12-CLA treated RAW 264.7 cell culture stimulated with RANKL as compared to that of c9t11-CLA and linoleic acid treated cultures. In conclusion, these findings suggest that t10c12-CLA is the most potent CLA isomer and it exerts its anti-osteoporotic effect by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity.

  6. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications.

  7. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation also could increase the lipolysis and reduce the accumulation of fatty acids on the adipose tissue; the putative mechanisms involved may be its action in reducing the lipase lipoprotein activity and to increase the carnitine-palmitoil-transferase-1 (CAT-1) activity, its interaction with PPARγ, and to raise the expression of UCP-1. Although studies made in human have shown some benefits of CLA supplementation as the weight loss, the results are still discordant. Moreover, some have shown adverse effects, such as negative effects on glucose metabolism and lipid profile. The purpose of this article is to review the available data regarding the benefits of CLA on the energetic metabolism and body composition, emphasizing action mechanisms.

  8. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation al...

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA: los efectos en la modulación de la composición corporal y en el perfil lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddini Feitoza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA es un ácido graso que pertenece al grupo de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, representado por el conjunto de isómeros del ácido linoleico, que son denominados conjugados porque poseen una doble conexión tras una conexión simple. De entre sus isómeros se distinguen el trans-10,cis-12 y cis-9, cis-12 CLA. Estos isómeros son capaces de promover efectos distintos en el organismo: anticarcinogénesis, antidiabetogénesis, antiaterogénesis y cambios de composición corporal. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir sus mecanismos de acción, los efectos en las lipoproteínas plasmáticas, en la composición corporal y la suplementación. Los estudios acerca de la suplementación del CLA demuestran su capacidad de reducir el porcentaje de grasa, el peso corporal, y de mejorar el metabolismo lipídico. Sin embargo, unos de los efectos contrarios relacionados a uno de sus isómeros es la resistencia a la insulina a través de la redistribución de

  10. Effect of trans, trans CLA egg enrichment from CLA-rich soy oil on yolk fatty acid composition, viscosity and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicolas B

    2015-03-11

    CLA egg accumulation studies using cis, trans (c,t) isomers have been effective, but they reported adverse egg quality. trans, trans (t,t) CLA isomers have shown superior nutritional effects in rodent studies, but reports of t,t CLA-rich yolks are limited. The objectives were to determine the effect of t,t CLA-rich soy oil in feed on egg yolk viscosity, and yolk quality during refrigerated storage. Yolk fatty acids, viscosity, weight, index, moisture, pH, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS) were determined at 0, 20, and 30 storage days. CLA had minimal effect on fatty acid profiles, relative to c,t reports. CLA-rich yolk viscosity was greater than controls, and CLA yolks maintained higher viscosities during storage. Yolk weight and index were not affected by t,t CLA-rich soy oil. Yolks with the greatest CLA concentrations had the greatest VMS after 20 days of storage, and yolks containing lower CLA levels maintained greater VMS throughout 30 days of storage, relative to controls.

  11. Supplementation with CLA: isomer incorporation into serum lipids and effect on body fat of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis; Sagredos, Angelos

    2003-08-01

    Animal studies have suggested that CLA, a natural component of meat and dairy products, may confer beneficial effects on health. However, human studies using supplementation with CLA have produced contradictory results. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the effect of CLA supplementation on human body fat, serum leptin, and serum lipids, as well as the incorporation of CLA isomers into serum lipids classes. Sixteen young healthy nonobese sedentary women received 2.1 g of CLA (divided equally between the cis,trans-9,11 and trans,cis-10,12 isomers) daily for 45 d and placebo for 45 d in a randomized double-blind crossover design. Body fat was estimated (by measurement of skinfold thickness at 10 sites), and blood was sampled at the beginning, middle, and end of the entire intervention period; an additional blood sample was obtained 2 wk thereafter. No significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, lipid, or protein intake existed between the CLA and placebo intake periods. No significant differences were found in body fat or serum leptin, TAG, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and alanine aminotransferase between CLA and placebo. The CLA isomer content of serum TAG, phospholipids, and total lipids increased 2-5 times with CLA supplementation (P lipids. These data indicate that supplementation with 2.1 g of CLA daily for 45 d increased its levels in blood but had no effect on body composition or the lipidemic profile of nonobese women.

  12. Effect of CLA on performance and immune response of weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, M L; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M; Ledur, V S; Fischer, M M; Bockor, L; Cibulski, S P; Gava, D

    2012-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of CLA on the immune response and performance of piglets when subjected to an immune challenge. A total of 32 weanling pigs (17 to 23 d of age) with an initial BW of 8.9 kg were allotted to a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 3 levels of dietary CLA (0%, 1%, and 2%) and 2 levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (unchallenged and challenged). Challenged pigs were challenged on d 7 and 21. On d 4 and 18, all pigs were inoculated with BSA for assessment of IgG production. There was no difference in growth performance among piglets receiving different CLA supplementation levels. However, LPS-challenged piglets had poorer BW (P CLA supplementation group (P CLA has an immunomodulatory effect. Supplementation with CLA did not affect lymphocyte proliferation, percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, plasma proteins, red and white blood cell count, respiratory rate, or rectal temperature after LPS challenge. Although CLA supplementation did not influence growth performance or certain immune system measurements, the increased IgG titers with 1% CLA dietary supplementation indicate that it has a beneficial effect on the humoral immune system of weaned piglets.

  13. A comparison between CLNA and CLA effects on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Fernández-Quintela, A; Macarulla, M T; Churruca, I; García, C; Rodríguez, V M; Simón, E; Portillo, M P

    2009-03-01

    The potential of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as an anti-obesity molecule for humans is still a matter for debate. Thus, a great deal of scientific work is focussed on the research of new effective molecules without deleterious effects on health. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effects of jacaranda seed oil, rich in a conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA), jacaric acid (cis-8,trans-10,cis-12), on body fat, serum parameters and liver composition in rats, and to compare these effects with those of trans-10,cis-12 CLA. Twenty-six male Wistar rats were divided into three groups fed with high-fat diets, supplemented or not (control group) with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA (CLA group) or 0.5% jacaric acid (CLNA group) for 7 weeks. No statistical differences in food intake or in final body weight were found. Whereas CLA reduced adipose tissue size, CLNA did not. Both CLA and CLNA significantly reduced non-HDL-cholesterol. In spite of a lack of significant changes in glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR index was significantly increased, as well as did non-esterified fatty acid levels in CLNA-fed rats. No changes in liver composition were observed. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, jacaric acid, unlike CLA, does not show a body-fat lowering effect. Even though it leads to a healthy lipoprotein profile, it impairs insulin function. Consequently, it cannot be proposed as an anti-obesity molecule.

  14. Implication of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilzer, Allison; Park, Yeonhwa

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has drawn significant attention in the last two decades for its variety of biologically beneficial effects. CLA reduces body fat, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, and modulates immune and inflammatory responses as well as improves bone mass. It has been suggested that the overall effects of CLA are the results of interactions between two major isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. This review will primarily focus on current CLA publications involving humans, which are also summarized in the tables. Along with a number of beneficial effects of CLA, there are safety considerations for CLA supplementation in humans, which include effects on liver functions, milk fat depression, glucose metabolism, and oxidative stresses.

  15. Trans-10,cis-12-CLA dysregulate lipid and glucose metabolism and induce hepatic NR4A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Maria A; Badimon, Lina; Rodriguez, Cristina; Arnal, Carmen; Noone, Enda J; Roche, Helen M; Osada, Jesus; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of two isomers of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA) and trans-10,cis-12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA), on glucose metabolism and hepatic expression of NR4A receptors, key transcription factors regulating gluconeogenesis. ApoE-deficient mice were fed isocaloric, isonitrogenous westernized diets enriched with c9,t11-CLA, t10,c12-CLA or linoleic acid (control diet). Plasma glucose, NEFA, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in the t10,c12-CLA group compared with c9,t11-CLA or control group. Plasma insulin concentrations were lowered by c9,t11-CLA compared with either control or t10,c12-CLA group. Hepatic expression of NR4A receptors (Nur77, Nurr1 and NOR-1) was induced by t10,c12-CLA while c9,t11-CLA had not effect. Consistently t10,c12-CLA up-regulated key genes involved in gluconeogenesis including glucose-6-phosphatase, enolase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase. Hepatic expression of NR4A receptors correlated with plasma NEFA, with the expression of their target gene fatty acid transporter (FAT)/CD36 and with the accumulation of fat in the liver. These results suggest that t10,c12-CLA promote dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, at least in part, by an isomer-specific modulation of hepatic expression of NR4A receptors.

  16. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  17. Modulation of oxidative stress by γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer mixture in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukiko K; Dubick, Michael A; Omaye, Stanley T

    2012-06-01

    Individually, γ-glutamylcysteine (GGC), a dipeptide and precursor of glutathione (GSH), and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a trans-fatty acid, exhibit antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to compare effects of co-administration of GGC and CLA to treatment with GGC alone on oxidative stress and GSH synthesis in human endothelial cells. Changes in levels of 8-epi-PGF2α, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), GSH, total antioxidants, GSH synthetase (GSS) expression, and transcription factor DNA binding were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with GGC alone (100 μmol/L) or combined with CLA isomer mixture (10, 50, 100 μmol/L) for 24h. Significantly higher levels of TBARS, 8-epi-PGF2α, GSH, and GSS protein were found in cells treated with GGC and 10 μmol/L CLA, compared to cells treated with GGC alone, indicative of prooxidant effects of CLA. Approximately 40% cell death was microscopically observed in cells incubated with GGC and 100 μmol/L CLA. Despite lower levels of GSH, treatment with GGC and 50 μmol/L CLA appeared to be protective from oxidative stress similar to treatment with GGC alone, as indicated by lower levels of TBARS, compared to control cells not treated with GGC and CLA.

  18. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention: Seventy

  19. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  20. Effects of supplemental conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on fresh and post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, R; Towhidi, A; Zeinoaldini, S; Rezayazdi, K; Mousavi, M; Safari, H; Martinez-Pastor, F

    2017-02-07

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of feeding-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the semen production and sperm freezability in Holstein bulls. Twelve bulls were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 6 per group). Bulls received the normal diet (control group) or the normal diet top-dressed with 50 g of CLA (treated group) for 10 weeks. The control group received 40 g/day calcium soap of fatty acid. Fresh and post-thaw semen quality was assessed on ejaculates collected at the 0, 4, 6, 8 and 10 week of supplementation. Semen evaluations including sperm concentration, motion characteristics (subjective and computer-assisted), viability (Eosin-Nigrosin), membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and abnormality were conducted. Semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm output were not affected by dietary treatment (p > .05). The proportion of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology in fresh semen significantly increased (p CLA-fed group compared to control group. Also, in CLA-fed group, the proportion of post-thaw spermatozoa with abnormal morphology at week 10 of trial was significantly higher in CLA than control group (p CLA-fed group, although dietary supplementation did not affect other CASA parameters or viability in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. In this study, CLA supplementation had little positive effect on fresh or post-thaw sperm quality of Holstein bulls.

  1. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md M; Halade, Ganesh V.; Jamali, Amina El; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of CLA isomers in preventing age-associated muscle loss and the mechanisms underlying this effect, using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups, measured by dual-energy-Xray-absorptiometry and muscle wet weight. Enhanced mitochondr...

  3. CLA supplementation and aerobic exercise lower blood triacylglycerol, but have no effect on peak oxygen uptake or cardiorespiratory fatigue thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Buckner, Samuel L; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Goldsmith, Jacob A; Weir, Joseph P; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of 6 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and moderate aerobic exercise on peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), the gas exchange threshold (GET), the respiratory compensation point (RCP), and serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose in humans. Thirty-four untrained to moderately trained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.5 ± 2.8 years; mass = 77.2 ± 9.5 kg) completed this double-blind, placebo controlled study and were randomly assigned to either a CLA (Clarinol A-80; n = 18) or placebo (PLA; sunflower oil; n = 16) group. Prior to and following 6 weeks of aerobic training (50% VO2 peak for 30 min, twice per week) and supplementation (5.63 g of total CLA isomers [of which 2.67 g was c9, t11 and 2.67 g was t10, c12] or 7.35 g high oleic sunflower oil per day), each participant completed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion to determine their [Formula: see text] peak, GET, and RCP and fasted blood draws were performed to measure serum concentrations of cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and glucose. Serum triacylglycerol concentrations were lower (p CLA than the PLA group. For VO2 peak and glucose, there were group × time interactions (p 0.05) between the CLA and PLA groups. GET and RCP increased (p CLA and PLA groups. Overall, these data suggested that CLA and aerobic exercise may have synergistic, blood triacylglycerol lowering effects, although CLA may be ineffective for enhancing aerobic exercise performance in conjunction with a 6-week aerobic exercise training program in college-age men.

  4. Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA on the Reproductive Axis Pituitary, Thyroid, Testes of Ram in Non-reproductive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Mahdavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2 and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 g and the third group received 1 g of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 mL syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05. Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

  5. Divergent effects of a CLA-enriched beef diet on metabolic health in ApoE-/- and ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Toomey, Sinead; McBride, Rachael; McMonagle, Jolene; Morine, Melissa J; Belton, Orina; Moloney, Aidan P; Roche, Helen M

    2013-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is found naturally in meat and dairy products, and represents a potential therapeutic functional nutrient. However, given the discrepancies in isomer composition and concentration, controversy surrounds its proposed antidiabetic, antiobesity effects. This study focused on the effects of CLA-enriched beef (composed predominantly of c9, t11-CLA) in two separate models of metabolic disease: proatherosclerotic ApoE(-/-) mice and diabetic, leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Animals were fed CLA-enriched beef for 28 days, and markers of the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis were assessed. Comprehensive hepatic transcriptomic analysis was completed to understand divergent metabolic effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef significantly reduced plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acid and triacylglycerol and increased adiponectin levels in ob/ob mice. In contrast, plasma lipid profiles and glucose homeostasis deteriorated and promoted atherosclerosis following the CLA-enriched beef diet in ApoE(-/-) mice. Hepatic transcriptomic profiling revealed divergent effects of CLA-enriched beef on insulin signaling and lipogenic pathways, which were adversely affected in ApoE(-/-) mice. This study demonstrated clear divergence in the effects of CLA. CLA-enriched beef improved metabolic flexibility in ob/ob mice, resulting in enhanced insulin sensitivity. However, CLA-enriched diet increased expression of lipogenic genes, resulting in inefficient fatty acid storage which increases lipotoxicity in peripheral organs, and led to profound metabolic dysfunction in ApoE(-/-) mice. While CLA may have potential health effects, in some circumstances, caution must be exercised in presenting this bioactive lipid as a potential functional food for the treatment of metabolic disease.

  6. CLA Has a Useful Effect on Bone Markers in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaeian, N; Shahram, F; Djalali, M

    2016-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, chronic disease which may increase the risk of osteoporosis. This study was carried out in order to examine the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone markers in rheumatoid arthritis disease which is the most common autoimmune disease. The present study is a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Subjects included 52 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who were divided into two groups. Group I received standard treatment plus 2 daily 1.25 g capsules (Containing about 2 g of 9-cis 11-trans isomer and 10-cis 12-trans isomer in ratio of 50 -50 CLA in glycerinated form), Group II received standard treatment plus 2 Placebo 1.25 g capsules containing sunflower oil with high oleic acid. Telopeptides C, osteocalcin, and MMP3 were analyzed by ELISA method, PGE2 was done by competitive enzymatic immunoassay method, and IGF-1 was analyzed by the IRMA method based on the sandwich method and ALK-P of bone. Before and after the intervention, the questionnaires about general information, nutrition assessment and medical history were filled out by the subjects. Nutritional assessment was done by a 24-h record questionnaire for the three-day diet. The results were analyzed using SPSS software (version 18).

  7. Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX on B16-F10 melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruo Du,1 Ting Zhong,1 Wei-Qiang Zhang,1 Ping Song,1 Wen-Ding Song,1 Yang Zhao,1 Chao-Wang,1 Yi-Qun Tang,3 Xuan Zhang,1,2 Qiang Zhang1,2 1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX. The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes’ cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 µg/g and 4 hours (1.17±0

  8. THE EFFECT OF COTTONSEED AND SOYBEAN SUPPLEMENTATION ON CLA ISOMERS AND OTHER UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmaryan G. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the supplementation effect of different treatments of whole cottonseed and full fat soybean on the diet of dairy ewes and the milk fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content. The results indicate for both diets it is most suitable to use the second treatment in order to increase the level of cis- 9,trans-11 CLA isomer in milk. In the level of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-11 no changes were observed in neither of the diets.

  9. Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) on B16-F10 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruo; Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Qiang; Song, Ping; Song, Wen-Ding; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC)-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) containing conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel (CLA-PTX). The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes' cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 μg/g) and 4 hours (1.17±0.28 μg/g) was 2.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that of CLA-PTX solution at 1 hour (0.79±0.06 μg/g) and 4 hours (0.58±0.04 μg/g). The value of the area under the curve for the first 24 hours in the tumors of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice was significantly higher than that in the SSL-CLA-PTX and CLA-PTX solution-treated groups (P<0.01). The in vivo antitumor results indicated that iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX significantly inhibited

  10. Antitumor effect of iRGD-modified liposomes containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) on B16-F10 melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruo; Zhong, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Qiang; Song, Ping; Song, Wen-Ding; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Yi-Qun; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we prepared a novel delivery system of iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC)-modified sterically stabilized liposomes (SSLs) containing conjugated linoleic acid–paclitaxel (CLA-PTX). The anti-tumor effect of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was investigated on B16-F10 melanoma in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro targeting effect of iRGD-modified SSLs was investigated in a real-time confocal microscopic analysis experiment. An endocytosis-inhibition assay was used to evaluate the endocytosis pathways of the iRGD-modified SSLs. In addition, the in vitro cellular uptake and in vitro cytotoxicity of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were evaluated in B16-F10 melanoma cells. In vivo biodistribution and in vivo antitumor effects of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX were investigated in B16-F10 tumor-bearing mice. The induction of apoptosis by iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX was evaluated in tumor-tissue sections. Real-time confocal microscopic analysis results indicated that the iRGD-modified SSLs internalized into B16-F10 cells faster than SSLs. The identified endocytosis pathway of iRGD-modified SSLs indicated that energy- and lipid raft-mediated endocytosis played a key role in the liposomes’ cellular uptake. The results of the cellular uptake experiment indicated that the increased cellular uptake of CLA-PTX in the iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated group was 1.9-, 2.4-, or 2.1-fold compared with that in the CLA-PTX group after a 2-, 4-, or 6-hour incubation, respectively. In the biodistribution test, the CLA-PTX level in tumor tissues from iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice at 1 hour (1.84±0.17 μg/g) and 4 hours (1.17±0.28 μg/g) was 2.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that of CLA-PTX solution at 1 hour (0.79±0.06 μg/g) and 4 hours (0.58±0.04 μg/g). The value of the area under the curve for the first 24 hours in the tumors of iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX-treated mice was significantly higher than that in the SSL-CLA-PTX and CLA-PTX solution-treated groups (P<0.01). The in vivo antitumor results indicated that iRGD-SSL-CLA-PTX significantly

  11. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA-An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D J Crumb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a group of octadecadienoic acids that are naturally present in the highest concentrations in foods originating in ruminant animals, and dairy products such as milk. Especially large numbers of CLA polymers have been detected in beef, lamb and milk fat. Results from many in vitro and animal studies, though conflicting, have suggested that CLA supplementation may have beneficial effect on obesity, weight management, cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This article provides a brief overview on the functionality, safety and toxicity of CLA as described in literature. .   Industrial Relevance: CLA is a functional food and dietary supplement ingredient with potential benefits against a number of metabolic chronic diseases. However, the mechanism of action and its toxicological effects are not very well understood. These factors may play an important role in the effectiveness as CLA as a viable functional dietary bioactive compound.

  12. Health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Kazunori; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric (cis or trans) isomers of linoleic acid with a conjugated double bond. The most representative CLA isomers are 9c,11t-18:2 and 10t,12c-18:2. CLA has been shown to exert various potent physiological functions such as anticarcinogenic, antiobese, antidiabetic and antihypertensive properties. This means CLA can be effective to prevent lifestyle diseases or metabolic syndromes. Also, reports suggest that physiological effects of CLA are different between the isomers, for example the 10t,12c isomer is anticarcinogenic, antiobese and antidiabetic, whereas the 9c,11t isomer is mainly anticarcinogenic. We describe here the physiological properties of CLA including the possible mechanism and the possibility to benefit human health.

  13. 蛋鸡日粮添加CLA-Ca对蛋黄中CLA和胆固醇含量的影响%Effect of Adding CLA-Ca in Layer Dietary on CLA and Cholesterol Contents in Eggyolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪兰; 魏祥法; 艾武; 黄宝华

    2007-01-01

    选用产蛋量相近的72周龄海兰白蛋鸡840只,随机分为7组,每组40只,重复3次.采用单因素随机试验设计,分别饲喂含1%、2%、3%、4%、5%、6%共轭亚油酸(CLA)的玉米-豆粕型日粮4周,研究了日粮添加CLA-Ca对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋黄中胆固醇含量和CLA含量的影响.结果表明,日粮中添加CLA-Ca降低了蛋鸡的生产性能,可提高蛋黄中CLA含量.日粮CLA水平在1%~6%范围内,CLA水平越高,富集速度越快,富集量越大,CLA最大富集量为692 g/枚鸡蛋,蛋黄脂肪中胆固醇含量随时间的变化总体趋势为先升后降,随日粮CLA浓度的变化趋势为CLA浓度越高,胆固醇的含量越低,但显著高于对照组(P<0.05).

  14. Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappritz, Julia; Meyer, Ulrich; Kramer, Ronny; Weber, Eva-Maria; Jahreis, Gerhard; Rehage, Jürgen; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2011-04-01

    The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the

  15. t10,c12-CLA decreases adiposity in peripubertal mice without dose-related detrimental effects on mammary development, inflammation status, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, M R; Giesy, S L; Bernal-Santos, G; Bauman, D E; Boisclair, Y R

    2010-12-01

    The trans 10, cis 12-conjugated linoleic acid (10,12-CLA) isomer reduces adiposity in several animal models. In the mouse, however, this effect is associated with adipose tissue inflammation, hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Moreover, 10,12-CLA was recently shown to promote mammary ductal hyperplasia and ErbB2/Her2-driven mammary cancer in the mouse. Reasons for detrimental effects of 10,12-CLA on the mouse mammary gland could relate to its effect on the mammary fat pad (MFP), which is essential for normal development. Accordingly, we hypothesized that mammary effects of 10,12-CLA were mediated through the MFP in a dose-dependent manner. Female FVB mice were fed 10,12-CLA at doses of 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.5% of the diet from day 24 of age, and effects on mammary development and metabolism were measured on day 49. The 0.5% dose reduced ductal elongation and caused premature alveolar budding. These effects were associated with increased expression of inflammatory markers and genes shown to alter epithelial growth (IGF binding protein-5) and alveolar budding (TNF-α and receptor of activated NF-κB ligand). The 0.5% dose also caused hyperinsulinemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. In contrast, the 0.1% 10,12-CLA dose had no adverse effects on mammary development, metabolic events, and inflammatory responses, but remained effective in decreasing adipose weights and lipogenic gene expression. These results show that a low dose of 10,12-CLA reduces adiposity in the mouse without negative effects on mammary development, inflammation, and metabolism, and suggest that previously reported detrimental effects relate to the use of excessive doses.

  16. Metabolic and growth inhibitory effects of conjugated fatty acids in the cell line HT-29 with special regard to the conversion of t11,t13-CLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Christian; Ecker, Josef; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Conjugated fatty acids (CFAs) exhibit growth inhibitory effects on colon cancer in vitro and in vivo. To investigate whether the anticancerogenic potency depends on number or configuration of the conjugated double bonds, the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; C18:2) isomers and conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA; C18:3) isomers on viability and growth of HT-29 cells were compared. Low concentrations of CLnAs (t11,t13-CLA≥t9,t11-CLA>c9,t11-CLA. The mRNA expression analysis of important genes associated with fatty acid metabolism showed an absence of ∆5-/∆6-desaturases and elongases in HT-29 cells, which was confirmed by fatty acid analysis. Using time- and dose-dependent stimulation experiments several metabolites were determined. Low concentrations of all trans-CFAs (5-20μM) led to dose-dependent increase of conjugated t/t-C16:2 formed by β-oxidation of C18 CFAs, ranging from 1-5% of total FAME. Importantly, it was found that CLnA is converted to CLA and that CLA is inter-converted (t11,t13-CLA is metabolized to c9,t11-CLA) by HT-29 cells. In summary, our study shows that growth inhibition of human cancer cells is associated with a specific cellular transcriptomic and metabolic profile of fatty acid metabolism, which might contribute to the diversified ability of CFAs as anti-cancer compounds.

  17. CLA Wrestles with the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Norman

    1992-01-01

    Report on the 1992 Canadian Library Association (CLA) conference discusses plans for a national summit on information policy, the current situation of public libraries, updating of policy statements, and strengthening CLA. CLA officers and awards are listed. (MES)

  18. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  19. Impact of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Skeletal Muscle Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Jonggun; Whang, Kwang-Youn; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has garnered special attention as a food bioactive compound that prevents and attenuates obesity. Although most studies on the effects of CLA on obesity have focused on the reduction of body fat, a number of studies have demonstrated that CLA also increases lean body mass and enhances physical performances. It has been suggested that these effects may be due in part to physiological changes in the skeletal muscle, such as changes in the muscle fiber type transformation, alteration of the intracellular signaling pathways in muscle metabolism, or energy metabolism. However, the mode of action for CLA in muscle metabolism is not completely understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the effects of CLA on skeletal muscle metabolism. Given that CLA not only reduces body fat, but also improves lean mass, there is great potential for the use of CLA to improve muscle metabolism, which would have a significant health impact.

  20. Study on Effect of claR Application on Clavulanic Acid Production of Streptomyces clavuligerus%claR基因的扩增对棒状链霉菌棒酸合成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左志晗; 赵海龙

    2012-01-01

    Clavulanic acid positive regulation gene claR of Streptomyces clavuligerus was cloned.claR expression plasmid pSET152-claR was constructed and transformed into S.clavuligerus by conjugation.The attP site in pSET152-claR could inserted into attB site of S.clavuligerus.Thus an extra copy of claR was inserted into the chromosome of S.clavuligerus.The obtained mutant S.clavuligerus: claR was cultured in the shaken flask,and the production of clavulanic acid was analyzed by HPLC,the yield of clavulanic acid was 1.86 times compared with S.clavuligerus.%从棒状链霉菌中克隆对克拉维酸具有正调控作用的基因claR。构建了claR的重组质粒pSET152-claR,通过接合转移将重组质粒pSET152-claR转入了野生型S.clavuligerus中,通过pSET152-claR中的attP位点整个质粒插入到S.clavuligerus基因组中的attB位点,实现了S.clavuligerus基因组DNA中增加一个拷贝claR基因的目的,所得突变株S.clavuligerus∷claR通过发酵培养,HPLC检测克拉维酸产量为原产量的1.86倍。

  1. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks.

  2. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov

    2003-01-01

    in primary human adipocytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose...... transporter 4 gene expression. Furthermore, trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduced oleic acid uptake and oxidation when compared with all other treatments. In parallel to CLA's effects on metabolism, trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased, the expression of peroxisome proliferator...

  3. Effect of pH on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) formation of linolenic acid biohydrogenation by ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongjae

    2013-08-01

    Conventional beliefs surrounding the linolenic acid (LNA; cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3) biohydrogenation (BH) pathway propose that it converts to stearic acid (SA) without the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as intermediate isomers. However, an advanced study (Lee and Jenkins, 2011) verified that LNA BH yields multiple CLAs. This study utilized the stable isotope tracer to investigate the BH intermediates of (13)C-LNA with different pH conditions (5.5 and 6.5). The (13)C enrichment was calculated as a (13)C/(12)C ratio of labeled minus unlabeled. After 24 h, eight CLA isomers were significantly enriched on both pH treatment, this result verifies that these CLAs originated from (13)C-LNA BH which supports the results of Lee and Jenkins (2011). The enrichment of cis-cis double bond CLAs (cis-9 cis-11 and cis-10 cis-12 CLA) were significantly higher at low pH conditions. Furthermore, the concentration of cis-10 cis-12 CLA at low pH was four times higher than at high pH conditions after a 3 h incubation. These differences support the LNA BH pathways partial switch under different pH conditions, with a strong influence on the cis-cis CLA at low pH. Several mono-, di-, and tri-enoic fatty acid isomers were enriched during 24 h of incubation, but the enrichment was decreased or restricted at low pH treatment. Based on these results, it is proposed that low pH conditions may cause a changed or limited capacity of the isomerization and reduction steps in BH.

  4. Development of design of CLA: target lens line-focusing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Zhu, Jianqiang

    1999-08-01

    In this paper the principle of CLA-target system to obtain focal line with homogenous intensity distribution was described. And tow new structure modal CLA used for improving the homogeneous of focal line was described and the numerical results of the classical CLA and new type CLA was also given. Those result showed that the focal line long-range intensity distribution can be improved greatly by using CLA with optimized unequal cylindrical lens element for beam with Gaussian intensity distribution and by using hybrid element CLA for the case of super-Gaussian distribution. The optimal process was treated by simulated annealing method. The intensity modulation decreased to 0.7 percent for optimized 4-element unequal width CLA system when incident laser with Gaussian section distribution.

  5. Modulation of Oxidative Stress by Gamma-Glutamylcysteine (GGC) and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomer Mixture in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    treatment and pooled. Then, cells were suspended and lysed with a hypotonic buffer and 10% (w/v) Nonidet P - 40 . After spinning, the cell pellet was re...imately 40 % cell death was microscopically observed in cells incubated with GGC and 100 lmol/L CLA. Despite lower levels of GSH, treatment with GGC... p < 0.05 were considered to be sta- tistically significant. All results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. 3. Results 3.1. Cell viability

  6. Three hen strains fed photoisomerized trans,trans CLA-rich soy oil exhibit different yolk accumulation rates and source-specific isomer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara E; Gilley, Alex D; Proctor, Andrew; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2015-04-01

    Most CLA chicken feeding trials used cis,trans (c,t) and trans,cis (t,c) CLA isomers to produce CLA-rich eggs, while reports of trans,trans (t,t) CLA enrichment in egg yolks are limited. The CLA yolk fatty acid profile changes and the 10-12 days of feeding needed for maximum CLA are well documented, but there is no information describing CLA accumulation during initial feed administration. In addition, no information on CLA accumulation rates in different hen strains is available. The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model that described yolk CLA accumulation and depletion in three hen strains by using t,t CLA-rich soybean oil produced by photoisomerization. Diets of 30-week Leghorns, broilers, and jungle fowl were supplemented with 15% CLA-rich soy oil for 16 days, and eggs were collected for 32 days. Yolk fatty acid profiles were measured by GC-FID. CLA accumulation and depletion was modeled by both quadratic and piecewise regression analysis. A strong quadratic model was proposed, but it was not as effective as piecewise regression in describing CLA accumulation and depletion. Broiler hen eggs contained the greatest concentration of CLA at 3.2 mol/100 g egg yolk, then jungle fowl at 2.9 mol CLA, and Leghorns at 2.3 mol CLA. The t,t CLA isomer levels remained at 55% of total yolk CLA during CLA feeding. However, t-10,c-12 (t,c) CLA concentration increased slightly during CLA accumulation and was significantly greater than c-9,t-11 CLA. Jungle fowl had the smallest increase in yolk saturated fat with CLA yolk accumulation.

  7. The Study on the Thermal Stability of CLA in Egg Yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Lin; Cao Ying Chen; Zhen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been a subject of extensive investigation for their anticarcinogenic, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic and immune-enhancing activities. Stability of CLA in foods has not received much attention by both academics and industry. Although CLA has shown many beneficial effects, its decomposition must be prevented when CLA in foods is processed, stored and transported. However, no study to date has addressed the stability of CLA in foods. The present study was carried out further to examine the stability of CLA in egg yolk during the storage and frying, using gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography (Agt-HPLC). The eggs, containing 4.0% CLA per gramme of egg yolk, were 40s. Either storage for 6 months or frying for 40 s did not significantly change the composition of CLA in egg yolk. However, the degradation of CLA was statistically significant when the CLA components of egg yolk protected CLA from degradation. It is concluded that CLA is well preserved in egg before it is consumed.

  8. CLA Reaches beyond Its Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the activities at the Canadian Library Association (CLA) 1992 annual conference. Topics discussed include First Nations libraries; help for third world countries; censorship; IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) activities; financial concerns of CLA; publishing plans; work on a national information…

  9. Effect of CLA supplementation to low-protein diets on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma urea nitrogen concentration, and fatty acid profile in the meat of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Aispuro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on the meat of pigs (0,1% and three crude protein (CP levels (nursery: 20.5, 16.0, 14.5%; growing: 16, 14.5, 11.5%; and finishing: 14.0, 12.5, 11% CP, studies were conducted with 36 hybrid (Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc barrows (17.3-83.5 kg, which were individually penned and allotted in a completely randomized design in a factorial (2×3 arrangement for 84 d. The analysis by phases indicated that CP level affected some variables. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, fat free lean gain, backfat thickness, longissimus muscle area and final body weight were reduced (P≤0.05 feeding the lowest CP diet in nursery and growing pigs. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration was also lower (P≤0.05 in the growing and finishing phases when fed the lowest CP level. The global analysis showed that all the analyzed variables (except feed gain ratio, lean meat percentage and plasma urea nitrogen concentration were reduced (P≤0.05 in the pigs fed low-protein diets; plasma urea nitrogen concentration tended to be lower (P=0.07 when CP was reduced. The fatty acid profile of the meat (semimembranosus and longissimus muscles indicated that CLA addition increased CLA isomers and total saturated fatty acids, and reduced the total monounsaturated fatty acids (P≤0.05. α-Linolenic acid was lowered in longissimus muscle of pigs fed LPD (P=0.08. These results indicated that reducing the crude protein concentration in the diet of fattening pigs from 20.5 to 16.0% in nursery phase; from 16.0 to 14.5% in growing stage; and from 14.0 to 12.5% in finishing pigs, did not negatively affect the growth performance, nor carcass characteristics. The results also showed that the addition of CLA did not improve pig response and the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids and total lipids altered the feeding LPD.

  10. CLA-TG oil and its micro-encapsulation formulation in Yogurt%酸奶中CLA-TG油与CLA-TG微囊粉强化方式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李代; 张月梅; 陈剑彬; 吴迪; 马俊杰; 顾广伟; 吴文忠

    2011-01-01

    比较了共轭亚油酸三甘酯(CLA-TG油)和CLA-TG微囊粉两种不同形式不同质量分数的共轭亚油酸(CLA)对酸奶的感官可接受性、酸度、保水性的影响,并研究了这两种强化方式的CLA在酸奶中的稳定性.结果表明,酸奶中添加CLA-TG微囊粉比中添加CLA-TG油感官可接受性好,并具有良好的稳定性.%The effects of fortification with two different form of CLA-TG on the sensory acceptability, Ph, acid degree and the water holding capacity yogurt were studied. The stability of the two form of CLA-TG in yogurt have been studied. Results: The yogurt show the better sensory acceptability when fortified with CLA-TG micro-encapsulation than CLA-TG. CLA-TG micro-encapsulation have good stability in the yogurt.

  11. Milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits growth of human mammary MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, M; Devery, R; Lawless, F; Murphy, J; Stanton, C

    The relationship between growth and the antioxidant enzyme defence system in human MCF-7 (breast) cancer cells treated with bovine milk fat enriched with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was studied. Milk enriched in CLA was obtained from cows on pasture supplemented with full fat rapeseeds and full fat soyabeans (1). Cell number decreased up to 90% (p milk fat yielding CLA concentrations between 16.9 and 22.6 ppm. Growth suppression and prooxidant effects of milk fat CLA were independent of the variable composition of the milk fat samples, suggesting that CLA was the active ingredient in milk fat responsible for the cytotoxic effect. Mixtures containing isomers of CLA (c9, t11-, t10, c12-, c11, t13- and minor amounts of other isomers) and linoleic acid (LA) at similar concentrations to the milk fat samples were as effective at inhibiting growth and stimulating peroxidation of MCF-7 cells as the milk fatty acids. Incubation of the cells with the c9, t11 CLA isomer (20 ppm) or the mixture of CLA isomers (20 ppm) for 8 days resulted in a 60% decrease (p milk fat than the c9, t11 synthetic CLA isomer. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were induced in MCF-7 cells exposed to milk fat (containing 16.9-22.6 ppm CLA) over 8 days. The data indicate that milk fat triglyceride-bound CLA, consisting primarily of the c9, t11 isomer, was cytotoxic towards MCF-7 cells.

  12. Effect of tanniniferous Terminalia chebula extract on rumen biohydrogenation, ∆(9)-desaturase activity, CLA content and fatty acid composition in longissimus dorsi muscle of kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madhu Suman; Tyagi, A; Hossain, Sk Asraf; Tyagi, A K

    2012-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid, a fatty acid found in milk fat and ruminant meat is one of the functional food components. Modifying fatty acid composition so as to increase CLA and other beneficial PUFA/MUFA level and reducing SFA levels might be a key to enhance the neutraceutical and therapeutic value of ruminant-derived food products. In the present experiment, the effect of supplementation of polyphenol rich Terminalia chebula plant extract at different concentrations (1.06g/kg and 3.18g/kg of body weight in T1 and T2 groups, respectively) was investigated on fatty acid composition of rumen fluid, plasma, intramuscular fat and Δ9-desaturase activity in longissimus dorsi muscle of crossbred kids. Total MUFA and PUFA content in muscle were enhanced by 25 and 35%, respectively, whereas SFA was reduced by 20% thereby improving the desaturation index. Δ9-desaturase activity also increased by 47% resulting in an enhancement of total CLA content (58.73%) in muscle.

  13. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) formation in edible oils by photoisomerization: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangidi, Rahul Reddy; Lokesh, Belur Ramaswamy

    2014-05-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) that is commonly found in dairy and ruminant fats, is geometrical and positional isomer of linoleic acid (LA). Edible oils are not good sources of CLA. Attempts have been made to generate CLA in edible oils through photoisomerization procedures. CLA isomers have several proven health benefits. This article reviews procedures for producing CLA containing edible oils by photoisomerization approach and applications of photoisomerized oils for food uses. The article reviews (1) the photoisomerized production of CLA containing oils on lab scale, with customized equipment, at pilot plant scale; (2) the effects of iodine content, photoisomerization time, refining, interference from minor components of oils, efficacy of different edible oils containing LA, interference from antioxidants; (3) the chemical kinetics, oxidative stability; and (4) photoisomerized oils for frying oils and as drying oils.The review also briefly covers methods of measurement of CLA.

  14. Metabolism of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Maria Cristina; Cannelli, Giorgio; Carta, Gianfranca; Cordeddu, Lina; Melis, Maria Paola; Murru, Elisabetta; Stanton, Catherine; Banni, Sebastiano

    2013-08-01

    The c9,t11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is the most abundant CLA form present in the human diet, and is particularly prevalent in milk and dairy products, and is known to exert several health benefits in experimental animal models. A possible mechanism of action of c9,t11CLA relies on its metabolism via desaturases and elongases and partial beta oxidation in peroxisomes. In this study, we aimed to establish plasma incorporation of c9,t11CLA and its downstream metabolites in healthy volunteers after daily dietary intakes of 0.8g, 1.6g or 3.2g of c9,t11CLA in capsule form for two months. Following supplementation, the plasma concentrations of c9,t11CLA and its metabolites conjugated dienes (CD) 18:3 and the beta oxidation product CD 16:2 were incorporated in a linear fashion, while on the other hand CD 20:3 reached a plateau following intakes of 1.6g/d of dietary intake, and was not further increased following higher CLA intakes. We may conclude that supplementation of c9,t11 CLA levels result in linear responses of CLA and its main metabolites in plasma. In addition, only the highest concentration of CLA intake tested (3.2g/d) yielded plasma concentrations of CLA and metabolites close to the range found sufficient to exert nutritional effects in experimental animal models.

  15. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during lactation, whereas soybean oil supplementation resulted in severe BW loss.

  16. Effects of Intracerebroventricular Administration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA)on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Rats%侧脑室注射共轭亚油酸(CLA)对大鼠糖脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹子鹏; 王枫; 向雪松; 曹瑞; 张文斌; 史永亮; 高双斌

    2007-01-01

    目的:观察侧脑室注射共轭亚油酸(Conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)对SD大鼠糖脂代谢的影响及其可能的机制.方法:向正常SD大鼠侧脑室内注射共轭亚油酸(CLA).分别于注射后2、4、8、12、24小时采血,试剂盒法测血糖、胰岛素、瘦素、血甘油三脂、血胆固醇、血高密度脂蛋白.48小时后处死,分离动物的脂肪(皮下、内脏、肾周、睾周)进行称重,计算体脂比.结果:与对照组相比,侧脑室注射CLA48小时后,大鼠脂体比、皮下脂肪、睾周脂肪均下降.术后2-12h血糖降低,血清胰岛素浓度也降低,而且持续的时间较长(48h).侧脑室注射CLA对脂代谢有影响,2h时血清甘油三酯升高、胆固醇降低、4h时高密度脂蛋白升高.结论:共轭亚油酸能够通过中枢神经系统调节外周糖脂代谢,这可能与其能减轻体重的机制有关.

  17. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  18. On Equivariant Embedding of Hilbert C^* modules

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    We prove that an arbitrary (not necessarily countably generated) Hilbert $G$-$\\cla$ module on a G-C^* algebra $\\cla$ admits an equivariant embedding into a trivial $G-\\cla$ module, provided G is a compact Lie group and its action on $\\cla$ is ergodic.

  19. On Equivariant Embedding of Hilbert $C^*$ modules

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    We prove that an arbitrary (not necessarily countably generated) Hilbert $G$-$\\cla$ module on a $G-C^*$ algebra $\\cla$ admits an equivariant embedding into a trivial $G-\\cla$ module, provided $G$ is a compact Lie group and its action on $\\cla$ is ergodic.

  20. Inclusion of fresh forage in the ration for dairy cows: effects on CLA and trans C18:1 isomers content of milk fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is the richest natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers. The 9-cis, 11-trans CLA isomer (rumenic acid, RA origins from two pathways: as an intermediate of the rumen biohydrogenation process of linoleic acid or as the product of the activity of mammary Stearoyl Co-A desaturase enzyme (SCD with trans-11, C18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA as the precursor, another intermediate in the biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid.

  1. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatCLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts.

  2. Variations in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of processed cheese by lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, O-Jun; Choi, Nag-Jin; Oh, Se Jong; Jeong, Ha-Yeon; Song, Man-Kang; Jeong, Inhye; Kim, Young Jun

    2009-04-22

    Dairy products are major sources of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); thus, an increase in CLA content can improve the quality value of dairy products. The objective of this work was to determine the effects of lactation time, feeding regimen, and ripening period on the level of CLA in processed cheese. CLA content in milk varied with the period of lactation; high in spring (April and May, about 6.8 mg CLA/g fat) and relatively low in mid summer and winter (about 4.3 mg CLA/g fat). The effects of dietary regimen and ripening period were determined in milk, which was obtained from March to May. After aging for 4 months, the cheese made from milk obtained from cows fed on pasture contained relatively higher levels of CLA compared to cheese made from milk obtained from cows fed indoors (8.12 mg CLA/g fat vs 6.76 mg CLA/g fat), but there was no difference in 7 month-aged cheeses. In both pasture and indoor feeding, 7 month-aged cheeses showed higher CLA content than 4 month-aged cheeses. The contents of stearic acid (C18:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) were significantly higher in cheese from pasture fed cows compared to those in cows fed indoors. These findings should be helpful for the efficient production of functional dairy products with high CLA contents.

  3. Effects of dietary CLA on n-3 HUFA score and N-acylethanolamides biosynthesis in the liver of obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Antonio; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that PPAR alpha agonists induce N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) biosynthesis. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a known dietary PPAR alpha inducer, may therefore increase OEA and PEA levels and favor docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis by enhancing peroxisomal β-oxidation via induction of liver PPARα. To evaluate whether CLA is able to increase DHA, OEA and PEA levels and thereby influencing liver lipid deposition in a model of visceral obesity-induced fatty liver, Zucker rats were fed a background diet rich in saturated fat with or without 1% of CLA for 4 weeks. Our data showed that CLA intake increased DHA, OEA and PEA levels in the liver by 24%, 31% and 36% respectively, and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by 16%. We may conclude that dietary CLA is able to influence not only fatty acid metabolism but also the biosynthesis of bioactive mediators such as OEA and PEA which may contribute to ameliorate fatty liver.

  4. The inhibitory effect of CLA on mice forestomach neoplasia induced by B(a)P%轭型亚油酸对B(a)P诱导小鼠前胃癌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赟; 邱隽; 陈炳卿; 刘瑞海

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibitory effect of CLA on the postinitiation phase of forestomach neoplasia formation induced by B(a)P and explore its possible mechanism of anticarcinogenesis.Methods Kunming mice were divided into five groups, i.e.salad oil control group, CLA control group, B(a)P group, B(a)P+high dose CLA group and B(a)P+low dose CLA group.The experimental period was 23 weeks, and the endpoints included cell proliferation, expression of Pan-ras P21 and some enzymes.Results Short term CLA treated significantly inhibited the forestomach neoplasia formation induced by B(a)P at postinitiation phase.The incidence of tumor in the groups of B(a)P, B(a)P+high dose CLA and B(a)P+low dose CLA was 100%, 60% and 69% respectively (P<0.05).The possible mechanism of this anticarcinogenic effect may be related to the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of the activities of GSH-Px, GST and SOD, irrespective of the regulation of expression of Pan-ras P21.Conclusion CLA is a promising chemopreventive agent, and its anticarcinogenic effect may involve its effects on the redox system.%目的研究共轭型亚油酸(CAL)的抑癌作用,并为进一步探讨CLA的抑癌机制提供线索。方法以B(a)P诱导建立小鼠前胃癌动物模型,观察CLA对小鼠前胃癌促长阶段的抑制效果,共分5组,即色拉油阴性对照组、CLA阴性对照组、B(a)P阳性对照组、B(a)P+CLA高剂量实验组和B(a)P+CLA低剂量实验组。整个实验期为23周,检测细胞增殖、Pan-ras P21蛋白表达和氧化还原酶等指标。结果短期给予CLA对B(a)P诱导的小鼠前胃癌促长阶段具有明显的抑制作用,B(a)P阳性对照组、B(a)P+CLA高剂量实验组和B(a)P+CLA低剂量实验组的肿瘤发生率分别为100%、60%和69%。其抑癌机制与其对细胞增殖活力的抑制及对机体GSH-Px、GST和SOD酶活力的诱导作用有关,而并不依赖于对Pan-ras P21蛋白表达的调节

  5. Dietary CLA combined with palm oil or ovine fat differentially influences fatty acid deposition in tissues of obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Alves, Susana P; Alfaia, Cristina M; Castro, Matilde F; Bessa, Rui J B; Prates, José A M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation in combination with fat from vegetable versus animal origin on the fatty acid deposition, including that of individual 18:1 and 18:2 (conjugated and non-conjugated) isomers, in the liver and muscle of obese rats was investigated. For this purpose, 32 male Zucker rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing palm oil or ovine fat, supplemented or not with 1% of 1:1 cis(c)9,trans(t)11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers mixture. Total fatty acid content decreased in the liver and muscle of CLA-fed rats. In the liver, CLA increased saturated fatty acids (SFA) in 11.9% and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in 6.5%. n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) relative proportions were increased in 30.6% by CLA when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. In the muscle, CLA did not affect SFA but decreased MUFA and PUFA percentages. The estimation of Δ9-indices 16 and 18 suggested that CLA inhibited the stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity in the liver (a decrease of 13-38%), in particular when supplemented to the ovine fat diet. Concerning CLA supplementation, the t10,c12 isomer percentage was 60-80% higher in the muscle than in the liver. It is of relevance that rats fed ovine fat, containing bio-formed CLA, had more c9,t11 CLA isomer deposited in both tissues than rats fed palm oil plus synthetic CLA. These results highlight the importance to further clarify the biological effects of consuming foods naturally enriched in CLA, alternatively to CLA dietary supplementation.

  6. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patricia L; Karakach, Tobias K; Currie, Deborah L; McLeod, Roger S

    2012-01-01

    Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/-) and LDLr(-/-) mice) we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area), was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix) supplementation in both apoE(-/-) (pCLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/-) strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (pCLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  7. Studies on mechanism of cis9,trans11-CLA and trans10,cis12-CLA inducing apoptosis of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzi Wan; Xianlin Yuan; Xiangling Yang; Yichen Li; Ling Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to explore the activities of cis9,trans11-CLA (C9,t11-CLA) and trans10,cis12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA)inhibiting tumor,and investigate their relationships with PPARy and apoptotic proteins,and mechanism of anti-cancer.Methods:The inhibitory rate,cell growth curve and apoptotic morphological observation of MCF-7 cells were obtained by MTT assay,trypan blue staining and Hoechst33342 fluorescence staining.The apoptotic rate and cell cycle were detected with flow cytometry.Transcriptional level of genes was detected with RT-PCR semi-quantitative method,and Western blot was performed to detect proteins levels.Results:The two CLA isomers could reduce cell proliferation (P<0.05),increase apoptotic rate (P<0.05),and increase obviously the transcriptional and protein levels of PPARy (P<0.01).The synchronism and correlation between the effects of CLA to PPARy and apoptotic proteins Bax,Bcl-2,Caspase 3 changes were found with the dose-and time-dependent manners.There was cooperative relation between the levels of PPARy and the rates of Bax/Bcl-2,Caspase 3 (small fragment) by experiments of PPARy inhibitor GW9662 and ligand Rosiglitazone.Conclusion:The apoptotic pathway of PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 signaling was found.The C9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA could inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via activating PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 pathway.CLA may be a kind of activator of PPARy.

  8. Effect of Adding Ca-CLA on Milk Yield and Quality of Lactating Cows%共轭亚油酸钙对奶牛产奶量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞坤; 王亚宾; 王会峰; 郭爽; 韩立强

    2012-01-01

    为研究共轭亚油酸钙对奶牛乳脂肪的影响,选取16头泌乳中期的奶牛饲喂不同日粮,分为对照组(基础日粮)、共轭亚油酸钙低剂量组(基础日粮+ 50g/(头d))、中剂量组(基础日粮+100 g/(头·d))、高剂量组(基础日粮+200g/(头d)),试验共进行14 d,分析乳产量和乳成分.结果表明,日粮中添加共轭亚油酸钙对奶牛的乳产量、乳蛋白和乳糖没有影响,但极显著降低了乳脂肪含量(P<0.01).检测脂肪酸组成发现奶牛的中、短链脂肪酸(C6、C10、C12、C16)含量显著降低(P<0.05),而长链脂肪酸(C18、C18∶1)的含量显著增加(P<0.05);发现添加共轭亚油酸钙显著降低了各种脂肪酸的产量.研究结果显示,奶牛饲料中添加共轭亚油酸钙能够降低乳脂率,改变脂肪酸的组成.%To investigate the effect of Ca-CLA on the milk yield and quality,sixteen lactating cows were selected and allocated randomly into 4 treatments,basal diet plus 0 g/d(control) ,50 g/d(Low group) ,100 g/d(medium group) and 200 g/d(high group) Ca-CLA for two weeks, then the milk yield and composition was analyzed. The results showed that the milk yield,protein content and lactose content had no difference among the 4 treatments,while the milk fat content was significantly reduced in Ca-CLA supplement groups( P <0. 01) .compared with the control. The gas-liquid chromatography analysis of FAME revealed that the fatty acid composition of milk was markedly altered by Ca-CLA treatments. Adding Ca-CLA in the diet of lactating cows decreased significantly the composition of short and midium chain fatty acids( C6 ,C10,C12 and C16) ,but increased significantly the concentration of stearic (C18:0)and linoleic( C18 :2) acids in milk fat( P < 0. 05 ) . The yield of total milk fatty acid reduced significantly in the Ca-CLA supplement treatments. This suggested that the supplement of Ca-CLA in dietary resulted in the reduction of milk fat rate and the alternation of

  9. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and L-Lysine on heavy pigs performances and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric fatty acid isomers derived from linoleic acid. Dietary CLA supplementation has been shown to increase feed efficiency and may reduce body fat content in swine as recently reviewed by Corino et al., (2005. There was only one research conducted in heavy pig in which the authors did not observed any significant effect of dietary CLA on growth performances and lean tissue (Corino et al., 2003.

  10. Cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA mixture does not change body composition, induces insulin resistance and increases serum HDL cholesterol level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; de Souza, Yamara Oliveira; Dutra Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Andrade Soares, Sara Malaguti; Moura Gualberto, Ana Cristina; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Ferraz Lopes, Fernando César; González Garcia, Raúl Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 50:50 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers have been commercialized in some places for reducing body fat. However the safety of this CLA mixture is controversial and in some countries the CLA usage as food supplement is not authorized. Changes in insulinemic control and serum lipids profile are potential negative effects related to consumption of CLA mixture. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on prevention of obesity risk as well as on potential side effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: Normolipidic Control (NC), diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); High Fat-Control (HF-C), diet containing 24.0% SO; High Fat-synthetic CLA (HF-CLA), diet containing 1.5% of an isomeric CLA mixture (Luta-CLA 60) and 22.5% SO. Luta-CLA 60 (BASF) contained nearly 60% of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 50:50 ratio). The HF-CLA diet contained 0.3% of each CLA isomer. HF-CLA diet had no effect on dietary intake and body composition. HF-CLA-fed rats had lower levels of PPARγ protein in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia compared to HF-C-fed rats, hyperglycemia compared to NC-fed rats while no differences in glycemia were observed between NC and HF-C groups, increased HOMA index and higher levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Thus, feeding rats with a high fat diet containing equal parts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers had no effect on body composition and induced insulin resistance. Despite HF-CLA-fed rats had increased serum HDL cholesterol levels, caution should be taken before synthetic supplements containing cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA are recommended as a nutritional strategy for weight management.

  11. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) promotes endurance capacity via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ-mediated mechanism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2016-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with exercise training potentially improved endurance capacity via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ)-mediated mechanism in mice. This study determined the role of exercise and/or CLA in endurance capacity and PPARδ-associated regulators. Male 129Sv/J mice were fed either control (soybean oil) or CLA (0.5%) containing diets for 4 weeks and were further divided into sedentary or training regimes. CLA supplementation significantly reduced body weight and fat mass independent of exercise during the experimental period. Endurance capacity was significantly improved by CLA supplementation, while no effect of exercise was observed. Similarly, CLA treatment significantly increased expressions of sirtuin 1 and PPARγ coactivator-1α, up-stream regulators of PPARδ, in both sedentary and trained animals. With respect to downstream markers of PPARδ, CLA up-regulated the key biomarker needed to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis, nuclear respiratory factor 1. Moreover, CLA supplementation significantly induced overall genes associated with muscle fibers, such as type I (slow-twitch) and type II (fast twitch). Taken together, it suggests that CLA improves endurance capacity independent of mild-intensity exercise via PPARδ-mediated mechanism.

  12. The combination of resveratrol and CLA does not increase the delipidating effect of each molecule in 3T3-L1 adipocytes La combinación de resveratrol y CLA no incrementa el efecto hipolipemiante de cada molécula en adipocitos 3T3-L1

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    A. Lasa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and resveratrol have been shown to reduce TG content in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocyte acting on different pathways. In recent years, the method of simultaneously targeting several signal transduction pathways with multiple natural products in order to achieve additive or synergistic effects has been tested. However, the combined effect of both molecules on lipid metabolism has not been described before. Objective: The aim of the present work was to analyze the effect of the combination of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and resveratrol on TG accumulation as well as on FAS, HSL and ATGL expression in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes, in order to assess a potential interaction between both molecules. Methods: For this purpose, 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes were treated with the two molecules, both separately and combined, in 10 and 100 μM for 20 hours. TG content and FAS, ATGL and HSL expression were measured by spectrophotometry and Real Time RT-PCR respectively. Results: Both doses of CLA and 100 M resveratrol decreased TG content in mature adipocytes. The combination of both molecules reduced TG accumulation to the same extent as each one separately. No change in FAS and HSL mRNA levels after CLA and resveratrol treatment was observed. ATGL was not modified by CLA but it was increased by resveratrol and by the combination. This combination did not increase the effect caused by resveratrol on its own. Conclusion: Lipolysis increase via ATGL is involved in the TG reduction induced by resveratrol and the combination of both molecules. The combination of these two molecules does not increase the efficacy of each molecule separately in mature adipocytes and thus it does not represent an advantage for obesity treatment or prevention.Introducción: Se ha demostrado que el ácido linoleico trans-10, cis-12 conjugado (ALC y el resveratrol reducen el contenido de TG en el adipocito 3T3-L1 cultivado actuando sobre

  13. Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Patologia Sperimentale, Universita’degli Studi di Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari. Italy [S. B.]." and Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Grace Cancer Drug...initially. Among Clement Ip2,3 individuals with the highest tertile of milk intake, there was a Dipartimento di Biologia Sperimentale. Sezione di Patologia ...for the immortaliz- dysplasia or oral leukoplakia, did exhibit elevated telomerase ation phenotype in in vivo mouse mammary cell populations activity

  14. Modulation of Molecular Markers by CLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    electrophoresis on a 6% polyacrylamide gel and detected by autoradiography using Kodak X- ray films. Results and Discussion Appendix 1 contains four...floc 6.5 Corn starch 18.2 Cerelose 18.2 Casein 26.0 Vitamin mixb (vitamin E omitted) 1.30 Mineral mix’ 4.55 DL-a-tocopherol acetate (LPX diets only...used to label the PCR products. The digested products were separated by electrophoresis on a 6% polyacrylamide gel and detected by autoradiography

  15. Dietary t10,c12-CLA but not c9,t11 CLA reduces adipocyte size in the absence of changes in the adipose renin-angiotensin system in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeClercq, Vanessa; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2010-11-01

    In obesity, increased activity of the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and enlarged adipocytes with altered adipokine production are linked to the development of obesity-related health problems and cardiovascular disease. Mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been shown to reduce adipocyte size and alter the production of adipokines. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding individual CLA isomers on adipocyte size and adipokines associated with the local adipose RAS. Male fa/fa Zucker rats received either (a) control, (b) cis(c)9,trans(t)11-CLA, or (c) t10,c12-CLA diet for 8 weeks. The t10,c12-CLA isomer reduced adipocyte size and increased cell number in epididymal adipose tissue. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that neither CLA isomer altered mRNA or protein levels of angiotensinogen or AngII receptors in adipose tissue. Likewise, levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 or the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were unchanged in adipose tissue. Similarly, neither CLA isomer had any effect on phosphorylation nor DNA binding of NF-κB. Our results suggest that although the t10,c12-CLA isomer had beneficial effects on reducing adipocyte size in obese rats, this did not translate into changes in the local adipose RAS or associated adipokines.

  16. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

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    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  17. Chemische Zusammensetzung und sensorisches Profil von UFA/CLA angereicherter Butter im Vergleich zu konventioneller Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, S.; Piccinali, P.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a growing demand by consumers for foods combining an increased nutritional value and benefits on human health. Butter enriched in unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) could become a food with added value for its increased content in essential fatty acids, in vitamins and CLA, which has been reported to show potential anticarcinogenic and cholesterol lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composit...

  18. [Evaluation of the possibilities to increase the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat and meat product].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Anna; Swiader, Katarzyna; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bozena; Swiderski, Franciszek

    2012-01-01

    The paper characterizes pro-health properties of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and assesses the possibility of increasing their content in pork and pork meat products. Studies conducted on animals indicate antitumor, antiatherosclerotic and antiinflammatory effect ofCLA, also find impact on reducing body fat and increasing muscle growth. However, the number of observations concerning human populations is insufficient to fully evaluate the relationship between CLA intake and reducing the risk of lifestyle diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct further research. Literature data indicate that the use in pigs feed suplementation with CLA preparations, can increase the content of these compounds in the meat and also show, that isomer cis-9, trans-11 is accumulated at significantly higher level. However, these changes were accompanied by increased the share of saturated fatty acids at the expense of monounsaturated which is unfavorable for human health. A better way to increase the CLA content in pork meat appears to be the addition of CLA preparation during the production process, because it does not affect the level of saturated fats. Pork and pork meat products enriched in CLA are characterized by low susceptibility to oxidation, which may result from the coupling of double bonds, antioxidantive properties of conjugated linoleic acid and the increased content of saturated fatty acids. The issue of beneficial effects on human health of pork and pork products with a higher content of CLA, requires further studies conducted on humans. Only then these products can be classified as a functional foods.

  19. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Catanese, Patrizia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Rizzuto, Luigi; Marozzi, Paola; Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Stampone, Tomaso; Cappello, Francesco; Morici, Giuseppe; Zummo, Giovanni; Farina, Felicia; Di Felice, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C) supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  20. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  1. Impacts of CLA and dietary concentrate proportion on blood metabolite concentration and proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, M; Meyer, U; Kersten, S; Spilke, J; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to examine effects of supplemented CLA to periparturient dairy cows receiving different concentrate proportions antepartum (a.p.) to investigate CLA effects on metabolism and immune function. Compared with adapted feeding, high-concentrate diet a.p. should induce a ketogenic metabolic situation postpartum (p.p.) to better understand how CLA works. A total of 64 pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations based on concentrate and roughage 3 weeks before calving until day 60 p.p. A.p., cows received 100 g/day control fat (CON) or a CLA supplement, either in a low-concentrate (20%, CON-20, CLA-20) or high-concentrate diet (60%, CON-60, CLA-60). P.p., concentrate proportion was adjusted to 50% while fat supplementation continued. After day 32 p.p., half of the animals of CLA-groups changed to CON supplementation (CLA-20-CON, CLA-60-CON). A ketogenic metabolic state p.p. was not achieved and respective impacts of CLA could not be examined. Blood samples for isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected on day -21, 7, 28 and 56 relative to calving. Blood chemistry samples were taken over the entire experimental period. Mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC remained unaffected. Besides serum concentrations of triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and IGF-1, clinical-chemical serum characteristics remained uninfluenced by treatments. No post-supplementation effect could be observed. Measured blood metabolites and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC indicate that all groups had an increased metabolic stress around calving, whereby group CLA-20 was affected more severely. Overall, supplemented CLA did not positively affect metabolism or immune function of periparturient dairy cows. However, feeding CLA in a low-concentrate diet a.p. seems to increase liver stress around calving via reduced DMI.

  2. Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, fails to attenuate CLA-induced milk fat depression and hepatic lipid accumulation in lactating mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Diwakar; Teter, Beverly B; Delmonte, Pierluigi; Erdman, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the combination of rosiglitazone (ROSI) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on mammary and hepatic lipogenesis in lactating C57Bl/6 J mice. Twenty-four lactating mice were randomly assigned to one of four treatments applied from postpartum day 6 to day 10. Treatments included: (1) control diet, (2) control plus 1.5 % dietary CLA (CLA) substituted for soybean oil, (3) control plus daily intra-peritoneal (IP) rosiglitazone injections (10 mg/kg body weight) (ROSI), and (4) CLA plus ROSI (CLA-ROSI). Dam food intake and milk fat concentration were depressed with CLA. However, no effects were observed with ROSI. The CLA-induced milk fat depression was due to reduced expression for mammary lipogenic genes involved in de-novo fatty acid (FA) synthesis, FA uptake and desaturation, and triacyglycerol synthesis. Liver weight (g/100 g body weight) was increased by CLA due to an increase in lipid accumulation triggering a compensatory reduction in mRNA abundance of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase I and stearoyl-CoA desaturase I. On the contrary, no effects were observed with ROSI on hepatic and mammary lipogenic gene and enzyme expression. Overall, feeding CLA to lactating mice induced milk fat depression and increased hepatic lipid accumulation, probably due to the presence of trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomer, while ROSI failed to significantly attenuate both hepatic steatosis and reduction in milk fat content.

  3. 10e12z CLA alters adipocyte differentiation and adipocyte cytokine expression and induces macrophage proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Eser, Pinar O; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-05-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 (10e12z) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer of CLA is responsible for loss of lipid storage or adipose tissue in vitro or in vivo. This isomer also induces inflammatory signaling in both mouse and human adipocytes in vitro. However, when these events occur and whether they are significant enough to affect other cell types are unclear. In these experiments, the 3T3-L1 cell line has been used to examine the interaction between inflammatory signaling and decreased differentiation or lipid storage induced by 10e12z CLA. In assays measuring both lipid accumulation and gene expression, differentiating 3T3-L1 cells exhibit concurrent induction of inflammatory signaling, as measured by cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and a decrease in adipocyte marker gene expression. Furthermore, in fully differentiated adipocytes, as identified in microarray assays and confirmed with real-time polymerase chain reaction, 10e12z CLA also significantly affected expression of both matrix metalloprotein-3 (MMP-3), collagen VI α 3 ColVI alpha 3 (VIα3) and the cytokine epiregulin, demonstrating that the effects of 10e12z broadly impact adipocyte function. In agreement with other experimental systems, 10e12z CLA inhibited RAW 264.7 cell proliferation; however, in response to adipocyte-conditioned media, 10e12z-CLA-treated adipocytes induced proliferation of this cell line, suggesting that the effect of 10e12z CLA is context dependent. These results are largely consistent with the known activation of the inflammatory mediator nuclear factor-κB in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo by 10e12z CLA treatment and demonstrate that adipose is an important target tissue of this isomer that impacts other cell types.

  4. The combination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and extra virgin olive oil increases mitochondrial and body metabolism and prevents CLA-associated insulin resistance and liver hypertrophy in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Flávia G; Vicentini, Tatiane M; Teodoro, Bruno G; Dalalio, Felipe M; Dechandt, Carlos R P; Prado, Ieda M R; Curti, Carlos; Cardoso, Fernanda C; Uyemura, Sergio A; Alberici, Luciane C

    2016-02-01

    Clinical conditions associated with obesity can be improved by daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Here we investigated whether dietary supplementation with CLA and EVOO, either alone or in combination, changes body metabolism associated with mitochondrial energetics. Male C57Bl/6 mice were divided into one of four groups: CLA (1:1 cis-9, trans-11:trans-10, cis-12; 18:2 isomers), EVOO, CLA plus EVOO or control (linoleic acid). Each mouse received 3 g/kg body weight of the stated oil by gavage on alternating days for 60 days. Dietary supplementation with CLA, alone or in combination with EVOO: (a) reduced the white adipose tissue gain; (b) increased body VO2 consumption, VCO2 production and energy expenditure; (c) elevated uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 expression and UCP activity in isolated liver mitochondria. This organelle, when energized with NAD(+)-linked substrates, produced high amounts of H2O2 without inducing oxidative damage. Dietary supplementation with EVOO alone did not change any metabolic parameter, but supplementation with CLA itself promoted insulin resistance and elevated weight, lipid content and acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 expression in liver. Interestingly, the in vivo antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine abolished the CLA-induced rise of body metabolism and liver UCP expression and activity, while the in vitro antioxidant treatment with catalase mitigated the CLA-dependent UCP-2 expression in hepatocytes; these findings suggest the participation of an oxidative-dependent pathway. Therefore, this study clarifies the mechanisms by which CLA induces liver UCP expression and activity, and demonstrates for the first time the beneficial effects of combined CLA and EVOO supplementation.

  5. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohme-Meier, F; Bee, G

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experimental period (EP). The supplements contained either 1.0 kg ground sunflower seeds (S), 0.5 kg conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-oil (C) or 0.75 kg of a mixture of ground sunflower seeds and CLA-oil (2:1; SC). All 3 supplements contained the same amount of 18:2 either as CLA (∑18:2c9t11+18:2t10c12, 1:1) or as 18:2c9c12. During the last 2 d of AP and the last 4 d of EP feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily and milk samples were collected at each milking. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d 11 of AP and d 15 and 18 of EP. The 18:2 intake increased in all treatments from AP to EP. Regardless of the amount of supplemented CLA, the milk fat percentage decreased by 2.35 and 2.10%-units in treatment C and SC, respectively, whereas in the treatment S the decrease was with 0.99%-unit less pronounced. Thus, C and SC cows excreted daily a lower amount of milk fat than S cows. The concentration of trans 18:1 in the plasma and the milk increased from AP to EP and increased with increasing dietary CLA supply. While the concentration of 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 in the plasma and that of 18:2t10c12 in the milk paralleled dietary supply, the level of 18:2c9t11 in the milk was similar in C and CS but still lower in S. Although the dietary concentration of CLA was highest in treatment C, the partial replacement of CLA by sunflower seeds had a similar inhibitory effect on milk fat synthesis. Comparable 18:2c9t11 levels in the milk in both CLA treatments implies that

  6. t-10, c-12 CLA dietary supplementation inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development despite adverse cardiovascular and hepatic metabolic marker profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Mitchell

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have indicated that fatty acids such as the conjugated linoleic acids (CLA found in milk could potentially alter the risk of developing metabolic disorders including diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Using susceptible rodent models (apoE(-/- and LDLr(-/- mice we investigated the interrelationship between mouse strain, dietary conjugated linoleic acids and metabolic markers of CVD. Despite an adverse metabolic risk profile, atherosclerosis (measured directly by lesion area, was significantly reduced with t-10, c-12 CLA and mixed isomer CLA (Mix supplementation in both apoE(-/- (p<0.05, n = 11 and LDLr(-/- mice (p<0.01, n = 10. Principal component analysis was utilized to delineate the influence of multiple plasma and tissue metabolites on the development of atherosclerosis. Group clustering by dietary supplementation was evident, with the t-10, c-12 CLA supplemented animals having distinct patterns, suggestive of hepatic insulin resistance, regardless of mouse strain. The effect of CLA supplementation on hepatic lipid and fatty acid composition was explored in the LDLr(-/- strain. Dietary supplementation with t-10, c-12 CLA significantly increased liver weight (p<0.05, n = 10, triglyceride (p<0.01, n = 10 and cholesterol ester content (p<0.01, n = 10. Furthermore, t-10, c-12 CLA also increased the ratio of 18∶1 to 18∶0 fatty acid in the liver suggesting an increase in the activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Changes in plasma adiponectin and liver weight with t-10, c-12 CLA supplementation were evident within 3 weeks of initiation of the diet. These observations provide evidence that the individual CLA isomers have divergent mechanisms of action and that t-10, c-12 CLA rapidly changes plasma and liver markers of metabolic syndrome, despite evidence of reduction in atherosclerosis.

  7. CLA ¿antioxidante o prooxidante?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Pardos, S.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a term referred to a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with double conjugated bonds in carbon atoms 10 and 12 or 9 and 11 with all of the possible cis and trans combinations. CLA is a naturally occurring substance in food. The major dietary sources of CLA are foods derived from ruminants, e.g. beef and cheese and its content increases when meals are processed. There is ample evidence showing that free radicals and oxidation processes mediated by free radicals play an important role in many pathological situations including cancer and atherosclerosis. Natural and synthetic antioxidants, tolerated by humans, are employed in order to avoid or treat these pathologies. In the present paper, articles evaluating the antioxidant or prooxidant activity of CLA have been revised. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro studies suggested the antioxidant role for CLA, however recent researches have not shown any evidence related to it. New studies have to be carried out in order to get more information on the antioxidant and protective role of CLA in free radical-related degenerative diseases.Se define como conjugado dienoico derivado del ácido linoleico (CLA a una mezcla de isómeros posicionales y geométricos del ácido linoleico con dobles enlaces conjugados en los átomos de carbono 10 y 12 ó 9 y 11 con todas las posibles combinaciones cis y trans. El CLA se encuentra de forma natural en los alimentos, principalmente de origen animal y en particular en las carnes y productos lácteos de rumiantes, y su contenido aumenta por el cocinado o procesado. Actualmente se acepta que los radicales libres y los procesos de oxidación mediados por los mismos juegan un papel importante en muchas situaciones patológicas incluyendo cáncer y aterosclerosis. Por ello la búsqueda de antioxidantes naturales y sintéticos, tolerados por el organismo, que puedan ayudar a prevenir o tratar estas patologías es

  8. Increase of Clavulanic acid production by using recombinant Streptomyces clavuligerus strain including claR gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Clavulanic acid is a major β-lactam antibiotic which is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus. Clavulanic acid is used in combination of strong but sensitive to β-lactamase antibiotics. The claR gene has an important role in regulation of clavulanic acid production and is needed for the expression of the genes in final step of clavulanic acid biosynthesis.   Materials and methods: The recombinant construct pMTclaR which contains claR gene is obtained from Isfahan University and plasmid extraction was done from Streptomyces lividans for next steps. The Streptomyces clavuligerus protoplast was prepared and transformation was done by using polyethylene glycol. Transformation was confirmed by plasmid extraction and PCR. Finally, bioassay method was used to survey the effect of extra copy of claR on clavulanic acid production .   Results : The typical chalky white colony of Streptomyces clavuligerus was seen on GYME plates containing thiostrepton antibiotic. Plasmid extraction was initially carried out. Furthermore, PCR reaction was done by claR specific primers and the 1334 bp band which was belonging to claR was detected. Finally, the bioassay was done and the diameters of zone of inhibition in control and sample were compared. The results of the bioassay show that amplification of the claR gene in multicopy plasmids resulted in a 2.5 fold increase in clavulanic acid production .   Discussion and conclusion : In this study the 3.3 fold increase in clavulanic acid production was obtained by using an expression vector containing claR. According to the clinical use of clavulanic acid, production of bacterial strains which are able to produce high level of antibiotic can help significantly in customization of antibiotic production.

  9. Hepatic lipid characteristics and histopathology of laying hens fed CLA or n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Gita; Goeger, Mary P

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary CLA and n-3 PUFA on hepatic TAG accumulation, histopathology, and FA incorporation in lipid classes by laying chickens was investigated. One hundred twenty 30-wk-old single comb white leghorn laying hens were distributed randomly to four treatments (3 replications of 10 birds) and were fed diets containing CLA and animal fat (Diet I), 18:3n-3 (Diet II), or long-chain n-3 FA (Diet III). A sunflower oil (n-6 FA)-based diet vvas the control. Feeding Diet I resulted in an increase in hepatic total lipids (P < 0.05). The liver TAG content was 32.2, 18.9, 29.4, and 18.7 mg/g for hens fed Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and the control diet, respectively (P< 0.05). The serum TAG was lowest in birds fed Diet II (P < 0.05). Diet I resulted in an increase in the total number of fat vacuoles and lipid infiltration in hepatocytes (P < 0.05). The number of cells with 75% or higher lipid vacuolation was observed only in birds fed Diet I. Feeding diets containing CLA resulted in an increase in the content of the c9,t11 CLA isomer in liver TAG and PC (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the CLA concentration of hepatic PE fractions. The content of DHA (22:6n-3) was higher in the TAG, PC, and PE of hens fed Diet II and Diet III than Diet I and the control (P < 0.05). Feeding CLA resulted in an increase in total saturated FA in the TAG and PC fractions (P < 0.05). Long-term feeding of CLA in laying birds leads to an increase in liver TAG and may predispose birds to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome.

  10. Influence of different CLA isomers on insulin resistance and adipocytokines in pre-diabetic, middle-aged men with PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Diana; Herrmann, Julia; Much, Daniela; Pfeuffer, Maria; Laue, C; Winkler, P; Helwig, Ulf; Bell, Doris; Auinger, Annegret; Darabaneanu, Stephanie; Ruether, Andreas; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are natural PPARγ ligands, which showed conflicting effects on metabolism in humans. We examined metabolic effects of different isomers of CLA in subjects with PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphisms. A total of 35 men underwent four intervention periods in a crossover study design: subjects with either genotypes received c9, t11 CLA or t10, c12 CLA, a commercially available 1:1 mix of both isomers or reference oil (linoleic acid (LA)). Adipocytokines, insulin, glucose and triglycerides were assessed in the fasting state and after a standardized mixed meal. Across all genotypes, there was a significant (p = 0.025) CLA treatment effect upon postprandial (pp) HOMA-IR values, with c9, t11 CLA and CLA isomer mix improving, but t10, c12 CLA isomer worsening. In Ala12Ala subjects, the t10, c12 isomer caused weight gain (p = 0.03) and tended to increase postprandial insulin levels (p = 0.05). In Pro12Pro subjects, t10, c12 resulted in reduction in waist circumference (p = 0.03). The comparison of the different genotype groups revealed statistically different changes in fasting and postprandial insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin after intervention. c9, t11 CLA and the commercial CLA mix showed beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity compared with LA, while t10, c12 CLA adversely affects body weight and insulin sensitivity in different PPAR genotypes. CLA isomers have different effects on metabolism in Ala and Pro carriers.

  11. Frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep slaughtered in an abattoir in Tabriz: comparison of bacterial culture and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Khoojine, Amir Babak Sioofy; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Hassanzadeh, Belal; Heydari, Ali Akbar

    2012-10-01

    From January to February 2008, 468 sheep carcasses (335 male and 133 female) in a Khosroshahr (suburb of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran) abattoir were randomly selected for inspection. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and to compare the results of bacterial cultures and histopathology of suspected cases. The mean age of the population was 2.5 years. One hundred ninety-seven cases containing 153 (77.7%) males and 44 (22.3%) females had prominent enlargement of one of the lymph nodes (i.e., prescapular, prefemoral, inguinal, supramammary, or midiastinal); these were removed with the surrounding tissue for further evaluation. For confirmed diagnosis of CLA, samples were sent for microbiology and pathology analysis. Standard bacteriological culture methods for isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and tissue preparations for histopathological sections were performed. To evaluate the effect of age on the frequency of CLA, animals were categorized in four groups: under 1, 1-2, 2-3, and over 3 years of age. Based on the results, in 59 (12.60%) carcasses C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated, and in 94 (20.08%) of the cases histopathological studies revealed pathognomonic signs (lamellated exudates or onion ring) of CLA. The frequency of CLA based on bacteriological culture was 12.60% and on histopathological study 20.08%. In 37 (18.8%) of the carcasses, both bacteriological and histopathological studies confirmed CLA. The frequency of CLA following microscopic examination (20.08%) presented a more precise diagnosis compared to bacteriological culture (12.60%) and macroscopic evaluation of the lymph nodes (P CLA detection with increasing age (P CLA test were 2.92 years and in the oldest age group 31 (47%) cases had the highest infection.

  12. CLA reduces inflammatory mediators from A427 human lung cancer cells and A427 conditioned medium promotes differentiation of C2C12 murine muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oraldi, Manuela; Maggiora, Marina; Paiuzzi, Elena; Canuto, Rosa A; Muzio, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is thought to have anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on cancer cachexia is unknown. Two effects were here investigated: that of CLA on inflammatory mediator production in human lung cancer cells, and that of reduced mediators on the myogenic differentiation of murine muscle C2C12 cells. The latter cells were grown in medium conditioned by human lung cancer A427 cells, with or without CLA, to mimic only the effect of molecules released from the tumor "in vivo", excluding the effect of host-produced cachectic factors. The results obtained show that CLA was found to reduce the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), but had no effect on IL-6 production. The mechanisms underlying the effect of CLA on cytokine or PGE2 release in A427 cells are probably mediated by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, which increased at 24 h CLA treatment. In turn, the reduced content of inflammatory mediators in medium conditioned by A427 cells, in the presence of CLA, allowed muscle cells to proliferate, again by inducing PPAR. The involvement of PPARα was demonstrated by treatment with the antagonist MK-886. The findings demonstrate the anti-inflammatory and myogenic action of CLA and point to its possible application as a novel dietary supplement and therapeutic agent in inflammatory disease states, such as cachexia.

  13. Production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) by Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 and its compatibility with CLA-producing rumen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hui Gyu; Heo, Wan; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyun Seop; Bae, Gui Seck; Chung, Soo Hyun; Seo, Ho-Chan; Kim, Young Jun

    2011-02-09

    This study was performed to characterize the ability of an active Bifidobacterium strain to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and to test its possible utilization as a probiotic compatible to the ruminal condition. Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 can actively convert linoleic acid (LA) to cis-9,trans-11-CLA, which is a major isomer derived from microbial conversion. LMC520 showed reasonable tolerance under acidic conditions (pH 2.5 with 1% pepsin) and in the presence of oxgall (0-3%). The growth and CLA production of LMC520 were tested under ruminal conditions and compared with those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38, which is a major CLA producer in the rumen as an intermediate in the biohydrogenation (BH) process. LMC520 converted 15% of LA to CLA under ruminal conditions, which was 2 times higher activity than that of A38, and there was no decline in CLA level during prolonged incubation of 48 h. The BH activity of LMC520 was comparable to that of A38. When LMC520 was cocultured with A38, even with slight decrease of CLA due to high BH activity by A38, but the level of CLA was maintained by the high CLA-producing activity of LMC520. This comparative study shows the potential of this strain to be applied as a functional probiotic not only for humans but also for ruminants as well as to increase CLA production.

  14. Induction of apoptosis by c9, t11-CLA in human endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells via ERα-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihui; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Liu, Jing; Ye, Shuhong; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Hongzhou; Wang, Han

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) can inhibit cancer cells growth and induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of CLA, including cis9, trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA) and trans10, cis12-conjugated linoleic acid (t10, c12-CLA), on apoptosis of human endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells and its related mechanisms. The MTT analysis was used to evaluate the effect of CLA isomers on the viability of endometrial cancer RL 95-2 cells. We then estimated the apoptosis by Morphological observation and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and flow cytometry. We also used Western blot analysis to assess the expression of caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2 proteins and the activation of Akt/p-Akt and ERα/p-ERα. Propylpyrazole-triol (PPT), a selective ERα agonist was used to confirm the induction of apoptosis by c9, t11 CLA may relate to ERα-mediated pathway. In CLA-treated RL 95-2 cells, we found that c9, t11-CLA inhibited viability and trigged apoptosis, as judged from nuclear morphology and flow cytometric analysis. The expression of caspase-3 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 were significant increased, but no obvious change was observed about Akt and p-Akt in c9, t11-CLA-treated cells. However, the expression of total ERα level in RL 95-2 cells-treated with c9, t11-CLA was unchanged, while in the concentration of 80 mM, c9, t11-CLA down-regulated the protein expression level of p-ERα. Then PPT has the antagonistic action on growth inhibitory effect in RL 95-2 cells incubated with c9, t11-CLA. This study demonstrated that c9, t11- CLA could induce apoptosis in RL 95-2 cells, and may involve in ERα-mediated pathway. These results indicated that c9, t11- CLA could induce apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells and may be potential agents for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  15. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich potato chips by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Castrodale, Chelsey L; Proctor, Andrew

    2011-03-23

    A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich soy oil has been produced by photoisomerization of soy oil linoleic acid. Nutritional studies have shown that CLA possesses health benefits in terms of reducing certain heart disease and diabetes risk factors. Potato chips are snacks that are readily produced in the CLA-rich soy oil containing CLA levels similar to those of the oil used for frying. The objective of this study was to develop an FTIR method to rapidly determine the CLA content of oil in potato chips. Photoirradiated soy oil samples with ∼25% total CLA were mixed with control soy oil, and 100 soy oil samples with total CLA levels ranging from 0.89 to 24.4% were made. Potato chips were fried using each of these 300 g CLA rich soy oil mixtures at 175 °C for approximately 3 min. Duplicate GC-FID fatty acid analyses were conducted on oil extracted from each batch of potato chips. The chip samples were ground and then scanned using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with the aid of a high-pressure clamp, and duplicate spectra of each sample were averaged to obtain an average spectrum. Calibration models were developed using PLS regression analysis. These correlated the CLA isomer concentrations of potato chips obtained by GC-FID fatty acid analysis with their corresponding FTIR spectral features. The calibration models were fully cross validated and tested using samples that were not used in the calibration sample set. Calibrations for total CLA, trans,trans CLA, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA, cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had coefficients of determinations (R2v) between 0.91 and 0.96 and corresponding root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) ranging from 0.005 to 1.44. The ATR-FTIR technique showed potential as a method for the determination of the CLA levels in unknown potato chip samples.

  16. Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) interferes with lipid droplet accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Tworek, Leslee; Poole, Jenna; Zahradka, Peter

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we hypothesize that the biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA, have different effects on early and late stages 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Both c9-t11 and t10-c12CLA stimulated early stage pre-adipocyte differentiation (day 2), while t10-c12CLA inhibited late differentiation (day 8) as determined by lipid droplet numbers and both perilipin-1 levels and phosphorylation state. At day 8, the adipokines adiponectin, chemerin and adipsin were all reduced in t10-c12CLA treated cells versus control cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed perilipin-1 was present solely on lipid droplets on day 8 in t10-c12 treated 3T3-L1 cells, whereas preilipin-1 was also located in the perinuclear region in control and c9-t11 treated cells. The t10-c12CLA isomer also decreased levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and inhibited lipolysis. These findings indicate that the decrease in lipid droplets caused by t10-c12CLA is the result of an inhibition of lipid droplet production during adipogenesis rather than a stimulation of lipolysis. Additionally, treatment with Gö6976 blocked the effect of t10-c12CLA on perilipin-1 phosphorylation, implicating PKCα in perilipin-1 phosphorylation, and thus a regulator of triglyceride catabolism. These data are supported by evidence that t10-c12CLA activated PKCα. These are the first data to show that CLA isomers can affect lipid droplet dynamics in adipocytes through PKCα.

  17. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARγ signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov; Morrison, Ron F.; Storkson, Jayne; Lea-Currie, Renee; Pariza, Michael; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adiopcytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA de...

  18. Catalyst for Change: The CIC/CLA Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, David C.

    2011-01-01

    From the fall of 2008 through the spring of 2011, 47 colleges and universities, organized and supported by the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), administered the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) to their students. The CLA is a test of critical thinking, analytic reasoning, problem solving, and written communication developed by the…

  19. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on fungal delta6-desaturase activity in a transformed yeast system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, L T; Thurmond, J M; Liu, J W; Kirchner, S J; Mukerji, P; Bray, T M; Huang, Y S

    2001-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2), a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), has been shown to modulate immune function through its effect on eicosanoid synthesis. This effect has been attributed to a reduced production of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), the precursor of eicosanoids. Since delta6-desaturase is the rate-limiting enzyme of the n-6 PUFA production, it is our hypothesis that CLA, which has similar chemical structure to LA, interacts directly with delta6-desaturase. A unique and simple model, i.e., baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) transformed with fungal delta6-desaturase gene, previously established, was used to investigate the direct effect of CLA on delta6-desaturase. This model allows LA to be converted to y-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6) but not GLA to its metabolite(s). No metabolites of CLA were found in the lipids of the yeast transformed with delta6-desaturase. The inability to convert CLA to conjugated GLA was not due to the failure of yeast cells to take up the CLA isomers. CLA mixture and individual isomers significantly inhibited the activity of delta6-desaturase of the transformed yeast in vivo. Even though its uptake by the yeast was low, CLA c9,t11 isomer was found to be the most potent inhibitor of the four isomers tested, owing to its high inhibitory effect on delta6-desaturase. Since CLA did not cause significant changes in the level of delta6-desaturase mRNA, the inhibition of GLA production could not be attributed to suppression of delta6-desaturase gene expression at the transcriptional level.

  20. Effects of two supplementation levels of linseed combined with CLA or tallow on meat quality traits and fatty acid profile of adipose and different muscle tissues in slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, G; Jacot, S; Guex, G; Biolley, C

    2008-05-01

    Dietary linseed supply efficiently elevates the linolenic acid concentration of pork. The main problem of increasing the n-3 fatty acid tissue levels arises from a higher susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Increasing the saturation level of tissue lipids by the dietary inclusion of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) or tallow might prevent oxidation. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of dietary CLA or tallow supplementation combined with extruded linseed on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of muscles (longissimus, semimembranosus, biceps femoris) and subcutaneous fat (SF). The enzyme activity of the de novo lipogenesis and stearoyl-CoA desaturase in the SF was also assessed. From 18 to 104 kg BW, 32 Swiss Large White barrows were fed a diet supplemented with either: (1) 2% linseed (L2); (2) 3% linseed (L3); (3) 2% linseed + 1% CLA (L2-C) or (4) 2% linseed + 1% tallow (L2-T). The linolenic and eicosatrienoic acid concentrations were higher (P 0.05) affected by the dietary fats, whereas Δ9-desaturase activity was depressed (P tallow, combined with extruded linseed enhanced the oxidative stability of pork probably by lowering the degree of unsaturation of the lipids without affecting the improved ∑n-6/∑n-3 ratio.

  1. Improved stability and controlled release of CLA with spray-dried microcapsules of OSA-modified starch and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huizi; Hong, Yan; Gu, Zhengbiao; Liu, Guodong; Cheng, Li; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-08-20

    The objective of this investigation was to improve the stability of CLA and to allow for its controlled release by encapsulating it with combinations of octenyl-succinic anhydride (OSA) starch and xanthan gum (XG) in three ratios (OSA/XG: 60/1, 80/1, and 100/1, w/w). The wall material was examined using FTIR and TGA. The microcapsules were characterized by laser particle size analysis (LPS) and SEM. Oxidation of the microcapsules was monitored by headspace method. The results revealed that microcapsules created with an OSA/XG ratio of 60/1 provided superior protection to CLA against oxidation. When CLA-microcapsules were subjected to conditions simulating those in the human gastrointestinal system, 12.1%-50.1% of the CLA was released. CLA encapsulation in spray-dried microcapsules of OSA/XG appears to be an effective technique that provides good protection against oxidation and could be useful in the targeted delivery of functional lipids or other bioactive components to the small intestine.

  2. Grazing increases the concentration of CLA in dairy cow milka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, M N; Kanneganti, R; Massingill, L J; Broderick, G A; Park, Y; Pariza, M W; Ferguson, J D; Wu, Z

    2014-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine whether increased CLA in milk of dairy cows fed fresh pasture compared with alfalfa and corn silages was because of ruminal or endogenous synthesis. Eight Holsteins were fed a total mixed ration using alfalfa and corn silages as the forage source in confinement or grazed in a replicated crossover design. The proportion of total fatty acids as CLA (primarily c9, t11-18:2) in g/100 g was 0.44 v. 0.28 in ruminal digesta, 0.89 v. 0.53 in omasal digesta and 0.71 v. 1.06 in milk during confinement feeding and grazing, respectively. Blood plasma CLA was 0.54 v. 1.05 mg/l for the two treatments, respectively. The increased concentration of CLA in milk with grazing likely resulted from increased synthesis through desaturation of t11-18:1 in the mammary gland.

  3. Trans-10,cis-12-CLA-caused lipodystrophy is associated with profound changes of fatty acid profiles of liver, white adipose tissue and erythrocytes in mice: possible link to tissue-specific alterations of fatty acid desaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudszus, Anke; Moeckel, Peter; Hamelmann, Eckard; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce body fat mass. To investigate the effects of individual CLA isomers on the fatty acid profiles of lipogenic (liver and white adipose) and lipid sensitive (erythrocyte) tissues, BALB/c mice were fed with 1 of 2 diets supplemented with either a c9,t11-CLA-enriched and t10,c12-CLA-free or a CLA-mixture containing both isomers in equal amounts (1% w/w of the diet) for 5 weeks. A control group was fed with a diet enriched in sunflower oil to energy balance the CLA. Compared to the t10,c12-CLA-free and the control diets, we observed a significant reduction of adipose tissue accompanied by fatty livers in the CLA-mix-fed group. These alterations in body fat distribution entailed a conspicuous shift of the fatty acid profiles of adipose tissue and livers. Liver enlargement was mainly caused by accumulation of C18 monoenes that accounted for 67 ± 1% of total fatty acid methyl esters. The significant reduction of the 18:0/18:1 desaturation index in the liver upon CLA-mix diet indicated high stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity. In contrast, reduction in white adipose tissue was largely driven by percental reduction of monounsaturated fatty acids (p ≤ 0.001). 16:0/ 16:1 and 18:0/18:1 desaturation indices for white adipose tissue significantly increased, suggesting an inhibition of stearoyl-CoA desaturase upon CLA-mix diet. The fatty acid profile of the erythrocytes widely reflected that of livers, depending on the supplemented diet. These profound changes in fatty acid composition of lipogenic organs due to t10,c12-CLA intake may be the consequence of functional alterations of lipid metabolism.

  4. A Multicentre Study of CLa Implant and Sino-implant Expanded Application (two-year follow-up)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方可娟; 关艳敏; 范慧民; 高尔生; 杨丹; 薜丽; 韩耀玲; 刘宝

    1997-01-01

    A multicentre comparative clinical study of CLa implant and Sino-implant was carried out at 100 subcentres in 11 provinces, and a total of 19673 subjects were recruited. Two year follow up has been finished. The follow-up rate at the end of two years was 94,29%. Two-year cumulative continuation rate per 100 women for Sino-implant(89.93) was significantly higher than that for CLa implant (88.89). Two-year cumulative pregnancy rates per 100 women were 0.0462(CLa implant) and 0.281(Sino-implant) respectively; there was statistically significant difference between them. No ectopic pregnancy was recorded among CLa implant users and three ectopic pregnancies were reported among Sino implant users,resulting in an ectopic pregnancy rate of 0.163 per 1000 women years. The incidence of side-effects appeared to diminish with time. The major side effects were the menstrual disturbances, which accounted for more than 90% of the total sideeffects, and the incidence of frequent menstruation, irregular bleeding and spotring was higher than that of infrequentjscanty menstruation and amenorrhea. Use of CLa implant had higher incidence of amenorrhea and infrequentjscanty menstruation than that of Sin-imptant. During two-year follow-up, the number of discontinuation due to menstrual problems contributed 78% of the total number of discontinuation; two year menstrual-related cumulative discontinuation rates were 8.96 per 100 women for CLa implant and 7.84 for Sino-implant; there was statistically significant difference(P< 0.01). Two-year study shows that the two types of implant are similar to Norplant in the incidence of side-effects and contraceptive efficacy as well as two year continuation rates.

  5. The dietary fatty acid 10E12Z-CLA induces epiregulin expression through COX-2 dependent PGF(2α) synthesis in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Benjamin J; Thompson, Jerry T; Sinha, Raghu; Prabhu, K Sandeep; Vanden Heuvel, John P

    2012-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are a group of dietary fatty acids that are widely marketed as weight loss supplements. The isomer responsible for this effect is the trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10E12Z-CLA) isomer. 10E12Z-CLA treatment during differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes induces expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (Cyclooxygenase-2; COX-2). This work demonstrates that COX-2 is also induced in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes after a single treatment of 10E12Z-CLA at both the mRNA (20-40 fold) and protein level (7 fold). Furthermore, prostaglandin (PG)F(2α), but not PGE(2), is significantly increased 10 fold. In female BALB/c mice fed 0.5% 10E12Z-CLA for 10 days, COX-2 was induced in uterine adipose (2 fold). In vitro, pharmacological COX-2 inhibition did not block the effect of 10E12Z-CLA on adipocyte-specific gene expression although PGF(2α) was dose-dependently decreased. These studies demonstrate that PGF(2α) was not by itself responsible for the reduction in adipocyte character due to 10E12Z-CLA treatment. However, PGF(2α), either exogenously or endogenously in response to 10E12Z-CLA, increased the expression of the potent mitogen and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) ligand epiregulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Blocking PGF(2α) signaling with the PGF(2α) receptor (FP) antagonist AL-8810 returned epiregulin mRNA levels back to baseline. Although this pathway is not directly responsible for adipocyte dependent gene expression, these results suggest that this signaling pathway may still have broad effect on the adipocyte and surrounding cells.

  6. Individual CLA Isomers, c9t11 and t10c12, Prevent Excess Liver Glycogen Storage and Inhibit Lipogenic Genes Expression Induced by High-Fructose Diet in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslak, Edyta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Szumny, Antoni; Szczepnski, Wojciech; Franczyk-Zarow, Magdalena; Kopec, Aneta; Chlopicki, Stefan; Leszczynska, Teresa; Kostogrys, Renata B

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of individual conjugated linoleic acid isomers, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA, on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and systemic endothelial dysfunction in rats fed for four weeks with control or high-fructose diet. The high-fructose diet hampered body weight gain (without influencing food intake), increased liver weight and glycogen storage in hepatocytes, upregulated expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in the liver. Both CLA isomers prevented excessive accumulation of glycogen in the liver. Specifically, t10c12-CLA decreased concentration of serum triacylglycerols and LDL + VLDL cholesterol, increased HDL cholesterol, and affected liver lipid content and fatty acid composition by downregulation of liver SCD-1 and FAS expression. In turn, the c9t11-CLA decreased LDL+VLDL cholesterol in the control group and downregulated liver expression of FAS without significant effects on liver weight, lipid content, and fatty acid composition. In summary, feeding rats with a high-fructose diet resulted in increased liver glycogen storage, indicating the induction of gluconeogenesis despite simultaneous upregulation of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Although both CLA isomers (c9t11 and t10c12) display hepatoprotective activity, the hypolipemic action of the t10c12-CLA isomer proved to be more pronounced than that of c9t11-CLA.

  7. Vaccenic acid-mediated reduction in cytokine production is independent of c9,t11-CLA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudszus, Anke; Jahreis, Gerhard; Schlörmann, Wiebke; Fischer, Janine; Kramer, Ronny; Degen, Christian; Rohrer, Carsten; Roth, Alexander; Gabriel, Holger; Barz, Dagmar; Gruen, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The ruminant trans fatty acid vaccenic acid (tVA) favorably alters markers of inflammation. However, it is not yet clear whether these effects are attributed to its endogenous partial conversion to c9,t11-CLA, which is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties. We compared the cytokine reducing potential of tVA to c9,t11-CLA in human T-helper (Th) cells as a main source of cytokine production during inflammation. Secondly, we assessed whether a bioconversion of tVA to c9,t11-CLA via stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) encoded activity takes place in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in order to relate the outcomes of intracellular cytokine measurement to the degree of conversion. TVA reduced the percentage of both IL-2 and TNF-α expressing Th cells significantly, but to a lesser extent compared to c9,t11-CLA, as determined by flow cytometry after alloreactive stimulation of PBMC. Pre-treatment with the selective PPARγ antagonist T0070907 largely re-established the IL-2 and TNF-α positive Th cell population in both tVA and c9,t11-CLA treated cultures. Interestingly, while the portion of tVA dose-dependently increased within the cellular lipid fraction, the initially marginal amount of c9,t11-CLA remained unaltered. However, SCD mRNA although abundantly expressed in PBMC was not regulated by tVA. Conclusively, these results suggest that the cytokine reducing effect of tVA in human T cells is independent of c9,t11-CLA, since no bioconversion occurred. Moreover, the data provide evidence that tVA mechanistically acts in a manner similar to c9,t11-CLA.

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis signaling by the upregulation of PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in C2C12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-04-01

    Along with its effect on body fat reduction, dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to improve physical activity and endurance capacity in mice. It has been suggested these effects may in part be due to physiological changes in skeletal muscle, however, the mode of action is not completely understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the relevant mechanisms of CLA isomers for mitochondrial biogenesis, one of the most important adaptive responses in skeletal muscle. Both cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA isomers increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), however, only the t10,c12 isomer, but not c9,t11, increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) compared to the control. Among downstream biomarkers of PGC-1α, the CLA mixed isomer enhanced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ). Both c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers increased expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), while the c9,t11 increased expression of cytochrome c (Cyt C) and t10,c12 CLA increased expression of voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), respectively. Both CLA isomers significantly increased mitochondrial DNA copy number compared to that of control. These findings suggest that the individual CLA isomers potentiate mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α-NRF-1-Tfam signaling cascade, although downstream regulation may be isomer dependent.

  9. Pros and cons of CLA consumption: an insight from clinical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sailas; Prakasan, Priji; Sreedharan, Sajith; Wright, Andre-Denis G; Spener, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive review critically evaluates whether supposed health benefits propounded upon human consumption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are clinically proven or not. With a general introduction on the chemistry of CLA, major clinical evidences pertaining to intervention strategies, body composition, cardio-vascular health, immunity, asthma, cancer and diabetes are evaluated. Supposed adverse effects such as oxidative stress, insulin resistance, irritation of intestinal tract and milk fat depression are also examined. It seems that no consistent result was observed even in similar studies conducted at different laboratories, this may be due to variations in age, gender, racial and geographical disparities, coupled with type and dose of CLA supplemented. Thus, supposed promising results reported in mechanistic and pre-clinical studies cannot be extrapolated with humans, mainly due to the lack of inconsistency in analyses, prolonged intervention studies, follow-up studies and international co-ordination of concerted studies. Briefly, clinical evidences accumulated thus far show that CLA is not eliciting significantly promising and consistent health effects so as to uphold it as neither a functional nor a medical food.

  10. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  11. CLA-enriched diet containing t10,c12-CLA alters bile acid homeostasis and increases the risk of cholelithiasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letona, Amaia Zabala; Niot, Isabelle; Laugerette, Fabienne; Athias, Anne; Monnot, Marie-Claude; Portillo, Maria P; Besnard, Philippe; Poirier, Hélène

    2011-08-01

    Mice fed a mixture of CLA containing t10,c12-CLA lose fat mass and develop hyperinsulinemia and hepatic steatosis due to an accumulation of TG and cholesterol. Because cholesterol is the precursor in bile acid (BA) synthesis, we investigated whether t10,c12-CLA alters BA metabolism. In Expt. 1, female C57Bl/6J mice were fed a standard diet for 28 d supplemented with a CLA mixture (1 g/100 g) or not (controls). In Expt. 2, the feeding period was reduced to 4, 6, and 10 d. In Expt. 3, mice were fed a diet supplemented with linoleic acid, c9,t11-CLA, or t10,c12-CLA (0.4 g/100 g) for 28 d. In Expt. 1, the BA pool size was greater in CLA-fed mice than in controls and the entero-hepatic circulation of BA was altered due to greater BA synthesis and ileal reclamation. This resulted from higher hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and ileal apical sodium BA transporter expressions in CLA-fed mice. Furthermore, hepatic Na(+)/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) (-52%) and bile salt export pump (BSEP) (-77%) protein levels were lower in CLA-fed mice than in controls, leading to a greater accumulation of BA in the plasma (+500%); also, the cholesterol saturation index and the concentration of hydrophobic BA in the bile were greater in CLA-fed mice, changes associated with the presence of cholesterol crystals. Expt. 2 suggests that CLA-mediated changes were caused by hyperinsulinemia, which occurred after 6 d of the CLA diet before NTCP and BSEP mRNA downregulation (10 d). Expt. 3 demonstrated that only t10,c12-CLA altered NTCP and BSEP mRNA levels. In conclusion, t10,c12-CLA alters BA homeostasis and increases the risk of cholelithiasis in mice.

  12. 日粮添加油葵籽和亚麻籽对奶牛乳脂CLA和脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of the Sunflower Seed and the Flaxseed on Milk CLA and Composition of Milk Fatty Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉斌; 王强; 吴建平

    2013-01-01

    本文主要研究了奶牛日粮添加植物油籽引起原料乳脂肪酸组成情况及CLA含量变化的影响,初步探讨改善牛奶脂肪酸构成、提高乳脂中CLA含量的途径.选取45头泌乳期荷斯坦牛,分为3组,以不添加油籽为对照组,以添加油葵籽和亚麻籽作为两个试验处理组,采用完全随机试验设计,测定乳脂中脂肪酸含量.结果显示,日粮中添加油葵籽和亚麻籽实能显著提高乳脂中CLA、EPA、DHA和PUFA的含量(P<0.05),降低月桂酸(C12:0)、棕榈酸(C16:0)、硬酯酸(C18:0)等饱和脂肪酸水平,多不饱和与饱和脂肪酸(PUFA/SFA)之比显著高于对照组(P<0.05),分别提高92.32%和36.37%.乳脂中CLA(c9t11t,10t12c)比例油葵籽和亚麻籽两个处理组依次比对照组提高了161.01% (P<0.05)和53.18% (P<0.05);油葵籽组的EPA、DHA含量分别较对照组提高80.91%和196.20%,亚麻籽组的EPA、DHA含量分别较对照组提高143.32%和255.84%.日粮中添加植物油料籽实,优化了乳脂肪酸的构成,油葵籽对乳脂中CLA的提高效果比亚麻籽更好.%Forty-five Chinese Holstein lactating cows were used to study the effects of adding the sunflower seed and the flaxseed of oil plants on CLA content and composition of bovine milk fatty acids. Experimental design used a randomly design ( control group, sunflower seed group, and flaxseed group) . The results showed that, feeding oil seeds riched in linoleic or linolenic acids would alter the bovine milk fatty acids ratio, increased the content of CLA, EPA, DHA and PUFA significantly(P<0.05), and decreased concentration of C12:0, C16:Oand C18:0. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acid(PUFA/SFA) was increased by 92.32% in oil sunflower seed group, and 36.37% in flaxseed group respectively, significantly higher than that in control group(P<0.05). Compared with the control group, CLA content in oil sunflower seed group was significantly increased by

  13. Effect of Lactobacillus Plantarum on Production of CLA in Rumen Fermentation in Vitro%植物乳杆菌在瘤胃内发酵产共轭亚油酸的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李有超; 王彩玲; 王洪荣; 程茂基

    2008-01-01

    在体外研究植物乳杆菌(Lactobacillus plantarum)ANCLA 01发酵添加葵花籽油的瘤胃液,达到提高共轭亚油酸(CLA)产量的目的.结果表明:油脂的添加可以提高发酵液CLA产量,在3%的接种量和4mg/mL的油脂添加量条件下,过滤除菌瘤胃液组CLA的产量显著高于其他试验组(P<0.05).在灭菌瘤胃液组,植物乳酸菌的生长良好,但CLA的产量低于过滤瘤胃液组.

  14. X-ray diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering study of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) chloranilic acid (CLA) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, M.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Sobczyk, L.; Pawlukojć, A.; Grech, E.; Wischnewski, A.; Zamponi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The DMP · CLA and DMP · CLA-d 2 crystals below 100 K are monoclinic, space group P2 1/c with four molecules in the unit cells. Infinite chains of hydrogen bonded counterparts are formed with O⋯N distances equal to 2.767(2) and 2.639(2) for non-deuterated DMP · CLA. Deuteration leads to the Ubbelohlde effect particularly well manifested in the second short O-H⋯N bridge (elongation by ca. 0.02 Å). In the IR spectra a Hadži's trio of the broad absorption is observed characteristic of strong hydrogen bonds. In the INS spectra the vibrational density of states and methyl rotational tunnel splittings were determined. The temperature dependence of tunneling bands enabled to make mode assignments and to determine the methyl rotational potentials. Comparison of the results to the pure electron donor DMP was made and the difference found can be almost completely assigned to the steric changes of the environment. A weak isotope effect with deuteration of the OH⋯N bridges of the DMP · CLA complex is assigned to a charge transfer of δe/ e = 0.006.

  15. Measurement of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in CLA-rich soy oil by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamne, Jeta V; Jain, Vishal P; Saleh, Mohammed; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-11-25

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in oils are currently measured as fatty acid methyl esters by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) technique, which requires approximately 2 h to complete the analysis. Hence, we aim to develop a method to rapidly determine CLA isomers in CLA-rich soy oil. Soy oil with 0.38-25.11% total CLA was obtained by photo-isomerization of 96 soy oil samples for 24 h. A sample was withdrawn at 30 min intervals with repeated processing using a second batch of oil. Six replicates of GC-FID fatty acid analysis were conducted for each oil sample. The oil samples were scanned using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and the spectrum was collected. Calibration models were developed using partial least-squares (PLS-1) regression using Unscrambler software. Models were validated using a full cross-validation technique and tested using samples that were not included in the calibration sample set. Measured and predicted total CLA, trans,trans CLA isomers, total mono trans CLA isomers, trans-10,cis-12 CLA, trans-9,cis-11 CLA and cis-10,trans-12 CLA, and cis-9,trans-11 CLA had cross-validated coefficients of determinations (R2v) of 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, 0.98, 0.97, and 0.99 and corresponding root-mean-square error of validation (RMSEV) of 1.14, 0.69, 0.27, 0.07, 0.14, and 0.07% CLA, respectively. The ATR-FTIR technique is a rapid and less expensive method for determining CLA isomers in linoleic acid photo-isomerized soy oil than GC-FID.

  16. ClaR--a novel key regulator of cellobiose and lactose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrzak-Piekarczyk, Tamara; Stasiak-Różańska, Lidia; Cieśla, Jarosław; Bardowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    In a number of previous studies, our group has discovered an alternative pathway for lactose utilization in Lactococcus lactis that, in addition to a sugar-hydrolyzing enzyme with both P-β-glucosidase and P-β-galactosidase activity (BglS), engages chromosomally encoded components of cellobiose-specific PTS (PTS(Cel-Lac)), including PtcA, PtcB, and CelB. In this report, we show that this system undergoes regulation via ClaR, a novel activator protein from the RpiR family of transcriptional regulators. Although RpiR proteins are widely distributed among lactic acid bacteria, their roles have yet to be confirmed by functional assays. Here, we show that ClaR activity depends on intracellular cellobiose-6-phosphate availability, while other sugars such as glucose or galactose have no influence on it. We also show that ClaR is crucial for activation of the bglS and celB expression in the presence of cellobiose, with some limited effects on ptcA and ptcB activation. Among 190 of carbon sources tested, the deletion of claR reduces L. lactis growth only in lactose- and/or cellobiose-containing media, suggesting a narrow specificity of this regulator within the context of sugar metabolism.

  17. Maternal high-fat diet-induced programing of gut taste receptor and inflammatory gene expression in rat offspring is ameliorated by CLA supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaoyuan D; Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation influences later life predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease in offspring. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly defined, but one potential target that has received scant attention and is likely pivotal to disease progression is that of the gut. The present study examined the effects of maternal supplementation with the anti-inflammatory lipid, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), on offspring metabolic profile and gut expression of taste receptors and inflammatory markers. We speculate that preventing high-fat diet-induced metainflammation improved maternal metabolic parameters conferring beneficial effects on adult offspring. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a purified control diet (CD; 10% kcal from fat), CD with CLA (CLA; 10% kcal from fat, 1% CLA), HF (45% kcal from fat) or HF with CLA (HFCLA; 45% kcal from fat, 1% CLA) throughout gestation and lactation. Plasma/tissues were taken at day 24 and RT-PCR was carried out on gut sections. Offspring from HF mothers were significantly heavier at weaning with impaired insulin sensitivity compared to controls. This was associated with increased plasma IL-1β and TNFα concentrations. Gut Tas1R1, IL-1β, TNFα, and NLRP3 expression was increased and Tas1R3 expression was decreased in male offspring from HF mothers and was normalized by maternal CLA supplementation. Tas1R1 expression was increased while PYY and IL-10 decreased in female offspring of HF mothers. These results suggest that maternal consumption of a HF diet during critical developmental windows influences offspring predisposition to obesity and metabolic dysregulation. This may be associated with dysregulation of taste receptor, incretin, and inflammatory gene expression in the gut.

  18. Electrochemical aging effects in photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.

    Leakage currents were experimentally measured in PV modules undergoing natural aging outdoors, and in PV modules undergoing accelerated aging in laboratory environmental chambers. The significant contributors to module leakage current were identified with a long range goal to develop techniques to reduce or stop module leakage currents. For outdoor aging in general, module leakage current is relatively insensitive to temperature fluctuations, but is very sensitive to moisture effects such as dew, precipitation, and fluctuations in relative humidity. Comparing ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and polyvinyl butyral (PVB), module leakage currents are much higher in PVB as compared to EVA for all environmental conditions investigated. Leakage currents proceed in series along two paths, bulk conduction followed by interfacial (surfaces) conduction.

  19. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  20. 日粮脂肪酸对动物产品中CLA的影响及其营养调控技术%Effects of diet fatty acid on CLA in animal products and nutritional manipulation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃; 董文俊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 日粮中共轭亚油酸(Conjugated Linoleic Acid,CLA,C18:2 c-9,t-11)具有抗癌、防止动脉粥样硬化、抗氧化和治疗风湿病等作用,同时CLA还具有提高机体免疫机能,减少炎症反应的功能.动物采食含有CLA的日粮后,CLA就可整合到动物组织、奶和蛋等动物产品中,从而生产出有利于人类健康的含有CLA的食物.本文主要就日粮脂肪酸对动物肉和奶中CLA的影响及改善动物产品中脂肪酸组成的营养调控技术作一综述,以期为目前CLA的应用研究提供参考.

  1. Effects of CLA on growth performance and carcass quatity of cherry valley duck%共轭亚油酸对樱桃谷鸭生长性能和肌肉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶; 王锡昌; 刘源; 袁华根; 顾赛麒; 谢颖

    2009-01-01

    研究共轭亚油酸(conjugated linoleic acid,CLA)对樱桃谷鸭生长性能和肌肉品质的影响.结果表明,低添加量CLA能增加樱桃谷鸭的体重,降低其料重比,但当添加量达到2.0%和3.5%时,樱桃谷鸭采食量和体重显著降低(P<0.05);随着CLA添加量的增加,樱桃谷鸭胸肌率和腿肌率也逐渐增加,但当添加量达到3.5%时,胸肌率显著下降(P<0.05).对樱桃谷鸭的肌肉品质而言,饲料中添加CLA降低了肌内脂肪含量,并减少了肌肉的滴水损失,但同时肌肉的嫩度也有所降低,另一方面CLA的添加延缓了肌肉氧化,增加了色泽稳定性.

  2. Potent inhibitory effect of trans9, trans11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid on the growth of human colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Tanaka, Leo; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takuji; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the growth inhibitory effects of pure conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers [cis(c)9,c11-CLA, c9,trans(t)11-CLA, t9,t11-CLA, and t10,c12-CLA] on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29 and DLD-1). When Caco-2 cells were incubated up to 72 h with 200 μM, each isomer, even in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), cell proliferation was inhibited by all CLA isomers in a time-dependent manner. The strongest inhibitory effect was shown by t9,t11-CLA, followed by t...

  3. Sensing of dietary lipids by enterocytes: a new role for SR-BI/CLA-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Béaslas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestine is responsible for absorbing dietary lipids and delivering them to the organism as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL. It is important to determine how this process is regulated in enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the intestine, as prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis. During the postprandial period, dietary lipids, mostly triglycerides (TG hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes, are combined with bile products and reach the apical membrane of enterocytes as postprandial micelles (PPM. Our aim was to determine whether these micelles induce, in enterocytes, specific early cell signaling events that could control the processes leading to TRL secretion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effects of supplying PPM to the apex of Caco-2/TC7 enterocytes were analyzed. Micelles devoid of TG hydrolysis products, like those present in the intestinal lumen in the interprandial period, were used as controls. The apical delivery of PPM specifically induced a number of cellular events that are not induced by interprandial micelles. These early events included the trafficking of apolipoprotein B, a structural component of TRL, from apical towards secretory domains, and the rapid, dose-dependent activation of ERK and p38MAPK. PPM supply induced the scavenger receptor SR-BI/CLA-1 to cluster at the apical brush border membrane and to move from non-raft to raft domains. Competition, inhibition or knockdown of SR-BI/CLA-1 impaired the PPM-dependent apoB trafficking and ERK activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first evidence that enterocytes specifically sense postprandial dietary lipid-containing micelles. SR-BI/CLA-1 is involved in this process and could be a target for further study with a view to modifying intestinal TRL secretion early in the control pathway.

  4. c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX对MCF-7细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用%The anti-tumor efficacy of c9, t11-CLA-PTX and t10, c12-CLA-PTX on MCF-7 breast cancer cells: in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科; 李星火; 李丹; 柯曦宇; 张烜; 张强

    2014-01-01

    在前期研究中,CLA-mixture-PTX展现出了对黑色素瘤与脑胶质瘤一定的抗肿瘤作用.本研究旨在探索c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX对人源乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用.研究中考察了c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX的体外细胞摄取、细胞毒、细胞凋亡,以及细胞周期作用.用荷瘤BALB/c裸鼠研究了c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX的体内抗肿瘤作用.体外细胞毒研究结果表明:t10,c12-CLA-PTX的IC50为(0.17±0.02) μM,显著优于CLA-mixture-PTX(1.08±0.15) μM (P<0.01),后者显著优于c9,t11-CLA-PTX (6.50±1.20)μM (P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX均可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01);和CLA-mixture-PTX组相比,t10,c 12-CLA-PTX可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01),c9,t11-CLA-PTX则使细胞总凋亡比例降低(P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX均将细胞周期阻滞于S期与G2-M,与CLA-mixture-PTX相同.t10,c12-CLA-PTX的细胞摄取量显著高于CLA-mixture-PTX (P<0.01),后者的细胞摄取量显著高于c9,t11-CLA-PTX (P<0.01).体内抗肿瘤药效研究结果显示,t10,c12-CLA-PTX的抗肿瘤活性显著高于空白对照组和CLA-mixture-PTX组(P<0.01),而c9,t11-CLA-PTX的抗肿瘤活性仅高于空白对照组(P<0.01).上述结果表明,t10,c12-CLA-PTX对MCF-7细胞有显著体内外抗肿瘤作用,可以作为CLA-mixture-PTX的替代药物进行后续研究.

  5. The body fat-lowering effect of conjugated linoleic acid: a comparison between animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Fernández-Quintela, A; Churruca, I; Portillo, M P

    2006-06-01

    Different reasons which justify differences between rodents and humans in body fat reduction produced by conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could be proposed. The doses used in humans are lower than those used in rodents. Human experiments have been performed with CLA isomer mixtures instead of isolated isomers. The variable dilution of t-10, c-12, the active isomer, among different preparations might explain the reduced responsiveness in humans. Diet composition may modulate CLA effects on body fat accumulation. As far as human studies are concerned, a specific dietary pattern has not been established. As a result differences among studies and also among subjects in the same study are likely. In rodents, the effects of CLA vary with genotype, suggesting that genetic predisposition to fat accumulation can play an important role in the effectiveness of CLA. Human volunteers with different body mass index have participated in the published studies and even in the same experiment. So, differences in lipid metabolism among subjects could help to explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. Age and maturity may also be crucial. Experiments using rodents have been conducted with growing animals and there is little evidence of CLA effectiveness in adult animals. By contrast, human studies have been performed with adults. Inhibition of lipogenesis in white adipose tissue is one of the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain the body-fat lowering effect of CLA, but lipogenesis in this tissue is very low in humans. Another mechanism suggested is increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver associated with peroxisome proliferation, but humans are relatively insensitive to this effect.

  6. Electrochemical performance of C-La3+ codoped LiFePO4 synthesized by microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yan; WANG Miao; GUO Ruisong; XU Zhaohe

    2009-01-01

    La3+ was selected to elevate the lattice electronic conductivity of LiFePO4, and LiFePO4/(C+La3+) cathode powders were synthesized by microwave heating using a domestic microwave oven for 35 min. The microstructures and morphologies of the synthesized materials were investigated by XRD and SEM. The electrochemical performances were evaluated by galvanostatic charge-discharge. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 with different La3+ contents was studied. Results indicated that the initial specific discharge capacity of LiFePO4/(C+La3+) composites with 2% La3+(116.3 mAh/g) was better than that of LiFePO4/C (105.4 mAh/g). The addition of La3+ further improved the electrochemical properties. So the codoping is an effective method to improve the electrochemical performance.

  7. Synthesis and isolation of trans-7,cis-9 octadecadienoic acid and other CLA isomers by base conjugation of partially hydrogenated gamma-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmonte, Pierluigi; Roach, John A G; Mossoba, Magdi M; Morehouse, K M; Lehmann, Lutz; Yurawecz, Martin P

    2003-05-01

    CLA is of considerable interest because of reported potentially beneficial effects in animal studies. CLA, while not yet unambiguously defined, is a mixture of octadecadienoic acids with conjugated double bonds. The major isomer in natural products is generally considered to be cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (c9,t11), which represents > 75% of the total CLA in most cases. Other isomers are drawing increased attention. The t7,c9 isomer, which is often the second-most prevalent CLA in natural products, has been reported to represent as much as 40% of total CLA in milk from cows fed a high-fat diet. The need for a reference material became apparent in a recent study directed specifically at measuring t7,c9-CLA in milk, plasma, and rumen. A suitable standard mixture was produced by stirring 0.5 g of gamma-linolenic acid (all cis-6,9,12-C18.3) with 100 mL of 10% hydrazine hydrate in methanol for 2.5 h at 45 degrees C. The solution was diluted with H2O and acidified with HCI. The resulting partially hydrogenated FA were extracted with ether/petroleum ether, dried with Na2SO4, and conjugated by adding of 6.6% KOH in ethlylene glycol and heating for 1.5 h at 150-160 degrees C. Approximately 20 mg each of cis-6,trans-8; trans-7,cis-9; cis-9,trans-11; and trans- 10,cis-12 were obtained along with other FA. Methyl esters (FAME) of these four cis/trans isomers were resolved by Ag+ HPLC (UV 233) and partially resolved by GC/(MS or FID) (CP-Sil 88). Treatment of these FAME with 12 yielded all possible cis/trans (geometric) isomers for the four positions 6,8; 7,9; 9,11; and 10,12.

  8. Effect of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and adipose tissue development in young Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, P; Gómez, I; Mendizabal, J A; Ripoll, G; Barahona, M; Sarriés, V; Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Realini, C

    2013-06-01

    Forty-eight young Holstein bulls (slaughtered at 458.6±9.79 kg body weight) were used to evaluate the effect of whole linseed and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on animal performance, adipose tissue development, and carcass characteristics. The animals were fed with one of four isoenergetic and isoproteic diets: control (0% linseed, 0% CLA), linseed (10% linseed, 0% CLA), CLA (0% linseed, 2% CLA), and linseed plus CLA (10% linseed, 2% CLA). Animal performance and carcass characteristics were unaffected by diet composition. Adding linseed or CLA to the concentrate diet did not result in significant differences in adipocyte size and number or lipogenic enzyme activity. However, while the frequency distribution of subcutaneous adipocyte diameters followed a normal distribution, the frequency distribution of intramuscular adipocyte diameters was not normal in any dietary group (skewness coefficients: 0.8, 1.2, 0.9, 0.8 for control, linseed, CLA, and linseed plus CLA, respectively; Padipose tissue.

  9. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, fatty acid composition and CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badee, Ghlailat; Hidaka, Satoshi

    2014-02-01

    Quality food for human consumption will always be the aim for animal producers. Quantity and composition of fat deposits (fatty acid profile) strongly influences meat quality in ruminants, especially via increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration, which is known to have beneficial anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antidiabetic and cholesterol reduction properties for human health. Awassi lambs are one of the main and most consumed meat sources in the Middle East area; however, studies addressing the fat content of CLA and methods to enhance its concentrations in this breed are still rare. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding two different oil sources (soybean oil (SBO) and sunflower oil (SFO) at two levels (1.8 and 3%)) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of fat in Awassi lambs. Oil supplementation had no effect on growth performance or carcass characteristics, while fatty acid composition changed according to the site of extraction. CLA concentrations were increased in the tail fat deposit, with 1.8% SBO and in intermuscular fat deposit with 3% SFO. Intermuscular fat is the one most naturally consumed by humans, serving to improve food quality.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  11. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  12. Mammary cell turnover and expression of lipogenic genes in response to silage induced CLA and diet energy density in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Baumgard, L H; Nielsen, T Skau

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate possible effects of silage induced differences in milk conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and diet energy density on cell turnover and production capacity in the mammary gland. Cows were given high levels of canola fat and fed either grass or maize...... silage at either a high or a low diet energy density....

  13. Effective spectral dispersion of refractive index modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek, Petr; Květoň, Milan; Richter, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    For diffraction effects inside photopolymer materials, which act as volume diffraction systems (e.g. gratings), refractive index modulation is one of the key parameters. Due to its importance it is necessary to study this parameter from many perspectives, one of which is its value for different spectral components, i.e. its spectral dispersion. In this paper, we discuss this property and present an approach to experimental and numerical extraction and analysis (via rigorous coupled wave analysis and Cauchy’s empirical relation) of the effective dispersion of refractive index modulation based on an analysis of transmittance maps measured in an angular-spectral plane. It is indicated that the inclusion of dispersion leads to a significantly better description of the real grating behavior (which is often necessary in various design implementations of diffraction gratings) and that this estimation can be carried out for all the diffraction orders present.

  14. The In vitro Effects of Nano-encapsulated Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Stability of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Fermentation Profiles in the Rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Wan; Kim, Eun Tae; Cho, Sung Do; Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Seong Min; Jeong, Ha Yeon; Ki, Kwang Seok; Yoon, Ho Baek; Ahn, Young Dae; Lee, Sung Sill; Kim, Young Jun

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the stability of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) by nano-encapsulation against in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation by microbial enzymatic conversion. CLAs (free fatty acid form of CLA [CLA-FFA], nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA, triglyceride form of CLA [CLA-TG], and nano-encapsulated CLA-TG) were used in the in vitro fermentation experiments. When Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (B. fibrisolvens) was incubated with CLA-FFAs, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and vaccenic acid (VA) slightly was decreased and increased by nano-encapsulation, respectively. When B. fibrisolvens was incubated with CLA-TG, the concentrations of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and VA decreased, but these were increased when B. fibrisolvens was incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-TG. The nano-encapsulation was more effective against the in vitro biohydrogenation activity of B.fibrisolvens incubated with CLA-FFA than with CLA-TG. In the in vitro ruminal incubation test, the total gas production and concentration of total volatile fatty acids incubated with nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA and CLA-TG were increased significantly after 24 h incubation (pNano-encapsulated CLA-FFA might, thus, improve the ruminal fermentation characteristics without adverse effects on the incubation process. In addition, nano-encapsulated CLA-FFA increased the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes and decreased the population of B. fibrisolvens population. These results indicate that nano-encapsulation could be applied to enhance CLA levels in ruminants by increasing the stability of CLA without causing adverse effects on ruminal fermentation.

  15. Isolation, molecular characterization and screening of indigenous lactobacilli for their abilities to produce bioactive conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Puniya, Anil Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Ingestion of conjugated linoleic acid poised many health benefits; however, amount of CLA one can get through generalized diet in is inadequate in exerting the desired benefits. Therefore, presence of CLA producing lactobacilli in dairy fermented foods has a tremendous potential to increase the CLA content. Therefore, present study was focused to isolate and characterize CLA producing lactobacilli from different dairy products and human faeces. Arguably, 283 lactobacilli were isolated from various sources and tested for CLA production. Fifty-seven CLA producing (≥20 µg/ml) lactobacilli were selected from screening in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth and reconstituted with skim milk (SM), supplemented with 0.5 mg/ml of linoleic acid. Positive strains were classified into-L. plantarum (44%), L. gasseri (30%), L. fermentum (21%) and L. salivarius (5%) species. Nineteen most efficient strains (CLA ≥25 µg/ml) were further assessed in SM for CLA production. Total 08 strains produced significantly higher CLA in SM than MRS and also produced cis 9, trans 11, trans 10, cis 12 and trans 9, trans 11 isomers. Overall, L. plantarum HIF15 was reported as the best producer of CLA and other 08 lactobacilli may be utilized for the formulation of CLA-enriched functional foods to support these bacteria to synthesize CLA in the human gut.

  16. Development of a New High-throughput Screening Model for Human High Density Lipoprotein Receptor (CLA-1) Agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To develop a new high-throughput screening model for human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor (CD36 and LIMPII analogous-1, CLA-1) agonists using CLA-1-expressing insect cells. Methods With the total RNA of human hepatoma cells BEL-7402 as template, the complementary DNA (cDNA) of CLA-1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system was used to express CLA-1 in insect cells. CLA-1 cDNA was cloned downstream of polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) into donor vector pFastBac1 and recombinant pFastBac1-CLA-1 was transformed into E. coli DH10Bac to transpose CLA-1 cDNA to bacmid DNA. Recombinant bacmid-CLA-1 was transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells to produce recombinant baculovirus particles. Recombinant CLA-1 was expressed on the membrane of Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant baculoviruses. A series of parameters of DiI-lipoprotein binding assays of CLA-1-expressing Sf9 cells in 96-well plates were optimized. Results Western blot analysis and DiI-lipoprotein binding assays confirmed that CLA-1 expressed in insect cells had similar immunoreactivity and ligand binding activity as its native counterpart. A reliable and sensitive in vitro cell-based assay was established to assess the activity of CLA-1 and used to screen agonists from different sample libraries. Conclusion Human HDL receptor CLA-1 was successfully expressed in Sf9 insect cells and a novel high-throughput screening model for CLA-1 agonists was developed. Utilization of this model allows us to identify potent and selective CLA-1 agonists which might possibly be used as therapeutics for atherosclerosis.

  17. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Clint; Vickers, Mark H; Segovia, Stephanie A; Zhang, Xiaohuan D; Reynolds, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON) or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat), a purified high fat (HF) diet (45%kcal from fat) and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat) (HFCLA). All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21) until the end of the study (day 150). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory EDHF

  18. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  19. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids.

  20. Circulating CLA(+) T cells in atopic dermatitis and their possible role as peripheral biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnowicki, T; Santamaria-Babí, L F; Guttman-Yassky, E

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA(+) ) T cells are specialized for skin homing and represent the main T-cell population in atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions. CLA(+) is expressed on the surface of circulating CD45RO(+) memory T cells and most skin-infiltrating T cells. Mechanistic studies and thus treatment advancements are limited by the need of large number of skin biopsies. Circulating CLA(+) T cells may be a reliable surrogate marker of the inflammatory events occurring in the skin, and thus, the evaluation of CLA(+) T cells in the blood may eliminate the need for skin biopsies. Preliminary work in AD has established that disease-associated T-cell abnormalities can be approached by either a study of skin lesions or activated CLA(+) T-cell subsets in peripheral blood. Future studies in adults and children, across different skin disorders, correlating blood and skin phenotypes and determining skin-homing T-cell functional properties are needed to establish whether CLA(+) memory subsets can be used as biomarkers and a substitute for skin biopsies. This review summarizes the latest advancements reached on circulating CLA(+) in AD and the great potential they harbor in understanding AD mechanisms.

  1. Modulation of frontal effective connectivity during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Rachel; Leff, Alex P; Penny, William D; Rothwell, John C; Crinion, Jenny

    2016-10-15

    Noninvasive neurostimulation methods such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can elicit long-lasting, polarity-dependent changes in neocortical excitability. In a previous concurrent tDCS-fMRI study of overt picture naming, we reported significant behavioural and regionally specific neural facilitation effects in left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) with anodal tDCS applied to left frontal cortex (Holland et al., 2011). Although distributed connectivity effects of anodal tDCS have been modelled at rest, the mechanism by which 'on-line' tDCS may modulate neuronal connectivity during a task-state remains unclear. Here, we used Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) to determine: (i) how neural connectivity within the frontal speech network is modulated during anodal tDCS; and, (ii) how individual variability in behavioural response to anodal tDCS relates to changes in effective connectivity strength. Results showed that compared to sham, anodal tDCS elicited stronger feedback from inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) to ventral premotor (VPM) accompanied by weaker self-connections within VPM, consistent with processes of neuronal adaptation. During anodal tDCS individual variability in the feedforward connection strength from IFS to VPM positively correlated with the degree of facilitation in naming behaviour. These results provide an essential step towards understanding the mechanism of 'online' tDCS paired with a cognitive task. They also identify left IFS as a 'top-down' hub and driver for speech change.

  2. Sources alimentaires et consommation estimée de CLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combe Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “conjugated linoleic acid” (CLA describes a group of geometrical and positional isomers of linoleic acid (18 : 2 9cis 12cis with double bonds in conjugated position. These isomers are the 18 : 2 8trans 10cis, 18 : 2 9cis 11trans, 18 : 2 10trans 12cis and 18 : 2 11cis 13trans. In human diet, the fats from ruminants are the natural source of these fatty acids (milk, meat…. CLAs is produced by the rumen anaerobic bacteria metabolism of linoleic fatty acid, the 18 : 2 9cis 11trans being the predominant isomer (up to 90% of total CLAs, and named for that reason “rumenic acid”. The CLA richest food is milk (2 - 40 mg/g of fat, depending on the animal feed, as well as butter, dairy products, followed by meat of ruminants. Vegetable oils and margarine contain only small amounts of CLAs (0 - 0.5 mg/g, originating from technological processes. Some significant quantities of CLAs are found in human breast milk, depending on women dietary habits (from 1.9 to 11.2 mg/g. The human consumption levels of CLAs have been estimated in different countries. With food questionnaires of the “3-7 days recall” or “semi-quantitative frequency” types, the population consumption has been estimated between 20 and 500 mg per day, with higher levels in men than in women. In Australia, the dietary intake may reach in some cases 1.5 g/day.

  3. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P CLA on d14. Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P CLA increased lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P CLA in CO-fed mice and increased in SO-fed mice (P CLA (P CLA-induced lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  4. Effects of conjugated linoleic acids and dietary concentrate proportion on performance, milk composition, milk yield and metabolic parameters of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Maria; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Spilke, Joachim; Kramer, Ronny; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-06-01

    The study aimed to examine effects of supplemented conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to periparturient cows receiving different concentrate proportions ante partum (a.p.) to investigate CLA effects on lipid mobilisation and metabolism. Compared to adapted feeding, a high-concentrate diet a.p. should induce a ketogenic metabolic situation post partum (p.p.) to better understand how CLA works. Sixty-four pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations 3 weeks prior to calving until day 60 p.p. Ante partum, cows received control fat (CON) or a CLA supplement at 100 g/d, either in a low-concentrate (CON-20, CLA-20) or high-concentrate diet (CON-60, CLA-60). Post partum, concentrate proportion was adjusted, while fat supplementation continued. After day 32 p.p., half of the animals of CLA-groups changed to CON supplementation (CLA-20-CON, CLA-60-CON). A ketogenic metabolic situation p.p. was not achieved and therefore impacts of CLA could not be examined. Live weight, milk yield and composition, blood parameters remained unaffected by the treatments. Only a slightly reduced milk fat yield (not significant) was recorded for Group CLA-20. The proportion of trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA in milk fat was significantly increased in CLA-groups compared to CON-groups. With the exception of a reversible CLA effect on milk fat in Group CLA-20, no post-treatment effects occurred. Dry matter intake (DMI) of Group CLA-60 was highest before calving, resulting in a significantly improved estimated energy balance after calving. Ante partum, net energy intakes were significantly increased in high-concentrate groups. Overall, supplemented CLA preparation did not relieve metabolism and lipid mobilisation of early lactating cows. But feeding CLA in a high-concentrate diet a.p. seems to increase DMI and thereby improve the energy balance of cows immediately after calving.

  5. Temperature Effect on Photovoltaic Modules Power Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Mohammed Aish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar module could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic power generation. Changing in powers due to higher temperatures (25oC, 35oC, and 45oC have been done for three types of solar modules: monocrystalline , polycrystalline, and copper indium gallium (di selenide (CIGS. The Prova 200 solar panel analyzer is used for the professional testing of three solar modules at different ambient temperatures; 25oC, 35oC, and 45oC and solar radiation range 100-1000 W/m2. Copper indium gallium (di selenide module has the lowest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.38%/oC while monocrystalline module has the highest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.54%/oC, while polycrystalline module has a percentage power drop of 0.49%/oC.

  6. Effect of Fibonacci modulation on superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Sil, Shreekantha; Bhattacharyya, Bibhas

    2006-02-15

    We have studied finite-sized single band models with short-range pairing interactions between electrons in the presence of diagonal Fibonacci modulation in one dimension. Two models, namely the attractive Hubbard model and the Penson-Kolb model, have been investigated at half-filling at zero temperature by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in real space within a mean-field approximation. The competition between 'disorder' and the pairing interaction leads to a suppression of superconductivity (of usual pairs with zero centre-of-mass momenta) in the strong-coupling limit while an enhancement of the pairing correlation is observed in the weak-coupling regime for both models. However, the dissimilarity of the pairing mechanisms in these two models brings about notable differences in the results. The extent to which the bond-ordered wave and the η-paired (of pairs with centre-of-mass momenta = π) phases of the Penson-Kolb model are affected by the disorder has also been studied in the present calculation. Some finite size effects are also identified.

  7. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Rodriguez, I.; Pulido-Camarillo, E.; Hernandez-Diaz, E.; Alexander-Aguilera, A.; Garcia, H.S.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman's capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group of the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Dietary trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduces murine collagen-induced arthritis in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Shane M; Olson, Jake M; Campbell, James P; Bishop, Jeffrey W; Crump, Peter M; Cook, Mark E

    2014-02-01

    Dietary trans-10,cis-12 (t10c12) conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to reduce inflammation in a murine collagen-induced arthritis (CA) model. To understand the anti-inflammatory potential of t10c12-CLA in the diet, the minimum dose of pure dietary t10c12-CLA capable of reducing CA was investigated. Because plasma inflammatory cytokines often do not reflect the progression of late-stage arthritis, inflamed tissue cytokine concentrations were also investigated in relation to increasing dietary t10c12-CLA amounts. Mice were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments upon the establishment of arthritis: corn oil (CO) or 0.125%, 0.25%, 0.375%, or 0.5% t10c12-CLA (wt:wt) for 84 d. Sham mice (no arthritis) were fed CO and served as controls. Arthritic paw score, based on subjective assessment of arthritic severity, and paw thickness decreased linearly overall [16-65% (P CLA increased (P CLA was associated with a decrease in plasma interleukin (IL)-1β at days 21 and 42 compared with CO-fed arthritic mice, such that mice fed ≥0.25% t10c12-CLA had IL-1β concentrations that were similar to sham mice. Plasma cytokines returned to sham mice concentrations by day 63 regardless of treatment; however, an arthritis-induced elevation in paw IL-1β decreased linearly as dietary t10c12-CLA concentrations increased at day 84 (P = 0.007, R(2) = 0.92). Similarly, increasing dietary t10c12-CLA linearly decreased paw tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (P = 0.05, R(2) = 0.70). In conclusion, ≥0.125% t10c12-CLA dose-dependently reduced inflammation in a murine CA model.

  9. Effect of signal modulating noise in bistable stochastic dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖方红; 闫桂荣; 张新武

    2003-01-01

    The effect of signal modulating noise in bistable stochastic dynamical systems is studied.The concept of instan taneous steady state is proposed for bistable dynamical systems.By making a dynamical analysis of bistable stochastic systems,we find that global and local effect of signal modulating noise as well as stochastic resonance can occur in bistable dynamical systems on which both a weak sinusoidal signal and noise are forced.The effect is demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  10. Enhanced sensitivity of Cypridina luciferin analog (CLA) chemiluminescence for the detection of O2- with non ionic detergents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.; Laane, C.; Hilhorst, R.

    2000-01-01

    Superoxide anion-triggered chemiluminescence of Cypridina luciferin analogue (CLA), 2-methyl-6-phenyl-3,7-dohydroimidazo[1,2-]pyrazin-3-one, is enhanced by non-ionic detergents such as Tween 20, Triton X-100 and Tween 80. At the concentration of 0.6øv/v) the largest increase (2.7-fold) of CLA light

  11. In vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of CLA-PTX on B16-F10 melanoma cells%CLA-PTX对黑色素瘤B16-F10的体内外抗肿瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李捷思; 杨科; 柯曦宇; 杜若; 张烜; 张强

    2014-01-01

    本研究旨在探索CLA-PTX对黑色素瘤B16-F10细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用.选择鼠源B16-F10细胞系作为研究模型.研究CLA-PTX体外细胞毒,细胞凋亡,细胞周期作用,以及CLA-PTX体外细胞摄取作用.用荷瘤C57BL6/N小鼠研究CLA-PTX的体内抗肿瘤作用.体外细胞毒研究结果表明:CLA-PTX的ICso为(4.25±0.43) μM,优于紫杉醇(6.70±0.80) μM(P<0.01).与空白组和紫杉醇组相比,CLA-PTX可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,CLA-PTX将细胞周期阻滞于S期,而紫杉醇则使细胞在G2-M期蓄积.CLA-PTX的细胞摄取量显著高于紫杉醇(P<0.01).体内抗肿瘤药效显示,CLA-PTX抗肿瘤活性显著高于空白对照组和紫杉醇组(P<0.01或P<0.05).上述结果表明,CLA-PTX对B16-F10细胞有显著体内外抗肿瘤作用.

  12. 黄花蒿提取物生产工艺条件及其对乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)生成的调控作用%Processing Condition of Artemisia annua L. Extracts and Its Regulative Effect on Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid(CLA)in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芳; 姚一萍

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. contains many kinds of nutritional and biologically active components, including terpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, aromatics, fatty acids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, etc. Supplementation of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L. in ruminant diet is able to increase the CLA content in their milk. Here, we reviewed the nutritional and biologically active components, extraction conditions, detection methods and proper supplementation level in animal diet of ethanol extracts of Artemisia annua L, so as to provide references for the large scale production of CLA-enriched milk.%黄花蒿乙醇提取物含有多种营养活性物质,主要包括萜类、倍半萜类、芳香族类、脂肪酸类、甾体类、黄酮类、生物碱类等化合物。反刍动物日粮中添加黄花蒿乙醇提取物能够增加其乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量。综述了黄花蒿乙醇提取物的主要营养活性物质、提取工艺条件、营养活性物质的检测方法及黄花蒿提取物在动物日粮中的适宜添加量,旨在为生产CLA乳提供参考。

  13. trans-10,cis-12 CLA promotes osteoblastogenesis via SMAD mediated mechanism in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Park, Yooheon; Park, Yeonhwa

    2014-05-01

    The inverse relationship between osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells has been linked to overall bone mass. It has previously been reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits adipogenesis via a peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) mediated mechanism, while it increases osteoblastogenesis via a PPARγ-independent mechanism in mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests potential implication of CLA on improving bone mass. Thus the purpose of this study was to determine involvement of CLA on regulation of osteoblastogenesis in murine mesenchymal stem cells by focusing on the Mothers against decapentaplegic (MAD)-related family of molecules 8 (SMAD8), one of key regulators of osteoblastogenesis. The trans-10,cis-12 CLA, but not the cis-9,trans-11, significantly increased osteoblastogenesis via SMAD8, and inhibited adipogenesis independent of SMAD8, while inhibiting factors regulating osteoclastogenesis in this model. These suggest that CLA may help improve osteoblastogenesis via a SMAD8 mediated mechanism.

  14. Characterization and quantification of odor-active compounds in unsaturated fatty acid/conjugated linoleic acid (UFA/CLA)-enriched butter and in conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Silvia; Escher, Felix; Dubois, Sébastien; Schieberle, Peter; Schlichtherle-Cerny, Hedwig

    2009-08-26

    Dairy products enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a higher nutritional value and are suggested to have beneficial health effects. However, such acids are susceptible to oxidation, and off-flavors may be formed during storage. This study was aimed to compare the most important odorants in UFA/CLA-enriched butter to that of conventional butter during storage and induced oxidation. Volatiles were isolated by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry and mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 18 odorants that were quantified by stable isotope dilution analysis. Another important odorant, 3-methyl-1H-indole (mothball-like odor), was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. After storage, UFA/CLA-enriched butter showed higher concentrations of pentanal (fatty), heptanal (green), butanoic acid (cheesy), and delta-decalactone (peach-like). Photo-oxidation of butter samples induced increases in heptanal, (E)-2-octenal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, especially in conventional butter. The higher vitamin content in UFA/CLA samples may protect this butter from oxidation.

  15. Interviews with the 2000 CLA Breakfast Speakers: Mary Pope Osborne, Rosemary Wells, and Patricia Reilly Giff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darigan, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Presents three interviews with the 2000 CLA (Children's Literature Assembly) Breakfast Speakers. Discusses how Osborne has written for virtually every genre for all ages and discusses the new Magic Treehouse book. Talks about Wells' two Mother Goose books, McDuff books and books to come. Considers where Giff gets her ideas for books and discusses…

  16. CLA Selection Guidelines: How to Choose Materials for Parish and School Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Reviews selection guidelines suggested by the Catholic Library Association (CLA) for parish and school libraries. Highlights include who develops the selection policy; American Library Association selection guidelines for school libraries; criteria for both print and nonprint materials; how to handle censorship challenges; and issues concerning…

  17. The Influence of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) on Children's Learning and Teachers' Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue; Lawrence, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and use of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) as a means of evidencing, supporting and promoting children's creative learning in arts-based contexts. The research team at the Centre for Literacy in Primary Education (CLPE) worked with a group of teachers in inner-city Lambeth primary schools to develop an…

  18. Field Test of a Remote Multi-Path CLaDS Methane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Plant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing technologies for quantifying methane emissions are often limited to single point sensors, making large area environmental observations challenging. We demonstrate the operation of a remote, multi-path system using Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy (CLaDS for quantification of atmospheric methane concentrations over extended areas, a technology that shows potential for monitoring emissions from wetlands.

  19. Solvent-free production of 1,3-diglyceride of CLA: Strategy consideration and protocol design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic production of a homogeneous 1,3-diglyceride of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was carried out using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a model fatty acid. Three different operation modes, namely, magnetic stirring under vacuum, vacuum-driven N2 bubblin...

  20. 高等教育质量测评新动向--美国大学生学习评价升级版CLA+%CLA+:The Enhanced Version of Collegiate Learning Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁会青; 魏红

    2016-01-01

    As the enhanced version of Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA), CLA+includes new subscores, criterion-referenced Mastery Levels, and reliable information about performance at both student and institutional levels to play a greater role in the development of higher education institutions and college students. The idea and method of CLA+ provides a valuable reference for the evaluation of teaching and learning in Chinese higher education institutions.%美国大学生学习评价(Collegiate Learning Assessment, CLA)的升级版CLA+针对CLA的不足,在评估内容、评估工具、结果报告、用途等方面进行完善。 CLA+不仅通过完善题目类型、增加分项分数提高问卷的信效度,而且设定了技能掌握的级别标准,进一步拓宽了用途范围。 CLA+作为一种评价学生学习效果的直接标准化工具,其评价理念、方法等都对我国高等教育质量测评的开展具有多层次的启示意义。

  1. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Ida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR, were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group, and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group. A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman´s capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group or the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue proporcionar evidencia que el CLA dietario puede evitar la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico en la estructura tisular, lo que sugiere beneficios potenciales en el desarrollo de este síndrome. Dos grupos de ratas Wistar macho espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR fueron alimentadas con una dieta normal por 8 semanas: una dieta contenía 7.5% de aceite de girasol (grupo VSHR, y el otro contenía 6% de aceite de girasol y 1.5% de CLA (grupo CLA-SHR. A un grupo testigo sano de ratas macho Kyoto-Wistar les fue proporcionada una dieta normal con 7.5% de aceite de girasol. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se tomaron secciones de hígado, riñones y aorta, las cuales fueron fijadas en formaldeh

  2. Effect of Fluorescent Particle Size on the Modulation Efficiency of Ultrasound-Modulated Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether the size of fluorescent particles affects the modulation efficiency of ultrasound-modulated fluorescence (UMF, we measured UMF and DC (direct current signals of the fluorescence emission from four different-sized fluorescent particles: (1 three carboxylate-modified fluorescent microspheres (FM with diameters of 20 nm, 200 nm, and 1.0 μm and (2 streptavidin-conjugated Alexa Fluor 647 with a diameter of approximately 5 nm. The UMF and DC signals were simultaneously measured using a broadband lock-in amplifier and a narrowband amplifier, respectively. The ratio of the UMF strength to the DC signal strength is defined as the modulation efficiency. This modulation efficiency was then used to evaluate the effects of fluorophore size and concentration. Results show that the modulation efficiency was improved by approximately a factor of two when the size of the fluorescent particles is increased from 5 nm to 1 μm. In addition, the linear relationship between the UMF strength and ultrasound pressure (observed in our previous study was maintained regardless of the fluorescent particle sizes.

  3. Effects of communication training on real practice performance: a role-play module versus a standardized patient module.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, C.; Woermann, U.; Shaha, M.; Rethans, J.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of modules involving standardized patients and role-plays on training communication skills. The first module involved standardized patients and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE); the second module consisted of peer role-plays and a written

  4. Implementation of the ecotoxicological, effects module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Payet, Jerome; Molander, S;

    The goal of this report is to come up with recommendations on how to calculate the ecotoxicity effect indicator (termed ecotox effect indicator) for use in the OMNIITOX base model (BM). The ecotox effect indicator is used together with the input from the fate modelling to calculate a characterisa...

  5. An effective method for network module extraction from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahanta Priyakshi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of high-throughput Microarray technologies has provided various opportunities to systematically characterize diverse types of computational biological networks. Co-expression network have become popular in the analysis of microarray data, such as for detecting functional gene modules. Results This paper presents a method to build a co-expression network (CEN and to detect network modules from the built network. We use an effective gene expression similarity measure called NMRS (Normalized mean residue similarity to construct the CEN. We have tested our method on five publicly available benchmark microarray datasets. The network modules extracted by our algorithm have been biologically validated in terms of Q value and p value. Conclusions Our results show that the technique is capable of detecting biologically significant network modules from the co-expression network. Biologist can use this technique to find groups of genes with similar functionality based on their expression information.

  6. Regulatory T cell expression of CLA or α4β7 and skin or gut acute GVHD outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Engelhardt, BG; Jagasia, M; Savani, BN; Bratcher, NL; Greer, JP; Jiang, A.; Kassim, AA; Lu, P.; Schuening, F; Yoder, SM; Rock, MT; Crowe, JE

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a suppressive subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes implicated in the prevention of acute GVHD (aGVHD) after allo-SCT (ASCT). To determine whether increased frequency of Tregs with a skin-homing (cutaneous lymphocyte Ag, CLA+) or a gut-homing (α4β7+) phenotype is associated with reduced risk of skin or gut aGVHD, respectively, we quantified circulating CLA+ or α4β7+ on Tregs at the time of neutrophil engraftment in 43 patients undergoing ASCT. Increased CLA+ Tregs at eng...

  7. Bioconversion of biodiesel refinery waste in the bioemulsifier by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Monteiro Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microbial bioemulsifiers was surface active compounds, are more effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. The yeasts have been isolated to produce bioemulsifiers from vegetable oils and industrial wastes. Results Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2 is bioemulsifier-producing yeast strain isolated from effluents of the dairy industry, with ability to emulsify different hydrophobic substrates. Bioemulsifier production (mg/L and the emulsifying activity (E24 of this strain were optimized by response surface methodology using mineral minimal medium containing refinery waste as the carbon source, which consisted of diatomaceous earth impregnated with esters from filters used in biodiesel purification. The highest bioemulsifier production occurred in mineral minimal medium containing 75 g/L biodiesel residue and 5 g/L ammonium sulfate. The highest emulsifying activity was obtained in medium containing 58 g/L biodiesel refinery residue and 4.6 g/L ammonium sulfate, and under these conditions, the model estimated an emulsifying activity of 85%. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis suggested a bioemulsifier molecule consisting of monosaccharides, predominantly xylose and mannose, and a long chain aliphatic groups composed of octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid at concentrations of 48.01% and 43.16%, respectively. The carbohydrate composition as determined by GC-MS of their alditol acetate derivatives showed a larger ratio of xylose (49.27%, mannose (39.91%, and glucose (10.81%. 1 H NMR spectra confirmed by COSY suggested high molecular weight, polymeric pattern, presence of monosaccharide’s and long chain aliphatic groups in the bioemulsifier molecule. Conclusions The biodiesel residue is an economical substrate, therefore seems to be very promising for the low-cost production of active emulsifiers in the emulsification of aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and kerosene.

  8. Algorithm of constructing hybrid effective modules for elastic isotropic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetashkov, A. A.; Miciński, J.; Kupriyanov, N. A.; Barashkov, V. N.; Lushnikov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    The algorithm of constructing of new effective elastic characteristics of two-component composites based on the superposition of the models of Reiss and Voigt, Hashin and Strikman, as well as models of the geometric average for effective modules. These effective characteristics are inside forks Voigt and Reiss. Additionally, the calculations of the stress-strain state of composite structures with new effective characteristics give more accurate prediction than classical models do.

  9. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Young Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage. We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  10. 牛乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)的研究%Study on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华伟; 盛漪; 张灏

    2001-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(CLA)是亚油酸的同分异构体的混合物,主要来源于牛乳、乳制品及反刍动物食品的天然营养成分.本文就CLA的抑癌和降血脂等多种生理功能及其作用机理,阐述了CLA作为一种新型营养物质的潜力.

  11. CLaSPS: A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR KNOWLEDGE EXTRACTION FROM COMPLEX ASTRONOMICAL DATA SETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G.; Laurino, O. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Djorgovski, G.; Donalek, C.; Longo, G. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    In this paper, we present the Clustering-Labels-Score Patterns Spotter (CLaSPS), a new methodology for the determination of correlations among astronomical observables in complex data sets, based on the application of distinct unsupervised clustering techniques. The novelty in CLaSPS is the criterion used for the selection of the optimal clusterings, based on a quantitative measure of the degree of correlation between the cluster memberships and the distribution of a set of observables, the labels, not employed for the clustering. CLaSPS has been primarily developed as a tool to tackle the challenging complexity of the multi-wavelength complex and massive astronomical data sets produced by the federation of the data from modern automated astronomical facilities. In this paper, we discuss the applications of CLaSPS to two simple astronomical data sets, both composed of extragalactic sources with photometric observations at different wavelengths from large area surveys. The first data set, CSC+, is composed of optical quasars spectroscopically selected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, observed in the x-rays by Chandra and with multi-wavelength observations in the near-infrared, optical, and ultraviolet spectral intervals. One of the results of the application of CLaSPS to the CSC+ is the re-identification of a well-known correlation between the {alpha}{sub OX} parameter and the near-ultraviolet color, in a subset of CSC+ sources with relatively small values of the near-ultraviolet colors. The other data set consists of a sample of blazars for which photometric observations in the optical, mid-, and near-infrared are available, complemented for a subset of the sources, by Fermi {gamma}-ray data. The main results of the application of CLaSPS to such data sets have been the discovery of a strong correlation between the multi-wavelength color distribution of blazars and their optical spectral classification in BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars, and a

  12. [Improvement of natamycin production in an industrial strain by heterologous expression of the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengsheng; Wang, Yemin; Zheng, Hualiang; Tao, Meifeng

    2015-05-01

    The afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes from Streptomyces clavuligerus activate the production of two antibiotics in Streptomyces lividans. In this study, we gained an increase of 38% in the production of natamycin (3.56 g/L) in an industrial strain Streptomyces gilvosporeus TZ1401 through the integration of pHL851 that bears the afsRS(cla) global regulatory genes into its genome. We discovered by quantitive real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that the expression of 6 genes of the natamycin biosynthetic gene cluster were improved from 1.9 to 2.7 times. This suggests that afsRS(cla) improve the production of natamycin through increased transcription. This study provides a good example for applying afsRS(cla) in high yield breeding of industrial antibiotic producers.

  13. CLaSS Computer Literacy Software: From Design to Implementation - A Three Year Student Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cole

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Both computer literacy and information retrieval techniques are required to undertake studies in higher education in the United Kingdom. This paper considers the research, development and the 3-year student evaluation of a piece of learning technology in computer and information literacy (CLaSS software. Students completed a questionnaire to examine their own assessment of knowledge and competence in computer and information literacy and based on this assessment CLaSS software was created to assist nursing students with computer and information literacy. This paper draws on existing literature and applies a specific learning model to the software while considering software engineering and user-centered design methodologies. The technical processes involved in designing and creating the software are briefly considered with software development data analysis discussed. A 3-year student evaluation of the software after it's release was undertaken to consider the long-term validity and usefulness of this software with the results analysed and discussed.

  14. Effectiveness of Online Module for Graduate Astronomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lauren E. P.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Brame, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We noticed that teaching an important galaxy formation model in a graduate-level course (Structure and Dynamics of Galaxies) with lecture-style instruction did not promote active learning on the part of the student and that the level and quality of in-class discussion varied wildly from semester to semester. Hoping to improve the learning experience for the students, we designed and incorporated an online module to deliver course content, activities, and assessments. We investigate the effectiveness of this online module as a teaching tool by monitoring students’ learning gains and present our preliminary results.

  15. Performance Study of optical Modulator based on electrooptic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodiya, V.; Raghuwanshi, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied and derive performance parameter of highly integrated Lithium Niobate optical modulator. This is a chirp free modulator having low switching voltage and large bandwidth. For an external modulator in which travelling-wave electrodes length L imposed the modulating switching voltage, the product of Vπ and L is fixed for a given electro optic material Lithium Niobate. We investigate to achieve a low Vπ by both magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient for a wide variety of electro-optic materials. A Sellmeier equation for the extraordinary index of congruent lithium niobate is derived. For phase-matching, predictions are accmate for temperature between room temperature 250°C and wavelength ranging from 0.4 to 5µm. The Sellmeier equations predict more accmately refractive indices at long wavelengths. Theoretical result is confirmed by simulated results. We have analysed the various parameters such as switching voltage, device performance index, time constant, transmittance, cut-off frequency, 3-dB bandwidth, power absorption coefficient and transmission bit rate of Lithium Niobate optical Modulator based on electro -optic effect.

  16. Streptococcus induces circulating CLA(+) memory T-cell-dependent epidermal cell activation in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, Marta; Galván, Ana B; Rincón, Catalina; Romeu, Ester R; Sacrista, Marc; Barboza, Erika; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Celada, Antonio; Pujol, Ramon M; Santamaria-Babí, Luis F

    2013-04-01

    Streptococcal throat infection is associated with a specific variant of psoriasis and with HLA-Cw6 expression. In this study, activation of circulating psoriatic cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA)(+) memory T cells cultured together with epidermal cells occurred only when streptococcal throat extracts were added. This triggered the production of Th1, Th17, and Th22 cytokines, as well as epidermal cell mediators (CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11). Streptococcal extracts (SEs) did not induce any activation with either CLA(-) cells or memory T cells cultured together with epidermal cells from healthy subjects. Intradermal injection of activated culture supernatants into mouse skin induced epidermal hyperplasia. SEs also induced activation when we used epidermal cells from nonlesional skin of psoriatic patients with CLA(+) memory T cells. Significant correlations were found between SE induced upregulation of mRNA expression for ifn-γ, il-17, il-22, ip-10, and serum level of antistreptolysin O in psoriatic patients. This study demonstrates the direct involvement of streptococcal infection in pathological mechanisms of psoriasis, such as IL-17 production and epidermal cell activation.

  17. Drift effects on the galactic cosmic ray modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurenza, M.; Storini, M. [INAF/IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Vecchio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia-Sede di Cosenza, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Carbone, V., E-mail: monica.laurenza@iaps.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) modulation is driven by both solar activity and drift effects in the heliosphere, although their role is only qualitatively understood as it is difficult to connect the CR variations to their sources. In order to address this problem, the Empirical Mode Decomposition technique has been applied to the CR intensity, recorded by three neutron monitors at different rigidities (Climax, Rome, and Huancayo-Haleakala (HH)), the sunspot area, as a proxy for solar activity, the heliospheric magnetic field magnitude, directly related to CR propagation, and the tilt angle (TA) of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), which characterizes drift effects on CRs. A prominent periodicity at ∼six years is detected in all the analyzed CR data sets and it is found to be highly correlated with changes in the HCS inclination at the same timescale. In addition, this variation is found to be responsible for the main features of the CR modulation during periods of low solar activity, such as the flat (peaked) maximum in even (odd) solar cycles. The contribution of the drift effects to the global Galactic CR modulation has been estimated to be between 30% and 35%, depending on the CR particle energy. Nevertheless, the importance of the drift contribution is generally reduced in periods nearing the sunspot maximum. Finally, threshold values of ∼40°, ∼45°, and >55° have been derived for the TA, critical for the CR modulation at the Climax, Rome, and HH rigidity thresholds, respectively.

  18. mRNA abundance of genes involved in mammary lipogenesis during fish oil- or trans-10,cis-12 CLA-induced milk fat depression in dairy ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Carreño, D; Frutos, P

    2017-04-01

    -individual variation and relatively advanced lactation stage (on average 102-103 d in milk on d 38 and 39). Overall, direct comparison of the effects of dietary FO and CLA on transcript abundance of candidate lipogenic genes and transcription factors suggest that there might be relevant differences in the transcriptional control mechanisms underlying the MFD induced by each kind of supplement (i.e., fish oil or CLA).

  19. Rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid supplementation to dairy cows in late pregnancy and early lactation: effects on milk composition, milk yield, blood metabolites and gene expression in liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Heinrich HD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a collective term for isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double-bond system. Thus, it was the objective to investigate whether milk composition and metabolic key parameters are affected by adding CLA to the diet of dairy cows in the first four weeks of lactation. Methods A study was carried out with five primiparous cows fed a CLA supplemented diet compared to five primiparous cows without CLA supplementation. CLA supplemented cows received 7.5 g CLA/day (i.e. 50% cis(c9,trans(t11- and 50% t10,c12-CLA starting two weeks before expected calving and 20 g CLA/day (i.e. 50% c9,t11- and 50% t10,c12-CLA throughout day 1 to 28 of lactation. Results The CLA supplement was insufficiently accepted by the animals: only 61.5% of the intended amount was ingested. Fed CLA were detectable in milk fat, whereas contents of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA in milk fat were higher for CLA supplemented cows compared to the control group. On average over the entire treatment period, there was a decrease of saturated fatty acids (FA in milk fat of CLA supplemented cows, combined with a higher content of monounsaturated and trans FA. Our study revealed no significant effects of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA supplementation either on milk yield and composition or on metabolic key parameters in blood. Furthermore the experiment did not indicate significant effects of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA-supplementation on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα, PPARγ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in liver tissue. Conclusions Feeding c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA during the first weeks after calving did not affect metabolic key parameters of blood serum or milk composition of fresh cows. Milk fatty acid composition was changed by feeding c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA resulting in higher contents of these isomers in milk fat. High contents of long chain FA in

  20. The Attraction Effect Modulates Reward Prediction Errors and Intertemporal Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, Sebastian; Hotaling, Jared M; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2017-01-11

    Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle. We first demonstrate that intertemporal decision making is prone to the attraction effect in humans. In an independent group of participants, we then investigated how this affects the neural and behavioral valuation of outcomes using a novel intertemporal lottery task and fMRI. Participants' behavioral responses (i.e., satisfaction ratings) were modulated systematically by the attraction effect and this modulation was correlated across participants with the respective change of the RPE signal in the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, we show that, because exponential and hyperbolic discounting models are unable to account for the attraction effect, recently proposed sequential sampling models might be more appropriate to describe intertemporal choices. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that the attraction effect modulates subjective valuation even in the absence of choice. The findings also challenge the prospect of using neuroscientific methods to measure utility in a context-free manner and have important implications for theories of reinforcement learning and delay discounting.

  1. Peltier-effect module for highly localized temperature manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wang, Wanjun; Murphy, Michael C.

    1999-11-01

    A Peltier-effect module suitable for applications that require manipulation of the temperature (cooling or heating) of microsized subjects or at a highly localized spot was developed. The module was constructed from a commercial electronic refrigeration device based on the Peltier effect with an array of microprobes attached to its top surface. The microprobes were fabricated using the LIGA (German acronym for lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung) process—one of the microelectromechanical systems technologies. The 1000-μm-tall microprobes were fabricated on a titanium plate and then bonded onto the top surface of a commercial Peltier device. When an electrical current was supplied to the Peltier device, the top surface (with microprobes) of the device was cooled and the other side was heated. Heat was conducted from a microsample on the tip of microprobe to the top surface of the Peltier device. A dynamic model of the module was developed and numerical simulation studies were conducted. The prototype module was tested and the experimental results matched well with those predicted by the numerical simulations. The maximum difference between the temperature of a microsample and that at the surface of the Peltier device was approximately 1 °C.

  2. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    totally decouple the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin source connection does, because they are still in the loop of power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary source connection are investigated and analyzed: common source stray inductance reduction, transient drain-source current......Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...... imbalance mitigation and influence on the steady state bond wire current distribution. Simulation and experimental results validate the working mechanism analysis and the effects of the auxiliary source connections....

  3. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12 (marketed as Clarinol® and Tonalin®) and “contributes to a reduction in body fat mass” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture (marketed under the trade names Clarinol® and Tonalin®) of the two conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. The claimed...... of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12, marketed under the trade names of Clarinol® and Tonalin®, and a beneficial physiological effect....

  4. Behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of injected leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Haque, Zeba; Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin is viewed as an important target for developing novel therapeutics for obesity, depression/anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. The present study therefore concerns behavioral, hormonal and central serotonin modulating effects of systemically injected leptin. Pharmacological doses (100 and 500 μg/kg) of leptin injected systemically decreased 24h cumulative food intake and body weight in freely feeding rats and improved acquisition and retention of memory in Morris water maze test. Potential anxiety reducing, hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of the peptide hormone were determined in a separate experiment. Animals injected with 100 or 500 μg/kg leptin were tested for anxiety in an elevated plus maze test 1h later. A significant increase in the number of entries and time passed in open arm of the elevated plus maze in leptin injected animals suggested pronounced anxiety reducing effect. Moreover, circulating levels of leptin correlated significantly with anxiety reducing effects of the peptide hormone. Serum serotonin increased and ghrelin decreased in leptin injected animals and correlated, positively and negatively respectively, with circulating leptin. Corticosterone increased at low dose and levels were normal at higher dose. Serotonin metabolism in the hypothalamus and hippocampus decreased only at higher dose of leptin. The results support a role of leptin in the treatment of obesity, anxiety and cognitive dysfunctions. It is suggested that hormonal and serotonin modulating effects of leptin can alter treatment efficacy in particularly comorbid conditions.

  5. High dose trans-10,cis-12 CLA increases lean body mass in hamsters, but elevates levels of plasma lipids and liver enzyme biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoran; Joseph, Shama V; Wakefield, Andrew P; Aukema, Harold M; Jones, Peter J H

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the efficacy of graded doses of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers on body composition, energy expenditure, hepatic and serum lipid liver biomarkers in hamsters. Animals (n = 105) were randomized to seven treatments (control, 1, 2, 3% of c9,t11; 1, 2, 3% of t10,c12) for 28 days. After 28 days treatment, 1-3% of t10,c12 lowered (p CLA isomers. The 2%, 3% t10,c12 groups presented elevated (p CLA lowered (p CLA has less potent actions than t10,c12 CLA. We conclude that the actions of CLA on energy and lipid metabolism are form and dose dependent in the hamster model.

  6. Effects of multiple-dose ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, on lymphocyte subsets in healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurcevic S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stipo Jurcevic,1 Pierre-Eric Juif,2 Colleen Hamid,3 Roseanna Greenlaw,3 Daniele D’Ambrosio,2 Jasper Dingemanse2 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Allschwil, Switzerland; 3Division of Transplantation Immunology & Mucosal Biology, King’s College London, London, UK Abstract: This study investigated the effects of ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, on T lymphocyte subsets in 16 healthy subjects. Lymphocyte subset proportions and absolute numbers were determined at baseline and on Day 10, after once-daily administration of ponesimod (10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg each consecutively for 3 days or placebo (ratio 3:1. The overall change from baseline in lymphocyte count was -1,292±340×106 cells/L and 275±486×106 cells/L in ponesimod- and placebo-treated subjects, respectively. This included a decrease in both T and B lymphocytes following ponesimod treatment. A decrease in naïve CD4+ T cells (CD45RA+CCR7+ from baseline was observed only after ponesimod treatment (-113±98×106 cells/L, placebo: 0±18×106 cells/L. The number of T-cytotoxic (CD3+CD8+ and T-helper (CD3+CD4+ cells was significantly altered following ponesimod treatment compared with placebo. Furthermore, ponesimod treatment resulted in marked decreases in CD4+ T-central memory (CD45RA-CCR7+ cells (-437±164×106 cells/L and CD4+ T-effector memory (CD45RA-CCR7- cells (-131±57×106 cells/L. In addition, ponesimod treatment led to a decrease of -228±90×106 cells/L of gut-homing T cells (CLA-integrin β7+. In contrast, when compared with placebo, CD8+ T-effector memory and natural killer (NK cells were not significantly reduced following multiple-dose administration of ponesimod. In summary, ponesimod treatment led to a marked reduction in overall T and B cells. Further investigations revealed that the number of CD4+ cells was dramatically reduced, whereas

  7. Mirage effect from thermally modulated transparent carbon nanotube sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, Ali E; Baughman, Ray H [Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Gartstein, Yuri N, E-mail: Ali.Aliev@utdallas.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    The single-beam mirage effect, also known as photothermal deflection, is studied using a free-standing, highly aligned carbon nanotube aerogel sheet as the heat source. The extremely low thermal capacitance and high heat transfer ability of these transparent forest-drawn carbon nanotube sheets enables high frequency modulation of sheet temperature over an enormous temperature range, thereby providing a sharp, rapidly changing gradient of refractive index in the surrounding liquid or gas. The advantages of temperature modulation using carbon nanotube sheets are multiple: in inert gases the temperature can reach > 2500 K; the obtained frequency range for photothermal modulation is {approx} 100 kHz in gases and over 100 Hz in high refractive index liquids; and the heat source is transparent for optical and acoustical waves. Unlike for conventional heat sources for photothermal deflection, the intensity and phase of the thermally modulated beam component linearly depends upon the beam-to-sheet separation over a wide range of distances. This aspect enables convenient measurements of accurate values for thermal diffusivity and the temperature dependence of refractive index for both liquids and gases. The remarkable performance of nanotube sheets suggests possible applications as photo-deflectors and for switchable invisibility cloaks, and provides useful insights into their use as thermoacoustic projectors and sonar. Visibility cloaking is demonstrated in a liquid.

  8. Light modulators and deflectors based on polariton effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of constructing light modulators and deflectors based on polariton effects is considered. The polariton is a mixed complex consisting of a superposition of a one-photon state and a crystal excitation state. By influencing the crystal excitation state by means of external fields, t......, and temperature gradients are shown with orders of magnitude of deflections computed. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  9. Absorption and metabolism of cis-9,trans-11-CLA and of its oxidation product 9,11-furan fatty acid by Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Merkel, Roswitha; Lengler, Imme; Lampen, Alfonso

    2012-04-01

    Furan fatty acids (furan-FA) can be formed by auto-oxidation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and may therefore be ingested when CLA-containing foodstuff is consumed. Due to the presence of a furan ring structure, furan-FA may have toxic properties, however, these substances are toxicologically not well characterized so far. Here we show that 9,11-furan-FA, the oxidation product of the major CLA isomer cis-9,trans-11-CLA (c9,t11-CLA), is not toxic to human intestinal Caco-2 cells up to a level of 100 μM. Oil-Red-O staining indicated that 9,11-furan-FA as well as c9,t11-CLA and linoleic acid are taken up by the cells and stored in the form of triglycerides in lipid droplets. Chemical analysis of total cellular lipids revealed that 9,11-furan-FA is partially elongated probably by the enzymatic activity of cellular fatty acid elongases whereas c9,t11-CLA is partially converted to other isomers such as c9,c11-CLA or t9,t11-CLA. In the case of 9,11-furan-FA, there is no indication for any modification or activation of the furan ring system. From these results, we conclude that 9,11-furan-FA has no properties of toxicological relevance at least for Caco-2 cells which serve as a model for enterocytes of the human small intestine.

  10. A self-assembling nanomedicine of conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX) with higher drug loading and carrier-free characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ting; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Yang; Duan, Xiao-Chuan; Ren, Wei; Dan Huang; Yin, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the proof-of-principle for the hypothesis that conjugated linoleic acid-paclitaxel conjugate (CLA-PTX), a novel fatty acid modified anti-cancer drug conjugate, could self-assemble forming nanoparticles. The results indicated that a novel self-assembling nanomedicine, CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 105 nm), with Cremophor EL (CrEL)-free and organic solvent-free characteristics, was prepared by a simple precipitation method. Being the ratio of CLA-PTX:DSPE-PEG was only 1:0.1 (w/w), the higher drug loading CLA-PTX@PEG NPs (about 90%) possessed carrier-free characteristic. The stability results indicated that CLA-PTX@PEG NPs could be stored for at least 9 months. The safety of CLA-PTX@PEG NPs was demonstrated by the MTD results. The anti-tumor activity and cellular uptake were also confirmed in the in vitro experiments. The lower crystallinity, polarity and solubility of CLA-PTX compared with that of paclitaxel (PTX) might be the possible reason for CLA-PTX self-assembling forming nanoparticles, indicating a relationship between PTX modification and nanoparticles self-assembly. Overall, the data presented here confirm that this drug self-delivery strategy based on self-assembly of a CLA-PTX conjugate may offer a new way to prepare nanomedicine products for cancer therapy involving the relationship between anticancer drug modification and self-assembly into nanoparticles.

  11. DFT calculations of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (26DMP) and its complex with chloranilic acid (CLA): Comparison to INS, IR and Raman vibration spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukojć, A.; Sobczyk, L.; Prager, M.; Bator, G.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2008-12-01

    The inelastic neutron scattering (INS), infrared and Raman spectra of crystalline 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (26DMP) and its complex with chloranilic acid (26DMP·CLA) were measured. Simultaneously the DFT calculations of the molecular structures and frequencies of the normal vibrations were performed by using various functionals. The INS spectra were simulated in the energy range up to 1200 cm -1, on the basis of the calculated frequencies. A very good conformity was obtained between experimental and calculated data with respect to the structure as well as to frequencies, with exception, however, of the CH 3 torsional modes. The structural analysis based on the deviation from the sum of the van der Waals radii showed that the packing of the methyl groups in the 26DMP·CLA complex was markedly stronger than that in the neat 26DMP. However, the DFT calculations overestimated the role of this effect that may be due to a limitation of the applied methods. In addition the anharmonicity of the rotational potential led to the librational energies different from those obtained using a harmonic potential.

  12. Inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome after the intake of fatty acids n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Mondragón, M.G; Oliart Ros, R. M. ; Angulo Guerrero, J. O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: The metabolic syndrome (MS increa -ses the odds of dying for cardiovascular disease, theworld’s leading cause of death. It has been shown thatpolyunsaturated fatty acids have a protective role in cardiovascular disease and its comorbidities.Objective: To assess the effect of three kinds ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids on the chronic inflammation in MS.Methods: The study group was 45 adults with MSdiagnose according to IDF criteria. Each group of treatment was assigned cuasi-randomly to 15 subjects during six weeks: a 1.8 g/d n-3 (1.08 g eicosapentoaenoicacid EPA + 0.72 g docosahexaenoic acid DHA, b 2.0g/d conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 50:50, cis9:trans11,trans10:cis12, c 40 g/d walnut Juglans regia. The results at the beginning and the end of the essay werecompared in each group, using the t-Student test and p <0.01 as statistical signification value.Results:In the patients supplemented with n-3 fattyacids, significantly decreased the level of IL-6 (from9.81 ±1.28 to 8.47 ±0.81 pg/ml, p=0.002, leptin(from 25.94 ±5.06 ng/ml to 20.53 ±3.96 ng/ml,p=0.003 and homocysteine (from 18.80 ±1.95 to16.72 ±1.99 µmol/l, p=0.007, in erythrocytes decreased the percentage α-linolenic content (from 1.90±0.77 to 1.26 ±0.17 %, p=0.004 and the n6/n3 rate(from 4.48 ±1.06 to 3.11 a ±0.60, p=0.000, while increased the percentage of EPA (from 1.13 ±0.45 to1.58 ±0.42 %, p=0.009 and DHA (from 2.61 ±0.36 to4.64 ±0.91 %, p=0.000. In the group that consumedwalnut declined the levels of TNF-α (from 8.75 ±2.06pg/ml to 6.68 ±0.97 pg/ml, p=0.002 and IL-6 (from10.61 ±1.45 to 8.72 ±0.79 pg/ml, p=0.000, in erythrocytes increased the α-linolenic content (from 1.86±0.65 to 2.62 ±0.72 %, p=0.005. In the group thatconsumed CLA decreased the level of homocysteine(from 18.01 ±2.65 to 15.34 ±2.26 µmol/l, p=0.006.Conclusions: The groups that consumed n-3 fattyacids in supplements (EPA/DHA and in walnut, becameevident the modification in

  13. Effects of Auxiliary-Source Connection in Multichip Power Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the power loop and the gate loop like how the Kelvin-source connection does, owing to their involvement in the loop of the power source current. Three effects of the auxiliary-source connections are then analyzed, which are 1) the common source stray inductance reduction, 2) the transient drain......Auxiliary-source bond wires and connections are widely used in power modules with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the operation mechanism of the auxiliary-source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary-source connections cannot fully decouple......-source current imbalance mitigation, and 3) the influence on the steady-state current distribution. Lastly, simulations and experimental results validate the theoretical analysis....

  14. Frequency modulation via the Doppler effect in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberson, P; Huttner, B; Gisin, N

    1999-04-01

    We present the principle of optical frequency modulation via the Doppler effect obtained by rapidly stretching an optical fiber and thus modifying the optical path of the light propagating in the fiber. This procedure creates a pure frequency shift, with no degradation of the spectrum. Moreover, the effect is wavelength independent and can therefore be applied to any type of light source. We show an experimental realization in which a frequency excursion of ~100 MHz was obtained with a bobbin vibrating at 180 Hz.

  15. Strontium titanate resistance modulation by ferroelectric field effect

    CERN Document Server

    Marré, D; Bellingeri, E; Pallecchi, I; Pellegrino, L; Siri, A S

    2003-01-01

    Among perovskite oxides strontium titanate (STO) SrTiO sub 3 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at very low carrier concentration and exhibits high mobility values at low temperature. We exploited such electrical properties and the structural compatibility of perovskite oxide materials in realizing ferroelectric field effect epitaxial heterostructures. By pulsed laser deposition, we grew patterned field effect devices, consisting of lanthanum doped STO and Pb(Zr,Ti)O sub 3. Such devices showed a resistance modulation up to 20%, consistent with geometrical parameters and carrier concentration of the semiconducting channel.

  16. Effects of communication training on real practice performance: a role-play module versus a standardized patient module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Claudia; Woermann, Ulrich; Shaha, Maya; Rethans, Jan-Joost; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of modules involving standardized patients and role-plays on training communication skills. The first module involved standardized patients and an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE); the second module consisted of peer role-plays and a written examination. A randomized posttest-only control group design with first-year nursing students was used. The intervention group received one-to-one communication training with direct oral feedback from the standardized patient. The control group had training with peer role-playing and mutual feedback. The posttest involved students' rating their self-efficacy, and real patients and clinical supervisors evaluated their communication skills. No significant differences were found between self-efficacy and patient ratings. However, the clinical supervisors rated the intervention group's communication skills to be significantly (p communication training modules including standardized patients and an OSCE are superior to communication training modules with peer role-playing.

  17. Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten eGiessing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with fMRI. Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e. the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the global workspace theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher

  18. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  19. Social closeness and feedback modulate susceptibility to the framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sip, Kamila E; Smith, David V; Porcelli, Anthony J; Kar, Kohitij; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2015-01-01

    Although we often seek social feedback (SFB) from others to help us make decisions, little is known about how SFB affects decisions under risk, particularly from a close peer. We conducted two experiments using an established framing task to probe how decision-making is modulated by SFB valence (positive, negative) and the level of closeness with feedback provider (friend, confederate). Participants faced mathematically equivalent decisions framed as either an opportunity to keep (gain frame) or lose (loss frame) part of an initial endowment. Periodically, participants were provided with positive (e.g., "Nice!") or negative (e.g., "Lame!") feedback about their choices. Such feedback was provided by either a confederate (Experiment 1) or a gender-matched close friend (Experiment 2). As expected, the framing effect was observed in both experiments. Critically, an individual's susceptibility to the framing effect was modulated by the valence of the SFB, but only when the feedback provider was a close friend. This effect was reflected in the activation patterns of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, regions involved in complex decision-making. Taken together, these results highlight social closeness as an important factor in understanding the impact of SFB on neural mechanisms of decision-making.

  20. A Low power and area efficient CLA adder design using Full swing GDI technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcha Hemanth Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The low power VLSI design has an important role in designing of many electronic systems. While designing any combinational or sequential circuits, the important parameters like power consumption, implementation area, voltage leakage and performance of the circuit are to be considered. Design of area, high speed and powerefficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. This paper presents a low power Carry look ahead adder design using Full swing Gate diffusion (FS-GDI technique. The proposed CLA implementation utilizes improved full-swing GDI F1 and F2 gates, which are the counterparts of standard CMOS NAND and NOR gates. The basic Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic style suffers from some practical limitations like swing degradation, fabrication complexity in standard CMOS process and bulk connections. These limitations can be overcome by Full swing GDI technique. The proposed technique utilizes a single swing restoration (SR transistor to improve the output swing of F1 and F2 GDI gates. A 16-bit CLA is designed and Simulations are performed by Mentor graphics 130nm CMOS technology ELDO simulator. Simulation results have shown a greater reduction in delay, power dissipation and area.

  1. Inflammatory Modulation Effect of Glycopeptide from Ganoderma capense (Lloyd Teng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycopeptide from Ganoderma capense (Lloyd Teng (GCGP injection is widely used in kinds of immune disorders, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of how GCGP could interfere with immune cell function. In the present study, we have found that GCGP had inflammatory modulation effects on macrophage cells to maintain NO production and iNOS expression at the normal level. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that the underlying mechanism of immunomodulatory effect of GCGP involved NF-κB p65 translation, IκB phosphorylation, and degradation; NF-κB inhibitor assays also confirmed the results. In addition, competition study showed that GCGP could inhibit LPS from binding to macrophage cells. Our data indicates that GCGP, which may share the same receptor(s expressed by macrophage cells with LPS, exerted immunomodulatory effect in a NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway in macrophages.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12 (marketed as Clarinol® and Tonalin® and ?contributes to a reduction in body fat mass? pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from BASF SE and Stepan Lipid Nutrition, submitted for the authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the Netherlands, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture (marketed under the trade names Clarinol® and Tonalin® of the two conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “contributes to a reduction in body fat mass”. In previous assessments on the safety of these equimolar isomeric mixtures of CLA, the NDA Panel considered that the observed increase in plasma and urinary concentrations of isoprostanes, which may indicate an increase in lipid peroxidation, and the increase in some markers of subclinical inflammation associated with CLA consumption, together with the limited data available on the effects of CLA on vascular function, may indicate a potential for vascular damage in the longer term. The Panel considers that the information provided does not establish that a reduction in body fat mass, when accompanied by an increase in markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation, is a beneficial physiological effect for the target population. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of an equimolar mixture of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12, marketed under the trade names of Clarinol® and Tonalin®, and a beneficial physiological effect.

  3. GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulators: Enhancement of GABAB Receptor Agonist Effects In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators suggest that they have therapeutic potential for treating central nervous system disorders such as anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Although these effects generally are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABAB receptors, such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro. The present study was aimed at further examining the in vivo positive modulatory properties of the GABAB receptor-positive modulators, 2,6-di-tert-but...

  4. Metabolically distinct weight loss by 10,12 CLA and caloric restriction highlight the importance of subcutaneous white adipose tissue for glucose homeostasis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shari; Goodspeed, Leela; Wietecha, Tomasz; Houston, Barbara; Omer, Mohamed; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Subramanian, Savitha; Gowda, G. A. Nagana; O’Brien, Kevin D.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Morton, Gregory J.; Chait, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background Widely used as a weight loss supplement, trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (10,12 CLA) promotes fat loss in obese mice and humans, but has also been associated with insulin resistance. Objective We therefore sought to directly compare weight loss by 10,12 CLA versus caloric restriction (CR, 15–25%), an acceptable healthy method of weight loss, to determine how 10,12 CLA-mediated weight loss fails to improve glucose metabolism. Methods Obese mice with characteristics of human metabolic syndrome were either supplemented with 10,12 CLA or subjected to CR to promote weight loss. Metabolic endpoints such as energy expenditure, glucose and insulin tolerance testing, and trunk fat distribution were measured. Results By design, 10,12 CLA and CR caused equivalent weight loss, with greater fat loss by 10,12 CLA accompanied by increased energy expenditure, reduced respiratory quotient, increased fat oxidation, accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, and browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). Moreover, 10,12 CLA-supplemented mice better defended their body temperature against a cold challenge. However, 10,12 CLA concurrently induced the detrimental loss of subcutaneous WAT without reducing visceral WAT, promoted reduced plasma and WAT adipokine levels, worsened hepatic steatosis, and failed to improve glucose metabolism. Obese mice undergoing CR were protected from subcutaneous-specific fat loss, had improved hepatic steatosis, and subsequently showed the expected improvements in WAT adipokines, glucose metabolism and WAT inflammation. Conclusions These results suggest that 10,12 CLA mediates the preferential loss of subcutaneous fat that likely contributes to hepatic steatosis and maintained insulin resistance, despite significant weight loss and WAT browning in mice. Collectively, we have shown that weight loss due to 10,12 CLA supplementation or CR results in dramatically different metabolic phenotypes, with the latter

  5. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA) on mRNA expression of bone metabolism related markers of bone marrow cells%共轭亚油酸c9,t11-CLA及t10,c12-CLA对大鼠骨髓细胞骨代谢相关基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亦堃; 李丽婷; 郗光霞; 史书红; 李兴; 赵宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA) on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ2 (PPARγ2),receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ( RANKL),alkaline phosphatase ( ALP),osteoprotegerin ( OPG),receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) of bone marrow cells,and study the effect of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA on bone metabolism.Methods Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were cultured in vitro and then the cells were cultured in DMEM with c9,t11-CLA or t10,c12-CLA at different concentrations (the final concentration was 0,12.5,25.0,50.0 μmol/L,respectively) for 24 h.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the mRNA expression of PPARγ2,RANKL,ALP,OPG,RANK and TRAP.Results Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that c9,t11-CLA down-regulated the mRNA expression of RANK and TRAP in a dose-dependent manner,and statistically significant difference was found in interclass comparison (P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ),while it had no effect on the mRNA expression of RANKL,ALP,OPG and PPARγ2.The results also showed that t10,c12-CLA up-regulated the mRNA expression of RANKL and OPG in a dose-dependent manner and down-regnlated the mRNA expression of RANK,TRAP and PPARγ2 in a dose-dependent manner,statistically significant difference was found in interclass comparison ( P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ),while it had no effect on the mRNA expression of ALP.Conclusion Our findings suggest that c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA can suppress the expression of osteoclastogenesis genes and t10,c12-CLA can also promote the expression of osteogenic genes,which suggests a possible benecial effect on bone formation.%目的 观察c9,t11-CLA及t10,c12-CLA干预后,大鼠骨髓细胞过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体2(PPARγ2)及核因子(NF)-κB活化受体配体(RANKL)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、骨保护素(OPG)、NF-κB活化受体(RANK)、

  6. SiC Optically Modulated Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2009-01-01

    An optically modulated field-effect transistor (OFET) based on a silicon carbide junction field-effect transistor (JFET) is under study as, potentially, a prototype of devices that could be useful for detecting ultraviolet light. The SiC OFET is an experimental device that is one of several devices, including commercial and experimental photodiodes, that were initially evaluated as detectors of ultraviolet light from combustion and that could be incorporated into SiC integrated circuits to be designed to function as combustion sensors. The ultraviolet-detection sensitivity of the photodiodes was found to be less than desired, such that it would be necessary to process their outputs using high-gain amplification circuitry. On the other hand, in principle, the function of the OFET could be characterized as a combination of detection and amplification. In effect, its sensitivity could be considerably greater than that of a photodiode, such that the need for amplification external to the photodetector could be reduced or eliminated. The experimental SiC OFET was made by processes similar to JFET-fabrication processes developed at Glenn Research Center. The gate of the OFET is very long, wide, and thin, relative to the gates of typical prior SiC JFETs. Unlike in prior SiC FETs, the gate is almost completely transparent to near-ultraviolet and visible light. More specifically: The OFET includes a p+ gate layer less than 1/4 m thick, through which photons can be transported efficiently to the p+/p body interface. The gate is relatively long and wide (about 0.5 by 0.5 mm), such that holes generated at the body interface form a depletion layer that modulates the conductivity of the channel between the drain and the source. The exact physical mechanism of modulation of conductivity is a subject of continuing research. It is known that injection of minority charge carriers (in this case, holes) at the interface exerts a strong effect on the channel, resulting in amplification

  7. Progress in piezo-phototronic effect modulated photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Miaoling; Zhou, Ranran; Wang, Xiandi; Yuan, Zuqing; Hu, Guofeng; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-11-01

    Wurtzite structured materials, like ZnO, GaN, CdS, and InN, simultaneously possess semiconductor and piezoelectric properties. The inner-crystal piezopotential induced by external strain can effectively tune/control the carrier generation, transport and separation/combination processes at the metal-semiconductor contact or p-n junction, which is called the piezo-phototronic effect. This effect can efficiently enhance the performance of photovoltaic devices based on piezoelectric semiconductor materials by utilizing the piezo-polarization charges at the junction induced by straining, which can modulate the energy band of the piezoelectric material and then accelerate or prevent the separation process of the photon-generated electrons and vacancies. This paper introduces the fundamental physics principles of the piezo-phototronic effect, and reviews recent progress in piezo-phototronic effect enhanced solar cells, including solar cells based on semiconductor nanowire, organic/inorganic materials, quantum dots, and perovskite. The piezo-phototronic effect is suggested as a suitable basis for the development of an innovative method to enhance the performance of solar cells based on piezoelectric semiconductors by applied extrinsic strains, which might be appropriate for fundamental research and potential applications in various areas of optoelectronics.

  8. Progress in piezo-phototronic effect modulated photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Miaoling; Zhou, Ranran; Wang, Xiandi; Yuan, Zuqing; Hu, Guofeng; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-11-02

    Wurtzite structured materials, like ZnO, GaN, CdS, and InN, simultaneously possess semiconductor and piezoelectric properties. The inner-crystal piezopotential induced by external strain can effectively tune/control the carrier generation, transport and separation/combination processes at the metal-semiconductor contact or p-n junction, which is called the piezo-phototronic effect. This effect can efficiently enhance the performance of photovoltaic devices based on piezoelectric semiconductor materials by utilizing the piezo-polarization charges at the junction induced by straining, which can modulate the energy band of the piezoelectric material and then accelerate or prevent the separation process of the photon-generated electrons and vacancies. This paper introduces the fundamental physics principles of the piezo-phototronic effect, and reviews recent progress in piezo-phototronic effect enhanced solar cells, including solar cells based on semiconductor nanowire, organic/inorganic materials, quantum dots, and perovskite. The piezo-phototronic effect is suggested as a suitable basis for the development of an innovative method to enhance the performance of solar cells based on piezoelectric semiconductors by applied extrinsic strains, which might be appropriate for fundamental research and potential applications in various areas of optoelectronics.

  9. Effects of Pupil Diameter on Light Detection and Temporal Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachel S Li; Andrew W Siu; Johnny C Liyu; Elice C Chan

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the effects of pupil variation on light detection and temporal modulation across the central visual field.Methods:Light detection sensitivity (LDS) and low flickering frequency (6Hz) temporal modulation sensitivity (TMS) of 20 young subjects were measured from the central visual field of the right eyes using an automated perimeter (Medmont M600). The measurements were taken under 3 artificial pupils, I.e. 3 mm, 4.3 mm and 6 mm diameters.The sensitivities were grouped and averaged for different retinal eccentricities(3°, 6°, 10° and 15°).Results:TMS and LDS were reduced with increasing retinal eccentricities( P < 0.001)and decreasing pupil diameters( P < 0.001). TMS collected from all pupil diameters were significantly different from each other( P < 0.001). Similarly, LDS under 3 mm pupil was statistically different from those of 4.3 mm and 6 mm(P < 0.003). Comparison of the hills of vision showed that pupil variation resulted in significantly different slopes (P=0.001).The slopes were also found to be significantly different between TMS and LDS (P=0.012).Conclusions: The data showed that dilated pupil resulted in significantly higher sensitivities than those of smaller pupil for both visual functions. The difference in the slopes of hills of vision also suggested that the variation in retinal illumination affected the visual responses differently at various retinal eccentricitities for TMS and LDS.

  10. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  11. Preparation of CLA ascorbyl ester with improved volumetric productivity by an ionic liquid-based reaction system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.L.; Guo, Zheng; Let, M.B.

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the enzymatic production Of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ascorbyl ester with a remarkably high volumetric productivity (120-200 g L-1) has been developed, in which strong solvation by tOMA-TFA (methyltrioctylammonium trifluoroacetate) enables a high concentration of ascorbic...

  12. Effectiveness of the Biology PTechLS Module in a Felda Science Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Gelamdin, Rashidah Begum; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Siraj, Saedah

    2014-01-01

    The PTechLS module combines learning styles with the use of technology to increase students' learning experience, especially in learning abstract concepts. The PTechLS module prototype was developed by Norlidah Alias (2010). The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation effectiveness of the Biology PTechLS module in a Felda Learning…

  13. Prevalence of food allergy and intolerance in children based on MAST CLA and ALCAT tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyłko, K; Obarzanowski, T; Rosiak, K; Staśkiewicz, G; Fiszer, A; Chmielewski, S; Kowalczyk, J

    1995-01-01

    Investigations were performed on 56 children (23 girls, 33 boys), aged 0.5-16.0 (mean 7.2 years). After comparison of the ALCAT cytotoxic test results and the provocation diet results using a single blind trial, over two thirds consistency was obtained, which justified the use of the test for further analysis. The high consistency of MAST CLA and SPT suggests that in the investigated group of children IgE specific for nuts, grain, carrot, and soyabean prevailed. Comparison of these data to the ALCAT cytotoxic test gives a different view of products customarily given to allergic children. Tea, apple, coca-cola, and barley proved to be the most frequent cause of food intolerance in children investigated with the ALCAT test.

  14. Identification of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers by silver ion-liquid chromatography/in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry (Ag+-LC/O3-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chenxing; Black, Brenna A; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Gänzle, Michael G; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2013-08-06

    A novel method for the identification of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers has been developed in which silver ion liquid chromatography is coupled to in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry (Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS). The mobile phase containing CLA isomers eluting from the Ag(+)-LC column flows through a length of gas-permeable tubing within an ozone rich environment. Ozone penetrating the tubing wall reacts with the conjugated double bonds forming ozonolysis product aldehydes. These, and their corresponding methanol loss fragment ions formed within the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source, were detected by in-line MS and used for the direct assignment of double bond positions. Assignment of positional isomers is based entirely on the two pairs of diagnostic ions seen in the in-line O3-MS mass spectra. In this way, de novo identification of CLA positional isomers, i.e. without requiring comparison to CLA standards, was achieved. The Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS method was applied to the analysis of CLA isomers in a commercial CLA supplement, milk fat, and the lipid extract from a Lactobacillus plantarum TMW1460 culture. The results demonstrate how Ag(+)-LC/O3-MS can be used for the direct and fast determination of CLA isomers at low concentrations and in complex lipid mixtures.

  15. Effet d’un régime riche en acides gras ω3 et en CLA 9-cis, 11-trans sur l’insulinorésistance et les paramètres du diabète de type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a pathology mainly induced by nutrition is increasing. In vivo studies on rat have demonstrated the interest of n-3 long chains polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA in the diet to improve insulin sensibility. This study investigates the effect of a diet with products (linseed enriched livestock diet products and linseed bread naturally enriched in n-3 PUFA and CLA 9-cis, 11-trans on glycemic parameters of type 2 diabetics. 44 type 2 diabetics were randomised in three parallel groups and followed a particular diet during 100 days. The three diets: diet A (n = 13, enriched in n-3 PUFA via bread, eggs and pastas, diet B (n = 13, enriched in n-3 PUFA and richer in conjugated linoleic acids (CLA via bread, eggs, pastas, beef meat and dairy products and diet T (n = 18, standard, were otherwise similar in energy (1970 kcal per day and type of food. The serum value of the ALA is significantly higher for group A and B and the CLA serum value is significantly higher for the group B only at the end of the study. At the end of the study, fasting insulinemia is lower in group B compared with group A (p = 0,06 and T (p < 0,05 while glycemia does not differ between groups. Insulin resistance is also lower in group B compared with groups A and T, but the differences do not reach significance (p = 0,08 and p = 0,1 respectively. These results suggest the potential implication of CLA 9-cis, 11-trans in a diet rich in ALA in the improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  16. Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.A.B.; Feuer, M.D.; Chang, T.Y.; Shunk, S.C.; Henry, J.E.; Burrows, D.J.; Chemla, D.S.

    1989-03-01

    The authors propose and demonstrate the integration of a photodiode, a quantum-confined Stark effect quantum well optical modulator and a metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET), to make a field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device. This integration allows optical inputs and outputs on the surface of a GaAs-integrated circuit chip, compatible with standard MESFET processing. As an illustration of feasibility, the authors demonstrate optical signal amplification with a single MESFET.

  17. Effect of modulated ultrasound parameters on ultrasound-induced thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, Azita; Volz, Kim R; Hansmann, Doulas R [Research and Development Department, EKOS Corporation, 11911 N Creek Parkway S, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States)], E-mail: asoltani@ekoscorp.com

    2008-12-07

    The potential of ultrasound to enhance enzyme-mediated thrombolysis by application of constant operating parameters (COP) has been widely demonstrated. In this study, the effect of ultrasound with modulated operating parameters (MOP) on enzyme-mediated thrombolysis was investigated. The MOP protocol was applied to an in vitro model of thrombolysis. The results were compared to a COP with the equivalent soft tissue thermal index (TIS) over the duration of ultrasound exposure of 30 min (p < 0.14). To explore potential differences in the mechanism responsible for ultrasound-induced thrombolysis, a perfusion model was used to measure changes in average fibrin pore size of clot before, after and during exposure to MOP and COP protocols and cavitational activity was monitored in real time for both protocols using a passive cavitation detection system. The relative lysis enhancement by each COP and MOP protocol compared to alteplase alone yielded values of 33.69 {+-} 12.09% and 63.89 {+-} 15.02% in a thrombolysis model, respectively (p < 0.007). Both COP and MOP protocols caused an equivalent significant increase in average clot pore size of 2.09 x 10{sup -2} {+-} 0.01 {mu}m and 1.99 x 10{sup -2} {+-} 0.004 {mu}m, respectively (p < 0.74). No signatures of inertial or stable cavitation were observed for either acoustic protocol. In conclusion, due to mechanisms other than cavitation, application of ultrasound with modulated operating parameters has the potential to significantly enhance the relative lysis enhancement compared to application of ultrasound with constant operating parameters.

  18. Effect of Career Education Module on Career Development of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Jasmi A.; Salleh, Amla; Amat, Salleh; Ghavifekr, Simin; Ariff, Azlinda M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a pre-post and control group design, we examined the effect of a career education module on career development among a group of 122 community college students in Malaysia. The effect of gender and the interaction effect of gender and career education module on career development were also investigated. MANOVA analyses showed significant…

  19. Object familiarity modulates effective connectivity during haptic shape perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Hu, Xiaoping; Lacey, Simon; Stilla, Randall; Sathian, K

    2010-02-01

    In the preceding paper (Lacey, S., Flueckiger, P., Stilla, R., Lava, M., Sathian, K., 2009a. Object familiarity modulates involvement of visual imagery in haptic shape perception), we showed that the activations evoked by visual imagery overlapped more extensively, and their magnitudes were more correlated, with those evoked during haptic shape perception of familiar, compared to unfamiliar, objects. Here we used task-specific analyses of functional and effective connectivity to provide convergent evidence. These analyses showed that the visual imagery and familiar haptic shape tasks activated similar networks, whereas the unfamiliar haptic shape task activated a different network. Multivariate Granger causality analyses of effective connectivity, in both a conventional form and one purged of zero-lag correlations, showed that the visual imagery and familiar haptic shape networks involved top-down paths from prefrontal cortex into the lateral occipital complex (LOC), whereas the unfamiliar haptic shape network was characterized by bottom-up, somatosensory inputs into the LOC. We conclude that shape representations in the LOC are flexibly accessible, either top-down or bottom-up, according to task demands, and that visual imagery is more involved in LOC activation during haptic shape perception when objects are familiar, compared to unfamiliar.

  20. Cardiac effect of vitamin D receptor modulators in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahide; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yamazaki-Nakazawa, Ai; Hosaka, Nozomu; Kondo, Fumiko; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Kinugasa, Eriko; Shibata, Takanori

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) modulators (VDRMs) are commonly used to control secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) associated with chronic kidney disease, and are associated with beneficial outcomes in cardiovascular disease. In this study, we compared the cardiac effect of VS-105, a novel VDRM, with that of paricalcitol in 5/6 nephrectomized uremic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were 5/6 nephrectomized, fed a standard diet for 4 weeks to establish uremia, and then treated (intraperitoneally, 3 times/week) with vehicle (propylene glycol), paricalcitol (0.025 and 0.15μg/kg), or VS-105 (0.05 and 0.3μg/kg) for 4 weeks. In uremic rats, neither VDRM (low and high doses) altered serum creatinine and phosphorus levels. Serum calcium was significantly higher with high dose paricalcitol compared to sham rats. PTH levels were significantly decreased with low dose paricalcitol and VS-105, and were further reduced in the high dose groups. Interestingly, serum FGF23 was significantly higher with high dose paricalcitol compared to sham rats, whereas VS-105 had no significant effect on FGF23 levels. Left ventricle (LV) weight and LV mass index determined by echocardiography were significantly suppressed in both high dose VDRM groups. This suppression was more evident with VS-105. Western blotting showed significant decreases in a fibrosis marker TGF-β1 in both high dose VDRM groups (vs. vehicle) and Masson trichrome staining showed significant decreases in cardiac fibrosis in these groups. These results suggest that VS-105 is less hypercalcemic than paricalcitol and has favorable effects on SHPT and cardiac parameters that are similar to those of paricalcitol in uremic rats. The cardioprotective effect is a noteworthy characteristic of VS-105.

  1. Attention effects on vicarious modulation of nociception and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Ali; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Schrooten, Martien; Vlaeyen, Johan; Rainville, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The observation of others' facial expressions of pain has been shown to facilitate the observer's nociceptive responses and to increase pain perception. We investigated how this vicarious facilitation effect is modulated by directing the observer's attention toward the meaning of pain expression or the facial movements. In separate trials, participants were instructed to assess the "intensity of the pain expression"(meaning) or to "discriminate the facial movements" in the upper vs lower part of the face shown in 1-second dynamic clips displaying mild, moderate, or strong pain expressions or a neutral control. In 50% of the trials, participants received a painful electrical stimulation to the sural nerve immediately after the presentation of the expression. Low-level nociceptive reactivity was measured with the RIII-response, and pain perception was assessed using pain ratings. Pain induced by the electrical stimulation increased after viewing stronger pain expressions in both tasks, but the RIII-response showed this vicarious facilitation effect only in the movement discrimination task at the strongest expression intensity. These findings are consistent with the notion that vicarious processes facilitate self-pain and may prime automatic nociceptive responses. However, this priming effect is influenced by top-down attentional processes. These results provide another case of dissociation between reflexive and perceptual processes, consistent with the involvement of partly separate brain networks in the regulation of cortical and lower-level nociceptive responses. Combined with previous results, these findings suggest that vicarious pain facilitation is an automatic process that may be diminished by top-down attentional processes directed at the meaning of the expression.

  2. Damping Effects of Drogue Parachutes on Orion Crew Module Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Because simulations of the Orion Crew Module (CM) dynamics with drogue parachutes deployed were under-predicting the amount of damping seen in free-flight tests, an attach-point damping model was applied to the Orion system. A key hypothesis in this model is that the drogue parachutes' net load vector aligns with the CM drogue attachment point velocity vector. This assumption seems reasonable and has historically produced good results, but has never been experimentally verified. The wake of the CM influences the drogue parachutes, which makes performance predictions of the parachutes difficult. Many of these effects are not currently modeled in the simulations. A forced oscillation test of the CM with parachutes was conducted in the NASA LaRC 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) to gather additional data to validate and refine the attach-point damping model. A second loads balance was added to the original Orion VST model to measure the drogue parachute loads independently of the CM. The objective of the test was to identify the contribution of the drogues to CM damping and provide additional information to quantify wake effects and the interactions between the CM and parachutes. The drogue parachute force vector was shown to be highly dependent on the CM wake characteristics. Based on these wind tunnel test data, the attach-point damping model was determined to be a sufficient approximation of the parachute dynamics in relationship to the CM dynamics for preliminary entry vehicle system design. More wake effects should be included to better model the system.

  3. Mapping the performance of PV modules, effects of module type and data averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huld, Thomas [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, T.P. 450, I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Gottschalg, Ralph [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Beyer, Hans Georg [Institut fuer Elektrotechnik, Hochschule Magdeburg-Stendal, Breitscheidstrasse 2, D-39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Topic, Marko [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-02-15

    A method is presented for estimating the energy yield of photovoltaic (PV) modules at arbitrary locations in a large geographical area. The method applies a mathematical model for the energy performance of PV modules as a function of in-plane irradiance and module temperature and combines this with solar irradiation estimates from satellite data and ambient temperature values from ground station measurements. The method is applied to three different PV technologies: crystalline silicon, CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe based thin-film technology in order to map their performance in fixed installations across most of Europe and to identify and quantify regional performance factors. It is found that there is a clear technology dependence of the geographical variation in PV performance. It is also shown that using long-term average values of irradiance and temperature leads to a systematic positive bias in the results of up to 3%. It is suggested to use joint probability density functions of temperature and irradiance to overcome this bias. (author)

  4. Early effects of reward anticipation are modulated by dopaminergic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore Apitz

    Full Text Available The abilities to predict future rewards and assess the value of reward delivery are crucial aspects of adaptive behavior. While the mesolimbic system, including dopaminergic midbrain, ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex have long been associated with reward processing, recent studies also indicate a prominent role of early visual brain regions. However, the precise underlying neural mechanisms still remain unclear. To address this issue, we presented participants with visual cues predicting rewards of high and low magnitudes and probability (2 × 2 factorial design, while neural activity was scanned using magnetoencephalography. Importantly, one group of participants received 150 mg of the dopamine precursor levodopa prior to the experiment, while another group received a placebo. For the placebo group, neural signals of reward probability (but not magnitude emerged at ∼ 100 ms after cue presentation at occipital sensors in the event-related magnetic fields. Importantly, these probability signals were absent in the levodopa group indicating a close link. Moreover, levodopa administration reduced oscillatory power in the high (20-30 Hz and low (13-20 Hz beta band during both reward anticipation and delivery. Taken together, our findings indicate that visual brain regions are involved in coding prospective reward probability but not magnitude and that these effects are modulated by dopamine.

  5. Channel Capacity of DWDM Networks with Cross-phase Modulation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In dense wavelength division multiplexing(DWDM) optical transmission systems, cross phase modulation(XPM) due to Kerr effect causes phase shift and intensity modulation in each channel, which will lead the channel capacity to be a random variable. An expression of the channel capacity dealing with XPM effect is presented, and the correctness and accuracy of this method are demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  6. In vitro study of the effect of diesterified alkoxyglycerols with conjugated linoleic acid on adipocyte inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reglero Guillermo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocytes contribute to inflammation and the innate immune response through expression of inflammatory mediators. High levels of these mediators have been related to chronic inflammation state and insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes type 2, among other disorders. 3-octadecylglycerol (batyl alcohol has been described as an inflammatory agent, whereas Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA is considered effective against obesity. In this study we examined the anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of modified alkoxyglycerols. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α activated mature adipocytes were used as cellular model of inflammation. Secreted levels and gene expressions of some inflammatory mediators, such as the adipokines, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10; and the levels of leptin and adiponectin hormones were quantified in presence and absence of alkoxyglycerols and when human adipocyte cells were or not activated by TNF-α. The aim of this study is to describe the effects of nonesterified alkoxyglycerols, CLA and diesterified alkoxyglycerols with CLA (DEA-CLA and check if they present beneficial properties using an in vitro model of some chronic diseases related to the inflammatory process, such as obesity, using human mature adipocytes activated with TNF-α. Results Our data suggest that DEA-CLA, product of the esterification between the CLA and batyl alcohol, present beneficial effects on adipocytes close to observed and described for CLA (i.e. decrease of IL-1β and no adverse effects as observed for batyl alcohol (i.e. decrease of IL-10. In addition, DEA-CLA presented similar activity to CLA showing a trend to increase the secreted levels of adiponectin and decreasing the secreted levels of leptin. Conclusions CLA and DEA-CLA modify adipocyte inflammatory mediators and also could play a role on energy homeostasis through depletion of leptin levels.

  7. Effect of different types of fibre supplemented with sunflower oil on ruminal fermentation and production of conjugated linoleic acids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanling; Meng, Qingxiang

    2006-10-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different types of fibre supplemented with sunflower oil on ruminal fermentation and formation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) by mixed ruminal microorganisms. Cell wall components extracted from wheat straw (representing lignified fibre), soybean hulls (representing easily digestible fibre), and purified cellulose were used as substrates. Sunflower oil was supplemented at the same level for all three types of fibre. After 24 h of incubation, ruminal fermentation parameters (including 24 h gas production, pH value, concentration of ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids) and the concentration of long chain fatty acids in the culture fluid were determined. Results showed that the type of fibre influenced ruminal fermentation traits and the biohydrogenation of unsaturated C18 fatty acids in vitro. Composition of LCFA and profile of CLA were altered by the fibre type. Compared to the digestible fibre and purified cellulose, lignified fibre significantly increased the production of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and total CLA (sum of cis-9, trans-11 CLA, trans-10, cis-12 CLA, trans-9, trans-11 CLA, and cis-9, cis-11 CLA) by ruminal microorganisms. It was concluded that ruminal fermentation and production of CLA can be affected by the type of dietary fibre.

  8. Cost-effective bidirectional digitized radio-over-fiber systems employing sigma delta modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Woon; Jung, HyunDo; Park, Jung Ho

    2016-11-01

    We propose a cost effective digitized radio-over-fiber (D-RoF) system employing a sigma delta modulation (SDM) and a bidirectional transmission technique using phase modulated downlink and intensity modulated uplink. SDM is transparent to different radio access technologies and modulation formats, and more suitable for a downlink of wireless system because a digital to analog converter (DAC) can be avoided at the base station (BS). Also, Central station and BS share the same light source by using a phase modulation for the downlink and an intensity modulation for the uplink transmission. Avoiding DACs and light sources have advantages in terms of cost reduction, power consumption, and compatibility with conventional wireless network structure. We have designed a cost effective bidirectional D-RoF system using a low pass SDM and measured the downlink and uplink transmission performance in terms of error vector magnitude, signal spectra, and constellations, which are based on the 10MHz LTE 64-QAM standard.

  9. The content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomer groups in milk of two Polish sheep breeds determined by silver ion liquid chromatography (Ag(+)-HPLC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozbicka-Wieczorek, Agnieszka; Radzik-Rant, Aurelia; Rant, Witold; Czauderna, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Sheep milk is rich in CLA isomers which are biologically active components influencing human health. There are four geometric CLA isomer pairs: cis, trans; trans, cis; trans, trans and cis, cis. The aim of the present study was the analysis of CLA isomer groups content by Ag+-HPLC in milk fat of Zelazneńska (ZS) and Wrzosówka (WS) sheep breeds. The ewes of both breeds were kept under the same environmental and nutritional conditions. Milk samples were collected from 60 suckling ewes (30 from each breed), at the age of 3-4 years and in their 4th week of lactation. A higher total amount of all CLA isomer groups was obtained in milk of ZS ewes, however, this result was statistically insignificant. The percentage of the main c9, t11 isomer in total CLA was higher in Wrzosówka milk (68% vs. 74%). The content of the trans, trans isomer group in milk fat of the studied breeds was similar. The percentage of this group in total CLA in milk of WS and ZS constitutes 7.2% and 7.7%, respectively. The amount of cis,cis isomers in milk fat of ZS was higher thanWS (P < or = 0.01).

  10. The Effect of Gravitational Focusing on Annual Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Samuel K; Peter, Annika H G; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2014-01-01

    The scattering rate at dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to the Earth's orbit around the Sun. The rate is typically thought to be extremized around June 1, when the relative velocity of the Earth with respect to the dark-matter wind is maximal. We point out that gravitational focusing can alter this modulation phase. Unbound dark-matter particles are focused by the Sun's gravitational potential, affecting their phase-space density in the lab frame. Gravitational focusing can result in a significant overall shift in the annual-modulation phase, which is most relevant for dark matter with low scattering speeds. The induced phase shift for light O(10) GeV dark matter may also be significant, depending on the threshold energy of the experiment.

  11. Effect of surface steps on the microstructure of lateral composition modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOLLSTAEDT,DAVID M.; NORMAN,A.G.; RENO,JOHN L.; JONES,ERIC D.; TWESTEN,R.D.; LEE,STEPHEN R.; MOUTINHO,H.; MASCARENHAS,A.

    2000-03-23

    Growth of InAs/AlAs short-period superlattices on appropriately miscut (001) InP substrates is shown to alter the microstructure of composition modulation from a 2D organization of short compositionally enriched wires to a single dominant modulation direction and wire lengths up to {approximately}1 {micro}m. The effects of miscut are interpreted in terms of surface step orientation and character. The material is strongly modulated and exhibits intense optical emission. The 1D modulations appear potentially useful for new devices that take advantage of the preferred direction formed in the growth plane.

  12. Ultra-wideband signal generator based on cross gain modulation effect in a distributed feedback laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dalei; Wang, Rong; Xiang, Peng; Pu, Tao; Fang, Tao; Li, Yuandong; Su, Yang; Zheng, Jiling; Huang, Long; Zhu, Huatao; Huang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, a novel scheme to generate ultra-wideband (UWB) signals based on cross-gain modulation (XGM) effect in a DFB laser is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, and the modulation and transmission of the UWB signals are also experimentally investigated. In the proposed system, a gain-switched laser (GSL) is used as master laser (ML) and the optical pulses from the ML are optically injected into a DFB laser, which is used as slave laser (SL). By proper system configuration, UWB monocycle, doublet or triplet UWB signals can be generated after the balanced photodiode (BPD) detection. Besides, other modulation formats can also be realized, such as on-off keying (OOK) and pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) by properly modulating the ML optical pulses. Finally, fiber transmission of the modulated UWB signals is experimentally investigated, and it is shown that the UWB signals can be well maintained after 40 km optical fiber transmission.

  13. Thermal Impedance Model of High Power IGBT Modules Considering Heat Coupling Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Thermal loading of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important for the reliability performance of power electronic systems, thus the thermal information of critical points inside module like junction temperature must be accurately modeled and predicted. Usually in the existing...... thermal models, only the self-heating effects of the chips are taken into account, while the thermal coupling effects among chips are less considered. This could result in inaccurate temperature estimation, especially in the high power IGBT modules where the chips are allocated closely to each other...... with large amount of heat generated. In this paper, both the self-heating and heat-coupling effects in the of IGBT module are investigated based on Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, a new thermal impedance model is thereby proposed to better describe the temperature distribution inside IGBT modules...

  14. The Effectiveness of a Virtual Field Trip (VFT) Module in Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Norbaizura; Osman, Kamisah

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT) module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This…

  15. The effect of conductor loss on half-wave voltage and modulation bandwidth of electro-optic modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zilong Liu(刘子龙); Daqing Zhu(朱大庆)

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we theoretically deduce the expressions of half-wave voltage and 3-dB modulation bandwidth in which conductor loss is taken into account. The results suggest that it will affect the theoretical values of half-wave voltage and bandwidth as well as the optimized electrode's dimension whether considering the conductor loss or not. As an example, we present a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) type polymer waveguide amplitude modulator. The half-wave voltage increases by 1 V and the 3-dB bandwidth decreases by 30% when the conductor loss is taken into account. Besides, the effects of impedance mismatching and velocity mismatching between microwave and light wave on the half-wave voltage, and 3-dB bandwidth are discussed.

  16. The ZmCLA4 gene in the qLA4-1 QTL controls leaf angle in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Ku, L X; Han, Z P; Guo, S L; Liu, H J; Zhang, Z Z; Cao, L R; Cui, X J; Chen, Y H

    2014-09-01

    Maize architecture is a major contributing factor to their high level of productivity. Maize varieties with an erect-leaf-angle (LA) phenotype, which increases light harvesting for photosynthesis and grain-filling, have elevated grain yields. Although a large body of information is available on the map positions of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for LA, little is known about the molecular mechanism of these QTL. In this study, the ZmCLA4 gene, which is responsible for the qLA4-1 QTL associated with LA, was identified and isolated by fine mapping and positional cloning. The ZmCLA4 gene is an orthologue of LAZY1 in rice and Arabidopsis. Sequence analysis revealed two SNPs and two indel sites in ZmCLA4 between the D132 and D132-NIL inbred maize lines. Association analysis showed that C/T/mutation667 and CA/indel965 were strongly associated with LA. Subcellular localization verified the functions of a predicted transmembrane domain and a nuclear localization signal in ZmCLA4. Transgenic maize plants with a down-regulated ZmCLA4 RNAi construct and transgenic rice plants over-expressing ZmCLA4 confirmed that the ZmCLA4 gene located in the qLA4 QTL regulated LA. The allelic variants of ZmCLA4 in the D132 and D132-NIL lines exhibited significant differences in leaf angle. ZmCLA4 transcript accumulation was higher in D132-NIL than in D132 during all the developmental stages and was negatively correlated with LA. The gravitropic response was increased and cell shape and number at the leaf and stem junctions were altered in D132-NIL relative to D132. These findings suggest that ZmCLA4 plays a negative role in the control of maize LA through the alteration of mRNA accumulation, leading to altered shoot gravitropism and cell development. The cloning of the gene responsible for the qLA4-1 QTL provides information on the molecular mechanisms of LA in maize and an opportunity for the improvement of plant architecture with regard to LA through maize breeding.

  17. Effect of PV module output power on module temperature; Taiyo denchi no shutsuryoku henka ga module hyomen ondo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T.; Kitamura, A. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Igaki, K.; Mizumoto, T. [Kanden Kako Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Effect of the photovoltaic (PV) module output power variation on the module surface temperature has been investigated by field measurements. PV modules with capacity of 54 W were used for the temperature measurements. Three 2 kW-class PV systems were operated. T-type thermocouples were used for measuring temperatures. Measurement time intervals were 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Measurement period was between May 25, 1995 and June 25, 1996. The surface temperature increased during non-loaded PV output, and decreased during load-carrying PV output. Difference of the surface temperature between non-loaded PV output and load-carrying PV output was 3.5{degree}C at maximum through a year. The surface temperature was saturated within 30 minutes. When PV output was changed in 30 or 60 minutes interval, the variation of surface temperature was distinctly observed. When PV output was changed in 15 minutes interval, it was not observed distinctly. There was no difference of the surface temperatures during the time zones with less solar radiation, such as in the morning and evening, and at night. Except these time zones, difference of the surface temperatures was 3.5{degree}C at maximum. 4 figs.

  18. Aging and sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects: An EEG study in arithmetic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinault, Thomas; Lemaire, Patrick; Phillips, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological signatures of sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects. Sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects refer to decreased poorer strategy effects (i.e., poorer performance when the cued strategy is not the best) on current problem following poorer strategy problems compared to after better strategy problems. Analyses on electrophysiological (EEG) data revealed important age-related changes in time, frequency, and coherence of brain activities underlying sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects. More specifically, sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects were associated with earlier and later time windows (i.e., between 200- and 550 ms and between 850- and 1250 ms). Event-related potentials (ERPs) also revealed an earlier onset in older adults, together with more anterior and less lateralized activations. Furthermore, sequential modulations of poorer strategy effects were associated with theta and alpha frequencies in young adults while these modulations were found in delta frequency and theta inter-hemispheric coherence in older adults, consistent with qualitatively distinct patterns of brain activity. These findings have important implications to further our understanding of age-related differences and similarities in sequential modulations of cognitive control processes during arithmetic strategy execution.

  19. Effect of modulator sorption on gradient shape in ion-exchange chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, A.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Mobile phase additives, or modulators, are used in gradient elution chromatography to facilitate separation and reduce separation time. The modulators are usually assumed to be linearly adsorbed or unadsorbed. Here, the consequences of nonlinear modulator adsorption are examined for ion-exchange gradient elution through a series of simulations. Even when the buffer salt is identical to the modulator salt, gradient deformation is observed; the extent of deformation increases as the volume of the feed is increased. When the modulator salt is different from the buffer salt, unusual effects are observed, and the chromatograms are quite different from those predicted by classical gradient elution theory. In particular, local increases in the buffer concentration are found between feed bands, and serve to improve the separation. These effects become more pronounced as the feed volume increases, and could therefore prove valuable in preparative applications.

  20. The effect of input phase modulation to a phase-sensitive optical amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tian; Horrom, Travis; Jones, Kevin M; Lett, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Many optical applications depend on amplitude modulating optical beams using devices such as acousto-optical modulators (AOMs) or optical choppers. Methods to add amplitude modulation (AM) often inadvertently impart phase modulation (PM) onto the light as well. While this PM is of no consequence to many phase-insensitive applications, phase-sensitive processes can be affected. Here we study the effects of input phase and amplitude modulation on the output of a quantum-noise limited phase-sensitive optical amplifier (PSA) realized in hot $^{85}$Rb vapor. We investigate the dependence of PM on AOM alignment and demonstrate a novel approach to quantifying PM by using the PSA as a diagnostic tool. We then use this method to measure the alignment-dependent PM of an optical chopper which arises due to diffraction effects as the chopper blade passes through the optical beam.

  1. Cost Effective System Modeling of Active Micro- Module Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faisal Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interests in using renewable energies are coming from solar thermal energy and solar photovoltaic systems to the micro production of electricity. Usually we already have considered the solar tracking topology in large scale applications like power plants and satellite but most of small scale applications don’t have any solar tracker system, mainly because of its high cost and complex circuit design. From that aspect, this paper confab microcontroller based one dimensional active micro-module solar tracking system, in which inexpensive LDR is used to generate reference voltage to operate microcontroller for functioning the tracking system. This system provides a fast response of tracking system to the parameters like change of light intensity as well as temperature variations. This micro-module model of tracking system can be used for small scale applications like portable electronic devices and running vehicles.

  2. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMERCIAL YOGURTS FROM COLOMBIA CONTENIDO DE ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO (CLA Y COMPOSICIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS EN ALGUNOS YOGURES COMERCIALES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA of the fifteen commercial yogurts corresponding to the main consumption and distribution in the Colombian market was studied, as well as their fatty acid composition. The concentration of CLA, expressed as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/g fat and as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/100 g sample varied between 4.5 and 8.2, and between 7.8 and 25.5, respectively. The higher values of CLA (>6.0 mg/g fat corresponded to those samples containing yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and species of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The main fatty acids found in the studied samples were the acids palmitic (10.7-21.2 mg/g fat, oleic (11.9-21.0 mg/g fat, stearic (16.1-37.4 mg/g fat, myristic (3.5-7.8 mg/g fat and butyric (1.6-5.5 mg/g fat. Low PUFA/SFA and MUFA/SFA ratios were found, as typical of milk fat samples.Se estudió la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA de quince yogures de las marcas comerciales de mayor consumo y distribución en el mercado colombiano, así como su composición en ácidos grasos. La concentración de CLA, expresada como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/g de grasa y como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/100 g de yogur osciló entre 4,5 y 8,2 y entre 7,8 y 25,5, respectivamente. Los valores de CLA más elevados (>6,0 mg/g de grasa en los yogures evaluados, correspondieron a aquellos que contenían cultivo de yogur (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus y Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus y especies de Bifidobacterium y Lactobacillus. Los principales ácidos grasos encontrados en las muestras estudiadas, fueron los ácidos palmítico (10,7-21,2 mg/g de grasa, oleico (11,9-21,0 mg/g de grasa, esteárico (16,1-37,4 mg/g de grasa, mirístico (3,5-7,8 mg/g de grasa y butírico (1,6-5,5 mg/g de grasa. Bajas relaciones de PUFA/SFA y de MUFA

  3. The effect of conjugated linoneic acid, a natural trans fat from milk and meat, on human blood pressure: results from a randomized crossover feeding study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Wanders, A.J.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a natural trans fatty acid that is largely restricted to ruminant fats and consumed in foods and supplements. Its role in blood pressure (BP) regulation is still unclear. We examined the effect of cis-9, trans-11 CLA on BP compared with oleic acid. A

  4. Pharmacological modulation of late radio-induced side effects; Modulation pharmacologique des effets tardifs de l'irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, C.; Bourhis, J.; Deutsch, E. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Monceau, V. [Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Vozenin, M.C. [Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Unite mixte de recherche ' cellules souches et radiations' , Inserm unite 967, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, institut de radiobiologie cellulaire et moleculaire (iRCM), direction des sciences du vivant, CEA, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, universite Paris-Diderot Paris 7, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, universite Paris Sud 11, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    After normal tissue exposure to radiation therapy, late side effects can occur and may reduce patients' quality of life due to their progressive nature. Late toxicities occurrence is the main limiting factor of radiotherapy. Various biological disorders related to irradiation are involved in the development of late toxicities including fibrosis. The present review will focus on the recent physiopathological and molecular mechanisms described to be involved in the development of late radio-induced toxicities, that provide therapeutic perspective for pharmaco-modulation. (authors)

  5. Asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with the effects of nonlinear phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Reddy, Dileep V.

    2014-01-01

    We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM.......We derive exact solutions to asymmetrically pumped Bragg scattering with nonlinear phase-modulation (NPM) and show that this setup allows for the frequency conversion of many temporal modes, while reducing the effects due to NPM....

  6. EVALUATION METHOD FOR PARASITIC EFFECTS OF THE ELECTRO-OPTICAL MODULATOR IN A FIBER OPTIC GYROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Volkovskiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper proposes an original method for studying the parasitic effects in the electro-optic modulator of the fiber optic gyroscope. Proposed method is based on the usage of a special waveform phase modulation signal. Method. The essence of the proposed method lies in modification of serrodyne modulation signal, thereby providing a periodic displacement of the phase difference signal to the maximum of the interference curve. In this case, the intensity level reflects the influence of parasitic effects with the degree of manifestation being determined by the sequence of voltage control signals applied to the modulator. Enumeration of combinations of control signals and the corresponding intensity levels gives the possibility to observe an empirical dependence of the parasitic effects and use it later for compensation. Main Results. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by the program model of the fiber optic gyroscope. The results of the method application on a production sample of the device were obtained. Comparison with the results of direct estimate of the parasitic intensity modulation effect testifies to the effectiveness of the proposed method. Practical Relevance. The method can be used as a diagnostic tool to quantify the influence of parasitic effects in the electro-optic modulator of the fiber optic gyroscope as well as for their subsequent compensation.

  7. Theoretical and experimental investigation of fluid rheology effects on modulated ultrasound propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkök, Okan; Uludag, Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    A mathematical model is developed and presented to capture the effect of viscoelastic nature of a material on modulated ultrasound (US) pulses. The model is established by considering perturbation of material elements subject to modulated US pulses and by introducing the exponential relaxation of the perturbed fluid elements with a spectrum of time constants. Both the model and experimental findings revealed that consecutive perturbation of a material via the modulated US pulses enabled to probe the relaxation times of similar order of magnitudes to the frequency of the US modulation while filtering out the impact of other relaxation times on the US measurement. The US experimental results were verified by those of a conventional rheometer. Hence carrying out measurements at different US modulation frequencies in the Hz ranges seems to allow one to obtain the relaxation time spectrum of the investigated material in the time scales of milliseconds to seconds.

  8. Effects of mindfulness meditation training on anticipatory alpha modulation in primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Catherine E; Jones, Stephanie R; Wan, Qian; Pritchett, Dominique L; Wasserman, Rachel H; Wexler, Anna; Villanueva, Joel J; Shaw, Jessica R; Lazar, Sara W; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Littenberg, Ronnie; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Moore, Christopher I

    2011-05-30

    During selective attention, ∼7-14 Hz alpha rhythms are modulated in early sensory cortices, suggesting a mechanistic role for these dynamics in perception. Here, we investigated whether alpha modulation can be enhanced by "mindfulness" meditation (MM), a program training practitioners in sustained attention to body and breath-related sensations. We hypothesized that participants in the MM group would exhibit enhanced alpha power modulation in a localized representation in the primary somatosensory neocortex in response to a cue, as compared to participants in the control group. Healthy subjects were randomized to 8-weeks of MM training or a control group. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recording of the SI finger representation, we found meditators demonstrated enhanced alpha power modulation in response to a cue. This finding is the first to show enhanced local alpha modulation following sustained attentional training, and implicates this form of enhanced dynamic neural regulation in the behavioral effects of meditative practice.

  9. On the effect of self-steepening in modulation instability

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Santiago M; Bonetti, Juan; Grosz, Diego F

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the problem of modulation instability (MI) in optical fibers, including higher-order dispersion terms, self-steepening, and Raman response. We derive expressions for the MI gain and use them to explore the role of self-steepening towards a high-power limit. We show that, contrary to common wisdom, there is a pump power level that maximizes the MI gain. Further increasing the power not only diminishes the gain, but eventually makes it disappear. We believe these findings to be of special relevance, for instance, when applied to the generation of supercontinuum in the mid and far infrared bands. Finally, numerical simulations confirming our analytical results are presented.

  10. Research Progress of CLA in Ruminant%共轭亚油酸在反刍动物中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 孙满吉

    2011-01-01

    CLA is a natural ingredient in food, which mostly exists in ruminant products. The synthesis of CLA can be affected by animal species, the different fat source of daily grain, the different feeding mode and environment. The addition of CLA in diets can improve the physiological function of ruminant, while milk fat rate and milk yield are also significantly affected. The paper summarized the research progress of CLA at these stage through the synthesis of CLA, influencing factors and the impact on milk fat percentage.%共轭亚油酸(CLA)是食品中的天然成分,主要存在于反刍动物制品中。CLA的合成受到动物种类、日粮中不同的脂肪来源、饲喂方式和环境的影响。CLA的添加在改善反刍动物生理功能的同时,对乳脂率和产奶量也有显著影响。文章概述了CLA的合成、影响因素及对乳脂率等方面的影响,并对现阶段CLA在反刍动物中的研究进展进行了综述。

  11. Studies on transmitted beam modulation effect from laser induced damage on fused silica optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Ma, Ping; Li, Haibo; Liu, Zhichao; Chen, Songlin

    2013-07-15

    UV laser induced damage (LID) on exit surface of fused silica could cause modulation effect to transmitted beam and further influence downstream propagation properties. This paper presents our experimental and analytical studies on this topic. In experiment, a series of measurement instruments are applied, including beam profiler, interferometer, microscope, and optical coherent tomography (OCT). Creating and characterizing of LID on fused silica sample have been implemented. Morphological features are studied based on their particular modulation effects on transmitted beam. In theoretical investigation, analytical modeling and numerical simulation are performed. Modulation effects from amplitude, phase, and size factors are analyzed respectively. Furthermore, we have novelly designed a simplified polygon model to simulate actual damage site with multiform modulation features, and the simulation results demonstrate that the modeling is usable and representative.

  12. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Hepatic Steatosis: Species-Specific Effects on Liver and Adipose Lipid Metabolism and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis.

  13. Field-effect modulation of the thermoelectric characteristics of silicon nanowires on plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinyong; Jeon, Youngin; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the substantial enhancement of the thermoelectric power factors of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) on plastic substrates achievable by field-effect modulation. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity are adjusted by varying the charge carrier concentration via electrical modulation with a gate voltage in the 0 to ±5 range, thus enhancing the power factors from 2.08 to 935 μW K-2 m-1) for n-type SiNWs, and from 453 to 944 μW K-2 m-1) for p-type SiNWs. The electrically modulated thermoelectric characteristics of SiNWs are analyzed and discussed.

  14. Polymer Electro-optic Modulator Linear Bias Using the Thermo-optic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiao-Qiang; CHEN Chang-Ming; LI Xiao-Dong; WANG Xi-Bin; YANG Tian-Fu; ZHANG Da-Ming; WANG Fei; XIE Zhi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-rectangular waveguide polymer Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) electro-optic (EO) modulator based on an organic/inorganic hybrid material with thermal bias control is fabricated and demonstrated. Linear bias for the modulator is obtained through thermo-optic effect. The optical output is adjusted by changing phase difference between the two arms of the M-Z interferometer. A power consumption of 16.1 mW for π phase change is observed owing to the application of silica cladding. This approach is proved to be effective to suppress direct current drift in polymer EO modulators.%A quasi-rectangular waveguide polymer Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) electro-optic (EO) modulator based on an organic/inorganic hybrid material with thermal bias control is fabricated and demonstrated.Linear bias for the modulator is obtained through thermo-optic effect.The optical output is adjusted by changing phase difference between the two arms of the M-Z interferometer.A power consumption of 16.1 m W for π phase change is observed owing to the application of silica cladding.This approach is proved to be effective to suppress direct current drift in polymer EO modulators.

  15. Effect of Mean Angle of Attack Modulation on Dynamic Stall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Kyle; Corke, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Wind tunnel experiments at M = 0 . 2 were conducted on a cambered airfoil instrumented with surface pressure transducers that was oscillated with two independent frequencies. The primary input, f1, corresponds to a range of reduced frequencies, while the slower, secondary input, f2, drives the modulation of the mean angle of attack, thus varying the stall-penetration angle, αpen. Various combinations transitioned different regimes of dynamic stall from "light" to "deep". Results suggest that when αpen is falling between consecutive cycles, the aerodynamic loads do not fully recover to the values seen when αpen is rising, even though the airfoil recedes to αpen load coefficients, aerodynamic damping, and their phase relationships to pitch angle. APS Fellow.

  16. Effects of intensity-modulated radiotherapy on human oral microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zi-Yang; Tang, Zi-Sheng; Yan, Chao; Jiang, Yun-Tao; Ma, Rui; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Zheng-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the biodiversity of the oral microflora of patients with head and neck cancer treated with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Pooled dental plaque samples were collected during the radiation treatment from patients receiving IMRT (n = 13) and CRT (n = 12). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the temporal variation of these plaque samples. The stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates were also compared between IMRT and CRT patients. Reductions in the severity of hyposalivation were observed in IMRT patients compared with CRT patients. We also observed that the temporal stability of the oral ecosystem was significantly higher in the IMRT group (69.96 ± 7.82%) than in the CRT group (51.98 ± 10.45%) (P oral ecosystem than CRT.

  17. Anti-thrombotic effects of selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manasa K; Singh, Sunil K; Roy, Arnab; Prakash, Vivek; Kumar, Anand; Dash, Debabrata

    2011-10-01

    Tamoxifen is a known anti-cancer drug and established estrogen receptor modulator. Few clinical studies have earlier implicated the drug in thrombotic complications attributable to lower anti-thrombin and protein S levels in plasma. However, action of tamoxifen on platelet signalling machinery has not been elucidated in detail. In the present report we show that tamoxifen is endowed with significant inhibitory property against human platelet aggregation. From a series of in vivo and in vitro studies tamoxifen was found to inhibit almost all platelet functions, prolong tail bleeding time in mouse and profoundly prevent thrombus formation at injured arterial wall in mice, as well as on collagen matrix perfused with platelet-rich plasma under arterial shear against the vehicle dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). These findings strongly suggest that tamoxifen significantly downregulates platelet responses and holds potential as a promising anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic agent.

  18. APPLICATION OF MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND MODULATED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE IMAGING IN STUDYING ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence is a widely used tool to monitor the photosynthetic process in plants subjected to environmental stresses.this review reports the theoretical bases of Chl fluorescence, and the significance of the most important Chl fluorescence parameters. it also reportshow these parameters can be utilised to estimate changes in photosystem ii (PSII photochemistry, linear electron flux and energy dissipationmechanisms. the relation between actual PSII photochemistry and CO2 assimilation is discussed, as is the role of photochemical andnon-photochemical quenching in inducing changes in PSII activity. the application of Chl fluorescence imaging to study heterogeneity on leaflamina is also considered. this review summarises only some of the results obtained by this methodology to study the effects of differentenvironmental stresses, namely water and nutrients availability, pollutants, temperature and salinity.

  19. Contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado (cla) y composición de ácidos grasos en algunos yogures comerciales de colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Álvarez, Luis Felipe; Martínez, Jenny Carolina; Barón Núñez, Marby Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Se estudió la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) de quince yogures de las marcas comerciales de mayor consumo y distribución en el mercado colombiano, así como su composición en ácidos grasos. La concentración de CLA, expresada como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/g de grasa y como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/100 g de yogur osciló entre 4,5 y 8,2 y entre 7,8 y 25,5, respectivamente. Los valores de CLA más elevados (>6,0 mg/g de grasa) en los yogure...

  20. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  1. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  2. LIGHT MODULATION COMBINING POCKELS EFFECT WITH FARADAY EFFECT AND ITS FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChertJidong; QiaoSong

    1996-01-01

    With brief statements of the linear electro-optical modulation and magnetooptical modulation, using the method of resultant of optical amplitude vectors and themethod of Jones matrix, formulas for intensity of transmitted light through the opticalanalyzer of various composition of electro-optical effect with magneto-optical effect arederived. The results show that the output beam from the analyzer carries informationon current (or magnetic field), voltage (or electric field), active power and apparentpower. When the light beam transmitted through the analyzer are transformed intoelectric signals, three kinds of information are included: the DC term corresponding toan active power, the term with frequency ω(50 Hz) corresponding to current or voltage, and the term with frequency 2ω(100 Hz) corresponding to an apparent power. So, we can use the elctric filter circuit to pick out the DC component for measuringactive power to pick out the component with frequency ω(50 Hz) for measuring current or voltage and to pick out the component with frequency 2ω(100 Hz) for measuring apparent power. The paper discusses: what quantifies are measured when theanalyzer is set on certain definite values, and points out the optimum selection for various measurements.

  3. Effect of Modulated Alternating and Direct Current Iontophoresis on Transdermal Delivery of Lidocaine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the iontophoretic delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride through porcine skin and to compare the effects of modulated alternating and direct current iontophoresis. Continuous and modulated iontophoresis was applied for one hour and two hours (0-1 h and 4-5th h using a 1% w/v solution of lidocaine hydrochloride. Tape stripping was done to quantify the amount of drug permeated into stratum corneum and skin extraction studies were performed to determine the amount of drug in stripped skin. Receptor was sampled and analyzed over predefined time periods. The amount of lidocaine delivered across porcine skin after modulated direct current iontophoresis for 2 h was 1069.87±120.03 μg/sq·cm compared to 744.81±125.41 μg/sq·cm after modulated alternating current iontophoresis for 2 h. Modulated direct current iontophoresis also enhanced lidocaine delivery by twelvefold compared to passive delivery as 91.27±18.71 μg/sq·cm of lidocaine was delivered after passive delivery. Modulated iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride across porcine skin compared to the passive delivery. Modulated alternating current iontophoresis for duration of 2 h at frequency of 1 kHz was found to be comparable to the continuous direct current iontophoresis for 1 h.

  4. Effect of modulated alternating and direct current iontophoresis on transdermal delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Gaurav; Banga, Ajay K

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the iontophoretic delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride through porcine skin and to compare the effects of modulated alternating and direct current iontophoresis. Continuous and modulated iontophoresis was applied for one hour and two hours (0-1 h and 4-5th h) using a 1% w/v solution of lidocaine hydrochloride. Tape stripping was done to quantify the amount of drug permeated into stratum corneum and skin extraction studies were performed to determine the amount of drug in stripped skin. Receptor was sampled and analyzed over predefined time periods. The amount of lidocaine delivered across porcine skin after modulated direct current iontophoresis for 2 h was 1069.87 ± 120.03 μ g/sq · cm compared to 744.81 ± 125.41 μ g/sq · cm after modulated alternating current iontophoresis for 2 h. Modulated direct current iontophoresis also enhanced lidocaine delivery by twelvefold compared to passive delivery as 91.27 ± 18.71 μ g/sq · cm of lidocaine was delivered after passive delivery. Modulated iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride across porcine skin compared to the passive delivery. Modulated alternating current iontophoresis for duration of 2 h at frequency of 1 kHz was found to be comparable to the continuous direct current iontophoresis for 1 h.

  5. Signal modulating noise effect in bistable stochastic resonance systems and its analog simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fang-hong; YAN Gui-rong; XIE Shi-cheng

    2006-01-01

    The effect of signal modulating noise in bistable stochastic resonance systems was studied theoretically and experimentally. A mathematical analysis was made on the bistable stochastic resonance model with small system parameters. An analogue circuit was designed to perform the effect. The effect of signal modulating noise was shown in the analog simulation experiment. The analog experiment was conducted for two sinusoidal signals with different frequencies. The results show that there are a sinusoidal component corresponding to the input sinusoidal signal and a noise component presented as a Wiener process corresponding to the input white noise in the system output. By properly selecting system parameters, the effect of signal modulating noise can be manifested in the system output.

  6. Nanoscale Field Effect Optical Modulators Based on Depletion of Epsilon-Near-Zero Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng

    2015-01-01

    The field effect in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors plays a key role in field-effect transistors (FETs), which are the fundamental building blocks of modern digital integrated circuits. Recent works show that the field effect can also be used to make optical/plasmonic modulators. In this paper, we report field effect electro-absorption modulators (FEOMs) each made of an ultrathin epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) film, as the active material, sandwiched in a silicon or plasmonic waveguide. Without a bias, the ENZ film maximizes the attenuation of the waveguides and the modulators work at the OFF state; contrariwise, depletion of the carriers in the ENZ film greatly reduces the attenuation and the modulators work at the ON state. The double capacitor gating scheme is used to enhance the modulation by the field effect. According to our simulation, extinction ratio up to 3.44 dB can be achieved in a 500-nm long Si waveguide with insertion loss only 0.71 dB (85.0%); extinction ratio up to 7.86 dB can be achieved...

  7. Effects of continuous-wave, pulsed, and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated microwaves on brain energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A P; Joines, W T; Allis, J W

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the effects of continuous-wave, sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague-Dawley rats (175-225 g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, and creatine phosphate (CP) concentration were determined as a function of modulation frequency. Brain temperatures of animals were maintained between -0.1 and -0.4 degrees C from the preexposure temperature when subjected to as much as 20 mW/cm2 (average power) CW, pulsed, or sinusoidal-amplitude modulated 591-MHz radiation for 5 min. Sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated exposures at 16-24 Hz showed a trend toward preferential modulation frequency response in inducing an increase in brain NADH fluorescence. The pulse-modulated and sinusoidal-amplitude-modulated (16 Hz) microwaves were not significantly different from CW exposures in inducing increased brain NADH fluorescence and decreased ATP and CP concentrations. When the pulse-modulation frequency was decreased from 500 to 250 pulses per second the average incident power density threshold for inducing an increase in brain NADH fluorescence increased by a factor of 4--ie, from about 0.45 to about 1.85 mW/cm2. Since brain temperature did not increase, the microwave-induced increase in brain NADH and decrease in ATP and CP concentrations was not due to hyperthermia. This suggests a direct interaction mechanism and is consistent with the hypothesis of microwave inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport chain function of ATP production.

  8. Frequency Modulation of Directly Imaged Exoplanets: Geometric Effect as a Probe of Planetary Obliquity

    CERN Document Server

    Kawahara, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    We consider the time-frequency analysis of a scattered light curve by a directly imaged exoplanet. We show that the geometric effect due to planetary obliquity and orbital inclination induce the frequency modulation of the apparent diurnal periodicity. We construct a model of the frequency modulation and compare with the instantaneous frequency extracted from the pseudo-Wigner distribution of the simulated light curves of a cloudless Earth. The model provides good agreement with the simulated modulation factor even for the light curve with Gaussian noise comparable to the signal. Notably, the shape of the instantaneous frequency is sensitive to the difference between prograde, retrograde, and pole-on spin rotations. Whereas our technique requires the static property of the albedo map, it does not need to solve the albedo map of the planet. The time-frequency analysis is complementary to other methods which utilize the amplitude modulation. This paper demonstrates the importance of the frequency domain of the ...

  9. Trading experience modulates anterior insula to reduce the endowment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lester C P; Ye, Karen J; Asai, Kentaro; Ertac, Seda; List, John A; Nusbaum, Howard C; Hortaçsu, Ali

    2016-08-16

    People often demand a greater price when selling goods that they own than they would pay to purchase the same goods-a well-known economic bias called the endowment effect. The endowment effect has been found to be muted among experienced traders, but little is known about how trading experience reduces the endowment effect. We show that when selling, experienced traders exhibit lower right anterior insula activity, but no differences in nucleus accumbens or orbitofrontal activation, compared with inexperienced traders. Furthermore, insula activation mediates the effect of experience on the endowment effect. Similar results are obtained for inexperienced traders who are incentivized to gain trading experience. This finding indicates that frequent trading likely mitigates the endowment effect indirectly by modifying negative affective responses in the context of selling.

  10. Sex Stereotyping and Bias: Their Origin and Effects. Training Module IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Reeve; Gonzales, Frank, Ed.

    The origin and effects of sex stereotyping and bias is the subject of this training module. It guides trainers through the activities and lessons necessary to aid education personnel in identifying sources and effects of sex stereotyping and bias in the classroom setting and in society as a whole. Seven activities are described and materials,…

  11. Agentic extraversion modulates the cardiovascular effects of the dopamine D2 agonist bromocriptine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jan; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2006-07-01

    A recent psychobiological theory postulates a dopaminergic basis for the agency facet of extraversion, leading to the prediction that this personality trait modulates the psychophysiological effects of dopaminergic drugs. A single dose of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine reduces blood pressure in healthy volunteers. However, it is currently unknown whether this hypotensive effect of bromocriptine is modulated by agentic extraversion. Therefore, we measured resting cardiovascular activation in groups of healthy male volunteers either high or low in agentic extraversion, either under bromocriptine (1.25 mg) or placebo. Focusing the analyses on activation components derived from 18 cardiovascular variables, we found that bromocriptine reduces alpha-adrenergic activation in the sample as a whole, whereas the effects on beta-adrenergic and cholinergic activation are modulated by agentic extraversion.

  12. The Modulation of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator on Heating HF Waves and the Doppler Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NiBin-bin; ZhaoZheng-yu; XieShu-guo

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of HF waves in IAR can produce many nonlinear effects, including the modulation effect of IAR on HF waves and the Doppler effect. To start with the dependence of the ionospheric electron temperature varia-tions on the Alfven resonant field, We discuss the mechanism of the modulation effect and lucubrate possible reasons for the Doppler effect. The results show that the Alfven resonant field can have an observable modulation effect on HF waves while its mechanism is quite different from that of Schumann resonant field on HF waves. The depth of modulation of IAR on HF waves has a quasi-quadratic relation with the Alfven field, which directly inspires the formation of cross-spectrum between ULF waves and HF waves and results in spectral peaks at some gyro-frequencies of IAR. With respect to the Doppler effect during the propagation of HF waves in IAR, it is mainly caused by the motion of the high-speed flyer and the drifting electrons and the frequency shift from the phase vari-ation of the reflected waves can be neglected when the frequency of HF incident wave is high enough.

  13. Theory of Optical Rectification Effect in Metallic Thin Film with Periodic Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hiroyuki, Kurosawa; Nakayama, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    We carried out theoretical and numerical investigation of optical rectification (OR) effect in metallic structure with periodic modulation. A new formulation of the OR effect is presented and the generation mechanism of OR effect, which was a controversy issue in previous works, is clarified. We revealed that OR effect is strongly enhanced by the combination of spatial variation of metallic structure and local electric field enhancement. Our theory was numerically evaluated and showed fairly well agreement with experiment.

  14. Effects of walk-off on cross-phase modulation induced modulation instability in an optical fibre with high-order dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Xian-Qiong; Xiang An-Ping

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of walk-off among optical pulses on cross-phase modulation induced modulation instability in the normal dispersion region of an optical fibre with high-order dispersion. The results indicate that, in the case of high-order dispersion, the walk-off effect takes on new characteristics and will influence considerably the shape, position and especially the number of the spectral regions of the gain spectra of modulation instability. Not only the group-velocity mismatch, but also the difference of the third-order dispersion of two optical waves will alter the gain spectra of modulation instability but in different ways. Depending on the values of the walk-off parameters, the number of the spectral regions may increase from two to at most four, and the spectral shape and position may change too.

  15. Effect of Thermoelectric Modules' Topological Connection on Automotive Exhaust Heat Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y. D.; Zheng, S. J.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.; Yu, C. G.; Wang, Y. P.

    2016-03-01

    In automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (AETEGs), a certain number of thermoelectric modules are connected in series and/or parallel to recover energy from exhaust gas, which provides a way to improve fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Because of the temperature distribution on the surfaces of heat exchanger, several types of modules are planned for use in an AETEG; however, property disparities among modules exist and wire resistance cannot be neglected in practical application, so experiments have been carried out to research effects of the two factors on the maximum output power of series and parallel connection. The performance of series and parallel connections have been characterized, and mathematic models have been built to analyze and predict the performance of each connection. Experiments and theoretical analysis reveal that parallel connection shows a better performance than series connection when large differences of Seebeck coefficient and resistivity exist. However, wire resistance will cause more significant power dissipation in parallel connection. The authors believe the research presented in this paper is the first to carry out an examination of the impact of module property disparity and wire resistance on the output power of an array of thermoelectric modules connected in series and parallel, which provides a reference for choosing module connection in AETEGs.

  16. A computational vector-map model of neonate saccades: modulating the externality effect through refraction periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peter A; Fiacconi, Chris M; Gibson, Laura C

    2010-11-23

    The present study develops an explicit and predictive computational model of neonate saccades based on the interaction of several simple mechanisms, including the tendency to fixate towards areas of high contrast, and the decay and recovery of a world-centered contrast representation simulating a low-level inhibition of return mechanism. Emergent properties similar to early visual behaviors develop, including the externality effect (or tendency to focus on external then internal features). The age-associated progression of this effect is modulated by the decay period of the model's contrast representation, where the high-level behavior of either scanning broadly or locally is modulated by a single decay parameter.

  17. Heat Transport of Non-Local Effect with Modulated SMBI on HL-2A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-Juan; DING Xuan-Tong; YAO Liang-Hua; FENG Bei-Bin; LIU Ze-Tian; GAO Ya-Dong; LI Wei; LI Xue-Hong; DUAN Xu-Ru; YANG Qing-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Modulated supersonic molecular beam (SMB) injection is introduced to study transport features of non-local transport phenomenon on HL-2A.Repetitive non-local effect induced by modulated SMBI allows Fourier transformation of the temperature perturbation,yielding detailed investigation of the pulse propagation. Fourier analysis provides evidence for existence of internal transport barriers.Meanwhile,experimental progress of nonlocal effect was made in the HL-2A Tokamak in 2007.The core electron temperature Te rise increases from 18% to more than 40% and the duration of the Te rise could be prolonged by changing the conditions of SMB injection.

  18. Angiotensin II modulates the intrarenal effects of atrial natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siragy, H M; Lamb, N E; Rose, C E; Peach, M J; Carey, R M

    1988-09-01

    The mechanism by which atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increases renal water and solute excretion is not fully understood. We studied the renal effects of ANP and angiotensin II (ANG II) separately and together in uninephrectomized conscious dogs (n = 7) in sodium metabolic balance (80 meq/day). Exogenous ANG II and ANP were without measurable systemic effects as demonstrated by absence of changes in blood pressure, plasma aldosterone concentration, and plasma renin activity. The quantity of ANG II that had significant renal effects that were without measurable systemic effects was 0.2 pmol.kg-1.min-1. Three infusion rates of ANP had significant renal effects (1, 10, and 20 pmol.kg-1.min-1). These quantities of ANP caused significant diuresis, natriuresis, kaliuresis, and increased glomerular filtration rate without significant changes in renal plasma flow. ANG II alone caused significant antidiuresis, antinatriuresis, and decreased glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow. When ANG II and ANP were given together, no change in urinary flow rate, urinary sodium or potassium excretion, or renal plasma flow was observed, whereas glomerular filtration rate increased. Filtration fraction increased significantly with ANG II and ANP separately and together. Intrarenal ANP prevents the ANG II-induced decrement in urinary sodium excretion and urine flow rate. ANP may play an important role in escape from the sodium-retaining action of intrarenal ANG II.

  19. Nanoscale field effect optical modulators based on depletion of epsilon-near-zero films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng; Yin, Peichuan

    2016-12-01

    The field effect in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors plays a key role in field-effect transistors (FETs), which are the fundamental building blocks of modern digital integrated circuits. Recent works show that the field effect can also be used to make optical/plasmonic modulators. In this paper, we report the numerical investigation of field effect electro-absorption modulators each made of an ultrathin epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) film, as the active material, sandwiched in a silicon or plasmonic waveguide. Without a bias, the ENZ films maximize the attenuation of the waveguides and the modulators work at the OFF state; on the other hand, depletion of the carriers in the ENZ films greatly reduces the attenuation and the modulators work at the ON state. The double capacitor gating scheme with two 10-nm HfO2 films as the insulator is used to enhance the modulation by the field effect. The depletion requires about 10 V across the HfO2 layers. According to our simulation, extinction ratio up to 3.44 dB can be achieved in a 500-nm long Si waveguide with insertion loss only 0.71 dB (85.0% pass); extinction ratio up to 7.86 dB can be achieved in a 200-nm long plasmonic waveguide with insertion loss 1.11 dB (77.5% pass). The proposed modulators may find important applications in future on-chip or chip-to-chip optical interconnection.

  20. Food-derived serotonergic modulators: effects on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsken, S.; Martin, A.; Mohajeri, M.H.; Homberg, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on th

  1. Food-derived serotonergic modulators: effects on mood and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsken, Sjoerd; Märtin, Antje; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Homberg, Judith Regina

    2013-12-01

    The most frequently described drugs in the treatment of mood disorders are selective serotonin reuptake and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, enhancing serotonin levels in the brain. However, side-effects have been reported for these drugs. Because serotonin levels in the brain are dependent on the availability of the food-derived precursor tryptophan, foods such as chicken, soyabeans, cereals, tuna, nuts and bananas may serve as an alternative to improve mood and cognition. Here we discuss the effects of high- or low-tryptophan-containing food, as well as plant extracts with a modest monoamine reuptake and MAO-A inhibition functional profile, on mood and cognition in healthy and vulnerable human subjects and rodents. Together the studies suggest that there is an inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels, with low and too high tryptophan levels impairing cognition, and moderate to high tryptophan levels improving cognition. This relationship is found for both healthy and vulnerable subjects. Whereas this relationship may also exist for mood, the inverted U-shaped curve for plasma tryptophan levels and mood may be based on different tryptophan concentrations in healthy v. vulnerable individuals. Animal studies are emerging and allow further understanding of effects and the mode of action of food-derived serotonergic components on mood, cognition and mechanisms. Ultimately, insight into the concentrations of tryptophan and other serotonergic components in food having beneficial effects on mood and cognition in healthy, but particularly vulnerable, subjects may support well-being in our highly demanding society.

  2. The modulation effect for supersymmetric dark matter detection with asymmetric velocity dispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Vergados, J D

    2000-01-01

    The detection of the theoretically expected dark matter is central to particle physics cosmology. Current fashionable supersymmetric models provide a natural dark matter candidate which is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). Such models combined with fairly well understood physics like the quark substructure of the nucleon and the nuclear form factor and the spin response function of the nucleus, permit the evaluation of the event rate for LSP-nucleus elastic scattering. The thus obtained event rates are, however, very low or even undetectable. So it is imperative to exploit the modulation effect, i.e. the dependence of the event rate on the earth's annual motion. In this review we study such a modulation effect in directional and undirectional experiments. We calculate both the differential and the total rates using symmetric as well as asymmetric velocity distributions. We find that in the symmetric case the modulation amplitude is small, less than 0.07. There exist, however, regions of the phase sp...

  3. Effects of periodic modulation on the nonlinear Landau-Zener tunneling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Li-Hua; Duan Wen-Shan

    2009-01-01

    We study the Landau-Zener tunneling of a nonlinear two-level system by applying a periodic modulation on its energy bias. We find that the two levels are splitting at the zero points of the zero order Bessel function for high-frequency modulation. Moreover, we obtain the effective coupling constant between two levels at the zero points of the zero order Bessel function by calculating the final tunneling probability at these points. It seems that the effective coupling constant can be regarded as the approximation of the higher order Bessel function at these points. For the low-frequency modulation, we find that the final tunneling probability is a function of the interaction strength. For the weak inter-level coupling case, we find that the final tunneling probability is more disordered as the interaction strength becomes larger.

  4. Effects of UV on power degradation of photovoltaic modules in combined acceleration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trang; Heta, Yushi; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    UV exposure and other factors such as high/low temperature, humidity and mechanical stress have been reported to degrade photovoltaic (PV) module materials. By focusing on the combined effects of UV stress and moisture on PV modules, two new acceleration tests of light irradiation and damp heat (DH) were designed and conducted. The effects of UV exposure were validated through a change in irradiation time (UV dosage) and a change of the light irradiation side (glass side vs backsheet side) in the UV-preconditioned DH and cyclic sequential tests, respectively. The chemical corrosion of finger electrodes in the presence of acetic acid generated from ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant was considered to be the main origin of degradation. The module performance characterized by electroluminescence images was confirmed to correlate with the measured acetic acid concentration and Ag finger electrode resistance.

  5. Implication of PKS type I gene and chromatographic strategy for the biodiscovery of antimicrobial polyketide metabolites from endosymbiotic Nocardiopsis prasina CLA68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H. C. Yashavantha; Rakshith, Devaraju; Gurudatt, D. M.; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-06-01

    Advanced approach in probing for polyketide antimicrobials requires novel genomics and chromatographic strategies. An endophytic strain CLA68 was isolated from the root of Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae) collected from the Western Ghats of Southern India. Strain CLA68 was then identified as Nocardiopsis prasina by its characteristic culture morphology and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Biosynthetic polyketide synthase genes were investigated using two pairs of degenerate primers. Ethyl acetate extract of CLA68 exhibited broad spectrum activity against a panel of test human pathogens. PKS type-I gene detection and chromatographic strategy yielded a robust polyketide antimicrobial compound which identified as nocapyrone E. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the purified compound against MRSA and other human pathogens ranged between 25 and 100 μg/ml. The present work highlights the utility of N. prasina CLA68 as potential source for antimicrobial polyketide nocapyrone E which could help to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. This study demonstrates feasibility of PKS type-I gene-based molecular approach and chemical investigation by chromatographic approach is the best method for prediction and rapid discovery of novel polyketides from endosymbiotic actinomycetes. The sequence data of this endosymbiotic actinomycete is deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KP269077.

  6. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP (VFT MODULE IN LEARNING BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbaizura HARIS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This study was conducted to 60 students employing a quasi-experimental design involving a treatment group taught using the VFT module and a control group who were taught using conventional methods. Analysis into the effectiveness of the virtual module was done descriptively, followed by inferential analysis involving the two-way ANOVA. The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of pre and post achievement between students taught using VFT and students who were taught using conventional methods for objective, structure and essay type questions. The study concluded that teaching and learning by using the VFT module, integrated with ICT, has a positive impact on student achievement whencompared to conventional methods. This study focuses on the use of the VFT recognizing that teachers are often unable to conduct a real field trip on location.

  7. Individual differences in dopamine level modulate the ego depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yumeng; Mao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Initial exertion of self-control impairs subsequent self-regulatory performance, which is referred to as the ego depletion effect. The current study examined how individual differences in dopamine level, as indexed by eye blink rate (EBR), would moderate ego depletion. An inverted-U-shaped relationship between EBR and subsequent self-regulatory performance was found when participants initially engaged in self-control but such relationship was absent in the control condition where there was no initial exertion, suggesting individuals with a medium dopamine level may be protected from the typical ego depletion effect. These findings are consistent with a cognitive explanation which considers ego depletion as a phenomenon similar to "switch costs" that would be neutralized by factors promoting flexible switching.

  8. Análise espectral do vento no Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara (CLA Spectral analysis of the surface winds at the Alcântara Lauching Center (CLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magnago

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se as características espectrais da turbulência atmosférica na região do Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara (CLA, que sofre a influência de uma falésia e da brisa marítima provinda do oceano, visando obter informações sobre a estrutura turbulenta do local. Determinaram-se os espectros das 3 componentes do vento (u, v e w na camada limite superficial sobre esse terreno homogêneo, visando aplicações no Projeto e Desenvolvimento dos foguetes de sondagem e do Veículo Lançador de Satélite (VLS realizado pelo IAE. Os dados foram coletados no mês de agosto do ano de 1999 através de um anemômetro sônico tridimensional. Também se obteve resultados envolvendo as relações σu/u*, σv/u* e σw/u*, todos condizentes com os previstos na literatura.In this work is analyzed the spectral characteristics of atmospheric turbulence in the Alcântara Launching Center (CLA, which suffers the influence of a cliff and of the sea breeze coming from the ocean. The atmospheric spectra were determined for the 3 wind components (u, v, and w in the superficial boundary layer, to be used for the Research and Developpment (R&D of sounding rockets and Satellite Launch Vehicle (VLS build by IAE. The data were collected during the month of August, 1999 using a 3D sonic anemometer. Results involving the σu/u*, σv/u* and σw/u* relations are obtained, and are all consistent with those reported in literature.

  9. Hypoxia modulates the effect of dihydroartemisinin on endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    D'Alessandro, S.; Basilico, N.; Corbett, Y; Scaccabarozzi, D.; Omodeo-Salè, F.; Saresella, M.; Marventano, I.; Vaillant, M.; P. Olliaro; Taramelli, D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Artemisinin derivatives, the current cornerstone of malaria treatment, possess also anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity. Hypoxia plays a crucial role both in severe malaria (as a consequence of the cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes to the microvasculature) and in cancer (due to the restricted blood supply in the growing tumour mass). However, the consequences of hypoxia onto the effects of artemisinins is under-researched. This study aimed at assessing ...

  10. Context modulates effects of nicotine abstinence on human cooperative responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, R; Day, J D; Schmitz, J M; Broitman, M; Elk, R; Caperton-Brown, H

    1998-11-01

    The effects of ad libitum smoking, abstinence, and 0-, 2-, and 4-mg nicotine gum on human cooperative responding were examined. Participants were provided the opportunity to respond cooperatively or independently to episodes initiated by a computer-simulated other person. Participants could also initiate episodes that ostensibly provided the other person the opportunity to respond cooperatively or independently of the participant. Working cooperatively added points to both the participant's and other person's counters. Working independently added points only to the participant's counter. Results demonstrated that abstinence decreased cooperative responses during episodes initiated by the computer-stimulated other person. Relative to abstinence and placebo gum conditions, ad libitum smoking and administration of 2- and 4-mg nicotine gum increased these cooperative responses. No gender differences were observed. The number of cooperative episodes initiated by the participants was not affected significantly by the smoking or gum conditions. Nicotine increased reports of vigor and decreased abstinence-engendered reports of depression, anger, confusion, and tension. The difference in the effects of nicotine abstinence on the 2 classes of cooperative responding demonstrates that the social contingency mediates the behavioral effects of abstinence.

  11. Modulation Effects in Multi-Section Semiconductor Lasers (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    semiconductor lasers based on quantum well gain lever,” Appl. Phys. Lett., 59, 2216–2218 (1991). [33] C. P. Seltzer , L. D. Westbrook, and H. J. Wickes...Improved signal-to-noise ratio in gain-levered InGaAsP/InP MQW lasers,” Electron. Lett., 29, 230–231 (1993). [34] L. D. Westbrook and C. P. Seltzer ...Electron. Lett., 30, 37–39 (1994). [37] C. P. Seltzer , L. D. Westbrook, and H. J. Wickes, “The “gain-lever” effect in InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well

  12. Orbital fibroblast chemokine modulation: effects of dexamethasone and cyclosporin A

    OpenAIRE

    BURNSTINE, M.; Elner, S.; Elner, V.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—Orbital inflammation is common, but the mechanisms underlying leucocytic infiltration of orbital tissue are poorly understood. Human orbital fibroblasts (OF) express chemokines, interleukin 8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), when exposed to proinflammatory cytokines. The effects of dexamethasone (DEX) and cyclosporin A (CSA) on OF IL-8 and MCP-1 were examined.
METHODS—Cultured human OF were incubated with recombinant interleukin 1β (rIL-1β; 0.2, 2.0, 20 ng/ml) alone or i...

  13. Extracellular Matrix Proteins Modulate Antimigratory and Apoptotic Effects of Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Said

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticancer drug resistance is a multifactorial process that includes acquired and de novo drug resistances. Acquired resistance develops during treatment, while de novo resistance is the primary way for tumor cells to escape chemotherapy. Tumor microenvironment has been recently shown to be one of the important factors contributing to de novo resistance and called environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR. Two forms of EMDR have been described: soluble factor-mediated drug resistance (SFM-DR and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR. Anthracyclines, among the most potent chemotherapeutic agents, are widely used in clinics against hematopoietic and solid tumors. Their main mechanism of action relies on the inhibition of topoisomerase I and/or II and the induction of apoptosis. Beyond this well-known antitumor activity, it has been recently demonstrated that anthracyclines may display potent anti-invasive effects when used at subtoxic concentrations. In this paper, we will describe two particular modes of EMDR by which microenvironment may influence tumor-cell response to one of these anthracyclines, doxorubicin. The first one considers the influence of type I collagen on the antimigratory effect of doxorubicin (CAM-DR. The second considers the protection of tumor cells by thrombospondin-I against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis (SFM-DR.

  14. Contig-Layout-Authenticator (CLA): A Combinatorial Approach to Ordering and Scaffolding of Bacterial Contigs for Comparative Genomics and Molecular Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Sabiha; Kumar, Narender; Lankapalli, Aditya K; Tiwari, Sumeet K; Baddam, Ramani; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of genome sequencing platforms have emerged in the recent past. High-throughput platforms like Illumina and 454 are essentially adaptations of the shotgun approach generating millions of fragmented single or paired sequencing reads. To reconstruct whole genomes, the reads have to be assembled into contigs, which often require further downstream processing. The contigs can be directly ordered according to a reference, scaffolded based on paired read information, or assembled using a combination of the two approaches. While the reference-based approach appears to mask strain-specific information, scaffolding based on paired-end information suffers when repetitive elements longer than the size of the sequencing reads are present in the genome. Sequencing technologies that produce long reads can solve the problems associated with repetitive elements but are not necessarily easily available to researchers. The most common high-throughput technology currently used is the Illumina short read platform. To improve upon the shortcomings associated with the construction of draft genomes with Illumina paired-end sequencing, we developed Contig-Layout-Authenticator (CLA). The CLA pipeline can scaffold reference-sorted contigs based on paired reads, resulting in better assembled genomes. Moreover, CLA also hints at probable misassemblies and contaminations, for the users to cross-check before constructing the consensus draft. The CLA pipeline was designed and trained extensively on various bacterial genome datasets for the ordering and scaffolding of large repetitive contigs. The tool has been validated and compared favorably with other widely-used scaffolding and ordering tools using both simulated and real sequence datasets. CLA is a user friendly tool that requires a single command line input to generate ordered scaffolds.

  15. The pharmacological effect of positive KCNQ (Kv7) modulators on dopamine release from striatal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majbrit M; Lange, Sofie Cecilie; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt;

    2011-01-01

    Retigabine is an anti-epileptic drug that inhibits neuronal firing by stabilizing the membrane potential through positive modulation of voltage-dependent KCNQ potassium channels in cortical neurons and in mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of ...

  16. Sex-Role Stereotyping and Its Effects. Physical Educators for Equity. Module 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neikirk, Mary; Leslie, Mary Dee

    This module, intended for use either as part of a self-study program or in a workshop, is designed to aid secondary school physical education teachers to identify effects of sex-role stereotyping on girls, boys, men, and women and to recognize examples of sex-role stereotyping in three areas of physical education: achievement, self-esteem, and…

  17. The Quantitative Effect of Students Using Podcasts in a First Year Undergraduate Exercise Physiology Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Grant; Barry, Tim

    2007-01-01

    This study reports the quantitative effect of students using podcasts in a 1st year undergraduate exercise physiology module. From a cohort of 70 students, 50 volunteered and completed the study. Using a pre-post random allocation research design, students were allocated to either a podcast group (PG) or control group (CG) based on a 32-question…

  18. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on low-conversion four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    We consider the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM) on frequency converseon by Bragg scattering. Previously we found that arbitrary mode reshaping without temporal entanglement (separability) was possible. When NPM is included, the modes are chirped and the separability is no longer...... complete. However, the mode phase shifts are reduced by pump pre-chirping....

  19. EPEC-O for African Americans - Module 7 AA - Communicating Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seventh module of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores communication issues pertinent to African Americans with cancer and their health care providers, discusses strategies for culturally sensitive communication, and presents the SPIKES protocol, a practical framework for effective communication.

  20. Clay Modeling versus Written Modules as Effective Interventions in Understanding Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareither, Mary Lou; Arbel, Vered; Growe, Meghan; Muszczynski, Emily; Rudd, Adam; Marone, Jane R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of clay modeling to written modules is examined to determine the degree of improvement in learning and retention of anatomical 3D relationships among students with different learning preferences. Thirty-nine undergraduate students enrolled in a cadaver dissection course completed a pre-assessment examination and the VARK…

  1. Using nonlinearity and spatiotemporal property modulation to control effective structural properties: dynamic rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Blekhman, Iliya I.

    2007-01-01

    What are the effective properties of a generally nonlinear material or structure, whose local properties are modulated in both space and time? It has been suggested to use spatiotemporal modulation of structural properties to create materials and structures with adjustable effective properties......, and to call these dynamic materials or spatiotemporal composites. Also, according to theoretical predictions, structural nonlinearity enhances the possibilities of achieving specific effective properties. For example, with an elastic rod having cubical elastic nonlinearities, it seems possible to control...... the effective propagation speed of long waves by varying the amplitude of a superimposed high-frequency standing wave. It should be possible to change most properties related to structural stiffness, energy dissipation, and equilibrium states this way, by exploiting the general effects of stiffening, biasing...

  2. Effect of Modulated Alternating and Direct Current Iontophoresis on Transdermal Delivery of Lidocaine Hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav Bhatia; Banga, Ajay K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the iontophoretic delivery of lidocaine hydrochloride through porcine skin and to compare the effects of modulated alternating and direct current iontophoresis. Continuous and modulated iontophoresis was applied for one hour and two hours (0-1 h and 4-5th h) using a 1% w/v solution of lidocaine hydrochloride. Tape stripping was done to quantify the amount of drug permeated into stratum corneum and skin extraction studies were performed to determi...

  3. Effectiveness of rf phase modulation for increasing bunch length in electron storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini; Mosnier

    2000-04-01

    Aiming at increasing the apparent bunch length and hence the beam lifetime in electron storage rings, rf phase modulation near one parametric resonance has been experimentally investigated. Since the possible benefit of this technique depends greatly on the ring parameters, we studied the effect of such a modulation for different rf parameters on the longitudinal emittance. Theoretical predictions and results of simulations are compared and discussed. It is shown that synchrotron radiation tends to spoil the parametric resonance. In particular, a criterion for island survival has been found.

  4. Effects of long-term blindness on preparatory emg modulation in humans performing landing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Fernando Henrique; Goroso, Daniel Gustavo

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effect of blindness on the task of leaping down to a lower landing surface, five blind individuals were compared with 10 sighted individuals who performed landing movements with and without sight. Participants performed six consecutive drop-landings from four different heights, during which the prelanding modulation of EMG timing and amplitude in four lower-limb muscles were recorded. Analysis showed that blind individuals showed specific prelanding EMG modulation, suggesting that long-term dependence on somesthetic and vestibular cues leads to different preparatory measures for vertical falls.

  5. Effective Simulation of Quantum Entanglement Based on Classical Fields Modulated with Pseudorandom Phase Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Jian; Xu, Yingying; Dong, Hongtao

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that n classical fields modulated with n different pseudorandom phase sequences can constitute a 2^n-dimensional Hilbert space that contains tensor product structure. By using classical fields modulated with pseudorandom phase sequences, we discuss effective simulation of Bell states and GHZ state, and apply both correlation analysis and von Neumann entropy to characterize the simulation. We obtain similar results with the cases in quantum mechanics and find that the conclusions can be easily generalized to n quantum particles. The research on simulation of quantum entanglement may be important, for it not only provides useful insights into fundamental features of quantum entanglement, but also yields new insights into quantum computation.

  6. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition, body fat mobilization, protein accretion, and energy utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Piechotta, M; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, mobilization or accretion of body fat and protein mass, as well as the energy metabolism of dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). For this purpose, a comparative slaughter experiment was conducted with 25 primiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment started at 1 DIM with the slaughter of 5 animals of an initial group receiving no CLA supplement. The remaining animals were fed a CLA supplement (n=10) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (CON; n=10) from 1 DIM up to slaughter. After 42 DIM, 5 more cows from each treatment (42-CLA and 42-CON) were slaughtered. The remaining 5 cows in each treatment were slaughtered after 105 DIM (105-CLA and 105-CON). The animals of the CLA groups consumed 6.0 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 5.7 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass was recorded and partitioned into 9 fractions (meat, bone, offal, hide, mammary gland, retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, and s.c. fat). The fractions were analyzed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, and ash to calculate the body composition of the empty body mass at the different slaughter times. The principle of the comparative slaughter technique was applied to estimate body fat or protein mobilization and accretion in the viewed periods from 1 DIM until 42 and 105 DIM. The heat production (HP) was calculated by subtracting the energy in milk and energy changes in body mass from the metabolizable energy intake. The body composition was not affected by CLA supplementation. However, the mobilization of body fat mass from 1 until 42 DIM was 24.1 kg in the 42-CON group and 14.3 kg in the 42-CLA group. This resulted in a trend to lower body mass (fat and protein) mobilization of 10.5 kg in the 42-CLA group. Energy mobilization from body mass was 21.2 MJ/d in

  7. Can ropinirole modulate reinforcing subjective effects of cocaine in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giovanni Icro eMaremmani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated, by means of the Cocaine Rush Visual Analogue Scale (CRVAS, the impact of ropinirole on the expected rush induced by cocaine in a group of heroin addicts abusing cocaine; the self-reported reaction to the rush blockade (if any on cocaine consumption, and the correlations between this self-reported reaction and individual, clinical and therapeutic parameters. Nineteen cocaine abuser heroin-dependent patients entered the study. Their experienced cocaine rush was 61.31±32.1% of the maximum effect previously experienced. Compared with their previous rush intensity 16 patients experienced significantly lower intensity, three the same intensity and none a higher intensity. In particular, two patients experienced a complete blockade of rush and reported a reduced use of cocaine. Fourteen patients experienced a partial blockade of cocaine rush; of these, nine reported they had reduced their use of cocaine. Ropinirole does diminish the subjective intensity of an expected cocaine rush, so interfering with the dynamics of reward, while supporting its possible use in the treatment of cocaine dependence.

  8. Characteristics analysis of polarization module on optical proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chanha; Hong, Jongkyun; Yang, Kiho; Theeuwes, Thomas; Gautier, Frederic; Min, Young-Hong; Chen, Alek; Yang, Hyunjo; Yim, Donggyu; Kim, Jinwoong

    2007-03-01

    In hyper NA system, specific illumination combined with polarization can be used as one of major RET techniques. Polarization at high NA dry system is also regarded as important technology to bring improvement of very low k1 process. The benefits of polarization on repeated structure are very well known. However we also need to understand the effect on random pattern in peripheral region to adopt polarization technology successfully into real devices. Memory device such as DRAM and NAND Flash has repeated cell structure and also loose pattern in peripheral region. In this study two kinds of polarization function will be applied to real memory devices and the polarization behavior on various patterns in peripheral circuit will be analyzed through actual printing process using 6% attenuated PSM at ArF high NA dry system. The printed result will be compared on random patterns through in-line metrology tool and process guideline including OPC treatment will be discussed based on this study, especially with regard to ID bias.

  9. Effect of Phase Shifted Frequency Modulation on Two Level Atom-Field Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.V. Priyesh; Ramesh Babu Thayyullathil

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the effect of phase shifted frequency modulation on two level atom with field interaction using Jaynes-Cummings model. Here the frequency of the interacting field is sinusoidally varying with time with a constant phase. Due to the presence of phase in the frequency modulation, the variation of population inversion with time is different from the standard case. There are no exact collapses and revivals in the variation of population inversion but it oscillates sinusoidally with time. In coherent field atom interaction the population inversion behaves as in the case of Fock state atom interaction, when frequency modulation with a non zero phase is applied. The study done with squeezed field has shown the same behavior of the population inversion.

  10. Effect of Integrated Yoga Module on Selected Psychological Variables among Women with Anxiety Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, S; Jaiganesh, K; Duraisamy

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of yogic practices has proven benefits in both organic and psychological diseases. Forty-five women with anxiety selected by a random sampling method were divided into three groups. Experimental group I was subjected to asanas, relaxation and pranayama while Experimental group II was subjected to an integrated yoga module. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety was measured by Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale before and after treatment. Frustration was measured through Reaction to Frustration Scale. All data were spread in an Excel sheet to be analysed with SPSS 16 software using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Selected yoga and asanas decreased anxiety and frustration scores but treatment with an integrated yoga module resulted in significant reduction of anxiety and frustration. To conclude, the practice of asanas and yoga decreased anxiety in women, and yoga as an integrated module significantly improved anxiety scores in young women with proven anxiety without any ill effects.

  11. Degradation analysis of photovoltaic modules based on operational data: effects of seasonal pattern and sensor drifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Degradation analysis of photovoltaic (PV) modules based on real operational data is essential to the future development of the PV industry. Weather conditions and system drifting often lead to large uncontrollable fluctuations in operational data, which present great challenges for calculating degradation rates of PV modules. In this paper, we propose a new numerical two-step approach to overcome these difficulties. In particular, we will show that our method is able to eliminate effects of seasonal patterns and systematic sensor drifting in evaluating degradation rates of PV modules. The method is applied to the six-year operational data of a solar PV system installed at CA United States. We demonstrate that our approach can greatly improve the degradation calculations, compared with other widely used methods.

  12. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on Bragg scattering in the low-conversion regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Cargill, D. S.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the effects of nonlinear phase modulation on frequency conversion by four-wave mixing (Bragg scattering) in the low-conversion regime. We derive the Green functions for this process using the time-domain collision method, for partial collisions, in which the four fields...... interact at the beginning or the end of the fiber, and complete collisions, in which the four fields interact at the midpoint of the fiber. If the Green function is separable, there is only one output Schmidt mode, which is free from temporal entanglement. We find that nonlinear phase modulation always...... chirps the input and output Schmidt modes and renders the Green function formally nonseparable. However, by pre-chirping the pumps, one can reduce the chirps of the Schmidt modes and enable approximate separability. Thus, even in the presence of nonlinear phase modulation, frequency conversion...

  13. Effect of wire obstructions on the formation of modulated plasma waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goers, Andrew; Yoon, Sung; Hine, George; Magill, Jeff; Milchberg, Howard

    2012-10-01

    Modulated plasma waveguides have been proposed as a means of quasi-phase matching laser plasma interactions for applications including direct acceleration of electrons by a high intensity laser pulse. We have demonstrated a technique for axially modulating plasma waveguides by periodically obstructing gas flow out of a cluster jet using an array of wires. This technique is inherently simpler and more easily varied compared to demonstrated optical techniques which axially modulate laser intensity at the target. However, in the previous study [B. Layer, et. al., Opt. Exp. 17, 4263(2009)] the modulation period could not be made less than 200um due to an observed density drop in the plasma between the wires for unknown reasons. By obstructing gas flow with only two wires with variable separation, we examine the aforementioned issue. Since the gas flow out of the cluster jet is supersonic, we observe shock wave formation from the wires with transverse interferometry and shadowgraphy. We find that as we increase the mean cluster size in the gas flow the effect of the shock wave to decrease plasma density between the wires is diminished, representing a transition to a ballistic flow regime. By optimizing jet parameters (e.g. temperature and height of plasma from the wires) we have been able to achieve plasma guiding structures with modulation periods less than 200um.

  14. Moxonidine modulates cytokine signalling and effects on cardiac cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceros, Henry; Farah, Georges; Noiseux, Nicolas; Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla

    2014-10-05

    Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and improved cardiac function in SHR by the centrally acting imidazoline I1-receptor agonist, moxonidine, are associated with differential actions on circulating and cardiac cytokines. Herein, we investigated cell-type specific I1-receptor (also known as nischarin) signalling and the mechanisms through which moxonidine may interfere with cytokines to affect cardiac cell viability. Studies were performed on neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts incubated with interleukin (IL)-1β (5 ng/ml), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (10 ng/ml), and moxonidine (10(-7) and 10(-5) M), separately and in combination, for 15 min, and 24 and 48 h for the measurement of MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38) and Akt activation and inducible NOS (iNOS) expression, by Western blotting, and cardiac cell viability/proliferation and apoptosis by flow cytometry, MTT assay, and Live/Dead assay. Participation of imidazoline I1-receptors and the signalling proteins in the detected effects was identified using imidazoline I1-receptor antagonist and signalling protein inhibitors. The results show that IL-1β, and to a lower extent, TNF-α, causes cell death and that moxonidine protects against starvation- as well as IL-1β -induced mortality, mainly by maintaining membrane integrity, and in part, by improving mitochondrial activity. The protection involves activation of Akt, ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and iNOS. In contrast, moxonidine stimulates basal and IL-1β-induced fibroblast mortality by mechanisms that include inhibition of JNK and iNOS. Thus, apart from their actions on the central nervous system, imidazoline I1-receptors are directly involved in cardiac cell growth and death, and may play an important role in cardiovascular diseases associated with inflammation.

  15. THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION USING MODIFICATION MODULE TOWARDS NUTRITIONAL INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY IN KENDARI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy metabolism speeds up during pregnancy that requires pregnant women to have extra amount of nutritions. Provision of education on nutrition during pregnancy is an effort to prevent and tackle malnutrition. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of education using modification module towards nutritional intake during pregnancy in Kendari, Indonesia Methods: This was Quasi Experimental study with pre-post design. There were 4 groups in this study, which were: 1 The group that received educational intervention using a modification module from the MHC book of the Department of Health, 2 The group that received educational intervention using MHC book of the Department of Health, 3 The group that only used modification modules from MHC book of the Department of Health, and 4 The group that only used the MHC book of Department of Health. The intervention was given for 6 months. Seventy eight of 4-months pregnant women were selected in this study. Data were collected by using 24 hours food recall instrument, and questionnaire adopted from Child and Maternal Nutrition Survey’s Questionnaire of Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: Results showed there was an effect of education by using the module modifications to the intake of nutritions during pregnancy. Increased nutrient intake was higher in pregnant women using a module class modifications. Conclusion: Education affects nutritional intake of pregnant women. Changes in nutritional intake was higher in group 1 (education modules with modifications, compared with the education group MCH handbook. It is suggested that mothers should improve the nutrition during pregnancy for the better growth of the fetus, composition and metabolic changes in the mother's body.

  16. Relativistic effects on the modulational instability of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudev Ghosh; Swarniv Chandra; Sailendra Nath Paul

    2012-05-01

    Relativistic effects on the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves are investigated using the one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for a twocomponent electron–ion dense quantum plasma. Using standard perturbation technique, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) containing both relativistic and quantum effects has been derived. This equation has been used to discuss the modulational instability of the wave. Through numerical calculations it is shown that relativistic effects significantly change the linear dispersion character of the wave. Unlike quantum effects, relativistic effects are shown to reduce the instability growth rate of electron plasma waves.

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  18. Demodulation effect is observed in neurones by exposure to low frequency modulated microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bruzón, R. N.; Figols, T.; Azanza, M. J.; del Moral, A.

    2010-01-01

    Neurones exposure to a microwave (carrier fc=13.6 GHz; power P simeq 5 mW; Ho simeq 0.10 Am-1 = 1.25 mOe; E0 simeq 3.5 V/m; ΔT simeq 0.01°C SAR: 3.1×10-3 - 5.8×10-3 W/Kg) EMF amplitude modulated by ELF-AC field (frequency, fm= 0-100 Hz) shows no electrophysiological effect under the carrier MF alone, but "frequency resonances: at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 50, 100 Hz: demodulation effect. Resonances appear when applied ELF-MF is close to a dominant characteristic frequency of the neurone impulse Fourier spectrum. This is an interesting result considering that ELF-MF modulating RF or MW in the range of human EEG could induce frequency-resonant effects on exposed human brain.

  19. Interdisciplinary Integration of the CVS Module and Its Effect on Faculty and Student Satisfaction as Well as Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Nasra N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beyond the adoption of the principles of horizontal and vertical integration, significant planning and implementation of curriculum reform is needed. This study aimed to assess the effect of the interdisciplinary integrated Cardiovascular System (CVS module on both student satisfaction and performance and comparing them to those of the temporally coordinated CVS module that was implemented in the previous year at the faculty of Medicine of the King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Methods This interventional study used mixed method research design to assess student and faculty satisfaction with the level of integration within the CVS module. A team from the medical education department was assembled in 2010/2011 to design a plan to improve the CVS module integration level. After delivering the developed module, both student and faculty satisfaction as well as students performance were assessed and compared to those of the previous year to provide an idea about module effectiveness. Results Many challenges faced the medical education team during design and implementation of the developed CVS module e.g. resistance of faculty members to change, increasing the percentage of students directed learning hours from the total contact hour allotted to the module and shifting to integrated item writing in students assessment, spite of that the module achieved a significant increase in both teaching faculty and student satisfaction as well as in the module scores. Conclusion The fully integrated CVS has yielded encouraging results that individual teachers or other medical schools who attempt to reformulate their curriculum may find valuable.

  20. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  1. Amplitude modulation detection with cochlear implants: Effects of electrode separation and stimulus level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Chatterjee, Monita

    2001-05-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) detection performance has been studied in the past with normal-hearing and hearing-impaired populations. The temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) is a plot of AM detection performance as a function of modulation rate and provides a way of characterizing temporal sensitivity. Typically the TMTF takes the form of a low-pass filter, with performance declining above 50-70-Hz modulation rate. TMTFs have also been measured with cochlear implant patients, showing a similar low-pass characteristic, with a cutoff around 140-Hz rate, while sensitivity to AM was found to increase with increasing current level. The present study investigated the effects of stimulation level and electrode separation on TMTFs with cochlear implant patients. TMTFs were measured for narrow through wide electrode separations and three different (loudness-balanced) percentages of the dynamic range. Preliminary results indicate that sensitivity increases (lower thresholds) with increasing stimulation level, for a given electrode separation. However, comparing TMTFs across different electrode separations, sensitivity is independent of current level, but increases as a function of percentage of dynamic range. In summary, it appears that AM detection performance with cochlear implants depends primarily on sensation level, rather than current level or electrode separation. [Work supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01DC04786.

  2. Additive effects of threat-of-shock and picture valence on startle reflex modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bublatzky

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of sustained anticipatory anxiety on the affective modulation of the eyeblink startle reflex. Towards this end, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures were presented as a continuous stream during alternating threat-of-shock and safety periods, which were cued by colored picture frames. Orbicularis-EMG to auditory startle probes and electrodermal activity were recorded. Previous findings regarding affective picture valence and threat-of-shock modulation were replicated. Of main interest, anticipating aversive events and viewing affective pictures additively modulated defensive activation. Specifically, despite overall potentiated startle blink magnitude in threat-of-shock conditions, the startle reflex remained sensitive to hedonic picture valence. Finally, skin conductance level revealed sustained sympathetic activation throughout the entire experiment during threat- compared to safety-periods. Overall, defensive activation by physical threat appears to operate independently from reflex modulation by picture media. The present data confirms the importance of simultaneously manipulating phasic-fear and sustained-anxiety in studying both normal and abnormal anxiety.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF LEFT VS. RIGHT EAR STIMULATION ON HUMAN STARTLE REFLEX MODULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaviani

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported previously that modulatory effects of pleasant and unpleasant slides on the human acoustic reflex are observed only if startle probes are presented to the left ear or with binaural presentation. The present study examined the effects of the left and the right ear stimulation on modulated startle reflex (as indexed by eyeblink component, measured at the right eye employing short (2-min film-clips to elicit emotions. Sixteen right-handed subjects served as volunteers. The experiment included two consecutive sessions, on a single occasion. The acoustic stimuli were presented monaurally to one of the ears in each session, counterbalanced across order. The laterality phenomenon in startle modulation previously observed with affect-toned slides was not confirmed in this experiment. The probable discrepancy will be discussed methodologically.

  4. Effect of stochastic modulation of inter-pulse interval during stimulated isokinetic leg extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Anil Aksöz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recumbent cycling exercise achieved by functional electrical stimulation (FES of the paralyzed leg muscles is effective for cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal conditioning after spinal cord injury, but its full potential has not yet been realized. Mechanical power output and efficiency is very low and endurance is limited due to early onset of muscle fatigue. The aim of this work was to compare stochastic modulation of the inter-pulse interval (IPI to constant-frequency stimulation during an isokinetic leg extension task similar to FES-cycling. Seven able-bodied subjects participated: both quadriceps muscles were stimulated (n = 14 with two activation patterns (P1-constant frequency, P2-stochastic IPI. There was significantly higher power output with P2 during the first 30 s (p = 0.0092, the last 30 s (p = 0.018 and overall (p = 0.0057, but there was no overall effect on fatiguability when stimulation frequency was randomly modulated.

  5. Effect of Stochastic Modulation of Inter-Pulse Interval During Stimulated Isokinetic Leg Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksöz, Efe Anil; Laubacher, Marco; Binder-Macleod, Stuart; Hunt, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Recumbent cycling exercise achieved by functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paralyzed leg muscles is effective for cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal conditioning after spinal cord injury, but its full potential has not yet been realized. Mechanical power output and efficiency is very low and endurance is limited due to early onset of muscle fatigue. The aim of this work was to compare stochastic modulation of the inter-pulse interval (IPI) to constant-frequency stimulation during an isokinetic leg extension task similar to FES-cycling. Seven able-bodied subjects participated: both quadriceps muscles were stimulated (n = 14) with two activation patterns (P1-constant frequency, P2-stochastic IPI). There was significantly higher power output with P2 during the first 30 s (p = 0.0092), the last 30 s (p = 0.018) and overall (p = 0.0057), but there was no overall effect on fatiguability when stimulation frequency was randomly modulated. PMID:27990242

  6. Throughflow and Gravity Modulation Effects on Heat Transport in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palle Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vertical throughflow and time-periodic gravity field has been investigated on Darcy convection. The amplitude of gravity modulation is considered to be very small and the disturbances are expanded in terms of power series of amplitude of convection. A weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed for the stationary mode of convection. As a consequence heat transport evaluated in terms of the Nusselt number, which is governed by the non-autonomous Ginzburg-Landau equation. Throughflow can stabilize or destabilize the system for stress free and isothermal boundary conditions. The amplitude and frequency of modulation, Prandtl Darcy number on heat transport have been analyzed and depicted graphically. Further, the study establishes that the heat transport can be controlled effectively by a mechanism that is external to the system. Finally flow patterns are presented in terms of streamlines and isotherms.

  7. Effects of d-Amphetamine and Haloperidol on Modulation of the Human Acoustic Startle Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kaviani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective:This study aimed to examine the effects of haloperidol and amphetamine on human startle response modulated by emotionally-toned film clips. "n "n Method:Sixty participants, in two groups (one receiving haloperidol and the other receiving amphetamine were tested using electromyography (EMG to measure eye-blink muscle (orbicular oculi while different emotions were induced by six 2-minute film clips. Results:An affective rating shows the negative and positive effects of the two drugs on emotional reactivity, neither amphetamine nor haloperidol had any impact on the modulation of the startle response. Conclusion: The methodological and theoretical aspects of the study and findings will be discussed.

  8. Effect of stochastic modulation of inter-pulse interval during stimulated isokinetic leg extension

    OpenAIRE

    Efe Anil Aksöz; Marco Laubacher; Stuart Binder-Macleod; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Recumbent cycling exercise achieved by functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the paralyzed leg muscles is effective for cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal conditioning after spinal cord injury, but its full potential has not yet been realized. Mechanical power output and efficiency is very low and endurance is limited due to early onset of muscle fatigue. The aim of this work was to compare stochastic modulation of the inter-pulse interval (IPI) to constant-frequency stimulation during ...

  9. Second-Harmonic Generation in Optical Fibres Induced by a Cross-Phase Modulation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei-Na; HUANG Guo-Xiang

    2005-01-01

    @@ When two optical pulses copropagate inside a single-modefibre, intensity-dependent refractive index couples the pulses through a cross-phase modulation (XPM). We show that a second-harmonic generation (SHG) on a continuous-wave background is possible in the optical fibre induced by the XPM effect. By means of a multiscale method the nonlinearly coupled envelope equations for the SHG are derived and their explicit solutions are provided and discussed.

  10. Effective Use of Interactive Learning Modules in Classroom Study in Computer Science

    OpenAIRE

    Jamwal, Goldee

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is spending substantial resources to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education in the United States. The ultimate goal of these programs is to produce students with a better knowledge of math and science and who are more likely to pursue careers in STEM fields. Interactive learning modules can be used in the classroom environment for effective learning. This study examines the learning preferences of Logan High School (...

  11. Effective use of Interactive Learning Modules in Classroom Study for Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jamwal, Goldee

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is spending substantial resources to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education in the United States. The ultimate goal of these programs is to produce students with a better knowledge of math and science and who are more likely to pursue careers in STEM fields. Interactive learning modules can be used in the classroom environment for effective learning. This study examines the learning preferences of Logan High School (...

  12. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on quantum frequency conversion using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we solved the coupled-mode equations for Bragg scattering (BS) in the low- and high-conversion regimes, but without the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM). We now present solutions and Green functions in the low-conversion regime that include NPM. We find that NPM does not change...... are still possible, even when the effects of NPM are included. Finally, the effects of using different input signals are considered, and we conclude that using the natural input modes of the system drastically increases the efficiency. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers...

  13. Protein conformational modulation by photons: a mechanism for laser treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Ann D; Bicknell, Brian T; Adams, Roger D

    2014-03-01

    Responsiveness to low-level laser treatment (LLTT) at a wavelength of 450-910 nm has established it as an effective treatment of medical, veterinary and dental chronic pain, chronic inflammation conditions (arthritis and macular degeneration), wound repair, and lymphoedema, yet the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of LLLT remain unclear. However, there is now sufficient evidence from recent research to propose an integrated model of LLLT action. The hypothesis presented in this paper is that external applications of photons (through laser at an appropriate dose) modulates the nervous system through an integrated mechanism. This stimulated mechanism involves protein-to-protein interaction, where two or more proteins bind together to facilitate molecular processes, including modification of proteins by members of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier proteins) and also protein phosphorylation and tyrosination. SUMO has been shown to have a role in multiple nuclear and perinuclear targets, including ion channels, and in the maintenance of telomeres and the post-translational modification of genes. The consequence of laser application in treatment, therefore, can be seen as influencing the transmission of neural information via an integrated and rapid modulation of ion channels, achieved through both direct action on photo-acceptors (such as cytochrome c-oxidase) and through indirect modulation via enzymes, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tyrosine kinases and tyrosine kinase receptors. This exogenous action then facilitates an existing photonic biomodulation mechanism within the body, and initiates ion channel modulation both in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence indicates that the ion channel modulation functions predominately through the potassium channels, including two pore leak channels (K2P), which act as signal integrators from the periphery to the cortex. Photonic action also transforms SUMOylation processes at the cell

  14. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism modulates the effects of social support on heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthak, Magdalena K; Chen, Frances S; Kumsta, Robert; Hill, LaBarron K; Thayer, Julian F; Heinrichs, Markus

    2016-05-01

    A large body of empirical research has demonstrated stress-buffering effects of social support. However, recent studies suggest that genetic variation of the oxytocin system (specifically, a common single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene) modulates the efficacy of social support. The timing and neurobiological basis of this genetic modulation were investigated using a standardized, laboratory-based psychological stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G). To index potential stress buffering effects of social support mediated by the oxytocin system, heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained before and during the TSST-G from 40 healthy participants. Results indicate that social support is associated with higher HRV only in G allele carriers. Specifically, social support increased heart rate variability during direct social interaction and only in individuals with at least one copy of the G allele of rs53576. These findings support the idea that the stress-attenuating effects of social support are modulated by genetic variation of the oxytocin system.

  15. Theoretical study on coupling effects of modulation depth between two photorefractive phase gratings with an external applied field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Baohong; ZHOU Zhongxiang; HOU Chunfeng; SUN Xiudong

    2001-01-01

    We used the perturbation expanding method to the hopping model and studied coupling effects of the modulation depth between two photorefractive phase gratings stored in one point with an external applied DC electric field . It has been found that the modulation depth of one of the two gratings seriously affects the spatial-charge field of the other grating.

  16. Evaluation of dosimetric effect caused by slowing with multi-leaf collimator (MLC leaves for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhengzheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is to report 1 the sensitivity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT QA method for clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plans with multi-leaf collimator (MLC leaf errors that will not trigger MLC interlock during beam delivery; 2 the effect of non-beam-hold MLC leaf errors on the quality of VMAT plan dose delivery.

  17. In vitro diagnostic evaluation of patients with inhalant allergies: summary of probability outcomes comparing results of CLA- and CAP-specific immunoglobulin E test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper-Christensen, Steen; Backer, Vibeke; DuBuske, Lawrence M; Nolte, Hendrik

    2003-01-01

    For the diagnosis of allergy, presence of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) usually is established either by allergen skin tests or by in vitro allergen-specific IgE measurements. However, in vitro assays of specific IgE often are modified as manufacturers improve allergens or change reagents to optimize test performance, affecting the diagnostic performance of in vitro allergen-specific IgE assays. This investigation compares the diagnostic outcomes of the Hitachi Chemical Diagnostics chemiluminescent assay (CLA) and Pharmacia, capsulated hydrophilic carrier polymer (CAP) in vitro allergen-specific IgE test methods in patients with inhalant allergy to a panel of selected allergens. Sera were obtained from 60 consecutive patients who had a clinical history suggesting inhalant allergy and were evaluated by allergen skin-prick test (SPT). Only patients with clinical findings of allergic asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis were included. Sera from patients with at least one positive SPT, which clinically correlated with the case history, were used for specific IgE measurements. Sensitivity and specificity were defined as conditional probabilities describing performances of the CAP system and the CLA system in reference to a standard composed of a combination of allergen-specific symptoms and a positive SPT. A test concordance of 79% was found between the CLA and CAP test results with a correlation coefficient of 0.8. Allergen-specific IgE assay sensitivity of the CLA and CAP systems was similar and allergen dependent, ranging from 67 to 100%. Assay specificity ranged from 39 to 86% for the CLA system and from 36 to 81% for the CAP system. When comparing the specific IgE results with allergen SPTs, 75% (+/- 3%) of CLApositive patients had a positive SPT, and 92% (+/- 4%) of CAPpositive patients had a positive SPT. Eighty-four percent (+/- 4%) of CLAnegative patients had a negative SPT, whereas 69% (+/- 5%) of CAPnegative patients had a negative SPT. The overall

  18. Hierarchical effects of task engagement on amplitude modulation encoding in auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Mamiko; O'Connor, Kevin N; Engall, Elizabeth; Johnson, Jeffrey S; Sutter, M L

    2015-01-01

    We recorded from middle lateral belt (ML) and primary (A1) auditory cortical neurons while animals discriminated amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds and also while they sat passively. Engagement in AM discrimination improved ML and A1 neurons' ability to discriminate AM with both firing rate and phase-locking; however, task engagement affected neural AM discrimination differently in the two fields. The results suggest that these two areas utilize different AM coding schemes: a "single mode" in A1 that relies on increased activity for AM relative to unmodulated sounds and a "dual-polar mode" in ML that uses both increases and decreases in neural activity to encode modulation. In the dual-polar ML code, nonsynchronized responses might play a special role. The results are consistent with findings in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices during discrimination of vibrotactile modulation frequency, implicating a common scheme in the hierarchical processing of temporal information among different modalities. The time course of activity differences between behaving and passive conditions was also distinct in A1 and ML and may have implications for auditory attention. At modulation depths ≥ 16% (approximately behavioral threshold), A1 neurons' improvement in distinguishing AM from unmodulated noise is relatively constant or improves slightly with increasing modulation depth. In ML, improvement during engagement is most pronounced near threshold and disappears at highly suprathreshold depths. This ML effect is evident later in the stimulus, and mainly in nonsynchronized responses. This suggests that attention-related increases in activity are stronger or longer-lasting for more difficult stimuli in ML.

  19. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on blood lipids and adiposity of rats fed diets rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Rebecca; Linscheid, Janna; Johnson, Amy; Lawson, Brian; Edwards, Kylie; Linder, Travis; Stocker, Kelly; Petitte, Jeremy; Kern, Mark

    2005-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may decrease adiposity and improve blood lipid profiles under some conditions. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of CLA supplementation on blood lipid profiles and adiposity of rats fed a diet containing a primarily saturated fat versus a diet containing a primarily unsaturated fat. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of four diets containing coconut oil, coconut oil with CLA, corn oil or corn oil with CLA. After 28 days, blood was collected and serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TG) were assessed. Food intake, body weights, and epididymal fat pads were measured. No significant differences (p>0.05) were noted among groups for amount of food consumed, weight gained, food efficiency ratio or serum TG concentrations. TC concentrations were lower (pHDL-C was lower (p0.05) for CLA supplemented groups. Epididymal fat pads weighed significantly more (p0.05) between the corn oil and coconut oil + CLA group. Overall, this study suggests that CLA is more beneficial for control of blood lipids and adiposity when supplemented to a diet rich in saturated versus unsaturated fat.

  20. The Modulation of Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator on Heating HF Waves and the Doppler Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Bin-bin; Zhao Zheng-yu; Xie Shu-guo

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: The propagation of HF waves in IAR can produce many nonlinear effects, including the modulation effect of IAR on HF waves and the Doppler effect. To start with the dependence of the ionospheric electron temperature variaof the modulation effect and lucubrate possible reasons for the field can have an observable modulation effect on HF waves while its mechanism is quite different from that of Schumann resonant field on HF waves. The depth of modulation of IAR field, which directly inspires the formation of cross-spectrum between ULF waves and HF waves and results in spectral peaks at some gyro-frequencies of IAR. With respect to the Doppler effect during the propagation of HF waves in IAR, it is mainly caused by the motion of the high-speed flyer and the drifting electrons and the frequency shift from the phase variation of the reflected waves can be neglected when the frequency of HF incident wave is high enough.

  1. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  2. Free fatty acid and triacylglycerol forms of CLA isomers are not incorporated equally in the liver but do not lead to differences in bone density and biomarkers of bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuire, Jason R; Weiler, Hope A

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have compared differences between conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in triacylglycerol (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) form. This study assessed differences in liver incorporation, mineral mass balance, bone density, and biomarkers of bone metabolism between FFA and TG CLA diets. Rats (n=36) were fed a control (CTRL) or 1% CLA diet in FFA or TG form (1:1 mixture c9, t11: t10, c12). Liver content of c9, t11 CLA from FFA was greater than TG form and CTRL (FFA: 0.05±0.01 vs. TG: 0.02±0.01 vs. CTRL: 0.001±0.001% total fatty acids, PCLA did not differ among groups (P=0.11). No diet differences among groups for growth, bone biomarkers or mass nor mineral balance were found. These findings suggest that c9, t11 CLA in FFA form is preferentially incorporated in the liver but fatty acid forms of CLA do not affect bone or mineral outcomes.

  3. The effect of spherical and other aberrations upon the modulation transfer of the defocussed human eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, NM; Kooijman, AC

    1998-01-01

    Relative modulation transfer is defined as contrast sensitivity under blur normalised to contrast sensitivity at optimum focus. Measured relative modulation transfer exceeds relative modulation transfer as calculated for aberration free optics at higher spatial frequencies (>2 cpd). The contribution

  4. GABAB receptor-positive modulators: enhancement of GABAB receptor agonist effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C

    2010-10-01

    In vivo effects of GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators suggest that they have therapeutic potential for treating central nervous system disorders such as anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Although these effects generally are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABA(B) receptors, such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro. The present study was aimed at further examining the in vivo positive modulatory properties of the GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl) phenol (CGP7930) and (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF). Both compounds enhanced loss of righting induced by baclofen in mice. However, CGP7930 was less effective and rac-BHFF was less potent for enhancing loss of righting induced by γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which, like baclofen, has GABA(B) receptor agonist properties. In contrast with baclofen- and GHB-induced loss of righting, the hypothermic effects of baclofen and GHB were not enhanced by rac-BHFF but were enhanced by CGP7930 only at doses that produced hypothermia when given alone. CGP7930-induced hypothermia was not attenuated by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348), at doses that blocked baclofen-induced hypothermia, and was not increased by the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, at doses that increased the hypothermic effects of baclofen and GHB. The results provide evidence that CGP7930 and rac-BHFF act in vivo as positive modulators at GABA(B) receptors mediating loss of righting, but not at GABA(B) receptors mediating hypothermia. Conceivably, CGP7930, but not rac-BHFF, acts as an allosteric agonist at these latter receptors. Taken together, the results provide further evidence of pharmacologically distinct GABA(B) receptor subtypes, possibly allowing for a more selective therapeutic interference with the GABA(B) system.

  5. T-cell population of primary and secondary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas does not express the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, R M; Hausmann, G; Estrach, T; Cid, M C; Palou, J; Herrero, C; Mascaro, J M

    1997-05-01

    Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL) are a group of malignant lymphomas with apparently distinct clinicopathological and immunophenotypical features. As in other B-cell lymphomas, the accompanying benign cell population in CBCL includes a variable number of T lymphocytes whose role is not well understood. In the present study we characterized the immunophenotype of these T cells and compared it with that of the reactive T-cell population in specific skin involvement by noncutaneous B-cell malignancies. Our results indicated that most T cells in both primary and secondary B-cell lymphomas were CLA+ memory/effector helper T cells which differed from the currently known CLA+ memory/effector helper T lymphocytes of the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) system. However, the endothelial CLA ligand, E-selectin, was expressed on dermal vessels. These results suggest that a B cell environment and/or a lack of epidermal involvement promote(s) the recruitment into the skin of a different, apparently less specific, subset of memory helper T cells from those seen in T-cell-mediated dermatoses.

  6. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham S. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day. EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  7. Mitigation of nonlinear transmission effects for OFDM 16-QAM optical signal using adaptive modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidin, Anton S; Sidelnikov, Oleg S; Fedoruk, Mikhail P; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-12-26

    The impact of the fiber Kerr effect on error statistics in the nonlinear (high power) transmission of the OFDM 16-QAM signal over a 2000 km EDFA-based link is examined. We observed and quantified the difference in the error statistics for constellation points located at three power-defined rings. Theoretical analysis of a trade-off between redundancy and error rate reduction using probabilistic coding of three constellation power rings decreasing the symbol-error rate of OFDM 16-QAM signal is presented. Based on this analysis, we propose to mitigate the nonlinear impairments using the adaptive modulation technique applied to the OFDM 16-QAM signal. We demonstrate through numerical modelling the system performance improvement by the adaptive modulation for the large number of OFDM subcarriers (more than 100). We also show that a similar technique can be applied to single carrier transmission.

  8. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Haitham S; Fahmy, Heba M; Radwan, Nasr M; Elsayed, Anwar A

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  9. Effects of the Curing Process on the Residual Stress in Solar Cell Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Panels using solar power require high reliability, and the residual stress in the solar panel has an important effect on its reliability and lifetime. The finite element method was adopted to simulate the impacts of the rectangular solar panel encapsulation process parameters, such as the elastic modulus, the thickness of adhesive, and the curing temperature on the residual stress in the solar cell module. The results show that the residual stress in the solar cell module increases linearly with the increase in these three factors. The residual strain is consistent with that of the stress. The generation mechanism and distribution evolution of stress are discussed in detail. Both the thickness and the elastic modulus of the silicone rubber have significant impact on the residual stress. However, the influence of the curing temperature is less observable.

  10. Effect of rotational speed modulation on heat transport in a fluid layer with temperature dependent viscosity and internal heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bhadauria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the combined effect of rotation speed modulation and internal heating on thermal instability in a temperature dependent viscous horizontal fluid layer. Rayleigh–Bénard momentum equation with Coriolis term has been considered to describe the convective flow. The system is rotating about it is own axis with non-uniform rotational speed. In particular, a time-periodic and sinusoidally varying rotational speed has been considered. A weak nonlinear stability analysis is performed to find the effect of modulation on heat transport. Nusselt number is obtained in terms of amplitude of convection and internal Rayleigh number, and depicted graphically for showing the effects of various parameters of the system. The effect of modulated rotation speed is found to have a stabilizing effect for different values of modulation frequency. Further, internal heating and thermo-rheological parameters are found to destabilize the system.

  11. Bend effect of the electrode for travelling wave integrated electro-optic modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuwen Zhang(张阜文); Fushen Chen(陈福深); Kun Qiu(邱昆)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied electrode bend effects on electrical characteristics of the modulator in thethree aspects, which are arc length, characteristic impedance, and loss, applying the model in Ref. [1] andthe finite element method (FEM). The results have shown that the effect only caused by the characteristicimpedance is necessarily considered while its deviation is large, but others are negligible as we design apractical device. Finally, some transmission characteristics of coplanar line with different arc length of thebend have been tested, and the measured results are in good agreement with the theoretical analyses.

  12. Study on the modulating effect of polysaccharide upon the mineralization of iron hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiangbo; SUN Zhenya

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the modulating effect of polysaccharide upon the mineralization of iron hydroxide, a series of simulative biomineralization experiments using dextran and chitosan as organic substrates were conducted in this paper. The results showed that iron hydroxide gel nucleated and grew in polysaccharide molecules, with the self-assemble effect of dextran or chitosan, the nanometer-sized akaganeite was formed. The shape, size and crystal structural type of iron oxyhydroxide formed from iron hydroxide gel depend on the type of polysaccharide and its concentrations.

  13. Enhanced soliton-effect pulse compression by cross-phase modulation in optical fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文华; 刘颂豪

    2000-01-01

    A new method is proposed to enhance the soliton-effect compression of optical pulses. It consists of copropagating two optical pulses with close wavelengths in the anomalous group-velocity dispersion regime of single-mode fibers. Numerical simulations show that, as compared with the traditional single pulse compression method, cross-phase modulation can not only dramatically increase the compression ratio but also decrease the optimum fiber length. The effects of initial pulse-width mismatch, Raman self-scattering, and pulse walk-off on the pulse compression are also discussed.

  14. Auto-modulation of neuroactive steroids on GABA A receptors: a novel pharmacological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Florian; Rassler, Cornelia; Allgaier, Clemens; Strecker, Karl; Wohlfarth, Kai

    2007-02-01

    GABA(A) receptor function is modulated by various important drugs including neuroactive steroids that act on allosteric modulatory sites and can directly activate GABA(A) receptor channels at high concentrations. We used whole cell patch-clamp recordings and rapid applications of the neuroactive steroid alphaxalone to investigate repetitive steroid effects. Alphaxalone potentiation of submaximal GABA-evoked currents was enhanced significantly by repetitive coapplications at all investigated recombinant isoforms (alpha1beta3delta, alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha6beta3delta, alpha6beta3gamma2L) and at GABA(A) receptors of differentiated human NT2 neurons. A similar increase of current amplitudes was induced by repetitive applications of a high steroid concentration without GABA. We refer to these reversible effects as auto-modulation because repeated interactions of steroids enhanced their own pharmacological impact at the receptor sites in a time and concentration dependent manner without affecting GABA controls. Pronounced auto-modulatory actions were also measured using the neurosteroid 5alpha-THDOC in contrast to indiplon, THIP, and pentobarbital indicating a steroid specificity. Protein kinase A inhibition significantly reduced alphaxalone auto-modulation at alpha1beta3gamma2L, alpha6beta3gamma2L, and alpha6beta3delta subtypes while it enhanced potentiation at alpha1beta3delta isoforms suggesting a crucial influence of receptor subunit composition and phosphorylation for steroid actions. Especially at extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor sites containing the delta subunit steroid auto-modulation may have a critical role in enhancing potentiation of GABA-induced currents.

  15. 植物乳杆菌转化生成CLA的研究%Study on CLA production by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴秋儿; 张中义; 刘萍; 苗士达; 孙君社

    2005-01-01

    从酸菜汁中分离出的一株植物乳杆菌Lactobacillus plantarum LT2-6能将亚油酸转化成共轭亚油酸.该菌株在MRS培养基中经0.03%(w/v)的亚油酸诱导培养后,所获得的洗涤细胞具有很强的转化能力.在厌氧环境下利用L. plantarum LT2-6的洗涤细胞进行转化生成CLA的反应.结果表明,适宜反应条件为:温度30℃、pH7.0(0.1mol/L的磷酸盐缓冲系统)、细胞浓度20%(w/v)、游离亚油酸浓度1.5%(w/v)、反应时间64h,获得CLA最高产量为7.87mg/mL,产物为c9、t11/t9、c11-CLA.

  16. The effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplements on oxidative and antioxidative status of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschke, N; Kankofer, M; Ruda, L; Höltershinken, M; Meyer, U; Frank, J; Dänicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-10-01

    Dairy cows develop frequently negative energy balance around parturition and in early lactation, resulting in excessive mobilization of body fat and subsequently in increased risk of ketosis and other diseases. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplements are used in dairy cows mainly for their depressing effect on milk fat content, but are also proposed to have antioxidative properties. As negative energy balance is associated with oxidative stress, which is also assumed to contribute to disease development, the present study was conducted to examine effects of CLA on oxidative and antioxidative status of lactating dairy cows. German Holstein cows (primiparous n=13, multiparous n=32) were divided into 3 dietary treatment groups receiving 100g/d of control fat supplement, containing 87% stearic acid (CON; n=14), 50g/d of control fat supplement and 50g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 50; n=15), or 100g/d of CLA supplement (CLA 100; n=16). The CLA supplement was lipid-encapsulated and contained 12% of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and cis-9,trans-11 CLA each. Supplementation took place between d1 and 182 postpartum; d 182 until 252 postpartum served as a depletion period. Blood was sampled at d -21, 1, 21, 70, 105, 140, 182, 224, and 252 relative to calving. The antioxidative status was determined using the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol-to-cholesterol mass ratio, and retinol. For determination of oxidative status concentrations of hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), N'-formylkynurenine, and bityrosine were measured. Mixed models of fixed and random effects with repeated measures were used to evaluate period 1 (d -21 to 140) and 2 (d182-252) separately. Cows showed increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation during the periparturient period in terms of increased serum concentrations of hydroperoxides and TBARS, which decreased throughout lactation. During period 1, the supplemented cows had lower TBARS

  17. Critical role of extracellular vesicles in modulating the cellular effects of cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Géza Tamás; Tarr, Bettina; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Éder, Katalin; Lajkó, Eszter; Kittel, Ágnes; Tóth, Sára; György, Bence; Pásztói, Mária; Németh, Andrea; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Pállinger, Éva; Falus, András; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2014-10-01

    Under physiological and pathological conditions, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are present in the extracellular compartment simultaneously with soluble mediators. We hypothesized that cytokine effects may be modulated by EVs, the recently recognized conveyors of intercellular messages. In order to test this hypothesis, human monocyte cells were incubated with CCRF acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line-derived EVs with or without the addition of recombinant human TNF, and global gene expression changes were analyzed. EVs alone regulated the expression of numerous genes related to inflammation and signaling. In combination, the effects of EVs and TNF were additive, antagonistic, or independent. The differential effects of EVs and TNF or their simultaneous presence were also validated by Taqman assays and ELISA, and by testing different populations of purified EVs. In the case of the paramount chemokine IL-8, we were able to demonstrate a synergistic upregulation by purified EVs and TNF. Our data suggest that neglecting the modulating role of EVs on the effects of soluble mediators may skew experimental results. On the other hand, considering the combined effects of cytokines and EVs may prove therapeutically useful by targeting both compartments at the same time.

  18. The modulation of stimulus structure on visual field asymmetry effects: the case of Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Janet H; Cheng, Liao

    2013-09-01

    Recent research suggests that visual field (VF) asymmetry effects in visual recognition may be influenced by information distribution within the stimuli for the recognition task in addition to hemispheric processing differences: Stimuli with more information on the left have a right VF (RVF) advantage because the left part is closer to the centre, where the highest visual acuity is obtained. It remains unclear whether visual complexity distribution of the stimuli also has similar modulation effects. Here we used Chinese characters with contrasting structures-left-heavy, symmetric, and right-heavy, in terms of either visual complexity of components or information distribution defined by location of the phonetic component-and examined participants' naming performance. We found that left-heavy characters had the largest RVF advantage, followed by symmetric and right-heavy characters; this effect was only observed in characters that contrasted in information distribution, in which information for pronunciation was skewed to the phonetic component, but not in those that contrasted only in visual complexity distribution and had no phonetic component. This result provides strong evidence for the influence of information distribution within the stimuli on VF asymmetry effects; in contrast, visual complexity distribution within the stimuli does not have similar modulation effects.

  19. Implications of astrocytes in mediating the protective effects of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators upon brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs are steroidal or non-steroidal compounds that are already used in clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms. While SERMs actions in the breast, bone, and uterus have been well characterized, their actions in the brain are less well understood. Previous works have demonstrated the beneficial effects of SERMs in different chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, as well as acute degeneration as stroke and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, these compounds exhibit similar protective actions as those of estradiol in the Central Nervous System, overt any secondary effect. For these reasons, in the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the neuroprotective effects exerted directly or indirectly by SERMs in the SNC. In this context, astrocytes play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolism, and antioxidant support to neurons, thus indicating that better protection of astrocytes are an important asset targeting neuronal protection. Moreover, various clinical and experimental studies have reported that astrocytes are essential for the neuroprotective effects of SERMs during neuronal injuries, as these cells express different estrogen receptors in cell membrane, demonstrating that part of SERMs effects upon injury may be mediated by astrocytes. The present work highlights the current evidence on the protective mechanisms of SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, in the SNC, and their modulation of astrocytic properties as promising therapeutic targets during brain damage.

  20. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Henrys, Peter A; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem CO2 exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in CO2 sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. CH4 was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change.

  1. Experimentally Investigating the Effect of Temperature Differences in the Particle Deposition Process on Solar Photovoltaic (PV Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an experimental investigation of the dust particle deposition process on solar photovoltaic (PV modules with different surface temperatures by a heating plate to illustrate the effect of the temperature difference (thermophoresis between the module surface and the surrounding air on the dust accumulation process under different operating temperatures. In general, if the temperature of PV modules is increased, the energy conversion efficiency of the modules is decreased. However, in this study, it is firstly found that higher PV module surface temperature differences result in a higher energy output compared with those modules with lower temperature differences because of a reduced accumulation of dust particles. The measured deposition densities of dust particles were found to range from 0.54 g/m2 to 0.85 g/m2 under the range of experimental conditions and the output power ratios were found to increase from 0.861 to 0.965 with the increase in the temperature difference from 0 to 50 °C. The PV module with a higher temperature difference experiences a lower dust density because of the effect of the thermophoresis force arising from the temperature gradient between the module surface and its surrounding air. In addition, dust particles have a significant impact on the short circuit current, as well as the output power. However, the influence of particles on open circuit voltage can be negligible.

  2. Age differences in the emotional modulation of ERP old/new effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; Van Strien, Jan W

    2008-11-01

    The emotional salience of stimuli influences ERP old/new effects, but despite proven age differences in emotional processing, the influence of emotion on old/new effects has previously been investigated in younger adults only. Therefore, we set out to examine age differences in the emotional modulation of old/new effects. To this end, the electroencephalogram of younger (17-27 years) and older (63-77 years) adults was recorded while they completed a continuous recognition test with unpleasant, neutral and pleasant pictures. Because recollection is typically enhanced by emotion, the parietal old/new effect was expected to be larger for emotional than neutral stimuli in the younger adults. Because recollection suffers from age-related decline, emotion enhancement of the parietal old/new effect was not expected in the older adults. The results showed that, in both age groups, recognition accuracy was not affected by emotion and that the response bias was more liberal for unpleasant pictures. The younger adults displayed an early, a parietal and a late frontal old/new effect, whereas the older adults showed an early, no parietal and an inverse left-lateralized late frontal old/new effect. Further, the emotional modulation of the old/new effects differed with age. Importantly, emotion enhanced the parietal and late frontal old/new effects in younger adults, and the early old/new effect in older adults. This suggests that whereas recollection and post-retrieval processes are augmented in emotional recognition memory in younger adults, familiarity is enhanced by emotional salience in older adults.

  3. The effect of amplitude modulation on subharmonic imaging with chirp excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Sevan; Arif, Muhammad; McLaughlan, James; Cowell, David M J; Freear, Steven

    2013-12-01

    Subharmonic generation from ultrasound contrast agents depends on the spectral and temporal properties of the excitation signal. The subharmonic response can be improved by using wideband and long-duration signals. However, for sinusoidal tone-burst excitation, the effective bandwidth of the signal is inversely proportional to the signal duration. Linear frequency-modulated (LFM) and nonlinear frequency-modulated (NLFM) chirp excitations allow independent control over the signal bandwidth and duration; therefore, in this study LFM and NLFM signals were used for the insonation of microbubble populations. The amplitude modulation of the excitation waveform was achieved by applying different window functions. A customized window was designed for the NLFM chirp excitation by focusing on reducing the spectral leakage at the subharmonic frequency and increasing the subharmonic generation from microbubbles. Subharmonic scattering from a microbubble population was measured for various excitation signals and window functions. At a peak negative pressure of 600 kPa, the generated subharmonic energy by ultrasound contrast agents was 15.4 dB more for NLFM chirp excitation with 40% fractional bandwidth when compared with tone-burst excitation. For this reason, the NLFM chirp with a customized window was used as an excitation signal to perform subharmonic imaging in an ultrasound flow phantom. Results showed that the NLFM waveform with a customized window improved the subharmonic contrast by 4.35 ± 0.42 dB on average over a Hann-windowed LFM excitation.

  4. Caffeine Positively Modulates Ferritin Heavy Chain Expression in H460 Cells: Effects on Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Anna Martina; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Both the methylxanthine caffeine and the heavy subunit of ferritin molecule (FHC) are able to control the proliferation rate of several cancer cell lines. While caffeine acts exclusively as a negative modulator of cell proliferation, FHC might reduce or enhance cell viability depending upon the different cell type. In this work we have demonstrated that physiological concentrations of caffeine reduce the proliferation rate of H460 cells: along with the modulation of p53, pAKT and Cyclin D1, caffeine also determines a significant FHC up-regulation through the activation of its transcriptional efficiency. FHC plays a central role in the molecular pathways modulated by caffeine, ending in a reduced cell growth, since its specific silencing by siRNA almost completely abolishes caffeine effects on H460 cell proliferation. These results allow the inclusion of ferritin heavy subunits among the multiple molecular targets of caffeine and open the way for studying the relationship between caffeine and intracellular iron metabolism. PMID:27657916

  5. A modest but significant effect of CGB5 gene promoter polymorphisms in modulating the risk of recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Nagirnaja, Liina

    2013-01-01

    To confirm the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes in modulating the susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage (RM) in Danes and in a meta-analysis across Danes and the discovery samples from Estonia and Finland.......To confirm the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes in modulating the susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage (RM) in Danes and in a meta-analysis across Danes and the discovery samples from Estonia and Finland....

  6. Analysis of the Effect of Module Thickness Reduction on Thermoelectric Generator Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, F. P.; Figueiredo, L.; Rocha, L. A.; Cruz, A. P.; Goncalves, L. M.; Martins, J.; Hall, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional thermoelectric generators (TEGs) used in applications such as exhaust heat recovery are typically limited in terms of power density due to their low efficiency. Additionally, they are generally costly due to the bulk use of rare-earth elements such as tellurium. If less material could be used for the same output, then the power density and the overall cost per kilowatt (kW) of electricity produced could drop significantly, making TEGs a more attractive solution for energy harvesting of waste heat. The present work assesses the effect of reducing the amount of thermoelectric (TE) material used (namely by reducing the module thickness) on the electrical output of conventional bismuth telluride TEGs. Commercial simulation packages (ANSYS CFX and thermal-electric) and bespoke models were used to simulate the TEGs at various degrees of detail. Effects such as variation of the thermal and electrical contact resistance and the component thickness and the effect of using an element supporting matrix (e.g., eggcrate) instead of having air conduction in void areas have been assessed. It was found that indeed it is possible to reduce the use of bulk TE material while retaining power output levels equivalent to thicker modules. However, effects such as thermal contact resistance were found to become increasingly important as the active TE material thickness was decreased.

  7. Protective effect of taraxasterol against rheumatoid arthritis by the modulation of inflammatory responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Hua; Ping, Li-Feng; Sun, Feng-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Sun, Zhi-Juan

    2016-12-01

    Taraxasterol is an effective component of dandelion that has anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro. The present study was performed to explore whether taraxasterol exhibits a protective effect against rheumatoid arthritis through the modulation of inflammatory responses in mice. Eight-week-old CCR9-deficient mice were injected with a collagen II monoclonal antibody cocktail to create a rheumatoid arthritis model. In the experimental group, arthritic model mice were treated with 10 mg/kg taraxasterol once per day for 5 days. Treatment with taraxasterol significantly increased the pain thresholds and reduced the clinical arthritic scores of the mice in the experimental group compared with those of the model group. Furthermore, treatment with taraxasterol significantly suppressed tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and nuclear factor-κB protein expression levels compared with those in the rheumatoid arthritis model mice. Taraxasterol treatment also significantly reduced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and cyclooxygenase-2 levels compared with those in the rheumatoid arthritis model group. These observations indicate that the protective effect of taraxasterol against rheumatoid arthritis is mediated via the modulation of inflammatory responses in mice.

  8. Phorbol ester-modulation of estrogenic genomic effects triggered by the environmental contaminant benzanthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Elise; Balaguer, Patrick; Houlbert, Noémie; Fardel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent genomic effects of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be modulated by non-genomic protein kinase C (PKC)-related pathways. The present study was designed to determine whether PKC activation may also impair estrogenic genomic response triggered by PAHs. Treatment by the PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was found to markedly and differentially impair the up-regulation of estrogenic markers triggered by the estrogenic PAH benzanthracene (BZA) in cultured human mammary cells; BZA-mediated mRNA up-regulation of pS2 and amphiregulin was thus increased, whereas that of progesterone receptor and CXCL12 was repressed. BZA/PMA cotreatment however failed to alter BZA-mediated increase of activity of a luciferase gene reporter construct driven by an estrogen response element, thus discarding any global effect of PMA toward BZA-triggered estrogen receptor activation. Various chemicals inhibiting PKCs or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) as well as the knock-down of PKCδ expression counteracted the PMA-mediated increase of pS2 mRNA up-regulation triggered by BZA, demonstrating that it was dependent on PKCs, including PKCδ isoform, and ERKs. This non-genomic modulation of estrogenic effects of PAHs by PKC activation may have to be considered when considering the deleterious effects of these environmental contaminants towards the endocrine system.

  9. Climate and litter quality differently modulate the effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Pablo; Maestre, Fernando T; Kattge, Jens; Wall, Diana H

    2013-08-01

    Climate and litter quality have been identified as major drivers of litter decomposition at large spatial scales. However, the role played by soil fauna remains largely unknown, despite its importance for litter fragmentation and microbial activity. We synthesised litterbag studies to quantify the effect sizes of soil fauna on litter decomposition rates at the global and biome scales, and to assess how climate, litter quality and soil fauna interact to determine such rates. Soil fauna consistently enhanced litter decomposition at both global and biome scales (average increment ~ 37%). [corrected]. However, climate and litter quality differently modulated the effects of soil fauna on decomposition rates between biomes, from climate-driven biomes to those where climate effects were mediated by changes in litter quality. Our results advocate for the inclusion of biome-specific soil fauna effects on litter decomposition as a mean to reduce the unexplained variation in large-scale decomposition models.

  10. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective.

  11. Ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA em dietas para tilápia-do-nilo: desempenho produtivo, composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in Nile tilapia diets: productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Dena dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de CLA na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia-do-nilo. Foram utilizados 80 peixes revertidos, com 109 ± 10 g, distribuídos em oito tanques (0,8 m³ cada, em densidade de 10 peixes/tanque, durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se a inclusão na dieta de 2% de CLA (Luta-CLA®-BASF, Brasil com 60% dos isômeros (cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10,cis-12 e 40% do veículo (ácido oléico e outros ácidos graxos. Como dieta utilizou-se ração comercial extrusada, com 29% PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg de ração. Ao final do experimento, todos os peixes foram utilizados para avaliação do desempenho, da composição química e do perfil de ácidos graxos no fígado e nos filés. A taxa de eficiência protéica, o rendimento de carcaça, o índice hepatossomático e a gordura visceral não diferiram com a adição de CLA a dieta. A adição de CLA a dieta promoveu melhora no ganho de peso, aumento no consumo e melhora na conversão alimentar. Os peixes alimentados com dietas com adição de CLA apresentaram aumento na composição de ácidos graxos saturados e redução dos ácidos graxos n-6 nos filés. Houve também aumento na composição de ácidos graxos n-3 e de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados totais no fígado. Houve aumento da proteína nos filés de tilápias alimentadas com dietas enriquecidas com CLA. O uso do CLA melhora variáveis de desempenho produtivo, afeta o metabolismo e a proporção dos ácidos graxos nos filés e fígados e aumenta proteína nos filés em tilápia-do-nilo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of CLA in the diet on Nile tilapia productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition. Eighty reversed fish with 109 ± 10 g were used, distributed in eight tanks (0.8 m³ each in density of ten fishes/tank, during 90 days. It was evaluated the inclusion in the diets of 2% of CLA (Luta

  12. Weak effect of trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Rodríguez, Victor Manuel; Macarulla, María Teresa; Simón, Edurne; Portillo, María Puy

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that young animals and subjects are more responsive to conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) than the adults. Nevertheless, there is very little information concerning the effectiveness of CLA in adult animals. In the present study we aimed to explore the effects of trans-10, cis-12-CLA on body fat accumulation in adult hamsters, as well as on some of the molecular mechanisms described in young animals as responsible for the CLA body fat-lowering effect, such as lipogenesis, lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-mediated fat uptake and thermogenesis. The experiment was conducted with sixteen adult male Syrian Golden hamsters (aged 8 months) fed a high-fat diet supplemented or not with 0.5 % trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 6 weeks. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACX), fatty acid synthase (FAS), LPL, PPARgamma, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-1c expressions were assessed in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues by real-time RT-PCR. Total and heparin-releasable LPL activities were determined in subcutaneous adipose tissue by fluorimetry and FAS activity by spectrophotometry. Uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) expression in interscapular brown adipose tissue was assessed by Western blot. Hamsters fed the trans-10, cis-12-CLA diet showed a significant reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes were observed in the expression of ACX, FAS, LPL, SREBP-1a, SREBP-1c and PPARgamma, nor in total and heparin-releasable LPL and FAS activities. Trans-10, cis-12-CLA induced a significant increase in the amount of UCP1. These results suggest a low responsiveness to trans-10, cis-12-CLA in adults, lower than that in young hamsters. One of the reasons explaining this difference is the lack of effect on LPL.

  13. Demodulation effect is observed in neurones by exposure to low frequency modulated microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bruzon, R N; Figols, T; Azanza, M J [Laboratorio de Magnetobiologia, Departamento de Anatomia e Histologia Humanas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Moral, A del, E-mail: naogit@yahoo.co [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza and CSIC (Spain)

    2010-01-01

    Neurones exposure to a microwave (carrier f{sub c}=13.6 GHz; power P {approx_equal} 5 mW; H{sub o} {approx_equal} 0.10 Am{sup -1} = 1.25 mOe; E{sub 0} {approx_equal} 3.5 V/m; {Delta}T {approx_equal} 0.01{sup 0}C; SAR: 3.1x10{sup -3} - 5.8x10{sup -3} W/Kg) EMF amplitude modulated by ELF-AC field (frequency, f{sub m}= 0-100 Hz) shows no electrophysiological effect under the carrier MF alone, but {sup f}requency resonances: at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 50, 100 Hz: demodulation effect. Resonances appear when applied ELF-MF is close to a dominant characteristic frequency of the neurone impulse Fourier spectrum. This is an interesting result considering that ELF-MF modulating RF or MW in the range of human EEG could induce frequency-resonant effects on exposed human brain.

  14. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B; Renaud, Helen J; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin+imipenem and cephalothin+neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin+imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin+neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism.

  15. Modulator effects of meloxicam against doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Memy H; Ghobara, Mohamed; Abd-Allah, Gamil M

    2014-08-01

    Doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity overshadows its anticancer effectiveness. This study is aimed at assessing the possible modulator effects of meloxicam, a cyclooxigenase-2 inhibitor, on doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice and exploring some of the modulator mechanisms. Forty male mice were divided for treatment, for 2 weeks, with saline, meloxicam (daily), doxorubicin (twice/week), or both meloxicam and doxorubicin. Doxorubicin induced a significant increase in relative kidney weight to body weight, kidney lipid perooxidation, plasma levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, kidney caspase-3 activity, and kidney prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content. Doxorubicin disturbed kidney histology, abrogated renal function tests (serum creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen), induced a significant decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content. The administration of meloxicam with doxorubicin mitigated all doxorubicin-disturbed parameters. Meloxicam ameliorated doxorubicin-induced renal injury via inhibition of inflammatory PGE2, inflammatory cytokines, caspase-3 activity, antioxidant effect, and free radical scavenging activity.

  16. Different Modulating Effects of Adenosine on Neonatal and Adult Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Hou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs are the major leukocytes in the circulation and play an important role in host defense. Intact PMN functions include adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS release. It has been known for a long time that adenosine can function as a modulator of adult PMN functions. Neonatal plasma has a higher adenosine level than that of adults; however, little is known about the modulating effects of adenosine on neonatal PMNs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adenosine on neonatal PMN functions. We found that neonatal PMNs had impaired adhesion, chemotaxis, and ROS production abilities, but not phagocytosis compared to adult PMNs. As with adult PMNs, adenosine could suppress the CD11b expressions of neonatal PMNs, but had no significant suppressive effect on phagocytosis. In contrast to adult PMNs, adenosine did not significantly suppress chemotaxis and ROS production of neonatal PMNs. This may be due to impaired phagocyte reactions and a poor neonatal PMN response to adenosine. Adenosine may not be a good strategy for the treatment of neonatal sepsis because of impaired phagocyte reactions and poor response.

  17. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  18. Age-Related Decline in Brain Resources Modulates Genetic Effects on Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Ulman; Nagel, Irene E.; Chicherio, Christian; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bäckman, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging. Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008), who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed. (150 of 150 words) PMID:19225597

  19. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action.

  20. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  1. CARBON-FIBRE-REINFORCED POLYMER PARTS EFFECT ON SPACECRAFT OPTOELECTRONIC MODULE LENS SCATTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kolasha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spacecraft optoelectronic modules traditionally have aluminum alloy or titanium alloy casing which substantial weight increases fuel consumption required to put them into orbit and, consequently, total cost of the project. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer based composite constructive materials is an efficient solution that allows reducing weight and dimensions of large optoelectronic modules 1,5–3 times and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion 15–20 times if compared with metals. Optical characteristic is a crucial feature of carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer that determines composite material interaction with electromagnetic emission within the optical range. This work was intended to develop a method to evaluate Carbon fiber reinforced polymer optoelectronic modules casing effect on lens scattering by computer simulation with Zemax application software package. Degrees of scattered, reflected and absorbed radiant flux effect on imaging quality are described here. The work included experimental study in order to determine bidirectional reflectance distribution function by goniometric method for LUP-0.1 carbon fabric check test pieces of EDT-69U epoxy binder with EPOFLEX-0.4 glue layer and 5056-3.5-23-A aluminium honeycomb filler. The scattered emission was registered within a hemisphere above the check test piece surface. Optical detection direction was determined with zenith (0º < θ < 90º and azimuth (0º < φ < 180º angles with 10° increment. The check test piece surface was proved to scatter emission within a narrow angle range (approximately 20° with clear directivity. Carbon fiber reinforced polymers was found to feature integrated reflectance coefficient 3 to 4 times greater than special coatings do. 

  2. Lactobacillus plantarum as source of conjugated linoleic acid: Effect of pH, incubation Temperature and inulin incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pH and temperature, and inulin use, on the growth andthe fatty acid profile of Lactobacillus plantarum strain wereevaluated. The best results were obtained at 6.5 pH broth, producing3.2 g/L of biomass and about 20% of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA in the cell lipids. Similar growth was observed with 37 and45ºC, but a low CLA content (10.6% was achieved at 45°C. In thecase of inulin incorporation, a low biomass concentration (1 g/Land low production of CLA (12.4% were observed. These resultssuggest a pH and temperature dependence on CLA production bythe microorganism.

  3. Modulation of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Qiao [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Xu, Wei; Li, Fanghua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Min [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Bian, Po [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The effects of microgravity on the radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) were definitely demonstrated. • The effects of microgravity on RIBE might be divergent for different biological events. • The microgravity mainly modified the generation or transport of bystander signals at early stage. - Abstract: Both space radiation and microgravity have been demonstrated to have inevitable impact on living organisms during space flights and should be considered as important factors for estimating the potential health risk for astronauts. Therefore, the question whether radiation effects could be modulated by microgravity is an important aspect in such risk evaluation. Space particles at low dose and fluence rate, directly affect only a fraction of cells in the whole organism, which implement radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in cellular response to space radiation exposure. The fact that all of the RIBE experiments are carried out in a normal gravity condition bring forward the need for evidence regarding the effect of microgravity on RIBE. In the present study, a two-dimensional rotation clinostat was adopted to demonstrate RIBE in microgravity conditions, in which the RIBE was assayed using an experimental system of root-localized irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants. The results showed that the modeled microgravity inhibited significantly the RIBE-mediated up-regulation of expression of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transcriptional activation of multicopy P35S:GUS, but made no difference to the induction of homologous recombination by RIBE, showing divergent responses of RIBE to the microgravity conditions. The time course of interaction between the modeled microgravity and RIBE was further investigated, and the results showed that the microgravity mainly modulated the processes of the generation or translocation of the bystander signal(s) in roots.

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers: differences in metabolism and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Portillo, Maria Puy

    2009-01-01

    The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, characterized by having conjugated double bonds, not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. CLA isomers appear as a minor component of the lipid fraction, found mainly in meat and dairy products from cows and sheep. The most abundant isomer is cis-9,trans-11, which represents up to 80% of total CLA in food. These isomers are metabolized in the body through different metabolic pathways, but important differences, that can have physiological consequences, are observed between the two main isomers. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer is more efficiently oxidized than the cis-9,trans-11 isomer, due to the position of its double bounds. Interest in CLA arose in its anticarcinogenic action but there is an increasing amount of specific scientific literature concerning the biological effects and properties of CLA. Numerous biological effects of CLA are due to the separate action of the most studied isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. It is also likely that some effects are induced and/or enhanced by these isomers acting synergistically. Although the cis-9,trans-11 isomer is mainly responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, the trans-10,cis-12 isomer reduces body fat and it is referred as the most effective isomer affecting blood lipids. As far as insulin function is concerned, both isomers seem to be responsible for insulin resistance in humans. Finally, with regard to the immune system it is not clear whether individual isomers of CLA could act similarly or differently.

  5. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Compositions and Fatty Acids Profile (with Emphasis on CLA in Iranian Buffalo’s Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Reza Yazdi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the seasonal variations of milk compositions and fatty acids profile with emphasis on Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and vaccinic acid (VA concentrations of buffalo’ s Milk in North of Iran was investigating. In each season (2006we had 30 samples (10 samples for each month of milk from bulk milk and sent them to laboratory for determination of It’s Compositions .Then fatty acids profile of milk fat was determined by Gas Chromatograph. The mean of Data from 120 samples for 4 seasons of year (2006 were compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test with an alpha of 5% and the results show that: The range of total solids (TS in milk samples were 16.15 – 18.93 percent so that high percent of TS was in April to July. There was no significant difference in amount of lactose in each of the seasons and it, S range was 4.93 –5.12 percent. The range of milk protein was 3.60 – 3.88 percent, there was significant difference between seasons so that the high content of protein was in April to July and the low content of it was in December to March. There was significant difference in content of milk fat in samples of various season .It was 6.78 – 9.25 percent, so that the high percent of milk fat was in December to June. The content of Unsaturated fatty acids was 50.50 to 58.23 percent of total milk fat .The content of Unsaturated fatty acids (C14 – C18 were higher in Spring season .These Data show That season of Year can influence on milk compositions and fatty acids profile of milk via the type and quality of forages that buffalos use it in grazing or feeding, the amount and kind of supplementation of used diet.

  7. Effects of Protein-pheromone Complexation on Correlated Chemical Shift Modulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perazzolo, Chiara; Wist, Julien [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (Switzerland); Loth, Karine; Poggi, Luisa [Ecole Normale Superieure, Departement de chimie, associe au CNRS (France); Homans, Steve [University of Leeds, School of Biochemistry and Microbiology (United Kingdom); Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques (Switzerland)], E-mail: Geoffrey.Bodenhausen@ens.fr

    2005-12-15

    Major urinary protein (MUP) is a pheromone-carrying protein of the lipocalin family. Previous studies by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) show that the affinity of MUP for the pheromone 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (IBMP) is mainly driven by enthalpy, with a small unfavourable entropic contribution. Entropic terms can be attributed in part to changes in internal motions of the protein upon binding. Slow internal motions can lead to correlated or anti-correlated modulations of the isotropic chemical shifts of carbonyl C' and amide N nuclei. Correlated chemical shift modulations (CSM/CSM) in MUP have been determined by measuring differences of the transverse relaxation rates of zero- and double-quantum coherences ZQC{l_brace}C'N{r_brace} and DQC{l_brace}C'N{r_brace}, and by accounting for the effects of correlated fluctuations of dipole-dipole couplings (DD/DD) and chemical shift anisotropies (CSA/CSA). The latter can be predicted from tensor parameters of C' and N nuclei that have been determined in earlier work. The effects of complexation on slow time-scale protein dynamics can be determined by comparing the temperature dependence of the relaxation rates of APO-MUP (i.e., without ligand) and HOLO-MUP (i.e., with IBMP as a ligand)

  8. Modulation of the effective work function of TiN metal gate for PMOS application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Kai; Ma Xueli; Yang Hong; Wang Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    It is important to find a way to modulate the work function of TiN metal gate towards the valence band edge of Si,which can meet the lower threshold voltage requirement of p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor.In this work,effects of TiN thickness,post-deposition annealing (PDA),oxygen incorporation and N concentration variation on the work function of TiN metal gate in MOS structures are systematically investigated.It can be found that the work function positively shifts at the initial stage as the thickness of the TiN layer increases and stabilizes at such a thickness.PDA at N2 ambience with a trace of O2 can also cause a positive shift in the work function of TiN metal gate.The same tendency can be observed when oxygen is incorporated into TiN.Finally,increasing the N concentration in TiN can also positively shift the work function.All these measures are effective in modulating the TiN metal gate so that it is more suitable for PMOS application.

  9. Effect of Sintering Temperature on Electrical Properties of Chip on Glass Module with Direct Printing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Yongil; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-09-01

    In order to apply the direct printing method to the fabrication of chip on glass (COG) modules, we examined that the effect of the sintering temperature on the electrical properties of a COG module with direct printing method. Firstly, we fabricated an Ag conductive circuit on a glass substrate by the screen-printing method. To investigate its the effect on the electrical properties of the circuit, it was sintered at various temperatures, such as 150, 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min. Subsequently, we conducted Au electro-plating for the fabrication of a Si dummy chip. Finally, the flip-chip bonding process was conducted using anisotropic conductive film (ACF). The printed Ag circuits were well formed on the quartz substrate without any shorts or remarkable changes compared with the initial design. The electrical properties of the printed Ag circuits improved with increasing sintering temperature. The conductive particles in the ACF were well deformed in between the Au bumps and printed Ag pads after the bonding process. The four-point probe method was employed to measure the connection resistance of the joints constructed with the Au bumps on the Si chip and printed Ag circuit on the quartz substrate. The resistances of the interconnections drastically decreased with increasing sintering temperature, i.e., subsequently converged from 11.8 Ω to 7.36 mΩ.

  10. Effective Modulation of Male Aggression through Lateral Septum to Medial Hypothalamus Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Chin; Wang, Li; D'Amour, James A; Yumita, Tomohiro; Chen, Genghe; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Chang, Brian C; Bernstein, Hannah; You, Xuedi; Feng, James E; Froemke, Robert C; Lin, Dayu

    2016-03-07

    Aggression is a prevalent behavior in the animal kingdom that is used to settle competition for limited resources. Given the high risk associated with fighting, the central nervous system has evolved an active mechanism to modulate its expression. Lesioning the lateral septum (LS) is known to cause "septal rage," a phenotype characterized by a dramatic increase in the frequency of attacks. To understand the circuit mechanism of LS-mediated modulation of aggression, we examined the influence of LS input on the cells in and around the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl)-a region required for male mouse aggression. We found that the inputs from the LS inhibited the attack-excited cells but surprisingly increased the overall activity of attack-inhibited cells. Furthermore, optogenetic activation of the projection from LS cells to the VMHvl terminated ongoing attacks immediately but had little effect on mounting. Thus, LS projection to the ventromedial hypothalamic area represents an effective pathway for suppressing male aggression.

  11. Locomotor and peripheral effects of sibutramine modulated by 5-HT2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, Silvana Soriano; Della Santa Rubio, Angela; Lopes, Janaína Jardim; Pereira, Patrícia; Brum, Clarice; Khazzaka, Márcia; Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer

    2006-12-01

    Sibutramine has been described as an anti-obesity drug with the ability to inhibit serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline, and dopamine re-uptake, but without affinity to histamine and muscarinic receptors. On the other hand, cyproheptadine antagonizes serotonin 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(2C), histamine H1, and muscarinic (M) receptors. There are many reports concerning the influence of sibutramine on central serotoninergic pathways. In this study, we suggest that peripheral pathways may also be involved in the serotoninergic effects of sibutramine. In vivo experiments were undertaken to investigate the serotoninergic effects of sibutramine on body mass, the glycogen concentration in the diaphragm of rats, and locomotor behaviour. Rats were submitted to oral treatment with sibutramine, cyproheptadine, or sibutramine applied in combination with cyproheptadine, for a period of 2 months to investigate the 5-HT2 effects of sibutramine on these parameters. As the results demonstrated, the lower increase in body mass and the increased glycogen levels in the diaphragm muscle of rats treated with sibutramine seem to be modulated by 5-HT2 receptors, since these effects were completely antagonized by cyproheptadine in the group treated with the 2 drugs co-applied. Furthermore, the behavioural results also suggest that mechanisms modulated by 5-HT2 receptors are involved in the increase of locomotion in the rats treated with sibutramine, since the effect did not occur in the rats treated with sibutramine co-applied with the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine. The results suggest that sibutramine modifies energy-related parameters such as body mass, diaphragm glycogen, and locomotor behaviour in rats via 5-HT2 serotoninergic pathways.

  12. Ultrafast optical modulation of magneto-optical terahertz effects occurring in a graphene-loaded resonant metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotto, S.; Lange, C.; Maag, T.; Pitanti, A.; Miseikis, V.; Coletti, C.; Degl'Innocenti, R.; Baldacci, L.; Huber, R.; Tredicucci, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of a static magnetic field and of optical pumping on the transmittance of a hybrid graphene-split ring resonator metasurface. A significant modulation of the transmitted spectra is obtained, both by optical pumping, and by a combination of optical pumping and magnetostatic biasing. The transmittance modulation features spectral fingerprints that are characteristic of a non-trivial interplay between the bare graphene response and the split ring resonance.

  13. Modulating effect of ascorbic Acid on transport-induced immunosuppression in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, Ndazo Salka; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of 12 h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10 mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats.

  14. Presenilin 2 Modulates Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Coupling by Tuning the Antagonistic Effect of Mitofusin 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Filadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication between organelles plays key roles in cell biology. In particular, physical and functional coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria is crucial for regulation of various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here, we demonstrate that Presenilin 2 (PS2, mutations in which underlie familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD, promotes ER-mitochondria coupling only in the presence of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2. PS2 is not necessary for the antagonistic effect of Mfn2 on organelle coupling, although its abundance can tune it. The two proteins physically interact, whereas their homologues Mfn1 and PS1 are dispensable for this interplay. Moreover, PS2 mutants associated with FAD are more effective than the wild-type form in modulating ER-mitochondria tethering because their binding to Mfn2 in mitochondria-associated membranes is favored. We propose a revised model for ER-mitochondria interaction to account for these findings and discuss possible implications for FAD pathogenesis.

  15. Synergistic effects between catalase inhibitors and modulators of nitric oxide metabolism on tumor cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheit, Katrin; Bauer, Georg

    2014-10-01

    Inhibitors of catalase (such as ascorbate, methyldopa, salicylic acid and neutralizing antibodies) synergize with modulators of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism (such as arginine, arginase inhibitor, NO synthase-inducing interferons and NO dioxygenase inhibitors) in the singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase. This is followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis induction. TGF-beta, NADPH oxidase-1, NO synthase, dual oxidase-1 and caspase-9 are characterized as essential catalysts in this process. The FAS receptor and caspase-8 are required for amplification of ROS signaling triggered by individual compounds, but are dispensable when the synergistic effect is established. Our findings explain the antitumor effects of catalase inhibitors and of compounds that target NO metabolism, as well as their synergy. These data may have an impact on epidemiological studies related to secondary plant compounds and open new perspectives for the establishment of novel antitumor drugs and for the improvement of established chemotherapeutics.

  16. The Effect of Amplitude Modulation on the Axial Resolution of Doppler-Based Ultrasonic Topography Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Das, Sayantan; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    of the Doppler measurement techniques. A modified Doppler measurement system that significantly improves the measurement accuracy is also presented. The fabricated sensor has 72-μm measurement accuracy using 40-kHz transducers. This technique can also be employed in cost-effective displacement measurement...... variation of the received signal. Amplitude variation significantly affects the measurement accuracy when the surface axial displacement range is comparable with the ultrasonic wavelength. This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of the effect of amplitude modulation on the performance......Ultrasonic Doppler-based systems for surface topography measurements are attractive alternatives to the transit-time-based methods. Sensors used in Doppler systems are less dependent on the speed of the sound in air, although contemporary Doppler measurement systems are sensitive to the amplitude...

  17. Growth, carcass characteristics, muscle conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content, and response to intravenous glucose challenge in high percentage Wagyu, Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin steers fed sunflower oil-containing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, P S; Mir, Z; Kubert, P S; Gaskins, C T; Martin, E L; Dodson, M V; Calles, J A Elias; Johnson, K A; Busboom, J R; Wood, A J; Pittenger, G J; Reeves, J J

    2002-11-01

    The effect of breed and diet on insulin response to glucose challenge and its relation to intramuscular fat deposition was determined in 36 steers with 12 each of greater than 87% Wagyu (referred to as Wagyu), Wagyu x Limousin, and Limousin breeds. Weaned steers were blocked by weight into heavy, medium, and light calves and placed in six pens with two pens per weight type and with two steers of each breed per pen. Three pens with steers from each weightclass were fed backgrounding and finishing diets for 259 d, while the other three pens were fed the same diets where 6% of the barley grain was replaced with sunflower oil. Prior to initiation of the finishing phase of the study the intravenous glucose tolerance test (VGTIT) was conducted in all steers. Once steers were judged as carrying adequate 12th-rib fat, based on weight and days on feed, they were harvested and graded and samples of the longissimus muscle were procured for determination of fat content and fatty acid composition. Dietary oil improved (P = 0.011; 0.06) ADG and feed conversion efficiency of steers during the latter part of backgrounding and only ADG during early part ofthe finishing period. Generally percent kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was the only adiposity assessment increased (P = 0.003) by dietary oil. The IVGTT results indicated that insulin response to intravenous glucose was lower in Limousin steers than in Wagyu steers. Dietary oil decreased (P = 0.052) fasting plasma insulin concentration in Wagyu steers compared with Limousin steers. The correlation coefficients among the IVGTT measures and intramuscular fat content or marbling score were less than 0.4, and only a negative trend existed between fasting insulin and USDA marbling scores. However, the carcasses of the Wagyu steers graded US Choice, and 66% of the Wagyu carcasses graded US Prime, which were substantially better than the quality grades obtained for the carcasses from the other breed types. Dietary oil did not affect

  18. Effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on the expression of uncoupling proteins in hamsters fed an atherogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ribot, Joan; Portillo Baquedano, María Puy; Picó, Catalina; Macarulla Arenaza, María Teresa; Palou, Andreu

    2007-01-01

    It is known that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding decreases body adiposity but the mechanisms involved are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyse whether alterations in uncoupling protein (UCP) expression in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT, respectively) and in skeletal muscle may be responsible for the effect of trans-10, cis-12 CLA on the size of body fat depots in hamsters. Animals were divided into three groups and fed an atherogenic diet with different amounts...

  19. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  20. Riluzole exerts central and peripheral modulating effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi; Cheah, Benjamin C; Murray, Jenna; Menon, Parvathi; Krishnan, Arun V; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-05-01

    Riluzole, a benzothiazole derivative, has been shown to be effective in prolonging survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mechanisms by which riluzole exerts neuroprotective effects in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains to be fully elucidated, although inhibition of glutamatergic transmission and modulation of Na+ channel function have been proposed. In an attempt to determine the mechanisms by which riluzole exerts neuroprotective effects, in particular to dissect the relative contributions of inhibition of glutamatergic transmission and Na+ channel modulation, the present study utilized a combination of cortical and peripheral axonal excitability approaches to monitor changes in excitability and function in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cortical assessment was undertaken by utilising the threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique and combined with peripheral axonal excitability studies in 25 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Studies were performed at baseline and repeated when patients were receiving riluzole 100 mg/day. At the time of second testing all patients were tolerating the medication well. Motor evoked potential and compound muscle action potential responses were recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. At baseline, features of cortical hyperexcitability were evident in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, indicated by marked reduction in short interval intracortical inhibition (P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis had significant increases in depolarizing threshold electrotonus [amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline TEd (90-100 ms) 49.1 ± 1.8%; controlsTEd (90-100 ms) 45.2 ± 0.6%, P amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 30.1 ± 2.3%; control subjects 23.4 ± 1.0%, P amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 30.1 ± 2.3%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosisON riluzole 27.3 ± 2.3%, P amyotrophic lateral sclerosisbaseline 98.7 ± 10.7%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosisON riluzole 67.8 ± 9

  1. Effects of a Science Education Module on Attitudes towards Modern Biotechnology of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Tanja; Severiens, Sabine E.; Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; van Mil, Marc H. W.; Ten Dam, Geert T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the impact of a four-lesson science module on the attitudes of secondary school students. This science module (on cancer and modern biotechnology) utilises several design principles, related to a social constructivist perspective on learning. The expectation was that the module would help students become more articulate in…

  2. The effect of pH and ion channel modulators on human placental arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyba Y Ali

    Full Text Available Chorionic plate arteries (CPA are located at the maternofetal interface where they are able to respond to local metabolic changes. Unlike many other types of vasculature, the placenta lacks nervous control and requires autoregulation for controlling blood flow. The placental circulation, which is of low-resistance, may become hypoxic easily leading to fetal acidosis and fetal distress however the role of the ion channels in these circumstances is not well-understood. Active potassium channel conductances that are subject to local physicochemical modulation may serve as pathways through which such signals are transduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of CPA by pH and the channels implicated in these responses using wire myography. CPA were isolated from healthy placentae and pre-contracted with U46619 before testing the effects of extracellular pH using 1 M lactic acid over the pH range 7.4-6.4 in the presence of a variety of ion channel modulators. A change from pH 7.4 to 7.2 produced a 29±3% (n = 9 relaxation of CPA which increased to 61±4% at the lowest pH of 6.4. In vessels isolated from placentae of women with pre-eclampsia (n = 6, pH responses were attenuated. L-methionine increased the relaxation to 67±7% (n = 6; p<0.001 at pH 6.4. Similarly the TASK 1/3 blocker zinc chloride (1 mM gave a maximum relaxation of 72±5% (n = 8; p<0.01 which compared with the relaxation produced by the TREK-1 opener riluzole (75±5%; n = 6. Several other modulators induced no significant changes in vascular responses. Our study confirmed expression of several ion channel subtypes in CPA with our results indicating that extracellular pH within the physiological range has an important role in controlling vasodilatation in the human term placenta.

  3. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  4. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  5. UV-light effects on cytochrome c modulated by the aggregation state of phenothiazines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina G dos Santos

    Full Text Available The present study shows the factors that modulate the photodamage promoted by phenothiazines. Cytochrome c was irradiated with UV light for 120 min, over a pH range from 4.0 to 8.0, in the absence and in the presence of different concentrations of thioridazine (TR and fluphenazine (FP. In the absence of phenothiazines, the maximal rate of a Soret band blue shift (nm/min from 409 to 406 nm was obtained at pH 4.0 (0.028 nm/min. The presence of phenothiazines at the concentration range 10-25 µmol/L amplified and accelerated a cytochrome c blue shift (409 to 405 nm, at a rate = 0.041 nm/min. Above 25 µmol/L, crescent concentrations of phenothiazines contributed to cytochrome c protection with (maximal at 2500 µmol/L. Scanning electronic microscopy revealed the formation of nanostructures. The pH also influenced the effect of low phenothiazine concentrations on cytochrome c. Thus, the predominance of phenothiazine-promoted cytochrome c damage or protection depends on a balance of the following factors: the yield of photo-generated drug cation radicals, which is favored by acidic pH; the stability of the cation radicals, which is favored by the drug aggregation; and the cytochrome c structure, modulated by the pH.

  6. Neuroprotective effects of mesenchymal stem cells through autophagy modulation in a parkinsonian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Shin, Jin Young; Kim, Ha Na; Oh, Se Hee; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2014-08-01

    Autophagy is a major degradation pathway for abnormal aggregated proteins and organelles that cause various neurodegenerative diseases. Current evidence suggests a central role for autophagy in pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, and that dysfunction in the autophagic system may lead to α-synuclein accumulation. In the present study, we investigated whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would enhance autophagy and thus exert a neuroprotective effect through the modulation of α-synuclein in parkinsonian models. In MPP(+)-treated neuronal cells, coculture with MSCs increased cellular viability, attenuated expression of α-synuclein, and enhanced the number of LC3-II-positive autophagosomes compared with cells treated with MPP(+) only. In an MPTP-treated animal model of Parkinson's disease, MSC administration significantly increased final maturation of late autophagic vacuoles, fusion with lysosomes. Moreover, MSC administration significantly reduced the level of α-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons, which was elevated in MPTP-treated mice. These results suggest that MSC treatment significantly enhances autophagolysosome formation and may modulate α-synuclein expression in parkinsonian models, which may lead to increased neuronal survival in the presence of neurotoxins.

  7. Attentionally modulated effects of cortisol and mood on memory for emotional faces in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Honk, J; Kessels, R P C; Putman, P; Jager, G; Koppeschaar, H P F; Postma, A

    2003-10-01

    Heightened cortisol levels due to stress or acute administration seem to enhance memory for emotional material, independently of emotional valence. An arousal-driven neurobiological mechanism involving the amygdala has been proposed. The relation between pre-task salivary measures of cortisol (by convention named 'basal levels') and emotionally modulated memory has not been investigated yet. Given the association between higher basal levels of cortisol and indices of low mood, valence-specific effects on emotionally modulated memory could be expected (e.g. mood-congruent or stimulus-specific forms of processing). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between basal levels of salivary cortisol, self-reported mood and spatial memory for neutral, happy and angry facial expressions in healthy young volunteers (N=31). Memory performance was indexed using a modified version of a computerized object-relocation task, using emotional facial expressions as stimuli. Results showed a significant relation between cortisol and depressive mood. More importantly, both the levels of cortisol and depressive mood were inversely related to the memory performance for the happy facial expressions, while a similar relationship between cortisol and memory performance on angry faces neared significance. An explanation in terms of the down-regulation of social behavior by elevated basal cortisol levels is postulated.

  8. Modulating effect of lipid bilayer-carotenoid interactions on the property of liposome encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuqin; Tan, Chen; Zhang, Yating; Abbas, Shabbar; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Qin, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Liposomes have become an attractive alternative to encapsulate carotenoids to improve their solubility, stability and bioavailability. The interaction mechanism of carotenoid with lipid bilayer is one of the major concerns in improving the delivery efficiency of liposomes. In this study, the microstructure and carotenoid encapsulation efficiency of liposomes composed of native phospholipid (egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, EYPC) and nonionic surfactant Tween 80 were investigated by atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Subsequently, the effects of carotenoid incorporation on the physical properties of liposomal membrane were performed by Raman spectroscopy, fluorescence polarization, and electron paramagnetic resonance. Results showed that the incorporation of carotenoids affected the liposomes morphology, size and size distribution to various extents. Analysis on the Raman characteristic peaks of carotenoids revealed that lutein exhibited the strongest incorporating ability into liposomes, followed by β-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that carotenoids modulated the dynamics, structure and hydrophobicity of liposomal membrane, highly depending on their molecular structures and incorporated concentration. These modulations were closely correlated with the stabilization of liposomes, including mediating particle aggregation and fusion. These findings should guide the rationale designing for liposomal encapsulation technology to efficiently deliver carotenoids in pharmaceutics, nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  9. Magnetic modulation doping in topological insulators toward higher-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, M., E-mail: mogi@cmr.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yoshimi, R.; Yasuda, K.; Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Takahashi, K. S. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-11-02

    Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which generates dissipation-less edge current without external magnetic field, is observed in magnetic-ion doped topological insulators (TIs) such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The QAHE emerges when the Fermi level is inside the magnetically induced gap around the original Dirac point of the TI surface state. Although the size of gap is reported to be about 50 meV, the observable temperature of QAHE has been limited below 300 mK. We attempt magnetic-Cr modulation doping into topological insulator (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films to increase the observable temperature of QAHE. By introducing the rich-Cr-doped thin (1 nm) layers at the vicinity of both the surfaces based on non-Cr-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films, we have succeeded in observing the QAHE up to 2 K. The improvement in the observable temperature achieved by this modulation-doping appears to be originating from the suppression of the disorder in the surface state interacting with the rich magnetic moments. Such a superlattice designing of the stabilized QAHE may pave a way to dissipation-less electronics based on the higher-temperature and zero magnetic-field quantum conduction.

  10. Circuit mismatch and current coupling effect influence on paralleling SiC MOSFETs in multichip power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    This paper reveals that there are circuit mismatches and a current coupling effect in the direct bonded copper (DBC) layout of a silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET multichip power module. According to the modelling and the mathematic analysis of the DBC layout, the mismatch of the common source stray...... inductance in the DBC layout can lead to transient current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in the multichip power module while the current coupling effect aggravates the current imbalance. Two models of the power module DBC layout, with and without the current coupling effect, are compared...... to demonstrate the influence of this effect. LTspice simulation and experimental results validate the analysis and the new findings....

  11. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid in dairy products%影响乳制品中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国萍; 霍贵成; 李庆章

    2005-01-01

    概述了共轭亚油酸(CLA)的形成方式、影响乳制品中CLA含量的因素及如何提高乳中CLA含量的方法.动物的种类、饲料的成分、喂养方式、季节等对原料乳产生的影响,以及加工方法、贮存条件、发酵菌种等对乳制品中CLA的含量的影响.

  12. Validation of the Correction of the Energy Modulation Effect in eta in the LAr Calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed Ahmed Salem, Salma

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Liquid Argon Calorimeter is used for measuring the energy of electromagnetic interacting particles. To validate results, different calibration procedures are performed with respect to different variables. The energy modulation in a single cell is one of the effects that need to be corrected. The eta modulation calibration was introduced to counteract this effect. Different quantities describing the deposited energy were used to test the calibration. This summer student project report focuses on showing the effect of the eta mod correction on different samples from data taken in run-II and Monte Carlo simulation.

  13. Effectiveness of web-based teaching modules: test-enhanced learning in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tate H; Hannum, Wallace H; Koroluk, Lorne; Proffit, William R

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-tests as a component of web-based self-instruction in predoctoral orthodontics and pediatric dentistry. To this end, the usage patterns of online teaching modules and self-tests by students enrolled in three courses at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Dentistry were monitored and correlated to final exam grade and course average. We recorded the frequency of access to thirty relevant teaching modules and twenty-nine relevant self-tests for 157 second- and third-year D.D.S. students during the course of our data collection. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between frequency of accessing self-tests and course performance in one course that was totally based on self-instruction with seminars and multiple-choice examination (Level IV): Spearman correlation between frequency of self-test access and final exam grade, rho=0.23, p=0.044; correlation between frequency of self-test access and course average: rho=0.39, p=0.0004. In the other two courses we monitored, which included content beyond self-instruction with self-tests, the correlations were positive but not statistically significant. The students' use of online learning resources varied significantly from one course (Level I) to the next (Level II): Wilcoxon matched pairs signed-rank tests, S=-515.5, p=.0057 and S=1086, pweb-based self-tests may be correlated with more effective learning in predoctoral dental education by virtue of the testing effect and that dental students' usage of resources for learning changes significantly over the course of their education.

  14. Could molecular effects of Caulerpa racemosa metabolites modulate the impact on fish populations of Diplodus sargus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbi, S; Giuliani, M E; Pittura, L; d'Errico, G; Terlizzi, A; Felline, S; Grauso, L; Mollo, E; Cutignano, A; Regoli, F

    2014-05-01

    The green alga Caulerpa racemosa is a non-native, invasive species in the Mediterranean, and an important stressor for several native organisms. The algal capacity to produce secondary metabolites has been suggested to modulate success of the C. racemosa invasion, although many of potentially involved biological pathways still remain unexplored. In this respect, the aim of the present study was to investigate some molecular and cellular effects in the white seabream Diplodus sargus, an ecologically key species, which included the alien C. racemosa in its diet. Organisms were sampled in 2 seasonal periods from 3 locations of Southern Italy, each characterized by different levels of algal abundance. The level of caulerpin, one of the main secondary algal metabolites, in fish tissues has been used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related with molecular and cellular responses. Chemical analyses indicated that fish from invaded sites can accumulate caulerpin, with liver concentrations ranging from a few up to hundreds of μg/g. Biomarkers analyses revealed only limited alterations of the main antioxidant defences, such as glutathione reductase and levels of glutathione; on the other hand, increased enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450, glutathione S-transferases and acyl CoA oxidase, as well as enhanced gene transcription for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, cytochrome P4501A and vitellogenin 1 were observed in fish more exposed to C. racemosa as indicated by liver concentrations of caulerpin higher than 50 μg/g. Despite a direct molecular relationship with this algal metabolite could not be established, our results suggest that a C. racemosa enriched diet can modulate biotransformation and fatty acids metabolism of D. sargus. Assessing whether similar effects represent short- or long-term effects will be of crucial importance to understand consequences on the general health status and reproductive performance of

  15. Genotoxicity Induced by Foetal and Infant Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Modulation of Ionising Radiation Effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Udroiu

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the toxicity and genotoxicity of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF during prenatal and neonatal development. These phases of life are characterized by cell proliferation and differentiation, which might make them sensitive to environmental stressors. Although in vitro evidences suggest that ELF-MF may modify the effects of ionizing radiation, no research has been conducted so far in vivo on the genotoxic effects of ELF-MF combined with X-rays.Aim of this study was to investigate in somatic and germ cells the effects of chronic ELF-MF exposure from mid gestation until weaning, and any possible modulation produced by ELF-MF exposure on ionizing radiation-induced damage. Mice were exposed to 50 Hz, 65 μT magnetic field, 24 hours/day, for a total of 30 days, starting from 12 days post-conception. Another group was irradiated with 1 Gy X-rays immediately before ELF-MF exposure, other groups were only X-irradiated or sham-exposed. Micronucleus test on blood erythrocytes was performed at multiple times from 1 to 140 days after birth. Additionally, 42 days after birth, genotoxic and cytotoxic effects on male germ cells were assessed by comet assay and flow cytometric analysis.ELF-MF exposure had no teratogenic effect and did not affect survival, growth and development. The micronucleus test indicated that ELF-MF induced a slight genotoxic damage only after the maximum exposure time and that this effect faded away in the months following the end of exposure. ELF-MF had no effects on ionizing radiation (IR-induced genotoxicity in erythrocytes. Differently, ELF-MF appeared to modulate the response of male germ cells to X-rays with an impact on proliferation/differentiation processes. These results point to the importance of tissue specificity and development on the impact of ELF-MF on the early stages of life and indicate the need of further research on the molecular mechanisms underlying ELF-MF biological

  16. Isolating the Unique Effects of the Unified Protocol Treatment Modules Using Single Case Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Conklin, Laren R; Bullis, Jacqueline R; Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kennedy, Katherine A

    2017-03-01

    The Unified Protocol (UP) for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to treat the range of anxiety, depressive, and related disorders. Thus far, the UP treatment modules have only been studied when they are delivered in their entirety and presented in a standard sequence. To personalize the presentation of the UP modules for a given patient's presentation (e.g., providing the modules in a varied order, dropping irrelevant modules), it is first necessary to establish that each module leads to change in the skill it is designed to promote, and that these changes can occur in the absence of the other modules. Using a multiple baseline design in accordance with the single-case reporting guidelines in behavioral interventions (SCRIBE), eight patients with heterogeneous emotional disorders were randomly assigned to a 1- or 3-week baseline assessment phase followed by four sessions of one of four UP modules (psychoeducation, emotional awareness, cognitive flexibility, and countering emotional behaviors). Results provide preliminary support for the notion that each UP module under study leads to change in its associated skill in the absence of the other modules (five of eight patients demonstrated reliable change in the module-specific skill). In addition, exploratory analyses suggest that the emotion awareness training and cognitive flexibility modules appeared to exhibit change specific to their associated skills, psychoeducation, and countering emotional behaviors demonstrated somewhat more broad-based change across skills.

  17. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-08

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  18. Modulation of Cortical-subcortical Networks in Parkinson’s Disease by Applied Field Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William Hess

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that endogenous field effects may play a role in neuronal oscillations and communication. Non-invasive transcranial electrical stimulation with low-intensity currents can also have direct effects on the underlying cortex as well as distant network effects. While Parkinson's disease (PD is amenable to invasive neuromodulation in the basal ganglia by deep brain stimulation, techniques of non-invasive neuromodulation like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS are being investigated as possible therapies. tDCS and tACS have the potential to influence the abnormal cortical-subcortical network activity that occurs in PD through sub-threshold changes in cortical excitability or through entrainment or disruption of ongoing rhythmic cortical activity. This may allow for the targeting of specific features of the disease involving abnormal oscillatory activity, as well as the enhancement of potential cortical compensation for basal ganglia dysfunction and modulation of cortical plasticity in neurorehabilitation. However, little is currently known about how cortical stimulation will affect subcortical structures, the size of any effect, and the factors of stimulation that will influence these effects.

  19. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura P; Walton, Gemma E; Psichas, Arianna; Frost, Gary S; Gibson, Glenn R; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2015-06-04

    Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation--another method used to modulate gut composition and function--could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  20. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation—another method used to modulate gut composition and function—could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre, inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  1. Nonlinear resonance converse magnetoelectric effect modulated by voltage for the symmetrical magnetoelectric laminates under magnetic and thermal loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Hu, Wen-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Based on the tri-layer symmetrical magnetoelectric laminates, a equivalent circuit for the nonlinear resonance converse magnetoelectric coupling effect is established. Because the nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical constitutive equations of magnetostrictive material were introduced, a converse magnetoelectric coefficient model was derived from the equivalent circuit, which can describe the influence of bias electric field, bias magnetic field and ambient temperature on the resonance converse magnetoelectric coupling effect. Especially, the model can well predict the modulation effect of bias electric field/voltage on the magnetism of magnetoelectric composite or the converse magnetoelectric coefficient, which is absolutely vital in applications. Both of the converse magnetoelectric coefficient and the resonance frequency predicted by the model have good agreements with the existing experimental results in qualitatively and quantitatively, and the validity of the model is confirmed. On this basis, according to the model, the nonlinear trends of the resonance converse magnetoelectric effect under different bias voltages, bias magnetic fields and ambient temperatures are predicted. From the results, it can be found that the bias voltage can effectively modulate the curve of the resonance converse magnetoelectric coefficient versus bias magnetic field, and then change the corresponding optimal bias magnetic field of the maximum converse magnetoelectric coefficient; with the increasing volume ratio of piezoelectric layers, the modulation effect of bias voltage becomes more obvious; under different bias magnetic fields, the modulation effect of bias voltage on the converse magnetoelectric effect has nonvolatility in a wide temperature region.

  2. Experimental study on the effects of the number of heat exchanger modules on thermal characteristics in a premixed combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Byeonghun; Lee, Chang-Eon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kum, Sung Min [Halla University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seungro [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The effects of the number of heat exchanger modules on thermal characteristics were experimentally studied in a premixed combustion system with a cross-flow staggered-tube heat exchanger. The various heat exchanger modules, from 4 to 8, combined with a premixed burner were tested to investigate the performance of the heat exchanger through the surface area of the heat exchanger at various equivalence ratios. Additionally, the performance of the heat exchanger was analyzed by applying entropy generation theory to the heat exchanger system. As a result, although the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the equivalence ratio, the NOx and CO concentrations also increase due to the increasing flame temperature. In addition, the entropy generation increases with an increase of the equivalence ratio. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate and the effectiveness are increased with the increase of the number of the heat exchanger modules. Also, the effectiveness is sharply increased when the number of the heat exchanger modules is increased from 4 to 5. Consequently, the optimal operating conditions regarding pollutant emission, effectiveness and entropy generation in this experimental range are 0.85 for the equivalence ratio and 8 for the number of heat exchanger modules.

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...... provided by Member States to the European Commission. Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 consist of approximately 80 % of the two CLA isomers c-9,t-11 and t-10,c-12 (1:1). The applicants suggested a daily intake of CLA of 3 g (3.75 g Clarinol®) and 3.5 g (4.5 g Tonalin® TG 80), respectively. The Panel considers...

  4. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Diaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  5. SMCis: An Effective Algorithm for Discovery of Cis-Regulatory Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haitao; Huo, Hongwei; Yu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) is a challenging problem in computational biology. Limited by the difficulty of using an HMM to model dependent features in transcriptional regulatory sequences (TRSs), the probabilistic modeling methods based on HMMs cannot accurately represent the distance between regulatory elements in TRSs and are cumbersome to model the prevailing dependencies between motifs within CRMs. We propose a probabilistic modeling algorithm called SMCis, which builds a more powerful CRM discovery model based on a hidden semi-Markov model. Our model characterizes the regulatory structure of CRMs and effectively models dependencies between motifs at a higher level of abstraction based on segments rather than nucleotides. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets indicate that our method performs better than the compared algorithms. PMID:27637070

  6. Resonance of a Metal Drop under the Effect of Amplitude-Modulated High Frequency Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiahong; Lei, Zuosheng; Zhu, Hongda; Zhang, Lijie; Magnetic Hydrodynamics(Siamm) Team; Magnetic Mechanics; Engineering(Smse) Team

    2016-11-01

    The resonance of a sessile and a levitated drop under the effect of high frequency amplitude-modulated magnetic field (AMMF) is investigated experimentally and numerically. It is a new method to excite resonance of a metal drop, which is different from the case in the presence of a low-frequency magnetic field. The transient contour of the drop is obtained in the experiment and the simulation. The numerical results agree with the experimental results fairly well. At a given frequency and magnetic flux density of the high frequency AMMF, the edge deformations of the drop with an azimuthal wave numbers were excited. A stability diagram of the shape oscillation of the drop and its resonance frequency spectrum are obtained by analysis of the experimental and the numerical data. The results show that the resonance of the drop has a typical character of parametric resonance. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51274237 and 11372174).

  7. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley O. Stone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET, covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  8. The PPAR-Platelet Connection: Modulators of Inflammation and Potential Cardiovascular Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, S L; O'Brien, J J; Bancos, S; Lehmann, G M; Springer, D L; Blumberg, N; Francis, C W; Taubman, M B; Phipps, R P

    2008-01-01

    Historically, platelets were viewed as simple anucleate cells responsible for initiating thrombosis and maintaining hemostasis, but clearly they are also key mediators of inflammation and immune cell activation. An emerging body of evidence links platelet function and thrombosis to vascular inflammation. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play a major role in modulating inflammation and, interestingly, PPARs (PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma) were recently identified in platelets. Additionally, PPAR agonists attenuate platelet activation; an important discovery for two reasons. First, activated platelets are formidable antagonists that initiate and prolong a cascade of events that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. Dampening platelet release of proinflammatory mediators, including CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), is essential to hinder this cascade. Second, understanding the biologic importance of platelet PPARs and the mechanism(s) by which PPARs regulate platelet activation will be imperative in designing therapeutic strategies lacking the deleterious or unwanted side effects of current treatment options.

  9. Effect of Modulation Schemes on Performance of OFDM based Wireless Network using Smart Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Balaji G.Hogade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the effect of different modulation Techniques (QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM and number of antenna elements at the receiver (Smart Antenna on the performance of beamforming in OFDM based Wireless network. The performance of the proposedtechnique is tested for adaptive beam forming algorithm, Least Mean Square (LMS, improved LMS and conventional beamforming for different number of antenna elements. Proposed system not only has goodability of suppressing interference, but also significantly improves the bit-error rate (BERperformance of the system. Simulation results show that an adaptive beam forming gives the optimum performance on urban channels. SNR vs. BER, are compared using same set of parameters.

  10. Effect of Correlated Non-Gaussian Quadratures on the Performance of Binary Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine A. Aalo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The received signal in many wireless communication systems comprises of the sum of waves with random amplitudes and random phases. In general, the composite signal consists of correlated nonidentical Gaussian quadrature components due to the central limit theorem (CLT. However, in the presence of a small number of random waves, the CLT may not always hold and the quadrature components may not be Gaussian distributed. In this paper, we assume that the fading environment is such that the quadrature components follow a correlated bivariate Student-t joint distribution. Then, we derive the envelope distribution of the received signal and obtain new expressions for the exact and high signal-to-noise (SNR approximate average BER for binary modulations. It also turns out that the derived envelope pdf approaches the Rayleigh and Hoyt distributions as limiting cases. Using the derived envelope pdf, we investigate the effect of correlated nonidentical quadratures on the error rate performance of digital communication systems.

  11. Stability Analysis and Internal Heating Effect on Oscillatory Convection in a Viscoelastic Fluid Saturated Porous Medium Under Gravity Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhadauria B.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.

  12. Effect of ablation of complex fractionated atrial electrogram on vagal modulation in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-long; YANG Yan-zong; DONG Ying-xue; JIANG Peng; GAO Lian-jun; CHA Yong-mei; Douglas L.Packer; XIA Yun-long; YIN Xiao-meng; CHANG Dong

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical observations have shown that the complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) associates with ganglionated plexus activity in the cardiac autonomic nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the impact of CFAE ablation on vagal modulation to atria and vulnerability to develop atrial fibrillation (AF).Methods Ten adult mongrel dogs were involved. Cervical sympathovagal trunks were decentralized and sympathetic effects were blocked. CFAE was color tagged on the atrial 3-dimensional image and ablated during AF induced by S1S2 programmed stimulation plus sympathovagal trunk stimulation. Atrial effective refractory period (ERP) and vulnerability window (VW) of AF were measured on baseline and at vagal stimulation at 4 atrium sites. Serial tissue sections from ablative and control specimens received hematoxylin and eosin staining for microscopic examination.Results Most CFAE areas were localized at the right superior pulmonary quadrant, distal coronary sinus (CSd)quadrant, and proximal coronary sinus (CSp) quadrant (21.74%, separately). Sinus rhythm cycle length (SCL) shortening did not decrease significantly after ablation at the sites, including right atrial appendage, left atrial appendage, CSd, and CSp (P >0.05). ERP shortening during vagal stimulation significantly decreased after ablation (P <0.01); the VW to vagal stimulation significantly decreased after ablation (P <0.05). The architecture of individual ganglia altered after ablation.Conclusions CFAE has an autonomic basis in dogs. The decreased SCL and ERP shortening to vagal stimulation after CFAE ablation demonstrate that CFAE ablation attenuates vagal modulation to the atria, thereby suppressing AF mediated by enhanced vagal activity. CFAE ablation could suppress AF mediated by enhanced vagal activity.

  13. Cardiac effects of 3-iodothyronamine: a new aminergic system modulating cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Grazia; Frascarelli, Sabina; Ghelardoni, Sandra; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Tobias, Sandra C; DeBarber, Andrea; Brogioni, Simona; Ronca-Testoni, Simonetta; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Grandy, David K; Scanlan, Thomas S; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    3-Iodothyronamine T1AM is a novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative that activates the G protein-coupled receptor known as trace anime-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). In the isolated working rat heart and in rat cardiomyocytes, T1AM produced a reversible, dose-dependent negative inotropic effect (e.g., 27+/-5, 51+/-3, and 65+/-2% decrease in cardiac output at 19, 25, and 38 microM concentration, respectively). An independent negative chronotropic effect was also observed. The hemodynamic effects of T1AM were remarkably increased in the presence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, whereas they were attenuated in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. No effect was produced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, calcium-calmodulin kinase II, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, or MAP kinases. Tissue cAMP levels were unchanged. In rat ventricular tissue, Western blot experiments with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies showed reduced phosphorylation of microsomal and cytosolic proteins after perfusion with synthetic T1AM; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed the presence of transcripts for at least 5 TAAR subtypes; specific and saturable binding of [125I]T1AM was observed, with a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range (5 microM); and endogenous T1AM was detectable by tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence for the existence of a novel aminergic system modulating cardiac function.

  14. Effects of endocrine modulators on sexual differentiation and reproductive function in male Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Krister; Axelsson, Jeanette; Brunström, Björn

    2005-04-15

    A number of environmental contaminants have been shown to interfere with the endocrine system. Many of these compounds bind to estrogen receptors, thereby potentially disrupting estrogen-regulated functions. In this paper, we review some background data on avian sexual differentiation and present some of the results from our studies on effects of estrogenic chemicals administered during sexual differentiation in the Japanese quail. Initially, our goal was to elucidate whether a decreased male sexual behavior in quail is a suitable endpoint for studying long-term effects of exposure to estrogenic compounds during sexual differentiation in ovo. We thereafter tested some environmental pollutants, suspected to act via mimicking estrogens, using the test system developed. Results from our studies on the synthetic estrogens ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol, as well as the environmental pollutants bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and o,p'-DDT are reviewed in this paper. We conclude that the Japanese quail is well suited as an animal model for studying various long-term effects after embryonic exposure to estrogenic compounds. Depressed sexual behavior proved to be the most sensitive of the variables studied in males and we find this endpoint appropriate for studying effects of endocrine modulating chemicals in the adult quail following embryonic exposure.

  15. Effect of biogas sparging with different membrane modules on membrane fouling in anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Mustafa; Saatçi, Yusuf; Hanay, Özge; Hasar, Halil

    2014-03-01

    This study focused on the effect of biogas sparging and different membrane modules such as cylinder shaped, funnel-shaped, and U-shaped on the membrane fouling behavior in a lab-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR) which was operated for over 60 days. In order to investigate the membrane fouling behavior, a series of analysis such as SMP, EPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), particle size distribution, and filtration resistances were performed. Although the rapid generation of cake layer took placed in case of the absence of biogas sparging, the membrane module design mostly influenced the membrane resistance when biogas sparging was applied. Total resistance was the highest for U-shaped module. The permeate fluxes with biogas sparging were higher about one half and two times than those without biogas sparging. Cylinder-shaped module had the lowest SMP and EPS concentrations followed by U-shaped and funnel-shaped modules under both cases with and without biogas sparging. The total resistances of all membrane modules without biogas sparging were found to be very high compared the pore blocking resistances (Rp).

  16. A3 Adenosine Receptor Allosteric Modulator Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect: In Vivo Studies and Molecular Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR is overexpressed in inflammatory cells and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with inflammatory conditions. Agonists to the A3AR are known to induce specific anti-inflammatory effects upon chronic treatment. LUF6000 is an allosteric compound known to modulate the A3AR and render the endogenous ligand adenosine to bind to the receptor with higher affinity. The advantage of allosteric modulators is their capability to target specifically areas where adenosine levels are increased such as inflammatory and tumor sites, whereas normal body cells and tissues are refractory to the allosteric modulators due to low adenosine levels. LUF6000 administration induced anti-inflammatory effect in 3 experimental animal models of rat adjuvant induced arthritis, monoiodoacetate induced osteoarthritis, and concanavalin A induced liver inflammation in mice. The molecular mechanism of action points to deregulation of signaling proteins including PI3K, IKK, IκB, Jak-2, and STAT-1, resulting in decreased levels of NF-κB, known to mediate inflammatory effects. Moreover, LUF6000 induced a slight stimulatory effect on the number of normal white blood cells and neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effect of LUF6000, mechanism of action, and the differential effects on inflammatory and normal cells position this allosteric modulator as an attractive and unique drug candidate.

  17. Strain-induced modulation on phonon and electronic properties of suspended black phosphorus field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Si, Naichao; Xie, Guoxin; Wang, Quan

    2017-02-01

    Black phosphorus has recently appeared as a promising two-dimensional material for applications in high performance nanoelectronics. Its single- and few-atomic layer forms in field-effect transistors have attracted a lot of attention due to the tunable bandgap (0.3-2.0 eV), high carrier mobility (1000 cm2 V-1 s-1) and decent on-off ratios (105). Here, we demonstrate a suspended black phosphorus field effect transistor (BP-FET) and utilize Raman spectroscope to characterize the strain on the effects of Raman phonon. We find that red shifts appear in all the three vibrational modes (Ag1 , B2g and Ag2) in different degrees. Among them, Ag1 mode is most sensitive to the tensile strain. We further investigate the electronic properties with a Cascade semi-automatic probe station. The linear relationships in the output curves indicate the contacts between black phosphorus and electrodes are ohmic contacts. The transfer characteristic curves declare the drain current modulation is ∼ 7.6 ×103 for the hole conduction and ∼57 for the electron conduction. Mobility of this device is found to be 347.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 4.9 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the hole and electron conduction, respectively. These results provide a theoretical basis for the coordination of high-performance black phosphorus electronic components.

  18. Spectral modulation effect in teleseismic P-waves from DPRK nuclear tests recorded at different azimuths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Yefim; Kim, So Gu; Hofstetter, Abraham

    2014-05-01

    Two underground nuclear explosions conducted by North Korea in 2009 and 2013 were recorded by the Israel Seismic Network. Pronounced coherent minima (spectral nulls) at 1.2-1.3 Hz were revealed in the spectra of teleseismic P-waves. For a ground-truth explosion with a shallow source depth (relatively to an earthquake), this phenomenon can be interpreted in terms of the interference between the down-going P-wave and the pP phase reflected from the Earth's surface. A similar effect was observed at ISN stations for the Pakistan nuclear explosion at a different frequency 1.7 Hz indicating a source and not site-effect. Similar spectral minima with about the same frequency were observed in teleseismic P-waves of all three North Korea explosions (including the 2006 test) recorded at network stations and arrays in Kazakhstan (KURK), Norway (NORESS, ARCESS), Australia (Alice Springs, Warramunga) and Canada (Yellowknife), covering a broad azimuthal range. Data of the 2013 test at Warramunga array showed harmonic spectral modulation with several minima, evidencing a clear interference effect. These observations support the above-mentioned interpretation. Based on the null frequency dependency on the near-surface acoustic velocity and the source depth, the depth of the North Korea tests was estimated as ~2 km (different from the value ~1 km reported by USGS for the third test). This unusual depth estimation needs an additional validation based on more stations and verification by other methods.

  19. Reward modulates the effect of visual cortical microstimulation on perceptual decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicmil, Nela; Cumming, Bruce G; Parker, Andrew J; Krug, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Effective perceptual decisions rely upon combining sensory information with knowledge of the rewards available for different choices. However, it is not known where reward signals interact with the multiple stages of the perceptual decision-making pathway and by what mechanisms this may occur. We combined electrical microstimulation of functionally specific groups of neurons in visual area V5/MT with performance-contingent reward manipulation, while monkeys performed a visual discrimination task. Microstimulation was less effective in shifting perceptual choices towards the stimulus preferences of the stimulated neurons when available reward was larger. Psychophysical control experiments showed this result was not explained by a selective change in response strategy on microstimulated trials. A bounded accumulation decision model, applied to analyse behavioural performance, revealed that the interaction of expected reward with microstimulation can be explained if expected reward modulates a sensory representation stage of perceptual decision-making, in addition to the better-known effects at the integration stage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07832.001 PMID:26402458

  20. Surface transfer doping induced effective modulation on ambipolar characteristics of few-layer black phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Du; Han, Cheng; Wu, Jing; Zhong, Shu; Liu, Yiyang; Lin, Jiadan; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Ping Hu, Wen; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Neto, A. H. Castro; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Chen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Black phosphorus, a fast emerging two-dimensional material, has been configured as field effect transistors, showing a hole-transport-dominated ambipolar characteristic. Here we report an effective modulation on ambipolar characteristics of few-layer black phosphorus transistors through in situ surface functionalization with caesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), respectively. Cs2CO3 is found to strongly electron dope black phosphorus. The electron mobility of black phosphorus is significantly enhanced to ~27 cm2 V-1 s-1 after 10 nm Cs2CO3 modification, indicating a greatly improved electron-transport behaviour. In contrast, MoO3 decoration demonstrates a giant hole-doping effect. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy characterization reveals significant surface charge transfer occurring at the dopants/black phosphorus interfaces. Moreover, the surface-doped black phosphorus devices exhibit a largely enhanced photodetection behaviour. Our findings coupled with the tunable nature of the surface transfer doping scheme ensure black phosphorus as a promising candidate for further complementary logic electronics.

  1. Effect of quinapril or metoprolol on circadian sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, A G; Athyros, V G; Papageorgiou, A A; Boudoulas, H

    1999-11-15

    Abnormal autonomic nervous system impairment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has a circadian pattern with the greatest manifestation in the morning hours; it probably plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmias and acute ischemic syndromes. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors improve autonomic function in patients with AMI, but the circadian pattern of this effect has not been studied. Heart rate variability-normalized frequency domain indexes were assessed 5 days (baseline) after the onset of uncomplicated AMI and 30 days after therapy with quinapril (n = 30), metoprolol (n = 30), or placebo (n = 30) with a solid-state digital Holter monitor. Normal subjects (n = 30) were used as controls. Quinapril increased parasympathetic and decreased sympathetic modulation, and improved sympathovagal interactions manifested by an increase in normalized high-frequency power (HFP), and a decrease in normalized low-frequency power (LFP), and their ratio (LFP/HFP) during the entire 24-hour period (pMetoprolol increased HFP and decreased LFP and the LFP/HFP ratio mainly between 08.00 A.M. to 12.00 noon, and 19.00 to 22.00 P.M. (delta% ratio -21%, and -12% respectively, pMetoprolol had a similar effect during the late morning and evening hours, but at a lower level. These effects may prove beneficial in reducing cardiac arrhythmias and acute ischemic syndromes in past-AMI patients.

  2. Charged Molecules Modulate the Volume Exclusion Effects Exerted by Crowders on FtsZ Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterroso, Begoña; Reija, Belén; Jiménez, Mercedes; Zorrilla, Silvia; Rivas, Germán

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of protein crowders, either combined or individually, on the GTP-induced FtsZ cooperative assembly, crucial for the formation of the dynamic septal ring and, hence, for bacterial division. It was earlier demonstrated that high concentrations of inert polymers like Ficoll 70, used to mimic the crowded cellular interior, favor the assembly of FtsZ into bundles with slow depolymerization. We have found, by fluorescence anisotropy together with light scattering measurements, that the presence of protein crowders increases the tendency of FtsZ to polymerize at micromolar magnesium concentration, being the effect larger with ovomucoid, a negatively charged protein. Neutral polymers and a positively charged protein also diminished the critical concentration of assembly, the extent of the effect being compatible with that expected according to pure volume exclusion models. FtsZ polymerization was also observed to be strongly promoted by a negatively charged polymer, DNA, and by some unrelated polymers like PEGs at concentrations below the crowding regime. The influence of mixed crowders mimicking the heterogeneity of the intracellular environment on the tendency of FtsZ to assemble was also studied and nonadditive effects were found to prevail. Far from exactly reproducing the bacterial cytoplasm environment, this approach serves as a simplified model illustrating how its intrinsically crowded and heterogeneous nature may modulate FtsZ assembly into a functional Z-ring.

  3. Charged Molecules Modulate the Volume Exclusion Effects Exerted by Crowders on FtsZ Polymerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monterroso

    Full Text Available We have studied the influence of protein crowders, either combined or individually, on the GTP-induced FtsZ cooperative assembly, crucial for the formation of the dynamic septal ring and, hence, for bacterial division. It was earlier demonstrated that high concentrations of inert polymers like Ficoll 70, used to mimic the crowded cellular interior, favor the assembly of FtsZ into bundles with slow depolymerization. We have found, by fluorescence anisotropy together with light scattering measurements, that the presence of protein crowders increases the tendency of FtsZ to polymerize at micromolar magnesium concentration, being the effect larger with ovomucoid, a negatively charged protein. Neutral polymers and a positively charged protein also diminished the critical concentration of assembly, the extent of the effect being compatible with that expected according to pure volume exclusion models. FtsZ polymerization was also observed to be strongly promoted by a negatively charged polymer, DNA, and by some unrelated polymers like PEGs at concentrations below the crowding regime. The influence of mixed crowders mimicking the heterogeneity of the intracellular environment on the tendency of FtsZ to assemble was also studied and nonadditive effects were found to prevail. Far from exactly reproducing the bacterial cytoplasm environment, this approach serves as a simplified model illustrating how its intrinsically crowded and heterogeneous nature may modulate FtsZ assembly into a functional Z-ring.

  4. Effect of Temperature on Power Output from Different Commercially available Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Dash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV modules are rated at standard test condition (STC i.e. at irradiance of 1000 W/m2 , temperature at 25 0C and solar spectrum of Air Mass 1.5G. The actual output from the PV module in the field varies from its rated output due to change in ambient environmental conditions from the STC. The reduction in output due to temperature is determined by temperature coefficient which varies with the different types of solar module technologies. In this study, temperature coefficient of different types of commercially available solar modules is evaluated. The testing has been carried out at PV test facility of Solar Energy Centre, New Delhi. The modules are selected randomly from various manufactures. It is found that the average temperature coefficient of power for mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline and CdTe based modules are -0.446 %/°C, -0.387 %/°C and -0.172 %/°C respectively. In case of amorphous silicon module, only one sample is measured and the temperature coefficient is -0.234 %/°C. This study shows that the temperature coefficient for mono crystalline silicon module is higher than the other types of solar modules. This study provides an understanding on the variation in energy generation due to temperature correction between different cell technologies.

  5. The effects of cryopreservation on angiogenesis modulation activity of human amniotic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Ghasem; Paeini-Vayghan, Ghodsieh; Asadi, Samira; Niknejad, Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Amniotic membrane (AM), as the innermost layer of placenta, has side dependent effects on the angiogenesis. Cryopreservation is a necessary process to avoid the challenging problems of fresh tissues; a procedure which makes the AM ready-to-use. Since the cryopreservation can influence the AM characteristics for experimental and clinical purposes, in this study the effects of cryopreservation were evaluated on angiogenesis modulation activity of the AM compared to fresh tissues in an animal model. The AM was implanted mesenchymal side up or epithelial side up in a rat dorsal skinfold chamber. The length and number of branches of formed capillaries were measured via intravital microscopy after 7 days. The amount of IL-8 (interleukin-8) and TIMP-2 (Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2) as two factors in amniotic cells which have great impacts on angiogenesis were evaluated using ELISA assay. The epithelial surface of cryopreserved AM had inhibitory effects on vessel formation. The cryopreserved amniotic mesenchymal side increased the vessel length and sprout. The result of cryopreserved AM on angiogenesis was similar to that of fresh tissues. The levels of IL-8 and TIMP-2 in cryopreserved samples were significantly less than fresh AMs which shows that angio-modulatory properties are not limited to the effects of amnion epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells and the other components such as extracellular matrix may contribute in angio-modulatory effects. These promising results show that inducing and inhibitory effects of the AM, which make it an appropriate candidate for different clinical situations, were maintained after cryopreservation.

  6. l-Cys/CSE/H2S pathway modulates mouse uterus motility and sildenafil effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitidieri, Emma; Tramontano, Teresa; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2016-09-01

    Sildenafil, a selective phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, commonly used in the oral treatment for erectile dysfunction, relaxes smooth muscle of human bladder through the activation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling. H2S is an endogenous gaseous transmitter with myorelaxant properties predominantly formed from l-cysteine (l-Cys) by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). Sildenafil also relaxes rat and human myometrium during preterm labor but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of H2S as a mediator of sildenafil-induced effect in uterine mouse contractility. We firstly demonstrated that both enzymes, CBS and CSE were expressed, and able to convert l-Cys into H2S in mouse uterus. Thereafter, sildenafil significantly increased H2S production in mouse uterus and this effect was abrogated by CBS or CSE inhibition. In parallel, l-Cys, sodium hydrogen sulfide or sildenafil but not d-Cys reduced spontaneous uterus contractility in a functional study. The blockage of CBS and CSE reduced this latter effect even if a major role for CSE than CBS was observed. This data was strongly confirmed by using CSE(-/-) mice. Indeed, the increase in H2S production mediated by l-Cys or by sildenafil was not found in CSE(-/-) mice. Besides, the effect of H2S or sildenafil on spontaneous contractility was reduced in CSE(-/-) mice. A decisive proof for the involvement of H2S signaling in sildenafil effect in mice uterus was given by the measurement of cGMP. Sildenafil increased cGMP level that was significantly reduced by CSE inhibition. In conclusion, l-Cys/CSE/H2S signaling modulates the mouse uterus motility and the sildenafil effect. Therefore the study may open different therapeutical approaches for the management of the uterus abnormal contractility disorders.

  7. Modulation of trigeminal reflex excitability in migraine: effects of attention and habituation on the blink reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Murasecco, Donatella; Libro, Giuseppe; Guido, Marco; Sciruicchio, Vittorio; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Gallai, Virgilio; Puca, Francomichele

    2002-06-01

    The modulation of trigeminal reflex excitability in migraine patients was evaluated during the asymptomatic phase by studying the effects of attention, habituation and preconditioning stimulus on the R2 and R3 components of the blink reflex (BR). Fifty patients suffering from migraine without aura, 20 affected by migraine with aura and 35 sex- and age-matched controls were selected. In subgroups of migraine with-aura and without-aura patients, and normal controls, the blink reflex was elicited during different cognitive situations: (a) spontaneous mental activity; (b) stimulus anticipation; (c) recognition of target numbers. In the remaining subjects, R2 and R3 habituation was evaluated by repetitive stimulation at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 s intervals. The R2 and R3 recovery curves were also computed. A reduced R3 threshold with a normal pain threshold was found in migraine with-aura and without-aura patients; the R3 component was not significantly correlated with the pain thresholds in patients and controls. The R2 and R3 components were less influenced by the warning of the stimulus in migraine without-aura and migraine with-aura patients, in comparison with the control group. A slight increase of both R2 and R3 recovery after preconditioning stimulus was also observed in migraine patients, probably caused by a phenomenon of trigeminal hyperexcitability persisting after the last attack. The abnormal BR modulation by alerting expresses in migraine a dysfunction of adaptation capacity to environmental conditions, probably predisposing to migraine.

  8. Exploration of conditioned pain modulation effect on long-term potentiation-like pain amplification in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Weiwei; Mørch, Carsten Dahl; Matre, D.;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore conditioned pain modulation (CPM) effect on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like pain amplification induced by cutaneous 10-Hz conditioning electrical stimulation (CES). METHODS: Conditioned pain modulation was induced by cold pressor conditioning stimulus (CPCS...... session. Moreover, CPCS resulted in lower pain intensity ratings during CES process but without affecting the SF-MPQ scores between two sessions. The SBF and ST increased after CES and then gradually declined but without differences between CPCS and control sessions. CPM did not affect HPT and pain......). SIGNIFICANCE: Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) may play a role in inhibiting the pain amplificatory process at the central nervous system and prompting central desensitization. CPM has a special inhibition effect for the development of perception amplification to non-painful mechanical stimuli....

  9. Yogurt funcional alto CLA

    OpenAIRE

    Massa Grilli, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de compuestos bioactivos en la grasa láctea ha despertado gran interés ya que se le atribuyen efectos preventivos frente a enfermedades de alto impacto en la población. Se ha demostrado que los sistemas de alimentación basados en pastoreo incrementan la presencia de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y específicamente del acido linoleico conjugado, obteniéndose un alimento funcional que presenta propiedades beneficiosas sobre la salud. El objetivo del presente ...

  10. Modulating Effects of Arabinogalactans from Plant Gum Exudates on Human Complement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, F; Lenzi, R M; Yamassaki, F T; Messias-Reason, I J; Campestrini, L H; Stevan, F R; Zawadzki-Baggio, S F; Maurer, J B B

    2016-05-01

    Gum arabic and cashew nut tree gum exudate polysaccharide (CNTG) are plant polysaccharides composed of galactose and arabinose known as arabinogalactans (AGs). Although these fractions are used in food and pharmaceutical industry, cases of allergic reactions were described in clinical reports. As AGs were reported as modulators of the classical (CP) and alternative pathways (AP) of complement system (CS), in the present work, we investigate whether gum arabic and CNTG have an effect on both CS pathways. The complement fixation tests were performed with (CP-30 and AP-30) and without pre-incubation (CP-0 and AP-0). For CP-30, CNTG and gum arabic (833 μg/ml) showed a reduction of 28.0% (P = 0.000174) and 48.5% (P = 0.000143), respectively, on CP-induced haemolysis. However, no effect was observed for CP-0 in the CP-induced haemolysis. For AP-30, both CNTG and gum arabic (833 μg/ml) showed 87% reduction on the CP-induced haemolysis, with IC50 values of 100 and 7 μg/ml, respectively. For AP-0, a reduction of 11.3% for gum arabic and no effect for the CNTG on the CP-induced haemolysis were observed. These results suggested that gum arabic and CNTG could be acting as activators of the CS. Thus, this effect on the CS, especially on the AP, which accounts for up to 80-90% of total CS activation, indicates that both fractions may be harmful because of their potential pro-inflammatory action. Considering that CS activation induces inflammatory response, further studies confirming this immunomodulatory effect of these fractions are required to insure their safe use.

  11. Motor imagery during action observation modulates automatic imitation effects in rhythmical actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lloyd Eaves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that passively observing a task-irrelevant rhythmical action can bias the cycle time of a subsequently executed rhythmical action. Here we use the same paradigm to investigate the impact of different forms of motor imagery (MI during action observation (AO on this automatic imitation (AI effect. Participants saw a picture of the instructed action followed by a rhythmical distractor movie, wherein cycle time was subtly manipulated across trials. They then executed the instructed rhythmical action. When participants imagined performing the instructed action in synchrony with the distractor action (AO + MI, a strong imitation bias was found that was significantly greater than in our previous study. The bias was pronounced equally for compatible and incompatible trials, wherein observed and imagined actions were different in type (e.g., face washing vs. painting or plane of movement, or both. In contrast, no imitation bias was observed when MI conflicted with AO. In Experiment 2, motor execution synchronised with AO produced a stronger imitation bias compared to AO + MI, showing an advantage in synchronisation for overt execution over MI. Furthermore, the bias was stronger when participants synchronised the instructed action with the distractor movie, compared to when they synchronised the distractor action with the distractor movie. Although we still observed a significant bias in the latter condition, this finding indicates a degree of specificity in AI effects for the identity of the synchronised action. Overall, our data show that MI can substantially modulate the effects of AO on subsequent execution, wherein: (1 combined AO + MI can enhance AI effects relative to passive AO; (2 observed and imagined actions can be flexibly coordinated across different action types and planes; and (3 conflicting AO + MI can abolish AI effects. Therefore, combined AO + MI instructions should be considered in motor training and

  12. Cognitive plasticity as a modulating variable on the effects of memory training in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, M Dolores; Navarro, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive plasticity is a topic of interest since it allows us to analyse the potential cognitive modifiability of a person. Previous research has demonstrated the existence of plasticity in old age [Baltes, P. B. (1987). Theoretical propositions of life-span developmental psychology: On the dynamics between growth and decline. Developmental Psychology, 23(5), 611-626] regardless of presence or absence of cognitive deterioration [Calero, M. D., & Navarro, E. (2004). Relationship between plasticity, mild cognitive impairment and cognitive decline. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 653-660]. In this context, the present study was designed to analyse the presence of plasticity in elderly persons who seemed to present cognitive deterioration, and to explore the relation between cognitive plasticity and the results obtained from a memory training programme. One hundred and thirty-three elderly persons participated in the study and were evaluated by means of a cognitive plasticity test (Position test) and various tests for measuring the effects of the training. Part of the elderly population received the memory training, whose effects were measured immediately after the training and again after 9 months. The results demonstrate that the programme significantly improves cognitive performance, while plasticity is shown to be an important modulating variable on the improvement achieved.

  13. Generalized spin-dependent WIMP-nucleus interactions and the DAMA modulation effect

    CERN Document Server

    Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, KookHyun

    2015-01-01

    Guided by non-relativistic Effective Field Theory (EFT) we classify the most general spin-dependent interactions between a fermionic Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) and nuclei, and within this class of models we discuss the viability of an interpretation of the DAMA modulation result in terms of a signal from WIMP elastic scatterings using a halo-independent approach. We find that, although several relativistic EFT's can lead to a spin-dependent cross section, in some cases with an explicit, non-negligible dependence on the WIMP incoming velocity, three main scenarios can be singled out in the non-relativistic limit which approximately encompass them all, and that only differ by their dependence on the transferred momentum. For two of them compatibility between DAMA and other constraints is possible for a WIMP mass below 30 GeV, but only for a WIMP velocity distribution in the halo of our Galaxy which departs from a Maxwellian. This is achieved by combining a suppression of the WIMP effective coupl...

  14. Efficacy and the discriminative stimulus effects of negative GABAA modulators, or inverse agonists, in diazepam-treated rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Lance R; Gerak, Lisa R; France, Charles P

    2006-08-01

    In benzodiazepine (BZ)-dependent animals, the effects of negative GABA(A) modulators at BZ sites are not clearly related to differences in negative efficacy (i.e., inverse agonist activity). A flumazenil discriminative stimulus in diazepam (5.6 mg/kg/day)-treated rhesus monkeys was used to test the hypothesis that the effects of negative GABA(A) modulators at BZ sites do not vary as a function of efficacy in BZ-dependent animals. Negative GABA(A) modulators varying in efficacy were studied in combination with positive modulators acting at different modulatory sites (BZ, barbiturate, and neuroactive steroid sites). The negative modulators Ro 15-4513 (ethyl 8-azido-6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-alpha]-[1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate) and ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) substituted for the flumazenil discriminative stimulus. Acute pretreatment with diazepam (3.2 and 10 mg/kg s.c., in addition to 5.6 mg/kg/day p.o.), pentobarbital (3.2 and 10 mg/kg), or pregnanolone (1 and 3.2 mg/kg) attenuated the flumazenil discriminative stimulus and also attenuated the flumazenil-like discriminative stimulus effects of Ro 15-4513 and beta-CCE. Attenuation of the discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil, Ro 15-4513, and beta-CCE did not systematically vary as a function of negative efficacy. Compared with their discriminative stimulus effects in untreated monkeys discriminating midazolam, both pregnanolone and pentobarbital were relatively more potent than diazepam in attenuating the discriminative stimulus effects of flumazenil, Ro 15-4513, and beta-CCE in diazepam-treated monkeys. These results show that the discriminative stimulus effects of BZ-site neutral and negative modulators are not different in BZ-dependent animals trained to discriminate flumazenil, and extend the results of a previous study showing that positive modulators acting at non-BZ sites are especially potent in attenuating the effects of flumazenil in diazepam-treated monkeys (i

  15. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-06-14

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  16. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  17. The Effects of Textisms on Learning, Study Time, and Instructional Perceptions in an Online Artificial Intelligence Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert; Bryant, Nathan L.; Dodson, Phillip T.; Entwistle, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of textisms (i.e., abbreviated spellings, acronyms, and other shorthand notations) on learning, study time, and instructional perceptions in an online artificial intelligence instructional module. The independent variable in this investigation was experimental condition. For the control…

  18. High short-term effectiveness of modulated dry bed training in adolescents and young adults with treatment-resistant enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Two percent of adolescents and young adults suffer from therapy-resistant enuresis, with considerable negative impact on self-esteem and relationships. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapyresistant group of adolescents with

  19. High short-term effectiveness of modulated dry bed training in adolescents and young adults with treatment-resistant enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis/aims of study Two percent of adolescents and adults suffers from enuresis. In this age group, social problems can arise. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapy-resistant group of adolescents and adults with enuresis, provided by a specialize

  20. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  1. Pleiotropic effect of histamine H4 receptor modulation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Sanna, Maria Domenica; Ghelardini, Carla

    2013-08-01

    The histamine H4 receptor (H4R) is expressed primarily on cells involved in inflammation and immune responses. Recently, it has been reported the functional expression of H4R within neurons of the central nervous system, but their role has been poorly understood. The present study aimed to elucidate the physiopathological role of cerebral H4R in animal models by the intracerebroventricular administration of the H4R agonist VUF 8430 (20-40 μg per mouse). Selectivity of results was confirmed by the prevention of the effects produced by the H4R antagonist JNJ 10191584 (3-9 mg/kg p.o.). Neuronal H4R activation induced acute thermal antinociception, indicating that neuronal histamine H4R might be involved in the production of antinociception in the absence of an inflammatory process. An anxiolytic-like effect of intensity comparable to that exerted by diazepam, used as reference drug, was produced in the light-dark box test. VUF 8430 reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia in the passive avoidance test and showed anorexant activity in food deprived mice. Conversely, the H4R activation did not modify the immobility time in the tail suspension test. Rotarod performance test was employed to demonstrate that the effects observed following the administration of VUF 8430 and JNJ 10191584 were not due to impaired motor function of animals. Furthermore, both compounds did not alter spontaneous mobility and exploratory activity in the hole board test. These results show the antinociceptive, antiamnesic, anxiolytic and anorexant effects induced by neuronal H4R agonism, suggesting that H4 modulators may have broader utility further the control of inflammatory and immune processes.

  2. Inhaled corticosteroid treatment modulates ZNF432 gene variant's effect on bronchodilator response in asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann C.; Himes, Blanca E.; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Litonjua, Augusto; Peters, Stephen P.; Lima, John; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Qiu, Weiliang; Weiss, Scott T.; Tantisira, Kelan

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence a patient's response to inhaled corticosteroids and β2-agonists, and the effect of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is synergistic with the effect of β2-agonists. We hypothesized that use of inhaled corticosteroids could influence the effect of SNPs associated with bronchodilator response. Objective To assess whether, among asthma subjects, the association of SNPs with bronchodilator response is different between those treated with inhaled corticosteroids vs. those on placebo. Methods A genome-wide association analysis was conducted using 581 white subjects from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Using data for 449,540 SNPs, we conducted a gene by environment analysis in PLINK with inhaled corticosteroid treatment as the environmental exposure and bronchodilator response as the outcome measure. We attempted to replicate the top 12 SNPs in the Leukotriene Modifier Or Corticosteroid or Corticosteroid-Salmeterol (LOCCS) Trial. Results The combined P-value for the CAMP and LOCCS populations was 4.81E-08 for rs3752120, which is located in the zinc finger protein gene ZNF432, and has unknown function. Conclusions Inhaled corticosteroids appear to modulate the association of bronchodilator response with variant(s) in the ZNF432 gene among adults and children with asthma. Clinical Implications Clinicians who treat asthma patients with inhaled corticosteroids should be aware that the patient's genetic makeup likely influences response as measured in lung function. Capsule Summary Our study suggests that inhaled corticosteroids could influence the effect of multiple SNPs associated with bronchodilator response across the genome. PMID:24280104

  3. Pleiotrophin modulates morphine withdrawal but has no effects on morphine-conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramage, Esther; Vicente-Rodríguez, Marta; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2015-09-14

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a neurotrophic factor with important functions in addiction and neurodegenerative disorders. Morphine administration induces an increase in the expression of PTN and Midkine (MK), the only other member of this family of cytokines, in brain areas related with the addictive effects of drug of abuse, like the Ventral Tegmental Area or the hippocampus. In spite of previous studies showing that PTN modulates amphetamine and ethanol rewarding effects, and that PTN is involved in morphine-induced analgesia, it was still unknown if the rewarding effects of morphine may be regulated by endogenous PTN. Thus, we aim to study the role of PTN in the reward and physical dependence induced by morphine. We used the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) paradigm in PTN genetically deficient (PTN-/-) and wild type (WT) mice to assess the rewarding effects of morphine in absence of endogenous PTN. Second, to study if PTN may be involved in morphine physical dependence, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome was induced in PTN-/- and WT morphine dependent mice. Although the increase in the time spent in the morphine-paired compartment after conditioning tended to be more pronounced in PTN-/- mice, statistical significance was not achieved. The data suggest that PTN does not exert an important role in morphine reward. However, our results clearly indicate that PTN-/- mice develop a more severe withdrawal syndrome than WT mice, characterized as a significant increase in the time standing and in the total incidences of forepaw licking, forepaw tremors, wet dog shake and writhing. The data presented here suggest that PTN is a novel genetic factor that plays a role in morphine withdrawal syndrome.

  4. Differential modulation of thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation by mGlu5 positive and negative allosteric modulators: implications for effects on drug self-administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foster eOlive

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological manipulation of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu5 receptor alters various addiction related behaviors such as drug self-administration and the extinction and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the effects of pharmacological modulation of mGlu5 receptors on brain reward function have not been widely investigated. We examined the effects of acute administration of positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively on brain reward function by assessing thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS. In addition, when acute effects were observed, we examined potential changes in altered ICSS thresholds following repeated administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bipolar electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and trained to respond for ICSS, followed by assessment of effects of mGlu5 ligands on ICSS thresholds using a discrete trials current intensity threshold determination procedure. Acute administration of the selective mGlu5 NAMs MTEP (0, 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg and fenobam (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg dose-dependently increased ICSS thresholds (~70% at the highest dose tested, suggesting a deficit in brain reward function. Acute administration of the mGlu5 PAMs CDPPB (0, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg or ADX47273 (0, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg was without effect at any dose tested. When administered once daily for 5 consecutive days, the development of tolerance to the ability of threshold-elevating doses of MTEP and fenobam to increase ICSS thresholds was observed. We conclude that mGlu5 PAMs and NAMs differentially affect brain reward function, and that tolerance to the ability of mGlu5 NAMs to reduce brain reward function develops with repeated administration. These brain reward deficits should be taken into consideration when interpreting acute effects of mGlu5 NAMs on drug self-administration, and repeated administration may be an effective method to reduce these deficits.

  5. Generation of ultrahigh frequency air microplasma in a magnetic loop and effects of pulse modulation on operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghioskoui, Mazdak; Perlow, Joshua; Zaghloul, Mona; Montaser, Akbar

    2010-05-01

    An atmospheric pressure air microplasma (APAMP) source was developed under ambient conditions using a magnetic loop at an operating frequency of 740 MHz. A self-igniting, stable APAMP was generated at 9.5 W. Pulse modulation (PM) was applied to the ultra high frequency signal. The effects of PM on self-ignition and operation of the APAMP source were studied by using a square wave modulating signal in the frequency range of 5-30 KHz. With the application of PM on the APAMP, in the best case, the plasma self-ignites and is sustained at 2.5 W.

  6. Evaluation of dosimetric effect caused by slowing with multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaves for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background This study is to report 1) the sensitivity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) QA method for clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans with multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf errors that will not trigger MLC interlock during beam delivery; 2) the effect of non-beam-hold MLC leaf errors on the quality of VMAT plan dose delivery. Materials and methods. Eleven VMAT plans were selected and modified using an in-house developed software. For each control point of a...

  7. Wind effect on PV module temperature: Analysis of different techniques for an accurate estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Clemens; Petitta, Marcello; Ernst Wagner, Jochen; Belluardo, Giorgio; Moser, David; Castelli, Mariapina; Zebisch, Marc; Tetzlaff, Anke

    2013-04-01

    In this abstract a study on the influence of wind to model the PV module temperature is presented. This study is carried out in the framework of the PV-Alps INTERREG project in which the potential of different photovoltaic technologies is analysed for alpine regions. The PV module temperature depends on different parameters, such as ambient temperature, irradiance, wind speed and PV technology [1]. In most models, a very simple approach is used, where the PV module temperature is calculated from NOCT (nominal operating cell temperature), ambient temperature and irradiance alone [2]. In this study the influence of wind speed on the PV module temperature was investigated. First, different approaches suggested by various authors were tested [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. For our analysis, temperature, irradiance and wind data from a PV test facility at the airport Bolzano (South Tyrol, Italy) from the EURAC Institute of Renewable Energies were used. The PV module temperature was calculated with different models and compared to the measured PV module temperature at the single panels. The best results were achieved with the approach suggested by Skoplaki et al. [1]. Preliminary results indicate that for all PV technologies which were tested (monocrystalline, amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline silicon and cadmium telluride), modelled and measured PV module temperatures show a higher agreement (RMSE about 3-4 K) compared to standard approaches in which wind is not considered. For further investigation the in-situ measured wind velocities were replaced with wind data from numerical weather forecast models (ECMWF, reanalysis fields). Our results show that the PV module temperature calculated with wind data from ECMWF is still in very good agreement with the measured one (R² > 0.9 for all technologies). Compared to the previous analysis, we find comparable mean values and an increasing standard deviation. These results open a promising approach for PV module

  8. Effects of group-velocity mismatch and cubicquintic nonlinearity on cross-phase modulation instability in optical fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianqiong Zhong; Anping Xiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ The synthetic effects of group-velocity mismatch and cubic-quintic nonlinearity on cross-phase modulation induced modulation instability in loss single-mode optical fibers have been numerically investigated. The results show that the quintic nonlinearity plays a role similar to the case of neglecting the group-velocity mismatch in modifying the modulation instability, namely, the positive and negative quintic nonlinearities can still enhance and weaken the modulation instability, respectively. The group-velocity mismatch can considerably change the gain spectrum of modulation instability in terms of its shape, peak value, and position. In the normal dispersion regime, with the increase of the group-velocity mismatch parameter,the gain spectrum widens and then narrows, shifts to higher frequencies, and the peak value gets higher before approaching a saturable value. In the abnormal dispersion regime, two separated spectra may occur when the group-velocity mismatch is taken into account. With the increase of the group-velocity mismatch parameter, the peak value of the gain spectrum gets higher and shorter before tending to a saturable value for the first and second spectral regimes, respectively.

  9. Dosimetric effects of weight loss or gain during volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pair, Matthew L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Du, Weiliang [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Rojas, Hector D.; Kanke, James E.; McGuire, Sean E.; Lee, Andrew K.; Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J., E-mail: rkudchad@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Weight loss or gain during the course of radiation therapy for prostate cancer can alter the planned dose to the target volumes and critical organs. Typically, source-to-surface distance (SSD) measurements are documented by therapists on a weekly basis to ensure that patients' exterior surface and isocenter-to-skin surface distances remain stable. The radiation oncology team then determines whether the patient has undergone a physical change sufficient to require a new treatment plan. The effect of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetry is not well known, and it is unclear when rescanning or replanning is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on IMRT or VMAT dose delivery in patients with prostate cancer and to determine the SSD change threshold for replanning. Whether IMRT or VMAT provides better dose stability under weight change conditions was also determined. We generated clinical IMRT and VMAT prostate and seminal vesicle treatment plans for varying SSDs for 10 randomly selected patients with prostate cancer. The differences due to SSD change were quantified by a specific dose change for a specified volume of interest. The target mean dose, decreased or increased by 2.9% per 1-cm SSD decrease or increase in IMRT and by 3.6% in VMAT. If the SSD deviation is more than 1 cm, the radiation oncology team should determine whether to continue treatment without modifications, to adjust monitor units, or to resimulate and replan.

  10. HDAC inhibition elicits myocardial protective effect through modulation of MKK3/Akt-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting C Zhao

    Full Text Available We and others have demonstrated that HDAC inhibition protects the heart against myocardial injury. It is known that Akt-1 and MAP kinase play an essential role in modulation of myocardial protection and cardiac preconditioning. Our recent observations have shown that Akt-1 was activated in post-myocardial infarction following HDAC inhibition. However, it remains unknown whether MKK3 and Akt-1 are involved in HDAC inhibition-induced myocardial protection in acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. We sought to investigate whether the genetic disruption of Akt-1 and MKK3 eliminate cardioprotection elicited by HDAC inhibition and whether Akt-1 is associated with MKK3 to ultimately achieve protective effects. Adult wild type and MKK3⁻/⁻, Akt-1⁻/⁻ mice received intraperitoneal injections of trichostatin A (0.1 mg/kg, a potent inhibitor of HDACs. The hearts were subjected to 30 min myocardial ischemia/30 min reperfusion in the Langendorff perfused heart after twenty four hours to elicit pharmacologic preconditioning. Left ventricular function was measured, and infarct size was determined. Acetylation and phosphorylation of MKK3 were detected and disruption of Akt-1 abolished both acetylation and phosphorylation of MKK3. HDAC inhibition produces an improvement in left ventricular functional recovery, but these effects were abrogated by disruption of either Akt-1 or MKK3. Disruption of Akt-1 or MKK3 abolished the effects of HDAC inhibition-induced reduction of infarct size. Trichostatin A treatment resulted in an increase in MKK3 phosphorylation or acetylation in myocardium. Taken together, these results indicate that stimulation of the MKK3 and Akt-1 pathway is a novel approach to HDAC inhibition -induced cardioprotection.

  11. Learning to modulate one's own brain activity: The effect of spontaneous mental strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using neurofeedback (NF, individuals can learn to modulate their own brain activity, in most cases electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms. Although a large body of literature reports positive effects of NF training on behavior and cognitive functions, there are hardly any reports on how participants can successfully learn to gain control over their own brain activity. About one third of people fail to gain significant control over their brain signals even after repeated training sessions. The reasons for this failure are still largely unknown. In this context, we investigated the effects of spontaneous mental strategies on NF performance. Twenty healthy participants performed either a SMR (sensorimotor rhythm, 12-15 Hz based or a Gamma (40-43 Hz based NF training over ten sessions. After the first and the last training session, they were asked to write down which mental strategy they have used for self-regulating their EEG. After the first session, all participants reported the use of various types of mental strategies such as visual strategies, concentration, or relaxation. After the last NF training session, four participants of the SMR group reported to employ no specific strategy. These four participants showed linear improvements in NF performance over the ten training sessions. In contrast, participants still reporting the use of specific mental strategies in the last NF session showed no changes in SMR based NF performance over the ten sessions. This effect could not be observed in the Gamma group. The Gamma group showed no prominent changes in Gamma power over the NF training sessions, regardless of the mental strategies used. These results indicate that successful SMR based NF performance is associated with implicit learning mechanisms. Participants stating vivid reports on strategies to control their SMR probably overload cognitive resources, which might be counterproductive in terms of increasing SMR power.

  12. Gigahertz optical modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesz, R P; Biazzo, M R

    1969-07-01

    Light pulses from a mode-locked He-Ne laser have been modulated by a LiTaO(3) electrooptic crystal mounted on a thin film substrate. The crystal was driven by pulses from a GaAs Gunn effect diode. Amplitude modulation of 20% has been achieved at 2 GHz for a single pass through the modulator.

  13. Effect of the Collimator Angle on Dosimetric Verification of the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Ki, Yongkan; Lee, Juhye; Bae, Jinsuk; Park, Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Collimator angle is usually rotated when planning volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) due to the leakage of radiation between multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaves. We studied the effect of the collimator angles on the results of dosimetric verification of the VMAT plans for head and neck patients. We studied VMAT plans for 10 head and neck patients. We made 2 sets of VMAT plans for each patient. Each set was composed of 10 plans with collimator angles of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 degrees. Plans in the first set were optimized individually and plans in the second set shared the 30 degree collimator angle optimization. Two sets of plans were verified using the 2-dimensional ion chamber array MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry, Germany). The comparison between the calculation and measurements were made by the $\\gamma$-index analysis. The $\\gamma$-index (2\\%/2 mm) and (3\\%/3 mm) passing rates had negative correlations with the collimator angle. Maximum difference between $\\gamma$-index (3\\%/3 mm) passing rates o...

  14. Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetically modulated topological insulator/normal insulator heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shov, V. N.; Tugushev, V. V.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically study how magnetic modulation can be used to manipulate the transport properties of heterostructures formed by a thin film of a three-dimensional topological insulator sandwiched between slabs of a normal insulator. Employing the k • p scheme, in the framework of a continual approach, we argue that electron states of the system are spin-polarized when ultrathin magnetic insertions are incorporated into the film. We demonstrate that (i) the spin-polarization magnitude depends strongly on the magnetic insertion position in the film and (ii) there is the optimal insertion position to realize quantum anomalous Hall effect, which is a function of the material parameters, the film thickness and the topological insulator/normal insulator interface potential. For the heterostructure with a pair of symmetrically placed magnetic insertions, we calculate a phase diagram that shows a series of transitions between distinct quantum regimes of transverse conductivity. We provide consistent interpretation of recent experimental findings in the context of our results.

  15. [Effect of spectrum distortion on modulation transfer function in imaging fiber-optic spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Bao; Hong, Yong-Feng

    2011-10-01

    Imaging fiber bundles were introduced to dispersion imaging spectrometer and substituted for slit, connecting the telescope and spectrometer to yield the imaging fiber-optic spectrometer. It is a double sampling system, the misalignment between image of optical fiber and detector pixel has arisen because of the spectrum distortion of spectrometer, which affected the second sampling process, and the modulation transfer function (MTF) therefore degraded. Optical transfer function of sampling process was derived from line spread function. The effect of spectrum distortion on system MTF was analyzed, and a model evaluating the MTF of imaging fiber-optic spectrometer was developed. Compared to the computation model of MTF of slit imaging spectrometer, a MTF item of sampling by optical fiber and a MTF item of misalignment arising from spectrum distortion were added in this model. Employing this, the MTF of an airborne imaging fiber-optic spectrometer for visible near infrared band was evaluated. The approach ro deriving and developing the MTF model has a reference signification for the computation of MTF of double sampling system, which can direct the design of imaging fiber-optic spectrometer also.

  16. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  17. Cost-effective coherent ONU transceiver based on single directly modulated laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Hu, Rong; Li, Wei; Yang, Qi; Yu, Shaohua

    2016-06-13

    A cost-effective structure is proposed for the optical network unit (ONU) transceivers in coherent ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (UDWDM-PON), which is based on a single directly modulated laser (DML). This is the first time that a DML is used as both optical transmitter in upstream and local oscillator (LO) for coherent detection in downstream. The impact of extinction ratio (ER) of signal from DML is investigated and optimized by adapting the driving amplitude and bias of DML. Each UDWDM grid accommodates a pair of bi-directional signal, where heterodyne detection is used due to the Rayleigh backscattering (RB) from the bi-directional transmission. The impact of frequency offset (FO) between upstream and downstream signal is also investigated. Finally, 2.5-Gb/s bi-directional transmission of OOK signal over 60-km SSMF is experimentally demonstrated within the 12.5-GHz grid, achieving about -43 and -45.5 dBm receiver sensitivity in the downstream and upstream, respectively.

  18. Computational Investigation of Glycosylation Effects on a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C. B.; Talib, M. F.; McCabe, C.; Bu, L.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-27

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are ubiquitous components of glycoside hydrolases, which degrade polysaccharides in nature. CBMs target specific polysaccharides, and CBM binding affinity to cellulose is known to be proportional to cellulase activity, such that increasing binding affinity is an important component of performance improvement. To ascertain the impact of protein and glycan engineering on CBM binding, we use molecular simulation to quantify cellulose binding of a natively glycosylated Family 1 CBM. To validate our approach, we first examine aromatic-carbohydrate interactions on binding, and our predictions are consistent with previous experiments, showing that a tyrosine to tryptophan mutation yields a 2-fold improvement in binding affinity. We then demonstrate that enhanced binding of 3-6-fold over a nonglycosylated CBM is achieved by the addition of a single, native mannose or a mannose dimer, respectively, which has not been considered previously. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a single, artificial glycan on the anterior of the CBM, with the native, posterior glycans also present, can have a dramatic impact on binding affinity in our model, increasing it up to 140-fold relative to the nonglycosylated CBM. These results suggest new directions in protein engineering, in that modifying glycosylation patterns via heterologous expression, manipulation of culture conditions, or introduction of artificial glycosylation sites, can alter CBM binding affinity to carbohydrates and may thus be a general strategy to enhance cellulase performance. Our results also suggest that CBM binding studies should consider the effects of glycosylation on binding and function.

  19. Effect of conditioned pain modulation on trigeminal somatosensory function evaluated by quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Yuka; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Svensson, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically investigate the effect of craniofacially evoked conditioned pain modulation on somatosensory function using a quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol applied to the trigeminal area in healthy humans. Pressure pain evoked by a mechanical compressive device was applied as conditioning stimulus (CS) in the craniofacial region, with a pain intensity of 5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10 cm) (painful session) or with VAS score of 0 (control session). A full QST battery of 13 parameters was performed as test stimuli on the dominant-side cheek. The individual QST data from 11 men and 12 women were transformed into z scores, and the QST data and z scores were tested using analyses of variance. Analyses of variance of pressure pain threshold (PPT) data (log-transformed values and z scores) indicated significant session (P ≤ .003) and time (P painful session were associated with significantly higher log-transformed PPT values and significantly lower z scores compared with the control session at the time point during CS (hypoalgesia) (P pain inhibitory mechanisms.

  20. Leakage-Penumbra effect in intensity modulated radiation therapy step-and-shoot dose delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grigor N Grigorov; James CL Chow

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the leakage-penumbra(LP) effect with a proposed correction method for the step-and-shoot intensity modulated radiation therapy(IMRT).METHODS: Leakage-penumbra dose profiles from 10 randomly selected prostate IMRT plans were studied. The IMRT plans were delivered by a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator equipped with a 120-leaf multileaf collimator(MLC). For each treatment plan created by the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system,a 3-dimensional LP dose distribution generated by 5 coplanar photon beams,starting from 0o with equal separation of 72 o,was investigated. For each photon beam used in the stepand-shoot IMRT plans,the first beam segment was set to have the largest area in the MLC leaf-sequencing,and was equal to the planning target volume(PTV). The overshoot effect(OSE) and the segment positional errors were measured using a solid water phantom with Kodak(TL and X-OMAT V) radiographic films. Film dosimetric analysis and calibration were carried out using a film scanner(Vidar VXR-16). The LP dose profiles were determined by eliminating the OSE and segment positional errors with specific individual irradiations. RESULTS: A non-uniformly distributed leaf LP dose ranging from 3% to 5% of the beam dose was measured in clinical IMRT beams. An overdose at the gap between neighboring segments,represented as dose peaks of up to 10% of the total BP,was measured. The LP effect increased the dose to the PTV and surrounding critical tissues. In addition,the effectdepends on the number of beams and segments for each beam. Segment positional error was less than the maximum tolerance of 1 mm under a dose rate of 600 monitor units per minute in the treatment plans. The OSE varying with the dose rate was observed in all photon beams,and the effect increased from 1 to 1.3 Gy per treatment of the rectal intersection. As the dosimetric impacts from the LP effect and OSE may increase the rectal post-radiation effects,a correction of LP was proposed and demonstrated for

  1. Effect of Dust Deposition on the Performance of Multi-Crystalline Photovoltaic Modules Based on Experimental Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Tamer; Kazem, Hussian; K. Sopian; Buttinger, Frank; Elmenreich, Wilfried; Albusaidi, Ahmed Said

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the dust effect on the photovoltaic module (multi-crystalline) performance (the output voltage and generated power). The degradation of PV performance due to the deposition of different pollutant types, and accumulation has been investigated. Experiments concerning the effects of air pollutants (red soil, ash, sand, calcium carbonate, and silica) on the power generated are conducted and analyzed. The results show that the reduction in PV voltage and power is strongly d...

  2. Expectation modulates the effect of deep brain stimulation on motor and cognitive function in tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Keitel

    Full Text Available Expectation contributes to placebo and nocebo responses in Parkinson's disease (PD. While there is evidence for expectation-induced modulations of bradykinesia, little is known about the impact of expectation on resting tremor. Subthalamic nucleus (STN deep brain stimulation (DBS improves cardinal PD motor symptoms including tremor whereas impairment of verbal fluency (VF has been observed as a potential side-effect. Here we investigated how expectation modulates the effect of STN-DBS on resting tremor and its interaction with VF. In a within-subject-design, expectation of 24 tremor-dominant PD patients regarding the impact of STN-DBS on motor symptoms was manipulated by verbal suggestions (positive [placebo], negative [nocebo], neutral [control]. Patients participated with (MedON and without (MedOFF antiparkinsonian medication. Resting tremor was recorded by accelerometry and bradykinesia of finger tapping and diadochokinesia were assessed by a 3D ultrasound motion detection system. VF was quantified by lexical and semantic tests. In a subgroup of patients, the effect of STN-DBS on tremor was modulated by expectation, i.e. tremor decreased (placebo response or increased (nocebo response by at least 10% as compared to the control condition while no significant effect was observed for the overall group. Interestingly, nocebo responders in MedON were additionally characterized by significant impairment in semantic verbal fluency. In contrast, bradykinesia was not affected by expectation. These results indicate that the therapeutic effect of STN-DBS on tremor can be modulated by expectation in a subgroup of patients and suggests that tremor is also among the parkinsonian symptoms responsive to placebo and nocebo interventions. While positive expectations enhanced the effect of STN-DBS by further decreasing the magnitude of tremor, negative expectations counteracted the therapeutic effect and at the same time exacerbated a side-effect often

  3. Expectation modulates the effect of deep brain stimulation on motor and cognitive function in tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Ariane; Ferrea, Stefano; Südmeyer, Martin; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wojtecki, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Expectation contributes to placebo and nocebo responses in Parkinson's disease (PD). While there is evidence for expectation-induced modulations of bradykinesia, little is known about the impact of expectation on resting tremor. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves cardinal PD motor symptoms including tremor whereas impairment of verbal fluency (VF) has been observed as a potential side-effect. Here we investigated how expectation modulates the effect of STN-DBS on resting tremor and its interaction with VF. In a within-subject-design, expectation of 24 tremor-dominant PD patients regarding the impact of STN-DBS on motor symptoms was manipulated by verbal suggestions (positive [placebo], negative [nocebo], neutral [control]). Patients participated with (MedON) and without (MedOFF) antiparkinsonian medication. Resting tremor was recorded by accelerometry and bradykinesia of finger tapping and diadochokinesia were assessed by a 3D ultrasound motion detection system. VF was quantified by lexical and semantic tests. In a subgroup of patients, the effect of STN-DBS on tremor was modulated by expectation, i.e. tremor decreased (placebo response) or increased (nocebo response) by at least 10% as compared to the control condition while no significant effect was observed for the overall group. Interestingly, nocebo responders in MedON were additionally characterized by significant impairment in semantic verbal fluency. In contrast, bradykinesia was not affected by expectation. These results indicate that the therapeutic effect of STN-DBS on tremor can be modulated by expectation in a subgroup of patients and suggests that tremor is also among the parkinsonian symptoms responsive to placebo and nocebo interventions. While positive expectations enhanced the effect of STN-DBS by further decreasing the magnitude of tremor, negative expectations counteracted the therapeutic effect and at the same time exacerbated a side-effect often associated with STN

  4. Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Sanshui

    2015-01-01

    comprehensively study the interaction between graphene and a microring resonator, and its influence on the optical modulation depth. We demonstrate graphene-silicon microring devices showing a high modulation depth of 12.5 dB with a relatively low bias voltage of 8.8 V. On-off electro-optical switching......Graphene opens up for novel optoelectronic applications thanks to its high carrier mobility, ultra-large absorption bandwidth, and extremely fast material response. In particular, the opportunity to control optoelectronic properties through tuning of the Fermi level enables electro-optical...... modulation, optical-optical switching, and other optoelectronics applications. However, achieving a high modulation depth remains a challenge because of the modest graphene-light interaction in the graphene-silicon devices, typically, utilizing only a monolayer or few layers of graphene. Here, we...

  5. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Button, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen

    2015-06-14

    The goals of the project were: Determine applicability of transmission line method (TLM) to evaluate sheet resistance of soils on module glass;
    Evaluate various soils on glass for changes in surface resistance and their ability to promote potential-induced degradation with humidity (PID);
    Evaluate PID characteristics, rate, and leakage current increases on full-size mc-Si modules associated with a conductive soil on the surface.

  6. Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way.

  7. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia.

  8. PPAR-gamma ligands modulate effects of LPS in stimulated rat synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Marie-Agnès; Bordji, Karim; Boyault, Sandrine; Bianchi, Arnaud; Gouze, Elvire; Bécuwe, Philippe; Dauça, Michel; Netter, Patrick; Terlain, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    This work demonstrated the constitutive expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and PPAR-alpha in rat synovial fibroblasts at both mRNA and protein levels. A decrease in PPAR-gamma expression induced by 10 microg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was observed, whereas PPAR-alpha mRNA expression was not modified. 15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) dose-dependently decreased LPS-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (-80%) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression (-80%), whereas troglitazone (10 microM) only inhibited iNOS mRNA expression (-50%). 15d-PGJ(2) decreased LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1 beta (-25%) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (-40%) expression. Interestingly, troglitazone strongly decreased TNF-alpha expression (-50%) but had no significant effect on IL-1 beta expression. 15d-PGJ(2) was able to inhibit DNA-binding activity of both nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B and AP-1. Troglitazone had no effect on NF-kappa B activation and was shown to increase LPS-induced AP-1 activation. 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone modulated the expression of LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, and proinflammatory cytokines differently. Indeed, troglitazone seems to specifically target TNF-alpha and iNOS pathways. These results offer new insights in regard to the anti-inflammatory potential of the PPAR-gamma ligands and underline different mechanisms of action of 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone in synovial fibroblasts.