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Sample records for cla effect modulation

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk fat inhibits growth and modulates CLA-responsive biomarkers in MCF-7 and SW480 human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Aine; Stanton, Catherine; Murphy, John; Devery, Rosaleen

    2003-01-01

    Milk enriched in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was obtained from cows on pasture supplemented with full-fat rapeseeds (FFR; 2·26g cis 9, trans 11 (c9, t11)-CLA/100g fatty acid methyl esters) and full-fat soyabeans (1·83g c9, t11-CLA/100g fatty acid methyl esters). A control milk fat (1·69g c9, t11-CLA/100g fatty acid methyl esters) was obtained from cows fed on pasture only. The present study assessed the potency of the CLA-enriched milk fats to modulate biomarkers that had previously been o...

  2. Effective stabilization of CLA by microencapsulation in pea protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M M; Nunes, J C; Lima, B N B; Pedrosa, C; Calado, V; Torres, A G; Pierucci, A P T R

    2015-02-01

    CLA was microencapsulated by spray drying in ten varied wall systems (WS) consisting of pea protein isolate or pea protein concentrate (PPC) alone at varied core:WS ratios (1:2; 1:3 and 1:4), or blended with maltodextrin (M) and carboxymethylcellulose at a pea protein:carbohydrate ratio of 3:1. The physical-chemical properties of the CLA microparticles were characterised by core retention, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), particle size and moisture. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) showed the most promising results, thus we evaluated the effect of M addition in the WS on other physical-chemical characteristics and oxidative stability (CLA isomer profile, quantification of CLA and volatile compounds by SPME coupled with CG-MS) during two months of storage at room temperature, CLA:PPC (1:4) was selected for comparisons. CLA:M:PPC (1:1:3) microparticles demonstrated better morphology, solubility, dispersibility and higher glass-transition temperature values. M addition did not influence the oxidative stability of CLA, however its presence improved physical-chemical characteristics necessary for food applications. PMID:25172695

  3. t10c12-CLA maintains higher bone mineral density during aging by modulating osteoclastogenesis and bone marrow adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M.; Ganesh V. Halade; Williams, Paul J.; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to positively influence calcium and bone metabolism. Earlier, we showed that CLA (equal mixture of c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA) could protect age-associated bone loss by modulating inflammatory markers and osteoclastogenesis. Since, c9t11-CLA and t10c12-CLA isomers differentially regulate functional parameters and gene expression in different cell types, we examined the efficacy of individual CLA isomers against age-associated bone loss using 12 mont...

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA): los efectos en la modulación de la composición corporal y en el perfil lipídico

    OpenAIRE

    A. Baddini Feitoza; A. Fernandes Pereira; N. Ferreira da Costa; B. Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action,...

  5. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA: los efectos en la modulación de la composición corporal y en el perfil lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddini Feitoza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA es un ácido graso que pertenece al grupo de los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, representado por el conjunto de isómeros del ácido linoleico, que son denominados conjugados porque poseen una doble conexión tras una conexión simple. De entre sus isómeros se distinguen el trans-10,cis-12 y cis-9, cis-12 CLA. Estos isómeros son capaces de promover efectos distintos en el organismo: anticarcinogénesis, antidiabetogénesis, antiaterogénesis y cambios de composición corporal. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir sus mecanismos de acción, los efectos en las lipoproteínas plasmáticas, en la composición corporal y la suplementación. Los estudios acerca de la suplementación del CLA demuestran su capacidad de reducir el porcentaje de grasa, el peso corporal, y de mejorar el metabolismo lipídico. Sin embargo, unos de los efectos contrarios relacionados a uno de sus isómeros es la resistencia a la insulina a través de la redistribución de

  6. Effects of extruded soybeans on CLA concentration in milk

    OpenAIRE

    A. Formigoni; G. Martino; L. Lambertini; G. Vignola; Gramenzi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids are geometric and positional isomers of the linoleic acid (Bessa et al., 2000). Recent studies on animal models demonstrated that these intermediates of rumen biohydrogenation may improve health by anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects and immune system enhancement (Bauman et al., 2001; Pariza et al., 2000; Belury 2002; Peterson et al., 2002). So aim of this work was to study the possibility to increase CLA milk content by the use of...

  7. Effects of extruded soybeans on CLA concentration in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Formigoni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids are geometric and positional isomers of the linoleic acid (Bessa et al., 2000. Recent studies on animal models demonstrated that these intermediates of rumen biohydrogenation may improve health by anticarcinogenic, antiatherogenic, antiobesity and antidiabetic effects and immune system enhancement (Bauman et al., 2001; Pariza et al., 2000; Belury 2002; Peterson et al., 2002. So aim of this work was to study the possibility to increase CLA milk content by the use of a natural source of polyunsaturated fatty acids as extruded soybeans........

  8. Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Márquez-Ruiz; María del Carmen García-Martínez; Francisca Holgado; Joaquín Velasco

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO), normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO), an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA), are currently used in functional foods. How...

  9. Effectiveness of alpha-, gamma- and delta-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Ruiz, Gloria; García-Martínez, M. del Carmen; Holgado, Francisca; Velasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO), normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO), an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA), are currently used in functional foods. How...

  10. Effect of whole linseed and protected CLA enriqued diet on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Barahona, M.; Campo, M. M.; Olleta Castañer, José Luis; Sañudo Astiz, Carlos; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Realini, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four feeding batches: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), CLA (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed + CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at approximately 450 kg live weight. The inclusion of linseed, protected CLA and both showed lower pH values than the control at 48 h post mortem. Meat from CLA fed animals showed higher cooking losses than the other treatments except for linseed. Beef from linseed f...

  11. An investigation of the biochemical mechanisms underlying the growth-inhibitory effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Áine

    2002-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid produced by ruminant animals. Despite animal studies showing that CLA is an effective agent in preventing mammary and colon tumour development there is a need to determine isomeric-specific effects of CLA and identify molecular targets in tumour tissues. Mammary (MCF-7) and colon (SW480) tumour cell lines were used in this study as in vitro models to investigate effects of CLA on growth and membra...

  12. Effects of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on immune function in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, R.; Wielen, R.P.J. van der; Brink, E.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Dorovska-Taran, V.N.; Mohede, I.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of two different mixtures of the main conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on human immune function. Design: Double-blind, randomized, parallel, reference-controlled intervention study. Subjects and intervention: Seventy

  13. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R; Lund, Pia; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high ener...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  14. Effect of silage type and energy concentration on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk fat from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T.S.; Sejrsen, K.; Andersen, H.R;

    2004-01-01

    40 lactating cows were fed either clovergrass or maize silage and a low or high dietary energy concentration in a 2x2 factorial design. The maize silage diets rich in starch and linoleic acid resulted in a higher content of c9t11 and t10c12 CLA in milk fat than the grass silage diets. A high energy...... concentration plus maize silage led to a pronounced shift in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid, the highest t10c12 CLA content and lowest milk fat percentage. Energy concentration had no effect on milk fat CLA content or milk fat percentage in grass silage fed cows....

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md M.; Ganesh V. Halade; Jamali, Amina El; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of CLA isomers in preventing age-associated muscle loss and the mechanisms underlying this effect, using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups, measured by dual-energy-Xray-absorptiometry and muscle wet weight. Enhanced mitochondr...

  16. Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA on the Reproductive Axis Pituitary, Thyroid, Testes of Ram in Non-reproductive Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Mahdavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated Linoleic Acid is a group of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids with more than one double bond and a mixture of 28 isomers of Linoleic acid (C 18:2 and it is counted as one of the essential acids. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CLA on some reproductive hormones in rams. In this study, six rams 3 to 4 years old with an average weight of 90 kg were selected. Rams were randomly divided into 3 groups and were treated by CLA treatment for 30 days. The first group (as a control group didn’t receive CLA, The second group received 0.5 g and the third group received 1 g of CLA. The blood testing was done on rams every 15 days using a 20 mL syringe. Data analysis was performed by SAS software. Also mean comparison was done using Duncan's test method (p<0.05. Obtained results showed that the serum concentration of testosterone hormone was decreased numerically as well as the concentration of FSH hormone however the concentration of LH was increased. Also the CLA had a significant effect on Leptin concentration. CLA in oral form can reduce the concentration of testosterone in rams.

  17. Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; García-Martínez, María del Carmen; Holgado, Francisca; Velasco, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO), normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO), an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA), are currently used in functional foods. However, special care must be taken to protect them from oxidation to ensure the quality of the supplemented foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidation and effectiveness of different tocopherol homologues (α-, γ- and δ-), alone or in combination with synergists (ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin), in TO compared to SO at different conditions, ambient temperature (25 °C) and accelerated conditions in Rancimat (100 °C). The oils, the oils devoid of their antioxidants and the latter containing the antioxidants added were assayed. Results showed great differences between SO and TO in terms of formation of hydroperoxides and polymers and also in the effectiveness of tocopherols to delay oxidation. TO showed higher levels of polymerization and, in general, the effectiveness of tocopherol homologues, alone or in combination with synergists, was also lower in the TO. PMID:26784671

  18. Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Márquez-Ruiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO, normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO, an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA, are currently used in functional foods. However, special care must be taken to protect them from oxidation to ensure the quality of the supplemented foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidation and effectiveness of different tocopherol homologues (α-, γ- and δ-, alone or in combination with synergists (ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin, in TO compared to SO at different conditions, ambient temperature (25 °C and accelerated conditions in Rancimat (100 °C. The oils, the oils devoid of their antioxidants and the latter containing the antioxidants added were assayed. Results showed great differences between SO and TO in terms of formation of hydroperoxides and polymers and also in the effectiveness of tocopherols to delay oxidation. TO showed higher levels of polymerization and, in general, the effectiveness of tocopherol homologues, alone or in combination with synergists, was also lower in the TO.

  19. Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; García-Martínez, María Del Carmen; Holgado, Francisca; Velasco, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin(®) oil (TO), normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO), an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA), are currently used in functional foods. However, special care must be taken to protect them from oxidation to ensure the quality of the supplemented foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidation and effectiveness of different tocopherol homologues (α-, γ- and δ-), alone or in combination with synergists (ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin), in TO compared to SO at different conditions, ambient temperature (25 °C) and accelerated conditions in Rancimat (100 °C). The oils, the oils devoid of their antioxidants and the latter containing the antioxidants added were assayed. Results showed great differences between SO and TO in terms of formation of hydroperoxides and polymers and also in the effectiveness of tocopherols to delay oxidation. TO showed higher levels of polymerization and, in general, the effectiveness of tocopherol homologues, alone or in combination with synergists, was also lower in the TO. PMID:26784671

  20. Meta-analysis of nutritional effects on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk fat of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cappio-Borlino

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was carried out on 41 selected studies to obtain more reliable results about the influence of some nutritional factors on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk fat. Data were analysed with a linear mixed model, including the study as random variable, that highlighted a significant effect on milk CLA content of fat source and the physical form of the lipid supplement used in the diet. The content of fat in the diet and the forage/concentrate ratio seem do not have significant effects.

  1. THE EFFECT OF COTTONSEED AND SOYBEAN SUPPLEMENTATION ON CLA ISOMERS AND OTHER UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SHEEP MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmaryan G. Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the supplementation effect of different treatments of whole cottonseed and full fat soybean on the diet of dairy ewes and the milk fatty acid profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content. The results indicate for both diets it is most suitable to use the second treatment in order to increase the level of cis- 9,trans-11 CLA isomer in milk. In the level of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-11 no changes were observed in neither of the diets.

  2. Isomer specificity of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): 9E,11E-CLA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yunkyoung

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were identified in 1980's, since then it has been intensively studied due to its various beneficial health effects such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetic/obesity effects. Isomer specificity of a number of CLA isomers, especially predominant isomer 9Z,11E- and 10E,12Z-CLA, is now recognized. However, the less prevalent CLA isomers have not been well characterized. Recently, studies have reported the distinctively differe...

  3. Effect of dietary vitamin E content on the CLA, cholesterol and triglycerides composition of Italian Mediterranean buffalo meat

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    R. Sacchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The composition of fatty acids, CLA, triglycerides and cholesterol in intramuscular fat depots of buffalo meat was determined using high-resolution gas chromatography to investigate the influence of dietary vitamin E content. Three groups of Italian Mediterranean buffalo calves were fed on three diets with high (H, low (L and zero (Z vitamin E contents. The animal were slaughtered at 15 months and three muscles were dissected on the half-carcass: Longissimus dorsi (LD, Tricipitis brachii (TB and Semimembranosus (Sm. Lipid extracts from muscles (g/100g f.m.: 0.82 for LD, 0.66 for TB and 0.48 for Sm were used to quantify the amount (mg/100g of lipids of fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and cholesterol. The effects of dietary vitamin E content were significant (P<0.05 but marginal. Comparison of lipid extracts from muscles showed that C18:2 and total CLA were higher respectively in TB and Sm muscles when vitamin content was low. Also Cholesterol content variation was affected by low dietary vitamin E: LD muscle has a lower cholesterol concentration for diet L. The different vitamin content of two diets did not significantly influence the composition of triglycerides. Considering the low lipid concentrations (<1g/100 g of fresh muscle none of the meat muscles should be considered a significant source of CLA.

  4. 蛋鸡日粮添加CLA-Ca对蛋黄中CLA和胆固醇含量的影响%Effect of Adding CLA-Ca in Layer Dietary on CLA and Cholesterol Contents in Eggyolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪兰; 魏祥法; 艾武; 黄宝华

    2007-01-01

    选用产蛋量相近的72周龄海兰白蛋鸡840只,随机分为7组,每组40只,重复3次.采用单因素随机试验设计,分别饲喂含1%、2%、3%、4%、5%、6%共轭亚油酸(CLA)的玉米-豆粕型日粮4周,研究了日粮添加CLA-Ca对蛋鸡生产性能、蛋黄中胆固醇含量和CLA含量的影响.结果表明,日粮中添加CLA-Ca降低了蛋鸡的生产性能,可提高蛋黄中CLA含量.日粮CLA水平在1%~6%范围内,CLA水平越高,富集速度越快,富集量越大,CLA最大富集量为692 g/枚鸡蛋,蛋黄脂肪中胆固醇含量随时间的变化总体趋势为先升后降,随日粮CLA浓度的变化趋势为CLA浓度越高,胆固醇的含量越低,但显著高于对照组(P<0.05).

  5. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA-An Overview

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    D J Crumb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a group of octadecadienoic acids that are naturally present in the highest concentrations in foods originating in ruminant animals, and dairy products such as milk. Especially large numbers of CLA polymers have been detected in beef, lamb and milk fat. Results from many in vitro and animal studies, though conflicting, have suggested that CLA supplementation may have beneficial effect on obesity, weight management, cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This article provides a brief overview on the functionality, safety and toxicity of CLA as described in literature. .   Industrial Relevance: CLA is a functional food and dietary supplement ingredient with potential benefits against a number of metabolic chronic diseases. However, the mechanism of action and its toxicological effects are not very well understood. These factors may play an important role in the effectiveness as CLA as a viable functional dietary bioactive compound.

  6. Effect of goat production systems on meat quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content in suckling kids

    OpenAIRE

    Vonghia, G; G. Cappiello; F. Giannico; M.A. Colonna; A. Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of goat production systems was evaluated on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in meat obtained from suckling kids. Twenty male Ionica suckling kids fed only on maternal milk were subdivided into two groups of 10 subjects each according to their dams’ feeding treatment: kids in Group I were raised under dams reared by an intensive production system, while those of Group E were raised under dams grazing on pasture. Kids were slaughtered when 45 days old. The g...

  7. Effects of 9cis,11trans and 10trans,12cis CLA on osteoclast formation and activity from human CD14+ monocytes

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    El-Sohemy Ahmed

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed CLA isomers variably affect bone resorption in animals and decrease osteoclast formation and activity in murine osteoclasts. These variable effects may be due to the different isomers present in commercial preparations of CLA, and the effects of the predominant individual isomers, 9cis,11trans (9,11 and 10trans,12cis (10,12 CLA are not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the individual CLA isomers on osteoclast formation and activity from human CD14+ monocytes, and to determine whether any changes are accompanied by changes in cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα gene expression. Osteoclasts were identified as TRAP+ multinucleated cells. Osteoclast activity was quantified by the amount of TRAP in the cultured media. Results At 50 μM, 9,11 CLA inhibited osteoclast formation by ~70%, and both 9,11 and 10,12 CLA decreased osteoclast activity by ~85–90%. Both isomers inhibited cathepsin K (50 μM 9,11 by ~60%; 10,12 by ~50% and RANK (50 μM 9,11 by ~85%; 50 μM 10,12 by ~65% expression, but had no effect on MMP-9 or TNFα expression. Conclusion 9,11 CLA inhibits osteoclast formation and activity from human cells, suggesting that this isomer may prevent bone resorption in humans. Although 10,12 CLA did not significantly reduce osteoclast formation, it reduced osteoclast activity and cathepsin K and RANK expression, suggesting that this isomer may also affect bone resorption.

  8. CLA et syndrome lipoatrophique chez la souris

    OpenAIRE

    Besnard Philippe; Poirier Hélène; Niot Isabelle; Guerre-Millo Michèle

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a class of positional and geometric dienoic isomers of linoleic acid. Chronic dietary supplementation with a commercial mixture containing c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA in equimolar quantity leads to a drop in fat mass in various species. The t10,c12-CLA isomer is responsible for this anti-obesity effect. The reduction of fat mass is especially dramatic in the mouse, in which it is associated with a severe hyperinsulinemia, an insulin resistance and a mas...

  9. Effect of different pastures on CLA content in milk and sheep cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piredda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that milk composition included conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is affected by animal feeding system (Cabiddu et al., 2001. In Sardinia dairy sheep feeding is mainly based on pastures. Most of them are characterised by self-regenerating species, like annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin and burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.. Non conventional species belonging to the Compositae family such as (Chrysanthemum coronarium L. seem interesting for sheep feeding when other herbages decrease in quality (late spring- early summer...

  10. CLA Wrestles with the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Norman

    1992-01-01

    Report on the 1992 Canadian Library Association (CLA) conference discusses plans for a national summit on information policy, the current situation of public libraries, updating of policy statements, and strengthening CLA. CLA officers and awards are listed. (MES)

  11. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks. PMID:26616924

  12. Effect of goat production systems on meat quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA content in suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vonghia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of goat production systems was evaluated on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in meat obtained from suckling kids. Twenty male Ionica suckling kids fed only on maternal milk were subdivided into two groups of 10 subjects each according to their dams’ feeding treatment: kids in Group I were raised under dams reared by an intensive production system, while those of Group E were raised under dams grazing on pasture. Kids were slaughtered when 45 days old. The goat production system had no effect on kids’ growth rates, slaughtering yield and on the percentages of lean, fat and bone of the lumbar region and pelvic limb cuts. The pH value of the Longissimus lumborum (Ll muscle 45 min after slaughter was higher in Group I (6.73 vs 6.54; P<0.05. Meat colour of Group E kids was lighter (50.63 vs 48.86 and showed greater (P<0.05 yellowness (13.42 vs 11.93 and Chroma values (14.92 vs 13.45. Cooking loss was higher in Group E (31.51 vs 26.98%; P<0.05, but meat tenderness of the Ll muscle was better (peak force of 2.86 vs 3.58 kg/cm2; P<0.05. Meat chemical composition did not differ between the two groups for either raw or cooked samples. On the whole, suckling kids raised under grazing goats showed a higher total CLA concentration in both raw (2.57 vs 2.25% on total fatty acids and cooked meat (1.85 vs 1.44%, although the differences were not significant.

  13. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov;

    2003-01-01

    primary human adipocytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and oxidation, and reduced insulin-dependent glucose...... transporter 4 gene expression. Furthermore, trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduced oleic acid uptake and oxidation when compared with all other treatments. In parallel to CLA's effects on metabolism, trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased, the expression of peroxisome proliferator...

  14. Optical fibre-based methodology for screening the effect of probiotic bacteria on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in curdled milk

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lurdes I. B.; Rodrigues, Dina M.; Freitas, Ana C.; Gomes, Ana M; Teresa A P Rocha-Santos; Pereira, M. E.; Duarte, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology based on optical fibre (OF) detection was developed for screening the potential of CLA production by Lactobacillus casei-01, Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis B94 in probiotic curdled milk. The OF based methodology was validated by comparison with an analytical method based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and it showed comparable linearity (between 5 and 130 lg), accuracy and detection limits, which ranged from 1.92 to 2.56 lg ...

  15. Development of design of CLA: target lens line-focusing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Zhu, Jianqiang

    1999-08-01

    In this paper the principle of CLA-target system to obtain focal line with homogenous intensity distribution was described. And tow new structure modal CLA used for improving the homogeneous of focal line was described and the numerical results of the classical CLA and new type CLA was also given. Those result showed that the focal line long-range intensity distribution can be improved greatly by using CLA with optimized unequal cylindrical lens element for beam with Gaussian intensity distribution and by using hybrid element CLA for the case of super-Gaussian distribution. The optimal process was treated by simulated annealing method. The intensity modulation decreased to 0.7 percent for optimized 4-element unequal width CLA system when incident laser with Gaussian section distribution.

  16. CLA Reaches beyond Its Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Norman

    1993-01-01

    Reports on the activities at the Canadian Library Association (CLA) 1992 annual conference. Topics discussed include First Nations libraries; help for third world countries; censorship; IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) activities; financial concerns of CLA; publishing plans; work on a national information…

  17. The Study on the Thermal Stability of CLA in Egg Yolk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Lin; Cao Ying Chen; Zhen-Yu

    2004-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been a subject of extensive investigation for their anticarcinogenic, hypolipidemic, antiatherosclerotic and immune-enhancing activities. Stability of CLA in foods has not received much attention by both academics and industry. Although CLA has shown many beneficial effects, its decomposition must be prevented when CLA in foods is processed, stored and transported. However, no study to date has addressed the stability of CLA in foods. The present study was carried out further to examine the stability of CLA in egg yolk during the storage and frying, using gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography (Agt-HPLC). The eggs, containing 4.0% CLA per gramme of egg yolk, were 40s. Either storage for 6 months or frying for 40 s did not significantly change the composition of CLA in egg yolk. However, the degradation of CLA was statistically significant when the CLA components of egg yolk protected CLA from degradation. It is concluded that CLA is well preserved in egg before it is consumed.

  18. Effect of CLA supplementation to low-protein diets on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma urea nitrogen concentration, and fatty acid profile in the meat of pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Martínez-Aispuro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on the meat of pigs (0,1% and three crude protein (CP levels (nursery: 20.5, 16.0, 14.5%; growing: 16, 14.5, 11.5%; and finishing: 14.0, 12.5, 11% CP, studies were conducted with 36 hybrid (Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc barrows (17.3-83.5 kg, which were individually penned and allotted in a completely randomized design in a factorial (2×3 arrangement for 84 d. The analysis by phases indicated that CP level affected some variables. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, fat free lean gain, backfat thickness, longissimus muscle area and final body weight were reduced (P≤0.05 feeding the lowest CP diet in nursery and growing pigs. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration was also lower (P≤0.05 in the growing and finishing phases when fed the lowest CP level. The global analysis showed that all the analyzed variables (except feed gain ratio, lean meat percentage and plasma urea nitrogen concentration were reduced (P≤0.05 in the pigs fed low-protein diets; plasma urea nitrogen concentration tended to be lower (P=0.07 when CP was reduced. The fatty acid profile of the meat (semimembranosus and longissimus muscles indicated that CLA addition increased CLA isomers and total saturated fatty acids, and reduced the total monounsaturated fatty acids (P≤0.05. α-Linolenic acid was lowered in longissimus muscle of pigs fed LPD (P=0.08. These results indicated that reducing the crude protein concentration in the diet of fattening pigs from 20.5 to 16.0% in nursery phase; from 16.0 to 14.5% in growing stage; and from 14.0 to 12.5% in finishing pigs, did not negatively affect the growth performance, nor carcass characteristics. The results also showed that the addition of CLA did not improve pig response and the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids and total lipids altered the feeding LPD.

  19. The combination of resveratrol and CLA does not increase the delipidating effect of each molecule in 3T3-L1 adipocytes La combinación de resveratrol y CLA no incrementa el efecto hipolipemiante de cada molécula en adipocitos 3T3-L1

    OpenAIRE

    Lasa, A; Miranda, J.; I. Churruca; Simón, E.; N. Arias; Milagro, F.; J. A. Martínez; Mª del Puy Portillo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and resveratrol have been shown to reduce TG content in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocyte acting on different pathways. In recent years, the method of simultaneously targeting several signal transduction pathways with multiple natural products in order to achieve additive or synergistic effects has been tested. However, the combined effect of both molecules on lipid metabolism has not been described before. Objective: The aim of the presen...

  20. CLA-TG oil and its micro-encapsulation formulation in Yogurt%酸奶中CLA-TG油与CLA-TG微囊粉强化方式的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李代; 张月梅; 陈剑彬; 吴迪; 马俊杰; 顾广伟; 吴文忠

    2011-01-01

    比较了共轭亚油酸三甘酯(CLA-TG油)和CLA-TG微囊粉两种不同形式不同质量分数的共轭亚油酸(CLA)对酸奶的感官可接受性、酸度、保水性的影响,并研究了这两种强化方式的CLA在酸奶中的稳定性.结果表明,酸奶中添加CLA-TG微囊粉比中添加CLA-TG油感官可接受性好,并具有良好的稳定性.%The effects of fortification with two different form of CLA-TG on the sensory acceptability, Ph, acid degree and the water holding capacity yogurt were studied. The stability of the two form of CLA-TG in yogurt have been studied. Results: The yogurt show the better sensory acceptability when fortified with CLA-TG micro-encapsulation than CLA-TG. CLA-TG micro-encapsulation have good stability in the yogurt.

  1. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimen...

  2. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during gestation and lactation does not alter sow performance or body weight gain and adiposity in progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Poulos, Sylvia; Azain, Michael; Hausman, Gary

    2004-01-01

    International audience The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in pigs exposed to CLA during fetal and neonatal growth. Sows were fed a diet with 0.83% soy oil or 0.83% CLA-60 containing 60% active CLA isomers from either d 40 (group 1; CON n = 8, CLA n = 6) or d 75 (group 2; CON n = 8, CLA n = 8) of gestation through weaning on d 28. Within group 1, one male and one female piglet per litter (CON n = 6, CLA n = 5) were sacrificed...

  4. Les CLA peuvent-ils prévenir l’athérogenèse ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jean-Charles

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-atherogenic properties of CLA are now illustrated in many animal studies (Rabbit, Mice and Hamster or cell culture experiments. These properties can be observed while using either the CLA isomeric mixture (cis9,trans11- and trans10,cis12-, 50 :50 or selected CLA isomers (cis9,trans11- or trans10,cis12-. Especially, these fatty acids consistently attenuate the outcome of primary vascular lesions (fatty streaks, or can even induce a regression of pre-established lesions. There is, paradoxically, no clear relationship between this beneficial effect and an improvement of the lipid status in blood (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol usually considered as a hallmark in the etiology of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, recent data obtained both in vitro and in vivo indicate that part of the beneficial effects of CLA occurs through the modulation of vascular inflammatory and oxidant stress factors (cytokines and cyclooxygenase, as well as from the expression of adhesion molecules (VCAM, ICAM in the aorta. This regulation involves the interaction of CLA with transcription factors such as PPARs, LXR and NF-kB targeting the gene expression dowstream. In human, clinical trials are no more conclusive than the animal experiments with regards to the contribution of CLA to modulate the lipid status in blood. Nevertheless, some data highlight the pro-atherogenic role of CLA and especially of the trans10,cis12-isomer, as demonstrated by the increase in the various markers of oxidative stress (isoprostanes and inflammatory status (C-reactive protein. In conclusion, whereas there is compelling evidence that feeding mixed or pure isomers of CLA attenuates atherosclerosis initiation and progression in several experimental models, human studies are less convincing. Nevertheless, clinical trials addressing sufficient risk factors and risk markers together are still lacking to draw a definitive conclusion and to set up obvious

  5. Inclusion of fresh forage in the ration for dairy cows: effects on CLA and trans C18:1 isomers content of milk fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat is the richest natural source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers. The 9-cis, 11-trans CLA isomer (rumenic acid, RA origins from two pathways: as an intermediate of the rumen biohydrogenation process of linoleic acid or as the product of the activity of mammary Stearoyl Co-A desaturase enzyme (SCD with trans-11, C18:1 (vaccenic acid, VA as the precursor, another intermediate in the biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid.

  6. Effects of dietary CLA on n-3 HUFA score and N-acylethanolamides biosynthesis in the liver of obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Antonio; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Prates, José A M; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-07-01

    We have recently shown that PPAR alpha agonists induce N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) biosynthesis. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a known dietary PPAR alpha inducer, may therefore increase OEA and PEA levels and favor docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis by enhancing peroxisomal β-oxidation via induction of liver PPARα. To evaluate whether CLA is able to increase DHA, OEA and PEA levels and thereby influencing liver lipid deposition in a model of visceral obesity-induced fatty liver, Zucker rats were fed a background diet rich in saturated fat with or without 1% of CLA for 4 weeks. Our data showed that CLA intake increased DHA, OEA and PEA levels in the liver by 24%, 31% and 36% respectively, and reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by 16%. We may conclude that dietary CLA is able to influence not only fatty acid metabolism but also the biosynthesis of bioactive mediators such as OEA and PEA which may contribute to ameliorate fatty liver. PMID:25912618

  7. On Equivariant Embedding of Hilbert C^* modules

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    We prove that an arbitrary (not necessarily countably generated) Hilbert $G$-$\\cla$ module on a G-C^* algebra $\\cla$ admits an equivariant embedding into a trivial $G-\\cla$ module, provided G is a compact Lie group and its action on $\\cla$ is ergodic.

  8. On Equivariant Embedding of Hilbert $C^*$ modules

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    We prove that an arbitrary (not necessarily countably generated) Hilbert $G$-$\\cla$ module on a $G-C^*$ algebra $\\cla$ admits an equivariant embedding into a trivial $G-\\cla$ module, provided $G$ is a compact Lie group and its action on $\\cla$ is ergodic.

  9. The inhibitory effect of CLA on mice forestomach neoplasia induced by B(a)P%轭型亚油酸对B(a)P诱导小鼠前胃癌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赟; 邱隽; 陈炳卿; 刘瑞海

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the inhibitory effect of CLA on the postinitiation phase of forestomach neoplasia formation induced by B(a)P and explore its possible mechanism of anticarcinogenesis.Methods Kunming mice were divided into five groups, i.e.salad oil control group, CLA control group, B(a)P group, B(a)P+high dose CLA group and B(a)P+low dose CLA group.The experimental period was 23 weeks, and the endpoints included cell proliferation, expression of Pan-ras P21 and some enzymes.Results Short term CLA treated significantly inhibited the forestomach neoplasia formation induced by B(a)P at postinitiation phase.The incidence of tumor in the groups of B(a)P, B(a)P+high dose CLA and B(a)P+low dose CLA was 100%, 60% and 69% respectively (P<0.05).The possible mechanism of this anticarcinogenic effect may be related to the inhibition of cell proliferation and the induction of the activities of GSH-Px, GST and SOD, irrespective of the regulation of expression of Pan-ras P21.Conclusion CLA is a promising chemopreventive agent, and its anticarcinogenic effect may involve its effects on the redox system.%目的研究共轭型亚油酸(CAL)的抑癌作用,并为进一步探讨CLA的抑癌机制提供线索。方法以B(a)P诱导建立小鼠前胃癌动物模型,观察CLA对小鼠前胃癌促长阶段的抑制效果,共分5组,即色拉油阴性对照组、CLA阴性对照组、B(a)P阳性对照组、B(a)P+CLA高剂量实验组和B(a)P+CLA低剂量实验组。整个实验期为23周,检测细胞增殖、Pan-ras P21蛋白表达和氧化还原酶等指标。结果短期给予CLA对B(a)P诱导的小鼠前胃癌促长阶段具有明显的抑制作用,B(a)P阳性对照组、B(a)P+CLA高剂量实验组和B(a)P+CLA低剂量实验组的肿瘤发生率分别为100%、60%和69%。其抑癌机制与其对细胞增殖活力的抑制及对机体GSH-Px、GST和SOD酶活力的诱导作用有关,而并不依赖于对Pan-ras P21蛋白表达的调节

  10. Studies on mechanism of cis9,trans11-CLA and trans10,cis12-CLA inducing apoptosis of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianzi Wan; Xianlin Yuan; Xiangling Yang; Yichen Li; Ling Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective:The aim of the study was to explore the activities of cis9,trans11-CLA (C9,t11-CLA) and trans10,cis12-CLA (t10,c12-CLA)inhibiting tumor,and investigate their relationships with PPARy and apoptotic proteins,and mechanism of anti-cancer.Methods:The inhibitory rate,cell growth curve and apoptotic morphological observation of MCF-7 cells were obtained by MTT assay,trypan blue staining and Hoechst33342 fluorescence staining.The apoptotic rate and cell cycle were detected with flow cytometry.Transcriptional level of genes was detected with RT-PCR semi-quantitative method,and Western blot was performed to detect proteins levels.Results:The two CLA isomers could reduce cell proliferation (P<0.05),increase apoptotic rate (P<0.05),and increase obviously the transcriptional and protein levels of PPARy (P<0.01).The synchronism and correlation between the effects of CLA to PPARy and apoptotic proteins Bax,Bcl-2,Caspase 3 changes were found with the dose-and time-dependent manners.There was cooperative relation between the levels of PPARy and the rates of Bax/Bcl-2,Caspase 3 (small fragment) by experiments of PPARy inhibitor GW9662 and ligand Rosiglitazone.Conclusion:The apoptotic pathway of PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 signaling was found.The C9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA could inhibit MCF-7 cell proliferation and promote apoptosis via activating PPARy-Bcl-2-Caspase 3 pathway.CLA may be a kind of activator of PPARy.

  11. Influence of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and L-Lysine on heavy pigs performances and meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a group of positional and geometric fatty acid isomers derived from linoleic acid. Dietary CLA supplementation has been shown to increase feed efficiency and may reduce body fat content in swine as recently reviewed by Corino et al., (2005. There was only one research conducted in heavy pig in which the authors did not observed any significant effect of dietary CLA on growth performances and lean tissue (Corino et al., 2003.

  12. CLA ¿antioxidante o prooxidante?

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Pardos, S.; de Juan-García Torre, P.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a term referred to a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with double conjugated bonds in carbon atoms 10 and 12 or 9 and 11 with all of the possible cis and trans combinations. CLA is a naturally occurring substance in food. The major dietary sources of CLA are foods derived from ruminants, e.g. beef and cheese and its content increases when meals are processed. There is ample evidence showing that free radicals and oxidation pr...

  13. The combination of resveratrol and CLA does not increase the delipidating effect of each molecule in 3T3-L1 adipocytes La combinación de resveratrol y CLA no incrementa el efecto hipolipemiante de cada molécula en adipocitos 3T3-L1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and resveratrol have been shown to reduce TG content in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocyte acting on different pathways. In recent years, the method of simultaneously targeting several signal transduction pathways with multiple natural products in order to achieve additive or synergistic effects has been tested. However, the combined effect of both molecules on lipid metabolism has not been described before. Objective: The aim of the present work was to analyze the effect of the combination of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and resveratrol on TG accumulation as well as on FAS, HSL and ATGL expression in 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes, in order to assess a potential interaction between both molecules. Methods: For this purpose, 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes were treated with the two molecules, both separately and combined, in 10 and 100 μM for 20 hours. TG content and FAS, ATGL and HSL expression were measured by spectrophotometry and Real Time RT-PCR respectively. Results: Both doses of CLA and 100 M resveratrol decreased TG content in mature adipocytes. The combination of both molecules reduced TG accumulation to the same extent as each one separately. No change in FAS and HSL mRNA levels after CLA and resveratrol treatment was observed. ATGL was not modified by CLA but it was increased by resveratrol and by the combination. This combination did not increase the effect caused by resveratrol on its own. Conclusion: Lipolysis increase via ATGL is involved in the TG reduction induced by resveratrol and the combination of both molecules. The combination of these two molecules does not increase the efficacy of each molecule separately in mature adipocytes and thus it does not represent an advantage for obesity treatment or prevention.Introducción: Se ha demostrado que el ácido linoleico trans-10, cis-12 conjugado (ALC y el resveratrol reducen el contenido de TG en el adipocito 3T3-L1 cultivado actuando sobre

  14. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on intramuscular fatty acid composition in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Corino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of feeding CLA has been thoroughly investigated in pigs, and Thiel- Cooper et al. (2001, Ostrowska et al. (2003, Lo Fiego et al. (2004, found that CLA modifies lipid fatty acid profile, negatively affecting some nutritional lipid indexes. So far,much less attention has been paid to rabbits. Recently, Corino et al. (2003 have shown that supplementing rabbit diets with CLA has limited effect on the chemical composition of meat and at a high slaughter weight reduces intramuscular fat content. The present research has been carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary CLA supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12- C18:2 isomers content, and on fatty acid composition of rabbit intramuscular lipids.

  15. Chemische Zusammensetzung und sensorisches Profil von UFA/CLA angereicherter Butter im Vergleich zu konventioneller Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, S.; Piccinali, P.; Rehberger, B.; Schlichtherle-Cerny, H.

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, there has been a growing demand by consumers for foods combining an increased nutritional value and benefits on human health. Butter enriched in unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) could become a food with added value for its increased content in essential fatty acids, in vitamins and CLA, which has been reported to show potential anticarcinogenic and cholesterol lowering effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composit...

  16. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  17. Chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of traditional Greek yogurts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafeimidou, Amalia; Zlatanos, Spiros; Laskaridis, Kostas; Sagredos, Angelos

    2012-10-15

    Many studies with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) indicate that it has a protective effect against mammary cancer. Because dairy products are the most important dietary sources of CLA, we have investigated the CLA concentrations and additionally the fatty acid profiles and chemical composition of several commercial, traditional, Greek yogurts from different geographical origin. The fat content of yogurts was in the order of goatgoat milk yogurts contain respectively 0.128-1.501, 0.405-1.250 and 0.433-0.976 g CLA/100 g fat. Low-fat milk yogurts showed lower values of c-9, t-11 CLA content on lipid basis compared to full-fat yogurts. Samples from mountain areas showed average c-9, t-11 CLA content higher than those from prairie districts. The highest amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA) were found in low-fat yogurts, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in sheep milk yogurts and of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in low-fat cow milk yogurts. PMID:23442628

  18. Influence of different CLA isomers on insulin resistance and adipocytokines in pre-diabetic, middle-aged men with PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Diana; Herrmann, Julia; Much, Daniela; Pfeuffer, Maria; Laue, C.; Winkler, P.; Helwig, Ulf; Bell, Doris; Auinger, Annegret; Darabaneanu, Stephanie; Ruether, Andreas; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are natural PPARγ ligands, which showed conflicting effects on metabolism in humans. We examined metabolic effects of different isomers of CLA in subjects with PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphisms. A total of 35 men underwent four intervention periods in a crossover study design: subjects with either genotypes received c9, t11 CLA or t10, c12 CLA, a commercially available 1:1 mix of both isomers or reference oil (linoleic acid (LA)). Adipocytokines, insulin, glucose ...

  19. CLA ¿antioxidante o prooxidante?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Pardos, S.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a term referred to a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid with double conjugated bonds in carbon atoms 10 and 12 or 9 and 11 with all of the possible cis and trans combinations. CLA is a naturally occurring substance in food. The major dietary sources of CLA are foods derived from ruminants, e.g. beef and cheese and its content increases when meals are processed. There is ample evidence showing that free radicals and oxidation processes mediated by free radicals play an important role in many pathological situations including cancer and atherosclerosis. Natural and synthetic antioxidants, tolerated by humans, are employed in order to avoid or treat these pathologies. In the present paper, articles evaluating the antioxidant or prooxidant activity of CLA have been revised. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro studies suggested the antioxidant role for CLA, however recent researches have not shown any evidence related to it. New studies have to be carried out in order to get more information on the antioxidant and protective role of CLA in free radical-related degenerative diseases.Se define como conjugado dienoico derivado del ácido linoleico (CLA a una mezcla de isómeros posicionales y geométricos del ácido linoleico con dobles enlaces conjugados en los átomos de carbono 10 y 12 ó 9 y 11 con todas las posibles combinaciones cis y trans. El CLA se encuentra de forma natural en los alimentos, principalmente de origen animal y en particular en las carnes y productos lácteos de rumiantes, y su contenido aumenta por el cocinado o procesado. Actualmente se acepta que los radicales libres y los procesos de oxidación mediados por los mismos juegan un papel importante en muchas situaciones patológicas incluyendo cáncer y aterosclerosis. Por ello la búsqueda de antioxidantes naturales y sintéticos, tolerados por el organismo, que puedan ayudar a prevenir o tratar estas patologías es

  20. Dietary t10,c12-CLA but not c9,t11 CLA Reduces Adipocyte Size in the Absence of Changes in the Adipose Renin–Angiotensin System in fa/fa Zucker Rats

    OpenAIRE

    DeClercq, Vanessa; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G.

    2010-01-01

    In obesity, increased activity of the local renin–angiotensin system (RAS) and enlarged adipocytes with altered adipokine production are linked to the development of obesity-related health problems and cardiovascular disease. Mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been shown to reduce adipocyte size and alter the production of adipokines. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding individual CLA isomers on adipocyte size and adipokines associated wi...

  1. Solvent-free production of 1,3-diglyceride of CLA: Strategy consideration and protocol design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yan

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic production of a homogeneous 1,3-diglyceride of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was carried out using Novozym 435 as biocatalyst and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) as a model fatty acid. Three different operation modes, namely, magnetic stirring under vacuum, vacuum-driven N2 bubbling...... incubated with 10–12 mmol CLA for about 3 h at 45–55 °C and a pressure less than 10 mbar, with enzyme loading of 40–70 g l−1. Among the operational parameters, temperature and reaction time were found to have profound effects on the acylmigration and yield of 1,3-diglyceride. Moreover, the enzyme showed...

  2. From the CLA Task Force on Open Access

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Andrew; Morrison, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Canadian Library Association created a Task Force on Open Access, to develop a policy on open access to CLA's own publications, and develop a Position Statement on Open Access for Canada's libraries. CLA now has a strong open access policy for CLA publications, and a Position Statement on OA for Canadian libraries has been drafted. This brief article is an updated on the work of the CLA Task Force on Open Access (OA) and the activity of the Canadian Library Association regardin...

  3. CLA-1 and its splicing variant CLA-2 mediate bacterial adhesion and cytosolic bacterial invasion in mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vishnyakova, Tatyana G.; Kurlander, Roger; Bocharov, Alexander V.; Baranova, Irina N.; CHEN, ZHIGANG; Abu-Asab, Mones S.; Tsokos, Maria; Malide, Daniela; Basso, Federica; Remaley, Alan; Csako, Gyorgy; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Patterson, Amy P.

    2006-01-01

    CD36 and LIMPII analog 1, CLA-1, and its splicing variant, CLA-2 (SR-BI and SR-BII in rodents), are human high density lipoprotein receptors with an identical extracellular domain which binds a spectrum of ligands including bacterial cell wall components. In this study, CLA-1- and CLA-2-stably transfected HeLa and HEK293 cells demonstrated several-fold increases in the uptake of various bacteria over mock-transfected cells. All bacteria tested, including both Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli ...

  4. Antitumor efficacy of a novel CLA-PTX microemulsion against brain tumors: in vitro and in vivo findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li D

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dan Li,1 Ke Yang,1 Jie-Si Li,1 Xi-Yu Ke,1 Yu Duan,1 Ruo Du,1 Ping Song,1 Ke-Fu Yu,1 Wei Ren,1 Dan Huang,1 Xing-Huo Li,1 Xin Hu,1 Xuan Zhang,1 Qiang Zhang1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, ChinaBackground: Considering the observations that linoleic acid conjugated with paclitaxel (CLA-PTX possesses antitumor activity against brain tumors, is able to cross the blood–brain barrier, but has poor water solubility, the purpose of this study was to prepare a novel CLA-PTX microemulsion and evaluate its activity against brain tumors in vitro and in vivo.Methods: The in vitro cytotoxicity of a CLA-PTX microemulsion was investigated in C6 glioma cells. The in vivo antitumor activity of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was evaluated in tumor-bearing nude mice and rats. The pharmacokinetics of the CLA-PTX microemulsion were investigated in rats, and its safety was also evaluated in mice.Results: The average droplet size of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was approximately 176.3 ± 0.8 nm and the polydispersity index was 0.294 ± 0.024. In vitro cytotoxicity results showed that the IC50 of the CLA-PTX microemulsion was 1.61 ± 0.83 µM for a C6 glioma cell line, which was similar to that of free paclitaxel and CLA-PTX solution (P > 0.05. The antitumor activity of the CLA-PTX microemulsion against brain tumors was confirmed in our in vivo C6 glioma tumor-bearing nude mice as well as in a rat model. In contrast, Taxol® had almost no significant antitumor effect in C6 glioma tumor-bearing rats, but could markedly inhibit growth of C6 tumors in C6 glioma tumor-bearing nude mice. The pharmacokinetic results indicated that CLA-PTX in solution has a much longer circulation time and produces higher drug plasma concentrations compared with the CLA-PTX microemulsion. The results of the acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of CLA-PTX solution was 103.9 mg

  5. Forecasting and understanding cirrus clouds with the large scale Lagrangian microphysical model CLaMS-Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Christian; Grooß, Jens-Uwe; Spichtinger, Peter; Costa, Anja; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    Cirrus clouds play an important role by influencing the Earth's radiation budget and the global climate (Heintzenberg and Charlson, 2009). This is shown in the recent IPCC reports, where the large error bars relating to the cloud radiative forcing underline the poor scientific knowledge of the underlying processes. The formation and further evolution of cirrus clouds is determined by the interplay of temperature, ice nuclei (IN) properties, relative humidity, cooling rates and ice crystal sedimentation. For that reason, a Lagrangian approach using meteorological wind fields is the most realistic way to simulate cirrus clouds. In addition, to represent complete cirrus systems as e.g. frontal cirrus, three dimensional cloud modeling on a large scale is desirable. To this end, we coupled the two momentum microphysical ice model of Spichtinger and Gierens (2009) with the 3D Lagrangian model CLaMS (McKenna et al., 2002). The new CLaMS-Ice module simulates cirrus formation by including heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing as well as ice crystal sedimentation. The boxmodel is operated along CLaMS trajectories and individually initialized with the ECMWF meteorological fields. In addition, temperature fluctuations are superimposed directly to the trajectory temperature and pressure by the parametrization of Gary et al. (2006). For a typical cirrus scenario with latitude/longitude coverage of 49° x 42° on three pressure levels, 6100 trajectories are simulated over 24 hours in time. To achieve the model results in an acceptable time, the box model is accelerated by about a factor of 10 before coupling to CLaMS. Now, CLaMS-Ice needs only about 30-40 minutes for such a simulation. During the first HALO cloud field campaign (ML-Cirrus), CLaMS-Ice has been successfully deployed as a forecast tool. Here, we give an overview about the capabilities of CLaMS-Ice for forecasting, modeling and understanding of cirrus clouds in general. In addition, examples from the recent ML

  6. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARγ signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J. Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov; Morrison, Ron F.; Storkson, Jayne; Lea-Currie, Renee; Pariza, Michael; Mandrup, Susanne; McIntosh, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation in primary human adiopcytes in vitro. Here we investigated the mechanism behind the isomer-specific, CLA-mediated reduction in TG accumulation in differentiating human preadipocytes. Trans-10,cis-12 CLA de...

  7. Catalyst for Change: The CIC/CLA Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, David C.

    2011-01-01

    From the fall of 2008 through the spring of 2011, 47 colleges and universities, organized and supported by the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC), administered the Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) to their students. The CLA is a test of critical thinking, analytic reasoning, problem solving, and written communication developed by the…

  8. Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) interferes with lipid droplet accumulation during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Azadeh; Taylor, Carla G; Tworek, Leslee; Poole, Jenna; Zahradka, Peter

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we hypothesize that the biologically active isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), cis-9,trans-11 (c9,t11) and trans-10,cis-12 (t10,c12) CLA, have different effects on early and late stages 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Both c9-t11 and t10-c12CLA stimulated early stage pre-adipocyte differentiation (day 2), while t10-c12CLA inhibited late differentiation (day 8) as determined by lipid droplet numbers and both perilipin-1 levels and phosphorylation state. At day 8, the adipokines adiponectin, chemerin and adipsin were all reduced in t10-c12CLA treated cells versus control cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed perilipin-1 was present solely on lipid droplets on day 8 in t10-c12 treated 3T3-L1 cells, whereas preilipin-1 was also located in the perinuclear region in control and c9-t11 treated cells. The t10-c12CLA isomer also decreased levels of hormone-sensitive lipase and inhibited lipolysis. These findings indicate that the decrease in lipid droplets caused by t10-c12CLA is the result of an inhibition of lipid droplet production during adipogenesis rather than a stimulation of lipolysis. Additionally, treatment with Gö6976 blocked the effect of t10-c12CLA on perilipin-1 phosphorylation, implicating PKCα in perilipin-1 phosphorylation, and thus a regulator of triglyceride catabolism. These data are supported by evidence that t10-c12CLA activated PKCα. These are the first data to show that CLA isomers can affect lipid droplet dynamics in adipocytes through PKCα. PMID:27131602

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers as anticancer lipids: analysis, bioformation and mechanisms of action in the HT-29 human colon cancer cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Shafiqur

    2006-01-01

    Conjugated hnoleic acid (CLA), a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids occurring naturally in dairy products but also produced by certain strains of human intestinal bifidobacteria is known to exhibit potent anticancer effect both in vivo and in a range of tumour epithelial cell lines The HT-29 human colon cancer cell line was used in this study as an in vitro model to investigate the effects of CLA and ¿raws-vaccemc acid (¿- VA), a putative precursor of c9, t \\ \\ CLA on markers of growth, dif...

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC), cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2) were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA) was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil a...

  11. Development of Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Material Gallic acid-CLA Ester Using Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing interest and current trends for natural materials with various health beneficial functions by radiation (RT)-biotechnology (BT) fusion by developed countries. However, the information and development of new functional materials using the RT-BT fusion technology is still limited. The target material developed and manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a multi-functional effect on human health and it can be applied for pharmaceutical materials as well as functional food ingredient. The market of functional new materials has been grown dramatically and a multi-functional material manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a great economic impact for both the domestic and overseas market. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method. Transformation of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid by irradiation. Identification and confirmation of the biological functions including antioxidative, cancer cell proliferation inhibition, anti-microbial, enhancement of immune response and lipid metabolism of GA-CLA ester. Increase industrial applicability of the new materials. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method(2 patents submitted). Development of the optimum methodology of GA-CLA and its derivative, octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate). Identification and confirmation of biological activities of GA-CLA. Extramural funding from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy subjected by gallic acid-fatty acid derivatives (205,000,000 Won). Provides the basic data for successful project 'Development of cosmeceutical and cosmetics using gallic acid fatty acid derivatives' funded by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy and collaboration with the Technology-invested venture company, SunBiotech, Co. and problem-solving for industrial application. Complete the patent procedure and publish the results to international or domestic peer-reviewed journals

  12. Development of Manufacturing Method of Highly Functional Material Gallic acid-CLA Ester Using Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, C. H.; Byun, M. W.; Jeong, I. Y.; Kim, D. H

    2006-01-15

    Increasing interest and current trends for natural materials with various health beneficial functions by radiation (RT)-biotechnology (BT) fusion by developed countries. However, the information and development of new functional materials using the RT-BT fusion technology is still limited. The target material developed and manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a multi-functional effect on human health and it can be applied for pharmaceutical materials as well as functional food ingredient. The market of functional new materials has been grown dramatically and a multi-functional material manufactured by RT-BT fusion technology may have a great economic impact for both the domestic and overseas market. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method. Transformation of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid by irradiation. Identification and confirmation of the biological functions including antioxidative, cancer cell proliferation inhibition, anti-microbial, enhancement of immune response and lipid metabolism of GA-CLA ester. Increase industrial applicability of the new materials. Development of GA-CLA ester by chemical synthetic method(2 patents submitted). Development of the optimum methodology of GA-CLA and its derivative, octadeca-9,12-dienyl-3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoate). Identification and confirmation of biological activities of GA-CLA. Extramural funding from the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy subjected by gallic acid-fatty acid derivatives (205,000,000 Won). Provides the basic data for successful project 'Development of cosmeceutical and cosmetics using gallic acid fatty acid derivatives' funded by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy and collaboration with the Technology-invested venture company, SunBiotech, Co. and problem-solving for industrial application. Complete the patent procedure and publish the results to international or domestic peer-reviewed journals.

  13. Improved stability and controlled release of CLA with spray-dried microcapsules of OSA-modified starch and xanthan gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huizi; Hong, Yan; Gu, Zhengbiao; Liu, Guodong; Cheng, Li; Li, Zhaofeng

    2016-08-20

    The objective of this investigation was to improve the stability of CLA and to allow for its controlled release by encapsulating it with combinations of octenyl-succinic anhydride (OSA) starch and xanthan gum (XG) in three ratios (OSA/XG: 60/1, 80/1, and 100/1, w/w). The wall material was examined using FTIR and TGA. The microcapsules were characterized by laser particle size analysis (LPS) and SEM. Oxidation of the microcapsules was monitored by headspace method. The results revealed that microcapsules created with an OSA/XG ratio of 60/1 provided superior protection to CLA against oxidation. When CLA-microcapsules were subjected to conditions simulating those in the human gastrointestinal system, 12.1%-50.1% of the CLA was released. CLA encapsulation in spray-dried microcapsules of OSA/XG appears to be an effective technique that provides good protection against oxidation and could be useful in the targeted delivery of functional lipids or other bioactive components to the small intestine. PMID:27178930

  14. Frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep slaughtered in an abattoir in Tabriz: comparison of bacterial culture and pathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Khoojine, Amir Babak Sioofy; Helan, Javad Ashrafi; Hassanzadeh, Belal; Heydari, Ali Akbar

    2012-10-01

    From January to February 2008, 468 sheep carcasses (335 male and 133 female) in a Khosroshahr (suburb of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan province, Iran) abattoir were randomly selected for inspection. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and to compare the results of bacterial cultures and histopathology of suspected cases. The mean age of the population was 2.5 years. One hundred ninety-seven cases containing 153 (77.7%) males and 44 (22.3%) females had prominent enlargement of one of the lymph nodes (i.e., prescapular, prefemoral, inguinal, supramammary, or midiastinal); these were removed with the surrounding tissue for further evaluation. For confirmed diagnosis of CLA, samples were sent for microbiology and pathology analysis. Standard bacteriological culture methods for isolation of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and tissue preparations for histopathological sections were performed. To evaluate the effect of age on the frequency of CLA, animals were categorized in four groups: under 1, 1-2, 2-3, and over 3 years of age. Based on the results, in 59 (12.60%) carcasses C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated, and in 94 (20.08%) of the cases histopathological studies revealed pathognomonic signs (lamellated exudates or onion ring) of CLA. The frequency of CLA based on bacteriological culture was 12.60% and on histopathological study 20.08%. In 37 (18.8%) of the carcasses, both bacteriological and histopathological studies confirmed CLA. The frequency of CLA following microscopic examination (20.08%) presented a more precise diagnosis compared to bacteriological culture (12.60%) and macroscopic evaluation of the lymph nodes (P culture and histopathological study (r = 0.196, P = 0.006). The prescapular lymph node had the highest infection rate with 54 (1.70 ± 0.97) and supramammary lymph node had the lowest with two (0.07 ± 0.41) (P < 0.05). There was an increase in CLA detection with increasing

  15. A Multicentre Study of CLa Implant and Sino-implant Expanded Application (two-year follow-up)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方可娟; 关艳敏; 范慧民; 高尔生; 杨丹; 薜丽; 韩耀玲; 刘宝

    1997-01-01

    A multicentre comparative clinical study of CLa implant and Sino-implant was carried out at 100 subcentres in 11 provinces, and a total of 19673 subjects were recruited. Two year follow up has been finished. The follow-up rate at the end of two years was 94,29%. Two-year cumulative continuation rate per 100 women for Sino-implant(89.93) was significantly higher than that for CLa implant (88.89). Two-year cumulative pregnancy rates per 100 women were 0.0462(CLa implant) and 0.281(Sino-implant) respectively; there was statistically significant difference between them. No ectopic pregnancy was recorded among CLa implant users and three ectopic pregnancies were reported among Sino implant users,resulting in an ectopic pregnancy rate of 0.163 per 1000 women years. The incidence of side-effects appeared to diminish with time. The major side effects were the menstrual disturbances, which accounted for more than 90% of the total sideeffects, and the incidence of frequent menstruation, irregular bleeding and spotring was higher than that of infrequentjscanty menstruation and amenorrhea. Use of CLa implant had higher incidence of amenorrhea and infrequentjscanty menstruation than that of Sin-imptant. During two-year follow-up, the number of discontinuation due to menstrual problems contributed 78% of the total number of discontinuation; two year menstrual-related cumulative discontinuation rates were 8.96 per 100 women for CLa implant and 7.84 for Sino-implant; there was statistically significant difference(P< 0.01). Two-year study shows that the two types of implant are similar to Norplant in the incidence of side-effects and contraceptive efficacy as well as two year continuation rates.

  16. Bioconversion of biodiesel refinery waste in the bioemulsifier by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Monteiro Andrea; Domingues Vitor; Souza Marcus VD; Lula Ivana; Gonçalves Daniel; de Siqueira Ezequias Pessoa; dos Santos Vera

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The microbial bioemulsifiers was surface active compounds, are more effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. The yeasts have been isolated to produce bioemulsifiers from vegetable oils and industrial wastes. Results Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2 is bioemulsifier-producing yeast strain isolated from effluents of the dairy industry, with ability to emulsify different hydrophobic substrates. Bioemulsifier production (mg/L) and the emulsifying activity (E24) of th...

  17. Pros and cons of CLA consumption: an insight from clinical evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, Sailas; Prakasan, Priji; Sreedharan, Sajith; Wright, Andre-Denis G; Spener, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive review critically evaluates whether supposed health benefits propounded upon human consumption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are clinically proven or not. With a general introduction on the chemistry of CLA, major clinical evidences pertaining to intervention strategies, body composition, cardio-vascular health, immunity, asthma, cancer and diabetes are evaluated. Supposed adverse effects such as oxidative stress, insulin resistance, irritation of intestinal tract and...

  18. Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangauer, Andreas, E-mail: hangauer@princeton.edu; Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard, E-mail: gwysocki@princeton.edu [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Spinner, Georg [Electrical Engineering Department, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Institute for Quantum Electronics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-04

    Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) utilizing direct modulation of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. By controlling the laser bias nearly single- and dual-sideband CLaDS operation can be realized in an extremely simplified optical setup with no external optical modulators. Capability of direct single-sideband modulation is a unique feature of QCLs that exhibit a low linewidth enhancement factor. The developed analytical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental, directly modulated CLaDS spectra. This method overcomes major technical limitations of mid-infrared CLaDS systems by allowing significantly higher modulation frequencies and eliminating optical fringes introduced by external modulators.

  19. Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy using a directly modulated quantum cascade laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) utilizing direct modulation of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) is presented. By controlling the laser bias nearly single- and dual-sideband CLaDS operation can be realized in an extremely simplified optical setup with no external optical modulators. Capability of direct single-sideband modulation is a unique feature of QCLs that exhibit a low linewidth enhancement factor. The developed analytical model shows excellent agreement with the experimental, directly modulated CLaDS spectra. This method overcomes major technical limitations of mid-infrared CLaDS systems by allowing significantly higher modulation frequencies and eliminating optical fringes introduced by external modulators

  20. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  1. Pros and cons of CLA consumption: an insight from clinical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sailas; Prakasan, Priji; Sreedharan, Sajith; Wright, Andre-Denis G; Spener, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive review critically evaluates whether supposed health benefits propounded upon human consumption of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are clinically proven or not. With a general introduction on the chemistry of CLA, major clinical evidences pertaining to intervention strategies, body composition, cardio-vascular health, immunity, asthma, cancer and diabetes are evaluated. Supposed adverse effects such as oxidative stress, insulin resistance, irritation of intestinal tract and milk fat depression are also examined. It seems that no consistent result was observed even in similar studies conducted at different laboratories, this may be due to variations in age, gender, racial and geographical disparities, coupled with type and dose of CLA supplemented. Thus, supposed promising results reported in mechanistic and pre-clinical studies cannot be extrapolated with humans, mainly due to the lack of inconsistency in analyses, prolonged intervention studies, follow-up studies and international co-ordination of concerted studies. Briefly, clinical evidences accumulated thus far show that CLA is not eliciting significantly promising and consistent health effects so as to uphold it as neither a functional nor a medical food. PMID:25972911

  2. X-ray diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering study of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) chloranilic acid (CLA) complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, M.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Sobczyk, L.; Pawlukojć, A.; Grech, E.; Wischnewski, A.; Zamponi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The DMP · CLA and DMP · CLA-d 2 crystals below 100 K are monoclinic, space group P2 1/c with four molecules in the unit cells. Infinite chains of hydrogen bonded counterparts are formed with O⋯N distances equal to 2.767(2) and 2.639(2) for non-deuterated DMP · CLA. Deuteration leads to the Ubbelohlde effect particularly well manifested in the second short O-H⋯N bridge (elongation by ca. 0.02 Å). In the IR spectra a Hadži's trio of the broad absorption is observed characteristic of strong hydrogen bonds. In the INS spectra the vibrational density of states and methyl rotational tunnel splittings were determined. The temperature dependence of tunneling bands enabled to make mode assignments and to determine the methyl rotational potentials. Comparison of the results to the pure electron donor DMP was made and the difference found can be almost completely assigned to the steric changes of the environment. A weak isotope effect with deuteration of the OH⋯N bridges of the DMP · CLA complex is assigned to a charge transfer of δe/ e = 0.006.

  3. X-ray diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering study of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) chloranilic acid (CLA) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DMP . CLA and DMP . CLA-d2 crystals below 100 K are monoclinic, space group P21/c with four molecules in the unit cells. Infinite chains of hydrogen bonded counterparts are formed with O...N distances equal to 2.767(2) and 2.639(2) for non-deuterated DMP . CLA. Deuteration leads to the Ubbelohlde effect particularly well manifested in the second short O-H...N bridge (elongation by ca. 0.02 A). In the IR spectra a Hadzi's trio of the broad absorption is observed characteristic of strong hydrogen bonds. In the INS spectra the vibrational density of states and methyl rotational tunnel splittings were determined. The temperature dependence of tunneling bands enabled to make mode assignments and to determine the methyl rotational potentials. Comparison of the results to the pure electron donor DMP was made and the difference found can be almost completely assigned to the steric changes of the environment. A weak isotope effect with deuteration of the OH...N bridges of the DMP. CLA complex is assigned to a charge transfer of δe/e = 0.006

  4. Enrichment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in hen eggs and broiler chickens meat by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Saqer

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this work was to compare conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in chickens supplemented with 4 American Tissue Culture Collection (ATCC) bacterial strains, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum, and 4 isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from camel, cattle, sheep and goat rumen extracts. 2. Micro-organisms were grown anaerobically in MRS broth, and 10(6) CFU/ml of bacteria were administered orally to mixed-sex, 1-d-old broiler chickens weekly for 4 weeks and to 23-week-old layer hens weekly for 6 weeks. 3. The 4 strains were evaluated for their effects on synthesis of CLA in hen eggs and broiler meat cuts. 4. Administration of pure Lactobacillus and isolated L. reuteri strains from camel, cattle, goat and sheep led to significantly increased CLA concentrations of 0.2-1.2 mg/g of fat in eggs and 0.3-1.88 mg/g of fat in broiler chicken flesh homogenates of leg, thigh and breast. 5. These data demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria of animal origin (L. reuteri) significantly enhanced CLA synthesis in both eggs and broiler meat cuts. PMID:24397511

  5. 日粮脂肪酸对动物产品中CLA的影响及其营养调控技术%Effects of diet fatty acid on CLA in animal products and nutritional manipulation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李跃; 董文俊

    2010-01-01

    @@ 日粮中共轭亚油酸(Conjugated Linoleic Acid,CLA,C18:2 c-9,t-11)具有抗癌、防止动脉粥样硬化、抗氧化和治疗风湿病等作用,同时CLA还具有提高机体免疫机能,减少炎症反应的功能.动物采食含有CLA的日粮后,CLA就可整合到动物组织、奶和蛋等动物产品中,从而生产出有利于人类健康的含有CLA的食物.本文主要就日粮脂肪酸对动物肉和奶中CLA的影响及改善动物产品中脂肪酸组成的营养调控技术作一综述,以期为目前CLA的应用研究提供参考.

  6. Efeito da Suplementação de Lipídios na Ração sobre a Produção de Ácido Linoléico Conjugado (CLA) e a Composição da Gordura do Leite de Vacas Effect of Lipids Supplementation in the Ration on Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) and Milk Fat Composition of Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ferlando Lima Santos; Marco Túlio Coelho Silva; Rogério de Paula Lana; Sebastião César Cardoso Brandão; Luiz Henrique Vargas; Luiz Ronaldo de Abreu

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de fontes de lipídios (soja integral moída ou óleo de soja) adicionados à dieta sobre o perfil de ácidos graxos da gordura do leite, especialmente sobre o aumento do CLA. Foram utilizadas 6 vacas multíparas 7/8 holandês-zebu, 30 dias após o parto, com peso vivo médio de 500 kg e produção média de 20 quilos de leite ao dia. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos para recebimento das dietas (tratamentos), isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas, em que ...

  7. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid mixtures and different edible oils on body composition and lipid regulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Scalerandi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidences suggest that commercial and natural conjugated linoleic acids (CLA differentially affect nutritional status and lipid metabolism. Objective: To investigate the differential effect of two types of CLA preparations supplemented to dietary fats containing different proportions of n-9, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (FA on body composition, triacylglycerol (TG levels and lipid metabolism in mice. Methods: Growing mice were fed diets containing olive, maize and rapeseed oils supplemented with an equimolecular mixture of CLA (mix-CLA or a rumenic acid (RA-rich oil for 30 days. Body weight gain, carcass composition, tissue weights, plasma and tissue TG levels, and lipid regulation parameters were evaluated. Results: Independently of the dietary fats, mix-CLA decreased body weight gain and fat depots related to lower energy efficiency, hepatomegaly, increase of serum TG and decrease of muscle TG. Rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis observed with mix-CLA supplementation to olive and maize oils by increasing TG secretion. RA-rich oil supplementation decreased fat depots without hepatomegaly, hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Olive oil, by an equilibrium between FA uptake/oxidation, prevented the increase of muscle TG induced by the RA-rich oil supplementation to maize and rapeseed oils. Discussion and conclusion: The proportions of dietary unsaturated FA modulated the different mix-CLA and RA-rich oil response to lipid metabolism in mice. Finally, rapeseed oil prevented the hepatic steatosis induced by mix-CLA, and the most beneficial effects of RA-rich oil were observed when supplemented to olive oil, due to the reduced lipid accretion without changes in TG levels.

  8. c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX对MCF-7细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用%The anti-tumor efficacy of c9, t11-CLA-PTX and t10, c12-CLA-PTX on MCF-7 breast cancer cells: in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科; 李星火; 李丹; 柯曦宇; 张烜; 张强

    2014-01-01

    在前期研究中,CLA-mixture-PTX展现出了对黑色素瘤与脑胶质瘤一定的抗肿瘤作用.本研究旨在探索c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX对人源乳腺癌MCF-7细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用.研究中考察了c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX的体外细胞摄取、细胞毒、细胞凋亡,以及细胞周期作用.用荷瘤BALB/c裸鼠研究了c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX的体内抗肿瘤作用.体外细胞毒研究结果表明:t10,c12-CLA-PTX的IC50为(0.17±0.02) μM,显著优于CLA-mixture-PTX(1.08±0.15) μM (P<0.01),后者显著优于c9,t11-CLA-PTX (6.50±1.20)μM (P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX均可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01);和CLA-mixture-PTX组相比,t10,c 12-CLA-PTX可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01),c9,t11-CLA-PTX则使细胞总凋亡比例降低(P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,c9,t11-CLA-PTX与t10,c12-CLA-PTX均将细胞周期阻滞于S期与G2-M,与CLA-mixture-PTX相同.t10,c12-CLA-PTX的细胞摄取量显著高于CLA-mixture-PTX (P<0.01),后者的细胞摄取量显著高于c9,t11-CLA-PTX (P<0.01).体内抗肿瘤药效研究结果显示,t10,c12-CLA-PTX的抗肿瘤活性显著高于空白对照组和CLA-mixture-PTX组(P<0.01),而c9,t11-CLA-PTX的抗肿瘤活性仅高于空白对照组(P<0.01).上述结果表明,t10,c12-CLA-PTX对MCF-7细胞有显著体内外抗肿瘤作用,可以作为CLA-mixture-PTX的替代药物进行后续研究.

  9. Modificazioni dei livelli di acido arachidonico e vitamina A in relazione alla attività anticancerogena attribuita all'apporto alimentare di burro naturalmente arricchito in acido linoleico a dieni coniugati (CLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Banni, Stefano; Angioni, E.; Carta, G.; Dessi, M. Assunta; Melis, M. Paola; Murru, E.; Scanu, P.; Spada, Sebastiano; Vargiolu, Silvana; Corongiu, Francesco P.

    2000-01-01

    Considerable attention has recently been directed to the naturally occurring trace fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), based on its dual ability to act both as a preventive and therapeutic agent in a number of rodent and human tumor model systems. CLA, which is synthesized by rumen bacteria, is found in meat and dairy products, and is of particular interest since it is effective at low levels in the diet. Our research interest is to explore whether the mechanism of the anticarcinogenic...

  10. Survey on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content and fatty acid composition of Grana Padano cheese produced in different seasons and areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and fatty acid composition of Grana Padano P.D.O. (Protected Designation of Origin Italian cheese. Samples were obtained from spring and summer cow’s milk in different areas of Grana Padano production district and from all present dairies. In particular, 253 samples of lowland-hill Grana Padano (LH-GP were analysed: 137 produced from spring milk, and 116 from summer milk. Forty-three mountain Grana Padano (M-GP samples were also analysed: 25 obtained from spring milk, and 18 from summer milk. The results were subjected to statistical analysis; a factorial arrangement was used, and the fixed effects in the model included season, the manufacturing area of the Grana Padano cheese, and the first order interaction (season x area. Further, cheese β-carotene concentration was measured in a representative number of summer samples (32, selected according to the CLA level (9 with CLA concentration 7 mg/g total fat, in order to investigate the correlation between CLA content and β-carotene concentration. M-GP had higher levels of CLA, vaccenic (TVA and α-linolenic (LNA acid than LH-GP. CLA concentrations increased from spring to summer both in M-GP and LH-GP. This rise was greater in M-GP showing an effect of interaction between season and production area (P<0.001. An effect of first order interaction (P<0.001 was also seen for TVA with values increasing from spring to summer in M-GP, whereas there only was an effect of the manufacturing area on LNA. During summer, M-GP had the highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA percentage. An increase in PUFA from spring to summer was observed only in M-GP (first order interaction, P<0.001. The saturated fatty acids (SFA decreased from spring to summer both in LH-GP and M-GP and with major entity in M-GP (first order interaction, P<0.001. The β-carotene concentration resulted positively correlated with CLA level (r=0.92; P<0

  11. Electrochemical performance of C-La3+ codoped LiFePO4 synthesized by microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yan; WANG Miao; GUO Ruisong; XU Zhaohe

    2009-01-01

    La3+ was selected to elevate the lattice electronic conductivity of LiFePO4, and LiFePO4/(C+La3+) cathode powders were synthesized by microwave heating using a domestic microwave oven for 35 min. The microstructures and morphologies of the synthesized materials were investigated by XRD and SEM. The electrochemical performances were evaluated by galvanostatic charge-discharge. The electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 with different La3+ contents was studied. Results indicated that the initial specific discharge capacity of LiFePO4/(C+La3+) composites with 2% La3+(116.3 mAh/g) was better than that of LiFePO4/C (105.4 mAh/g). The addition of La3+ further improved the electrochemical properties. So the codoping is an effective method to improve the electrochemical performance.

  12. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid enrichment on the quality characteristics of Turkish dry fermented sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Cem Okan; Kiliç, Birol

    2014-01-01

    The effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) enrichment on lipid oxidation, the fatty acid profile, physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological features of sucuk were investigated. The control sucuk did not contain CLA, however, other groups contained 0.5 %, 1 %, 1.5 %, 2 %, 2.5 %, and 3 % CLA, respectively. The results indicated that CLA concentration was increased in sucuk with CLA addition (p 

  13. Potent inhibitory effect of trans9, trans11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid on the growth of human colon cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Beppu, Fumiaki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Tanaka, Leo; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takuji; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the growth inhibitory effects of pure conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers [cis(c)9,c11-CLA, c9,trans(t)11-CLA, t9,t11-CLA, and t10,c12-CLA] on human colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT-29 and DLD-1). When Caco-2 cells were incubated up to 72 h with 200 μM, each isomer, even in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), cell proliferation was inhibited by all CLA isomers in a time-dependent manner. The strongest inhibitory effect was shown by t9,t11-CLA, followed by t...

  14. Conversion of t11t13 CLA into c9t11 CLA in Caco-2 Cells and Inhibition by Sterculic Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Catherine Schneider; Pauline Beguin; Sophie Bourez; Perfield, James W.; Eric Mignolet; Cathy Debier; Yves-Jacques Schneider; Yvan Larondelle

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), and principally c9t11 CLA, are suspected to have numerous preventive properties regarding non-infectious pathologies such as inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis and several types of cancer. C9t11 CLA is produced in the rumen during biohydrogenation of linoleic acid, but can also be synthesized in mammalian tissues from trans-vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11) through the action of delta-9 desaturase (D9D). For several years, it is also known that c9t11 C...

  15. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. Cis 9, trans 11 and trans 10, cis 12 isomer detection in crude and refined corn oils by capillary GC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tokuşoğlu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs exhibit protective effects against various types of cancer and heart diseases. With the newly developed capillary gas chromatographic method (GC, cis9, trans11 and trans10, cis12 octadecadienoic acid isomers of CLA (C18:2 were determined in crude and refined corn oils as qualitative and quantitative measurements. Cis 9, trans11 C18:2 (c9, t11 CLA was the major CLA isomer in both oils. It was found that c9, t11 CLA was 0.62% of the total lipid in crude oil and 1.24% of the total lipid in refined oil. Using the refining process, the total CLA was 1.38% whereas that of crude corn oil was 0.62%. An approximate 2.2 fold increase in the total CLA was found in refined oil (n = 9 (p y = 2.782x + 0.046 (R2 = 0.9999] were performed (p El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA parece exhibir efecto protector frente a enfermedades cardiovasculares y varios tipos de cáncer. En este trabajo, se establece un mátodo analítico mediante cromatografía de gases con columna capilar para la determinación cualitativa y cuantitativa de los isómeros cis 9,trans 11 y trans 10, cis 12 en aceites de maiz crudo y refinado. El isómero cis 9, trans11 C18:2 fue el mayoritario encontrándose en concentraciones de 0.62% en el aceite cru,do y de 1.24 % en el aceite refinado. La cantidad total de CLA encontrada en el aceite refinado (n = 9 (p 2 = 0.9999 y de recuperación [y = 2.782x+0.046 (R2 = 0.9999]. El método cromatográfico propuesto podría ser usado para el control de calidad de los aceites vegetales.

  16. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages. PMID:26775969

  17. Mammary cell turnover and expression of lipogenic genes in response to silage induced CLA and diet energy density in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Baumgard, L H; Nielsen, T Skau;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate possible effects of silage induced differences in milk conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and diet energy density on cell turnover and production capacity in the mammary gland. Cows were given high levels of canola fat and fed either grass or maize...

  18. Cómo aumentar el contenido en CLA de la leche de los rumiantes

    OpenAIRE

    Toral, Pablo G.; Frutos, Pilar; Bichi, Elena; López, Secundino; Hervás, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    El ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) posee potencial anticancerígeno, antiarteriosclerótico, antidiabético e inmunoestimulador, y puesto que la principal fuente de CLA en la dieta humana es la leche de los rumiantes y sus derivados, es interesante aumentar su contenido en estos productos.

  19. Hepatic retinol secretion and storage are altered by dietary CLA: common and distinct actions of CLA c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers[S

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Berenice; Wassef, Lesley; Shabrova, Elena; Cordeddu, Lina; Banni, Sebastiano; Quadro, Loredana

    2009-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid obtained from ruminant products. Previous studies in rats and pigs showed that a dietary equimolar mixture of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA isomers induces changes in serum and tissue levels of retinoids (vitamin A derivatives). However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these actions remain(s) unexplored. Given the numerous crucial biological functions regulated by retinoids, it is key to establish whether the perturbations in retinoid m...

  20. Beiting og "riktig" kraftfôr gir kjøtt og melk som inneholder mer CLA

    OpenAIRE

    Koesling, Matthias

    2000-01-01

    De siste ukene har mediene fokusert mye på CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acids, eller: konjugerte linolsyrer). Denne artikkelen vil gi en kort oversikt over helsemessige effekter, hvordan CLA dannes og i hvilke matvarer de finnes.

  1. Development of a New High-throughput Screening Model for Human High Density Lipoprotein Receptor (CLA-1) Agonists

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To develop a new high-throughput screening model for human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor (CD36 and LIMPII analogous-1, CLA-1) agonists using CLA-1-expressing insect cells. Methods With the total RNA of human hepatoma cells BEL-7402 as template, the complementary DNA (cDNA) of CLA-1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system was used to express CLA-1 in insect cells. CLA-1 cDNA was cloned downstream of polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) into donor vector pFastBac1 and recombinant pFastBac1-CLA-1 was transformed into E. coli DH10Bac to transpose CLA-1 cDNA to bacmid DNA. Recombinant bacmid-CLA-1 was transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells to produce recombinant baculovirus particles. Recombinant CLA-1 was expressed on the membrane of Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant baculoviruses. A series of parameters of DiI-lipoprotein binding assays of CLA-1-expressing Sf9 cells in 96-well plates were optimized. Results Western blot analysis and DiI-lipoprotein binding assays confirmed that CLA-1 expressed in insect cells had similar immunoreactivity and ligand binding activity as its native counterpart. A reliable and sensitive in vitro cell-based assay was established to assess the activity of CLA-1 and used to screen agonists from different sample libraries. Conclusion Human HDL receptor CLA-1 was successfully expressed in Sf9 insect cells and a novel high-throughput screening model for CLA-1 agonists was developed. Utilization of this model allows us to identify potent and selective CLA-1 agonists which might possibly be used as therapeutics for atherosclerosis.

  2. Ácido linoléico conjugado - CLA en alimentos / Conjugated linoleic acid - CLA in foods

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Cabrera, Rafael Alberto

    2009-01-01

    El acido linoléico conjugado CLA, es un compuesto químico de gran importancia en la naturaleza, por la actividad biológica en el organismo. Químicamente es un isómero de ácido linoléico obtenido, obtenido básicamente por tres mecanismos; el primero por bioconversión del ácido linoleico, presente en el rumen de los animales, segundo por producción de metabolitos intermedios en la producción de ácido esteárico y finalmente por la fermentación de la leche mediante algunas cepas de microorganismo...

  3. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections

  4. A maternal high fat diet programmes endothelial function and cardiovascular status in adult male offspring independent of body weight, which is reversed by maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gray

    Full Text Available Maternal high fat intake during pregnancy and lactation can result in obesity and adverse cardio-metabolic status in offspring independent of postnatal diet. While it is clear that maternal high fat intake can cause hypertension in adult offspring, there is little evidence regarding the role of dietary interventions in terms of reversing these adverse effects. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is an omega 6 fatty acid with beneficial effects in obesity and metabolic status. However, the impact of CLA supplementation in the context of pregnancy disorders and high fat diet-induced developmental programming of offspring cardio-metabolic dysfunction has not been investigated. We have utilised a model of maternal overnutrition to examine the effects of CLA supplementation on programmed endothelial dysfunction during adulthood. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a purified control diet (CON or purified control diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat, a purified high fat (HF diet (45%kcal from fat and a purified HF diet supplemented with 1% CLA (of total fat (HFCLA. All dams were fed ad libitum throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed a standard chow diet from weaning (day 21 until the end of the study (day 150. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was measured at day 85 and 130 by tail cuff plethysmography. At day 150, offspring mesenteric vessels were mounted on a pressure myograph and vascular responses to agonist-induced constriction and endothelium-dependent vasodilators were investigated. SBP was increased at day 85 and 130 in HF and HFCLA adult male offspring compared to CON and CLA groups with no effect of CLA supplementation. An overall effect of a maternal HF diet was observed in adult male vessels with a reduced vasoconstrictor response to phenylephrine and blunted vasodilatory response to acetylcholine (ACh. Furthermore, HF and HFCLA offspring displayed a reduction in nitric oxide pathway function and an increased compensatory

  5. CLaSS Computer Literacy Software: From Design to Implementation - A Three Year Student Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Ian Cole

    2006-01-01

    Both computer literacy and information retrieval techniques are required to undertake studies in higher education in the United Kingdom. This paper considers the research, development and the 3-year student evaluation of a piece of learning technology in computer and information literacy (CLaSS software). Students completed a questionnaire to examine their own assessment of knowledge and competence in computer and information literacy and based on this assessment CLaSS software was created to...

  6. Impact of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid metabolism and endocannabinoid biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Piras, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a group of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) mainly found in the meat and dairy products of ruminants. CLA has been shown to possess different biological activities such as anticarcinogenic and anti-atherogenic properties, and also to influence body weight, energy and lipid metabolism, immune response, and inflammation. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in a variety of physiological processes, ...

  7. The effect of the modulation shape in the ballistic thermal conductance of modulated nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on calculations of the ballistic thermal conductance of nanowires with modulated width along their length. We discuss the effect of the shape of the modulation in the thermal conductance of the nanowires. The ballistic thermal conductance is determined by the phonon transmission coefficient. It is shown that the thermal conductance of the modulated wires is lower than that of the corresponding straight wires. The phonon conductance decreases with increasing number of modulating periods and saturates to the infinite superlattice value. It decreases below this value when the modulation profile is non-periodic. It is shown that the thermal conductance can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. This behavior could lead to structures of nanowires with enhanced thermoelectric efficiency. - Graphical abstract: The thermal conductance versus temperature for straight nanowires and for wires modulated periodically by arrays of identical dots and non-periodically by arrays of non-identical dots. Highlights: ► The thermal conductance of modulated nanowires can be tuned by changing the shape of the modulation profile. ► A dramatic decrease of the thermal conductance of modulated nanowires is found when the modulation profile is non-periodic. ► Very low thermal conductance can be achieved in modulated wires that have shown efficient electron thermoelectric behavior.

  8. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Rodriguez, I.; Pulido-Camarillo, E.; Hernandez-Diaz, E.; Alexander-Aguilera, A.; Garcia, H.S.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR), were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group), and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group). A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman's capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group of the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Upgrading the lipid fraction of foods of animal origin by dietary means: rumen activity and presence of trans fatty acids and CLA in milk and meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Serra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature dealing with the effect of the diet on the quality of milk and meat fat is reviewed. Some aspects ofthe rumen metabolism of lipids are dealt with: lipolysis, bio-hydrogenation, synthesis of microbial fatty acids and inhibitionmechanisms on fermentation. Firstly, the influence of forage is considered. Pasture is the best forage, better if highhill pasture, as compared to hay and silage: short chain fatty acids (SCFA (shorter than C10 are increased, mediumchain fatty acids (MCFA (C12 through C16 are decreased, oleic (OA, linoleic (LA and linolenic (LNA acids are increasedand so are the conjugated linoleic acid pool of isomers (CLA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA. Secondly,the energy supplementation of diets with fats is looked at. Animal fats depress milk yield and SCFA, while OA is increasedbecause of the enhanced activity of mammary Δ9 desaturase. Fish oil depresses milk yield as well, but promotes CLA andn-3 PUFA. If animal fats are protected against rumen bacteria, milk yield and milk fat depression are avoided. Vegetablefats are richer in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, thus more susceptible to the rumen bio-hydrogenation. As calcium soapsor inside whole seeds, plant fats are protected and CLA is increased. CLA is an important component of fat. In ruminantsit comes from the desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA both in rumen and udder; and the yield of VA depends on the dietquality. In conclusion, simple directions are given on how to improve the quality of animal fat by dietary means, withoutaffecting yield.

  10. Temperature Effect on Photovoltaic Modules Power Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Mohammed Aish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar module could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic power generation. Changing in powers due to higher temperatures (25oC, 35oC, and 45oC have been done for three types of solar modules: monocrystalline , polycrystalline, and copper indium gallium (di selenide (CIGS. The Prova 200 solar panel analyzer is used for the professional testing of three solar modules at different ambient temperatures; 25oC, 35oC, and 45oC and solar radiation range 100-1000 W/m2. Copper indium gallium (di selenide module has the lowest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.38%/oC while monocrystalline module has the highest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.54%/oC, while polycrystalline module has a percentage power drop of 0.49%/oC.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of CLA-PTX on B16-F10 melanoma cells%CLA-PTX对黑色素瘤B16-F10的体内外抗肿瘤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李捷思; 杨科; 柯曦宇; 杜若; 张烜; 张强

    2014-01-01

    本研究旨在探索CLA-PTX对黑色素瘤B16-F10细胞的体内外抗肿瘤作用.选择鼠源B16-F10细胞系作为研究模型.研究CLA-PTX体外细胞毒,细胞凋亡,细胞周期作用,以及CLA-PTX体外细胞摄取作用.用荷瘤C57BL6/N小鼠研究CLA-PTX的体内抗肿瘤作用.体外细胞毒研究结果表明:CLA-PTX的ICso为(4.25±0.43) μM,优于紫杉醇(6.70±0.80) μM(P<0.01).与空白组和紫杉醇组相比,CLA-PTX可使细胞总凋亡比例增加(P<0.01).与空白对照组相比,CLA-PTX将细胞周期阻滞于S期,而紫杉醇则使细胞在G2-M期蓄积.CLA-PTX的细胞摄取量显著高于紫杉醇(P<0.01).体内抗肿瘤药效显示,CLA-PTX抗肿瘤活性显著高于空白对照组和紫杉醇组(P<0.01或P<0.05).上述结果表明,CLA-PTX对B16-F10细胞有显著体内外抗肿瘤作用.

  12. Interviews with the 2000 CLA Breakfast Speakers: Mary Pope Osborne, Rosemary Wells, and Patricia Reilly Giff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darigan, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Presents three interviews with the 2000 CLA (Children's Literature Assembly) Breakfast Speakers. Discusses how Osborne has written for virtually every genre for all ages and discusses the new Magic Treehouse book. Talks about Wells' two Mother Goose books, McDuff books and books to come. Considers where Giff gets her ideas for books and discusses…

  13. The Influence of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) on Children's Learning and Teachers' Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Sue; Lawrence, Becky

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and use of the Creative Learning Assessment (CLA) as a means of evidencing, supporting and promoting children's creative learning in arts-based contexts. The research team at the Centre for Literacy in Primary Education (CLPE) worked with a group of teachers in inner-city Lambeth primary schools to develop an…

  14. Field Test of a Remote Multi-Path CLaDS Methane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Plant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing technologies for quantifying methane emissions are often limited to single point sensors, making large area environmental observations challenging. We demonstrate the operation of a remote, multi-path system using Chirped Laser Dispersion Spectroscopy (CLaDS for quantification of atmospheric methane concentrations over extended areas, a technology that shows potential for monitoring emissions from wetlands.

  15. Enhancing Quantum Effects via Periodic Modulations in Optomechanical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Farace, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this new modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over time. We first apply a sinusoidal modulation of the mechanical frequency and characterize the optimal regime in which the visibility of purely quantum effects is maximal. We then introduce a second modulation on the input laser intensity and analyze the interplay between the two. We find that an interference pattern shows up, so that different choices of the relative phase between the two modulations can either enhance or cancel the desired quantum effects.

  16. Enhancing quantum effects via periodic modulations in optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2012-07-01

    Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over time. We first apply a sinusoidal modulation of the mechanical frequency and characterize the optimal regime in which the visibility of purely quantum effects is maximal. We then introduce a second modulation on the input laser intensity and analyze the interplay between the two. We find that an interference pattern shows up, so that different choices of the relative phase between the two modulations can either enhance or cancel the desired quantum effects, opening new possibilities for optimal quantum control strategies.

  17. A CLA enriched diet improves organ damage associated with the metabolic syndrome in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto-Rodríguez, Ida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that dietary CLA can prevent the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome in tissue structure, suggesting potential benefits in the onset of this syndrome. Wistar male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR, were classified into two groups that were fed a standard diet for eight weeks: one with 7.5% sunflower oil (V-SHR group, and the other with 6% sunflower oil and 1.5% CLA (CLA-SHR group. A control healthy group consisted of Kyoto-Wistar male rats fed the standard diet with 7.5% sunflower oil. The animals were sacrificed, and sections of liver, kidneys and aorta were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, and then stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Only in the V-SHR group, the stain of the aorta indicated irregular endothelial morphology; liver parenchyma was characterized by an infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils, fibrosis, thickening of the portal vein epithelium, hepatocyte hyperplasia and steatosis. The renal tissue of this group evidenced hyperplasia in the cells of the endothelial of Bowman´s capsule. Abnormal histological changes were not observed in either the control group or the rats fed with CLA, suggesting a protective role of CLA in the onset of metabolic syndrome.

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue proporcionar evidencia que el CLA dietario puede evitar la patogénesis del síndrome metabólico en la estructura tisular, lo que sugiere beneficios potenciales en el desarrollo de este síndrome. Dos grupos de ratas Wistar macho espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR fueron alimentadas con una dieta normal por 8 semanas: una dieta contenía 7.5% de aceite de girasol (grupo VSHR, y el otro contenía 6% de aceite de girasol y 1.5% de CLA (grupo CLA-SHR. A un grupo testigo sano de ratas macho Kyoto-Wistar les fue proporcionada una dieta normal con 7.5% de aceite de girasol. Los animales fueron sacrificados y se tomaron secciones de hígado, riñones y aorta, las cuales fueron fijadas en formaldeh

  18. CLA+:The Enhanced Version of Collegiate Learning Assessment%高等教育质量测评新动向--美国大学生学习评价升级版CLA+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁会青; 魏红

    2016-01-01

    美国大学生学习评价(Collegiate Learning Assessment, CLA)的升级版CLA+针对CLA的不足,在评估内容、评估工具、结果报告、用途等方面进行完善。 CLA+不仅通过完善题目类型、增加分项分数提高问卷的信效度,而且设定了技能掌握的级别标准,进一步拓宽了用途范围。 CLA+作为一种评价学生学习效果的直接标准化工具,其评价理念、方法等都对我国高等教育质量测评的开展具有多层次的启示意义。%As the enhanced version of Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA), CLA+includes new subscores, criterion-referenced Mastery Levels, and reliable information about performance at both student and institutional levels to play a greater role in the development of higher education institutions and college students. The idea and method of CLA+ provides a valuable reference for the evaluation of teaching and learning in Chinese higher education institutions.

  19. Photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect based on dynamic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kejie; Yu, Zongfu; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-04-13

    We show that when the refractive index of a photonic system is harmonically modulated, the phase of the modulation introduces an effective gauge potential for photons. This effective gauge potential can be used to create a photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect. We show that the photonic Aharonov-Bohm effect provides the optimal mechanism for achieving complete on-chip nonmagnetic optical isolation. PMID:22587255

  20. Ultracompact Field Effect Electro-Absorption Plasmonic Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Kaifeng

    2015-01-01

    One of the technical barriers impeding the wide applications of integrated photonic circuits is the lack of ultracompact, high speed, broadband electro-optical (EO) modulators, which up-convert electronic signals into high bit-rate photonic data. In addition to direct modulation of lasers, EO modulators can be classified into (i) phase modulation based on EO effect or free-carrier injection, or (ii) absorption modulation based on Franz-Keldysh effect or quantum-confined Stark effect. Due to the poor EO properties of regular materials, a conventional EO modulator has a very large footprint. Based on high-Q resonators, recent efforts have advanced EO modulators into microscale footprints, which have nearly reached their physical limits restricted by the materials. On-chip optical interconnects require ultrafast EO modulators at the nanoscale. The technical barrier may not be well overcome based on conventional approaches and well-known materials. Herein, we report an EO modulator, more specifically electro-abso...

  1. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA) CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMERCIAL YOGURTS FROM COLOMBIA CONTENIDO DE ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO (CLA) Y COMPOSICIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS EN ALGUNOS YOGURES COMERCIALES DE COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez Álvarez; Jenny Carolina Martínez; Marby Rocío Barón Núñez

    2010-01-01

    The concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) of the fifteen commercial yogurts corresponding to the main consumption and distribution in the Colombian market was studied, as well as their fatty acid composition. The concentration of CLA, expressed as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/g fat and as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/100 g sample varied between 4.5 and 8.2, and between 7.8 and 25.5, respectively. The higher values of CLA (>6.0 mg/g fat) corresponded to ...

  2. Phase modulation of recoilless gamma radiation by nuclear Zeeman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of an alternating magnetic field for phase modulation of recoilless gamma radiation is studied. The measurements were performed with the Moessbauer resonances of Fe-57 and Zn-67. Novel time-domain data are presented from experiments on the nuclear Zeeman effect at high modulation frequencies. (orig.)

  3. Trapped particle effect on modulational instability of plasma wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A problem of stability of high amplitude plasma wave, in which field acceleration of particles takes place, is important in physics of high-energy plasma accelerators. Instabilities (modulational instability in particular) are factors restricting acceleration time and hindering realization of the main metric of charge density waves - extremely high acceleration rate. Trapped particle effect on modulational instability of plasma wave is considered

  4. Effects of auxiliary source connections in multichip power module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon;

    2016-01-01

    Auxiliary source bond wires and connections are widely used to in the power module with paralleled MOSFETs or IGBTs. This paper investigates the working mechanism and the effects of the auxiliary source connections in multichip power modules. It reveals that the auxiliary source connections cannot...

  5. Bioconversion of biodiesel refinery waste in the bioemulsifier by Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Monteiro Andrea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The microbial bioemulsifiers was surface active compounds, are more effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. The yeasts have been isolated to produce bioemulsifiers from vegetable oils and industrial wastes. Results Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans CLA2 is bioemulsifier-producing yeast strain isolated from effluents of the dairy industry, with ability to emulsify different hydrophobic substrates. Bioemulsifier production (mg/L and the emulsifying activity (E24 of this strain were optimized by response surface methodology using mineral minimal medium containing refinery waste as the carbon source, which consisted of diatomaceous earth impregnated with esters from filters used in biodiesel purification. The highest bioemulsifier production occurred in mineral minimal medium containing 75 g/L biodiesel residue and 5 g/L ammonium sulfate. The highest emulsifying activity was obtained in medium containing 58 g/L biodiesel refinery residue and 4.6 g/L ammonium sulfate, and under these conditions, the model estimated an emulsifying activity of 85%. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis suggested a bioemulsifier molecule consisting of monosaccharides, predominantly xylose and mannose, and a long chain aliphatic groups composed of octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid at concentrations of 48.01% and 43.16%, respectively. The carbohydrate composition as determined by GC-MS of their alditol acetate derivatives showed a larger ratio of xylose (49.27%, mannose (39.91%, and glucose (10.81%. 1 H NMR spectra confirmed by COSY suggested high molecular weight, polymeric pattern, presence of monosaccharide’s and long chain aliphatic groups in the bioemulsifier molecule. Conclusions The biodiesel residue is an economical substrate, therefore seems to be very promising for the low-cost production of active emulsifiers in the emulsification of aromatics, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and kerosene.

  6. Cla4p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc42p-activated kinase involved in cytokinesis, is activated at mitosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, B K; Tinkelenberg, A; Gonzalez, I.; Cross, F R

    1997-01-01

    Yeasts have three functionally redundant G1 cyclins required for cell cycle progression through G1. Mutations in GIN4 and CLA4 were isolated in a screen for mutants that are inviable with deletions in the G1 cyclins CLN1 and CLN2. cln1 cln2 cla4 and cln1 cln2 gin4 cells arrest with a cytokinesis defect; this defect was efficiently rescued by CLN1 or CLN2 expression. GIN4 encodes a protein with strong homology to the Snflp serine/threonine kinase. Cla4p is homologous to mammalian p21-activated...

  7. Chemical composition of colostrum and milk of sows fed conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during last period of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Barowicz T.; Migdal W.; Pieszka M.; Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    42 Large Polish White x Polish Landrace sows in the 3 rd and 4th reproductive cycle were divided into four groups. The sows were fed completed pelleted feeds with free access to water. The 2% or 4% sunflower oil (for control groups) and 2 or 4% CLA oil (for experimental groups), were added to the feeds for groups from 90th day of gestation to the parturition. CLA oil contained 61% CLA isomers (EDENOR UKD 6010, Henkel). Colostrum and milk samples (100 ml) were taken 24 hours after placental ex...

  8. 牛乳中共轭亚油酸(CLA)的研究%Study on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华伟; 盛漪; 张灏

    2001-01-01

    共轭亚油酸(CLA)是亚油酸的同分异构体的混合物,主要来源于牛乳、乳制品及反刍动物食品的天然营养成分.本文就CLA的抑癌和降血脂等多种生理功能及其作用机理,阐述了CLA作为一种新型营养物质的潜力.

  9. Effective Detection of Nonsplit Module Extensions

    OpenAIRE

    Letzter, Edward S.

    2002-01-01

    Let n be a positive integer, and let R be a finitely presented (but not necessarily finite dimensional) associative algebra over a computable field. We examine algorithmic tests for deciding (1) if every n-dimensional representation of R is semisimple, and (2) if there exist nonsplit extensions of non-isomorphic irreducible R-modules whose dimensions sum to no greater than n. Our basic strategy is to reduce each of the considered representation theoretic decision problems to the problem of de...

  10. Lazy mixin modules and disciplined effects

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    Programming languages are expected to support programmer's effort to structure program code. The ML module system, object systems and mixins are good examples of language constructs promoting modular programming. Among the three, mixins can be thought of as a generalization of the two others in the sense that mixins can incorporate features of ML modules and objects with a set of primitive operators with clean semantics. Much work has been devoted to build mixin-based module systems for practical programming languages. In respect of the operational semantics, previous work notably investigated mixin calculi in call-by-name and call-by-value evaluation settings. In this paper we examine a mixin calculus in a call-by-need, or lazy, evaluation setting. We demonstrate how lazy mixins can be interesting in practice with a series of examples, and formalize the operational semantics by adapting Ancona and Zucca's concise formalization of call-by-name mixins. We then extend the semantics with constraints to control t...

  11. A proof of principle clinical trial to determine whether conjugated linoleic acid modulates the lipogenic pathway in human breast cancer tissue

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, Margit M.; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Lewis, Lionel D; Froehlich, Heather M.; Wells, Wendy A.; Eastman, Alan; Kuemmerle, Nancy B.; Rosenkrantz, Kari M.; BARTH, RICHARD J.; Schwartz, Gary N.; Li, Zhongze; Tosteson, Tor D.; Beaulieu, Bernard B.; Kinlaw, William B

    2013-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is widely used as a “nutraceutical” for weight loss. CLA has anticancer effects in preclinical models, and we demonstrated in vitro that this can be attributed to the suppression of fatty acid (FA) synthesis. We tested the hypothesis that administration of CLA to breast cancer patients would inhibit expression of markers related to FA synthesis in tumor tissue, and that this would suppress tumor proliferation. Women with Stage I–III breast cancer were enrolled i...

  12. CLaSS Computer Literacy Software: From Design to Implementation - A Three Year Student Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cole

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Both computer literacy and information retrieval techniques are required to undertake studies in higher education in the United Kingdom. This paper considers the research, development and the 3-year student evaluation of a piece of learning technology in computer and information literacy (CLaSS software. Students completed a questionnaire to examine their own assessment of knowledge and competence in computer and information literacy and based on this assessment CLaSS software was created to assist nursing students with computer and information literacy. This paper draws on existing literature and applies a specific learning model to the software while considering software engineering and user-centered design methodologies. The technical processes involved in designing and creating the software are briefly considered with software development data analysis discussed. A 3-year student evaluation of the software after it's release was undertaken to consider the long-term validity and usefulness of this software with the results analysed and discussed.

  13. ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO (CLA) E EXERCÍCIO FÍSICO: EFEITOS NA COMPOSIÇÃO CORPORAL

    OpenAIRE

    Juliane Barroso Leal; Gustavo Bernardes Fanaro; Vanessa Fernandes Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been evaluated as regards the safety of the use isolated, its administration, in liquid form or capsules, or as food ingredient in addition to various foods and on several occasions. The objective was to conduct a literature review, critically, about the origin, functional and physiological properties of CLA and its association with physical exercise in order to outline the deficiencies in existing studies and clarify their actual and/or potential actions in...

  14. Zavedení metody stanovení konjugované linolové kyseliny (CLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruprichová, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá optimalizací metody stanovení konjugované linolové kyseliny (CLA) plynovou chromatografií. V teoretické části je zpracován přehled o vzniku a výskytu CLA v živočišných materiálech, biologických účincích v lidském organismu a metodách vhodných pro stanovení CLA. Experimentální část ověřuje, zda je metoda plynové chromatografie vhodná pro stanovení konjugované kyseliny linolové ve vybraných biologických matricích. A dále se zabývá podmínkami stanovení a optimalizací metody ...

  15. [Conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA)--natural sources and biological activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Agnieszka; Teryks, Marta; Tokarz, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have a wide range of biological activity. Among them conjugated fatty acids are of great interest. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which exert a multidirectional health-benefiting influence, and conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA, super CLA) are examples of this group of fatty acids. CLnA are a group of positional and geometric isomers of octadecatrienoic acid (C18:3), which possess double bonds at positions 9, 11, 13 or 8, 10, 12 of their chain. Some vegetable oils are rich sources of CLnA, e.g. bitter melon oil (from Momordica charantia seeds) and pomegranate oil (from Punica granatum seeds). The aim of this paper was to present information concerning natural sources and health-promoting activities of conjugated linolenic acids. The presented data reveal that conjugated linolenic acids may be very useful in prevention and treatment of many diseases, especially diabetes, arteriosclerosis , obesity and cancers (mammary, prostate and colon cancer). Among many potential mechanisms of their action, the fact that some CLnA are converted by oxidoreductases into CLA is very important. It seems to be very reasonable to conduct research concerning the possibility of CLnA use in prevention of many diseases. PMID:25380206

  16. Negative emotion does not modulate rapid feature integration effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka eTruebutschek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotional arousal at encoding is known to facilitate later memory recall. In the present study, we asked whether this emotion-modulation of episodic memory is also evident at very short time scales, as measured by feature integration effects, the moment-by-moment binding of relevant stimulus and response features in episodic memory. This question was motivated by recent findings that negative emotion appears to potentiate 1st-order trial sequence effects in classic conflict tasks, which has been attributed to emotion-modulation of conflict-driven cognitive control processes. However, these effects could equally well have been carried by emotion-modulation of mnemonic feature binding processes, which were perfectly confounded with putative control processes in these studies. In the present experiments, we tried to shed light on this question by testing explicitly whether feature integration processes, assessed in isolation of conflict-control, are in fact susceptible to negative emotion-modulation. For this purpose, we adopted a standard protocol for assessing the rapid binding of stimulus and response features in episodic memory (Experiment 1 and paired it with the presentation of either neutral or fearful background face stimuli, shown either at encoding only (Experiment 2, or at both encoding and retrieval (Experiment 3. Whereas reliable feature integration effects were observed in all three experiments, no evidence for emotion-modulation of these effects was detected, in spite of significant effects of emotion on response times. These findings suggest that rapid feature integration of foreground stimulus and response features is not subject to modulation by negative emotional background stimuli and further suggest that previous reports of emotion-modulated trial-transition effects are likely attributable to the effects of emotion on cognitive control processes.

  17. Nonlinear resonance islands and modulational effects in a proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors examine one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. The authors examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, the authors examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: Tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three parameters: The strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. The tune modulation model is successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. The authors present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and the authors make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment. The authors apply the tune modulation stability diagram to the explicitly two-dimensional phenomenon of modulational diffusion in the Fermilab Tevatron with beam-beam kicks as the source of nonlinearity. The amplitude growth created by this mechanism in simulation is exponential rather than root-time as predicted by modulational diffusion models. The authors comment upon the luminosity and lifetime limitations such a mechanism implies in a proton storage ring

  18. 1D dynamic beam modulation: methods to counteract inertia effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic modulation can be affected by inaccuracies when the required acceleration is larger than the highest allowed by the mechanical characteristics of the whole apparatus. In this study, inertia effects have been investigated with regard to the single absorber 1D modulation, analysing primarily how the acceleration performed by the modulating system affects the realization of 'single absorber' fluence profiles and the type of correction which could be devised. The observed percentage deviations from desired modulation at the lowest fluence coordinate of single minimum fluence profiles, when no correction is applied, were almost negligible for 'easy' modulations of the incident fluence (i.e. slow gradients); deviations became increasingly relevant as the moving absorber executed steeper gradients (a 17.6% higher dose being delivered in the minimum position when a 0.2 modulation is required). By applying the proposed corrections, the single absorber performances were improved to a satisfactory level, with a maximum deviation from desired modulation in the minima within 1.6%. (author)

  19. Implementation of the ecotoxicological, effects module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Payet, Jerome; Molander, S; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    The goal of this report is to come up with recommendations on how to calculate the ecotoxicity effect indicator (termed ecotox effect indicator) for use in the OMNIITOX base model (BM). The ecotox effect indicator is used together with the input from the fate modelling to calculate a characterisa...

  20. Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation on Early Inflammatory Responses during Cutaneous Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Young Park

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response is considered the most important period that regulates the entire healing process. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, a class of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that dietary CLA supplementation accelerates cutaneous wound healing by regulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. To investigate wound closure rates and inflammatory responses, we used a full-thickness excisional wound model after 2-week treatments with control, 0.5%, or 1% CLA-supplemented diet. Mice fed dietary CLA supplementation had reduced levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Moreover, the wound closure rate was improved significantly in mice fed a 1% CLA-supplemented diet during early stage of wound healing (inflammatory stage. We conclude that dietary CLA supplementation enhances the early stage of cutaneous wound healing as a result of modulating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  1. Effect on WDM due to Cross Phase Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Saini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross phase modulation (XPM is known as the phenomenon that the variations of intensity of one optical signal can change the refractive index of the fiber (Kerr effects, and modulate the phase of other optical signals co-propagating in the same fiber .We compare the impact of Q-factor, BER and timing jitter due to cross-phase modulation (XPM in a wavelength-divisionmultiplexed system for different length of fiber. We then examine the commonly used method of estimating XPM system penalties from the amplitude of XPM-induced intensity modulation of a continuous-wave (CW probe. Our study indicates that this approach does indeed provide a good estimate of XPM system penalty by comparing simulations

  2. Efect of whole linseed and CLA addition to the dietc of friesian young bulls on animal performance and meet colour stability

    OpenAIRE

    Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Panea Doblado, Begoña; Barahona, M.; Beriain Aperteguía, María José; Sarries, M.V.; Realini, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourty-eight Friesian young bulls were fed 110 mg vitamin E/kg feed and 1 of 4 diets: control (0% linseed or CLA), linseed (10%), CLA (2%), and linseed+CLA (10+2%). Animal performance and carcass characteristics were not affected (P>0.05) by the addition of linseed, CLA or their combination in the diet. Meat colour stability evaluated during 14 days did not differ (P>0.05) among the four diets, possibly due to supplementation with high levels of vitamin E. Results indicate that...

  3. DFT calculations of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (26DMP) and its complex with chloranilic acid (CLA): Comparison to INS, IR and Raman vibration spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukojć, A.; Sobczyk, L.; Prager, M.; Bator, G.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2008-12-01

    The inelastic neutron scattering (INS), infrared and Raman spectra of crystalline 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (26DMP) and its complex with chloranilic acid (26DMP·CLA) were measured. Simultaneously the DFT calculations of the molecular structures and frequencies of the normal vibrations were performed by using various functionals. The INS spectra were simulated in the energy range up to 1200 cm -1, on the basis of the calculated frequencies. A very good conformity was obtained between experimental and calculated data with respect to the structure as well as to frequencies, with exception, however, of the CH 3 torsional modes. The structural analysis based on the deviation from the sum of the van der Waals radii showed that the packing of the methyl groups in the 26DMP·CLA complex was markedly stronger than that in the neat 26DMP. However, the DFT calculations overestimated the role of this effect that may be due to a limitation of the applied methods. In addition the anharmonicity of the rotational potential led to the librational energies different from those obtained using a harmonic potential.

  4. Response requirements modulate tactile spatial congruency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Dalton, Polly; Kreukniet, Bas; Spence, Charles

    2008-11-01

    Several recent studies have provided support for the view that tactile stimuli/events are remapped into an abstract spatial frame of reference beyond the initial somatotopic representation present in the primary somatosensory cortex. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the extent to which this remapping of tactile stimuli takes place is dependent upon the particular demands imposed by the task that participants have to perform. Participants in the present study responded to either the elevation (up vs. down) or to the anatomical location (finger vs. thumb) of vibrotactile targets presented to one hand, while trying to ignore distractors presented simultaneously to the other hand. The magnitude and direction of the target-distractor congruency effect was measured as participants adopted one of two different postures with each hand (palm-up or palm-down). When the participants used footpedal responses (toe vs. heel; Experiment 1), congruency effects were determined by the relative elevation of the stimuli in external coordinates (same vs. different elevation), regardless of whether the relevant response feature was defined externally or anatomically. Even when participants responded verbally (Experiment 2), the influence of the relative elevation of the stimuli in external space, albeit attenuated, was still observed. However, when the task involved responding with the stimulated finger (four-alternative forced choice; Experiment 3), congruency effects were virtually eliminated. These findings support the view that tactile events can be remapped according to an abstract frame of reference resulting from multisensory integration, but that the frame of reference that is used while performing a particular task may depend to a large extent on the nature of the task demands. PMID:18709500

  5. Rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid supplementation to dairy cows in late pregnancy and early lactation: effects on milk composition, milk yield, blood metabolites and gene expression in liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Heinrich HD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a collective term for isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double-bond system. Thus, it was the objective to investigate whether milk composition and metabolic key parameters are affected by adding CLA to the diet of dairy cows in the first four weeks of lactation. Methods A study was carried out with five primiparous cows fed a CLA supplemented diet compared to five primiparous cows without CLA supplementation. CLA supplemented cows received 7.5 g CLA/day (i.e. 50% cis(c9,trans(t11- and 50% t10,c12-CLA starting two weeks before expected calving and 20 g CLA/day (i.e. 50% c9,t11- and 50% t10,c12-CLA throughout day 1 to 28 of lactation. Results The CLA supplement was insufficiently accepted by the animals: only 61.5% of the intended amount was ingested. Fed CLA were detectable in milk fat, whereas contents of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA in milk fat were higher for CLA supplemented cows compared to the control group. On average over the entire treatment period, there was a decrease of saturated fatty acids (FA in milk fat of CLA supplemented cows, combined with a higher content of monounsaturated and trans FA. Our study revealed no significant effects of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA supplementation either on milk yield and composition or on metabolic key parameters in blood. Furthermore the experiment did not indicate significant effects of c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA-supplementation on gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα, PPARγ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in liver tissue. Conclusions Feeding c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA during the first weeks after calving did not affect metabolic key parameters of blood serum or milk composition of fresh cows. Milk fatty acid composition was changed by feeding c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA resulting in higher contents of these isomers in milk fat. High contents of long chain FA in

  6. Effect of longitudinal modulation of Alfven wave filamentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modulation of circularly polarized Alfven waves due to quasitransverse perturbations is addressed, and the nonlinear dynamics simulated numerically. In some instances, radial collapse (filamentation) of Alfven waves can be arrested by the magnetosonic waves stirred by the ponderomotive force. Such waves may, however, develop sharp fronts leading to strong hydrodynamic effects

  7. The Effect of Articulation Style on Perception of Modulated Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; MacLeod, Rebecca B.; Kevin Droe

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of legato and staccato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Ninety music majors served as participants. Listeners heard music examples that had been selected from two pieces, each of which included staccato and legato passages. Excerpts were presented to listeners in three conditions of tempo…

  8. Feeding Unprotected CLA Methyl Esters Compared to Sunflower Seeds Increased Milk CLA Level but Inhibited Milk Fat Synthesis in Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Dohme-Meier, F.; Bee, G

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of the same amount of 18:2 offered either as 18:2n-6 or as a mixture of unprotected 18:2c9t11 and 18:2t10c12 on feed intake, milk components as well as plasma and milk fatty acid profile. Fifteen cows were blocked by milk yield and milk fat percentage and within block assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (n = 5). Each cow passed a 12-d adjustment period (AP) on a basal diet. After the AP cows received 1 of 3 supplements during an 18-d experi...

  9. Effects of spectral modulation filtering on vowel identification1

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chang; Eddins, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to measure the effects of global spectral manipulations on vowel identification by progressively high-pass filtering vowel stimuli in the spectral modulation domain. Twelve American-English vowels, naturally spoken by a female talker, were subjected to varied degrees of high-pass filtering in the spectral modulation domain, with cutoff frequencies of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 cycles∕octave. Identification performance for vowels presented at 70 dB sound pressure le...

  10. Acute stress modulates genotype effects on amygdala processing in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J. F.; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Probing gene–environment interactions that affect neural processing is crucial for understanding individual differences in behavior and disease vulnerability. Here, we tested whether the current environmental context, which affects the acute brain state, modulates genotype effects on brain function in humans. We manipulated the context by inducing acute psychological stress, which increases noradrenergic activity, and probed its effect on tonic activity and phasic responses in the amygdala us...

  11. Screening of a lactobacillus plantarum mutant with high cla productivity induced by n+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial lactic acid bacteria strain A6-1 was treated by N+ ions implantation of 50 keV with doses of 1 x 1013, 3 x 1013, 5 x 1013, 8 x 1013, 10 x 1013, 30 x 1013, 50 x 1013, 80 x 1013 , and 100 x 1013 ions/cm2. The survival curve showed a saddle model, and the high survival rate was 20% ∼ 35% from the treatments of 30 x 1013 ions/cm2 and 50 x 1013 ions/cm2 implantation. Considering the survival rate, positive mutation and range of mutation rate, N+ ions implantation of 30 x 1013 ions/cm2 was recommended for mutation breeding of lactic acid bacteria. Selected mutants with high ability of producing CLA after fermentation. Generic stable was observed until 8 generations of F mutant, and average yield of CLA was 162.5 μg/ml, which was 69.87% higher than the original stain. F mutant was named A6-1F. (authors)

  12. A Low power and area efficient CLA adder design using Full swing GDI technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcha Hemanth Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The low power VLSI design has an important role in designing of many electronic systems. While designing any combinational or sequential circuits, the important parameters like power consumption, implementation area, voltage leakage and performance of the circuit are to be considered. Design of area, high speed and powerefficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. This paper presents a low power Carry look ahead adder design using Full swing Gate diffusion (FS-GDI technique. The proposed CLA implementation utilizes improved full-swing GDI F1 and F2 gates, which are the counterparts of standard CMOS NAND and NOR gates. The basic Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic style suffers from some practical limitations like swing degradation, fabrication complexity in standard CMOS process and bulk connections. These limitations can be overcome by Full swing GDI technique. The proposed technique utilizes a single swing restoration (SR transistor to improve the output swing of F1 and F2 GDI gates. A 16-bit CLA is designed and Simulations are performed by Mentor graphics 130nm CMOS technology ELDO simulator. Simulation results have shown a greater reduction in delay, power dissipation and area.

  13. Efecto del ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) sobre el perfil lipídico en humanos

    OpenAIRE

    Agueda, M. (Mayi); Zulet, M A; J. A. Martinez

    2009-01-01

    El término ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) hace referencia a un grupo de isómeros del ácido linoleico, caracterizados por tener enlaces dobles conjugados en varias posiciones y conformaciones. El CLA se encuentra de forma natural en algunos alimentos, aunque desde que se le atribuyen efectos beneficiosos sobre varios aspectos relacionados con la salud, numerosos grupos investigadores han estudiado los efectos de la suplementación con este ácido graso. En este sentido, el ...

  14. Mirage effect from thermally modulated transparent carbon nanotube sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The single-beam mirage effect, also known as photothermal deflection, is studied using a free-standing, highly aligned carbon nanotube aerogel sheet as the heat source. The extremely low thermal capacitance and high heat transfer ability of these transparent forest-drawn carbon nanotube sheets enables high frequency modulation of sheet temperature over an enormous temperature range, thereby providing a sharp, rapidly changing gradient of refractive index in the surrounding liquid or gas. The advantages of temperature modulation using carbon nanotube sheets are multiple: in inert gases the temperature can reach > 2500 K; the obtained frequency range for photothermal modulation is ∼ 100 kHz in gases and over 100 Hz in high refractive index liquids; and the heat source is transparent for optical and acoustical waves. Unlike for conventional heat sources for photothermal deflection, the intensity and phase of the thermally modulated beam component linearly depends upon the beam-to-sheet separation over a wide range of distances. This aspect enables convenient measurements of accurate values for thermal diffusivity and the temperature dependence of refractive index for both liquids and gases. The remarkable performance of nanotube sheets suggests possible applications as photo-deflectors and for switchable invisibility cloaks, and provides useful insights into their use as thermoacoustic projectors and sonar. Visibility cloaking is demonstrated in a liquid.

  15. Mirage effect from thermally modulated transparent carbon nanotube sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Ali E; Gartstein, Yuri N; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-10-28

    The single-beam mirage effect, also known as photothermal deflection, is studied using a free-standing, highly aligned carbon nanotube aerogel sheet as the heat source. The extremely low thermal capacitance and high heat transfer ability of these transparent forest-drawn carbon nanotube sheets enables high frequency modulation of sheet temperature over an enormous temperature range, thereby providing a sharp, rapidly changing gradient of refractive index in the surrounding liquid or gas. The advantages of temperature modulation using carbon nanotube sheets are multiple: in inert gases the temperature can reach > 2500 K; the obtained frequency range for photothermal modulation is ~100 kHz in gases and over 100 Hz in high refractive index liquids; and the heat source is transparent for optical and acoustical waves. Unlike for conventional heat sources for photothermal deflection, the intensity and phase of the thermally modulated beam component linearly depends upon the beam-to-sheet separation over a wide range of distances. This aspect enables convenient measurements of accurate values for thermal diffusivity and the temperature dependence of refractive index for both liquids and gases. The remarkable performance of nanotube sheets suggests possible applications as photo-deflectors and for switchable invisibility cloaks, and provides useful insights into their use as thermoacoustic projectors and sonar. Visibility cloaking is demonstrated in a liquid. PMID:21967888

  16. Mirage effect from thermally modulated transparent carbon nanotube sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, Ali E; Baughman, Ray H [Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Gartstein, Yuri N, E-mail: Ali.Aliev@utdallas.edu [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    The single-beam mirage effect, also known as photothermal deflection, is studied using a free-standing, highly aligned carbon nanotube aerogel sheet as the heat source. The extremely low thermal capacitance and high heat transfer ability of these transparent forest-drawn carbon nanotube sheets enables high frequency modulation of sheet temperature over an enormous temperature range, thereby providing a sharp, rapidly changing gradient of refractive index in the surrounding liquid or gas. The advantages of temperature modulation using carbon nanotube sheets are multiple: in inert gases the temperature can reach > 2500 K; the obtained frequency range for photothermal modulation is {approx} 100 kHz in gases and over 100 Hz in high refractive index liquids; and the heat source is transparent for optical and acoustical waves. Unlike for conventional heat sources for photothermal deflection, the intensity and phase of the thermally modulated beam component linearly depends upon the beam-to-sheet separation over a wide range of distances. This aspect enables convenient measurements of accurate values for thermal diffusivity and the temperature dependence of refractive index for both liquids and gases. The remarkable performance of nanotube sheets suggests possible applications as photo-deflectors and for switchable invisibility cloaks, and provides useful insights into their use as thermoacoustic projectors and sonar. Visibility cloaking is demonstrated in a liquid.

  17. An effective phase modulation in the collinear holographic storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao; Ke, Jun; Wu, An'an; Xiao, Xue; Tan, Xiaodi

    2014-02-01

    Almost all current collinear holographic storage systems record and reproduce the amplitude information but ignore the phase information. To utilize phase information as the useful data is a significant study. Instead of amplitude modulation, using phase encoding and decoding to get phase information is one way to raise storage density. By adding phase encoding to the amplitude encoding, we realized the phase modulation. To reduce the computation load we simplified multilayer phase-scale model to binary 0 and π phase model. By controlling the proportion of 0 and π phase, different phase modulation models can be represented. In the simulation, we use the angular spectrum theory to build the system mathematical model. We got an effective range of the phase modulation called degree of freedom curve of phase encoding, which can promise both low bit-error-rate (BER) and high code rate. Using this curve, we can make phase encoding more efficiently. Once the dynamic response range of the materiel, the gray levels of phase encoding, and the demanded BER determined, we can calculate the degree of freedom curve to prepare for the followed phase encoding.

  18. Nanoparticles modulate autophagic effect in a dispersity-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dengtong; Zhou, Hualu; Gao, Jinhao

    2015-09-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in human health and disease, especially in cancer and neurodegeneration. Many autophagy regulators are developed for therapy. Diverse nanomaterials have been reported to induce autophagy. However, the underlying mechanisms and universal rules remain unclear. Here, for the first time, we show a reliable and general mechanism by which nanoparticles induce autophagy and then successfully modulate autophagy via tuning their dispersity. Various well-designed univariate experiments demonstrate that nanomaterials induce autophagy in a dispersity-dependent manner. Aggregated nanoparticles induce significant autophagic effect in comparison with well-dispersed nanoparticles. As the highly stable nanoparticles may block autophagic degradation in autolysosomes, endocytosis and intracellular accumulation of nanoparticles can be responsible for this interesting phenomenon. Our results suggest dispersity-dependent autophagic effect as a common cellular response to nanoparticles, reveal the relationship between properties of nanoparticles and autophagy, and offer a new alternative way to modulate autophagy.

  19. Online Chemistry Modules: Interaction and Effective Faculty Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Laura E.; Hamby Towns, Marcy; Zielinski, Theresa Julia

    2004-07-01

    Recommendations for online facilitation presented here are based upon an on-going study of Physical Chemistry OnLine Modules. This particular piece of research focused on discussion board interactions and effective faculty facilitation—two implementation issues that emerged as the project progressed. The discussion board archives from the "How Hot Is That Flame?" module run during the fall semester of 2000 were analyzed by message type. The discussion boards were then diagramed by message type, and follow-up messages were connected so that threads could be easily distinguished. Each discussion board was also analyzed using a coding scheme derived from the cooperative learning literature to identify collaborative behaviors. Combining the longest thread in a discussion board with the collaborative coding scheme allowed researchers to craft recommendations for effective online facilitation. The data analysis methods contained in the article present new ways for chemical educators to examine electronic interactions.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12 (marketed as Clarinol® and Tonalin® and ?contributes to a reduction in body fat mass? pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from BASF SE and Stepan Lipid Nutrition, submitted for the authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the Netherlands, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture (marketed under the trade names Clarinol® and Tonalin® of the two conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “contributes to a reduction in body fat mass”. In previous assessments on the safety of these equimolar isomeric mixtures of CLA, the NDA Panel considered that the observed increase in plasma and urinary concentrations of isoprostanes, which may indicate an increase in lipid peroxidation, and the increase in some markers of subclinical inflammation associated with CLA consumption, together with the limited data available on the effects of CLA on vascular function, may indicate a potential for vascular damage in the longer term. The Panel considers that the information provided does not establish that a reduction in body fat mass, when accompanied by an increase in markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation, is a beneficial physiological effect for the target population. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of an equimolar mixture of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12, marketed under the trade names of Clarinol® and Tonalin®, and a beneficial physiological effect.

  1. Preparation of CLA ascorbyl ester with improved volumetric productivity by an ionic liquid-based reaction system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.L.; Guo, Zheng; Let, M.B.;

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the enzymatic production Of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) ascorbyl ester with a remarkably high volumetric productivity (120-200 g L-1) has been developed, in which strong solvation by tOMA-TFA (methyltrioctylammonium trifluoroacetate) enables a high concentration of ascorbic...

  2. Influence of conjugated linoleic acid (c9, t11-CLA and t10, c12-CLA) on mRNA expression of bone metabolism related markers of bone marrow cells%共轭亚油酸c9,t11-CLA及t10,c12-CLA对大鼠骨髓细胞骨代谢相关基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亦堃; 李丽婷; 郗光霞; 史书红; 李兴; 赵宝珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA) on the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptorγ2 (PPARγ2),receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ( RANKL),alkaline phosphatase ( ALP),osteoprotegerin ( OPG),receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) of bone marrow cells,and study the effect of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA on bone metabolism.Methods Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were cultured in vitro and then the cells were cultured in DMEM with c9,t11-CLA or t10,c12-CLA at different concentrations (the final concentration was 0,12.5,25.0,50.0 μmol/L,respectively) for 24 h.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the mRNA expression of PPARγ2,RANKL,ALP,OPG,RANK and TRAP.Results Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that c9,t11-CLA down-regulated the mRNA expression of RANK and TRAP in a dose-dependent manner,and statistically significant difference was found in interclass comparison (P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ),while it had no effect on the mRNA expression of RANKL,ALP,OPG and PPARγ2.The results also showed that t10,c12-CLA up-regulated the mRNA expression of RANKL and OPG in a dose-dependent manner and down-regnlated the mRNA expression of RANK,TRAP and PPARγ2 in a dose-dependent manner,statistically significant difference was found in interclass comparison ( P < 0.05,P < 0.01 ),while it had no effect on the mRNA expression of ALP.Conclusion Our findings suggest that c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA can suppress the expression of osteoclastogenesis genes and t10,c12-CLA can also promote the expression of osteogenic genes,which suggests a possible benecial effect on bone formation.%目的 观察c9,t11-CLA及t10,c12-CLA干预后,大鼠骨髓细胞过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体2(PPARγ2)及核因子(NF)-κB活化受体配体(RANKL)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、骨保护素(OPG)、NF-κB活化受体(RANK)、

  3. Effects of modulated electron beams and cavities on reditrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, T. J. T.; Davis, H. A.; Fulton, R. D.; Sherwood, E. G.

    The virtual cathode, when formed in a cavity, can generate microwaves at different cavity modes depending on the geometry of the cavity. We found that the formation and the oscillation frequency of the virtual cathode in a reditron can be significantly influenced by cavity designs. The length of a cavity can play a role in frequency and mode selection. Our simulations showed that TM sub 012 and TM sub 033 were excited for cavity lengths of 15.0 cm and 22.5 cm, respectively. In addition to the cavity effects on reditrons, we discovered that highly modulated electron beams can be produced in reditrons. Full modulation (100 percent) of the transmitted electron beam current has been confirmed in our simulations. We further showed that incorporation of an inverse diode configuration can achieve microwave production efficiency of 26 percent.

  4. Effects of modulated electron beams and cavities on reditrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Davis, H.A.; Fulton, R.D.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    The virtual cathode, when formed in a cavity, can generate microwaves at different cavity modes depending on the geometry of the cavity. We found that the formation and the oscillation frequency of the virtual cathode in a reditron can be significantly influenced by cavity designs. The length of a cavity can play a role in frequency and mode selection. Our simulations showed that TM/sub 012/ and TM/sub 033/ were excited for cavity lengths of 15.0 cm and 22.5 cm, respectively. In addition to the cavity effects on reditrons, we discovered that highly modulated electron beams can be produced in reditrons. Full modulation (100/percent/) of the transmitted electron beam current has been confirmed in our simulations. We further showed that incorporation of an inverse diode configuration can achieve microwave production efficiency of 26/percent/. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Strontium titanate resistance modulation by ferroelectric field effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among perovskite oxides strontium titanate (STO) SrTiO3 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at very low carrier concentration and exhibits high mobility values at low temperature. We exploited such electrical properties and the structural compatibility of perovskite oxide materials in realizing ferroelectric field effect epitaxial heterostructures. By pulsed laser deposition, we grew patterned field effect devices, consisting of lanthanum doped STO and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3. Such devices showed a resistance modulation up to 20%, consistent with geometrical parameters and carrier concentration of the semiconducting channel

  6. Strontium titanate resistance modulation by ferroelectric field effect

    CERN Document Server

    Marré, D; Bellingeri, E; Pallecchi, I; Pellegrino, L; Siri, A S

    2003-01-01

    Among perovskite oxides strontium titanate (STO) SrTiO sub 3 undergoes a metal-insulator transition at very low carrier concentration and exhibits high mobility values at low temperature. We exploited such electrical properties and the structural compatibility of perovskite oxide materials in realizing ferroelectric field effect epitaxial heterostructures. By pulsed laser deposition, we grew patterned field effect devices, consisting of lanthanum doped STO and Pb(Zr,Ti)O sub 3. Such devices showed a resistance modulation up to 20%, consistent with geometrical parameters and carrier concentration of the semiconducting channel.

  7. Effects of gravity modulation on convection in a horizontal annulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyko, Mark P. [Aircraft Braking Systems Corporation, Akron, Ohio (United States). Research and Technology; Vafai, Kambiz [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Convection in the annulus between two horizontal coaxial cylinders resulting from gravity modulation in a microgravity environment is investigated for the first time. The three-dimensional transient equations of fluid motion and heat transfer are solved to study the unsteady flow structures in a large-gap annulus. The gravity fluctuations are shown to induce recirculating flows that reverse direction of rotation in response to the gravitational reversals. Except for a short period of time following flow reversal, at low modulation frequencies the centers of rotation of these flows are below and above the horizontal angular plane when the acceleration acts in the upward and downward directions, respectively, whereas at high frequencies they are above and below this plane. The effects of gravity modulation on development of secondary flows that arise in narrow- and moderate-gap annuli owing to thermal instability are also investigated. It is found that supercritical transverse rolls repeatedly form, dissipate, and re-form in the upper and lower regions of a narrow-gap annulus as a result of the fluctuating gravity field. At the same frequency, the supercritical rolls in a moderate-gap annulus are much slower to develop between flow reversals. The results show that gravity modulation has a stabilizing effect on the secondary flows compared to the case of a constant gravity force, and this effect diminishes with reduction in either frequency or annulus radius ratio R. The effects of frequency on heat transfer in large-, moderate-, and narrow-gap annuli are also studied. It is found that the time-averaged Nusselt number approaches that of pure conduction at high frequencies and increases toward that for terrestrial natural convection as frequency is reduced. As R is decreased, the increase in time-averaged Nusselt number brought about by reducing frequency becomes a smaller percentage of the value for terrestrial natural convection. The results for large-, moderate

  8. Effects of endocannabinoid system modulation on cognitive and emotional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eZanettini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis has long been known to produce cognitive and emotional effects. Research has shown that cannabinoid drugs produce these effects by driving the brain's endogenous cannabinoid system and that this system plays a modulatory role in many cognitive and emotional processes. This review focuses on the effects of endocannabinoid-system modulation in animal models of cognition (learning and memory and emotion (anxiety and depression. We review studies in which natural or synthetic cannabinoid agonists were administered to directly stimulate cannabinoid receptors or, conversely, where cannabinoid antagonists were administered to inhibit the activity of cannabinoid receptors. In addition, studies are reviewed that involved genetic disruption of cannabinoid receptors or genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH. Endocannabinoids affect the function of many neurotransmitter systems, some of which play opposing roles. The diversity of cannabinoid roles and the complexity of task-dependent activation of neuronal circuits may lead to the effects of endocannabinoid system modulation being strongly dependent on environmental conditions. Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than affecting one or another specific behavior.

  9. Einfluss einer Zulage von pansengeschützter konjugierter Linolsäure (CLA) in Kombination mit Propylenglykol oder pansengeschütztem Fett auf Leistungsmerkmale, Stoffwechselparameter und den Energiestatus frischlaktierender Milchkühe.

    OpenAIRE

    Liermann, Torben

    2009-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Zulage von CLA bzw. CLA in Kombination mit Propylenglykol oder pansengeschütztem Fett auf Leistungs- und Stoffwechselparameter sowie den Energiestatus von Milchkühen überprüft. Dazu wurde in zwei Untersuchungsreihen mit 50 bzw. 53 frischlaktierenden Milchkühen CLA pansengeschützt (mit 4 g des Isomers trans-10, cis-12 CLA) von der 1. Woche post partum bis zur 14. Laktationswoche zugelegt. CLA hatte keine Auswirkungen auf die Gesamtfutteraufnahme. Dagegen wu...

  10. Pharmacological modulation of late radio-induced side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After normal tissue exposure to radiation therapy, late side effects can occur and may reduce patients' quality of life due to their progressive nature. Late toxicities occurrence is the main limiting factor of radiotherapy. Various biological disorders related to irradiation are involved in the development of late toxicities including fibrosis. The present review will focus on the recent physiopathological and molecular mechanisms described to be involved in the development of late radio-induced toxicities, that provide therapeutic perspective for pharmaco-modulation. (authors)

  11. Quasi-steady description of modulation effects in wall turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyshenko, Sergei I.; Marusic, Ivan; Mathis, Romain

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical description of the phenomenon of modulation of near-wall turbulence by large scale structures is investigated. The description given is simple in that the effect of large-scale structures is limited to a quasi-steady response of the near-wall turbulence to slow large-scale fluctuations of the skin friction. The most natural and compact form of expressing this mechanism is given by the usual Reynolds-number-independent representation of the total skin friction and velocity, scale...

  12. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives as Potential High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Receptor CLA-1 Up-Regulating Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Du; Yanbin Wu; Bin Hong; Yuan Yang; Xiaojian Jia; Li Wang; Xiaofang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) were reported in our recent publication as novel human high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor CD36 and Lysosomal integral membrane protein-II Analogous-1 (CLA-1) up-regulators. As part of a broader effort to more fully explore the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of CLA-1 up-regulators, we synthesized a series of hydroxamic acid derivatives and evaluated their CLA-1 up-regulating activities in HepG2 cells. Some compounds e...

  13. CLA og andre stoffer i mælk relateret til den humane sundhed - hvordan kan primærproducenten påvirke indholdet

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Sejrsen, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    Mælkens indhold af CLA er interessant ud fra en human ernæringssynsvinklen, idet flere undersøgelser har vist en positiv sammenhæng mellem indtag af CLA og risikoen for cancer. Der blev fundet en betydelig variation mellem bedrifter i mælkens indhold af CLA, og ikke noget entydigt billede af niveauet i konventionel og økologisk mælk. Resultater viser desuden at foderrationens sammensætning påvirker niveauet, men også at der synes at være en forskel mellem de enkelte køer.

  14. Inflammatory Modulation Effect of Glycopeptide from Ganoderma capense (Lloyd Teng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycopeptide from Ganoderma capense (Lloyd Teng (GCGP injection is widely used in kinds of immune disorders, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of how GCGP could interfere with immune cell function. In the present study, we have found that GCGP had inflammatory modulation effects on macrophage cells to maintain NO production and iNOS expression at the normal level. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that the underlying mechanism of immunomodulatory effect of GCGP involved NF-κB p65 translation, IκB phosphorylation, and degradation; NF-κB inhibitor assays also confirmed the results. In addition, competition study showed that GCGP could inhibit LPS from binding to macrophage cells. Our data indicates that GCGP, which may share the same receptor(s expressed by macrophage cells with LPS, exerted immunomodulatory effect in a NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway in macrophages.

  15. Effet d’un régime riche en acides gras ω3 et en CLA 9-cis, 11-trans sur l’insulinorésistance et les paramètres du diabète de type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a pathology mainly induced by nutrition is increasing. In vivo studies on rat have demonstrated the interest of n-3 long chains polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA in the diet to improve insulin sensibility. This study investigates the effect of a diet with products (linseed enriched livestock diet products and linseed bread naturally enriched in n-3 PUFA and CLA 9-cis, 11-trans on glycemic parameters of type 2 diabetics. 44 type 2 diabetics were randomised in three parallel groups and followed a particular diet during 100 days. The three diets: diet A (n = 13, enriched in n-3 PUFA via bread, eggs and pastas, diet B (n = 13, enriched in n-3 PUFA and richer in conjugated linoleic acids (CLA via bread, eggs, pastas, beef meat and dairy products and diet T (n = 18, standard, were otherwise similar in energy (1970 kcal per day and type of food. The serum value of the ALA is significantly higher for group A and B and the CLA serum value is significantly higher for the group B only at the end of the study. At the end of the study, fasting insulinemia is lower in group B compared with group A (p = 0,06 and T (p < 0,05 while glycemia does not differ between groups. Insulin resistance is also lower in group B compared with groups A and T, but the differences do not reach significance (p = 0,08 and p = 0,1 respectively. These results suggest the potential implication of CLA 9-cis, 11-trans in a diet rich in ALA in the improvement of insulin sensitivity.

  16. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  17. Effects of pulse frequency modulation on three-step resonance laser ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through numerical solution of the Schroedinger equation the authors illustrate the effects of frequency modulation laser upon the excitation of a four-level system irradiated by simultaneous laser pulse. When the laser power is sufficiently great and the frequency modulation parameters are suitable, it shows that the frequency modulation excitation applied to a Gaussin statistical distribution of detunings can obtain more effective three-step photoionization than monochromatic or amplitude modulation excitation does

  18. Effect of selective estrogen receptor modulators on metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Beibei; Lovre, Dragana; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck

    2016-05-01

    Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are estrogen receptor (ER) ligands that exhibit either estrogen agonistic or antagonistic activity in a tissue-specific manner. The first and second generation SERMs, tamoxifen and raloxifene, are used for treatment of ER positive breast cancer and postmenopausal osteoporosis respectively. The third-generation SERM, bazedoxifene (BZA), effectively prevents osteoporosis while blocking the estrogenic stimulation in breast and uterus. Notably, BZA combined with conjugated estrogens (CE) in a tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC) is a new menopausal treatment. Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency predisposes to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and therefore the effects of SERMs and TSECs on metabolic homeostasis are gaining attention. In this article, we summarize current knowledge about the impact of SERMs on metabolic homeostasis and metabolic disorders in animal models and postmenopausal women. PMID:26133657

  19. Motivation modulates the effect of approach on implicit preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogmaister, Cristina; Perugini, Marco; Richetin, Juliette

    2016-08-01

    With three studies, we investigated whether motivational states can modulate the formation of implicit preferences. In Study 1, participants played a video game in which they repeatedly approached one of two similar beverages, while disregarding the other. A subsequent implicit preference for the target beverage emerged, which increased with participants' thirst. In Study 2, participants approached one brand of potato chips while avoiding the other: Conceptually replicating the moderation observed in Study 1, the implicit preference for the approached brand increased with the number of hours from last food intake. In Study 3, we experimentally manipulated hunger, and the moderation effect emerged again, with hungry participants displaying a higher implicit preference for the approached brand, as compared to satiated participants. In the three studies, the moderation effect was not paralleled in explicit preferences although the latter were affected by the preference inducing manipulation. Theoretical implications and open questions are discussed. PMID:25948057

  20. Effectiveness of integrated teaching module in pharmacology among medical undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Preeti P; Chaudhary, Mayur; Patel, Jayshree; Shah, Aashal; Kantharia, ND

    2016-01-01

    Context: Over the years with advancement of science and technology, each subject has become highly specialized. Teaching of medical students has still remained separate in various departments with no scope of integration in majority of medical institutes in India. Study was planned to have an experience of integration in institute and sensitize faculty for integrated teaching–learning (TL) method. Aims: To prepare and test effectiveness of integrated teaching module for 2nd year MBBS student in pharmacology and to sensitize and motivate faculties toward advantages of implementing integrated module. Settings and Design: Education intervention project implemented 2nd year MBBS students of Government Medical College and New Civil Hospital, Surat. Subjects and Methods: Students of second MBBS were divided into two groups. One group was exposed to integrated teaching sessions and another to traditional method. Both the groups were assessed by pre- and post-test questionnaire, feedback and focus group discussions were conducted to know their experience about process. Results: A total of 165 students of the 2nd year MBBS were exposed to the integrated teaching module for two topics in two groups. One group was taught by traditional teaching, and another group was exposed to the integrated TL session. Both the groups have shown a significant improvement in posttest scores but increase in mean score was more in integrated group. During analysis of feedback forms, it was noted that students preferred integrated TL methods since they help in better understanding. Faculty feedback shows consensus over the adaptation of integrated TL methods. Conclusions: Integrated TL sessions were well-appreciated by students and faculties. To improve the critical reasoning skills and self-directed learning of students, integrated TL is highly recommended for must know areas of curriculum.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight weeks old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containin...

  2. New insights into biological effects of conjugated linoleic acid and saturated fats in body fat composition, obesity and related disorders: experimental studies in normal-weight Wistar and obese Zucker rats

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Susana Isabel Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciência e Tecnologia Animal The daily intake of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers by humans, through diet and supplementation, and the controversial effects of these compounds in human health, were the main motivation for the elaboration of this thesis. Firstly, the present work intended to estimate the daily CLA ingestion by the Portuguese population. Secondly, the biological effects of CLA were exploited using two distinct animal models, normal-weight (Wistar...

  3. SiC Optically Modulated Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2009-01-01

    An optically modulated field-effect transistor (OFET) based on a silicon carbide junction field-effect transistor (JFET) is under study as, potentially, a prototype of devices that could be useful for detecting ultraviolet light. The SiC OFET is an experimental device that is one of several devices, including commercial and experimental photodiodes, that were initially evaluated as detectors of ultraviolet light from combustion and that could be incorporated into SiC integrated circuits to be designed to function as combustion sensors. The ultraviolet-detection sensitivity of the photodiodes was found to be less than desired, such that it would be necessary to process their outputs using high-gain amplification circuitry. On the other hand, in principle, the function of the OFET could be characterized as a combination of detection and amplification. In effect, its sensitivity could be considerably greater than that of a photodiode, such that the need for amplification external to the photodetector could be reduced or eliminated. The experimental SiC OFET was made by processes similar to JFET-fabrication processes developed at Glenn Research Center. The gate of the OFET is very long, wide, and thin, relative to the gates of typical prior SiC JFETs. Unlike in prior SiC FETs, the gate is almost completely transparent to near-ultraviolet and visible light. More specifically: The OFET includes a p+ gate layer less than 1/4 m thick, through which photons can be transported efficiently to the p+/p body interface. The gate is relatively long and wide (about 0.5 by 0.5 mm), such that holes generated at the body interface form a depletion layer that modulates the conductivity of the channel between the drain and the source. The exact physical mechanism of modulation of conductivity is a subject of continuing research. It is known that injection of minority charge carriers (in this case, holes) at the interface exerts a strong effect on the channel, resulting in amplification

  4. Quasi-steady description of modulation effects in wall turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyshenko, Sergei I; Mathis, Romain

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical description of the phenomenon of modulation of near-wall turbulence by large scale structures is investigated. The description given is simple in that the effect of large-scale structures is limited to a quasi-steady response of the near-wall turbulence to slow large-scale fluctuations of the skin friction. The most natural and compact form of expressing this mechanism is given by the usual Reynolds-number-independent representation of the total skin friction and velocity, scaled in wall variables, where the mean quantities are replaced by large-scale low-pass-filtered fluctuating components. The theory is rewritten in terms of fuctuations via a universal mean velocity and random mean square fluctuation velocity profiles of the small-scales and then linearised assuming that the large-scale fluctuations are small as compared to the mean components. This allows us to express the superposition and modulation coefficients of the empirical predictive models of the skin friction and streamwise fluctua...

  5. Effectiveness of the Biology PTechLS Module in a Felda Science Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Gelamdin, Rashidah Begum; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Siraj, Saedah

    2014-01-01

    The PTechLS module combines learning styles with the use of technology to increase students' learning experience, especially in learning abstract concepts. The PTechLS module prototype was developed by Norlidah Alias (2010). The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation effectiveness of the Biology PTechLS module in a Felda Learning…

  6. HEALTH - module for assessment of stochastic health effects after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the program module HEALTH for assessment of stochastic health effects in the case of nuclear accidents is presented. Program module HEALTH is a part of the new European real-time computer system RODOS for nuclear emergency and preparedness. Some of the key features of module HEALTH are presented, and some possible further improvements are discussed (author)

  7. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) inhibits expression of the Spot 14 (THRSP) and fatty acid synthase genes and impairs the growth of human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Christina; Olsen, Arne M.; Lewis, Lionel D; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Eastman, Alan; Kinlaw, William B

    2009-01-01

    Spot 14 (THRSP, S14) is a nuclear protein involved in the regulation of genes required for fatty acid synthesis in normal and malignant mammary epithelial and adipose cells. Havartine and Bauman reported that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) inhibits S14 gene expression in bovine mammary and mouse adipose tissues, and reduces milk fat production in cows. We hypothesized that CLA inhibits S14 gene expression in human breast cancer and liposarcoma cells, and that this will retard their growth. Ex...

  8. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12 (marketed as Clarinol® and Tonalin®) and “contributes to a reduction in body fat mass” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to an equimolar mixture (marketed under the trade names Clarinol® and Tonalin®) of the two conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12. The Panel considers that the food is sufficiently characterised. The...... establish that a reduction in body fat mass, when accompanied by an increase in markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation, is a beneficial physiological effect for the target population. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of an...... equimolar mixture of the CLA isomers c9,t11 and t10,c12, marketed under the trade names of Clarinol® and Tonalin®, and a beneficial physiological effect....

  9. Enhancing Quantum Effects via Periodic Modulations in Optomechanical Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Farace, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this new modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over tim...

  10. Budgetary Effects of Including the CEC into Dynamic Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Banse, Martin; Grethe, Harald

    2002-01-01

    The EU Commission suggests to exclude CEC from the dynamic modulation mechanism, being part of the MTR package. This article looks at the distributional aspects of including the CEC into dynamic modulation. Under the current accession proposal the CEC would account for only 18% of the rural development budget by 2006. If modulation would be realised with the CEC being excluded this share would drop to 14% by 2010. According to the criteria proposed by the Commission for the distribution of th...

  11. Effect of Career Education Module on Career Development of Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Jasmi A.; Salleh, Amla; Amat, Salleh; Ghavifekr, Simin; Ariff, Azlinda M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a pre-post and control group design, we examined the effect of a career education module on career development among a group of 122 community college students in Malaysia. The effect of gender and the interaction effect of gender and career education module on career development were also investigated. MANOVA analyses showed significant…

  12. Temperature of rooftop photovoltaic modules: air gap effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bijay L.; Palomino, Ernie G.; TamizhMani, G.

    2009-08-01

    Performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules decreases as the operating temperature increases. This performance drop is typically higher for the crystalline silicon technologies (~0.5%/°C) as compared to thin film technologies (~0.2%/°C). The temperature of rooftop modules in hot climatic locations like Arizona could be as high as 95°C depending on the air gap between the modules and roof surface. There are several thermal models existing to predict the temperatures of open-rack PV modules but no comprehensive thermal models have been reported for the rooftop PV modules/arrays based on an extended field monitoring. The primary goal of this work is to quantitatively model the influence of air gap on the temperature of rooftop modules so that the system integrators could improve their designs to maximize the overall energy output (kWh/kW) of the rooftop PV systems. To predict the temperature of rooftop PV modules/arrays based on irradiance, ambient temperature and wind speed conditions, this paper presents five thermal models for each of the five air gaps (0, 1, 2, 3 & 4 inches) investigated in this work.

  13. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACID (CLA CONTENT AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF SOME COMMERCIAL YOGURTS FROM COLOMBIA CONTENIDO DE ÁCIDO LINOLEICO CONJUGADO (CLA Y COMPOSICIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS EN ALGUNOS YOGURES COMERCIALES DE COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Gutiérrez Álvarez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA of the fifteen commercial yogurts corresponding to the main consumption and distribution in the Colombian market was studied, as well as their fatty acid composition. The concentration of CLA, expressed as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/g fat and as mg of cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoic acid/100 g sample varied between 4.5 and 8.2, and between 7.8 and 25.5, respectively. The higher values of CLA (>6.0 mg/g fat corresponded to those samples containing yogurt starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and species of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. The main fatty acids found in the studied samples were the acids palmitic (10.7-21.2 mg/g fat, oleic (11.9-21.0 mg/g fat, stearic (16.1-37.4 mg/g fat, myristic (3.5-7.8 mg/g fat and butyric (1.6-5.5 mg/g fat. Low PUFA/SFA and MUFA/SFA ratios were found, as typical of milk fat samples.Se estudió la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA de quince yogures de las marcas comerciales de mayor consumo y distribución en el mercado colombiano, así como su composición en ácidos grasos. La concentración de CLA, expresada como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/g de grasa y como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/100 g de yogur osciló entre 4,5 y 8,2 y entre 7,8 y 25,5, respectivamente. Los valores de CLA más elevados (>6,0 mg/g de grasa en los yogures evaluados, correspondieron a aquellos que contenían cultivo de yogur (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus y Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus y especies de Bifidobacterium y Lactobacillus. Los principales ácidos grasos encontrados en las muestras estudiadas, fueron los ácidos palmítico (10,7-21,2 mg/g de grasa, oleico (11,9-21,0 mg/g de grasa, esteárico (16,1-37,4 mg/g de grasa, mirístico (3,5-7,8 mg/g de grasa y butírico (1,6-5,5 mg/g de grasa. Bajas relaciones de PUFA/SFA y de MUFA

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid to grazing cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, S R; Oliveira, D E; Aroeira, L J M; McGuire, M A; Bauman, D E; Lanna, D P D

    2010-03-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are potent anticarcinogens in animal and in vitro models as well as inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland, liver, and adipose tissue. Our objective was to evaluate long-term CLA supplementation of lactating dairy cows in tropical pasture on milk production and composition and residual effects posttreatment. Thirty crossbred cows grazing stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfüensis) were blocked by parity and received 150 g/d of a dietary fat supplement of either Ca-salts of palm oil fatty acids (control) or a mixture of Ca-salts of CLA (CLA treatment). Supplements of fatty acids were mixed with 4 kg/d of concentrate. Grazing plus supplements were estimated to provide 115% of the estimated metabolizable protein requirements from 28 to 84 d in milk (treatment period). The CLA supplement provided 15 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 and 22g of cis-10,trans-12. Residual effects were evaluated from 85 to 112 d in milk (residual period) when cows were fed an 18% crude protein concentrate without added fat. The CLA treatment increased milk production but reduced milk fat concentration from 2.90 to 2.14% and fat production from 437 to 348 g/d. Milk protein concentration increased by 11.5% (2.79 to 3.11%) and production by 19% (422 to 504 g/d) in the cows fed CLA. The CLA treatment decreased milk energy concentration and increased milk volume, resulting in unchanged energy output. Milk production and protein concentration and production were also greater during the residual period for the CLA-treated cows. The CLA treatment reduced production of fatty acids (FA) of all chain lengths, but the larger effect was on short-chain FA, causing a shift toward a greater content of longer chain FA. The CLA treatment increased total milk CLA content by 30% and content of the trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer by 88%. The CLA treatment tended to decrease the number of days open, suggesting a possible effect on reproduction. Under tropical grazing

  15. Early effects of reward anticipation are modulated by dopaminergic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore Apitz

    Full Text Available The abilities to predict future rewards and assess the value of reward delivery are crucial aspects of adaptive behavior. While the mesolimbic system, including dopaminergic midbrain, ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex have long been associated with reward processing, recent studies also indicate a prominent role of early visual brain regions. However, the precise underlying neural mechanisms still remain unclear. To address this issue, we presented participants with visual cues predicting rewards of high and low magnitudes and probability (2 × 2 factorial design, while neural activity was scanned using magnetoencephalography. Importantly, one group of participants received 150 mg of the dopamine precursor levodopa prior to the experiment, while another group received a placebo. For the placebo group, neural signals of reward probability (but not magnitude emerged at ∼ 100 ms after cue presentation at occipital sensors in the event-related magnetic fields. Importantly, these probability signals were absent in the levodopa group indicating a close link. Moreover, levodopa administration reduced oscillatory power in the high (20-30 Hz and low (13-20 Hz beta band during both reward anticipation and delivery. Taken together, our findings indicate that visual brain regions are involved in coding prospective reward probability but not magnitude and that these effects are modulated by dopamine.

  16. Frequency drawing effect of HiTcSC multivibrator-type phase-memory switch module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, T.; Makino, M.; Itoh, T.; Mohri, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1994-05-01

    A phase memory logic module (PML module) was constructed, based on a high-temperature-superconducting core magnetic multivibrator. The phase logic is decided by the majority of multiple inputs, and therefore is similar to Parametron logic; such modules have applications in the field of neural network systems. However, the frequencies of oscillation f{sub osc} of the PML modules are not exactly the same. Therefore, in this paper investigate ways of controlling the f{sub osc} the authors caused by the frequency drawing effect. By using magnetic interaction between two coils of different modules, the frequencies of two modules f{sub 1} and f{sub 2} can be drawn into the same frequency f{sub d}. In this case, the value of f{sub d} depends on the phase differences among the module oscillations, and is not unique.

  17. Channel Capacity of DWDM Networks with Cross-phase Modulation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In dense wavelength division multiplexing(DWDM) optical transmission systems, cross phase modulation(XPM) due to Kerr effect causes phase shift and intensity modulation in each channel, which will lead the channel capacity to be a random variable. An expression of the channel capacity dealing with XPM effect is presented, and the correctness and accuracy of this method are demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  18. Effects of modulated electron beams and cavities on reditrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reditron has been shown to be an efficient, high-power, single-mode, monochromatic microwave generator in a virtual cathode configuration. The authors studied the use of premodulated electron beams and cavities in a reditron to enhance the efficiency of microwave production and electromagnetic mode selectivity, respectively. They found that electron beam current modulation of only 15% can significantly increase the generation of microwaves by the oscillating virtual cathode. Their 2-D particle-in-cell simulations show that modulation of the electron beam at the oscillating frequency of the virtual cathode in a reditron can increase the microwave power by 40%. Further, it can also provide frequency fine tuning when the electron beam is modulated at a slightly off-resonant frequency. They demonstrated in computer simulations that a 2.0 MeV electron beam can be modulated at a 15% level in a 15-cm long cavity when the appropriate cavity mode is excited

  19. Anticancer effects of the organosilicon multidrug resistance modulator SILA 421.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Ulrike; Zeillinger, Robert; Kars, Meltem Demirel; Zalatnai, Attila; Molnar, Jozsef; Hamilton, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    1,3-dimethyl-1,3-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-bis{3-[1(4-butylpiperazinyl)]-propyl}-disiloxan-tetrahydrochlorid (SILA 421) is a compound that was developed as modulator of the ABC cassette transporter P-glycoprotein. Furthermore, it exerted antimicrobial toxicity, vascular effects, downregulation of chaperone induction and plasmid curing in bacterial cells. Here, this drug was found to possess cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines that do not overexpress P-gp, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging between 1.75±0.38 μM for GLC14 small cell lung cancer and 34.00±4.75 μM for PC-3 prostate cancer cells. HL-60 leukemia and MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells exhibited cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death in response to SILA 421. Assessment of global gene expression of SILA 421-treated HL-60 cells was employed to identify cellular pathways affected by the compound and revealed disturbance of DNA replication, transcription and production of apparently misfolded proteins. Endoplasmatic reticulum stress and downregulation of cell cycle, cellular repair mechanisms and growth factor-related signaling cascades eventually resulted in induction of apoptosis in this cell line. In addition to the well established P-gp inhibitory effect of SILA compounds, reversal of resistance to taxanes, which had been reported for SILA 421 and the related molecule SILA 409, may be linked to downregulation of gene expression of kinesins. Interference with DNA replication and transcription seems to be the common denominator of antimicrobial activity and plasmid curing, as well as anticancer toxicity in human cell lines. Thus, in consideration of the full range of putative cellular targets found in the present work, the application of these SILA compounds for treatment of tumors should be further evaluated. PMID:22263791

  20. Research Progress of CLA in Ruminant%共轭亚油酸在反刍动物中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寅; 孙满吉

    2011-01-01

    CLA is a natural ingredient in food, which mostly exists in ruminant products. The synthesis of CLA can be affected by animal species, the different fat source of daily grain, the different feeding mode and environment. The addition of CLA in diets can improve the physiological function of ruminant, while milk fat rate and milk yield are also significantly affected. The paper summarized the research progress of CLA at these stage through the synthesis of CLA, influencing factors and the impact on milk fat percentage.%共轭亚油酸(CLA)是食品中的天然成分,主要存在于反刍动物制品中。CLA的合成受到动物种类、日粮中不同的脂肪来源、饲喂方式和环境的影响。CLA的添加在改善反刍动物生理功能的同时,对乳脂率和产奶量也有显著影响。文章概述了CLA的合成、影响因素及对乳脂率等方面的影响,并对现阶段CLA在反刍动物中的研究进展进行了综述。

  1. Antitumor efficacy of a novel CLA-PTX microemulsion against brain tumors: in vitro and in vivo findings

    OpenAIRE

    Li D; Yang K; Li JS; Ke XY; Duan Y.; Du R; Song P; Yu KF; Ren W; Huang D; Li XH; Hu X.; Zhang X; Zhang Q

    2012-01-01

    Dan Li,1 Ke Yang,1 Jie-Si Li,1 Xi-Yu Ke,1 Yu Duan,1 Ruo Du,1 Ping Song,1 Ke-Fu Yu,1 Wei Ren,1 Dan Huang,1 Xing-Huo Li,1 Xin Hu,1 Xuan Zhang,1 Qiang Zhang1,21Department of Pharmaceutics, 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, ChinaBackground: Considering the observations that linoleic acid conjugated with paclitaxel (CLA-PTX) possesses antitumor activity against brain tumors, is able to cross the blood–bra...

  2. Permeabilidade do tecido adiposo à água e ao glicerol: efeito do ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA)

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Paula Cavaco da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada na Faculdade de ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa para obtenção do grau de mestre em Biotecnologia Este trabalho teve como objectivo estudar a influência do ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) suplementado numa alimentação rica em gorduras saturadas provenientes de uma fonte vegetal (óleo de palma) e gorduras insaturadas provenientes de uma fonte animal (gordura de ovino), no transporte membranar de água e de glicerol do tecido adiposo de ratos obesos...

  3. Modulational instability of dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas: Modulation obliqueness, background ion nonthermality, and dust charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oblique modulational instability of dust acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized warm dusty plasma with nonthermal ions, taking into account dust grain charge variation (charging), is investigated. A nonlinear Schroedinger-type equation governing the slow modulation of the wave amplitude is derived. The effects of dust temperature, dust charge variation, ion deviation from Maxwellian equilibrium (nonthermality) and constituent species' concentration on the modulational instability of DA waves are examined. It is found that these parameters modify significantly the oblique modulational instability domain in the k-θ plane. Explicit expressions for the instability rate and threshold have been obtained in terms of the dispersion laws of the system. The possibility and conditions for the existence of different types of localized excitations are also discussed. The findings of this investigation may be useful in understanding the stable electrostatic wave packet acceleration mechanisms close to the Moon, and also enhances our knowledge on the occurrence of instability associated to pickup ions around unmagnetized bodies, such as comets, Mars, and Venus

  4. Vulnerability of Space Station Freedom Modules: A Study of the Effects of Module Perforation on Crew and Equipment. Volume 2; Analytical Modeling of Internal Debris Cloud Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, William P.; Davenport, Quint

    1995-01-01

    In this part of the report, a first-principles based model is developed to predict the overpressure and temperature effects of a perforating orbital debris particle impact within a pressurized habitable module. While the effects of a perforating debris particles on crew and equipment can be severe, only a limited number of empirical studies focusing on space vehicles have been performed to date. Traditionally, crew loss or incapacitation due to a perforating impact has primarily been of interest to military organizations and as such have focused on military vehicles and systems. The module wall considered in this study is initially assumed to be a standard Whippletype dual-wall system in which the outer wall protects the module and its inhabitants by disrupting impacting particles. The model is developed in a way such that it sequentially characterizes the phenomena comprising the impact event, including the initial impact, the creation and motion of a debris cloud within the dual-wall system, the impact of the debris cloud on the inner wall, the creation and motion of the debris cloud that enters the module interior, and the effects of the debris cloud within the module on module pressure and temperature levels. This is accomplished through the application of elementary shock physics and thermodynamic theory.

  5. Damping Effects of Drogue Parachutes on Orion Crew Module Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, simulation predictions of the Orion Crew Module (CM) dynamics with drogue parachutes deployed are under-predicting the amount of damping as seen in free-flight tests. The Apollo Legacy Chute Damping model has been resurrected and applied to the Orion system. The legacy model has been applied to predict CM damping under drogue parachutes for both Vertical Spin Tunnel free flights and the Pad Abort-1 flight test. Comparisons between the legacy Apollo prediction method and test data are favorable. A key hypothesis in the Apollo legacy drogue damping analysis is that the drogue parachutes' net load vector aligns with the CM drogue attachment point velocity vector. This assumption seems reasonable and produces good results, but has never been quantitatively proven. The wake of the CM influences the drogue parachutes, which makes performance predictions of the parachutes difficult. Many of these effects are not currently modeled in the simulations. A forced oscillation test of the CM with parachutes was conducted in the NASA LaRC 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) to gather additional data to validate and refine the Apollo legacy drogue model. A second loads balance was added to the original Orion VST model to measure the drogue parachute loads independently of the CM. The objective of the test was to identify the contribution of the drogues to CM damping and provide additional information to quantify wake effects and the interactions between the CM and parachutes. The drogue parachute force vector was shown to be highly dependent on the CM wake characteristics. Based on these wind tunnel test data, the Apollo Legacy Chute Damping model was determined to be a sufficient approximation of the parachute dynamics in relationship to the CM dynamics for preliminary entry vehicle system design. More wake effects should be included to better model the system. These results are being used to improve simulation model fidelity of CM flight with drogues deployed, which has

  6. High Performance Power Module for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Peterson, Peter Y.; Bowers, Glen E.

    2002-01-01

    Previous efforts to develop power electronics for Hall thruster systems have targeted the 1 to 5 kW power range and an output voltage of approximately 300 V. New Hall thrusters are being developed for higher power, higher specific impulse, and multi-mode operation. These thrusters require up to 50 kW of power and a discharge voltage in excess of 600 V. Modular power supplies can process more power with higher efficiency at the expense of complexity. A 1 kW discharge power module was designed, built and integrated with a Hall thruster. The breadboard module has a power conversion efficiency in excess of 96 percent and weighs only 0.765 kg. This module will be used to develop a kW, multi-kW, and high voltage power processors.

  7. Thermal Impedance Model of High Power IGBT Modules Considering Heat Coupling Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Thermal loading of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important for the reliability performance of power electronic systems, thus the thermal information of critical points inside module like junction temperature must be accurately modeled and predicted. Usually in the existing...... thermal models, only the self-heating effects of the chips are taken into account, while the thermal coupling effects among chips are less considered. This could result in inaccurate temperature estimation, especially in the high power IGBT modules where the chips are allocated closely to each other with...... large amount of heat generated. In this paper, both the self-heating and heat-coupling effects in the of IGBT module are investigated based on Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation, a new thermal impedance model is thereby proposed to better describe the temperature distribution inside IGBT modules. It...

  8. Contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado (cla) y composición de ácidos grasos en algunos yogures comerciales de colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Álvarez, Luis Felipe; Martínez, Jenny Carolina; Barón Núñez, Marby Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Se estudió la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) de quince yogures de las marcas comerciales de mayor consumo y distribución en el mercado colombiano, así como su composición en ácidos grasos. La concentración de CLA, expresada como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/g de grasa y como mg de ácido cis-9,trans-11 octadecadienoico/100 g de yogur osciló entre 4,5 y 8,2 y entre 7,8 y 25,5, respectivamente. Los valores de CLA más elevados (>6,0 mg/g de grasa) en los yogure...

  9. Multicolor Talbot effect and control of polychromatic light patterns in modulated photonic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze propagation of polychromatic light patterns in modulated photonic lattices created with arrays of periodically curved coupled optical waveguides. We demonstrate that in waveguide arrays with specially designed modulation periodic recurrences of input light patterns produced by white-light and supercontinuum sources can be realized, e.g., through multicolor Talbot effect

  10. EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS-WAVE, PULSED, AND SINUSOIDAL-AMPLITUDE-MODULATED MICROWAVES ON BRAIN ENERGY METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparison of the effects of continuous wave, sinusoidal-amplitude modulated, and pulsed square-wave-modulated 591-MHz microwave exposures on brain energy metabolism was made in male Sprague Dawley rats (175-225g). Brain NADH fluorescence, adensine triphosphate (ATP) concentrat...

  11. Effects of temporal envelope modulation on acoustic signal recognition in a vocal fish, the plainfin midshipman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, J R; Bass, A H

    2001-06-01

    Amplitude modulation is an important parameter defining vertebrate acoustic communication signals. Nesting male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus, emit simple, long duration hums in which modulation is strikingly absent. Envelope modulation is, however, introduced when the hums of adjacent males overlap to produce acoustic beats. Hums attract gravid females and can be mimicked with continuous tones at the fundamental frequency. While individual hums have flat envelopes, other midshipman signals are amplitude modulated. This study used one-choice playback tests with gravid females to examine the role of envelope modulation in hum recognition. Various pulse train and two-tone beat stimuli resembling natural communication signals were presented individually, and the responses compared to those for continuous pure tones. The effectiveness of pulse trains was graded and depended upon both pulse duration and the ratio of pulse to gap length. Midshipman were sensitive to beat modulations from 0.5 to 10 Hz, with fewer fish approaching the beat than the pure tone. Reducing the degree of modulation increased the effectiveness of beat stimuli. Hence, the lack of modulation in the midshipman's advertisement call corresponds to the importance of envelope modulation for the categorization of communication signals even in this relatively simple system. PMID:11425135

  12. Buoyancy Effects in Fully-Modulated, Turbulent Diffusion Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanson, J. C.; Johari, H.; Ghaem-Maghami, E.; Stocker, D. P.; Hegde, U. G.; Page, K. L.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed combustion appears to have the potential to provide for rapid fuel/air mixing, compact and economical combustors, and reduced exhaust emissions. The objective of this experiment (PuFF, for Pulsed-Fully Flames) is to increase the fundamental understanding of the fuel/air mixing and combustion behavior of pulsed, turbulent diffusion flames by conducting experiments in microgravity. In this research the fuel jet is fully-modulated (i.e., completely shut off between pulses) by an externally controlled valve system. This gives rise to drastic modification of the combustion and flow characteristics of flames, leading to enhanced fuel/air mixing compared to acoustically excited or partially-modulated jets. Normal-gravity experiments suggest that the fully-modulated technique also has the potential for producing turbulent jet flames significantly more compact than steady flames with no increase in exhaust emissions. The technique also simplifies the combustion process by avoiding the acoustic forcing generally present in pulsed combustors. Fundamental issues addressed in this experiment include the impact of buoyancy on the structure and flame length, temperatures, radiation, and emissions of fully-modulated flames.

  13. Effect of PV module output power on module temperature; Taiyo denchi no shutsuryoku henka ga module hyomen ondo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, T.; Kitamura, A. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Igaki, K.; Mizumoto, T. [Kanden Kako Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Effect of the photovoltaic (PV) module output power variation on the module surface temperature has been investigated by field measurements. PV modules with capacity of 54 W were used for the temperature measurements. Three 2 kW-class PV systems were operated. T-type thermocouples were used for measuring temperatures. Measurement time intervals were 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 24 hours. Measurement period was between May 25, 1995 and June 25, 1996. The surface temperature increased during non-loaded PV output, and decreased during load-carrying PV output. Difference of the surface temperature between non-loaded PV output and load-carrying PV output was 3.5{degree}C at maximum through a year. The surface temperature was saturated within 30 minutes. When PV output was changed in 30 or 60 minutes interval, the variation of surface temperature was distinctly observed. When PV output was changed in 15 minutes interval, it was not observed distinctly. There was no difference of the surface temperatures during the time zones with less solar radiation, such as in the morning and evening, and at night. Except these time zones, difference of the surface temperatures was 3.5{degree}C at maximum. 4 figs.

  14. CLA as a nutraceutical molecule: concentration in foods, estimation of intake in Italy and genetic factors affecting thesynthesis in animal tissue

    OpenAIRE

    CICOGNINI, FRANCESCA MARIA

    2014-01-01

    Gli isomeri del CLA (Acido Linoleico Coniugato) potrebbero avere effetti benefici sulla salute in relazione al raggiungimento di un determinato intake, ma, per quanto ci è dato sapere, non esiste letteratura in Italia riguardante l'effettiva quantità di CLA negli alimenti e al relativo intake nell'uomo. Quindi è stata condotta una quantificazione degli isomeri c9,t11 e t10,c12 negli alimenti disponibili sul mercato italiano, seguita da una stima dell'intake di questi isomeri in una coorte del...

  15. The effect of input phase modulation to a phase-sensitive optical amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tian; Horrom, Travis; Jones, Kevin M; Lett, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Many optical applications depend on amplitude modulating optical beams using devices such as acousto-optical modulators (AOMs) or optical choppers. Methods to add amplitude modulation (AM) often inadvertently impart phase modulation (PM) onto the light as well. While this PM is of no consequence to many phase-insensitive applications, phase-sensitive processes can be affected. Here we study the effects of input phase and amplitude modulation on the output of a quantum-noise limited phase-sensitive optical amplifier (PSA) realized in hot $^{85}$Rb vapor. We investigate the dependence of PM on AOM alignment and demonstrate a novel approach to quantifying PM by using the PSA as a diagnostic tool. We then use this method to measure the alignment-dependent PM of an optical chopper which arises due to diffraction effects as the chopper blade passes through the optical beam.

  16. Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid Associated With Aerobic Exercise on Body Fat and Lipid Profile in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alex S; Pina, Fábio Luiz; Dodero, Soraya R; Silva, Danilo R; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Sugihara Júnior, Paulo; Fernandes, Rodrigo R; Barbosa, Décio S; Cyrino, Edilson S; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of 8 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation associated with aerobic exercise on body fat and lipid profile on obese women. We performed a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled trial with 28 obese women who received 3.2 g/day of CLA or 4 g/day of olive oil (placebo group) while performing an 8-week protocol of aerobic exercise. Dietary intake (food record), body fat (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and biochemical analysis (blood sample) were assessed before and after the intervention period. Independent of CLA supplementation, both groups improved (p CLA group, 13.2%; PLC group, 14.8%), trunk fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -0.5%), leg fat (CLA group, -1.0%; PLC group, -1.6%), and total body fat (CLA group, -1.7%; PLC group, -1.3%) after the 8-week intervention. No main effect or Group × Time interaction was found for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and plasma lipoproteins (p > .05). We conclude that CLA supplementation associated with aerobic exercise has no effect on body fat reduction and lipid profile improvements over placebo in young adult obese women. PMID:26402730

  17. Modulation Effects in Dark Matter-Electron Scattering Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Samuel K; Mishra-Sharma, Siddharth; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2015-01-01

    One of the next frontiers in dark-matter direct-detection experiments is to explore the MeV to GeV mass regime. Such light dark matter does not carry enough kinetic energy to produce an observable nuclear recoil, but it can scatter off electrons, leading to a measurable signal. We introduce a semi-analytic approach to characterize the resulting electron-scattering events in atomic and semiconductor targets, improving on previous analytic proposals that underestimate the signal at high recoil energies. We then use this procedure to study the time-dependent properties of the electron-scattering signal, including the modulation fraction, higher-harmonic modes and modulation phase. The time dependence can be distinct in a non-trivial way from the nuclear scattering case. Additionally, we show that dark-matter interactions inside the Earth can significantly distort the lab-frame phase-space distribution of sub-GeV dark matter.

  18. Cost Effective System Modeling of Active Micro- Module Solar Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Faisal Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing interests in using renewable energies are coming from solar thermal energy and solar photovoltaic systems to the micro production of electricity. Usually we already have considered the solar tracking topology in large scale applications like power plants and satellite but most of small scale applications don’t have any solar tracker system, mainly because of its high cost and complex circuit design. From that aspect, this paper confab microcontroller based one dimensional active micro-module solar tracking system, in which inexpensive LDR is used to generate reference voltage to operate microcontroller for functioning the tracking system. This system provides a fast response of tracking system to the parameters like change of light intensity as well as temperature variations. This micro-module model of tracking system can be used for small scale applications like portable electronic devices and running vehicles.

  19. Influence of working gas properties on MWPC anode wire modulation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hu; Chen, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    For MWPCs used for X-ray position detection, simulation studies of the anode wire modulation effect of the detector were carried out using the Garfield program. Different gas mixtures were used as the working gas in the simulation, so as to obtain the influence of the X-ray cross section and electron diffusion coefficient of the working gases on the anode wire modulation effect of an MWPC with anode wire spacing of 2 mm. Results show that, though a working gas with higher X-ray cross section implies a larger average drift distance for the ionized electrons, such gas mixtures are of little use in improving the anode wire modulation effect of MWPCs. It is found that the transverse electron diffusion coefficient is the determining factor for the extent of the anode wire modulation effect in the detector. Supported by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Education Department (11ZA140)

  20. Thermal Impedance Model of High Power IGBT Modules Considering Heat Coupling Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Thermal loading of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) modules is important for the reliability performance of power electronic systems, thus the thermal information of critical points inside module like junction temperature must be accurately modeled and predicted. Usually in the existing thermal models, only the self-heating effects of the chips are taken into account, while the thermal coupling effects among chips are less considered. This could result in inaccurate temperature estima...

  1. Pharmacological modulation of late radio-induced side effects; Modulation pharmacologique des effets tardifs de l'irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, C.; Bourhis, J.; Deutsch, E. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Monceau, V. [Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Vozenin, M.C. [Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Unite mixte de recherche ' cellules souches et radiations' , Inserm unite 967, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, institut de radiobiologie cellulaire et moleculaire (iRCM), direction des sciences du vivant, CEA, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, universite Paris-Diderot Paris 7, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, universite Paris Sud 11, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    After normal tissue exposure to radiation therapy, late side effects can occur and may reduce patients' quality of life due to their progressive nature. Late toxicities occurrence is the main limiting factor of radiotherapy. Various biological disorders related to irradiation are involved in the development of late toxicities including fibrosis. The present review will focus on the recent physiopathological and molecular mechanisms described to be involved in the development of late radio-induced toxicities, that provide therapeutic perspective for pharmaco-modulation. (authors)

  2. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Hepatic Steatosis: Species-Specific Effects on Liver and Adipose Lipid Metabolism and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Vyas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the recent studies on effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA on hepatic steatosis and hepatic and adipose lipid metabolism highlighting the potential regulatory mechanisms. Methods. Sixty-four published experiments were summarized in which trans-10, cis-12 CLA was fed either alone or in combination with other CLA isomers to mice, rats, hamsters, and humans were compared. Summary and Conclusions. Dietary trans-10, cis-12 CLA induces a severe hepatic steatosis in mice with a more muted response in other species. Regardless of species, when hepatic steatosis was present, a concurrent decrease in body adiposity was observed, suggesting that hepatic lipid accumulation is a result of uptake of mobilized fatty acids (FA from adipose tissue and the liver's inability to sufficiently increase FA oxidation and export of synthesized triglycerides. The potential role of liver FA composition, insulin secretion and sensitivity, adipokine, and inflammatory responses are discussed as potential mechanisms behind CLA-induced hepatic steatosis.

  3. Deposição de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) em tilápias-do-nilo Deposition of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Nile tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Dena dos Santos; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Makoto Matsushita; Lilian Carolina Rosa da Silva; Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva; Daniele Botaro; Priscila Pinsetta Sales

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a deposição de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) em filés de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus). Foram utilizados peixes com 121,08 ± 8,48 g, distribuídos em quatro caixas de cimento amianto (1,0 m³ cada uma) e arraçoados até saciedade aparente, duas vezes ao dia, durante 49 dias. Como alimento, utilizou-se ração comercial extrusada com 28% de PB e 3.000 kcal de energia digestível/kg, acrescida de 2% do produto comercial Luta-CLAâ (BASF Brasil). No início do exp...

  4. On the effect of self-steepening in modulation instability

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Santiago M; Bonetti, Juan; Grosz, Diego F

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the problem of modulation instability (MI) in optical fibers, including higher-order dispersion terms, self-steepening, and Raman response. We derive expressions for the MI gain and use them to explore the role of self-steepening towards a high-power limit. We show that, contrary to common wisdom, there is a pump power level that maximizes the MI gain. Further increasing the power not only diminishes the gain, but eventually makes it disappear. We believe these findings to be of special relevance, for instance, when applied to the generation of supercontinuum in the mid and far infrared bands. Finally, numerical simulations confirming our analytical results are presented.

  5. Análise espectral do vento no Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara (CLA Spectral analysis of the surface winds at the Alcântara Lauching Center (CLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magnago

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se as características espectrais da turbulência atmosférica na região do Centro de Lançamento de Alcântara (CLA, que sofre a influência de uma falésia e da brisa marítima provinda do oceano, visando obter informações sobre a estrutura turbulenta do local. Determinaram-se os espectros das 3 componentes do vento (u, v e w na camada limite superficial sobre esse terreno homogêneo, visando aplicações no Projeto e Desenvolvimento dos foguetes de sondagem e do Veículo Lançador de Satélite (VLS realizado pelo IAE. Os dados foram coletados no mês de agosto do ano de 1999 através de um anemômetro sônico tridimensional. Também se obteve resultados envolvendo as relações σu/u*, σv/u* e σw/u*, todos condizentes com os previstos na literatura.In this work is analyzed the spectral characteristics of atmospheric turbulence in the Alcântara Launching Center (CLA, which suffers the influence of a cliff and of the sea breeze coming from the ocean. The atmospheric spectra were determined for the 3 wind components (u, v, and w in the superficial boundary layer, to be used for the Research and Developpment (R&D of sounding rockets and Satellite Launch Vehicle (VLS build by IAE. The data were collected during the month of August, 1999 using a 3D sonic anemometer. Results involving the σu/u*, σv/u* and σw/u* relations are obtained, and are all consistent with those reported in literature.

  6. Implication of PKS type I gene and chromatographic strategy for the biodiscovery of antimicrobial polyketide metabolites from endosymbiotic Nocardiopsis prasina CLA68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, H. C. Yashavantha; Rakshith, Devaraju; Gurudatt, D. M.; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2016-06-01

    Advanced approach in probing for polyketide antimicrobials requires novel genomics and chromatographic strategies. An endophytic strain CLA68 was isolated from the root of Combretum latifolium Blume (Combretaceae) collected from the Western Ghats of Southern India. Strain CLA68 was then identified as Nocardiopsis prasina by its characteristic culture morphology and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Biosynthetic polyketide synthase genes were investigated using two pairs of degenerate primers. Ethyl acetate extract of CLA68 exhibited broad spectrum activity against a panel of test human pathogens. PKS type-I gene detection and chromatographic strategy yielded a robust polyketide antimicrobial compound which identified as nocapyrone E. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the purified compound against MRSA and other human pathogens ranged between 25 and 100 μg/ml. The present work highlights the utility of N. prasina CLA68 as potential source for antimicrobial polyketide nocapyrone E which could help to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. This study demonstrates feasibility of PKS type-I gene-based molecular approach and chemical investigation by chromatographic approach is the best method for prediction and rapid discovery of novel polyketides from endosymbiotic actinomycetes. The sequence data of this endosymbiotic actinomycete is deposited in GenBank under the accession no. KP269077.

  7. The energy range of drift effects in the solar modulation of cosmic ray electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nndanganeni, Rendani R.; Potgieter, Marius S.

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive three-dimensional modulation model is used to study the energy range of drift effects in the solar modulation of cosmic ray (galactic) electrons. Drift effects are defined as the difference between modulated spectra at a given position in the heliosphere computed for the two solar magnetic polarity cycles. The process of curvature, gradient and current sheet drifts in the heliosphere, together with convection, adiabatic energy losses and diffusion have profound effects on electron modulation. However, several reports indicated that the so-called weak-scattering drifts caused an overestimation of drift effects. It is illustrated that drift effects can be reduced in two ways, explicitly and implicitly; both influence the energy range where these effects are present but the implicit approach is more subtle to recognize and understand. A new very local interstellar spectrum for electrons is used. Electrons are most suitable for this type of study because they experience far less adiabatic energy losses than protons so that they respond directly with changes of the diffusion coefficients down to very low kinetic energy, E ∼ 1 MeV. In general, taking several modulation considerations into account, drift effects for electrons at the Earth are getting increasingly larger from above ∼10 MeV, with a maximum effect around 100 MeV, then gradually subsides to become less significant above ∼10 GeV.

  8. Effect of finite spectral width on the modulational instability of Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of finite spectral width on the modulational instability of Langmuir waves has been investigated applying a method developed to derive a transport equation for the spectral density. The numerical results presented show that the spectrum is stable against modulational perturbation when the spectral width exceeds some critical value. For a Gaussian spectrum, the maximum growth rate is less than that for a monochromatic wave but the domain of modulational instability is extended. For a uniform distribution the shift in the growth rate curve towards the region of shorter wavelength is more pronounced and, for a certain range of spectral width, the maximum growth rate exceeds that for a monochromatic wave. (author)

  9. Effects of intensity-modulated radiotherapy on human oral microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in the biodiversity of the oral microflora of patients with head and neck cancer treated with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Pooled dental plaque samples were collected during the radiation treatment from patients receiving IMRT (n=13) and CRT (n=12). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to analyze the temporal variation of these plaque samples. The stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates were also compared between IMRT and CRT patients. Reductions in the severity of hyposalivation were observed in IMRT patients compared with CRT patients. We also observed that the temporal stability of the oral ecosystem was significantly higher in the IMRT group (69.96±7.82%) than in the CRT group (51.98±10.45%) (P<0.05). The findings of the present study suggest that IMRT is more conducive to maintaining the relative stability of the oral ecosystem than CRT. (author)

  10. Quantum cascade laser combs: effects of modulation and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Gustavo; Faist, Jérôme

    2015-01-26

    Frequency comb formation in quantum cascade lasers is studied theoretically using a Maxwell-Bloch formalism based on a modal decomposition, where dispersion is considered. In the mid-infrared, comb formation persists in the presence of weak cavity dispersion (500 fs2 mm-1) but disappears when much larger values are used (30'000 fs2 mm-1). Active modulation at the round-trip frequency is found to induce mode-locking in THz devices, where the upper state lifetime is in the tens of picoseconds. Our results show that mode-locking based on four-wave mixing in broadband gain, low dispersion cavities is the most promising way of achieving broadband quantum cascade laser frequency combs. PMID:25835922

  11. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  12. Effect of dynamical non-neutrality on the modulational instability of laser propagating through hot magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, modulational instability of a laser pulse in a hot magnetized plasma is investigated. Nonlinear relativistic equation, describing the amplitude evolution of a laser with finite longitudinal and transversal structure, is obtained. Taking into account the plasma dynamical non-neutrality caused by the ponderomotive force, the growth rate of the modulational instability is derived. Effect of the pulse length on the instability growth rate is investigated

  13. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  14. Field-effect modulation of anomalous Hall effect in diluted ferromagnetic topological insulator epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, CuiZu; Liu, MinHao; Zhang, ZuoCheng; Wang, YaYu; He, Ke; Xue, QiKun

    2016-03-01

    High quality chromium (Cr) doped three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) Sb2Te3 films are grown via molecular beam epitaxy on heat-treated insulating SrTiO3 (111) substrates. We report that the Dirac surface states are insensitive to Cr doping, and a perfect robust long-range ferromagnetic order is unveiled in epitaxial Sb2- x Cr x Te3 films. The anomalous Hall effect is modulated by applying a bottom gate, contrary to the ferromagnetism in conventional diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMSs), here the coercivity field is not significantly changed with decreasing carrier density. Carrier-independent ferromagnetism heralds Sb2- x Cr x Te3 films as the base candidate TI material to realize the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect. These results also indicate the potential of controlling anomalous Hall voltage in future TI-based magneto-electronics and spintronics.

  15. Nanoscale Field Effect Optical Modulators Based on Depletion of Epsilon-Near-Zero Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng

    2015-01-01

    The field effect in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors plays a key role in field-effect transistors (FETs), which are the fundamental building blocks of modern digital integrated circuits. Recent works show that the field effect can also be used to make optical/plasmonic modulators. In this paper, we report field effect electro-absorption modulators (FEOMs) each made of an ultrathin epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) film, as the active material, sandwiched in a silicon or plasmonic waveguide. Without a bias, the ENZ film maximizes the attenuation of the waveguides and the modulators work at the OFF state; contrariwise, depletion of the carriers in the ENZ film greatly reduces the attenuation and the modulators work at the ON state. The double capacitor gating scheme is used to enhance the modulation by the field effect. According to our simulation, extinction ratio up to 3.44 dB can be achieved in a 500-nm long Si waveguide with insertion loss only 0.71 dB (85.0%); extinction ratio up to 7.86 dB can be achieved...

  16. On the problem of using immune modulators for prophylaxis of late effects induced by internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the experimental modeling of late effects induced by intake of radionuclides (131I, 238,239Pu, 90Sr) the attempt to investigate the possibility of protection using immune modulators was made. Co-polymer of 2-methyl-5-vinylpyridine and N-vinylpyrrolidone (sovidon), G immunoglobulin and interferon, Fc-fragment of immunoglobulin and S, parathyphi B. Breslau vaccine were used as immune modulators. The positive prophylactic influence of immune modulators was found for average life span, radiation action, immune status, of rates of occurrence and developments of breast tumors induced by 131I, 239Pu and 90Sr. At the same time the increase in osteosarcoma cumulative rate induced by immune modulators in case of body intake of 238Pu and 90Sr was registered

  17. Frequency Modulation of Directly Imaged Exoplanets: Geometric Effect as a Probe of Planetary Obliquity

    CERN Document Server

    Kawahara, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    We consider the time-frequency analysis of a scattered light curve by a directly imaged exoplanet. We show that the geometric effect due to planetary obliquity and orbital inclination induce the frequency modulation of the apparent diurnal periodicity. We construct a model of the frequency modulation and compare with the instantaneous frequency extracted from the pseudo-Wigner distribution of the simulated light curves of a cloudless Earth. The model provides good agreement with the simulated modulation factor even for the light curve with Gaussian noise comparable to the signal. Notably, the shape of the instantaneous frequency is sensitive to the difference between prograde, retrograde, and pole-on spin rotations. Whereas our technique requires the static property of the albedo map, it does not need to solve the albedo map of the planet. The time-frequency analysis is complementary to other methods which utilize the amplitude modulation. This paper demonstrates the importance of the frequency domain of the ...

  18. Effect of beam emittance on self-modulation of long beams in plasma wakefield accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Lotov, K V

    2015-01-01

    The initial beam emittance determines the maximum wakefield amplitude that can be reached as a result of beam self-modulation in the plasma. The wakefield excited by the fully self-modulated beam decreases linearly with the increase of the beam emittance. There is a value of initial emittance beyond which the self-modulation does not develop even if the instability is initiated by a strong seed perturbation. The emittance scale at which the wakefield is twice suppressed with respect to the zero-emittance case (the so called critical emittance) is determined by inability of the excited wave to confine beam particles radially and is related to beam and plasma parameters by a simple formula. The effect of beam emittance can be observed in several discussed self-modulation experiments.

  19. The debris module: An effective tool for the analysis of melt progression in LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DEBRIS module was developed to deal with the analysis of core melt processes in light water reactors (LWR's). It was designed to address the important processes associated with the late phase of a core meltdown. This phase encompasses the period following the loss of intact rod geometry and ending with vessel head failure. It is characterized by the melting and relocation of ceramic rich materials through a rubblized medium composed primarily of fuel pellet and oxidized cladding fragments. Of particular interest are the dynamics of the melting process, the relocation of the components, the formation of crusts, retention of molten materials by the crust, and remelting of crusts.'ne DEBRIS module treats these processes in a two-dimensional (r,z) geometry solving the continuity, momentum, and energy equations to describe the dynamics of meltdown. The DEBRIS models are described together with some of the analyses to which the module has been applied. In particular, a description is given of the DEBRIS module analysis of the MP-1 experiment. The DEBRIS module appears to have significant potential for the analysis of late phase meltdown processes and can be effectively used both in a stand-alone mode or in conjunction with the severe accident analysis codes (MELCOR, SCDAP). In addition, the module may prove effective for treatment of the early phase processes as well

  20. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  1. Trading experience modulates anterior insula to reduce the endowment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lester C P; Ye, Karen J; Asai, Kentaro; Ertac, Seda; List, John A; Nusbaum, Howard C; Hortaçsu, Ali

    2016-08-16

    People often demand a greater price when selling goods that they own than they would pay to purchase the same goods-a well-known economic bias called the endowment effect. The endowment effect has been found to be muted among experienced traders, but little is known about how trading experience reduces the endowment effect. We show that when selling, experienced traders exhibit lower right anterior insula activity, but no differences in nucleus accumbens or orbitofrontal activation, compared with inexperienced traders. Furthermore, insula activation mediates the effect of experience on the endowment effect. Similar results are obtained for inexperienced traders who are incentivized to gain trading experience. This finding indicates that frequent trading likely mitigates the endowment effect indirectly by modifying negative affective responses in the context of selling. PMID:27482098

  2. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase 1 in hearts of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jize; Li Defa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Results from different trails have provided evidence of protective effects of cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on cardiovascular diseases. But the inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase 1 (PHD1) associated with induction of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) by CLA in these protective effects has never been reported before. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the two predominant cis-9,trans-11 (c9, t11), trans-10,cis-12 (t10, c12) CLA isomers and mixture of...

  3. Effect of tube current modulation for dose estimation using a simulation tool on body CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tube current modulation for dose estimation of a body computed tomography (CT) examination using a simulation tool. The authors also compared longitudinal variations in tube current values between iterative reconstruction (IR) and filtered back-projection (FBP) reconstruction algorithms. One hundred patients underwent body CT examinations. The tube current values around 10 organ regions were recorded longitudinally from tube current information. The organ and effective doses were simulated by average tube current values and longitudinal modulated tube current values. The organ doses for the bladder and breast estimated by longitudinal modulated tube current values were 20 % higher and 25 % lower than those estimated using the average tube current values, respectively. The differences in effective doses were small (mean, 0.7 mSv). The longitudinal variations in tube current values were almost the same for the IR and FBP algorithms. (authors)

  4. Quantum effect on modulational instability of laser radiation in a semiconductor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modulational instability of a high power laser radiation in a homogeneous unmagnetized piezoelectric semiconductor plasma has been investigated analytically. The fluid equations of quantum hydrodynamics coupled with the Maxwell's equations have been employed to find the nonlinear response of electrons in the piezoelectric semiconductor. The analysis is carried out through the derivation of the nonlinear dispersion relation for the four-wave modulational instability. An expression for the growth rate of the instability including the quantum effect due to Bohm potential has been obtained from the nonlinear dispersion relation. The quantum effect is observed to play a vital role in the four-wave scattering process. For a particular set of parameters, the quantum effect enhances the growth rate of the modulational instability by 37% compared to the growth rate predicted by the classical theory.

  5. Modulation of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects by endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Olga; Rodríguez-Árias, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3, 4 Methylenedioxymethanphetamine (MDMA) is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that displays numerous pharmacological effects, including neurotoxicity. MDMA, or ecstasy, acts by inducing the release of different neurotransmitters depending on the animal species and, in particular, it produces the release of serotonin and dopamine. MDMA induces rewarding and reinforcing effects in rodents, primates and humans, and is currently consumed as an illicit psychostimulant among young people. One of the most reported side effects is the hyperthermic effect and the neurotoxicity on central serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, depending on the species of animal. It seems that MDMA may also produce neurotoxic effects in humans. To date, the most consistent findings associated to MDMA consumption in humans relate to cognitive deficits in heavy users. MDMA when consumed as an illicit psychostimulant is commonly co-used with other abusers, being frequently associated with cannabinoids. The interaction between MDMA and cannabis effects is complex. Cannabis derivatives act on endocannabinoid system. Thus, at cellular levels, cannabinoids acting through CB1 cannabinoid receptors display opposite effects to those induced by MDMA, and they have been reported to develop neuroprotective actions, including the blockage of MDMA induced neurotoxicity, in laboratory animals. However, cannabis use is a recognized risk factor in the presentation and development of neuropsychiatric disorders, and also contributes to the development of psychological problems and cognitive failures observed in MDMA users. This paper represents a brief overview of the pharmacological interaction between MDMA and cannabis derivatives acting in the endocannabinoid system. We have evaluated recent findings in the literature of the most representative pharmacological effects displayed by both types of drugs. We analyze both, the synergic and opposite effects produced by these

  6. The Modulation of Ionospheric Alfven Resonator on Heating HF Waves and the Doppler Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NiBin-bin; ZhaoZheng-yu; XieShu-guo

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of HF waves in IAR can produce many nonlinear effects, including the modulation effect of IAR on HF waves and the Doppler effect. To start with the dependence of the ionospheric electron temperature varia-tions on the Alfven resonant field, We discuss the mechanism of the modulation effect and lucubrate possible reasons for the Doppler effect. The results show that the Alfven resonant field can have an observable modulation effect on HF waves while its mechanism is quite different from that of Schumann resonant field on HF waves. The depth of modulation of IAR on HF waves has a quasi-quadratic relation with the Alfven field, which directly inspires the formation of cross-spectrum between ULF waves and HF waves and results in spectral peaks at some gyro-frequencies of IAR. With respect to the Doppler effect during the propagation of HF waves in IAR, it is mainly caused by the motion of the high-speed flyer and the drifting electrons and the frequency shift from the phase vari-ation of the reflected waves can be neglected when the frequency of HF incident wave is high enough.

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid and calcium co-supplementation improves bone health in ovariectomised mice

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yooheon; Kim, Jonggun; Scrimgeour, Angus G.; Condlin, Michelle L.; Kim, Daeyoung; Park, Yeonhwa

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health concern for the elderly; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to improve overall bone mass when calcium is included as a co-supplement. However, potential effects of CLA and calcium on bone mass during a period of bone loss have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary calcium modulates the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in preventing bone loss, using an ovariectomised mouse model. CLA supplementation si...

  8. A motor isolation effect: when object manipulability modulates recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérard, Katherine; Lagacé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that the language production architecture is recruited during verbal retention, and others proposed that spatial memory relies on the oculomotor system. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of the motor system in object memory, by examining the effect of objects' affordances on retention. In a serial recall task, we manipulated the manipulability of objects to retain in memory. We used an isolation paradigm where we isolated the manipulability level of one object from the list. We showed that recall performance improved for the isolated object (Experiment 1) and that this advantage was abolished when participants were required to perform motor suppression during the task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we showed that the abolition of the motor isolation effect in Experiment 2 was not due to an effect of distraction since motor suppression was shown not to interfere with a semantic isolation effect. It is argued that motor affordances play a role in object memory, but only when the motor characteristics of an object allow discriminating it from the other objects in the list. PMID:25176227

  9. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  10. Effects of UV on power degradation of photovoltaic modules in combined acceleration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Trang; Heta, Yushi; Doi, Takuya; Masuda, Atsushi

    2016-05-01

    UV exposure and other factors such as high/low temperature, humidity and mechanical stress have been reported to degrade photovoltaic (PV) module materials. By focusing on the combined effects of UV stress and moisture on PV modules, two new acceleration tests of light irradiation and damp heat (DH) were designed and conducted. The effects of UV exposure were validated through a change in irradiation time (UV dosage) and a change of the light irradiation side (glass side vs backsheet side) in the UV-preconditioned DH and cyclic sequential tests, respectively. The chemical corrosion of finger electrodes in the presence of acetic acid generated from ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant was considered to be the main origin of degradation. The module performance characterized by electroluminescence images was confirmed to correlate with the measured acetic acid concentration and Ag finger electrode resistance.

  11. Effects of various parameters on PV-module power and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic is one of the most potential renewable energy resources. • Overheating of the solar cell reduces the PV module efficiency. • Various operating parameters affect the solar cell performance. - Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) modules are one of the most effective, sustainable, and ecofriendly systems. Only a small portion of solar irradiation incident to these modules is converted into electricity. The rest of the irradiation is converted into heat, which overheats the PV module and reduces its performance. In this experiment, various operating parameters such as irradiation intensity, cooling fluid mass flow rate, humidity, and dust have been varied to observe their effects on PV module performance. A heat exchanger was used on the back surface of the PV module to cool cell temperature. At 1000 W/m2 irradiation level without cooling, cell temperature increased to 56 °C; the output power decreased to 20.47 W; and the electrical efficiency decreased to 3.13%. A decrease in output power of about 0.37 W and a decrease in electrical efficiency of 0.06% per 1 °C increase in solar cell temperature were observed. For every 100 W/m2 increase in the irradiation intensity, the output power increased by 2.94 W, with a 4.93 °C increase in solar cell temperature. The reduction of the module temperature to 22.4 °C increased the output power by 8.04 W and increased the electrical efficiency by 1.23% by applying water cooling on the PV module. This value is 27.33% higher than the output power and efficiency produced without cooling. The output power decreased by about 3.16 W with a 20% increase in relative humidity, and the output power is reduced by 7.70 W because of dust falling on the surface of the solar module. In conclusion, the parameters of solar cell temperature, irradiation intensity, cooling fluid mass flow rate, humidity, and dust affect PV-module performance

  12. Nucleus accumbens lesions modulate the effects of Methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    Podet, Adam; Lee, Min J.; Swann, Alan C.; Dafny, Nachum

    2010-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD, Ritalin) is the prescribed drug of choice for treatment of ADHD. In recent years, the diagnosis rate of ADHD has increased dramatically, as have the number of MPD prescriptions. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants produces behavioral sensitization in rats, an experimental indicator of a drug’s potential liability. In studies on cocaine and amphetamine, this effect has been reported to involve the nucleus accumbens (NAc), one of the nuclei belonging ...

  13. THE ANOREXIANT EFFECT OF OLEOYLETHANOLAMIDE IS MODULATED BY NEURONAL HISTAMINE

    OpenAIRE

    G. Provensi; L. Munari; Blandina, P.; Galeotti, N; M.B. Passani

    2012-01-01

    The modulatory effect of both brain histamine (HA) and Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on feeding behaviour is robust, but nothing is known about the temporal or causal relationship between HA and OEA in controlling food intake. To learn if OEA affects feeding behaviour via the histaminergic system we measured food consumption in normal and genetically or pharmacologically HA-deprived mice. We use sv129 WT and HDC-KO and CD1 male mice that were food deprived for 12 h and then...

  14. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP (VFT MODULE IN LEARNING BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbaizura HARIS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This study was conducted to 60 students employing a quasi-experimental design involving a treatment group taught using the VFT module and a control group who were taught using conventional methods. Analysis into the effectiveness of the virtual module was done descriptively, followed by inferential analysis involving the two-way ANOVA. The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of pre and post achievement between students taught using VFT and students who were taught using conventional methods for objective, structure and essay type questions. The study concluded that teaching and learning by using the VFT module, integrated with ICT, has a positive impact on student achievement whencompared to conventional methods. This study focuses on the use of the VFT recognizing that teachers are often unable to conduct a real field trip on location.

  15. Effect of MicroRNA Modulation on Bioartificial Muscle Function

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, Caroline; Cheng, Cindy S.; Kraus, William E.; Truskey, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular therapies have recently employed the use of small RNA molecules, particularly microRNAs (miRNAs), to regulate various cellular processes that may be altered in disease states. In this study, we examined the effect of transient muscle-specific miRNA inhibition on the function of three-dimensional skeletal muscle cultures, or bioartificial muscles (BAMs). Skeletal myoblast differentiation in vitro is enhanced by inhibiting a proliferation-promoting miRNA (miR-133) expressed in muscle t...

  16. Extracellular Matrix Proteins Modulate Antimigratory and Apoptotic Effects of Doxorubicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Said

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticancer drug resistance is a multifactorial process that includes acquired and de novo drug resistances. Acquired resistance develops during treatment, while de novo resistance is the primary way for tumor cells to escape chemotherapy. Tumor microenvironment has been recently shown to be one of the important factors contributing to de novo resistance and called environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR. Two forms of EMDR have been described: soluble factor-mediated drug resistance (SFM-DR and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR. Anthracyclines, among the most potent chemotherapeutic agents, are widely used in clinics against hematopoietic and solid tumors. Their main mechanism of action relies on the inhibition of topoisomerase I and/or II and the induction of apoptosis. Beyond this well-known antitumor activity, it has been recently demonstrated that anthracyclines may display potent anti-invasive effects when used at subtoxic concentrations. In this paper, we will describe two particular modes of EMDR by which microenvironment may influence tumor-cell response to one of these anthracyclines, doxorubicin. The first one considers the influence of type I collagen on the antimigratory effect of doxorubicin (CAM-DR. The second considers the protection of tumor cells by thrombospondin-I against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis (SFM-DR.

  17. Hydrogen bonded NHO chains formed by chloranilic acid (CLA) with 4,4′-di-t-butyl-2,2′-bipyridyl (dtBBP) in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The molecular complex dtBBP·CLA, its crystal structure at 100 K, infrared, the DFT calculations, a phase transition at ca. 414 K, DSC, dielectric response analysis, proton dynamics, antiferroelectric properties. Highlights: ► We synthesized a novel molecular complex, dtBBP·CLA. ► We determined the crystal structure of dtBBP·CLA at 100 K. ► We detected a phase transition at 414 K in the complex and postulated its mechanism. ► We interpreted the infrared spectra of dtBBP·CLA. ► We used DFT to calculate the molecular structure of dtBBP·CLA in solid state. - Abstract: In crystalline state 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid, CLA) forms with 4,4′-di-t-butyl-2,2′-bipyridyl (dtBBP) the hydrogen bonded chains along the b-axis. From one side of the CLA molecule the proton transfer takes place and the hydrogen bond length is very short (2.615 Å). A continuous infrared absorption is observed for dtBBP·CLA in the wavenumber range between 3100 and 800 cm−1 also indicating the strong hydrogen bonds. The DSC measurements show a weak, close to continuous, phase transition at 414 K. The complex dielectric permittivity for a single crystal sample was measured in the temperature range 100–440 K and at frequencies between 200 Hz and 2 MHz. The dielectric response is a combination of semiconducting properties and a relaxation process most probably connected with the proton dynamics in the hydrogen bonds. The mechanism of the structural phase transition is discussed.

  18. Effectiveness of Diversity Infusion Modules on Students' Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…

  19. Effects of Articulation Styles on Perception of Modulated Tempos in Violin Excerpts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, John M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Macleod, Rebecca B.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated effects of legato, staccato and pizzicato articulation styles on the perception of modulated tempos. Seventy-two music majors served as participants. Two solo violin excerpts were chosen with contrasting rhythmic rates and were recorded in all three articulation styles. Examples were presented to listeners in three conditions of…

  20. Personalized USB Biosensor Module for Effective ECG Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladojević, Srdjan; Arsenović, Marko; Lončar-Turukalo, Tatjana; Sladojević, Miroslava; Ćulibrk, Dubravko

    2016-01-01

    The burden of chronic disease and associated disability present a major threat to financial sustainability of healthcare delivery systems. The need for cost-effective early diagnosis and disease prevention is evident driving the development of personalized home health solutions. The proposed solution presents an easy to use ECG monitoring system. The core hardware component is a biosensor dongle with sensing probes at one end, and micro USB interface at the other end, offering reliable and unobtrusive sensing, preprocessing and storage. An additional component is a smart phone, providing both the biosensor's power supply and an intuitive user application for the real-time data reading. The system usage is simplified, with innovative solutions offering plug and play functionality avoiding additional driver installation. Personalized needs could be met with different sensor combinations enabling adequate monitoring in chronic disease, during physical activity and in the rehabilitation process. PMID:27225580

  1. Effect of the tubular-fan drum shapes on the performance of cleaning head module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geometrical effects of a tubular-fan drum on the performance improvement of the cleaning head module of a vacuum cleaner were investigated. In this study, the number of blades and the width of the blade were selected as the design parameters. Static pressure, eccentric vortex, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and suction efficiency were analysed and tabulated. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics method was used with an SST (Shear Stress Transfer) turbulence model to simulate the flow field at the suction of the cleaning head module using the commercial code ANSYS-CFX. Suction pressure distributions were graphically depicted for different values of the design parameters

  2. Effect of tunneling injection on the modulation response of quantum dot lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yekta kiya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, modulation bandwidth characteristics of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD laser were theoretically investigated. Simulation was done by using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Effect of carrier relaxation life time, temperature and current density on characteristics of tunneling injection QD laser (TIL and conventional QD laser (CL were analyzed. Results showed that tunneling injection in QD laser increases the modulation bandwidth indicating that it is very useful for using in the fiber optic communication systems.

  3. Can ropinirole modulate reinforcing subjective effects of cocaine in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giovanni Icro eMaremmani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated, by means of the Cocaine Rush Visual Analogue Scale (CRVAS, the impact of ropinirole on the expected rush induced by cocaine in a group of heroin addicts abusing cocaine; the self-reported reaction to the rush blockade (if any on cocaine consumption, and the correlations between this self-reported reaction and individual, clinical and therapeutic parameters. Nineteen cocaine abuser heroin-dependent patients entered the study. Their experienced cocaine rush was 61.31±32.1% of the maximum effect previously experienced. Compared with their previous rush intensity 16 patients experienced significantly lower intensity, three the same intensity and none a higher intensity. In particular, two patients experienced a complete blockade of rush and reported a reduced use of cocaine. Fourteen patients experienced a partial blockade of cocaine rush; of these, nine reported they had reduced their use of cocaine. Ropinirole does diminish the subjective intensity of an expected cocaine rush, so interfering with the dynamics of reward, while supporting its possible use in the treatment of cocaine dependence.

  4. Interplay between inertial and non-Newtonian effects on the flow in weakly modulated channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Ramadan, E.; Khayat, R.E. [Univ. of Western Ontario, Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, London, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: eaburama@engga.uwo.ca; rkhayat@eng.uwo.ca

    2002-07-01

    The flow inside a spatially modulated channel is examined for shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. The modulation amplitude is assumed to be small. A regular perturbation expansion of the flow field is used, coupled to a variable-step finite-difference scheme, to solve the problem. Since this method is intended to provide a fast and accurate alternative to conventional methods in the limit of small modulation amplitude, establishing the accuracy of the solution is critical. Numerical accuracy and convergence will be assessed, therefore. The influence of the wall geometry, inertia and non-Newtonian effects are investigated systematically. In particular, the influence of the flow and fluid parameters is examined on the conditions for the onset of separation. (author)

  5. Interplay between inertial and non-Newtonian effects on the flow in weakly modulated channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flow inside a spatially modulated channel is examined for shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. The modulation amplitude is assumed to be small. A regular perturbation expansion of the flow field is used, coupled to a variable-step finite-difference scheme, to solve the problem. Since this method is intended to provide a fast and accurate alternative to conventional methods in the limit of small modulation amplitude, establishing the accuracy of the solution is critical. Numerical accuracy and convergence will be assessed, therefore. The influence of the wall geometry, inertia and non-Newtonian effects are investigated systematically. In particular, the influence of the flow and fluid parameters is examined on the conditions for the onset of separation. (author)

  6. Effect of Phase Shifted Frequency Modulation on Two Level Atom-Field Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.V. Priyesh; Ramesh Babu Thayyullathil

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the effect of phase shifted frequency modulation on two level atom with field interaction using Jaynes-Cummings model. Here the frequency of the interacting field is sinusoidally varying with time with a constant phase. Due to the presence of phase in the frequency modulation, the variation of population inversion with time is different from the standard case. There are no exact collapses and revivals in the variation of population inversion but it oscillates sinusoidally with time. In coherent field atom interaction the population inversion behaves as in the case of Fock state atom interaction, when frequency modulation with a non zero phase is applied. The study done with squeezed field has shown the same behavior of the population inversion.

  7. Effects of Parkinson's disease on brain-wave phase synchronisation and cross-modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, K.; Schumann, A. Y.; Plotnik, M.; Gans, F.; Penzel, T.; Fietze, I.; Hausdorff, J. M.; Kantelhardt, J. W.

    2010-02-01

    We study the effects of Parkinson's disease (PD) on phase synchronisation and cross-modulation of instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies for brain waves during sleep. Analysing data from 40 full-night EEGs (electro-encephalograms) of ten patients with PD and ten age-matched healthy controls we find that phase synchronisation between the left and right hemisphere of the brain is characteristically reduced in patients with PD. Since there is no such difference in phase synchronisation for EEGs from the same hemisphere, our results suggest the possibility of a relation with problems in coordinated motion of left and right limbs in some patients with PD. Using the novel technique of amplitude and frequency cross-modulation analysis, relating oscillations in different EEG bands and distinguishing both positive and negative modulation, we observe an even more significant decrease in patients for several band combinations.

  8. Effect of Plasma Modulation on the Corona of a Tesla Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Robert; Schneider, Hans; Zwicker, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Modulating an audio signal into a Tesla coil, one can create a plasma speaker. Documented use of plasma speakers dates back to 1900 with William Duddell's singing arc. In order to understand the mechanisms present in plasma speaker, and further the research that has been done by Nicholas Braithwaite, et al. in observing audio modulation in plasma (Visualizing Gas Heating from an RF Plasma Loudspeaker; 2008); a plasma speaker was constructed with a 4 MHz plasma frequency providing ~10,000 volts in the secondary coil, which generates a 1-inch corona emitted from the electrode. The 4 MHz signal is outside of the audio range, therefore any audio signal can be modulated on top of the plasma without approaching the frequency of the plasma. A high speed video camera is used to look at plasma dynamics as a function of electrode shape and input power. Providing pure tones to modulate the speaker, the emitted corona will be analyzed at a frame rate at or above the frequency of the test signal to determine the effects of the modulation on the plasma. Audio quality will be studied with a frequency analyzer and correlated to plasma parameters.

  9. Revealing effects modulated by external source by using magnetotelluric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, magnetotellurics (MT) have been used in the context of continuous monitoring of seismic active areas [1], in order to detect anomalous temporal patterns in the MT transfer function connected to earthquakes. In fact, because of its large investigation depth, the MT method could detect deep resistivity variations in the subsoil at seismogenic depths, due to modifications of the local stress field. Several physical models show that such variations are mainly connected to deep fluid motions, which, furthermore, are considered to be responsible of the generation of anomalous electromagnetic signals. To study the temporal stability of the MT transfer functions, since 2003 a MT monitoring network has been installed by I.M.A.A. C.N.R. in the Agri Valley (Southern Italy). In particular, the data measured at station Tramutola, located in proximity of the fault which generated one of the biggest earthquakes in the southern Italy (Mw=7.0, 16 December 1857), were analysed. These data are of very good quality because the site is unaffected by possible sources of electromagnetic noise. During the observation period no strong earthquakes occurred and no earthquake-related effects were observed in the data; nevertheless, the analysis of resistivity time series , by means advanced statistical techniques like the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis [2] and the spectral analysis, has revealed a periodic fluctuation at about 27 days in the period range [10-150s], which are supposed to be mainly linked to oscillations of the magnetotelluric source described by means of the use of geomagnetic indexes.

  10. The directional rate and the modulation effect for direct supersymmetric matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of the theoretically expected dark matter is central to particle physics and cosmology. Current fashionable supersymmetric models provide a natural dark matter candidate which is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). Such models, combined with fairly well understood physics like the quark substructure of the nucleon and the nuclear structure (form factor and/or spin response function), permit the evaluation of the event rate for LSP-nucleus elastic scattering. The thus obtained event rates are, however, very low or even undetectable. So it is imperative to exploit the modulation effect, i.e., the dependence of the event rate on the Earth's annual motion. Also it is useful to consider the directional rate, i.e., its dependence on the direction of the recoiling nucleus. We study such a modulation effect both in non-directional and directional experiments. We calculate both the differential and the total rates using isothermal, symmetric as well as only axially asymmetric, and non-isothermal, due to caustic rings, velocity distributions. We find that in the symmetric case the modulation amplitude is small. The same is true for the case of caustic rings. The inclusion of asymmetry, with a realistic enhanced velocity dispersion in the galactocentric direction, yields an enhanced modulation effect, especially in directional experiments

  11. THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION USING MODIFICATION MODULE TOWARDS NUTRITIONAL INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY IN KENDARI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy metabolism speeds up during pregnancy that requires pregnant women to have extra amount of nutritions. Provision of education on nutrition during pregnancy is an effort to prevent and tackle malnutrition. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of education using modification module towards nutritional intake during pregnancy in Kendari, Indonesia Methods: This was Quasi Experimental study with pre-post design. There were 4 groups in this study, which were: 1 The group that received educational intervention using a modification module from the MHC book of the Department of Health, 2 The group that received educational intervention using MHC book of the Department of Health, 3 The group that only used modification modules from MHC book of the Department of Health, and 4 The group that only used the MHC book of Department of Health. The intervention was given for 6 months. Seventy eight of 4-months pregnant women were selected in this study. Data were collected by using 24 hours food recall instrument, and questionnaire adopted from Child and Maternal Nutrition Survey’s Questionnaire of Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University. Data were analyzed by using Wilcoxon test and Kruskal Wallis test. Results: Results showed there was an effect of education by using the module modifications to the intake of nutritions during pregnancy. Increased nutrient intake was higher in pregnant women using a module class modifications. Conclusion: Education affects nutritional intake of pregnant women. Changes in nutritional intake was higher in group 1 (education modules with modifications, compared with the education group MCH handbook. It is suggested that mothers should improve the nutrition during pregnancy for the better growth of the fetus, composition and metabolic changes in the mother's body.

  12. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  13. Relativistic effects on the modulational instability of electron plasma waves in quantum plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudev Ghosh; Swarniv Chandra; Sailendra Nath Paul

    2012-05-01

    Relativistic effects on the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves are investigated using the one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model for a twocomponent electron–ion dense quantum plasma. Using standard perturbation technique, a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) containing both relativistic and quantum effects has been derived. This equation has been used to discuss the modulational instability of the wave. Through numerical calculations it is shown that relativistic effects significantly change the linear dispersion character of the wave. Unlike quantum effects, relativistic effects are shown to reduce the instability growth rate of electron plasma waves.

  14. Radioprotective effect of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative to modulate the radiation-induced clastogenic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, relieving oxidative stress, promoting antioxidant activity and modulating immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. It has long been known that some of the most effective radioprotective agents are those which contain sulphydryl groups. The present study reports an evaluation of radical scavenging property and radioprotective property of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative. The lethal dose of Electron beam radiation (EBR) was studied by survival assay. The dose reduction factor (DRF) of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole (TR1) was calculated by taking the ratio between LD50 of EBR with and without TR1 treatment. Radical scavenging property of TR1 was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The clastogenic effects of EBR were recorded by Micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and DNA fragmentation assay in hepatic cells of mice. The survival assay results showed that 10Gy was the LD50 of EBR. The calculated DRF for TR1 was found to be 1.2. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed a positive result when it compared with the standard glutathione. Treatment of mice with 100 mg of TR1 for 15 days before irradiation significantly (P<0.05) reduced the frequency of micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells and also reduced the DNA fragmentation in hepatic cells. The result obtained in the present study concludes that TR1 has a protective effect against the EBR-induced mortality and clastogenicity. (author)

  15. Radioprotective effect of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative to modulate the radiation - induced clastogenic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure to radiation. Several physico-chemical and biological factors collectively contribute to the damage caused by radiation and are, therefore, targets for developing radioprotectors. Chemicals capable of scavenging free radicals, relieving oxidative stress, promoting antioxidant activity and modulating immune response have been some of the radioprotectors extensively investigated with limited success. It has long been known that some of the most effective radioprotective agents are those which contain sulphydryl groups. 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole (AMMT) is one of the well known 1,2,4 triazole derivatives with functional sulphydryl group. The present study reports an evaluation of radical scavenging and radioprotective properties of sulphydryl group containing triazole derivative. The lethal dose of electron beam radiation (EBR) was studied by survival assay. The dose reduction factor (DRF) of AMMT was calculated using the ratio between LD50 of EBR with and without AMMT treatment. Radical scavenging property of AMMT was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The clastogenic effects of EBR were recorded by Micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and DNA fragmentation assay in mice hepatic cells. The survival assay results showed that the LD50 of EBR was 10 Gy. The calculated DRF for AMMT was found to be 1.2. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed a positive result when it was compared with the standard glutathione. Treatment of mice with 100 mg of AMMT for 15 days before irradiation significantly (P<0.05) reduced the frequency of micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells and also reduced the DNA fragmentation in hepatic cells. The results obtained in the present study indicated that AMMT has a protective effect against the EBR-induced mortality and clastogenicity. (author)

  16. Effects of d-Amphetamine and Haloperidol on Modulation of the Human Acoustic Startle Response

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Kaviani

    2006-01-01

    "nObjective:This study aimed to examine the effects of haloperidol and amphetamine on human startle response modulated by emotionally-toned film clips. "n "n Method:Sixty participants, in two groups (one receiving haloperidol and the other receiving amphetamine) were tested using electromyography (EMG) to measure eye-blink muscle (orbicular oculi) while different emotions were induced by six 2-minute film clips. Results:An affective rating shows the negative and positive effects of the two dr...

  17. A variant in ANKK1 modulates acute subjective effects of cocaine: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Spellicy, Catherine J.; Harding, Mark J.; Hamon, Sara C.; Mahoney, James J.; Reyes, Jennifer A; Thomas R. Kosten; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard; Nielsen, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether functional variants in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain-containing 1 gene (ANKK1) and/or the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) modulate the subjective effects (reward or non-reward response to a stimulus) produced by cocaine administration. Cocaine-dependent participants (N = 47) were administered 40 mg of cocaine or placebo at time 0, and a subjective effects questionnaire (visual analog scale) was administered 15 minutes prior to cocaine administratio...

  18. Near-Infrared Light Modulated Photothermal Effect Increases Vascular Perfusion and Enhances Polymeric Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Melancon, Marites P.; Elliott, Andrew M.; Shetty, Anil; Huang, Qian; Stafford, R. Jason; Li, Chun

    2011-01-01

    Hyperthermia, which is heating of the tumors above 43 °C for about 30 min, has been known to modulate vascular permeability for enhanced chemotherapy. However, it is not clear whether similar effects exists when temperature at tumor sites is elevated above 43 °C, such as temperature achieved in laser-induced photothermal ablation (PTA) therapy. Also, the effect of timing of chemotherapeutic drug administration following heating in the efficiency of drug delivery is not established. In this st...

  19. Modulation of radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced normal tissue response as prophylaxis of their side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Ionising radiation and cytostatic agents used in cancer therapy induce an immune response in normal tissues mediated by cytokines and adhesion molecules. Strategies modulating this response may downregulate cancer therapy side effects. The data published on the given topic have been reviewed. Conclusions. The strategies influencing the tissue immune response with the aim to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are conflicting. Some of them inhibit this response supposing that an exaggerated reaction may have a damaging effect (e.g. corticosteroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), lisofylline, anti-cytokine antibodies, anti-sense oligonucleotides, sialyl Lewis X analogues), others promote this reaction by inducing endogenous production of cytokines (AS101) or use recombinant forms of appropriate cytokines involved in this response in order to intensify the physiologic tissue response. In clinical practice, corticosteroids and NSAID are widely used to modulate this response, while other agents are still experimental. (author)

  20. Interdisciplinary Integration of the CVS Module and Its Effect on Faculty and Student Satisfaction as Well as Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Nasra N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beyond the adoption of the principles of horizontal and vertical integration, significant planning and implementation of curriculum reform is needed. This study aimed to assess the effect of the interdisciplinary integrated Cardiovascular System (CVS module on both student satisfaction and performance and comparing them to those of the temporally coordinated CVS module that was implemented in the previous year at the faculty of Medicine of the King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Methods This interventional study used mixed method research design to assess student and faculty satisfaction with the level of integration within the CVS module. A team from the medical education department was assembled in 2010/2011 to design a plan to improve the CVS module integration level. After delivering the developed module, both student and faculty satisfaction as well as students performance were assessed and compared to those of the previous year to provide an idea about module effectiveness. Results Many challenges faced the medical education team during design and implementation of the developed CVS module e.g. resistance of faculty members to change, increasing the percentage of students directed learning hours from the total contact hour allotted to the module and shifting to integrated item writing in students assessment, spite of that the module achieved a significant increase in both teaching faculty and student satisfaction as well as in the module scores. Conclusion The fully integrated CVS has yielded encouraging results that individual teachers or other medical schools who attempt to reformulate their curriculum may find valuable.

  1. Effective nonlinearities and multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation in modulated quasi-phase-matching gratings

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Ole; Graversen, T. W.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev

    2000-01-01

    Quasi-phase-matching gratings induces Kerr effects in quadratic nonlinear materials. We show analytically and confirm numerically how modulating the grating changes the effective quadratic and cubic nonlinearities and allows for multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation.

  2. Ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA em dietas para tilápia-do-nilo: desempenho produtivo, composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in Nile tilapia diets: productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Dena dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de CLA na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia-do-nilo. Foram utilizados 80 peixes revertidos, com 109 ± 10 g, distribuídos em oito tanques (0,8 m³ cada, em densidade de 10 peixes/tanque, durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se a inclusão na dieta de 2% de CLA (Luta-CLA®-BASF, Brasil com 60% dos isômeros (cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10,cis-12 e 40% do veículo (ácido oléico e outros ácidos graxos. Como dieta utilizou-se ração comercial extrusada, com 29% PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg de ração. Ao final do experimento, todos os peixes foram utilizados para avaliação do desempenho, da composição química e do perfil de ácidos graxos no fígado e nos filés. A taxa de eficiência protéica, o rendimento de carcaça, o índice hepatossomático e a gordura visceral não diferiram com a adição de CLA a dieta. A adição de CLA a dieta promoveu melhora no ganho de peso, aumento no consumo e melhora na conversão alimentar. Os peixes alimentados com dietas com adição de CLA apresentaram aumento na composição de ácidos graxos saturados e redução dos ácidos graxos n-6 nos filés. Houve também aumento na composição de ácidos graxos n-3 e de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados totais no fígado. Houve aumento da proteína nos filés de tilápias alimentadas com dietas enriquecidas com CLA. O uso do CLA melhora variáveis de desempenho produtivo, afeta o metabolismo e a proporção dos ácidos graxos nos filés e fígados e aumenta proteína nos filés em tilápia-do-nilo.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the addition of CLA in the diet on Nile tilapia productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition. Eighty reversed fish with 109 ± 10 g were used, distributed in eight tanks (0.8 m³ each in density of ten fishes/tank, during 90 days. It was evaluated the inclusion in the diets of 2% of CLA (Luta

  3. Effective Landau-Zener transitions in the circuit dynamical Casimir effect with time-varying modulation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodonov, A. V.; Militello, B.; Napoli, A.; Messina, A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the dissipative single-qubit circuit QED architecture in which the atomic transition frequency undergoes a weak external time modulation. For sinusoidal modulation with linearly varying frequency we derive effective Hamiltonians that resemble the Landau-Zener problem of finite duration associated with a two- or multilevel systems. The corresponding off-diagonal coupling coefficients originate either from the rotating or the counter-rotating terms in the Rabi Hamiltonian, depending on the values of the modulation frequency. It is demonstrated that in the dissipationless case one can accomplish almost complete transitions between the eigenstates of the bare Rabi Hamiltonian even for relatively short durations of the frequency sweep. To assess the experimental feasibility of our scheme we solved numerically the phenomenological and the microscopic quantum master equations in the Markovian regime at zero temperature. Both models exhibit qualitatively similar behavior and indicate that photon generation from vacuum via effective Landau-Zener transitions could be implemented with the current technology on the time scales of a few microseconds. Moreover, unlike the harmonic dynamical Casimir effect implementations, our proposal does not require precise knowledge of the resonant modulation frequency to accomplish meaningful photon generation.

  4. Effects of butter naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid on blood lipids and LDL particle size in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cow milk is a natural source of the cis 9, trans 11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA and trans vaccenic acid (VA. These fatty acids may be considered as functional foods, and the concentration in milk can be increased by e.g. sunflower oil supplementation to the dairy cow feed. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of regular butter with a special butter naturally enriched in c9,t11-CLA and VA on plasma lipids in female growing pigs. The experimental period lasted for three weeks and the two diets provided daily either 5.0 g c9,t11-CLA plus 15.1 g VA or 1.3 g c9,t11-CLA plus 3.6 g VA. Results The serum concentrations of c9,t11-CLA, VA and alpha-linolenic acid were increased and myristic (14:0 and palmitic acid (16:0 were reduced in the pigs fed the CLA+VA-rich butter-diet compared to regular butter, but no differences in plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL particle size distribution or total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol were observed among the two dietary treatment groups. Conclusion Growing pigs fed diets containing butter naturally enriched in about 20 g c9,t11-CLA plus VA daily for three weeks, had increased serum concentrations of alpha-linolenic acid and decreased myristic and palmitic acid compared to pigs fed regular butter, implying a potential benefit of the CLA+VA butter on serum fatty acid composition. Butter enriched in CLA+VA does not appear to have significant effect on the plasma lipoprotein profile in pigs.

  5. Effective nonlinearities and multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation in modulated quasi-phase-matching gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Graversen, T. W.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev

    2000-01-01

    Quasi-phase-matching gratings induces Kerr effects in quadratic nonlinear materials. We show analytically and confirm numerically how modulating the grating changes the effective quadratic and cubic nonlinearities and allows for multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation.......Quasi-phase-matching gratings induces Kerr effects in quadratic nonlinear materials. We show analytically and confirm numerically how modulating the grating changes the effective quadratic and cubic nonlinearities and allows for multi-wavelength second-harmonic generation....

  6. The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on the open-circuit voltage generated by thin-film thermoelectric modules of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 (p-type) and Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 (n-type) materials was investigated. A Cr buffer layer, whose thickness generally needs to be optimized to improve adhesion depending on the substrate surface condition, such as roughness, was deposited between thermoelectric thin films and glass substrates. When the Cr buffer layer was 1 nm thick, the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivity of 1 µm thermoelectric thin films with the buffer layers were approximately equal to those of the thermoelectric films without the buffer layers. When the thickness of the Cr buffer layer was 1 µm, the same as the thermoelectric films, the Seebeck coefficients of the bilayer films were reduced by an electrical current flowing inside the Cr buffer layer and the generation of Cr2Te3. The open-circuit voltage of the thin-film thermoelectric modules decreased with an increase in the thickness of the Cr buffer layer, which was primarily induced by the electrical current flow. The reduction caused by the Cr2Te3 generation was less than 10% of the total voltage generation of the modules without the Cr buffer layers. The voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules could be controlled by the Cr buffer layer thickness. (paper)

  7. Frequency Modulation of Directly Imaged Exoplanets: Geometric Effect as a Probe of Planetary Obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    We consider the time–frequency analysis of a scattered light curve of a directly imaged exoplanet. We show that the geometric effect due to planetary obliquity and orbital inclination induce the frequency modulation of the apparent diurnal periodicity. We construct a model of the frequency modulation and compare it with the instantaneous frequency extracted from the pseudo-Wigner distribution of simulated light curves of a cloudless Earth. The model provides good agreement with the simulated modulation factor, even for the light curve with Gaussian noise comparable to the signal. Notably, the shape of the instantaneous frequency is sensitive to the difference between the prograde, retrograde, and pole-on spin rotations. While our technique requires the albedo map to be static, it does not need to solve the albedo map of the planet. The time–frequency analysis is complementary to other methods which utilize the amplitude modulation. This paper demonstrates the importance of the frequency domain of the photometric variability for the characterization of directly imaged exoplanets in future research.

  8. Effects of d-Amphetamine and Haloperidol on Modulation of the Human Acoustic Startle Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Kaviani

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective:This study aimed to examine the effects of haloperidol and amphetamine on human startle response modulated by emotionally-toned film clips. "n "n Method:Sixty participants, in two groups (one receiving haloperidol and the other receiving amphetamine were tested using electromyography (EMG to measure eye-blink muscle (orbicular oculi while different emotions were induced by six 2-minute film clips. Results:An affective rating shows the negative and positive effects of the two drugs on emotional reactivity, neither amphetamine nor haloperidol had any impact on the modulation of the startle response. Conclusion: The methodological and theoretical aspects of the study and findings will be discussed.

  9. Throughflow and Gravity Modulation Effects on Heat Transport in a Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palle Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vertical throughflow and time-periodic gravity field has been investigated on Darcy convection. The amplitude of gravity modulation is considered to be very small and the disturbances are expanded in terms of power series of amplitude of convection. A weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed for the stationary mode of convection. As a consequence heat transport evaluated in terms of the Nusselt number, which is governed by the non-autonomous Ginzburg-Landau equation. Throughflow can stabilize or destabilize the system for stress free and isothermal boundary conditions. The amplitude and frequency of modulation, Prandtl Darcy number on heat transport have been analyzed and depicted graphically. Further, the study establishes that the heat transport can be controlled effectively by a mechanism that is external to the system. Finally flow patterns are presented in terms of streamlines and isotherms.

  10. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    OpenAIRE

    He Mao L; Mir Priya S; Okine Erasmus K; Napadajlo Helen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synth...

  11. Strained silicon modulation field-effect transistor as a new sensor of terahertz radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report on room temperature detection of terahertz radiation from strained-Si modulation-doped field-effect transistors. A non-resonant signal was observed with a maximum around the threshold voltage. The signal was interpreted due to the plasma wave nonlinearities in the channel. The intensity of the signal increases for the higher applied drain-to-source current. We also observed a dependence of the signal on the polarization of the incoming radiations

  12. DFT modelling of bulk-modulated carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Latessa, L.; Pecchia, A.; Di Carlo, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report density-functional theory (DFT), atomistic simulations of the non-equilibrium transport properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Results have been obtained within a self-consistent approach based on the non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) scheme. Our attention has been focused on a new kind of devices, the so called bulk-modulated CNTFETs. Recent experimental realizations \\cite{Chen,Lin_condMat} have shown that such devices can exhibit excellent perf...

  13. Strained silicon modulation field-effect transistor as a new sensor of terahertz radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubarak Meziani, Yahya; Garcia, Enrique; Velazquez, Enrique; Diez, Enrique; El Moutaouakil, Amine; Otsuji, Taiichi; Fobelets, K.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we report on room temperature detection of terahertz radiation from strained-Si modulation-doped field-effect transistors. A non-resonant signal was observed with a maximum around the threshold voltage. The signal was interpreted due to the plasma wave nonlinearities in the channel. The intensity of the signal increases for the higher applied drain-to-source current. We also observed a dependence of the signal on the polarization of the incoming radiations.

  14. The Effectiveness of Peer Mentoring Module on the Personality of Peer Mentors

    OpenAIRE

    Haizan binti Mohd Taha; Fauziah Hanim binti Abdul Jalal; Nora binti Dato Yahya; Mardian Shah bin Omar; Evelyn Yeap Ewe Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the effectiveness of Peer Mentoring Module (PMM) on peer mentors with good characteristics along with their academic performance. From the Big Five Personality Dimensions, those characteristics which include extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness should support peer mentors in handling the underachievers on academic mentoring program. Therefore, Big Five Inventory (BFI) was given to twenty peer mentors from ...

  15. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Morphine Induced Sensitization in Mice Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdieh Anoush; Ali Jani; Moosa Sahebgharani; Mohammad Reza Jafari

    2015-01-01

     Objective: In this study, the effects of estradiol valerate and raloxifenea selective estrogen receptor modulator; (SERM) on morphine induced sensitization were examined in mice memory, according to the step-down passive avoidance task.  Method:The mice received morphine or estradiol and raloxifene for three days alone or in combination with morphine. After a drug free period of 5 days, the subjects received saline or morphine as pre- training treatments followed by a pre-test saline adminis...

  16. THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION USING MODIFICATION MODULE TOWARDS NUTRITIONAL INTAKE DURING PREGNANCY IN KENDARI, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kartini; Muh Syafar; A. Arsunan Arsin; Burhanuddin Bahar; Farming; Fitriyanti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Energy metabolism speeds up during pregnancy that requires pregnant women to have extra amount of nutritions. Provision of education on nutrition during pregnancy is an effort to prevent and tackle malnutrition. Aim: This study aimed to determine the effect of education using modification module towards nutritional intake during pregnancy in Kendari, Indonesia Methods: This was Quasi Experimental study with pre-post design. There were 4 groups in this study, which were: 1) ...

  17. Examining the effectiveness of experiential teaching methods in small and large OM modules

    OpenAIRE

    Piercy, N., Brandon-Jones, A., Brandon-Jones, E. and Campbell, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the preferences of students towards different teaching methods and the perceived effectiveness of experiential teaching methods in different operations management (OM) modules.Design/methodology/approach – Student perceptions of different teaching methods and various aspects of an experiential teaching method, in the form of a business simulation game, are examined using survey data from 274 respondents in four small post-experience and two large pre-exper...

  18. Trial-to-Trial Modulations of the Simon Effect in Conditions of Attentional Limitations : Evidence from Dual Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Rico; Plessow, Franziska; Kunde, Wilfried; Kiesel, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Interference effects are reduced after trials including response conflict. This sequential modulation has often been attributed to a top-down mediated adaptive control mechanism and/or to feature repetition mechanisms. In the present study we tested whether mechanisms responsible for such sequential modulations are subject to attentional…

  19. Evaluation of dosimetric effect caused by slowing with multi-leaf collimator (MLC leaves for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhengzheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is to report 1 the sensitivity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT QA method for clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plans with multi-leaf collimator (MLC leaf errors that will not trigger MLC interlock during beam delivery; 2 the effect of non-beam-hold MLC leaf errors on the quality of VMAT plan dose delivery.

  20. The Modulation of Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator on Heating HF Waves and the Doppler Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Bin-bin; Zhao Zheng-yu; Xie Shu-guo

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: The propagation of HF waves in IAR can produce many nonlinear effects, including the modulation effect of IAR on HF waves and the Doppler effect. To start with the dependence of the ionospheric electron temperature variaof the modulation effect and lucubrate possible reasons for the field can have an observable modulation effect on HF waves while its mechanism is quite different from that of Schumann resonant field on HF waves. The depth of modulation of IAR field, which directly inspires the formation of cross-spectrum between ULF waves and HF waves and results in spectral peaks at some gyro-frequencies of IAR. With respect to the Doppler effect during the propagation of HF waves in IAR, it is mainly caused by the motion of the high-speed flyer and the drifting electrons and the frequency shift from the phase variation of the reflected waves can be neglected when the frequency of HF incident wave is high enough.

  1. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano De Marchis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique,PPT, while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique,EPT. Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness, IE. EMG signals were recorded from 8 muscles of the dominant leg and Nonnegative Matrix Factorization was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. 7 representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding 8-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern. Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity of

  2. Circuit mismatch and current coupling effect influence on paralleling SiC MOSFETs in multichip power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig;

    2015-01-01

    This paper reveals that there are circuit mismatches and a current coupling effect in the direct bonded copper (DBC) layout of a silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET multichip power module. According to the modelling and the mathematic analysis of the DBC layout, the mismatch of the common source stray...... inductance in the DBC layout can lead to transient current imbalance among the paralleled SiC MOSFET dies in the multichip power module while the current coupling effect aggravates the current imbalance. Two models of the power module DBC layout, with and without the current coupling effect, are compared to...

  3. The effect of magnetic field modifications on the modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Raath, J L; Strauss, R D; Kopp, A

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model for the solar modulation of cosmic rays, based on the solution of a set of stochastic differential equations, is used to illustrate the effects of modifying the heliospheric magnetic field, particularly in the polar regions of the heliosphere. To this end, the dfferences in the modulation brought about by each of three choices for the heliospheric magnetic field, i.e. the unmodified Parker field, the Smith-Bieber modified field, and the Jokipii-Kota modified field, are studied. It is illustrated that both the Jokipii-Kota and Smith-Bieber modifications are effective in modifying the Parker field in the polar regions. In addition, it is argued that the modification of Smith and Bieber is based on observational evidence and has a firm physical basis, while these motivations are lacking in the case of the Jokipii-Kota modification. From a cosmic ray modulation point of view, we found the Smith-Bieber modification to be the most suitable choice for modifying the heliospheric magnetic ?field. The...

  4. Ga content and thickness inhomogeneity effects on Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Cheng, Tzu-Huan; Liu, Chee Wee

    2016-07-01

    The fluctuation of Ga content and absorption layer thickness of Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar modules is investigated by 3-dimensional numerical simulation. The band gap of CIGS is increased by the increasing Ga content, and the residual compressive strain. Strain effect worsens the degradation of the power conversion efficiency of CIGS module in addition to Ga fluctuation. The intracell Ga fluctuation degrades the open circuit voltage due to the minimum open circuit voltage in the parallel configuration, and also affects the short circuit current due to the Ga-dependent light absorption. The intercell Ga fluctuation leads to a more significant degradation for CIGS solar module efficiency than the intracell Ga fluctuation due to the additional degradation of the fill factor. The thickness fluctuation has a small effect on open circuit voltage, but causes strong degradation of short circuit current and fill factor, which leads to a more significant degradation on power conversion efficiency than Ga fluctuation to the same fluctuation percentage. In reality, the thickness can be tightly controlled within the fluctuation of 5% or less. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA) em dietas para tilápia-do-nilo: desempenho produtivo, composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Nile tilapia diets: productive performance, chemical and fatty acids composition

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Dena dos Santos; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Makoto Matsushita; Lilian Carolina Rosa da Silva; Tarcila Souza de Castro Silva; Daniele Botaro

    2007-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da adição de CLA na dieta sobre o desempenho produtivo, a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos de tilápia-do-nilo. Foram utilizados 80 peixes revertidos, com 109 ± 10 g, distribuídos em oito tanques (0,8 m³ cada), em densidade de 10 peixes/tanque, durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se a inclusão na dieta de 2% de CLA (Luta-CLA®-BASF, Brasil) com 60% dos isômeros (cis-9,trans-11 e trans-10,cis-12) e 40% do veículo (ácido oléico e outros ácidos graxos). Como di...

  6. A polarization independent liquid crystal phase modulation adopting surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Tsou, Yu-Shih

    2011-12-01

    A polarization-independent liquid crystal (LC) phase modulation using the surface pinning effect of polymer dispersed liquid crystals (SP-PDLC) is demonstrated. In the bulk region of the SP-PDLC, the orientations of LC directors are randomly dispersed; thus, any polarization of incident light experiences the same averaged refractive index. In the regions near glass substrates, the LC droplets are pinned. The orientations of top and bottom droplets are orthogonal. Two eigen-polarizations of an incident light experience the same phase shift. As a result, the SP-PDLC is polarization independent. Polarizer-free microlens arrays of SP-PDLC are also demonstrated. The SP-PDLC has potential for application in spatial light modulators, laser beam steering, and electrically tunable microprisms.

  7. Non-thermal continuous and modulated electromagnetic radiation fields effects on sleep EEG of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham S. Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day. EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.

  8. Modulated charge patterns and noise effect in a twisted DNA model with solvent interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, C. B.; Dang Koko, A.; Oumarou Doko, R.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    We modify the Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model and bring out the influence of the torsion and solvent interactions on charge transport in DNA. Through the linear stability analysis, we detect regions of instability and we compare the results with those of the standard Peyrard-Bishop-Holstein model. There are two regimes where modulated charge patterns can occur: the undertwisted and the overtwisted conformations. Numerical simulations are used to confirm our analytical predictions. Charge patterns are obtained and propagate more easily in an overwinded helix than in an underwinded one. The effects of dissipation and thermal fluctuations are also studied, which confirm the robustness of the obtained modulated patterns. On the one hand, we argue that in the absence of twisting, temperature can lead to the breaking of the hydrogen bonds between bases and prevent charges from propagating. On the other hand, when the molecule is overtwisted, the solvent and the temperature will rather enhance charge spreading patterns with random features.

  9. The pharmacological effect of positive KCNQ (Kv7) modulators on dopamine release from striatal slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Majbrit M; Lange, Sofie Cecilie; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt;

    2011-01-01

    Retigabine is an anti-epileptic drug that inhibits neuronal firing by stabilizing the membrane potential through positive modulation of voltage-dependent KCNQ potassium channels in cortical neurons and in mesencephalic dopamine (DA) neurons. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of...... retigabine. Other compounds of the same class but with some preferences for different KCNQ subtypes such as ICA-27243, BMS-204352 and S-(1) were also tested. All three compounds produced a significant effect albeit weaker than retigabine. The potency of ICA-27243 was in the range of retigabine, and with a...

  10. THE EFFECT OF A DYNAMIC INNER HELIOSHEATH THICKNESS ON COSMIC-RAY MODULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, R.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Potgieter, M. S., E-mail: rexmanuel@live.com [Centre for Space Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa)

    2015-02-01

    The time-dependent modulation of galactic cosmic rays in the heliosphere is studied over different polarity cycles by computing 2.5 GV proton intensities using a two-dimensional, time-dependent modulation model. By incorporating recent theoretical advances in the relevant transport parameters in the model, we showed in previous work that this approach gave realistic computed intensities over a solar cycle. New in this work is that a time dependence of the solar wind termination shock (TS) position is implemented in our model to study the effect of a dynamic inner heliosheath thickness (the region between the TS and heliopause) on the solar modulation of galactic cosmic rays. The study reveals that changes in the inner heliosheath thickness, arising from a time-dependent shock position, does affect cosmic-ray intensities everywhere in the heliosphere over a solar cycle, with the smallest effect in the innermost heliosphere. A time-dependent TS position causes a phase difference between the solar activity periods and the corresponding intensity periods. The maximum intensities in response to a solar minimum activity period are found to be dependent on the time-dependent TS profile. It is found that changing the width of the inner heliosheath with time over a solar cycle can shift the time of when the maximum or minimum cosmic-ray intensities occur at various distances throughout the heliosphere, but more significantly in the outer heliosphere. The time-dependent extent of the inner heliosheath, as affected by solar activity conditions, is thus an additional time-dependent factor to be considered in the long-term modulation of cosmic rays.

  11. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid in dairy products%影响乳制品中共轭亚油酸(CLA)含量的因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国萍; 霍贵成; 李庆章

    2005-01-01

    概述了共轭亚油酸(CLA)的形成方式、影响乳制品中CLA含量的因素及如何提高乳中CLA含量的方法.动物的种类、饲料的成分、喂养方式、季节等对原料乳产生的影响,以及加工方法、贮存条件、发酵菌种等对乳制品中CLA的含量的影响.

  12. Response-Stimulus Interval Duration Modulates Interference Effects in the Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Galer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Stroop task, incongruent stimuli (e.g. “red” printed in blue induce a robust interference effect. The impact of both the changes in the duration of the interval between the subject’s response and the next stimulus (RSI and the development from childhood to adulthood on the size of the interference have not been systematically studied. We have therefore tested the modulation of within-task RSI (from 1000 to 5000 ms on the interference effect in 8–10 years old children and young adults. Results disclose a stronger interference effect for the shortest RSI duration (1000 ms in both adults and children, indicating more effective inhibitory processses for longer RSI durations. Moreover, similar interference effect were found between children and adults suggesting that both groups are similarly affected by interference. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibitory processes require a certain amount of time to develop. 

  13. Metformin elicits anticancer effects through the sequential modulation of DICER and c-MYC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Giovanni; Valerio, Mariacristina; Cioce, Mario; Mori, Federica; Casadei, Luca; Pulito, Claudio; Sacconi, Andrea; Biagioni, Francesca; Cortese, Giancarlo; Galanti, Sergio; Manetti, Cesare; Citro, Gennaro; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic patients treated with metformin have a reduced incidence of cancer and cancer-related mortality. Here we show that metformin affects engraftment and growth of breast cancer tumours in mice. This correlates with the induction of metabolic changes compatible with clear anticancer effects. We demonstrate that microRNA modulation underlies the anticancer metabolic actions of metformin. In fact, metformin induces DICER expression and its effects are severely impaired in DICER knocked down cells. Conversely, ectopic expression of DICER recapitulates the effects of metformin in vivo and in vitro. The microRNAs upregulated by metformin belong mainly to energy metabolism pathways. Among the messenger RNAs downregulated by metformin, we found c-MYC, IRS-2 and HIF1alpha. Downregulation of c-MYC requires AMP-activated protein kinase-signalling and mir33a upregulation by metformin. Ectopic expression of c-MYC attenuates the anticancer metabolic effects of metformin. We suggest that DICER modulation, mir33a upregulation and c-MYC targeting have an important role in the anticancer metabolic effects of metformin. PMID:22643892

  14. Implications of astrocytes in mediating the protective effects of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators upon brain damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Barreto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs are steroidal or non-steroidal compounds that are already used in clinical practice for the treatment of breast cancer, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms. While SERMs actions in the breast, bone, and uterus have been well characterized, their actions in the brain are less well understood. Previous works have demonstrated the beneficial effects of SERMs in different chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer, Parkinson’s disease and Multiple sclerosis, as well as acute degeneration as stroke and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, these compounds exhibit similar protective actions as those of estradiol in the Central Nervous System, overt any secondary effect. For these reasons, in the past few years, there has been a growing interest in the neuroprotective effects exerted directly or indirectly by SERMs in the SNC. In this context, astrocytes play an important role in the maintenance of brain metabolism, and antioxidant support to neurons, thus indicating that better protection of astrocytes are an important asset targeting neuronal protection. Moreover, various clinical and experimental studies have reported that astrocytes are essential for the neuroprotective effects of SERMs during neuronal injuries, as these cells express different estrogen receptors in cell membrane, demonstrating that part of SERMs effects upon injury may be mediated by astrocytes. The present work highlights the current evidence on the protective mechanisms of SERMs, such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, in the SNC, and their modulation of astrocytic properties as promising therapeutic targets during brain damage.

  15. Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T; Oh, J J; Lim, J. N.; Hong, J E; Kim, J. H.; Kang, H.S.; Choi, Y. J.; Lee, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early (0.33±0.014%), middle (0.37±0.010%), and late stages (0.44±0.020%) showed significant differences (p

  16. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Prieto-Manrique

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11 or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet

  17. Lactobacillus plantarum as source of conjugated linoleic acid: Effect of pH, incubation Temperature and inulin incorporation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Soto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of pH and temperature, and inulin use, on the growth andthe fatty acid profile of Lactobacillus plantarum strain wereevaluated. The best results were obtained at 6.5 pH broth, producing3.2 g/L of biomass and about 20% of conjugated linoleic acid(CLA in the cell lipids. Similar growth was observed with 37 and45ºC, but a low CLA content (10.6% was achieved at 45°C. In thecase of inulin incorporation, a low biomass concentration (1 g/Land low production of CLA (12.4% were observed. These resultssuggest a pH and temperature dependence on CLA production bythe microorganism.

  18. Expectation Modulates the Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Motor and Cognitive Function in Tremor-Dominant Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Keitel, Ariane; Ferrea, Stefano; Südmeyer, Martin; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wojtecki, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Expectation contributes to placebo and nocebo responses in Parkinson's disease (PD). While there is evidence for expectation-induced modulations of bradykinesia, little is known about the impact of expectation on resting tremor. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves cardinal PD motor symptoms including tremor whereas impairment of verbal fluency (VF) has been observed as a potential side-effect. Here we investigated how expectation modulates the effect of STN-DBS on ...

  19. A modest but significant effect of CGB5 gene promoter polymorphisms in modulating the risk of recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rull, Kristiina; Christiansen, Ole Bjarne; Nagirnaja, Liina;

    2013-01-01

    To confirm the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes in modulating the susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage (RM) in Danes and in a meta-analysis across Danes and the discovery samples from Estonia and Finland.......To confirm the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes in modulating the susceptibility to recurrent miscarriage (RM) in Danes and in a meta-analysis across Danes and the discovery samples from Estonia and Finland....

  20. Analysis of the Effect of Module Thickness Reduction on Thermoelectric Generator Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, F. P.; Figueiredo, L.; Rocha, L. A.; Cruz, A. P.; Goncalves, L. M.; Martins, J.; Hall, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Conventional thermoelectric generators (TEGs) used in applications such as exhaust heat recovery are typically limited in terms of power density due to their low efficiency. Additionally, they are generally costly due to the bulk use of rare-earth elements such as tellurium. If less material could be used for the same output, then the power density and the overall cost per kilowatt (kW) of electricity produced could drop significantly, making TEGs a more attractive solution for energy harvesting of waste heat. The present work assesses the effect of reducing the amount of thermoelectric (TE) material used (namely by reducing the module thickness) on the electrical output of conventional bismuth telluride TEGs. Commercial simulation packages (ANSYS CFX and thermal-electric) and bespoke models were used to simulate the TEGs at various degrees of detail. Effects such as variation of the thermal and electrical contact resistance and the component thickness and the effect of using an element supporting matrix (e.g., eggcrate) instead of having air conduction in void areas have been assessed. It was found that indeed it is possible to reduce the use of bulk TE material while retaining power output levels equivalent to thicker modules. However, effects such as thermal contact resistance were found to become increasingly important as the active TE material thickness was decreased.

  1. The effect of zinc diffusion on extinction ratio of MQW electroabsorption modulator integrated with DFB laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daibing; Zhang, Ruikang; Wang, Huitao; Wang, Baojun; Bian, Jing; An, Xin; Zhao, Lingjuan; Zhu, Hongliang; Ji, Chen; Wang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulated lasers (EML) are widely being used in the optical fiber communication systems, due to their low chip, compact size and good compatible with the current communication systems. In this paper, we investigated the effect of Zinc diffusion on extinction ratio of electroabsorption modulator (EAM) integrated with distributed feedback laser (DFB). EML was fabricated by selective area growth (SAG) technology. The MQW structure of different quantum energy levels was grown on n-type InP buffer layer with 150nm thick SiO2 parallel stripes mask by selective area metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). A 35nm photoluminescence wavelength variation was observed between the laser area (λPL=1535nm) and modulator area (λPL=1500nm) by adjusting the dimension of parallel stripes. The grating (λ=1550nm) was fabricated in the selective area. The device was mesa ridge structure, which was constituted of the DFB laser, isolation gap and modulator. The length of every part is 300μm, 50μm, and 150μm respectively. Two samples were fabricated with the same structure and different p-type Zn-doped concentration, the extinction ratio of heavy Zn-doped device is 12.5dB at -6V. In contrast, the extinction ratio of light Zn-doped device is 20dB at -6V, that was improved for approximate 60%. The different Zn diffusion depth into the MQW absorption layer was observed by Secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). The heavy Zn-doped device diffused into absorption layer deeper than the light Zn-doped device, which caused the large non-uniformity of the electric field in the MQW layer. So the extinction ratio characteristics can be improved by optimizing the Zn-doped concentration of p-type layer.

  2. Yogurt funcional alto CLA

    OpenAIRE

    Massa Grilli, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    La presencia de compuestos bioactivos en la grasa láctea ha despertado gran interés ya que se le atribuyen efectos preventivos frente a enfermedades de alto impacto en la población. Se ha demostrado que los sistemas de alimentación basados en pastoreo incrementan la presencia de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y específicamente del acido linoleico conjugado, obteniéndose un alimento funcional que presenta propiedades beneficiosas sobre la salud. El objetivo del presente ...

  3. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective. PMID:26476332

  4. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on quantum frequency conversion using four-wave mixing Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; McKinstrie, C. J.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    separability are still possible, even when the effects of NPM are included. Finally, the effects of using different input signals are considered, and we conclude that using the natural input modes of the system drastically increases the efficiency. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation......Recently, we solved the coupled-mode equations for Bragg scattering (BS) in the low- and high-conversion regimes, but without the effects of nonlinear phase modulation (NPM). We now present solutions and Green functions in the low-conversion regime that include NPM. We find that NPM does not change...... the lowest-order conversion efficiency, but prevents complete separability (freedom from temporal entanglement). This problem is overcome to some degree by pre-chirping the pumps, which mitigates the effects of NPM. We conclude that arbitrary reshaping of the output modes and nearly complete...

  5. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  6. Teneur et distribution des isomères de l'acide linoléique conjugué (CLA) dans le lait de vache, le fromage et le beurre des Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, José M.; Martins, Susana I.V.; Alfaia, Cristina M. M.; Lopes, Paula A.; Costa, Ana S. H.; Bessa, Rui J.B.; Castro, Matilde L.F.; Prates, José A.M.

    2009-01-01

    L'ingestion de pâture est le principal facteur qui affecte la concentration et la distribution des isomères de l'acide linoléique conjugué (CLA) de la matière grasse du lait bovin. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la teneur en CLA et la distribution de ses isomères dans le lait, le fromage et le beurre des Açores, un archipel Portugais de l'Océan Atlantique. Les isomères de CLA ont été analysés par Ag+-HPLC, utilisant trois colonnes ioniques argentées, en série. Le beurre était l...

  7. An optical modulator

    OpenAIRE

    Thévenaz, Luc; Dainesi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    An optical modulator is arranged to compensate for the thermo-optical modulating effects induced by charge-injection based phase modulators. It comprises first modulator means (3), that receive optical radiation (11, 21), direct it along an optical path, apply a first predetermined optical phase modulation by the injection of free charges into the optical path, and output optical radiation (13, 22) so modulated. Compensator means (4) apply, to optical radiation output from (13, 22), or to be ...

  8. The radiobiological effect of intra-fraction dose-rate modulation in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewes, J. M.; Suchowerska, N.; Jackson, M.; Zhang, M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2008-07-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) achieves optimal dose conformity to the tumor through the use of spatially and temporally modulated radiation fields. In particular, average dose rate and instantaneous dose rate (pulse amplitude) are highly variable within a single IMRT fraction. In this study we isolate these variables and determine their impact on cell survival. Survival was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Two cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were examined: melanoma (MM576) and non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H460). The survival fraction was observed to be independent of instantaneous dose rate. A statistically significant trend to increased survival was observed as the average dose rate was decreased, for a constant total dose. The results are relevant to IMRT practice, where average treatment times can be significantly extended to allow for movement of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC). Our in vitro study adds to the pool of theoretical evidence for the consequences of protracted treatments. We find that extended delivery times can substantially increase the cell survival. This also suggests that regional variation in the dose-rate history across a tumor, which is inherent to IMRT, will affect radiation dose efficacy.

  9. A review of in vitro experimental evidence for the effect of spatial and temporal modulation of radiation dose on response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suchowerska, Natalka (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, New South Wales (Australia)), E-mail: Natalka@email.cs.nsw.gov.au; McKenzie, David R. (School of Physics, Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)); Ebert, Martin A. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Western Australia (Australia)); Jackson, Michael (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, New South Wales (Australia))

    2010-11-15

    Background. Intensity modulated radiation therapy introduces strong spatial and temporal modulation of the dose delivery that may have therapeutic benefits, as yet unrealized. Material and methods. Experimental evidence for spatial and temporal modulation affecting the cell survival following in vitro irradiation has been derived using clonogenic assays. Results and discussion. The experimental results show that the survival status of a cell is strongly influenced by the spatial dose modulation. The classical bystander effect of decreased survival has now been supplemented by observations of increased survival, which may result from the same or different signaling mechanisms. Temporal dose modulation experiments show that dose protraction significantly increases cell survival. An appropriate choice of temporal dose modulation pattern enables cell death to be maximized or minimized for a constant dose and delivery time. Conclusion. Bystander effects challenge the assumption that outcome is solely dependent on local dose. Intra-fractional temporal modulation via protracted treatments and time varying dose delivery both affect the cell survival. The presence of bystander and temporal effects emphasize the need for a mathematical framework which incorporates their influence on cell survival

  10. A review of in vitro experimental evidence for the effect of spatial and temporal modulation of radiation dose on response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Intensity modulated radiation therapy introduces strong spatial and temporal modulation of the dose delivery that may have therapeutic benefits, as yet unrealized. Material and methods. Experimental evidence for spatial and temporal modulation affecting the cell survival following in vitro irradiation has been derived using clonogenic assays. Results and discussion. The experimental results show that the survival status of a cell is strongly influenced by the spatial dose modulation. The classical bystander effect of decreased survival has now been supplemented by observations of increased survival, which may result from the same or different signaling mechanisms. Temporal dose modulation experiments show that dose protraction significantly increases cell survival. An appropriate choice of temporal dose modulation pattern enables cell death to be maximized or minimized for a constant dose and delivery time. Conclusion. Bystander effects challenge the assumption that outcome is solely dependent on local dose. Intra-fractional temporal modulation via protracted treatments and time varying dose delivery both affect the cell survival. The presence of bystander and temporal effects emphasize the need for a mathematical framework which incorporates their influence on cell survival

  11. Effect of modulation depth, frequency, and intermittence on wind turbine noise annoyance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannidou, Christina; Santurette, Sébastien; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) may be an important factor for the perceived annoyance of wind turbine noise (WTN). Two AM types, typically referred to as “normal AM” (NAM) and “other AM” (OAM), characterize WTN AM, OAM corresponding to having intermittent periods with larger AM depth in lower frequency......-field stimuli and the temporal AM variations were taken into account, the effect of AM frequency remained limited and the presence of intermittent OAM periods did not affect annoyance. These findings suggest that, at a given overall level, the AM depth of NAM periods is the most crucial AM parameter for WTN...

  12. The effect of photon energy on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Wonmo; Park, Jong Min; Choi, Chang Heon; Ha, Sung Whan; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of common three photon energies (6-MV, 10-MV, and 15-MV) on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans to treat prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with prostate cancer treated locally to 81.0 Gy were retrospectively studied. 6-MV, 10-MV, and 15-MV IMRT plans for each patient were generated using suitable planning objectives, dose constraints, and 8-field setting. The plans were analyzed in terms of dose-volume histogram for t...

  13. Effect of ion streaming on the onset of the modulational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ion streaming on the modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma is studied. The nonlinear Schroedinger equation is derived by using the Krylov--Bogoliubov--Mitropolsky (KBM) perturbation technique. It is found that the value of the critical wavenumber kc is highly dependent upon the ion streaming velocity V0 and the system breaks into a number of stable and unstable regions. In the weak relativistic limit of V0, instability sets in for kc c =1.47

  14. Demodulation effect is observed in neurones by exposure to low frequency modulated microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bruzon, R N; Figols, T; Azanza, M J [Laboratorio de Magnetobiologia, Departamento de Anatomia e Histologia Humanas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Moral, A del, E-mail: naogit@yahoo.co [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Solidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, Universidad de Zaragoza and CSIC (Spain)

    2010-01-01

    Neurones exposure to a microwave (carrier f{sub c}=13.6 GHz; power P {approx_equal} 5 mW; H{sub o} {approx_equal} 0.10 Am{sup -1} = 1.25 mOe; E{sub 0} {approx_equal} 3.5 V/m; {Delta}T {approx_equal} 0.01{sup 0}C; SAR: 3.1x10{sup -3} - 5.8x10{sup -3} W/Kg) EMF amplitude modulated by ELF-AC field (frequency, f{sub m}= 0-100 Hz) shows no electrophysiological effect under the carrier MF alone, but {sup f}requency resonances: at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 50, 100 Hz: demodulation effect. Resonances appear when applied ELF-MF is close to a dominant characteristic frequency of the neurone impulse Fourier spectrum. This is an interesting result considering that ELF-MF modulating RF or MW in the range of human EEG could induce frequency-resonant effects on exposed human brain.

  15. Modulated cycles in an illustrative solar dynamo model with competing alpha effects

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale magnetic field in the Sun varies with a period of approximately 22 years, although the amplitude of the cycle is subject to long-term modulation with recurrent phases of significantly reduced magnetic activity. It is believed that a hydromagnetic dynamo is responsible for producing this large-scale field, although this dynamo process is not well understood. Within the framework of mean-field dynamo theory, our aim is to investigate how competing mechanisms for poloidal field regeneration (namely a time delayed Babcock-Leighton surface alpha-effect and an interface-type alpha-effect), can lead to the modulation of magnetic activity in a deep-seated solar dynamo model. We solve the standard alpha-omega dynamo equations in one spatial dimension, including source terms corresponding to both of the the competing alpha-effects in the evolution equation for the poloidal field. This system is solved using two different methods. In addition to solving the one-dimensional partial differential equations ...

  16. Efficient and Hysteresis-Free Field Effect Modulation of Ambipolarly Doped Vanadium Dioxide Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyue; Yang, Yiming; Hou, Yasen; Travaglini, Henry C.; Hellwig, Luke; Hihath, Sahar; van Benthem, Klaus; Lee, Kathleen; Liu, Weifeng; Yu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The subpicosecond metal-insulator phase transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2 ) has attracted extensive attention with potential applications in ultrafast Mott transistors, which are based on electric-field-induced phase transition. However, the development of VO2 -based transistors lags behind, owing to inefficient and hysteretic gate modulation. Here we report ambipolar doping and strong field effects free of hysteresis in single-crystal VO2 nanowires synthesized via catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The ambipolarly doped VO2 nanowires are achieved by controlling the oxygen vacancy density during the synthesis and show strong gate effects because of their relatively low doping level. Both the doping type of the nanowires and the band-bending direction at the metal-insulator domain walls are reversibly switched by electrochemical gating, as revealed by scanning photocurrent microscopy. Furthermore, we eliminate the hysteresis in gate sweep via a hybrid gating method, which combines the merits of liquid-ionic and solid gating. The capability of efficient field effect modulation of ambipolar conduction and band alignment offers opportunities on understanding the phase transition mechanism and enables electronic applications based on VO2 .

  17. Effect of drugs modulating serotonergic system on the analgesic action of paracetamol in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandikar, Yogita S.; Belsare, Peeyush; Panditrao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The underlying mechanisms for the analgesic action of paracetamol (PCT) are still under considerable debate. It has been recently proposed that PCT may act by modulating the Serotonin system. This study was conducted to verify the influence of Serotonin modulating drugs (buspirone, ondansetron, and fluoxetine) on the analgesic effect of PCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult albino mice were assigned to five groups: Normal saline, PCT, fluoxetine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) + PCT, buspirone (5-HT1A Agonist) + PCT, and ondansetron (5HT3 antagonist) + PCT. Hot-plate and formalin test were used to determine pain threshold, tests being conducted 60 min after the last treatment. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance followed by Dunnet's test. Results: Coadministration of buspirone with PCT attenuated the antinociceptive activity of PCT (P < 0.001), whereas fluoxetine + PCT increased pain threshold in the hot-plate and formalin test (P = 0.0046). Analgesic effect of PCT was not affected by ondansetron in formalin models. It attenuated analgesic action of PCT in hot-plate test (P = 0.0137). Conclusion: The results suggest that 5-HT1 receptors could also be responsible for the analgesic effect of PCT. Also, higher analgesia is produced by co-administration of SSRI (fluoxetine) + PCT. PMID:27298498

  18. Dosimetric effect of Elekta Beam Modulator micromultileaf in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carosi, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.carosi@katamail.com; Ingrosso, Gianluca; Ponti, Elisabetta; Tolu, Barbara; Murgia, Alessandra; Cristino, Daniela di; Santoni, Riccardo

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the dosimetric effect of Elekta Beam Modulator in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer. We compared treatment plans developed with 2 different Elekta multileaf collimators (MLC): Beam Modulator micro-MLC (mMLC) (4-mm leaf width at the isocenter) and standard MLC (10-mm leaf width at the isocenter). The comparison was performed for 15 patients with localized prostate cancer in 3DCRT and IMRT delivery; a total of 60 treatment plans were processed. The dose-volume histograms were used to provide the quantitative comparison between plans. In particular, we analyzed differences between rectum and bladder sparing in terms of a set of appropriate Vx (percentage of organ at risk [OAR] volume receiving the x dose) and differences between target conformity and coverage in terms of coverage factor and conformation number. Our analysis demonstrates that in 3DCRT there is an advantage in the use of Elekta Beam Modulator mMLC in terms of organ sparing; in particular, a significant decrease in rectal V{sub 60} and V{sub 50} (p = 0.001) and in bladder V{sub 70} and V{sub 65} (p = 0.007 and 0.002, respectively) was found. Moreover, a better target dose conformity was obtained (p = 0.002). IMRT plans comparison demonstrated no significant differences between the use of the 4 or 10-mm MLCs. Our analysis shows that in 3DCRT the use of the Elekta Beam Modulator mMLC gives a gain in target conformity and in OARs dose sparing whereas in IMRT plans there is no advantage.

  19. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854497

  20. Modulation of low dose radiation effect on pentose phosphate pathway enzymes by B-multivitamin deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood, liver, thymus and spleen of albino rats injected subcutaneously with antivitamins (othythiamine and methotrexate) and subjected to prolonger γ-irradiation in the overall dose of 0.75 Gy were assayed for transketolase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase after 12h, 1, 2, 5 and 40 days from the last radiation dose. High transketolase sensitivity was found both to radiation (activation) and the combined effects of vitamin deficiency and radiation (potentiation of antivitamin inhibitory action) in all the tissues studied. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was little changed under the given experimental manipulations, but the combined effect of the factors considerably inhibited the enzyme activities in the organs of the immune system. Consequently, in B-multivitamin deficiency the effect of low radiation doses was subjected to a considerable modulation resulting in profound inhibition of the oxidation and nonoxidative branches of the pentose phosphate pathway. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bäckman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  2. Oxidative stability of structured lipids containing C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 or CLA in sn 2-position - as bulk lipids and in milk drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Xu, Xuebing;

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we compared the oxidative stability of a specific structured lipid (SL) containing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the sn2-position with SL containing other C18 fatty acids of different degree of unsaturation (stearic, oleic, linoleic or linolenic acid). SL was produced by...... oxidative stability of our SL was very different when comparing (a) bulk lipids and milk drink and (b) the five different batches of each product. SL based on oleic acid was the most unstable as bulk lipid, while SL based on linoleic acid was the most unstable in milk drink. SL based on CLA was the second...

  3. Effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on the expression of uncoupling proteins in hamsters fed an atherogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ribot, Joan; Portillo Baquedano, María Puy; Picó, Catalina; Macarulla Arenaza, María Teresa; Palou, Andreu

    2007-01-01

    It is known that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) feeding decreases body adiposity but the mechanisms involved are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyse whether alterations in uncoupling protein (UCP) expression in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT, respectively) and in skeletal muscle may be responsible for the effect of trans-10, cis-12 CLA on the size of body fat depots in hamsters. Animals were divided into three groups and fed an atherogenic diet with different amounts...

  4. Analysis of β-Subunit-dependent GABAA Receptor Modulation and Behavioral Effects of Valerenic Acid Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khom, S; Hintersteiner, J; Luger, D; Haider, M; Pototschnig, G; Mihovilovic, M D; Schwarzer, C; Hering, S

    2016-06-01

    Valerenic acid (VA)-a β2/3-selective GABA type A (GABAA) receptor modulator-displays anxiolytic and anticonvulsive effects in mice devoid of sedation, making VA an interesting drug candidate. Here we analyzed β-subunit-dependent enhancement of GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA) by a library of VA derivatives and studied their effects on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold and locomotion. Compound-induced IGABA enhancement was determined in oocytes expressing α1β1γ2S, α1β2γ2S, or α1β3γ2S receptors. Effects on seizure threshold and locomotion were studied using C57BL/6N mice and compared with saline-treated controls. β2/3-selective VA derivatives such as VA-amide (VA-A) modulating α1β3γ2S (VA-A: Emax = 972 ± 69%, n = 6, P tetrazole (α1β3γ2S: VA-TET: EC50 = 6.0 ± 1.0 μM, P < 0.05; VA-TET: 0.3 mg/kg: 47.3 ± 0.5 mg/kg PTZ versus VA: 10 mg/kg: 49.0 ± 1.8 mg/kg PTZ, P < 0.05). At higher doses (≥10 mg/kg), VA-A, VA-MA, and VA-TET reduced locomotion. In contrast, unselective VA derivatives induced anticonvulsive effects only at high doses (30 mg/kg) or did not display any behavioral effects. Our data indicate that the β2/3-selective compounds VA-A, VA-MA, and VA-TET induce anticonvulsive effects at low doses (≤10 mg/kg), whereas impairment of locomotion was observed at doses ≥10 mg/kg. PMID:27190170

  5. Modulation of modeled microgravity on radiation-induced bystander effects in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Sun, Qiao [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Xu, Wei; Li, Fanghua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Huasheng; Lu, Jinying [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Liu, Min [Space Molecular Biological Lab, China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100086 (China); Bian, Po [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Anhui Province, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The effects of microgravity on the radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) were definitely demonstrated. • The effects of microgravity on RIBE might be divergent for different biological events. • The microgravity mainly modified the generation or transport of bystander signals at early stage. - Abstract: Both space radiation and microgravity have been demonstrated to have inevitable impact on living organisms during space flights and should be considered as important factors for estimating the potential health risk for astronauts. Therefore, the question whether radiation effects could be modulated by microgravity is an important aspect in such risk evaluation. Space particles at low dose and fluence rate, directly affect only a fraction of cells in the whole organism, which implement radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) in cellular response to space radiation exposure. The fact that all of the RIBE experiments are carried out in a normal gravity condition bring forward the need for evidence regarding the effect of microgravity on RIBE. In the present study, a two-dimensional rotation clinostat was adopted to demonstrate RIBE in microgravity conditions, in which the RIBE was assayed using an experimental system of root-localized irradiation of Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants. The results showed that the modeled microgravity inhibited significantly the RIBE-mediated up-regulation of expression of the AtRAD54 and AtRAD51 genes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and transcriptional activation of multicopy P35S:GUS, but made no difference to the induction of homologous recombination by RIBE, showing divergent responses of RIBE to the microgravity conditions. The time course of interaction between the modeled microgravity and RIBE was further investigated, and the results showed that the microgravity mainly modulated the processes of the generation or translocation of the bystander signal(s) in roots.

  6. N,N-dimethylglycine differentially modulates psychotomimetic and antidepressant-like effects of ketamine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Cheng; Chan, Ming-Huan; Lee, Mei-Yi; Chen, Yi-Chyan; Chen, Hwei-Hsien

    2016-11-01

    Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic, produces rapid and sustained antidepressant effects at subanesthtic doses. However, it still inevitably induces psychotomimetic side effects. N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is a derivative of the amino acid glycine and is used as a dietary supplement. Recently, DMG has been found acting at glycine binding site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). As blockade of NMDARs is one of the main mechanisms responsible for the action of ketamine on central nervous system, DMG might modulate the behavioral responses to ketamine. The present study determined the effects of DMG on the ketamine-induced psychotomimetic, anesthetic and antidepressant-like effects in mice. DMG pretreatment reversed the ketamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity and impairment in the rotarod performance, novel location and novel object recognition tests, and prepulse inhibition. In addition, DMG alone exhibited antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test and produced additive effects when combined with ketamine. However, DMG did not affect ketamine-induced anesthesia. These results reveal that DMG could antagonize ketamine's psychotomimetic effects, yet produce additive antidepressant-like effects with ketamine, suggesting that DMG might have antipsychotic potential and be suitable as an add-on therapy to ketamine for patients with treatment-resistant depression. PMID:27296677

  7. Effects of Estrogen Receptor Modulators on Morphine Induced Sensitization in Mice Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Anoush

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: In this study, the effects of estradiol valerate and raloxifenea selective estrogen receptor modulator; (SERM on morphine induced sensitization were examined in mice memory, according to the step-down passive avoidance task.  Method:The mice received morphine or estradiol and raloxifene for three days alone or in combination with morphine. After a drug free period of 5 days, the subjects received saline or morphine as pre- training treatments followed by a pre-test saline administration. The memory retrieval was evaluated using step-down passive avoidance test both on the training and test day. Results:The results illustrated that the three- day administration of morphine induced sensitization through the enhancement of memory retrieval (morphine induced sensitization in mice memory. Both the three- day administration of estradiol valerate alone and with morphine (5 mg/kg restored memory. On the other hand, the three- day administration of raloxifene had no effect on memory retrieval alone, but declined morphine induced sensitization in mice memory. Conclusion:The results of the study indicated that there is an interaction between estrogen receptor modulators and morphine induced sensitization in mice memory.

  8. Effects of a space modulation on the behavior of a 1D alternating Heisenberg spin-1/2 model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavifar, Saeed; Abouie, Jahanfar

    2011-06-22

    The effects of a magnetic field (h) and a space modulation (δ) on the magnetic properties of a one-dimensional antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-1/2 model have been studied by means of numerical exact diagonalization of finite size systems, the nonlinear σ model, and a bosonization approach. The space modulation is considered on the antiferromagnetic couplings. At δ = 0, the model is mapped to a gapless Lüttinger liquid phase by increasing the magnetic field. However, the space modulation induces a new gap in the spectrum of the system and the system experiences different quantum phases which are separated by four critical fields. By opening the new gap, a magnetization plateau appears at ½M(sat). The effects of the space modulation are reflected in the emergence of a plateau in other physical functions such as the F-dimer and the bond-dimer order parameters, and the pair-wise entanglement. PMID:21613724

  9. Influence of CT automatic tube current modulation on uncertainty in effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners are equipped with automatic tube current modulation (ATCM) systems that adjust the current to compensate for variations in patient attenuation. CT dosimetry variables are not defined for ATCM situations and, thus, only the averaged values are displayed and analysed. The patient effective dose (E), which is derived from a weighted sum of organ equivalent doses, will be modified by the ATCM. Values for E for chest-abdomen-pelvis CT scans have been calculated using the ImPACT spreadsheet for patients on five CT scanners. Values for E resulting from the z-axis modulation under ATCM have been compared with results assessed using the same effective mAs values with constant tube currents. Mean values for E under ATCM were within ±10 % of those for fixed tube currents for all scanners. Cumulative dose distributions under ATCM have been simulated for two patient scans using single-slice dose profiles measured in elliptical and cylindrical phantoms on one scanner. Contributions to the effective dose from organs in the upper thorax under ATCM are 30-35 % lower for superficial tissues (e.g. breast) and 15-20 % lower for deeper organs (e.g. lungs). The effect on doses to organs in the abdomen depends on body shape, and they can be 10-22 % higher for larger patients. Results indicate that scan dosimetry parameters, dose-length product and effective mAs averaged over the whole scan can provide an assessment in terms of E that is sufficiently accurate to quantify relative risk for routine patient exposures under ATCM. (authors)

  10. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Late Health Effects Module in the COSYMA Package (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty analysis is described of the late health effects module of COSYMA, describing both the methods of obtaining distributions on the input parameters and the results of the analysis. The uncertainty distributions on the input parameter values were obtained using formal expert judgement elicitation techniques. The aim of the module analysis was to identify those parameters whose uncertainty makes major contributions to the overall uncertainty, and which should be included in the final analysis of the whole COSYMA package. (author)

  11. Task-dependent modulation of effective connectivity within the default mode network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaojuanLi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The default mode network (DMN has recently attracted widespread interest. Previous studies have found that task related processing can induce deactivation and changes in the functional connectivity of this network. However, it remains unclear how tasks modulate the underlying effective connectivity within the DMN. Using recent advances in Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM, we study the effective connectivity of resting state networks. The current fMRI study investigated the modulatory effect of (gender judgment task performance on directed connectivity within the DMN. Sixteen healthy subjects were scanned twice: at rest and while performing a gender judgment task. Group independent component analysis was used to decompose the functional images into spatial independent components. Four subject-specific regions of interest (ROIs were defined according to the ensuing default mode component: the posterior cingulate cortex, the left lateral parietal cortex, the right lateral parietal cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex. Effective connectivity among these regions was then characterized with stochastic DCM, revealing enhanced (extrinsic between region connectivity within the DMN during task sessions – and a universal decrease in (intrinsic self inhibition – relative to resting sessions. These results suggest a distributed but systematic modulatory effect of cognitive and attentional set on the effective connectivity subtending the DMN: an effect that increases its sensitivity to inputs and may optimize distributed processing during task performance.

  12. Effects of chicory roots on finishing performance and CLA and fatty acid composition in longissimus muscle of Friesian steers

    OpenAIRE

    Vestergaard, M.; Andersen, H R; Lund, P.; Kristensen, T; Hansen, L L; K. Sejrsen

    2005-01-01

    Low profitability is believed to be the greatest hindrance profitability is believed to be the greatest hindrance for a more extensive use of dairy breed bull calves in for a more extensive use of dairy breed bull calves in organic beef production systems organic beef production systems Among certain consumers, there is an increasing interest Among certain consumers, there is an increasing interest for organic beef production for organic beef production However, there is a need for reliable...

  13. Effect of low frequency magnetic fields on melanoma: tumor inhibition and immune modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously found that the low frequency magnetic fields (LF-MF) inhibited gastric and lung cancer cell growth. We suppose that exposure to LF-MF may modulate immune function so as to inhibit tumor. We here investigated whether LF-MF can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of melanoma and influence immune function. The effect of MF on the proliferation, cell cycle and ultrastracture of B16-F10 in vitro was detected by cell counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, and transmission electron microscopy. Lung metastasis mice were prepared by injection of 2 × 105 B16-F10 melanoma cells into the tail vein in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were then exposed to an LF-MF (0.4 T, 7.5 Hz) for 43 days. Survival rate, tumor markers and the innate and adaptive immune parameters were measured. The growth of B16-F10 cells was inhibited after exposure to the LF-MF. The inhibition was related to induction of cell cycle arrest and decomposition of chromatins. Moreover, the LF-MF prolonged the mouse survival rate and inhibited the proliferation of B16-F10 in melanoma metastasis mice model. Furthermore, the LF-MF modulated the immune response via regulation of immune cells and cytokine production. In addition, the number of Treg cells was decreased in mice with the LF-MF exposure, while the numbers of T cells as well as dendritic cells were significantly increased. LF-MF inhibited the growth and metastasis of melanoma cancer cells and improved immune function of tumor-bearing mice. This suggests that the inhibition may be attributed to modulation of LF-MF on immune function and LF-MF may be a potential therapy for treatment of melanoma

  14. Diuretic effect of compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa by modulation of the aldosterone activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Alarcón-Alonso, Javier; Aguilar-Rojas, Arturo; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer C, Itzia; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

    2012-12-01

    acetonitrile extract significantly decreased the expression of this protein.The conclusion of this work is that the diuretic, natriuretic, and potassium sparing effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa are due in part to the modulation of aldosterone activity by the presence in the extract of this plant of compounds potentially responsible for this modulation, as anthocyanins, flavonoids, and chlorogenic acid. PMID:23150077

  15. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation

  16. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  17. Intra-ventral tegmental area microinjections of urotensin II modulate the effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, L E; Kausch, M A; Markovic, T; MacLaren, D A A; Dietz, D M; Park, J; Clark, S D

    2014-01-01

    Although the peptide urotensin II (UII) has well studied direct actions on the cardiovascular system, the UII receptor (UIIR) is expressed by neurons of the hindbrain. Specifically, the UIIR is expressed by the cholinergic neurons of the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDTg) and the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg). These neurons send axons to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), for which the PPTg and LDTg are the sole source of acetylcholine. Therefore, it was hypothesized that UIIR activation within the VTA would modulate reward-related behaviors, such as cocaine-induced drug seeking. Intra-VTA microinjections of UII at high concentrations (1 nmole) established conditioned place preference (CPP), but also blocked cocaine-mediated CPP (10 mg/kg). When rats received systemic sub-effectual doses of cocaine (7.5mg/kg) with intra-VTA injections of 1 or 10 pmole of UII CPP was formed. Furthermore, the second endogenous ligand for the UIIR, urotensin II-related peptide, had the same effect at the 10 pmole dose. The effects of low doses of UII were blocked by pretreatment with the UIIR antagonist SB657510. Furthermore, it was found that intra-VTA UII (10 pmole) further increased cocaine-mediated (7.5 mg/kg) rises in electrically evoked dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Our study has found that activation of VTA-resident UIIR produces observable behavioral changes in rats, and that UIIR is able to modulate the effects of cocaine. In addition, it was found that UIIR activation within the VTA can potentiate cocaine-mediated neurochemical effects. Therefore, the coincident activation of the UII-system and cocaine administration may increase the liability for drug taking behavior. PMID:25264578

  18. Congruency sequence effect in cross-task context: evidence for dimension-specific modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeyong; Cho, Yang Seok

    2013-11-01

    The congruency sequence effect refers to a reduced congruency effect after incongruent trials relative to congruent trials. This modulation is thought to be, at least in part, due to the control mechanisms resolving conflict. The present study examined the nature of the control mechanisms by having participants perform two different tasks in an alternating way. When participants performed horizontal and vertical Simon tasks in Experiment 1A, and horizontal and vertical spatial Stroop task in Experiment 1B, no congruency sequence effect was obtained between the task congruencies. When the Simon task and spatial Stroop task were performed with different response sets in Experiment 2, no congruency sequence effect was obtained. However, in Experiment 3, in which the participants performed the horizontal Simon and spatial Stroop tasks with an identical response set, a significant congruency sequence effect was obtained between the task congruencies. In Experiment 4, no congruency sequence effect was obtained when participants performed two tasks having different task-irrelevant dimensions with the identical response set. The findings suggest inhibitory processing between the task-irrelevant dimension and response mode after conflict. PMID:24184348

  19. Modulating the phonological similarity effect: the contribution of interlist similarity and lexicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Paul Johan; Lian, Arild

    2005-04-01

    The classical phonological similarity effect (PSE) was studied with words and nonwords in two immediate serial recall (ISR) tasks. The relative contributions of intralist and interlist interference were compared, and differential effects on item and order memory were observed. PSE occurred with words and was reversed with nonwords. In addition, PSE was modulated by interlist similarity, which enhanced recall of rhyme items and impaired recall of distinct items. Finally, interlist similarity reduced item recall of words, whereas it improved serial recall of nonwords. The latter finding rules out the hypothesis that the reverse PSE for nonwords is due to interlist interference. It is concluded that two opposing effects of phonological intralist similarity cause the interaction between PSE and lexicality in ISR. With words, the positive effect on item recall is usually masked by a much more disruptive effect on position accuracy. With nonwords, however, the positive effect often masks the negative one. These findings are discussed in relation to current models of verbal short-term memory. PMID:16156188

  20. Effects of a Science Education Module on Attitudes towards Modern Biotechnology of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Tanja; Severiens, Sabine E.; Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; van Mil, Marc H. W.; Ten Dam, Geert T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the impact of a four-lesson science module on the attitudes of secondary school students. This science module (on cancer and modern biotechnology) utilises several design principles, related to a social constructivist perspective on learning. The expectation was that the module would help students become more articulate in…

  1. Effects of a science education module on attitudes towards modern biotechnology of secondary school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Klop; S.E. Severiens; M-C.P.J. Knippels; M.H.W. Mill; G.T.M. ten Dam

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the impact of a four‐lesson science module on the attitudes of secondary school students. This science module (on cancer and modern biotechnology) utilises several design principles, related to a social constructivist perspective on learning. The expectation was that the modul

  2. Effects of a science education module on attitudes towards modern biotechnology of secondary school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, T.; Severiens, S.E.; Knippels, M.C.P.J.; Mil, M.H.W. van; Dam, G.T.M. ten

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the impact of a four-lesson science module on the attitudes of secondary school students. This science module (on cancer and modern biotechnology) utilises several design principles, related to a social constructivist perspective on learning. The expectation was that the modul

  3. Effects of the solar wind termination shock and heliosheath on theheliospheric modulation of galactic and anomalous Helium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. W. Langner

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the role of the solar wind termination shock and heliosheath in cosmic ray modulation studies has increased significantly as the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft approach the estimated position of the solar wind termination shock. The effect of the solar wind termination shock on charge-sign dependent modulation, as is experienced by galactic cosmic ray Helium (He++ and anomalous Helium (He+, is the main topic of this work, and is complementary to the previous work on protons, anti-protons, electrons, and positrons. The modulation of galactic and anomalous Helium is studied with a numerical model including a more fundamental and comprehensive set of diffusion coefficients, a solar wind termination shock with diffusive shock acceleration, a heliosheath and particle drifts. The model allows a comparison of modulation with and without a solar wind termination shock and is applicable to a number of cosmic ray species during both magnetic polarity cycles of the Sun. The modulation of Helium, including an anomalous component, is also done to establish charge-sign dependence at low energies. We found that the heliosheath is important for cosmic ray modulation and that its effect on modulation is very similar for protons and Helium. The local Helium interstellar spectrum may not be known at energies <~1GeV until a spacecraft actually approaches the heliopause because of the strong modulation that occurs in the heliosheath, the effect of the solar wind termination shock and the presence of anomalous Helium.

  4. The effect of pH and ion channel modulators on human placental arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyba Y Ali

    Full Text Available Chorionic plate arteries (CPA are located at the maternofetal interface where they are able to respond to local metabolic changes. Unlike many other types of vasculature, the placenta lacks nervous control and requires autoregulation for controlling blood flow. The placental circulation, which is of low-resistance, may become hypoxic easily leading to fetal acidosis and fetal distress however the role of the ion channels in these circumstances is not well-understood. Active potassium channel conductances that are subject to local physicochemical modulation may serve as pathways through which such signals are transduced. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulation of CPA by pH and the channels implicated in these responses using wire myography. CPA were isolated from healthy placentae and pre-contracted with U46619 before testing the effects of extracellular pH using 1 M lactic acid over the pH range 7.4-6.4 in the presence of a variety of ion channel modulators. A change from pH 7.4 to 7.2 produced a 29±3% (n = 9 relaxation of CPA which increased to 61±4% at the lowest pH of 6.4. In vessels isolated from placentae of women with pre-eclampsia (n = 6, pH responses were attenuated. L-methionine increased the relaxation to 67±7% (n = 6; p<0.001 at pH 6.4. Similarly the TASK 1/3 blocker zinc chloride (1 mM gave a maximum relaxation of 72±5% (n = 8; p<0.01 which compared with the relaxation produced by the TREK-1 opener riluzole (75±5%; n = 6. Several other modulators induced no significant changes in vascular responses. Our study confirmed expression of several ion channel subtypes in CPA with our results indicating that extracellular pH within the physiological range has an important role in controlling vasodilatation in the human term placenta.

  5. Electron mobilities and quantum Hall effect in modulation-doped HgTe-CdTe superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, C. A.; Meyer, J. R.; Bartoli, F. J.; Lansari, Y.; Cook, J. W., Jr.; Schetzina, J. F.

    1991-10-01

    Photoassisted molecular-beam epitaxy and controlled modulation doping have been used to grow HgTe-CdTe superlattices with n-type carrier concentrations of up to 3×1017 cm-3. It is found that in contrast to Hg1-xCdxTe alloys where the electron mobility decreases strongly with donor concentration, μn in the modulation-doped superlattices is nearly independent of ND at large ND. We also discuss an observation of the quantum Hall effect associated with carriers distributed throughout the interior of a HgTe-CdTe superlattice. Whereas previous reports of quantized steps in the Hall conductivity have involved a small number of conduction channels (hence a small fraction of the superlattice periods), we observe plateaus at multiples of ~=200e2/h in a number of 200-period superlattices with high doping levels. This indicates participation by nearly all wells in the superlattice, and implies that the controlled doping is extremely uniform.

  6. Gate Modulation of Threshold Voltage Instability in Multilayer InSe Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Chen, XiaoShuang; Liu, Guangbo; Hu, PingAn

    2015-12-01

    We report a modulation of threshold voltage instability of back-gated multilayer InSe FETs by gate bias stress. The performance stability of multilayer InSe FETs is affected by gate bias polar, gate bias stress time and gate bias sweep rate under ambient conditions. The on-current increases and threshold voltage shifts to negative gate bias stress direction with negative bias stress applied, which are opposite to that of positive bias stress. The intensity of gate bias stress effect is influenced by applied gate bias time and the sweep rate of gate bias stress. The behavior can be explained by the surface charge trapping model due to the adsorbing/desorbing oxygen and/or water molecules on the InSe surface. This study offers an opportunity to understand gate bias stress modulation of performance instability of back-gated multilayer InSe FETs and provides a clue for designing desirable InSe nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26575205

  7. Magnetic modulation doping in topological insulators toward higher-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogi, M., E-mail: mogi@cmr.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yoshimi, R.; Yasuda, K.; Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Takahashi, K. S. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-11-02

    Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which generates dissipation-less edge current without external magnetic field, is observed in magnetic-ion doped topological insulators (TIs) such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The QAHE emerges when the Fermi level is inside the magnetically induced gap around the original Dirac point of the TI surface state. Although the size of gap is reported to be about 50 meV, the observable temperature of QAHE has been limited below 300 mK. We attempt magnetic-Cr modulation doping into topological insulator (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films to increase the observable temperature of QAHE. By introducing the rich-Cr-doped thin (1 nm) layers at the vicinity of both the surfaces based on non-Cr-doped (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} films, we have succeeded in observing the QAHE up to 2 K. The improvement in the observable temperature achieved by this modulation-doping appears to be originating from the suppression of the disorder in the surface state interacting with the rich magnetic moments. Such a superlattice designing of the stabilized QAHE may pave a way to dissipation-less electronics based on the higher-temperature and zero magnetic-field quantum conduction.

  8. Effects of weak amplitude-modulated microwave fields on calcium efflux from awake cat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium (45Ca2+) efflux was studied from preloaded cortex in cats immobilized under local anesthesia, and exposed to a 3.0-mW/cm2 450-MHz field, sinusoidally amplitude modulated at 16 Hz modulation depth 85%). Tissue dosimetry showed a field of 33 V/m in the interhemispheric fissure (rate of energy deposition 0.29 W/kg). Field exposure lasted 60 min. By comparison with controls, efflux curves from field exposed brains were disrupted by waves of increased 45Ca2+ efflux. These waves were irregular in amplitude and duration, but many exhibited periods of 20-30 min. They continued into the postexposure period. Binomial probability analysis indicates that the field-exposed efflux curves constitute a different population from controls at a confidence level of 0.96. In about 70% of cases, initiation of field exposure was followed by increased end-tidal CO2 excretion for about 5 min. However, hypercapnea induced by hypoventilation did not elicit increased 45Ca2+ efflux. Thus this increase with exposure does not appear to arise as a secondary effect of raised cerebral CO2 levels. Radioactivity measurements in cortical samples after superfusion showed 45Ca2+ penetration at about 1.7 mm/hr, consistent with diffusion of the ion in free solution

  9. Magnetic modulation doping in topological insulators toward higher-temperature quantum anomalous Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE), which generates dissipation-less edge current without external magnetic field, is observed in magnetic-ion doped topological insulators (TIs) such as Cr- and V-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3. The QAHE emerges when the Fermi level is inside the magnetically induced gap around the original Dirac point of the TI surface state. Although the size of gap is reported to be about 50 meV, the observable temperature of QAHE has been limited below 300 mK. We attempt magnetic-Cr modulation doping into topological insulator (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films to increase the observable temperature of QAHE. By introducing the rich-Cr-doped thin (1 nm) layers at the vicinity of both the surfaces based on non-Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films, we have succeeded in observing the QAHE up to 2 K. The improvement in the observable temperature achieved by this modulation-doping appears to be originating from the suppression of the disorder in the surface state interacting with the rich magnetic moments. Such a superlattice designing of the stabilized QAHE may pave a way to dissipation-less electronics based on the higher-temperature and zero magnetic-field quantum conduction

  10. Effects of the TREM-1 pathway modulation during empyema in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ling; ZHOU Qiong; CHEN Xiao-ju; QIN Shou-ming; MA Wan-li; SHI Huan-zhong

    2010-01-01

    Background The activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) in the presence of microbial components amplifies the inflammatory response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the modulation of the TREM-1 pathway during empyema in rats.Methods Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to empyema induced by intrapleural injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The animals were treated with LP17 (a synthetic TREM-1 inhibitor), a control peptide, or a vehicle (normal saline). Differential cell count, flow cytometry and histological examination were performed to evaluate local inflammatory alterations. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in both pleural effusion and serum were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results Although differential counts of each type of leukocytes in pleural effusion were not affected by LP17, a marked reduction in neutrophil numbers was seen in LP17 treated rats due to the reduction of both pleural effusion volume and total cell numbers. LP17 administration impaired concentration elevation in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-lβ, and interleukin-6 in both pleural effusion and serum. it was found that survival rate in LP17 treated rats was much higher than that in control rats.Conclusion The modulation of the TREM-1 pathway by the use of LP17 appears to be beneficial during empyema in rats in attenuating pleural and systemic inflammatory responses.

  11. Reinforcement magnitude modulation of rate dependent effects in pigeons and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; Lamb, R J

    2011-08-01

    Response rate can influence the behavioral effects of many drugs. Reinforcement magnitude may also influence drug effects. Further, reinforcement magnitude can influence rate-dependent effects. For example, in an earlier report, we showed that rate-dependent effects of two antidepressants depended on reinforcement magnitude. The ability of reinforcement magnitude to interact with rate-dependency has not been well characterized. It is not known whether our previous results are specific to antidepressants or generalize to other drug classes. Here, we further examine rate-magnitude interactions by studying effects of two stimulants (d-amphetamine [0.32-5.6 mg/kg] and cocaine [0.32-10 mg/kg]) and two sedatives (chlordiazepoxide [1.78-32 mg/kg] and pentobarbital [1.0-17.8 mg/kg]) in pigeons responding under a 3-component multiple fixed-interval (FI) 300-s schedule maintained by 2-, 4-, or 8-s of food access. We also examine the effects of d-amphetamine [0.32-3.2 mg/kg] and pentobarbital [1.8-10 mg/kg] in rats responding under a similar multiple FI300-s schedule maintained by 2- or 10- food pellet (45 mg) delivery. In pigeons, cocaine and, to a lesser extent, chlordiazepoxide exerted rate-dependent effects that were diminished by increasing durations of food access. The relationship was less apparent for pentobarbital, and not present for d-amphetamine. In rats, rate-dependent effects of pentobarbital and d-amphetamine were not modulated by reinforcement magnitude. In conclusion, some drugs appear to exert rate-dependent effect which are diminished when reinforcement magnitude is relatively high. Subsequent analysis of the rate-dependency data suggest the effects of reinforcement magnitude may be due to a diminution of drug-induced increases in low-rate behavior that occurs early in the fixed-interval. PMID:21707192

  12. Validation of the Correction of the Energy Modulation Effect in eta in the LAr Calorimeter of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed Ahmed Salem, Salma

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Electromagnetic Liquid Argon Calorimeter is used for measuring the energy of electromagnetic interacting particles. To validate results, different calibration procedures are performed with respect to different variables. The energy modulation in a single cell is one of the effects that need to be corrected. The eta modulation calibration was introduced to counteract this effect. Different quantities describing the deposited energy were used to test the calibration. This summer student project report focuses on showing the effect of the eta mod correction on different samples from data taken in run-II and Monte Carlo simulation.

  13. Tilt-effect of holograms and images displayed on a spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Walter; Roider, Clemens; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2015-11-16

    We show that a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM) can be used to display amplitude images, or phase holograms, which change in a pre-determined way when the display is tilted, i.e. observed under different angles. This is similar to the tilt-effect (also called "latent image effect") known from various security elements ("kinegrams") on credit cards or bank notes. The effect is achieved without any specialized optical components, simply by using the large phase shifting capability of a "thick" SLM, which extends over several multiples of 2π, in combination with the angular dependence of the phase shift. For hologram projection one can use the fact that the phase of a monochromatic wave is only defined modulo 2π. Thus one can design a phase pattern extending over several multiples of 2π, which transforms at different readout angles into different 2π-wrapped phase structures, due to the angular dependence of the modulo 2π operation. These different beams then project different holograms at the respective readout angles. In amplitude modulation mode (with inserted polarizer) the intensity of each SLM pixel oscillates over several periods when tuning its control voltage. Since the oscillation period depends on the readout angle, it is possible to find a certain control voltage which produces two (or more) selectable gray levels at a corresponding number of pre-determined readout angles. This is done with all SLM pixels individually, thus constructing different images for the selected angles. We experimentally demonstrate the reconstruction of multiple (Fourier- and Fresnel-) holograms, and of different amplitude images, by readout of static diffractive patterns in a variable angular range between 0° and 60°. PMID:26698528

  14. The effect of the depth of single longitudinal mode modulation in Q-switching pre-Pr3+:YLF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-Song, Li; Ling-Xi, Zhu; Xi-He, Zhang; Yuan, Dong; Yong-Ji, Yu; Guang-Yong, Jin

    2016-08-01

    The single longitudinal mode (SLM) can be obtained under the condition of Q-switching pre-lase. In this paper, the model of Q-switching pre-lase is firstly established. Taking the Pr3+:YLF laser as an example, the process of Q-switching pre-lase is simulated and optimized, then the optimized parameters and best output characteristics under different depth of SLM modulation are obtained. Comparing with the normal Q-switching laser, the SLM pulse energy can reach to 79.29%, the pulse width exceeds 16.45% and the depth of SLM modulation get to be 20. The results show that the Q-switching pre-lase output characteristics can be effected obviously by the SLM modulation depth, and the pulse energy and pulse width can be close to the normal Q-switching laser as long as the depth of SLM modulation is optimized.

  15. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices. PMID:26954833

  16. Modulation of Cortical-subcortical Networks in Parkinson’s Disease by Applied Field Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher William Hess

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that endogenous field effects may play a role in neuronal oscillations and communication. Non-invasive transcranial electrical stimulation with low-intensity currents can also have direct effects on the underlying cortex as well as distant network effects. While Parkinson's disease (PD is amenable to invasive neuromodulation in the basal ganglia by deep brain stimulation, techniques of non-invasive neuromodulation like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS and transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS are being investigated as possible therapies. tDCS and tACS have the potential to influence the abnormal cortical-subcortical network activity that occurs in PD through sub-threshold changes in cortical excitability or through entrainment or disruption of ongoing rhythmic cortical activity. This may allow for the targeting of specific features of the disease involving abnormal oscillatory activity, as well as the enhancement of potential cortical compensation for basal ganglia dysfunction and modulation of cortical plasticity in neurorehabilitation. However, little is currently known about how cortical stimulation will affect subcortical structures, the size of any effect, and the factors of stimulation that will influence these effects.

  17. A variant in ANKK1 modulates acute subjective effects of cocaine: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellicy, C J; Harding, M J; Hamon, S C; Mahoney, J J; Reyes, J A; Kosten, T R; Newton, T F; De La Garza, R; Nielsen, D A

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether functional variants in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain-containing 1 (ANKK1) gene and/or the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene modulate the subjective effects (reward or non-reward response to a stimulus) produced by cocaine administration. Cocaine-dependent participants (N = 47) were administered 40 mg of cocaine or placebo at time 0, and a subjective effects questionnaire (visual analog scale) was administered 15 min prior to cocaine administration, and at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min following administration. The influence of polymorphisms in the ANKK1 and DRD2 genes on subjective experience of cocaine in the laboratory was tested. Participants with a T allele of ANKK1 rs1800497 experienced greater subjective 'high' (P = 0.00006), 'any drug effect' (P = 0.0003) and 'like' (P = 0.0004) relative to the CC genotype group. Although the variant in the DRD2 gene was shown to be associated with subjective effects, linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that this association was driven by the ANKK1 rs1800497 variant. A participant's ANKK1 genotype may identify individuals who are likely to experience greater positive subjective effects following cocaine exposure, including greater 'high' and 'like', and these individuals may have increased vulnerability to continue using cocaine or they may be at greater risk to relapse during periods of abstinence. However, these results are preliminary and replication is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:24528631

  18. Polarization-dependent interfacial coupling modulation of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect in PZT-ZnO heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Dan-Feng; Bi, Gui-Feng; Chen, Guang-Yi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hou; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, ferroelectric perovskite oxides have drawn much attention due to potential applications in the field of solar energy conversion. However, the power conversion efficiency of ferroelectric photovoltaic effect currently reported is far below the expectable value. One of the crucial problems lies in the two back-to-back Schottky barriers, which are formed at the ferroelectric-electrode interfaces and blocking most of photo-generated carriers to reach the outside circuit. Herein, we develop a new approach to enhance the ferroelectric photovoltaic effect by introducing the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect. Through inserting a semiconductor ZnO layer with spontaneous polarization into the ferroelectric ITO/PZT/Au film, a p-n junction with strong polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect is formed. The power conversion efficiency of the heterostructure is improved by nearly two orders of magnitude and the polarization modulation ratio is increased about four times. It is demonstrated that the polarization-dependent interfacial coupling effect can give rise to a great change in band structure of the heterostructure, not only producing an aligned internal electric field but also tuning both depletion layer width and potential barrier height at PZT-ZnO interface. This work provides an efficient way in developing highly efficient ferroelectric-based solar cells and novel optoelectronic memory devices.

  19. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation—another method used to modulate gut composition and function—could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre, inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  20. Do drying and rewetting cycles modulate effects of sulfadiazine spiked manure in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechalke, Sven; Radl, Viviane; Schloter, Michael; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2016-05-01

    Naturally occurring drying-rewetting events in soil have been shown to affect the dissipation of veterinary antibiotics entering soil by manure fertilization. However, knowledge of effects on the soil microbial community structure and resistome is scarce. Here, consequences of drying-rewetting cycles on effects of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in soil planted withDactylis glomerataL. were investigated in microcosms. Manure containing SDZ or not was applied to the pregrown grass and incubated for 56 days in a climate chamber. Water was either added daily or reduced during two drying events of 7 days, each followed by a recovery phase. Total community DNA was analyzed to reveal the effects on the bacterial community structure and on the abundance ofsul1,sul2,intI1,intI2,qacE+qacEΔ1,traNandkorBgenes relative to 16S rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE fingerprints indicated that drying-rewetting cycles modulated the effects of SDZ on the bacterial community structure in the soil. Furthermore, the SDZ treatment increased the relative abundance of sulfonamide resistance and integrase genes compared to the control. However, this increase was not different between moisture regimes, indicating that drying-rewetting had only a negligible effect on the selection of the resistome by SDZ in the manured soil. PMID:27053757

  1. Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apneas on Endothelial Function and Autonomic Modulation in Adult Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhong; Yi Xiao; Rong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of obstructive sleep apneas on endothelial function and autonomic modulation.Methods From June 2009 to June 201 1,male patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) were consecutively enrolled in this study.Patients with an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of greater than 15 and without previous treatment for OSAHS were included as Group OSAHS and obese subjects with an AHI of less than 5 were included as non-OSAHS controls (Group Control).Electrocardiography and beat-to-beat blood pressure were continuously recorded from the radial artery by applanation tonometry which was synchronized with polysomnography recording.Endothelial function was measured by arterial augmentation index (AAI).Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) were computed for cardiac parasympathetic modulation (high frequency power,HF); sympathetic modulation (low frequency power,LF),sympathovagal balance (LF/HF power of R-R variability,LF/HF)and BPV sympathetic modulation (BPV LF) in normalized units [total power of the components/(total power-very LF power) × 100].Results Finally,27 moderate-severe OSAHS patients and 22 non-OSAHS obese controls were recruited in the Group OSAHS and Group Control,respectively.In Group OSAHS,the age was 43.3±9.3 year-old,body mass index (BMI) was 36.8±8.7 kg/m2; in Group Control,the age was 42.9±8.6 year-old,BMI was 34.4±7.9 kg/m2; there were no significant differences in age and BMI between the Group OSAHS and Group Control (all P>0.05).The baseline AAI (12.5%±2.2% vs.8.2%±2.1%) and BPV LF (68.3%± 13.5% vs.61.1%±11.7%) of the Group OSAHS were significantly higher than those of the Group Control (all P<0.05).And after overnight sleep,systolic BP (143.7± 14.2 vs.132.8± 13.3 mm Hg),diastolic BP (87.7±7.7 vs.78.6±5.5 mm Hg),HRV LF (69.7%±14.4% vs.64.3%±12.1%),HRV LF/HF (3.7±2.0 vs.2.3± 1.3) and BPV LF (77.8%± 15.6% vs.68.3%±13

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...

  3. Experimental study on the effects of the number of heat exchanger modules on thermal characteristics in a premixed combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Byeonghun; Lee, Chang-Eon [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kum, Sung Min [Halla University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seungro [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The effects of the number of heat exchanger modules on thermal characteristics were experimentally studied in a premixed combustion system with a cross-flow staggered-tube heat exchanger. The various heat exchanger modules, from 4 to 8, combined with a premixed burner were tested to investigate the performance of the heat exchanger through the surface area of the heat exchanger at various equivalence ratios. Additionally, the performance of the heat exchanger was analyzed by applying entropy generation theory to the heat exchanger system. As a result, although the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the equivalence ratio, the NOx and CO concentrations also increase due to the increasing flame temperature. In addition, the entropy generation increases with an increase of the equivalence ratio. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate and the effectiveness are increased with the increase of the number of the heat exchanger modules. Also, the effectiveness is sharply increased when the number of the heat exchanger modules is increased from 4 to 5. Consequently, the optimal operating conditions regarding pollutant emission, effectiveness and entropy generation in this experimental range are 0.85 for the equivalence ratio and 8 for the number of heat exchanger modules.

  4. Experimental study on the effects of the number of heat exchanger modules on thermal characteristics in a premixed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the number of heat exchanger modules on thermal characteristics were experimentally studied in a premixed combustion system with a cross-flow staggered-tube heat exchanger. The various heat exchanger modules, from 4 to 8, combined with a premixed burner were tested to investigate the performance of the heat exchanger through the surface area of the heat exchanger at various equivalence ratios. Additionally, the performance of the heat exchanger was analyzed by applying entropy generation theory to the heat exchanger system. As a result, although the heat transfer rate increases with the increase of the equivalence ratio, the NOx and CO concentrations also increase due to the increasing flame temperature. In addition, the entropy generation increases with an increase of the equivalence ratio. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate and the effectiveness are increased with the increase of the number of the heat exchanger modules. Also, the effectiveness is sharply increased when the number of the heat exchanger modules is increased from 4 to 5. Consequently, the optimal operating conditions regarding pollutant emission, effectiveness and entropy generation in this experimental range are 0.85 for the equivalence ratio and 8 for the number of heat exchanger modules

  5. Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Silver Nanowires Films: Effect of Capping Agent and Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lopez-Diaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanowires 90 nm in diameter and 9 µm in length have been synthesized using different capping agents: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP and alkyl thiol of different chain lengths. The nanowire structure is not influenced by the displacement of PVP by alkyl thiols, although alkyl thiols modify the lateral aggregation of nanowires. We examined the effect of the capping agent and the deposition method on the optical and electrical properties of films prepared by Spray and the Langmuir-Schaefer methodologies. Our results revealed that nanowires capped with PVP and C8-thiol present the best optoelectronic properties. By using different deposition techniques and by modifying the nanowire surface density, we can modulate the optoelectronic properties of films. This strategy allows obtaining films with the optoelectronic properties required to manufacture touch screens and electromagnetic shielding.

  6. The PPAR-Platelet Connection: Modulators of Inflammation and Potential Cardiovascular Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Spinelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, platelets were viewed as simple anucleate cells responsible for initiating thrombosis and maintaining hemostasis, but clearly they are also key mediators of inflammation and immune cell activation. An emerging body of evidence links platelet function and thrombosis to vascular inflammation. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs play a major role in modulating inflammation and, interestingly, PPARs (PPARβ/δ and PPARγ were recently identified in platelets. Additionally, PPAR agonists attenuate platelet activation; an important discovery for two reasons. First, activated platelets are formidable antagonists that initiate and prolong a cascade of events that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD progression. Dampening platelet release of proinflammatory mediators, including CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154, is essential to hinder this cascade. Second, understanding the biologic importance of platelet PPARs and the mechanism(s by which PPARs regulate platelet activation will be imperative in designing therapeutic strategies lacking the deleterious or unwanted side effects of current treatment options.

  7. Experimental study on the single event effects in pulse width modulators by laser testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhao; Xiaoqiang, Guo; Wei, Chen; Hongxia, Guo; Dongsheng, Lin; Hanning, Wang; Yinhong, Luo; Lili, Ding; Yuanming, Wang

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents single event effect (SEE) characteristics of UC1845AJ pulse width modulators (PWMs) by laser testing. In combination with analysis to map PWM circuitry in the microchip dies, the typical SEE response waveforms for laser pulses located in different circuit blocks of UC1845AJ are obtained and the SEE mechanisms are analyzed. The laser SEE test results show that there are some differences in the SEE mechanisms of different circuit blocks, and phase shifts or changes in the duty cycles of few output pulses are the main SEE behaviors for UC1845AJ. In addition, a new SEE behavior which manifests as changes in the duty cycles of many output pulses is revealed. This means that an SEE hardened design should be considered.

  8. Effect of Modulation Schemes on Performance of OFDM based Wireless Network using Smart Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Balaji G.Hogade

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have presented the effect of different modulation Techniques (QPSK, 16QAM and 64QAM and number of antenna elements at the receiver (Smart Antenna on the performance of beamforming in OFDM based Wireless network. The performance of the proposedtechnique is tested for adaptive beam forming algorithm, Least Mean Square (LMS, improved LMS and conventional beamforming for different number of antenna elements. Proposed system not only has goodability of suppressing interference, but also significantly improves the bit-error rate (BERperformance of the system. Simulation results show that an adaptive beam forming gives the optimum performance on urban channels. SNR vs. BER, are compared using same set of parameters.

  9. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley O. Stone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET, covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  10. Experimental study on the single event effects in pulse width modulators by laser testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents single event effect (SEE) characteristics of UC1845AJ pulse width modulators (PWMs) by laser testing. In combination with analysis to map PWM circuitry in the microchip dies, the typical SEE response waveforms for laser pulses located in different circuit blocks of UC1845AJ are obtained and the SEE mechanisms are analyzed. The laser SEE test results show that there are some differences in the SEE mechanisms of different circuit blocks, and phase shifts or changes in the duty cycles of few output pulses are the main SEE behaviors for UC1845AJ. In addition, a new SEE behavior which manifests as changes in the duty cycles of many output pulses is revealed. This means that an SEE hardened design should be considered. (paper)

  11. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n=17, 10 F, age=8.3–12.1 years), healthy children (n=13, 4 F, age=9.3–12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n=18, 6 F, age=12.3–17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age=12.5–17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  12. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2016-08-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n = 17, 10 F, age = 8.3-12.1 years), healthy children (n = 13, 4 F, age = 9.3-12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n = 18, 6 F, age = 12.3-17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age = 12.5-17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  13. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and CLA levels in the Longissimus muscle of Caracu and Caracu vs. Charolais cattle /
    Composição química, perfil de ácidos graxos e níveis de CLA no músculo Longissimus de bovinos Caracu e Caracu vs. Charolês

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado; Jair de Araújo Marques; Makoto Matsushita; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Polyana Pizzi Rotta; Carlos Alberto Fugita; Rodolpho Martin do Prado; Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    This work was conducted in order to study the chemical composition, fatty acid profile, as well as the levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) present in the Longissimus muscle of Caracu and Caracu vs. Charolais genetic groups of cattle. This study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná, in southern Brazil. Twenty animals (10 Caracu – CAR and 10 Caracu vs. Charolais – CAC) were used, with an initial average age between 8 and ...

  14. Modulator Effect of Turmeric on Oxidative Damage in Whole Body Gamma Irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its penetrating power and its ability to travel great distances, gamma rays are considered the primary hazard to the population during most radiological emergencies. So, there is a need to develop medical countermeasures to protect the first responders and remediation workers from biomedical effect of ionizing radiation. Turmeric has been reported to have many beneficial health effects, including a strong anti-oxidant effect, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. In the present study, turmeric was investigated as a therapeutic agent against hazards induced by ionizing radiation on kidney, liver, urinary and serum calcium levels and blood counts. A daily dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight was used in whole body gamma irradiated female rats with 3 Gy. Radiation effects were followed up for four weeks post irradiation. The results revealed that the administration of turmeric post-irradiation resulted in a significant inhibition in the frequency of radiation induced oxidative damage. It could be concluded that definite turmeric dose exerts a vital modulator role against gamma irradiation hazard

  15. pH-Sensitive Polymeric Nanoparticles Modulate Autophagic Effect via Lysosome Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yao-Xin; Wang, Yi; Qiao, Sheng-Lin; An, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ruo-Xin; Qiao, Zeng-Ying; Rajapaksha, R P Y J; Wang, Lei; Wang, Hao

    2016-06-01

    In drug delivery systems, pH-sensitive polymers are commonly used as drug carriers, and significant efforts have been devoted to the aspects of controlled delivery and release of drugs. However, few studies address the possible autophagic effects on cells. Here, for the first time, using a fluorescent autophagy-reporting cell line, this study evaluates the autophagy-induced capabilities of four types of pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) with different physical properties, including size, surface modification, and pH-sensitivity. Based on experimental results, this study concludes that pH-sensitivity is one of the most important factors in autophagy induction. In addition, this study finds that variation of concentration of NPs could cause different autophagic effect, i.e., low concentration of NPs induces autophagy in an mTOR-dependent manner, but high dose of NPs leads to autophagic cell death. Identification of this tunable autophagic effect offers a novel strategy for enhancing therapeutic effect in cancer therapy through modulation of autophagy. PMID:27120078

  16. Effects of modulation of sulphation and glucuronidation on chlorpropham metabolism and cytotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, G; Lamboeuf, Y; Pipy, B; Alary, J; Melgar, M J

    1995-12-01

    After modulation of sulphation and glucuronidation, the relationship between the changes in metabolism and cytotoxicity of chloropropham (CIPC), a widely used herbicide, was investigated in isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions. Under physiological conditions, CIPC had a cytolytic effect, modified membrane permeability and reduced intracellular ATP level. CIPC was metabolized by hepatocytes mainly into 4-OH chlorpropham sulphate (37%) and glucuronide conjugates (18%). Inhibition of sulphation, by omitting sulphate from the isolation and incubation media, did not affect the cytotoxicity of CIPC, since there was a 2.5-fold compensatory increase in 4-OH CIPC glucuronide. Inhibition of glucuronidation by adding 4 mM D-galactosamine in the incubation medium led to a 66% decrease of glucuronide conjugate and simultaneously to a 32% decrease of sulphate conjugate. In that case, concentrations of free 4-OH CIPC in both hepatocytes and incubation medium were markedly increased, while those of 3-chloroaniline and 3-chloroacetanilide were slightly modified and remained low. This alteration of metabolism was accompanied by modification of cell permeability and reduction in ATP synthesis. The cytolytic effect was due to CIPC itself, whereas the effect on energetic metabolism was attributed to a metabolite. Results demonstrated for the first time a partial inhibition of sulphation by D-galactosamine (4 mM), probably due to the effect of D-galactosamine on intracellular ATP levels. PMID:8588294

  17. Cardiac effects of 3-iodothyronamine: a new aminergic system modulating cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Grazia; Frascarelli, Sabina; Ghelardoni, Sandra; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Tobias, Sandra C; DeBarber, Andrea; Brogioni, Simona; Ronca-Testoni, Simonetta; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Grandy, David K; Scanlan, Thomas S; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    3-Iodothyronamine T1AM is a novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative that activates the G protein-coupled receptor known as trace anime-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). In the isolated working rat heart and in rat cardiomyocytes, T1AM produced a reversible, dose-dependent negative inotropic effect (e.g., 27+/-5, 51+/-3, and 65+/-2% decrease in cardiac output at 19, 25, and 38 microM concentration, respectively). An independent negative chronotropic effect was also observed. The hemodynamic effects of T1AM were remarkably increased in the presence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, whereas they were attenuated in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. No effect was produced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, calcium-calmodulin kinase II, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, or MAP kinases. Tissue cAMP levels were unchanged. In rat ventricular tissue, Western blot experiments with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies showed reduced phosphorylation of microsomal and cytosolic proteins after perfusion with synthetic T1AM; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed the presence of transcripts for at least 5 TAAR subtypes; specific and saturable binding of [125I]T1AM was observed, with a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range (5 microM); and endogenous T1AM was detectable by tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence for the existence of a novel aminergic system modulating cardiac function. PMID:17284482

  18. A3 Adenosine Receptor Allosteric Modulator Induces an Anti-Inflammatory Effect: In Vivo Studies and Molecular Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Cohen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR is overexpressed in inflammatory cells and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals with inflammatory conditions. Agonists to the A3AR are known to induce specific anti-inflammatory effects upon chronic treatment. LUF6000 is an allosteric compound known to modulate the A3AR and render the endogenous ligand adenosine to bind to the receptor with higher affinity. The advantage of allosteric modulators is their capability to target specifically areas where adenosine levels are increased such as inflammatory and tumor sites, whereas normal body cells and tissues are refractory to the allosteric modulators due to low adenosine levels. LUF6000 administration induced anti-inflammatory effect in 3 experimental animal models of rat adjuvant induced arthritis, monoiodoacetate induced osteoarthritis, and concanavalin A induced liver inflammation in mice. The molecular mechanism of action points to deregulation of signaling proteins including PI3K, IKK, IκB, Jak-2, and STAT-1, resulting in decreased levels of NF-κB, known to mediate inflammatory effects. Moreover, LUF6000 induced a slight stimulatory effect on the number of normal white blood cells and neutrophils. The anti-inflammatory effect of LUF6000, mechanism of action, and the differential effects on inflammatory and normal cells position this allosteric modulator as an attractive and unique drug candidate.

  19. Bystander effects of ionizing radiation can be modulated by signaling amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actual risk and risk management of exposure to ionizing radiation are among the most controversial areas in environmental health protection. Recent developments in radiobiology especially characterization of bystander effects have called into question established dogmas and are thought to cast doubt on the scientific basis of the risk assessment framework, leading to uncertainty for regulators and concern among affected populations. In this paper we test the hypothesis that small signaling molecules widely used throughout the animal kingdom for signaling stress or environmental change, such as 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), L-DOPA, glycine or nicotine are involved in bystander signaling processes following ionizing radiation exposure. We report data which suggest that nano to micromolar concentrations of these agents can modulate bystander-induced cell death. Depletion of 5-HT present in tissue culture medium, occurred following irradiation of cells. This suggested that 5-HT might be bound by membrane receptors after irradiation. Expression of 5-HT type 3 receptors which are Ca2+ ion channels was confirmed in the cells using immunocytochemistry and receptor expression could be increased using radiation or 5-HT exposure. Zofran and Kitryl, inhibitors of 5-HT type 3 receptors, and reserpine a generic serotonin antagonist block the bystander effect induced by radiation or by serotonin. The results may be important for the mechanistic understanding of how low doses of radiation interact with cells to produce biological effects

  20. [NEW MECHANISM OF HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTION OF EMBRYONIC ANTITUMOR MODULATOR MKRTCHYAN BY ACTIVATION OF IT'S MEMBRANOPROTECTIVE EFFECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanova, E

    2015-12-01

    As a new means of prevention and treatment of diabetes can be considered Embryonic antitumor modulator Mkrtchyan (EATM). According to our data on the STZ model of diabetes in rats EATM revealed hypoglycemic effect. Moreover, EATM prevented the development of oxidative stress. It is shown that EATM having immunomodulatory action, realizes its effect by regulating the Nox (NAPH oxidase) system. Inactivation of Nox, including the pancreas, is one of the factors determining the safety of the organ responsible for the development of diabetes. The release of the Nox is increased ex vivo and in the patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Mechanism for enhancing of the Nox isoforms release from erythrocyte membranes and blood serum exosomes in the presence of ferriHb in diabetes may be due to destabilizing of the cell membranes. It is established that the glucose at low concentrations bound to isoforms of Nox at the membrane surface due to increasing their stability, and at high concentrations, on the contrary, it lowers their stability. Thus, we have demonstrated a new mechanism of destabilization of cell membranes in diabetes mellitus. Suppression of the release of the pancreas Nox membrane cells in this pathology by means of EATM is perhaps a new mechanism of stabilization of these membranes, which explains the antidiabetic effect of the preparation. PMID:26719557

  1. Geomagnetic field modulates artificial static magnetic field effect on arterial baroreflex and on microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrov, Juraj

    2007-03-01

    Spreading evidence suggests that geomagnetic field (GMF) modulates artificial magnetic fields biological effect and associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. To explore the underlying physiological mechanism we studied 350 mT static magnetic field (SMF) effect on arterial baroreflex-mediated skin microcirculatory response in conjunction with actual geomagnetic activity, reflected by K and K p indices. Fourteen experiments were performed in rabbits sedated by pentobarbital infusion (5 mg/kg/h). Mean femoral artery blood pressure, heart rate, and the ear lobe skin microcirculatory blood flow, measured by microphotoelectric plethysmogram (MPPG), were simultaneously recorded before and after 40 min of NdFeB magnets local exposure to sinocarotid baroreceptors. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was estimated from heart rate/blood pressure response to intravenous bolus injections of nitroprusside and phenylephrine. We found a significant positive correlation between SMF-induced increase in BRS and increment in microvascular blood flow (ΔBRS with ΔMPPG, r=0.7, p<0.009) indicated the participation of the arterial baroreflex in the regulation of the microcirculation and its enhancement after SMF exposure. Geomagnetic disturbance, as opposed to SMF, decreased both microcirculation and BRS, and counteracted SMF-induced increment in microcirculatory blood flow ( K-index with ΔMPPG; r s=-0.55, p<0.041). GMF probably affected central baroreflex pathways, diminishing SMF direct stimulatory effect on sinocarotid baroreceptors and on baroreflex-mediated vasodilatatory response. The results herein may thus point to arterial baroreflex as a possible physiological mechanism for magnetic-field cardiovascular effect. It seems that geomagnetic disturbance modifies artificial magnetic fields biological effect and should be taken into consideration in the assessment of the final effect.

  2. Electrokinetics in polyelectrolyte grafted nanofluidic channels modulated by the ion partitioning effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Antarip; Maity, Debonil; Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-07-01

    The effects of ion partitioning on the electrokinetics in a polyelectrolyte grafted nanochannel, which is the representative of a soft nanochannel, are analyzed. Earlier studies in this regard have considered low polyelectrolyte layer (PEL) grafting density at the rigid nanochannel wall and, hence, an equal permittivity inside and outside the grafted layer. In order to overcome this shortcoming, the concept of Born energy is revisited. The coupled system of the modified Poisson-Boltzmann and Navier-Stokes equation is solved numerically, going beyond the widely employed Debye-Hückel linearization and low PEL densities. The complex interplay between the hydrodynamics and charge distribution, modulated by the ion partitioning effect, along with their consequent effects on the streaming potential and electrokinetic energy conversion efficiency (EKEC) have been systemically investigated. It has been observed that the ion partitioning effect reduces the EKEC in comparison to the case with equal permittivity up to a certain electrical double layer thickness after which it increases the EKEC. For a high concentration of mobile charges within the PEL, the net gain in the maximum EKEC due to the ion partitioning effect is about 10 fold that of the case when the ion partitioning effect is not considered. We delve into the various scaling regimes in the streaming potential and intriguingly point out the exact location of peaks in efficiency. The present study also reveals the possibility of improvement in streaming potential mediated energy conversion by the use of polyelectrolyte materials, which possess substantially lower dielectric permittivity than the bulk electrolyte. PMID:27306568

  3. Central modulators of human pain: Effects of oxytocin, exam stress, breathing exercises and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zunhammer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The available means to control human pain are insufficient, novel mechanisms of pain modulation must be explored and understood. This cumulative dissertation comprises four studies, which explored potential means to modulate pain in the central nervous system. An overview on the current understanding of pain, its basic mechanisms, and its known modulators is provided. Study 1 tested if a high intranasal dose of the neuro-hypophyseal hormone oxytocin affected perception and processing of therm...

  4. Effects of a science education module on attitudes towards modern biotechnology of secondary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Klop, Tanja; Severiens, Sabine E.; Knippels, Marie-Christine; Mil, Marc Hubertus Wilhelmus van; TenDam, Geert T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluated the impact of a four-lesson science module on the attitudes of secondary school students. This science module (on cancer and modern biotechnology) utilises several design principles, related to a social constructivist perspective on learning. The expectation was that the module would help students become more articulate in this particular field. In a quasi-experimental design (experimental-, control groups and pre- and post-tests) secondary school st...

  5. Power Module

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Fang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the upgrade problem of module, and introduce the concepts of the power module, regular power module and uniform power module. We give some results of them. Key words: power group; power module; regular power module; uniform power module

  6. Effect of Temperature on Power Output from Different Commercially available Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Dash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV modules are rated at standard test condition (STC i.e. at irradiance of 1000 W/m2 , temperature at 25 0C and solar spectrum of Air Mass 1.5G. The actual output from the PV module in the field varies from its rated output due to change in ambient environmental conditions from the STC. The reduction in output due to temperature is determined by temperature coefficient which varies with the different types of solar module technologies. In this study, temperature coefficient of different types of commercially available solar modules is evaluated. The testing has been carried out at PV test facility of Solar Energy Centre, New Delhi. The modules are selected randomly from various manufactures. It is found that the average temperature coefficient of power for mono-crystalline, multi-crystalline and CdTe based modules are -0.446 %/°C, -0.387 %/°C and -0.172 %/°C respectively. In case of amorphous silicon module, only one sample is measured and the temperature coefficient is -0.234 %/°C. This study shows that the temperature coefficient for mono crystalline silicon module is higher than the other types of solar modules. This study provides an understanding on the variation in energy generation due to temperature correction between different cell technologies.

  7. Effect of temporal predictability on exogenous attentional modulation of feedforward processing in the striate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Tharaka L; Michie, Patricia T; Fulham, Ross

    2016-07-01

    Non-informative peripheral visual cues facilitate extrastriate processing of targets [as indexed by enhanced amplitude of contralateral P1 event-related potential (ERP) component] presented at the cued location as opposed to those presented at uncued locations, at short cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). Recently, two lines of research are emerging to suggest that the locus of attentional modulation is flexible and depends on 1) perceptual load and 2) temporal predictability of visual stimuli. We aimed to examine the effect of temporal predictability on attentional modulation of feed-forward activation of the striate cortex (as indexed by the C1 ERP component) by high-perceptual-load (HPL) stimuli. We conducted two ERP experiments where exogenously-cued HPL targets were presented under two temporal predictability conditions. In Experiment 1 [high-temporal-predictability (HTP) condition], 17 healthy subjects (age 18-26years) performed a line-orientation discrimination task on HPL targets presented in the periphery of the left upper or diagonally opposite right lower visual field, validly or invalidly cued by peripheral cues. SOA was fixed at 160ms. In Experiment 2 [low-temporal-predictability (LTP) condition], (n=10, age 19-36years) we retained HPL stimuli but randomly intermixed short-SOA trials with long-SOA (1000ms) trials in the task-blocks. In Experiment 1 and the short-SOA condition of the Experiment 2, validly-cued targets elicited significantly faster reaction times and larger contralateral P1, consistent with previous literature. A significant attentional enhancement of C1 amplitude was also observed in the HTP, but not LTP condition. The findings suggest that exogenous visual attention can facilitate the earliest stage of cortical processing under HTP conditions. PMID:27114044

  8. The effects of nonadiabatic dust charge variation and ultraviolet irradiation on the modulational instability of dust ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation on the nonlinear propagation of the dust ion acoustic (DIA) waves in the dusty plasma with positively charged dust grains have been investigated. By using the reductive perturbation technique, a three-dimensional modified nonlinear Schroedinger equation (mNLSE) governing the nonlinear envelope DIA waves was derived and the approximate solitary wave solution of the mNLSE was also obtained in the weak effect of nonadiabatic dust charge fluctuation limit, which shows that the amplitude of the DIA solitary wave exponentially decreases with time due to the collisionless dissipation caused by the nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The frequency, instability growth rate, and the critical modulational wave number of the small amplitude modulation are all dependent on photoelectron generated by ultraviolet irradiation and time due to the presence of nonadiabatic dust charge variation. The transverse perturbation plays an important role in the modulational instability region.

  9. A toxin-antitoxin module in Bacillus subtilis can both mitigate and amplify effects of lethal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangli Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial type-2 (protein-protein toxin-antitoxin (TA modules are two-gene operons that are thought to participate in the response to stress. Previous work with Escherichia coli has led to a debate in which some investigators conclude that the modules protect from stress, while others argue that they amplify lethal stress and lead to programmed cell death. To avoid ambiguity arising from the presence of multiple TA modules in E. coli, the effect of the sole type-2 toxin-antitoxin module of Bacillus subtilis was examined for several types of lethal stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic knockout of the toxin gene, ndoA (ydcE, conferred protection to lethal stressors that included kanamycin, moxifloxacin, hydrogen peroxide, and UV irradiation. However, at low doses of UV irradiation the ndoA deficiency increased lethality. Indeed, gradually increasing UV dose with the ndoA mutant revealed a crossover response--from the mutant being more sensitive than wild-type cells to being less sensitive. For high temperature and nutrient starvation, the toxin deficiency rendered cells hypersensitive. The ndoA deficiency also reduced sporulation frequency, indicating a role for toxin-antitoxin modules in this developmental process. In the case of lethal antimicrobial treatment, deletion of the toxin eliminated a surge in hydrogen peroxide accumulation observed in wild-type cells. CONCLUSIONS: A single toxin-antitoxin module can mediate two opposing effects of stress, one that lowers lethality and another that raises it. Protective effects are thought to arise from toxin-mediated inhibition of translation based on published work. The enhanced, stress-mediated killing probably involves toxin-dependent accumulation of reactive oxygen species, since a deficiency in the NdoA toxin suppressed peroxide accumulation following antimicrobial treatment. The type and perhaps the level of stress appear to be important for determining whether this toxin

  10. Motor imagery during action observation modulates automatic imitation effects in rhythmical actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lloyd Eaves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that passively observing a task-irrelevant rhythmical action can bias the cycle time of a subsequently executed rhythmical action. Here we use the same paradigm to investigate the impact of different forms of motor imagery (MI during action observation (AO on this automatic imitation (AI effect. Participants saw a picture of the instructed action followed by a rhythmical distractor movie, wherein cycle time was subtly manipulated across trials. They then executed the instructed rhythmical action. When participants imagined performing the instructed action in synchrony with the distractor action (AO + MI, a strong imitation bias was found that was significantly greater than in our previous study. The bias was pronounced equally for compatible and incompatible trials, wherein observed and imagined actions were different in type (e.g., face washing vs. painting or plane of movement, or both. In contrast, no imitation bias was observed when MI conflicted with AO. In Experiment 2, motor execution synchronised with AO produced a stronger imitation bias compared to AO + MI, showing an advantage in synchronisation for overt execution over MI. Furthermore, the bias was stronger when participants synchronised the instructed action with the distractor movie, compared to when they synchronised the distractor action with the distractor movie. Although we still observed a significant bias in the latter condition, this finding indicates a degree of specificity in AI effects for the identity of the synchronised action. Overall, our data show that MI can substantially modulate the effects of AO on subsequent execution, wherein: (1 combined AO + MI can enhance AI effects relative to passive AO; (2 observed and imagined actions can be flexibly coordinated across different action types and planes; and (3 conflicting AO + MI can abolish AI effects. Therefore, combined AO + MI instructions should be considered in motor training and

  11. The Role of Antibiotics in Gut Microbiota Modulation: The Eubiotic Effects of Rifaximin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponziani, Francesca Romana; Scaldaferri, Franco; Petito, Valentina; Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Pecere, Silvia; Lopetuso, Loris R; Palladini, Alessandra; Gerardi, Viviana; Masucci, Luca; Pompili, Maurizio; Cammarota, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are mainly used in clinical practice for their activity against pathogens, but they also alter the composition of commensal gut microbial community. Rifaximin is a non-absorbable antibiotic with additional effects on the gut microbiota about which very little is known. It is still not clear to what extent rifaximin can be able to modulate gut microbiota composition and diversity in different clinical settings. Studies based on culture-dependent techniques revealed that rifaximin treatment promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Accordingly, our metagenomic analysis carried out on patients with different gastrointestinal and liver diseases highlighted a significant increase in Lactobacilli after rifaximin treatment, persisting in the short time period. This result was independent of the disease background and was not accompanied by a significant alteration of the overall gut microbial ecology. This suggests that rifaximin can exert important eubiotic effects independently of the original disease, producing a favorable gut microbiota perturbation without changing its overall composition and diversity. PMID:27027301

  12. Bidirectional effect of Wnt signaling antagonist DKK1 on the modulation of anthrax toxin uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, LiLi; Cai, ChangZu; Yuan, PengFei; Jeong, Sun-Young; Yang, XiaoZhou; Dealmeida, Venita; Ernst, James; Costa, Michael; Cohen, Stanley N; Wei, WenSheng

    2014-05-01

    LRP6, a co-receptor for the morphogen Wnt, aids endocytosis of anthrax complexes. Here we report that Dickkopf1 (DKK1) protein, a secreted LRP6 ligand and antagonist, is also a modulator of anthrax toxin sensitivity. shRNA-mediated gene silencing or TALEN-mediated gene knockout of DKK1 reduced sensitivity of cells to PA-dependent hybrid toxins. However, unlike the solely inhibitory effect on Wnt signaling, the effects of DKK1 overexpression on anthrax toxicity were bidirectional, depending on its endogenous expression and cell context. Fluorescence microscopy and biochemical analyses showed that DKK1 facilitates internalization of anthrax toxins and their receptors, an event mediated by DKK1-LRP6-Kremen2 complex. Monoclonal antibodies against DKK1 provided dose-dependent protection to macrophages from killing by anthrax lethal toxin (LT). Our discovery that DKK1 forms ternary structure with LRP6 and Kremen2 in promoting PA-mediated toxin internalization provides a paradigm for bacterial exploitation of mechanisms that host cells use to internalize signaling proteins. PMID:24671437

  13. Generalized spin-dependent WIMP-nucleus interactions and the DAMA modulation effect

    CERN Document Server

    Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, KookHyun

    2015-01-01

    Guided by non-relativistic Effective Field Theory (EFT) we classify the most general spin-dependent interactions between a fermionic Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) and nuclei, and within this class of models we discuss the viability of an interpretation of the DAMA modulation result in terms of a signal from WIMP elastic scatterings using a halo-independent approach. We find that, although several relativistic EFT's can lead to a spin-dependent cross section, in some cases with an explicit, non-negligible dependence on the WIMP incoming velocity, three main scenarios can be singled out in the non-relativistic limit which approximately encompass them all, and that only differ by their dependence on the transferred momentum. For two of them compatibility between DAMA and other constraints is possible for a WIMP mass below 30 GeV, but only for a WIMP velocity distribution in the halo of our Galaxy which departs from a Maxwellian. This is achieved by combining a suppression of the WIMP effective coupl...

  14. Generalized spin-dependent WIMP-nucleus interactions and the DAMA modulation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, Kook-Hyun; Yoon, Jong-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    Guided by non-relativistic Effective Field Theory (EFT) we classify the most general spin-dependent interactions between a fermionic Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) and nuclei, and within this class of models we discuss the viability of an interpretation of the DAMA modulation result in terms of a signal from WIMP elastic scatterings using a halo-independent approach. We find that, although several relativistic EFT's can lead to a spin-dependent cross section, in some cases with an explicit, non-negligible dependence on the WIMP incoming velocity, three main scenarios can be singled out in the non-relativistic limit which approximately encompass them all, and that only differ by their dependence on the transferred momentum. For two of them compatibility between DAMA and other constraints is possible for a WIMP mass below 30 GeV, but only for a WIMP velocity distribution in the halo of our Galaxy which departs from a Maxwellian. This is achieved by combining a suppression of the WIMP effective coupling to neutrons (to evade constraints from xenon and germanium detectors) to an explicit quadratic or quartic dependence of the cross section on the transferred momentum (that leads to a relative enhancement of the expected rate off sodium in DAMA compared to that off fluorine in droplet detectors and bubble chambers). For larger WIMP masses the same scenarios are excluded by scatterings off iodine in COUPP.

  15. Glypican-3 modulates BMP- and FGF-mediated effects during renal branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaru, S; Cano-Gauci, D; Tee, J; Filmus, J; Rosenblum, N D

    2001-03-01

    The kidney of the Gpc3-/ mouse, a novel model of human renal dysplasia, is characterized by selective degeneration of medullary collecting ducts preceded by enhanced cell proliferation and overgrowth during branching morphogenesis. Here, we identify cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this renal dysplasia. Glypican-3 (GPC3) deficiency was associated with abnormal and contrasting rates of proliferation and apoptosis in cortical (CCD) and medullary collecting duct (MCD) cells. In CCD, cell proliferation was increased threefold. In MCD, apoptosis was increased 16-fold. Expression of Gpc3 mRNA in ureteric bud and collecting duct cells suggested that GPC3 can exert direct effects in these cells. Indeed, GPC3 deficiency abrogated the inhibitory activity of BMP2 on branch formation in embryonic kidney explants, converted BMP7-dependent inhibition to stimulation, and enhanced the stimulatory effects of KGF. Similar comparative differences were found in collecting duct cell lines derived from GPC3-deficient and wild type mice and induced to form tubular progenitors in vitro, suggesting that GPC3 directly controls collecting duct cell responses. We propose that GPC3 modulates the actions of stimulatory and inhibitory growth factors during branching morphogenesis. PMID:11180950

  16. The effect of dietary pigmentation on the esthetic appearance of clear orthodontic elastomeric modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Nabeel F; Almudhi, Abdullazez A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the stain resistance of three types of clear elastomeric modules exposed to several common dietary substances through the assessment of the perception of a group of dentists to discoloration using visual analog scale (VAS). Materials and Methods: Elastomeric modules from Unitek (AU), Ormco (OR), and dentaurum (DE) were immersed in the following food substances: Coffee, black tea, chocolate, energy drink, ketchup, and Coca-Cola for 72 h. VAS was used to reflect the module staining severity. Results: Significant difference was found among the three types of modules examined in this study. OR modules showed the least mean staining ratings by the examiners. There was no statistical difference in the staining properties between AU and DE modules. Coffee and tea showed higher staining potential as compared to all staining media. Furthermore, there was no difference in the staining characteristics of coffee and black tea. Conclusions: Coffee and tea are strong staining media that should be avoided by patients who opted to have esthetic appliances for their orthodontic treatment. Elastomeric modules manufactured by AU showed higher staining optical properties as compared to the other two companies, which could be related to the manufacturing processing of these modules. PMID:27127754

  17. Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene-silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhu, Xiaolong; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2015-01-01

    -optical modulation, optical-optical switching, and other optoelectronics applications. However, achieving a high modulation depth remains a challenge because of the modest graphene-light interaction in the graphene-silicon devices, typically, utilizing only a monolayer or few layers of graphene. Here, we...

  18. Effect of ionic temperature on the modulational instability of ion acoustic waves in a collisionless plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Krylov--Bogoliubov--Mitropolski method, the modulational instability of ion-acoustic waves in a collisionless plasma consisting of isothermal electrons and adiabatic ions is studied. It is found that with the inclusion of ion temperature the modulational instability sets in much earlier

  19. The Effects of Three Module Types on Cotton Ginning and Fiber Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally seed cotton has been stored in modules from the time it was harvested until it was ginned. These modules have been formed using additional equipment and operators. In an effort to improve the efficiency of cotton production by reducing the number of operators and equipment, two newer...

  20. Dosimetric effects of endorectal balloons on intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, In-Ah; Eom, Keun-Yong

    2013-10-01

    We used an endorectal balloon (ERB) for prostate immobilization during intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer treatment. To investigate the dosimetric effects of ERB-filling materials, we changed the ERB Hounsfield unit (HU) from 0 to 1000 HU in 200-HU intervals to simulate the various ERB fillings; 0 HU simulated a water-filled ERB, and 1000 HU simulated the densest material-filled ERB. Dosimetric data (coverage, homogeneity, conformity, maximal dose, and typical volume dose) for the tumor and the organs at risk (OARs) were evaluated in prostate IMRT treatment plans with 6-MV and 15-MV beams. The tumor coverage appeared to differ by approximately 1%, except for the clinical target volume (CTV) V100% and the planning target volume (PTV) V100%. The largest difference for the various ERB fillings was observed in the PTV V100%. In spite of increasing HU, the prostate IMRT plans at both energies had relatively low dosimetric effects on the PTV and the CTV. However, the maximal and the typical volume doses (D25%, D30%, and D50%) to the rectal wall and the bladder increased with increasing HU. For an air-filled ERB, the maximal doses to the rectal wall and the monitor units were lower than the corresponding values for the water-filled and the densest material-filled ERBs. An air-filled ERB spared the rectal wall because of its dosimetric effect. Thus, we conclude that the use of an air-filled ERB provides a dosimetric benefit to the rectal wall without a loss of target coverage and is an effective option for prostate IMRT treatment.

  1. The novelty-seeking phenotype modulates the long-lasting effects of adolescent MDMA exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Vaccaro, Sonia; Arenas, M Carmen; Aguilar, María A; Miñarro, José

    2015-03-15

    Exposure to drugs such as ethanol or cocaine during adolescence induces alterations in the central nervous system that are modulated by the novelty-seeking trait. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of this trait on the long-term effects of MDMA administration during adolescence on spontaneous behavior and conditioned rewarding effects in adulthood. Adolescent mice were classified as high or low novelty seekers (HNS or LNS) according to the hole-board test and received either MDMA (0, 10 or 20mg/kg PND 33-42) or saline. Three weeks later, having entered adulthood (PND>68), one set of mice performed the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests, while another set performed the conditioning place preference (CPP) test induced by cocaine-(1mg/kg) or MDMA-(1mg/kg). Only HNS mice treated with MDMA during adolescence acquired CPP in adulthood with a non-effective dose of cocaine or MDMA. Although it did not produce changes in motor activity, exposure to MDMA during adolescence was associated with more aggressive behaviors (threat and attack) and increased social contacts in HNS mice, while an anxiolytic effect was noted in LNS mice pre-treated with the highest dose of MDMA (20mg/kg). Administration of MDMA (10 or 20mg/kg) induced a decrease in DA levels in the striatum in LNS mice only and lower striatal serotonin levels in mice treated with the highest MDMA dose. Our findings show that adolescent MDMA exposure results in higher sensitivity to the conditioned reinforcing properties of MDMA and cocaine in adult HNS mice, which suggests that the relationship between exposure to MDMA in adolescence and a higher probability of substance is a feature of high novelty seekers only. PMID:25619952

  2. Thermal and Electrical Effects of Partial Shade in Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J.; Deceglie, Michael G.; Sun, Xingshu; Garris, Rebekah L.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Deline, Chris; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-02

    Photovoltaic cells can be damaged by reverse bias stress, which arises during service when a monolithically integrated thin-film module is partially shaded. We introduce a model for describing a module's internal thermal and electrical state, which cannot normally be measured. Using this model and experimental measurements, we present several results with relevance for reliability testing and module engineering: Modules with a small breakdown voltage experience less stress than those with a large breakdown voltage, with some exceptions for modules having light-enhanced reverse breakdown. Masks leaving a small part of the masked cells illuminated can lead to very high temperature and current density compared to masks covering entire cells.

  3. High short-term effectiveness of modulated dry bed training in adolescents and young adults with treatment-resistant enuresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, I.; Cobussen-Boekhorst, J.G.L.; Kortmann, B.B.M.; Mulder, Z.; Steffens, M.G.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Van Capelle, J.W.; Blanker, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVES: Two percent of adolescents and young adults suffer from therapy-resistant enuresis, with considerable negative impact on self-esteem and relationships. We evaluated the effect of a Modulated Dry Bed Training (MDBT) in a previously therapyresistant group of adolescents with

  4. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  5. The Effects of Textisms on Learning, Study Time, and Instructional Perceptions in an Online Artificial Intelligence Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert; Bryant, Nathan L.; Dodson, Phillip T.; Entwistle, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of textisms (i.e., abbreviated spellings, acronyms, and other shorthand notations) on learning, study time, and instructional perceptions in an online artificial intelligence instructional module. The independent variable in this investigation was experimental condition. For the control…

  6. The effects of magnetic field modifications on the solar modulation of cosmic rays with a SDE-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raath, J. L.; Potgieter, M. S.; Strauss, R. D.; Kopp, A.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical model for the solar modulation of cosmic rays, based on the solution of a set of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), is used to illustrate the effects of modifying the heliospheric magnetic field, particularly in the polar regions of the heliosphere. SDE-based models are well suited for such studies so that new insights are gained. To this end, the differences in the modulation brought about by each of three choices for the heliospheric magnetic field, i.e. the unmodified Parker field, the Smith-Bieber modified field, and the Jokipii-Kóta modified field, are studied as typical well-known cases. It is illustrated that although both these modifications change the Parker field satisfactorily in the polar regions of the heliosphere, the Smith-Bieber modification is more effective in reducing cosmic ray drift effects in these regions. The features of these two modifications, as well as the effects on the solar modulation of cosmic rays, are illustrated qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, it is shown how the Smith-Bieber modified field is applied in a cosmic ray modulation model to reproduce observational proton spectra from the PAMELA mission during the solar minimum of 2006-2009. These SDE-based results are compared with those obtained in previous studies of this unusual solar minimum activity period and found to be in good qualitative agreement.

  7. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.L.; Hertog, D. den; Siem, A.Y.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Huizenga, H.

    2008-01-01

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan

  8. Short- and long-term effects of T-cell modulating agents in experimental autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the easy and reliable induction of a disease condition with many of the features present in human autoimmunity, mercury-induced autoimmunity (mHgAI) in rodents is a favourable autoimmune model. Genetically susceptible (H-2s) mice develop in response to mercury (Hg) a systemic autoimmune condition with antinucleolar antibodies (ANoA) targeting the protein fibrillarin, transient polyclonal B-cell activation, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and systemic immune-complex (IC) deposits. In order to study the short- and long-term effects of treatment with immunomodulating agents on the disease parameters in HgAI, groups of B10.S (H-2s) mice were given 6 mg HgCl2/l drinking water for 22 weeks. Three weeks initial treatment with cyclosporin A (CyA), a high dose of tacrolimus (HD tacrolimus), or anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (a-CD4) inhibited induction of ANoA and IC deposit by Hg. This effect persisted for the subsequent 19 weeks when the mice were only treated with Hg. Initial treatment with anti-IL-4 monoclonal antibody (a-IL-4) for 3 weeks inhibited induction of IgE and IC deposits by Hg, but not ANoA. However, subsequent treatment with Hg without a-IL-4 for 19 weeks induced IC deposits. The T-cell modulating agents aggravated some of the HgAI disease parameters: a-CD4 stimulated the polyclonal B-cell activation, a-IL-4 increased the IgG antichromatin antibody response, and a low dose of tacrolimus (LD tacrolimus) enhanced the ANoA, the polyclonal B-cell activation, and the IC deposits. We conclude that a short initial treatment with a-CD4 or CyA efficiently protects against induction of systemic autoimmunity for an extended period of time. However, some of the T-cell modulating agents, especially a low dose of tacrolimus, aggravate autoimmune manifestations not only during ongoing treatment, but also after treatment with these agents has ceased

  9. Further investigation of a relic neutralino as a possible origin of an annual-modulation effect in WIMP direct search

    CERN Document Server

    Bottino, A; Fornengo, N; Scopel, S

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the annual-modulation effect, measured by the DAMA Collaboration with the new implementation of a further two-years running, in the context of a possible interpretation in terms of relic neutralinos. We impose over the set of supersymmetric configurations, selected by the annual-modulation data, the constraints derived from WIMP indirect measurements, and discuss the features of the ensuing relic neutralinos. We critically discuss the sources of the main theoretical uncertainties in the analysis of event rates for direct and indirect WIMP searches.

  10. Monte Carlo simulations to assess the effects of tube current modulation on breast dose for multidetector CT

    OpenAIRE

    Angel, Erin; Yaghmai, Nazanin; Jude, Cecilia Matilda; Demarco, John J.; Cagnon, Christopher H.; Goldin, Jonathan G; Primak, Andrew N.; Stevens, Donna M.; Cody, Dianna D.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Tube current modulation was designed to reduce radiation dose in CT imaging while maintaining overall image quality. This study aims to develop a method for evaluating the effects of tube current modulation (TCM) on organ dose in CT exams of actual patient anatomy. This method was validated by simulating a TCM and a fixed tube current chest CT exam on 30 voxelized patient models and estimating the radiation dose to each patient’s glandular breast tissue. This new method for estimating organ d...

  11. Wind effect on PV module temperature: Analysis of different techniques for an accurate estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingshackl, Clemens; Petitta, Marcello; Ernst Wagner, Jochen; Belluardo, Giorgio; Moser, David; Castelli, Mariapina; Zebisch, Marc; Tetzlaff, Anke

    2013-04-01

    In this abstract a study on the influence of wind to model the PV module temperature is presented. This study is carried out in the framework of the PV-Alps INTERREG project in which the potential of different photovoltaic technologies is analysed for alpine regions. The PV module temperature depends on different parameters, such as ambient temperature, irradiance, wind speed and PV technology [1]. In most models, a very simple approach is used, where the PV module temperature is calculated from NOCT (nominal operating cell temperature), ambient temperature and irradiance alone [2]. In this study the influence of wind speed on the PV module temperature was investigated. First, different approaches suggested by various authors were tested [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. For our analysis, temperature, irradiance and wind data from a PV test facility at the airport Bolzano (South Tyrol, Italy) from the EURAC Institute of Renewable Energies were used. The PV module temperature was calculated with different models and compared to the measured PV module temperature at the single panels. The best results were achieved with the approach suggested by Skoplaki et al. [1]. Preliminary results indicate that for all PV technologies which were tested (monocrystalline, amorphous, microcrystalline and polycrystalline silicon and cadmium telluride), modelled and measured PV module temperatures show a higher agreement (RMSE about 3-4 K) compared to standard approaches in which wind is not considered. For further investigation the in-situ measured wind velocities were replaced with wind data from numerical weather forecast models (ECMWF, reanalysis fields). Our results show that the PV module temperature calculated with wind data from ECMWF is still in very good agreement with the measured one (R² > 0.9 for all technologies). Compared to the previous analysis, we find comparable mean values and an increasing standard deviation. These results open a promising approach for PV module

  12. Optical effects module. [housing instruments used to measure degradation of optical samples from contamination during orbital operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The possible degradation of optical samples exposed to the effluent gases and particulate matter emanating from the payload of the space transportation system during orbital operations may be determined by measuring two optical parameters for five samples exposed to this environment, namely transmittance and diffuse reflectance. Any changes detected in these parameters as a function of time during the mission are then attributable to surface contamination or to increased material absorption. These basic functions are attained in the optical effects module by virtue of the following subsystems which are described: module enclosure; light source with collimator and modulator; sample wheel with holders and rotary drive; photomultipliers for radiation detection; processing and sequencing electronic circuitry; and power conditioning interfaces. The functions of these subsystems are reviewed and specified.

  13. HDAC inhibition elicits myocardial protective effect through modulation of MKK3/Akt-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting C Zhao

    Full Text Available We and others have demonstrated that HDAC inhibition protects the heart against myocardial injury. It is known that Akt-1 and MAP kinase play an essential role in modulation of myocardial protection and cardiac preconditioning. Our recent observations have shown that Akt-1 was activated in post-myocardial infarction following HDAC inhibition. However, it remains unknown whether MKK3 and Akt-1 are involved in HDAC inhibition-induced myocardial protection in acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. We sought to investigate whether the genetic disruption of Akt-1 and MKK3 eliminate cardioprotection elicited by HDAC inhibition and whether Akt-1 is associated with MKK3 to ultimately achieve protective effects. Adult wild type and MKK3⁻/⁻, Akt-1⁻/⁻ mice received intraperitoneal injections of trichostatin A (0.1 mg/kg, a potent inhibitor of HDACs. The hearts were subjected to 30 min myocardial ischemia/30 min reperfusion in the Langendorff perfused heart after twenty four hours to elicit pharmacologic preconditioning. Left ventricular function was measured, and infarct size was determined. Acetylation and phosphorylation of MKK3 were detected and disruption of Akt-1 abolished both acetylation and phosphorylation of MKK3. HDAC inhibition produces an improvement in left ventricular functional recovery, but these effects were abrogated by disruption of either Akt-1 or MKK3. Disruption of Akt-1 or MKK3 abolished the effects of HDAC inhibition-induced reduction of infarct size. Trichostatin A treatment resulted in an increase in MKK3 phosphorylation or acetylation in myocardium. Taken together, these results indicate that stimulation of the MKK3 and Akt-1 pathway is a novel approach to HDAC inhibition -induced cardioprotection.

  14. Safety and T cell modulating effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Smolders

    Full Text Available A poor vitamin D status has been associated with a high disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS. Recently, we described associations between vitamin D status and peripheral T cell characteristics in relapsing remitting MS (RRMS patients. In the present study, we studied the effects of high dose vitamin D3 supplementation on safety and T cell related outcome measures.Fifteen RRMS patients were supplemented with 20,000 IU/d vitamin D3 for 12 weeks. Vitamin D and calcium metabolism were carefully monitored, and T cell characteristics were studied by flowcytometry. All patients finished the protocol without side-effects, hypercalcaemia, or hypercalciuria. The median vitamin D status increased from 50 nmol/L (31-175 at week 0 to 380 nmol/L (151-535 at week 12 (P<0.001. During the study, 1 patient experienced an exacerbation of MS and was censored from the T cell analysis. The proportions of (naïve and memory CD4+ Tregs remained unaffected. Although Treg suppressive function improved in several subjects, this effect was not significant in the total cohort (P=0.143. An increased proportion of IL-10+ CD4+ T cells was found after supplementation (P=0.021. Additionally, a decrease of the ratio between IFN-γ+ and IL-4+ CD4+ T cells was observed (P=0.035.Twelve week supplementation of high dose vitamin D3 in RRMS patients was well tolerated and did not induce decompensation of calcium metabolism. The skewing towards an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile supports the evidence on vitamin D as an immune-modulator, and may be used as outcome measure for upcoming randomized placebo-controlled trials.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00940719.

  15. Learning to modulate one's own brain activity: The effect of spontaneous mental strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Erika Kober

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using neurofeedback (NF, individuals can learn to modulate their own brain activity, in most cases electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms. Although a large body of literature reports positive effects of NF training on behavior and cognitive functions, there are hardly any reports on how participants can successfully learn to gain control over their own brain activity. About one third of people fail to gain significant control over their brain signals even after repeated training sessions. The reasons for this failure are still largely unknown. In this context, we investigated the effects of spontaneous mental strategies on NF performance. Twenty healthy participants performed either a SMR (sensorimotor rhythm, 12-15 Hz based or a Gamma (40-43 Hz based NF training over ten sessions. After the first and the last training session, they were asked to write down which mental strategy they have used for self-regulating their EEG. After the first session, all participants reported the use of various types of mental strategies such as visual strategies, concentration, or relaxation. After the last NF training session, four participants of the SMR group reported to employ no specific strategy. These four participants showed linear improvements in NF performance over the ten training sessions. In contrast, participants still reporting the use of specific mental strategies in the last NF session showed no changes in SMR based NF performance over the ten sessions. This effect could not be observed in the Gamma group. The Gamma group showed no prominent changes in Gamma power over the NF training sessions, regardless of the mental strategies used. These results indicate that successful SMR based NF performance is associated with implicit learning mechanisms. Participants stating vivid reports on strategies to control their SMR probably overload cognitive resources, which might be counterproductive in terms of increasing SMR power.

  16. The effects of modified production method and new parts integration on CPV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonkar, Hussam; Eugenio, Nunilo; Alowais, Abdullah; Badahdah, Alhassan; Alyahyah, Abdulaziz; Sheikho, Ayman; Halawani, Mohammad; Alalweet, Fahad; Alghamdi, Ahmed; Alsufairan, Abdulrahman; Saedan, Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in collaboration with IBM has developed the first manually manufactured concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules. A single CPV module is rated at 120 W at nominal operating test condition (NOTC) of 1000 W/m2 direct normal insolation (DNI) and 25°C ambient temperature. Two trackers are installed and operated in the solar village outside Riyadh and one located in the eastern coastal city of Alkhafji. Figure 1 shows the trackers in Solar Village and Alkhafji. Valuable lessons were learned after three years of operating the systems on sites with different environmental characteristics. A production process flaw that caused cell material weakening and falling of light pipes from the cell have caused huge output degradation. Other factors that improved module performance are modification of production methods, integrating and replacing new parts. The Fresnel lens was replaced with a higher transmission efficiency lens of the same make as the former. Focal length of the new lens was determined and a new aluminum casing with different dimension was produced. This paper discusses in details the manufacturing process of two modules. The modules are essentially the same except for the cell used in each one. Both modules were manufactured using the modified process. New parts have been incorporated. The modules were then installed in the solar village. Data are being collected at a time interval of 10 minutes. I-V curve tests are also being acquired at different environmental conditions. Analysis and comparisons of these modules with one old module shall be presented.

  17. Dosimetric effects of weight loss or gain during volumetric modulated arc therapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weight loss or gain during the course of radiation therapy for prostate cancer can alter the planned dose to the target volumes and critical organs. Typically, source-to-surface distance (SSD) measurements are documented by therapists on a weekly basis to ensure that patients' exterior surface and isocenter-to-skin surface distances remain stable. The radiation oncology team then determines whether the patient has undergone a physical change sufficient to require a new treatment plan. The effect of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dosimetry is not well known, and it is unclear when rescanning or replanning is needed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of weight change (SSD increase or decrease) on IMRT or VMAT dose delivery in patients with prostate cancer and to determine the SSD change threshold for replanning. Whether IMRT or VMAT provides better dose stability under weight change conditions was also determined. We generated clinical IMRT and VMAT prostate and seminal vesicle treatment plans for varying SSDs for 10 randomly selected patients with prostate cancer. The differences due to SSD change were quantified by a specific dose change for a specified volume of interest. The target mean dose, decreased or increased by 2.9% per 1-cm SSD decrease or increase in IMRT and by 3.6% in VMAT. If the SSD deviation is more than 1 cm, the radiation oncology team should determine whether to continue treatment without modifications, to adjust monitor units, or to resimulate and replan

  18. Kinetic effects on electron cyclotron emission during modulated ECRH in TJ-IU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multichannel radiometer for second harmonic electron cyclotron emission is used to measure the response of the electron temperature to sinusoidal modulation of the RF power, in the range 1-20 kHz. The ECE signals corresponding to the power deposition region show a phase delay in comparison with the modulated power that increases with the modulation frequency from φ=0.4π to φ=1.6π. This result is inconsistent with standard assumptions of transport theory and hints that finite propagation time of the perturbation through momentum space, as suggested by kinetic theory, has to be taken into account. (author)

  19. Modulative effects of COMT haplotype on age-related associations with brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annie; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-06-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), located on chromosome 22q11.2, encodes an enzyme critical for dopamine flux in the prefrontal cortex. Genetic variants of COMT have been suggested to functionally manipulate prefrontal morphology and function in healthy adults. This study aims to investigate modulative roles of individuals COMT SNPs (rs737865, val158met, rs165599) and its haplotypes in age-related brain morphology using an Asian sample with 174 adults aged from 21 to 80 years. We showed an age-related decline in cortical thickness of the dorsal visual pathway, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, bilateral angular gyrus, right superior frontal cortex, and age-related shape compression in the basal ganglia as a function of the genotypes of the individual COMT SNPs, especially COMT val158met. Using haplotype trend regression analysis, COMT haplotype probabilities were estimated and further revealed an age-related decline in cortical thickness in the default mode network (DMN), including the posterior cingulate, precuneus, supramarginal and paracentral cortex, and the ventral visual system, including the occipital cortex and left inferior temporal cortex, as a function of the COMT haplotype. Our results provided new evidence on an antagonistic pleiotropic effect in COMT, suggesting that genetically programmed neural benefits in early life may have a potential bearing towards neural susceptibility in later life. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2068-2082, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26920810

  20. Modulation and suppression of weak Cotton-Mouton effect by Faraday rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Chrzanowski, J.

    2011-06-01

    Polarization of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma is studied in conditions, when Cotton-Mouton effect is weak enough as compared with Faraday one. Evolution of polarization state is described by new mathematical approach, namely, by angular variables technique (AVT) which describes evolution of the angular parameters of polarization ellipse in magnetized plasma. The method of consequent approximations is applied, which uses the ratio ( Ω ⊥/ Ω 3) of Cotton-Mouton and Faraday terms, as a small parameter of a problem and allows obtaining simple analytical expressions for azimuthal and ellipticity angles in frame of the first and second approximations. The phenomenon of ellipticity modulation and suppression by Faraday rotation is revealed, which consists in ellipticity decreasing for stronger Faraday rotation, what makes polarization closer to linear one. Numerical illustration of the phenomenon are presented. It is shown that account of the second-order terms of the method of consequent approximation provides an accuracy better than 1% even in conditions, when small parameter Ω ⊥/ Ω 3 achieves the value 1/4.

  1. Effects of Ellipticity Angle on Modulation Instabilities in Birefringent Optical Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Hua; Chow, K. W.; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yong-Zheng; Sun, Ting-Ting

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies on modulation instabilities (MIs) in birefringent optical fibers focus on the ordinary linearly and circularly ones. This paper reports an analysis of MIs in the general elliptically birefringent fibers with the emphasis on investigating the effects of ellipticity angle (0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°). Both symmetric and antisymmetric CW states are considered. In the anomalous dispersion regime, for the symmetric (antisymmetric) CW states, we show that MI gain increases dramatically (reduces first and then enhances greatly) as the increment of θ. In the normal dispersion regime, for the both CW states, the distinctive feature is that the gain of the MI bands reduces first, vanishes at θ = 45°, reappears across this ellipticity angle, and quickly increases after then. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11447113 and 11305031, Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Provincial Universities under Grant No. 14KJB140009, and the Startup Foundation for Introducing Talent of Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology under Grant No. 2241131301064

  2. Lithium modulates the chronic stress-induced effect on blood glucose level of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Nataša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we examined gross changes in the mass of whole adrenal glands and that of the adrenal cortex, as well as the serum corticosterone and glucose level of mature male Wistar rats subjected to three different treatments: animals subjected to chronic restraint-stress, animals injected with lithium (Li and chronically stressed rats treated with Li. Under all three conditions we observed hypertrophy of whole adrenals, as well as the adrenal cortices. Chronic restraint stress, solely or in combination with Li treatment, significantly elevated the corticosterone level, but did not change the blood glucose level. Animals treated only with Li exhibited an elevated serum corticosterone level and blood glucose level. The aim of our study was to investigate the modulation of the chronic stress-induced effect on the blood glucose level by lithium, as a possible mechanism of avoiding the damage caused by chronic stress. Our results showed that lithium is an agent of choice which may help to reduce stress-elevated corticosterone and replenish exhausted glucose storages in an organism.

  3. Effect of modulation depth, frequency, and intermittence on wind turbine noise annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Christina; Santurette, Sébastien; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-03-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) may be an important factor for the perceived annoyance of wind turbine noise (WTN). Two AM types, typically referred to as "normal AM" (NAM) and "other AM" (OAM), characterize WTN AM, OAM corresponding to having intermittent periods with larger AM depth in lower frequency regions than NAM. The extent to which AM depth, frequency, and type affect WTN annoyance remains uncertain. Moreover, the temporal variations of WTN AM have often not been considered. Here, realistic stimuli accounting for such temporal variations were synthesized such that AM depth, frequency, and type, while determined from real on-site recordings, could be varied systematically. Listening tests with both original and synthesized stimuli showed that a reduction in mean AM depth across the spectrum led to a significant decrease in annoyance. When the spectrotemporal characteristics of the original far-field stimuli and the temporal AM variations were taken into account, the effect of AM frequency remained limited and the presence of intermittent OAM periods did not affect annoyance. These findings suggest that, at a given overall level, the AM depth of NAM periods is the most crucial AM parameter for WTN annoyance. PMID:27036260

  4. Dosimetric evaluations of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hungcheng; Wu, Andrew; Brandner, Edward D.; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful; Yue, Ning J.; Chen Wencheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Helen F Graham Cancer Center, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, Delaware 19713 (United States); Department of Radiologic Sciences, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centers, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chiayi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan 61363 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The interplay between a mobile target and a dynamic multileaf collimator can compromise the accuracy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Our goal in this study is to investigate the dosimetric effects caused by the respiratory motion during IMRT. A moving phantom was built to simulate the typical breathing motion. Different sizes of the gating windows were selected for gated deliveries. The residual motions during the beam-on period ranged from 0.5 to 3 cm. An IMRT plan with five treatment fields from different gantry angles were delivered to the moving phantom for three irradiation conditions: Stationary condition, moving with the use of gating system, and moving without the use of gating system. When the residual motion was 3 cm, the results showed significant differences in dose distributions between the stationary condition and the moving phantom without gating beam control. The overdosed or underdosed areas enclosed about 33% of the treatment area. In contrast, the dose distribution on the moving phantom with gating window set to 0.5 cm showed no significant differences from the stationary phantom. With the appropriate setting of the gating window, the deviation of dose from the respiratory motion can be minimized. It appeals that limiting the residual motion to less than 0.5 cm is critical for the treatments of mobile structures.

  5. Substrate effect modulates adhesion and proliferation of fibroblast on graphene layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Du, Feng; Huang, Jianyong; Chau, Alicia; Zhou, Yongsheng; Duan, Huiling; Wang, Jianxiang; Xiong, Chunyang

    2016-10-01

    Graphene is an emerging candidate for biomedical applications, including biosensor, drug delivery and scaffold biomaterials. Cellular functions and behaviors on different graphene-coated substrates, however, still remain elusive to a great extent. This paper explored the functional responses of cells such as adhesion and proliferation, to different kinds of substrates including coverslips, silicone, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with different curing ratios, PDMS treated with oxygen plasma, and their counterparts coated with single layer graphene (SLG). Specifically, adherent cell number, spreading area and cytoskeleton configuration were exploited to characterize cell-substrate adhesion ability, while MTT assay was employed to test the proliferation capability of fibroblasts. Experimental outcome demonstrated graphene coating had excellent cytocompatibility, which could lead to an increase in early adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and remodeling of cytoskeletons of fibroblast cells. Notably, it was found that the underlying substrate effect, e.g., stiffness of substrate materials, could essentially regulate the adhesion and proliferation of cells cultured on graphene. The stiffer the substrates were, the stronger the abilities of adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts were. This study not only deepens our understanding of substrate-modulated interfacial interactions between live cells and graphene, but also provides a valuable guidance for the design and application of graphene-based biomaterials in biomedical engineering. PMID:27451366

  6. Effect of the Collimator Angle on Dosimetric Verification of the Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Won Taek; Kim, Dong Won; Ki, Yongkan; Lee, Juhye; Bae, Jinsuk; Park, Dahl

    2015-01-01

    Collimator angle is usually rotated when planning volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) due to the leakage of radiation between multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaves. We studied the effect of the collimator angles on the results of dosimetric verification of the VMAT plans for head and neck patients. We studied VMAT plans for 10 head and neck patients. We made 2 sets of VMAT plans for each patient. Each set was composed of 10 plans with collimator angles of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 degrees. Plans in the first set were optimized individually and plans in the second set shared the 30 degree collimator angle optimization. Two sets of plans were verified using the 2-dimensional ion chamber array MatriXX (IBA Dosimetry, Germany). The comparison between the calculation and measurements were made by the $\\gamma$-index analysis. The $\\gamma$-index (2\\%/2 mm) and (3\\%/3 mm) passing rates had negative correlations with the collimator angle. Maximum difference between $\\gamma$-index (3\\%/3 mm) passing rates o...

  7. Modulation Instability, Breathers, and Bound Solitons in an Erbium-Doped Fiber System with Higher-Order Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We mainly investigate the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger-Maxwell-Bloch system which governs the propagation of optical solitons in nonlinear erbium-doped fibers with higher-order effects. We deduce Lax pair, analyze modulation instability conditions, construct the Darboux transformation, and derive the Akhmediev breathers, Ma-breathers, bound solitons, and two-breather solutions for this system. Considering the influences of higher-order effects, propagation properties of those solitons are discussed.

  8. Effect of smoothing by spectral dispersion on flow induced laser beam deflection: The random phase modulation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytical results are presented for the effect of random phase modulated smoothing by spectral dispersion on flow induced laser beam deflection. It is shown that in the limit of a large number of color cycles, Ncc, the effect is identical to that of the induced spatial incoherence method of temporal smoothing. For small Ncc, the beam deflection rate may be significantly larger in the direction perpendicular to the dispersion, than in the parallel direction. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  9. Expectation Modulates the Effect of Deep Brain Stimulation on Motor and Cognitive Function in Tremor-Dominant Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Ariane; Ferrea, Stefano; Südmeyer, Martin; Schnitzler, Alfons; Wojtecki, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Expectation contributes to placebo and nocebo responses in Parkinson's disease (PD). While there is evidence for expectation-induced modulations of bradykinesia, little is known about the impact of expectation on resting tremor. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves cardinal PD motor symptoms including tremor whereas impairment of verbal fluency (VF) has been observed as a potential side-effect. Here we investigated how expectation modulates the effect of STN-DBS on resting tremor and its interaction with VF. In a within-subject-design, expectation of 24 tremor-dominant PD patients regarding the impact of STN-DBS on motor symptoms was manipulated by verbal suggestions (positive [placebo], negative [nocebo], neutral [control]). Patients participated with (MedON) and without (MedOFF) antiparkinsonian medication. Resting tremor was recorded by accelerometry and bradykinesia of finger tapping and diadochokinesia were assessed by a 3D ultrasound motion detection system. VF was quantified by lexical and semantic tests. In a subgroup of patients, the effect of STN-DBS on tremor was modulated by expectation, i.e. tremor decreased (placebo response) or increased (nocebo response) by at least 10% as compared to the control condition while no significant effect was observed for the overall group. Interestingly, nocebo responders in MedON were additionally characterized by significant impairment in semantic verbal fluency. In contrast, bradykinesia was not affected by expectation. These results indicate that the therapeutic effect of STN-DBS on tremor can be modulated by expectation in a subgroup of patients and suggests that tremor is also among the parkinsonian symptoms responsive to placebo and nocebo interventions. While positive expectations enhanced the effect of STN-DBS by further decreasing the magnitude of tremor, negative expectations counteracted the therapeutic effect and at the same time exacerbated a side-effect often associated with STN

  10. The conjugated linoleic acid isomer trans-9,trans-11 is a dietary occurring agonist of liver X receptor α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers are dietary fatty acids that modulate gene expression in many cell types. We have previously reported that specifically trans-9,trans-11 (t9,t11)-CLA induces expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism of human macrophages. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this transcriptional activation, we asked whether t9,t11-CLA affects activity of liver X receptor (LXR) α, a major regulator of macrophage lipid metabolism. Here we show that t9,t11-CLA is a regulator of LXRα. We further demonstrate that the CLA isomer induces expression of direct LXRα target genes in human primary macrophages. Knockdown of LXRα with RNA interference in THP-1 cells inhibited t9,t11-CLA mediated activation of LXRα including its target genes. To evaluate the effective concentration range of t9,t11-CLA, human primary macrophages were treated with various doses of CLA and well known natural and synthetic LXR agonists and mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 was analyzed. Incubation of human macrophages with 10 μM t9,t11-CLA led to a significant modulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 transcription and caused enhanced cholesterol efflux to high density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein AI. In summary, these data show that t9,t11-CLA is an agonist of LXRα in human macrophages and that its effects on macrophage lipid metabolism can be attributed to transcriptional regulations associated with this nuclear receptor.

  11. Effects of SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator treatment on growth and proliferation in the rat uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Håkan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have been developed in order to create means to control estrogenic effects on different tissues. A major drawback in treatment of estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cancer with the antagonist tamoxifen (TAM is its agonistic effect in the endometrium. Raloxifene (RAL is the next generation of SERMs where the agonistic effect on the endometrium has been reduced. Methods The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of SERM treatment on the uterus, as assessed by proliferation markers and several factors involved in uterine growth. Ovariectomized (ovx rats were treated with estradiol (E2, tamoxifen (TAM, RAL, ICI182780 (ICI or vehicle (OVX-controls. We studied the effects on mRNA levels of the growth hormone (GH receptor, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, ERα and ERβ. In addition, by immunohistochemistry the proliferation markers PCNA and Ki-67, as well as ERα and ERβ, were detected. Results The uterine weight of the rats treated with E2 or TAM was increased as compared to OVX-controls. The uterine GH-receptor mRNA level was highest in the E2 treated animals. In ICI treated rats no GH-receptor mRNA could be detected. The IGF-I mRNA level increased 16-fold in uteri of the TAM treated group and 9-fold in the E2 treated rats as compared to OVX-controls. The ERα mRNA level was increased in the E2 treated rats, while the ERβ mRNA level was increased after TAM treatment. The proliferation, as assessed by PCNA, was lowest in ICI treated animals. Conclusions The uterine wet weight, the LE height and the GH-receptor mRNA levels showed similar patterns, indicating that GH is involved in the regulation of uterine weight. Tamoxifen, which has been related to increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in women, dramatically increased IGF-I mRNA levels in rat uterus. Since proliferation was not higher in TAM and E2 treated rats than in OVX controls, this assay of simple

  12. Modulation of Intestinal Functions by Dietary Substances: An Effective Approach to Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIZU, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Food contains a variety of substances than can modulate transport,barrier, detoxification, and immune functions of the intestines. Functional foods with those substances will be beneficial in promoting gut health, and eventually prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  13. Modulation of the effects of alveolar macrophages on lung fibroblast collagen production rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) may function as effector cells that can either stimulate or inhibit lung fibroblast collagen production. However, conditions that determine the predominant effect of AM on fibroblasts are not well understood. To delineate factors that modulate the effects of AM on lung fibroblasts, we studied the interaction of AM products and fibroblasts in vitro. The AM were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of hamsters with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Conditioned medium (CM) from the AM cultures was incubated in varying amounts with lung fibroblast (IMR-90) cultures. After metabolic labeling with [3H]proline, fibroblast collagen production based on procollagen-specific radioactivity was determined. Macrophage CM in concentrations greater than 5% suppressed collagen production, an event attributed to the macrophage-derived suppressive factor that we have previously characterized. Macrophages were also determined to produce PGE2 in culture. Authentic PGE2 at concentrations found in CM was found to suppress fibroblast collagen production, indicating that AM-derived PGE2 contributes to the suppressive activity in CM. To examine possible stimulatory factors in CM, the fibroblasts were preincubated with indomethacin. This approach was based on our previous observation that AM-derived suppressive factor increases endogenous fibroblast PGE2 and that its activity can be blocked by indomethacin. Macrophage CM in a concentration of 20% did not suppress the collagen production of indomethacin-treated fibroblasts. However, CM concentrations of 5 and 10% increased collagen production (173 and 143% of control values, respectively), indicating the presence of stimulatory factor(s) in macrophage-conditioned medium

  14. Dietary fish oil modulates the effect of dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmy, G. E.; Khalil, W. K. B.; Moharib, S. A.; Kawab, A. A.; Jwanny, E. W.

    2011-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of fish oil supplementation in male wistar rat colon carcinogenesis. In order to induce colon cancer, the rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w. for five weeks. Afterwards, some of the rats ingested fish oil for either 4 weeks (DMH-FO4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH-FO17 group). The remaining rats continued without any supplementation for the same 4 weeks (DMH4 group), or 17 weeks (DMH17 group). Another two groups of rats did not receive the DMH and were given fish oil (FO17 group) or a normal diet only and considered as the control group (CN group). At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed; and were subsequently subjected to biochemical and molecular biological analyses as well as histopathological examinations. The results showed increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the DMH rats compared to the control. The liver and colonic changes that were induced by DMH were significantly improved through fish oil supplementation in the DMH-FO17 group. The molecular analysis revealed that DMH treatment induced the expression alterations of genes p53, p27 and p21 and increased DNA band patterns related to cancer, while both FO17 and DMH-FO17 groups showed much better results. A histopathological examination of the DMH17 group revealed colon adenocarcinoma and several lesions in rat liver tissues. An improvement in the histopathological picture was seen in the livers and colons of groups DMHFO17. In conclusion, the present results demonstrated the anti-carciongenic effect of herring fish oil against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The inhibitory effect of FO was due to the modulation of elevated biochemical parameters, DNA damage, gene expression and histopathological lesions caused by DMH. (Author) 70 refs.

  15. Effect of low-level laser therapy on the modulation of the mitochondrial activity of macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhia H. C. Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a major role among the inflammatory cells that invade muscle tissue following an injury. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has long been used in clinical practice to accelerate the muscle repair process. However, little is known regarding its effect on macrophages. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of LLLT on the mitochondrial activity (MA of macrophages. METHOD: J774 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and interferon - gamma (IFN-γ (activation for 24 h to simulate an inflammatory process, then irradiated with LLLT using two sets of parameters (780 nm; 70 mW; 3 J/cm2 and 660 nm; 15 mW; 7.5 J/cm2. Non-activated/non-irradiated cells composed the control group. MA was evaluated by the cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay (after 1, 3 and 5 days in three independent experiments. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: After 1 day of culture, activated and 780 nm irradiated macrophages showed lower MA than activated macrophages, but activated and 660 nm irradiated macrophages showed MA similar to activated cells. After 3 days, activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm macrophages showed greater MA than activated macrophages, and after 5 days, the activated and irradiated (660 nm and 780 nm macrophages showed similar MA to the activated macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that 660 nm and 780 nm LLLT can modulate the cellular activation status of macrophages in inflammation, highlighting the importance of this resource and of the correct determination of its parameters in the repair process of skeletal muscle.

  16. Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way. PMID:25673732

  17. Interhemispheric connectivity influences the degree of modulation of TMS-induced effects during auditory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila eAndoh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive TMS (rTMS has been shown to interfere with many components of language processing, including semantic, syntactic and phonologic. However, not much is known about its effects on primary auditory processing, especially its action on Heschl’s gyrus (HG. We aimed to investigate the behavioural and neural basis of rTMS during a melody processing task, while targeting the left HG, the right HG and the Vertex as a control site. Response Times (RT were normalized relative to the baseline-rTMS (Vertex and expressed as percentage change from baseline (%RT change. We also looked at sex differences in rTMS-induced response as well as in functional connectivity during melody processing using rTMS and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI.Functional MRI results showed an increase in the right HG compared with the left HG during the melody task, as well as sex differences in functional connectivity indicating a greater interhemispheric connectivity between left and right HG in females compared with males. TMS results showed that 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG induced differential effects according to sex, with a facilitation of performance in females and an impairment of performance in males. We also found a differential correlation between the %RT change after 10Hz-rTMS targeting the right HG and the interhemispheric functional connectivity between right and left HG, indicating that an increase in interhemispheric functional connectivity was associated with a facilitation of performance. This is the first study to report a differential rTMS-induced interference with melody processing depending on sex. In addition, we showed a relationship between the interference induced by rTMS on behavioral performance and the neural activity in the network connecting left and right HG, suggesting that the interhemispheric functional connectivity could determine the degree of modulation of behavioral performance.

  18. COMT Val158Met polymorphism modulates cognitive effects of dietary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Veronica eWitte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, Val158Met, is thought to influence cognitive performance due to differences in prefrontal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Previous studies lend support for the hypothesis that the at-risk genotype comprising two Val-alleles (low dopamine might benefit more from plasticity-enhancing interventions than carriers of one or two Met-allele. This study aimed to determine whether the response to dietary interventions, known to modulate cognition, is dependent on COMT genotype. Blood samples of 35 healthy elderly subjects (61.3 years +/- 8 SD; 19 women, 16 men, BMI: 28.2 kg/m² +/- 4 SD were genotyped for COMT Val158Met by standard procedures (Val/Val = 6; Val/Met = 20; Met/Met = 9. Subjects had previously completed a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of caloric restriction (CR or enhancement of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA on immediate and delayed verbal recognition memory. Homozygous Val/Val-carriers had significantly lower memory scores than Met-carriers at baseline (p < 0.001. Significant interactions of genotype and dietary intervention with regard to cognition were found: CR- and UFA enhancement-induced memory improvements of Val/Val-carriers were considerably greater than those of Met-carriers (ANOVA p’s < 0.02. The current study shows for the first time that cognitive effects of dietary interventions are dependent on COMT Val158Met genotype. Our findings lend further support to the hypothesis that an at risk-genotype might benefit more from plasticity-enhancing interventions than the not at risk-genotype. This might help to develop individualized therapies in future research based on genetic background.

  19. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia. PMID:26712377

  20. Methodology of quantifying curvature of Fresnel lenses and its effect on CPV module performance

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Martin, Rebeca; Domínguez Domínguez, César; Askins, Stephen; Anton Hernandez, Ignacio; Sala Pano, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Fresnel lenses used as primary optics in concentrating photovoltaic modules may show warping produced by lens manufacturing or module assembly (e.g., stress during molding or weight load) or due to stress during operation (e.g., mismatch of thermal expansion between different materials). To quantify this problem, a simple method called “checkerboard method” is presented. The proposed method identifies shape errors on the front surface of primary lenses by analyzing the Fresnel reflections. Th...

  1. Effects of Refocusing Flip Angle Modulation and View Ordering in 3D Fast Spin Echo

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Reed F.; Brau, Anja C.S.; Vu, Anthony; Michelich, Charles R.; Bayram, Ersin; Kijowski, Richard; Reeder, Scott B; Howard A Rowley

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances have reduced scan time in three-dimensional fast spin echo (3D-FSE) imaging, including very long echo trains through refocusing flip angle (FA) modulation and 2D-accelerated parallel imaging. This work describes a method to modulate refocusing FAs that produces sharp point spread functions (PSFs) from very long echo trains while exercising direct control over minimum, center-k-space, and maximum FAs in order to accommodate the presence of flow and motion, SNR requirements, and...

  2. Measurement of dynamic pressure and force effects of modulated water jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foldyna, Josef; Sitek, Libor; Jekl, Pavel; Švehla, B.

    Seoul: Korean Society of Water Jet Technology, 2002, s. 125-132. [Pacific Rim International Conference on Water Jetting Technology/7./. Jeju (KR), 27.10.2003-29.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2086001; GA ČR(CZ) GA105/03/0183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : modulated water jet * ultrasonic modulation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  3. Effects of PV Module Soiling on Glass Surface Resistance and Potential-Induced Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, Peter; Button, Patrick; Hendrickson, Alex; Spataru, Sergiu; Glick, Stephen

    2015-06-14

    The goals of the project were: Determine applicability of transmission line method (TLM) to evaluate sheet resistance of soils on module glass;
    Evaluate various soils on glass for changes in surface resistance and their ability to promote potential-induced degradation with humidity (PID);
    Evaluate PID characteristics, rate, and leakage current increases on full-size mc-Si modules associated with a conductive soil on the surface.

  4. Effects of the GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulators CGP7930 and rac-BHFF in Baclofen- and γ-Hydroxybutyrate-Discriminating Pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    In vivo effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators suggest them to have therapeutic potential to treat central nervous system disorders such as anxiety and drug abuse. Although these effects are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABAB receptors, such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro. This study further examined the in vivo properties of the GABAB receptor-positive modulators 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl) phenol (CGP7930) and (R,S)-5,7-di-t...

  5. Tropical troposphere to stratosphere transport of carbon monoxide and long-lived trace species in the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pommrich

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the mixing ratio of trace gases of tropospheric origin entering the stratosphere in the tropics are of interest for assessing both troposphere to stratosphere transport fluxes in the tropics and the impact of these transport fluxes on the composition of the tropical lower stratosphere. Anomaly patterns of carbon monoxide (CO and long-lived tracers in the lower tropical stratosphere allow conclusions about the rate and the variability of tropical upwelling to be drawn. Here, we present a simplified chemistry scheme for the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS for the simulation, at comparatively low numerical cost, of CO, ozone, and long-lived trace substances (CH4, N2O, CCl3F (CFC-11, CCl2F2 (CFC-12, and CO2 in the lower tropical stratosphere. For the long-lived trace substances, the boundary conditions at the surface are prescribed based on ground-based measurements in the lowest model level. The boundary condition for CO in the free troposphere is deduced from MOPITT measurements (at ≈ 700–200 hPa. Due to the lack of a specific representation of mixing and convective uplift in the troposphere in this model version, enhanced CO values, in particular those resulting from convective outflow are underestimated. However, in the tropical tropopause layer and the lower tropical stratosphere, there is relatively good agreement of simulated CO with in-situ measurements (with the exception of the TROCCINOX campaign, where CO in the simulation is biased low ≈ 10–20 ppbv. Further, the model results are of sufficient quality to describe large scale anomaly patterns of CO in the lower stratosphere. In particular, the zonally averaged tropical CO anomaly patterns (the so called "tape recorder" patterns simulated by this model version of CLaMS are in good agreement with observations. The simulations show a too rapid upwelling compared to observations as a consequence of the overestimated vertical velocities in

  6. Dynamics and chemistry of vortex remnants in late Arctic spring 1997 and 2000: Simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Konopka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution simulations of the chemical composition of the Arctic stratosphere during late spring 1997 and 2000 were performed with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS. The simulations were performed for the entire northern hemisphere on two isentropic levels 450 K (~18 km and 585 K (~24 km. The spatial distribution and the lifetime of the vortex remnants formed after the vortex breakup in May 1997 display different behavior above and below 20 km. Above 20 km, vortex remnants propagate southward (up to 40°N and are "frozen in'' in the summer circulation without significant mixing. Below 20 km the southward propagation of the remnants is bounded by the subtropical jet. Their lifetime is shorter by a factor of 2 than that above 20 km, owing to significant stirring below this altitude. The behavior of vortex remnants formed in March 2000 is similar but, due to an earlier vortex breakup, dominated during the first 6 weeks after the vortex breakup by westerly winds, even above 20 km. Vortex remnants formed in May 1997 are characterized by large mixing ratios of HCl indicating negligible, halogen-induced ozone loss. In contrast, mid-latitude ozone loss in late boreal spring 2000 is dominated, until mid-April, by halogen-induced ozone destruction within the vortex remnants, and subsequent transport of the ozone-depleted polar air masses (dilution into the mid-latitudes. By varying the intensity of mixing in CLaMS, the impact of mixing on the formation of ClONO2 and ozone depletion is investigated. We find that the photochemical decomposition of HNO3 and not mixing with NOx-rich mid-latitude air is the main source of NOx within the vortex remnants in March and April 2000. Ozone depletion in the remnants is driven by ClOx photolytically formed from ClONO2. At the end of May 1997, the halogen-induced ozone deficit at 450 K poleward of 30°N amounts to ~12% with ~10% in the polar vortex and ~2% in well-isolated vortex remnants

  7. Effects of spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K.; Vorster, F.J.; van Dyk, E.E. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    We present results of an experimental investigation of the effects of the daily spectral variation on the device performance of copper indium diselenide and multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules. Such investigations are of importance in characterization of photovoltaic devices. The investigation centres on the analysis of outdoor solar spectral measurements carried out at 10 min intervals on clear-sky days. We have shown that the shift in the solar spectrum towards infrared has a negative impact on the device performance of both modules. The spectral bands in the visible region contribute more to the short circuit current than the bands in the infrared region while the ultraviolet region contributes least. The quantitative effects of the spectral variation on the performance of the two photovoltaic modules are reflected on their respective device performance parameters. The decrease in the visible and the increase in infrared of the late afternoon spectra in each case account for the decreased current collection and hence power and efficiency of both modules. (author)

  8. Effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of DLC/TiC multilayer films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods at same modulation ratio 1:1 were deposited by FCVA. • The residual stress of DLC/TiC multilayer films decreases with the modulation periods decrease. • The hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreases with modulation periods increasing. - Abstract: The high stress of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film limits its thickness and adhesion on substrate. Multilayer structure is one approach to overcome this disadvantage. In this paper, the DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods (80 nm, 106 nm or 160 nm) at same modulation ratio of 1:1 were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafer and Ti-6Al-4V substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindention and wear test were employed to investigate the effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the multilayer films. The results showed that the residual stress of the DLC/TiC multilayer films could be effectively reduced and the residual stress decreased with the modulation periods decreasing. The hardness of the DLC/TiC multilayer films increased with modulation periods decreasing. The DLC/TiC multilayer film with modulation period of 106 nm had the best wear resistance due to the good combination of hardness, ductility and low compressive stress

  9. Social inhibition modulates the effect of negative emotions on cardiac prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Ong, Andrew T L;

    2006-01-01

    Negative emotions have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. We investigated whether social inhibition (inhibited self-expression in social interaction) modulates the effect of negative emotions on clinical outcome following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)....

  10. Research on the LGD Oral English Teaching Design Based on the CLA Model%基于CLA模型的LGD英语口语教学设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱霞

    2013-01-01

    交际语言能力模型(CLA模型)认为语言交际能力是把语言知识和语言使用的场景特征结合起来、创造并解释意义的能力。CLA模型由语言能力、策略能力和心理生理机制组成。无领导小组讨论(LGD)是一种人力资源评价的方式。本文从交际语言能力模型应用的视角将LGD教学导入外语口语教学,用教学实例证明LGD口语教学的可行性,同时对CLA模型进行了检验和反思。%Communicative language ability?model?(CLA model)?indicates the language communicative?ability is?the capabilities that can combine the language knowledge with the language scene features, create and?interpreter meaning. CLA model is consists of language competence, strategic competence and psycho physiological mechanism. Leaderless Group Discussion is a kind of human resources evaluation?method. The paper makes a research on the LGD?oral English teaching design from the perspective of the CLA model, uses some example to demonstrate the feasibility of?LGD?in oral English teaching, and does the testes and the reflections on the CLA model.

  11. Effects of a Web-based Educational Module on Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Regarding Youth Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy E. Madsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Youth seen in the emergency department (ED with injuries from youth violence (YV have increased risk for future violent injury and death. Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM physicians rarely receive training in, or perform, YV screening and intervention. Our objective was to examine effects of a web-based educational module on PEM physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding YV screening and interventions in the ED. Methods: We invited all PEM fellows and attendings at an urban Level I pediatric trauma center to complete an interactive web-based education module (and 1-month booster with information on YV’s public health impact and how to screen, counsel and refer YV-involved patients. Consenting subjects completed electronic assessments of YV prevention knowledge and attitudes (using validated measures when possible before and after the initial module and after the booster. To measure behavior change, chart review identified use of YV-specific discharge instructions in visits by YV-injured PEM patients (age 12–17; identified by E codes 6 months before and after the intervention. We analyzed survey data were analyzed with Fisher’s exact for binary outcomes and Kruskal-Wallis for Likert responses. Proportion of patients given YV discharge instructions before and after the intervention was compared using chi-square. Results: Eighteen (67% of 27 PEM physicians participated; 1 was lost at post-module assessment and 5 at 1 month. Module completion time ranged from 15–30 minutes. At baseline, 50% of subjects could identify victims’ re-injury rate; 28% were aware of ED YV discharge instructions. After the initial module and at 1 month, there were significant increases in knowledge (p,0.001 and level of confidence speaking with patients about avoiding YV (p¼0.01, df¼2. Almost all (94% said the module would change future management. In pre-intervention visits, 1.6% of patients with YV injuries were discharged with

  12. Pumpkin-seed oil modulates the effect of felodipine and captopril in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhair, H A; Abd El-Fattah, A A; El-Sayed, M I

    2000-05-01

    Natural products like pumpkin-seed oil (PSO) may modify the potency of the calcium antagonist felodipine (FEL) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-inhibitor), captopril (CPT) in modulating the biochemical derangement in blood, heart and kidney as well as blood pressure and heart rate of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. SHR were treated orally with FEL at a dose of 0. 45 mg kg(-1) body wt. or CPT at a dose of 9 mg kg(-1) body wt. once daily for 4 weeks. PSO was administered at a dose of 40 mg kg(-1) body wt. alone or with FEL or CPT in the previous respective dose regimen for the same period to SHR. This study showed that hypertension induced increments the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) by 55% and 38% as well as the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by 26% and 23% in heart and kidney, respectively, accompanied by reductions in the activity of myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) from 3.40+/-0.17 to 2.42+/-0.19 U mg protein(-1)and contents of glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols (PrSHs) in different tissues of SHR as compared to normotensive rats. Treatment of SHR with FEL or CPT monotherapy or combined with PSO produced improvement in the measured free radical scavengers in the heart and kidney. Our results also showed that pretreatment of SHR with PSO for 4 weeks then i.v. administration of FEL or CPT produced a significant beneficial hypotensive action. The results were explained in the light of the antioxidant properties of PSO. Therefore, it is concluded that concomitant administration of FEL or CPT with natural antioxidants can yield a beneficial therapeutic effect and retard the progression of hypertension. PMID:10753555

  13. Effects of personality on the opioidergic modulation of the emotion warmth-liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Christin; Rinn, Constanze; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    Neurobiological research suggests there are discrete emotion systems, which are based on separate neural pathways with specific neurotransmitters (i.e., oxytocin, opioids). So far, autonomic regulation patterns of different positive emotions could not be unambiguously characterized. Warmth-liking, as an emotion system, is activated during interpersonal interactions and close relationships. We postulated that warmth-liking has a specific somatovisceral signature, which is, however, qualified by individual differences in personality and attachment style. Individual differences in personality and attachment style are postulated to contribute to μ-opiate functioning. Forty-eight females in a heterosexual relationship, selected on the basis of attachment reports, took part in a virtual ball-tossing game with their partners and two confederates. Participants received either the competitive μ-opioid antagonist naltrexone (25 mg) or a placebo in a randomized double-blind design. Social exclusion during the game reduced feelings of warmth, increased feelings of anger, and increased blood pressure and left-ventricular contractibility, whereas social inclusion was characterized by physiological quiescence. Further analyses revealed differential effects in self-reported feelings as well as in cardiovascular parameters as a function of attachment style. Secure attachment predicted higher levels of warmth-liking, physiological quiescence, and less negative feelings even during social exclusion. These findings can be interpreted as evidence for psychophysiological resilience. Furthermore, naltrexone reduced feelings of warmth and increased vasoconstriction during social inclusion, especially for securely bonded participants. These findings are remarkable hints for an opioidergic modulation of the interaction between emotion and personality. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1712-1726, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26135853

  14. The effect of the carbohydrate binding module on substrate degradation by the human chitotriosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Linn Wilhelmsen; Eide, Kristine Bistrup; Dybvik, Anette Israelsen; Sletta, Håvard; Vårum, Kjell Morten; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Tøndervik, Anne; Sørlie, Morten

    2015-10-01

    Human chitotriosidase (HCHT) is one of two active glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases produced by humans. The enzyme is associated with several diseases and is thought to play a role in the anti-parasite responses of the innate immune system. HCHT occurs in two isoforms, one 50 kDa (HCHT50) and one 39 kDa variant (HCHT39). Common for both isoforms is a catalytic domain with the (β/α)8 TIM barrel fold. HCHT50 has an additional linker-region, followed by a C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) classified as CBM family 14 in the CAZy database. To gain further insight into enzyme functionality and especially the effect of the CBM, we expressed both isoforms and compared their catalytic properties on chitin and high molecular weight chitosans. HCHT50 degrades chitin faster than HCHT39 and much more efficiently. Interestingly, both HCHT50 and HCHT39 show biphasic kinetics on chitosan degradation where HCHT50 is faster initially and HCHT39 is faster in the second phase. Moreover, HCHT50 produces distinctly different oligomer distributions than HCHT39. This is likely due to increased transglycosylation activity for HCHT50 due the CBM extending the positive subsites binding surface and therefore promoting transglycosylation. Finally, studies with both chitin and chitosan showed that both isoforms have a similarly low degree of processivity. Combining functional and structural features of the two isoforms, it seems that HCHT combines features of exo-processive and endo-nonprocessive chitinases with the somewhat unusual CBM14 to reach a high degree of efficiency, in line with its alleged physiological task of being a "complete" chitinolytic machinery by itself. PMID:26116146

  15. The effect of photon energy on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Won Mo; Park, Jong Min; Choi, Chang Heon; Ha, Sung Whan; Ye, Sung Joon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate the effect of common three photon energies (6-MV, 10-MV, and 15-MV) on intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans to treat prostate cancer patients. Twenty patients with prostate cancer treated locally to 81.0 Gy were retrospectively studied. 6-MV, 10-MV, and 15-MV IMRT plans for each patient were generated using suitable planning objectives, dose constraints, and 8-field setting. The plans were analyzed in terms of dose-volume histogram for the target coverage, dose conformity, organs at risk (OAR) sparing, and normal tissue integral dose. Regardless of the energies chosen at the plans, the target coverage, conformity, and homogeneity of the plans were similar. However, there was a significant dose increase in rectal wall and femoral heads for 6-MV compared to those for 10-MV and 15-MV. The V20 Gy of rectal wall with 6-MV, 10-MV, and 15-MV were 95.6%, 88.4%, and 89.4% while the mean dose to femoral heads were 31.7, 25.9, and 26.3 Gy, respectively. Integral doses to the normal tissues in higher energy (10-MV and 15-MV) plans were reduced by about 7%. Overall, integral doses in mid and low dose regions in 6-MV plans were increased by up to 13%. In this study, 10-MV prostate IMRT plans showed better OAR sparing and less integral doses than the 6-MV. The biological and clinical significance of this finding remains to be determined afterward, considering neutron dose contribution.

  16. Therapeutic effects and quality of life in 37 glioma patients with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate treatment outcomes and quality of life (QOL) in glioma patients treated with postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and to explore the possible clinical factors of affecting QOL. Methods: From 2007 to 2009, 37 patients with low or high grade glioma were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were operated by tumor resection below microscopy. IMRT began at 2-4 week postoperation with 2.0 Gy/fraction, 5 fractions/week and to shrink portal and to add dose to 50-60 Gy/25-30 fractions after 40-50 Gy. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined as preoperation T2WI MRI high sign area and postoperation tumor cavity for low grade glioma, and with preoperation T1WI MRI enhanced abnormity area and postoperation tumor cavity for high grade glioma. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as GTV with a margin of 1.5 cm for low grade glioma and a margin of 2.5 cm for high grade glioma, the planning target volume (PTV) with CTV plus 0.4 cm margin for setup errors according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC).The treatment outcomes and QOL were assessed. Results: The half-year and one-year survival rates for all the patients were 100% and 79.2%, respectively. The median progression-free survival time was 10 months. The main side-responses after postoperative IMRT were fatigue and mild memory decline or cognitive disabilities, which were radiation dose-dependent. Conclusions: Postoperative IMRT is an effective and safe modality of therapy for glioma patients. (authors)

  17. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. PMID:26606886

  18. Sustained Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Immune Modulation and Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullington, Janet M.

    1999-01-01

    from this larger study: a 4.2 hour per night condition, and a 8.2 hour per night condition. During space flight, muscle mass and bone density are reduced, apparently due to loss of GH and IGF-I, associated with microgravity. Since >70% of growth hormone (GH) is secreted at night in normal adults, we hypothesized that the chronic sleep restriction to 4 hours per night would reduce GH levels as measured in the periphery. In this synergy project, in collaboration with the "Muscle Alterations and Atrophy Team ", we are measuring insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in peripheral circulation to test the prediction that it will be reduced by chronic sleep restriction. In addition to stress modulation of immune function, recent research suggests that sleep is also involved. While we all have the common experience of being sleepy when suffering from infection, and being susceptible to infection when not getting enough sleep, the mechanisms involved in this process are not understood and until recently have gone largely overlooked. We believe that the immune function changes seen in spaceflight may also be related to the cumulative effects of sleep loss. Moreover, in space flight, the possibility of compromised immune function or of the reactivation of latent viruses are serious potential hazards for the success of long term missions. Confined living conditions, reduced sleep, altered diet and stress are all factors that may compromise immune function, thereby increasing the risks of developing and transmitting disease. Medical complications, which would not pose serious problems on earth, may be disastrous if they emerged in space.

  19. Cost effective second generation AC-modules: Development and testing aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the European research project PV2GO, a new AC-module inverter was developed, taking into account all relevant aspects from a European market's point of view (standards, market, application, and research and development goals). The project goal was to achieve the overall system costs of 3 Euro per Wp for a modular plug-and-play photovoltaic system. For the photovoltaic-module, a standard 130-Wp Eurosolare module was chosen. The research and development (R and D) goal was to develop an advanced DC-control system consisting of a state-of-the-art programmable digital device and an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for the AC-control of the inverter. According to the topology concept, thermal and magnetic designs were optimized with regard to production technology and packaging for large-scale production. The new AC-modules were tested in a number of field-test sites in various parts of Europe and their reliability was assessed through Highly Accelerated Stress Tests. Efficiency and power quality have been tested in the laboratory. Further in the PV2GO project an optimization study of the manufacturing process of the new generation of AC-modules for high volume output was done. Another task was the pre-certification procedure to assure compliance with the European guidelines and standards

  20. Dynamic effects of the power-conversion module in a reciprocating engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffels, Harald [Ford Werke GmbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The forced response characteristics of piston, connecting rod and their assembly, henceforth called power-conversion module, is studied subjecting a forced response model of such a module to combustion characteristics in order to investigate clattering noise characteristics brought with compression ignition excitation. Existing research either focused on the piston or the connecting rod solely. As demonstrated by the modal analysis of the whole power-conversion module, it is revealed that the natural frequencies of the entire module dominate the noise-characteristics of clattering noise even when using a linear model. A subsequent parametric study applying different combustion characteristics with different pressure rise rates, but similar peak pressures on the modal-model of the power-conversion module delivered novel insights into the root cause of clattering noise characteristics. Moreover, the approach delivers an amended understanding of disturbing noises occurring in knock control systems of internal combustion engines. The reason for empirically elaborated limits of the maximum cylinder pressure rise rate to achieve smooth engine acoustics, published first in the late 1920s, was revealed. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen bonded NHO chains formed by chloranilic acid (CLA) with 4,4‧-di-t-butyl-2,2‧-bipyridyl (dtBBP) in the solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bator, G.; Sawka-Dobrowolska, W.; Sobczyk, L.; Owczarek, M.; Pawlukojć, A.; Grech, E.; Nowicka-Scheibe, J.

    2012-01-01

    In crystalline state 2,5-dichloro-3,6-dihydroxy-p-benzoquinone (chloranilic acid, CLA) forms with 4,4'-di-t-butyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (dtBBP) the hydrogen bonded chains along the b-axis. From one side of the CLA molecule the proton transfer takes place and the hydrogen bond length is very short (2.615 Å). A continuous infrared absorption is observed for dtBBP·CLA in the wavenumber range between 3100 and 800 cm -1 also indicating the strong hydrogen bonds. The DSC measurements show a weak, close to continuous, phase transition at 414 K. The complex dielectric permittivity for a single crystal sample was measured in the temperature range 100-440 K and at frequencies between 200 Hz and 2 MHz. The dielectric response is a combination of semiconducting properties and a relaxation process most probably connected with the proton dynamics in the hydrogen bonds. The mechanism of the structural phase transition is discussed.

  2. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen B R E; van Steenbergen, Henk; Kedar, Tomer; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part) simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect) decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable. PMID:24523690

  3. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: Empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B.R.E. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable.

  4. Characterization of the fatty acid composition of lamb commercially available in northern Spain: Emphasis on the trans-18:1 and CLA content and profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Lamas, Leire; Barron, Luis J R; Kramer, John K G; Etaio, Iñaki; Aldai, Noelia

    2016-07-01

    A survey of commercially available lamb meat was performed in northern Spain in order to evaluate their fatty acid (FA) composition with emphasis on trans fatty acid (TFA) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers. Samples were collected in spring (n=24) and winter (n=24) of 2013, and were obtained in about equal numbers from grocery stores and butcher-shops. Subcutaneous fat, known to be a sensitive indicator of TFA content in ruminants, was analyzed by GC-FID. In general, very few differences were observed between collection periods and type of stores because of the high variability within the groups that was believed to be associated with differences in genetics and feeding strategies. However, the 10t/11t ratio of all samples showed two clearly identifiable groups irrespective of the source: 1) when 10t/11t was >1, 10t-shifted samples; 2) when 10t/11t was ≤1, non-shifted samples where 11t-18:1 was the predominant isomer. These two groups were clearly identified and associated with distinct FAs using principal component analysis. PMID:26970291

  5. On the combined use of scratch tests and CLA profilometry for the characterization of polyester powder coatings: Influence of scratch load and speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Lusvarghi, L.; Bolelli, G.; Rubino, G.

    2008-09-01

    The prediction of the mechanical properties of polyester powder coatings is of paramount importance, as they have to undergo a wide variety of forces and deformations during their service life. Determine the response of polymeric coatings to the actual loading conditions can be, however, very troublesome as their properties are function of the material physical state, rate-dependence and yield and break behaviour. Further, the characterization of soft, contaminated organic surfaces such as polymers can often cause severe problems with reliability and imaging accuracy due to instrumental artefacts. This is therefore the context in which this paper investigates the capability of multiple parameters scratch tests joined with non-contact CLA profilometry and FE-SEM to detect the scratch response of polyester powder coatings for protective and decorative outdoor applications. Scratch tests with blunt contact geometry were used to evaluate the response of polyester coatings baked at different time-temperature programs and, so, at different stages of their curing process. In particular, being such coatings highly non-linear in their response to mechanical stress or strain, the influence from scratch load and speed was carefully taken into account. Analytical evaluations of the experimental results led to good correlations between the extent of the deformed zone after scratch, scratch parameters and curing operational settings. This allows mapping the scratch response of the polyester topcoats to broad ranges of both scratch parameters and curing conditions.

  6. Linfoadenitis Caseosa (LAC en ovinos en la XI Región, Chile Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep at the XI Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tadich

    2005-01-01

    positivos a C. Pseudotu-berculosis, se concluye que la enfermedad linfoadenitis caseosa se encuentra presente en la XI Región, ChileThe aim of this study was to determine the presence of Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep of the XI Region, Chile. The survey was carried out at the INDUCAR abattoir of Coyhaique, XI Region, Chile, during August and November 2002. A total of 1,397 sheep of different categories (lambs, hogget, ewes, wether and rams from different sources and ages were examined. Age was estimated based on dental chronometry. Hot carcasses were examined by visual inspection and all the lymph nodes were palpated. The lungs, liver and kidney were also examined. The lymph nodes and organs with CLA - like lesions were removed and material from the periphery of the abscess was collected with sterile swabs, sotred in Stuart transport medium and sent to the Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences at the University Austral of Chile. Half lymph nodes samples were also sent weekly for culture. Positive cultures to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were only obtained from lesions in adult animals. From 105 samples cultured, 81 were positive. The prevalence of CLA in the adult animals was 11.6% and decreased to 5.8% when the whole examined population was considered. The frequency of presentation of CLA increased with the age of the animals. The lymph nodes more frequently affected were the superficial lymph nodes (54.3%. Individually, the most commonly affected lymph nodes were the mediastinal (35.1%, followed by the prescapular nodes (30.8%. In relationship to the origin of the affected animal, most were from the Ñirehuao and Río Cisnes sheep farms and the Balmaceda and El Claro sectors (81.5%. Based in our findings of macroscopic lesions in the affected lymph nodes and lung and their positive cultures to C. pseudotuberculosis, it can be concluded that the disease Caseous Lymphadenitis is present in the XI Region of Chile.

  7. Conjugated linoleic acid intake in humans: a systematic review focusing on its effect on body composition, glucose, and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, J; Márquez-Sandoval, F; Bulló, M

    2006-01-01

    Studies performed on different species show that the consumption of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) leads to a loss of fat and total body weight, reduces the plasma concentrations of total and LDL cholesterol, and has an antiinflammatory effect. This article reviews the clinical trials on human beings that evaluate how mixtures of CLA isomers administered as supplements or CLA-enriched products can affect total body weight, body composition, plasma lipid profile, glycemia, insulinemia, insulin sensitivity, lipid oxidation, and inflammation. After analyzing the few studies published to date in reduced samples of healthy humans or patients with overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome, or diabetes, we deduce that there is not enough evidence to show that conjugated linoleic acid has an effect on weight and body composition in humans. However, some of these studies have observed that the administration of various CLA isomers has adverse effects on lipid profile (it decreases HDL cholesterol concentration and increases Lp(a) circulating levels), glucose metabolism (glycemia, insulinemia or insulin sensitivity), lipid oxidation, inflammation, or endothelial function. Therefore, long-term randomized clinical trials, controlled with placebo, need to be made in large samples of patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLA isomers before its indiscriminate use in human beings can be recommended. PMID:16864141

  8. Anesthetic agents modulate ECoG potentiation after spreading depression, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia does not modify this effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thays Kallyne Marinho; E Silva-Gondim, Mariana Barros; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2015-04-10

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is characterized by reversible reduction of spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. Experimental evidence suggests that CSD may modulate neural excitability and synaptic activity, with possible implications for long-term potentiation. Systemic factors like anesthetics and insulin-induced hypoglycemia can influence CSD propagation. In this study, we examined whether the post-CSD ECoG potentiation can be modulated by anesthetics and insulin-induced hypoglycemia. We found that awake adult rats displayed increased ECoG potentiation after CSD, as compared with rats under urethane+chloralose anesthesia or tribromoethanol anesthesia. In anesthetized rats, insulin-induced hypoglycemia did not modulate ECoG potentiation. Comparison of two cortical recording regions in awake rats revealed a similarly significant (pchloralose and tribromoethanol anesthesia modulate the post-CSD potentiation of spontaneous electrical activity in the adult rat cortex, and insulin-induced hypoglycemia does not modify this effect. Data may help to gain a better understanding of excitability-dependent mechanisms underlying CSD-related neurological diseases. PMID:25681772

  9. Effective actinide(3)-lanthanide(3) separation in miniature hollow fibre modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature hollow fibre modules were fabricated as phase contactors for liquid-liquid extraction. They were tested for americium(III)-lanthanide separation, using 2,6-di(5,6-di-propyl-1,2,4-triazine- 3-yl)pyridine or a synergistic mixture of di(chloro-phenyl)di-thio-phosphinic acid and tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide as extractants. Americium could be removed from the feed phase to 99.95 % using the former extractant, and to 99.996 % with the synergistic mixture. These miniature hollow fibre modules require feed volumes as low as several ten milli-litres to run a test. This is their main advantage over commercially available hollow fibre modules which were used in our previous work. (author)

  10. Effect of modulator operation on the one-electron characteristics of FEU-117 photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the one-electron characteristics of a batch of FEU-117 instruments under different modes of modulator operation. Eight samples of the FEU-117 series were tested. Three of those were found suitable for photon counting, and their one-electron characteristics, obtained in the rated modulator operation, are listed. The results indicate that the one-electron output of the FEU-117 may be of the order of 40%, and that the counting rate of the selected samples is within 2000 sec-1, with a distinct output pulse peak and a gently sloping counting-characteristic plateau. The tests performed show that selected samples of the FEU-111 photomultipliers are suitable for use in photon counters. The modulator photocurrent-blocking efficiency is higher in the one-electron counting mode of the output signal than in the measurment of the mean anode current

  11. Selective estrogen receptor modulators decrease reactive astrogliosis in the injured brain: Effects of aging and prolonged depletion of ovarian hormones

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, G.; Santos-Galindo, M.; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Pernía, Olga; Carrero, P; Azcoitia, I.; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.

    2009-01-01

    After brain injury, astrocytes acquire a reactive phenotype characterized by a series of morphological and molecular modifications, including the expression of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin. Previous studies have shown that estradiol down-regulates reactive astrogliosis. In this study we assessed whether raloxifene and tamoxifen, two selective estrogen receptor modulators, have effects similar to estradiol in astrocytes. We also assessed whether aging and the timing of estrogenic therapy ...

  12. Effect of welding sequence on welding-induced-alignment-distortion in packaging of butterfly laser diode modules: Simulation and experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Y M; Eichele, C; Shi, F G

    2005-01-01

    Controlling welding-induced-alignment-distortion (WIAD) and maintaining coupling efficiency is obviously the most challenging issue in assembling of fiber-optic components using laser welding. WIAD is the dominant barrier to having high packaging yields. Previous investigation has revealed that the WIAD in butterfly laser diode module packaging could be mitigated by properly choosing weld process parameters such as welding sequence. In this paper, the effect of welding sequence on WIAD is stu...

  13. Thermal lensing and frequency chirp in a heated CdTe modulator crystal and its effects on laser radar performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, R. S.; Kachelmyer, A. L.; Harris, N. W.

    1991-08-01

    The effects of optical and microwave heatings and thermally-induced birefringence in a CdTe modulator crystal on the performance of a linear FM CO2 laser radar are examined. This is conducted in terms of reductions in beam Strehl ratio and dynamic ranges of the Doppler shift and range for given optical and microwave powers. An analysis of the thermal lenses generated by these heatings is presented.

  14. Effect of a weak longitudinal modulation in refractive index on transverse localization of light in 1D disordered waveguide lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Somnath; Pal, Bishnu P

    2012-01-01

    We report the enhancement of the effect of transverse localization of light (TL) in presence of a weak longitudinal modulation of refractive index in disordered waveguide lattices. In our chosen lattices, tunneling inhibition along length favors to achieve the diffraction-free propagation along with the simultaneous presence of transverse disorder. Results will be useful to tune the threshold value of disorder to achieve localized light.

  15. The effects of relativistic and non-local non-linearities on modulational instabilities in non-uniform plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general detailed analysis for the nonlinear generation of localized fields, due to the existence of a strong pump field inside the non-uniform plasma, has been considered. We have taken into account the effects of relativistic and non-local nonlinearities on the structure of plasma resonance region. The nonlinear Schroedinger equation describing the localized fields is investigated. Besides, the generalized dispersion relation is obtained to study the modulational instabilities in different cases. (author)

  16. A neuromedin U receptor acts with the sensory system to modulate food type-dependent effects on C. elegans lifespan.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Maier; Bakhtiyor Adilov; Martin Regenass; Joy Alcedo

    2010-01-01

    The type of food source has previously been shown to be as important as the level of food intake in influencing lifespan. Here we report that different Escherichia coli food sources alter Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan. These effects are modulated by different subsets of sensory neurons, which act with nmur-1, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U receptors. Wild-type nmur-1, which is expressed in the somatic gonad, sensory neurons, and interneurons, shortens lifespan only on specific E. coli ...

  17. Effective or just practical? An evaluation of an online postgraduate module on evidence-based medicine (EBM)

    OpenAIRE

    Rohwer, Anke; Young, Taryn; Van Schalkwyk, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Background Teaching the steps of evidence-based medicine (EBM) to undergraduate as well as postgraduate health care professionals is crucial for implementation of effective, beneficial health care practices and abandonment of ineffective, harmful ones. Stellenbosch University in Cape Town, South Africa, offers a 12-week, completely online module on EBM within the Family Medicine division, to medical specialists in their first year of training. The aim of this study was to formatively evaluate...

  18. Model simulations of the modulating effect of the snow cover in a rain on snow event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Wever

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In October 2011, the Swiss Alps encountered a marked rain on snow event when a large snowfall on 8 and 9 October was followed by intense rain on the 10th. This resulted in severe flooding in some parts of Switzerland. Model simulations were carried out for 14 meteorological stations in two regions of the Swiss Alps using the detailed physically-based snowpack model SNOWPACK. The results show that the snow cover has a strong modulating effect on the incoming rainfall signal on the sub-daily time scales. The snowpack runoff dynamics appears to be strongly dependent on the snow depth at the onset of the rain. Deeper snow covers have more storage potential and can absorb all rain and meltwater in the first hours, whereas the snowpack runoff from shallow snow covers reacts much quicker. It has been found that after about 4–6 h, the snowpack produced runoff and after about 11–13 h, total snowpack runoff becomes higher than total rainfall as a result of additional snow melt. These values are strongly dependent on the snow height at the onset of rainfall as well as precipitation and melt rates. An ensemble model study was carried out, in which meteorological forcing and rainfall from other stations were used for repeated simulations at a specific station. Using regression analysis, the individual contributions of rainfall, snow melt and the storage could be quantified. It was found that once the snowpack is producing runoff, deep snow covers produce more runoff than shallow ones. This could be associated with a higher contribution of the storage term. This term represents the recession curve from the liquid water storage and snowpack settling. In the event under study, snow melt in deep snow covers also turned out to be higher than in the shallow ones, although this is rather accidental. Our results show the dual nature of snow covers in rain on snow events. Snow covers initially absorb important amounts of rain water, but once meltwater is released

  19. Model simulations of the modulating effect of the snow cover in a rain on snow event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, N.; Jonas, T.; Fierz, C.; Lehning, M.

    2014-05-01

    In October 2011, the Swiss Alps encountered a marked rain on snow event when a large snowfall on 8 and 9 October was followed by intense rain on the 10th. This resulted in severe flooding in some parts of Switzerland. Model simulations were carried out for 14 meteorological stations in two regions of the Swiss Alps using the detailed physically-based snowpack model SNOWPACK. The results show that the snow cover has a strong modulating effect on the incoming rainfall signal on the sub-daily time scales. The snowpack runoff dynamics appears to be strongly dependent on the snow depth at the onset of the rain. Deeper snow covers have more storage potential and can absorb all rain and meltwater in the first hours, whereas the snowpack runoff from shallow snow covers reacts much quicker. It has been found that after about 4-6 h, the snowpack produced runoff and after about 11-13 h, total snowpack runoff becomes higher than total rainfall as a result of additional snow melt. These values are strongly dependent on the snow height at the onset of rainfall as well as precipitation and melt rates. An ensemble model study was carried out, in which meteorological forcing and rainfall from other stations were used for repeated simulations at a specific station. Using regression analysis, the individual contributions of rainfall, snow melt and the storage could be quantified. It was found that once the snowpack is producing runoff, deep snow covers produce more runoff than shallow ones. This could be associated with a higher contribution of the storage term. This term represents the recession curve from the liquid water storage and snowpack settling. In the event under study, snow melt in deep snow covers also turned out to be higher than in the shallow ones, although this is rather accidental. Our results show the dual nature of snow covers in rain on snow events. Snow covers initially absorb important amounts of rain water, but once meltwater is released by the snow cover, the

  20. Effects of nonlinear phase modulation on Bragg scattering in the low-conversion regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Mejling; Cargill, D. S.; McKinstrie, C. J.;

    2012-01-01

    chirps the input and output Schmidt modes and renders the Green function formally nonseparable. However, by pre-chirping the pumps, one can reduce the chirps of the Schmidt modes and enable approximate separability. Thus, even in the presence of nonlinear phase modulation, frequency conversion with...... interact at the beginning or the end of the fiber, and complete collisions, in which the four fields interact at the midpoint of the fiber. If the Green function is separable, there is only one output Schmidt mode, which is free from temporal entanglement. We find that nonlinear phase modulation always...