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Sample records for ckm-matrixelements vertical stroke

  1. Comments on vertical stroke Vub /Vcb vertical stroke and vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke from non-leptonic B decays within the perturbative QCD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We revisited the extracting vertical stroke Vub/Vcb vertical stroke and vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke through calculating the ratios B(B0→Ds(*)+)(π-,ρ-)/B(B0→Ds(*)+D(*)-) in the perturbative QCD approach, which is regarded as an effective theory in dealing with non-leptonic charmed B decays. Utilizing this approach, we could calculate the form factors effectively as well as non-factorizable and annihilation contributions. With the updated distribution amplitudes and the latest experimental data, we get vertical stroke Vub/Vcb vertical stroke =0.083 ±0.007, which favors a bit smaller vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke compared with the averaged PDG value, but agrees well the exclusively measured values. Furthermore, we predict the branching ratio of anti B0→Ds-ρ+∝(2.7±1.2) x 10-5, which could be measured in B factories in the near future. In our calculation, the major uncertainty is due to our poor knowledge of heavy meson wave functions. We also comment that it is not trivial to generalize this approach to the Bs system, primarily because both anti Bs0 and Bs0 can decay into the same final states Ds+K- and Ds+Ds-. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke, using data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 at √(s)= 8 TeV pp-collisions with a total integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1. The analysis is based on 112 171 reconstructed t anti t candidate events in the lepton+jets channel, having a purity of 90.0 %. 183 t anti t→W+W-b anti s decays are expected (charge conjugation implied), which are available for the extraction of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2. To identify these rare decays, several observables are examined, such as the properties of jets, tracks and of b-quark identification algorithms. Furthermore, the s-quark hadrons K0s are considered, reconstructed by a kinematic fit. The best observables are combined in a multivariate analysis, called ''boosted decision trees''. The responses from Monte Carlo simulations are used as templates for a fit to data events yielding a significance value of 0.7σ for t→s+W decays. An upper limit of vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2<1.74 % at 95 % confidence level is set, including all systematic and statistical uncertainties. So this analysis, using a direct measurement of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2, provides the best direct limit on vertical stroke Vts vertical stroke 2 up to now.

  3. SIMBA - A global fit approach to vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parton distribution function for a b quark in the B-meson (called the shape function) plays an important role in the analysis of the B→Xsγ and B→Xul anti ν data, and gives raise to one of the dominant uncertainties in the determination of vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke. We implement a new model independent framework to treat the shape function with reliable theoretical uncertainties based on an expansion in a suitable complete set of orthonormal basis functions. This is a significant improvement over fits to model functions. We present the current status of combined fits to BaBar and Belle data and extract vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke.

  4. Reconstruction of B- → D*0e- anti νe decays and determination of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this analysis the decay B- → D*0e- anti νe is measured. The underlying data sample consists of about 226 million B anti B-pairs accumulated on the Υ(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector at the asymmetric e+e- collider PEP-II. The reconstruction of the decay uses the channels D*0 → D0π0, D0 → K-π+ and π0 → γγ. The neutrino is not reconstructed. Since the rest frame of the B meson is unknown, the boost w of the D*0 meson in the B meson rest frame is estimated by w. The w spectrum of the data is described in terms of the partial decay width dΓ/dw given by theory and the detector simulation translating each spectrum dΓ/dw into an expectation of the measured w spectrum. dΓ/dw depends on a form factor F(w) parameterizing the strong interaction in the decay process. To find the best descriptive dΓ/dw a fit to the data determines the following two parameters of dΓ/dw: (i) F(1) vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke, the product between F at zero D*0-recoil and the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke; (ii) ρ2A1, a parameter of the form factor F(w). The former parameter scales the height of dΓ/dw and ρ2A1 varies the shape of it. The determined values of F(1) vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke, ρ2A1 and B(B- → D*0e- anti νe) are F(1) vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke =(35.8±0.5±1.5) x 10-3, ρ2A1=(1.08±0.05±0.09) and B(B- → D*0e- anti νe)=(5.60±0.08±0.42)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The values of B(B- → D*0e- anti νe) has been determined by an integration of dΓ/dw over the allowed w range using the fitted values of F(1) vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke and ρ2A1. (orig.)

  5. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS3xS3xT4. Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  6. The WZNW model on PSU(1, 1 vertical stroke 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, G. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique; Quella, T. [King' s College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Institute for Mathematics; Schomerus, V. [CEA Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    According to the work of Berkovits, Vafa and Witten, the non-linear sigma model on the supergroup PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2) is the essential building block for string theory on AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3}xT{sup 4}. Models associated with a non-vanishing value of the RR flux can be obtained through a psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) invariant marginal deformation of the WZNW model on PSU(1,1 vertical stroke 2). We take this as a motivation to present a manifestly psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) covariant construction of the model at the Wess-Zumino point, corresponding to a purely NSNS background 3-form flux. At this point the model possesses an enhanced psu(1,1 vertical stroke 2) current algebra symmetry whose representation theory, including explicit character formulas, is developed systematically in the first part of the paper. The space of vertex operators and a free fermion representation for their correlation functions is our main subject in the second part. Contrary to a widespread claim, bosonic and fermionic fields are necessarily coupled to each other. The interaction changes the supersymmetry transformations, with drastic consequences for the multiplets of localized normalizable states in the model. It is only this fact which allows us to decompose the full state space into multiplets of the global supersymmetry. We analyze these decompositions systematically as a preparation for a forthcoming study of the RR deformation. (orig.)

  7. The GL(1 vertical stroke 1)-symplectic fermion correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Roenne, Peter B.

    2008-12-15

    In this note we prove a correspondence between the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model of the Lie supergroup GL(1 vertical stroke 1) and a free model consisting of two scalars and a pair of symplectic fermions. This model was discussed earlier by LeClair. Vertex operators for the symplectic fermions include twist fields, and correlation functions of GL(1 vertical stroke 1) agree with the known results for the scalars and symplectic fermions. We perform a detailed study of boundary states for symplectic fermions and apply them to branes in GL(1 vertical stroke 1). This allows us to compute new amplitudes of strings stretching between branes of different types and confirming Cardy's condition. (orig.)

  8. Tensor products of psl(2 vertical stroke 2) representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to study finite dimensional representations of the Lie superalgebra psl(2 vertical stroke 2) and their tensor products. In particular, we shall decompose all tensor products involving typical (long) and atypical (short) representations as well as their so-called projective covers. While tensor products of long multiplets and projective covers close among themselves, we shall find an infinite family of new indecomposables in the tensor products of two short multiplets. Our note concludes with a few remarks on possible applications to the construction of AdS3 backgrounds in string theory. (orig.)

  9. SL(2 vertical stroke 1) and D(2 vertical stroke 1;{alpha}) as vertex operator extensions of dual affine SL(2) algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowcock, P.; Taormina, A. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematics; Feigin, B.L. [Landau Inst. of Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Semikhatov, A.M. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Institut

    2000-11-01

    We discover a realisation of the affine Lie superalgebra sl(2 vertical stroke 1) and of the exceptional affine superalgebra D(2 vertical stroke 1;{alpha}) as vertex operator extensions of two sl(2) algebras with ''dual'' levels (and an auxiliary level-1 sl(2) algebra). The duality relation between the levels is (k{sub 1}+1)(k{sub 2}+1)=1. We construct the representation of sl(2 vertical stroke 1){sub k{sub 1}} on a sum of tensor products of sl(2){sub k{sub 1}}, sl(2){sub k{sub 2}}, and sl(2){sub 1} modules and decompose it into a direct sum over the sl(2 vertical stroke 1){sub k{sub 1}} spectral flow orbit. This decomposition gives rise to character identities, which we also derive. The extension of the construction to D(2 vertical stroke 1;k{sub 2}){sub k{sub 1}} is traced to the properties of sl(2)+ sl(2)+ sl(2) embeddings into D(2 vertical stroke 1;{alpha}) and their relation with the dual sl(2) pairs. Conversely, we show how the sl (2){sub k{sub 2}} representations are constructed from sl(2 vertical stroke 1){sub k{sub 1}} representations. (orig.)

  10. On the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model and its statistical mechanics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motivated by a careful analysis of the Laplacian on the supergroup SU(2 vertical stroke 1) we formulate a proposal for the state space of the SU(2 vertical stroke 1) WZNW model. We then use properties of sl(2 vertical stroke 1) characters to compute the partition function of the theory. In the special case of level k=1 the latter is found to agree with the properly regularized partition function for the continuum limit of the integrable sl(2 vertical stroke 1)3- anti 3 super-spin chain. Some general conclusions applicable to other WZNW models (in particular the case k=-1/2) are also drawn. (orig.)

  11. Measurement of Cabbibo-suppressed τ lepton decays and the determination of vertical stroke Vus vertical stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents simultaneous branching fraction measurements of the decay modes τ-→K-nπ0ντ with n=0,1,2,3 and τ-→π-nπ0ντ with n=3,4. The analysis is based on a data sample of 427 x 106τ+τ- pairs recorded with the BABAR detector, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 464.4 fb-1. The measured values are B(τ-→K-ντ)=(6.57±0.03±0.11) x 10-3, B(τ-→K-π0ντ)=(4.61±0.03±0.11) x 10-3, B(τ-→K-π0π0ντ)=(5.05±0.17±0.44) x 10-4, B(τ-→K-π0π0π0ντ)=(1.31±0.43±0.40) x 10-4, B(τ-→π-π0π0π0ντ)=(1.263±0.008±0.078) x 10-2 and B(τ-→π-π0π0π0π0ντ)=(9.6±0.5±1.2) x 10-4, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. All measurements are compatible with the current world averages whereas the uncertainties are significantly smaller by a factor of up to five. The determination of B(τ-→π-π0π0π0π0ντ) is the first measurement of this branching fraction. The measured branching fractions are combined with the current world averages. Using the new averages, an updated determination of vertical stroke Vus vertical stroke from hadronic τ decays yields vertical stroke Vus vertical stroke =0.2146±0.0025, which improves previous measurements by 19%. Its uncertainty is comparable to the one of the current world average from semileptonic kaon decays. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of Cabbibo-suppressed {tau} lepton decays and the determination of vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Stefan

    2008-07-07

    This work presents simultaneous branching fraction measurements of the decay modes {tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}n{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}} with n=0,1,2,3 and {tau}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}n{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}} with n=3,4. The analysis is based on a data sample of 427 x 10{sup 6}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} pairs recorded with the BABAR detector, which corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 464.4 fb{sup -1}. The measured values are B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(6.57{+-}0.03{+-}0.11) x 10{sup -3}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(4.61{+-}0.03{+-}0.11) x 10{sup -3}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(5.05{+-}0.17{+-}0.44) x 10{sup -4}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(1.31{+-}0.43{+-}0.40) x 10{sup -4}, B({tau}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(1.263{+-}0.008{+-}0.078) x 10{sup -2} and B({tau}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(9.6{+-}0.5{+-}1.2) x 10{sup -4}, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. All measurements are compatible with the current world averages whereas the uncertainties are significantly smaller by a factor of up to five. The determination of B({tau}{sup -}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}}) is the first measurement of this branching fraction. The measured branching fractions are combined with the current world averages. Using the new averages, an updated determination of vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke from hadronic {tau} decays yields vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke =0.2146{+-}0.0025, which improves previous measurements by 19%. Its uncertainty is comparable to the one of the current world average from semileptonic kaon decays. (orig.)

  13. Verticality Perceptions Associate with Postural Control and Functionality in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, Jussara A. O.; Mazin, Suleimy S. C.; Alessio-Alves, Frederico F.; Barros, Camila G. C.; Carneiro, Antonio A. O.; Leite, João P.; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M.; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E. G.

    2016-01-01

    Deficits of postural control and perceptions of verticality are disabling problems observed in stroke patients that have been recently correlated to each other. However, there is no evidence in the literature confirming this relationship with quantitative posturography analysis. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between Subjective Postural Vertical (SPV) and Haptic Vertical (HV) with posturography and functionality in stroke patients. We included ...

  14. Modeling of an anode-supported Ni-YSZ vertical stroke Ni-ScSZ vertical stroke ScSZ vertical stroke LSM-ScSZ multiple layers SOFC cell. Part I. Experiments, model development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng; Li, Chen; Bao, Cheng [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Croiset, Eric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Qian, Jiqin; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Shaorong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2007-10-11

    This paper is the first part of a two-part paper and presents the development, calibration and validation of a two-dimensional isothermal mechanistic model of a composite yttria/scandia-stabilized zirconia anode-supported multiple layers solid oxide fuel cell (Ni-YSZ vertical stroke Ni-ScSZ vertical stroke ScSZ vertical stroke LSM-ScSZ). This model was developed to describe the intricate interdependency among the ionic conduction, electronic conduction, multi-component species transport, electrochemical reaction processes and electrode microstructure for intermediate temperatures operation between 750 and 850 C. This model takes into account the fact that the electrochemical reactions take place throughout the electrodes and not only at the electrolyte/electrode boundaries. The model was calibrated using experimental polarization curves and then validated by comparing each cell component polarizations (anodic, cathodic and electrolyte) determined from the simulation and from specific experiments using a symmetric cell and EIS measurements. (author)

  15. Structure constants of the OSP(1 vertical stroke 2) WZNW model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikida, Y.; Schomerus, V.

    2007-11-15

    We propose exact formulas for the 2- and 3-point functions of the WZNW model on the non-compact supergroup OSP(1 vertical stroke 2). Using the path integral approach that was recently developed in arXiv:0706.1030 we show how local correlation functions in the OSP(p vertical stroke 2) WZNW models can be obtained from those of N=p supersymmetric Liouville field theory for p=1,2. We then employ known results on correlators in N=1 Liouville theory to determine the structure constants of the OSP(1 vertical stroke 2) theory. (orig.)

  16. Structure constants of the OSP(1 vertical stroke 2) WZNW model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose exact formulas for the 2- and 3-point functions of the WZNW model on the non-compact supergroup OSP(1 vertical stroke 2). Using the path integral approach that was recently developed in arXiv:0706.1030 we show how local correlation functions in the OSP(p vertical stroke 2) WZNW models can be obtained from those of N=p supersymmetric Liouville field theory for p=1,2. We then employ known results on correlators in N=1 Liouville theory to determine the structure constants of the OSP(1 vertical stroke 2) theory. (orig.)

  17. Determination of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke, the B → Xsγ decay rate, and the b-quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the preliminary measurements of two fundamental parameters of the Standard Model of particles physics are presented: the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke, and the b-quark mass. The measurement of the absolute value of the CKM matrix element Vcb uses the full set of recorded data of 429.06 fb-1 of B anti B mesons of the BABAR experiment. The CKM matrix element is obtained by measuring the branching fractions and non-perturbative shape parameters of the two transitions into the charmed 1S ground states, B → Dlνl and B → D*l νl, respectively. The kinematic of the produced lepton is measured and the kinematics of the short-lived charmed mesons is reconstructed from kaon and pion candidates. By combining the reconstructed three-momenta of both particles with the angular information of the decay, three independent variables can be obtained. The measured distributions in these variables are analyzed in a three-dimensional global fit, which simultaneously extracts the decay parameters and branching fractions of both charmed transitions. We find that B → Dl νl: vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke =(36.14±0.57stat.±1.30sys.±0.80theo.) x 10-3, B → D*l νl: vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke =(39.71±0.26stat.±0.73sys.±0.74theo.) x 10-3, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and theoretical, respectively. In the Standard Model, both measured values of vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke can be averaged to further minimize the uncertainties. We find Combined: vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke =(38.29±0.26stat.±0.64sys.±0.52theo.) x 10-3. Furthermore, several scenarios are explored how possible future unquenched lattice QCD points can be incorporated into the measurement, to further reduce the uncertainty on vertical stroke Vcb vertical stroke. The b-quark mass is determined by analyzing measured B → Xsγ photon energy spectra from BABAR and Belle. Due to the sizeable background contributions from other

  18. Measurement of τ decays into a charged hadron accompanied by neutral π-mesons and determination of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vus vertical stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents the branching fraction measurement of the τ-→K-(nπ0)ντ (n=0,1,2,3) and τ-→π-(nπ0)ντ (n=3,4) decays. The measurement is based on a data sample of 435 million τ pairs produced in e+e- collisions and collected with the BABAR detector in 1999-2008. The analysis is validated using precisely known τ decays as control modes. The measured branching fractions are B(τ-→K-ντ)=(7.100±0.033±0.156) x 10-3, B(τ-→K-π0ντ)=(5.000±0.020±0.139) x 10-3, B(τ-→K-(2π0)ντ)=(5.654±0.144±0.323) x 10-4, B(τ-→K-(3π0)ντ)=(1.642±0.279±0.375) x 10-4, B(τ-→π-(3π0)ντ)=(1.216±0.010±0.047) x 10-2, B(τ-→π-(4π0)ντ)=(1.041±0.067±0.090) x 10-3, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The branching fraction B(τ-→π-(4π0)ντ) is measured for the first time. The precision of the results is comparable or significantly improved with respect to previous measurements. The branching fraction B(τ-→K-ντ) is combined with a lattice QCD calculation of the kaon decay constant to obtain the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element vertical stroke Vus vertical stroke =0.2224±0.0025(exp)±0.0029(theo). The branching fractions of the τ decays into a kaon are combined with the current world averages. The resulting averages are used in the determination of the total τ branching fraction, Bs, into strangeness vertical stroke S vertical stroke =1 final states. Bs is used in conjunction with vertical stroke Vud vertical stroke and a small SU(3)-symmetry breaking correction to compute vertical stroke Vus vertical stroke =0.2176±0.0025(exp)±0.0010(theo).

  19. Branes in the GL(1 vertical stroke 1) WZNW-Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We initiate a systematic study of boundary conditions in conformal field theories with target space supersymmetry. The WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1) is used as a prototypical example for which we find the complete set of maximally symmetric branes. This includes a unique brane of maximal super-dimension 2 vertical stroke 2, a 2-parameter family of branes with super-dimension 0 vertical stroke 2 and an infinite set of fully localized branes possessing a single modulus. Members of the latter family can only exist along certain lines on the bosonic base, much like fractional branes at orbifold singularities. Our results establish that all essential algebraic features of Cardy-type boundary theories carry over to the non-rational logarithmic WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1). (orig.)

  20. Branes in the GL(1 vertical stroke 1) WZNW-Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutzig, T.; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quella, T. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). KdV Inst. for Mathematics

    2007-08-15

    We initiate a systematic study of boundary conditions in conformal field theories with target space supersymmetry. The WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1) is used as a prototypical example for which we find the complete set of maximally symmetric branes. This includes a unique brane of maximal super-dimension 2 vertical stroke 2, a 2-parameter family of branes with super-dimension 0 vertical stroke 2 and an infinite set of fully localized branes possessing a single modulus. Members of the latter family can only exist along certain lines on the bosonic base, much like fractional branes at orbifold singularities. Our results establish that all essential algebraic features of Cardy-type boundary theories carry over to the non-rational logarithmic WZNW model on GL(1 vertical stroke 1). (orig.)

  1. Modeling of an anode-supported Ni-YSZ vertical stroke Ni-ScSZ vertical stroke ScSZ vertical stroke LSM-ScSZ multiple layers SOFC cell. Part II. Simulations and discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yixiang; Cai, Ningsheng; Li, Chen; Bao, Cheng [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Croiset, Eric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Qian, Jiqin; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Shaorong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS), 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2007-10-11

    In part I of the present study, a two-dimensional isothermal mechanistic model of a composite yttria/scandia stabilized zirconia anode-supported multiple layers solid oxide fuel cell (Ni-YSZ vertical stroke Ni-ScSZ vertical stroke ScSZ vertical stroke LSM-ScSZ) was developed, calibrated and validated using a button cell setup. In this paper, the model was further validated for extended operating conditions of fuel and oxidant compositions, which confirmed the robustness of the model. Since an important attribute of this model is its ability to accurately describe the effect of cell microstructure on cell performance, a large section of part II is devoted to sensitivity analysis of various microstructure parameters (cathode area, porosity, layer thickness and particle radius) on cell performance. In particular, the simulation results have shown how the button cell microstructure should be modified to optimize its performance. The proposed model could be used as a bridge between micro-scale electrode models and macro-scale unit cell simulation, thus being a useful tool for electrode design. (author)

  2. Continuum limit of gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2011-03-15

    We study the spectrum of an integrable antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian of the gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chain of alternating fundamental and dual representations. After extensive numerical analysis, we identify the vacuum and low lying excitations and with this knowledge perform the continuum limit, while keeping a finite gap. All antiferromagnetic gl(n+N vertical stroke N) spin chains with n>0 and N{ne}0 are shown to possess in the continuum limit 2n-2 multiplets of massive particles which scatter with gl(n) Gross-Neveu like S-matrices, namely their eigenvalues do not depend on N. We argue that the continuum theory is the gl(M vertical stroke N) Gross-Neveu model, that is the massive deformation of the gl(M vertical stroke N){sub 1} Wess-Zumino-Witten model. As we can see ion the example of gl(2m vertical stroke 1) spin chains, the full particle spectrum is much richer. Our analysis suggests that for a complete characterization of the latter it is not enough to restrict to large volume calculations, as we do in this work. (orig.)

  3. Continuum limit of gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the spectrum of an integrable antiferromagnetic Hamiltonian of the gl(M vertical stroke N) spin chain of alternating fundamental and dual representations. After extensive numerical analysis, we identify the vacuum and low lying excitations and with this knowledge perform the continuum limit, while keeping a finite gap. All antiferromagnetic gl(n+N vertical stroke N) spin chains with n>0 and N≠0 are shown to possess in the continuum limit 2n-2 multiplets of massive particles which scatter with gl(n) Gross-Neveu like S-matrices, namely their eigenvalues do not depend on N. We argue that the continuum theory is the gl(M vertical stroke N) Gross-Neveu model, that is the massive deformation of the gl(M vertical stroke N)1 Wess-Zumino-Witten model. As we can see ion the example of gl(2m vertical stroke 1) spin chains, the full particle spectrum is much richer. Our analysis suggests that for a complete characterization of the latter it is not enough to restrict to large volume calculations, as we do in this work. (orig.)

  4. Is perception of vertical impaired in individuals with chronic stroke with a history of 'pushing'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Avril; Fraser, Lindsey; Rajachandrakumar, Roshanth; Danells, Cynthia J; Knorr, Svetlana; Campos, Jennifer

    2015-03-17

    Post-stroke 'pushing' behaviour appears to be caused by impaired perception of vertical in the roll plane. While pushing behaviour typically resolves with stroke recovery, it is not known if misperception of vertical persists. The purpose of this study was to determine if perception of vertical is impaired amongst stroke survivors with a history of pushing behaviour. Fourteen individuals with chronic stroke (7 with history of pushing) and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated. Participants sat upright on a chair surrounded by a curved projection screen in a laboratory mounted on a motion base. Subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed using a 30 trial, forced-choice protocol. For each trial participants viewed a line projected on the screen and indicated if the line was tilted to the right or the left. For the subjective postural vertical (SPV), participants wore a blindfold and the motion base was tilted to the left or right by 10-20°. Participants were asked to adjust the angular movements of the motion base until they felt upright. SPV was not different between groups. SVV was significantly more biased towards the contralesional side for participants with history of pushing (-3.6 ± 4.1°) than those without (-0.1 ± 1.4°). Two individuals with history of pushing had SVV or SPV outside the maximum for healthy controls. Impaired vertical perception may persist in some individuals with prior post-stroke pushing, despite resolution of pushing behaviours, which could have consequences for functional mobility and falls. PMID:25666890

  5. On the free electron state in the internal conversion and on the relation ICC approx. equal to vertical stroke psi(0) vertical stroke 2 for Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final continuum electron states in the internal conversion (IC) process are considered under two points of view: 1) Regarding the potential for the free electron we use neither the unchanged atomic potential (no-hole model) nor the Rose- or the Band-hole model, but we apply another model which is introduced and discussed. The differences between the models are significant for low kinetic energies (a few keV). 2) Changes of the chemical or ionization state of the atom cause variations of the IC coefficients (ICC) not only via the bound states (proportionality relation ICC approx. equal to vertical stroke psi(0) vertical stroke 2), but in principle via the continuum states, too, especially for low kinetic energies or for inner shells. This effect is examined for the transition of Tc-99m (2.17 keV; E3) with variation of the transition energy. For the non-s-subshells it turns out that the simple proportionality relation holds for the Tc-99m transition, but for lower energy it has to be extended to the free electron wave functions. In the s-shells there appear discrepancies with decreasing energy even from the extended proportionality relation. A short description of the used ICC code is included in the paper. (orig.)

  6. Verticality Perceptions Associate with Postural Control and Functionality in Stroke Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara A O Baggio

    Full Text Available Deficits of postural control and perceptions of verticality are disabling problems observed in stroke patients that have been recently correlated to each other. However, there is no evidence in the literature confirming this relationship with quantitative posturography analysis. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between Subjective Postural Vertical (SPV and Haptic Vertical (HV with posturography and functionality in stroke patients. We included 45 stroke patients. The study protocol was composed by clinical interview, evaluation of SPV and HV in roll and pitch planes and posturography. Posturography was measured in the sitting and standing positions under the conditions: eyes open, stable surface (EOSS; eyes closed, stable surface (ECSS; eyes open, unstable surface (EOUS; and eyes closed, unstable surface (ECUS. The median PV in roll plane was 0.34° (-1.44° to 2.54° and in pitch plane 0.36° (-2.72° to 2.45°. The median of HV in roll and pitch planes were -0.94° (-5.86° to 3.84° and 3.56° (-0.68° to 8.36°, respectively. SPV in the roll plane was correlated with all posturagraphy parameters in sitting position in all conditions (r = 0.35 to 0.47; p < 0.006. There were moderate correlations with the verticality perceptions and all the functional scales. Linear regression model showed association between speed and SPV in the roll plane in the condition EOSS (R2 of 0.37; p = 0.005, in the condition ECSS (R2 of 0.13; p = 0.04 and in the condition EOUS (R2 of 0.22; p = 0.03. These results suggest that verticality perception is a relevant component of postural control and should be systematically evaluated, particularly in patients with abnormal postural control.

  7. Characters of admissible representations of the affine superalgebra sl(2 vertical stroke 1; C){sub k}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowcock, P.; Hayes, M.; Taormina, A. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    1998-01-26

    We calculate characters and supercharacters for irreducible, admissible representations of the affine superalgebra sl(2 vertical stroke 1;C){sub k} in both the Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz sectors and discuss their modular properties in the special case of level k=-1/2. We also show that the non-degenerate integrable sl(2 vertical stroke 1;C){sub k} characters coincide with some N=4 superconformal characters. (orig.). 31 refs.

  8. QCD-duality aproach to non-leptonic weak transitions: Towards an understanding of the vertical strokeΔIvertical stroke=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress done in the QCD-duality analysis of strangeness changing nonleptonic weak transitions is reviewed. The method combines the information provided by the effective chiral realization of QCD at long distances with its perturbative short-distance behaviour, via a duality approach. Special attention is given to the failure of the earlier leading-logarithm calculations in explaining the observed vertical strokeΔIvertical stroke=1/2 K→ππ amplitude. It is shown that the next-to-leading αs corrections to the vertical strokeΔIvertical stroke=1/2 correlator are enormous, and with the appropriate sign to produce the required enhancement. (orig.)

  9. Verticality Perceptions Associate with Postural Control and Functionality in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Jussara A O; Mazin, Suleimy S C; Alessio-Alves, Frederico F; Barros, Camila G C; Carneiro, Antonio A O; Leite, João P; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G

    2016-01-01

    Deficits of postural control and perceptions of verticality are disabling problems observed in stroke patients that have been recently correlated to each other. However, there is no evidence in the literature confirming this relationship with quantitative posturography analysis. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to analyze the relationship between Subjective Postural Vertical (SPV) and Haptic Vertical (HV) with posturography and functionality in stroke patients. We included 45 stroke patients. The study protocol was composed by clinical interview, evaluation of SPV and HV in roll and pitch planes and posturography. Posturography was measured in the sitting and standing positions under the conditions: eyes open, stable surface (EOSS); eyes closed, stable surface (ECSS); eyes open, unstable surface (EOUS); and eyes closed, unstable surface (ECUS). The median PV in roll plane was 0.34° (-1.44° to 2.54°) and in pitch plane 0.36° (-2.72° to 2.45°). The median of HV in roll and pitch planes were -0.94° (-5.86° to 3.84°) and 3.56° (-0.68° to 8.36°), respectively. SPV in the roll plane was correlated with all posturagraphy parameters in sitting position in all conditions (r = 0.35 to 0.47; p SPV in the roll plane in the condition EOSS (R2 of 0.37; p = 0.005), in the condition ECSS (R2 of 0.13; p = 0.04) and in the condition EOUS (R2 of 0.22; p = 0.03). These results suggest that verticality perception is a relevant component of postural control and should be systematically evaluated, particularly in patients with abnormal postural control. PMID:26954679

  10. Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a hospital quickly to begin treatment. Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is ... rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke damage. Drug therapy with blood thinners is the most common treatment ...

  11. Determination of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, the B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma} decay rate, and the b-quark mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernlochner, Florian Urs

    2011-09-15

    In this work, the preliminary measurements of two fundamental parameters of the Standard Model of particles physics are presented: the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, and the b-quark mass. The measurement of the absolute value of the CKM matrix element V{sub cb} uses the full set of recorded data of 429.06 fb{sup -1} of B anti B mesons of the BABAR experiment. The CKM matrix element is obtained by measuring the branching fractions and non-perturbative shape parameters of the two transitions into the charmed 1S ground states, B {yields} Dl{nu}{sub l} and B {yields} D{sup *}l {nu}{sub l}, respectively. The kinematic of the produced lepton is measured and the kinematics of the short-lived charmed mesons is reconstructed from kaon and pion candidates. By combining the reconstructed three-momenta of both particles with the angular information of the decay, three independent variables can be obtained. The measured distributions in these variables are analyzed in a three-dimensional global fit, which simultaneously extracts the decay parameters and branching fractions of both charmed transitions. We find that B {yields} Dl {nu}{sub l}: vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(36.14{+-}0.57{sub stat.}{+-}1.30{sub sys.}{+-}0.80{sub theo.}) x 10{sup -3}, B {yields} D{sup *}l {nu}{sub l}: vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(39.71{+-}0.26{sub stat.}{+-}0.73{sub sys.}{+-}0.74{sub theo.}) x 10{sup -3}, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic, and theoretical, respectively. In the Standard Model, both measured values of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke can be averaged to further minimize the uncertainties. We find Combined: vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(38.29{+-}0.26{sub stat.}{+-}0.64{sub sys.}{+-}0.52{sub theo.}) x 10{sup -3}. Furthermore, several scenarios are explored how possible future unquenched lattice QCD points can be incorporated into the measurement, to further reduce the uncertainty on

  12. Large-Stroke Self-Aligned Vertical Comb Drive Actuators for Adaptive Optics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, E J; Olivier, S S; Solgaard, O

    2005-10-27

    A high-stroke micro-actuator array was designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. Each pixel in the 4x4 array consists of a self-aligned vertical comb drive actuator. This micro-actuator array was designed to become the foundation of a micro-mirror array that will be used as a deformable mirror for adaptive optics applications. Analytical models combined with CoventorWare{reg_sign} simulations were used to design actuators that would move up to 10{micro}m in piston motion with 100V applied. Devices were fabricated according to this design and testing of these devices demonstrated an actuator displacement of 1.4{micro}m with 200V applied. Further investigation revealed that fabrication process inaccuracy led to significantly stiffer mechanical springs in the fabricated devices. The increased stiffness of the springs was shown to account for the reduced displacement of the actuators relative to the design.

  13. Reconstruction of B{sup -} {yields} D{sup *0}e{sup -} anti {nu}{sub e} decays and determination of vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J.

    2006-12-01

    In this analysis the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sup *0}e{sup -} anti {nu}{sub e} is measured. The underlying data sample consists of about 226 million B anti B-pairs accumulated on the {upsilon}(4S) resonance by the BABAR detector at the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider PEP-II. The reconstruction of the decay uses the channels D{sup *0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. The neutrino is not reconstructed. Since the rest frame of the B meson is unknown, the boost w of the D{sup *0} meson in the B meson rest frame is estimated by w. The w spectrum of the data is described in terms of the partial decay width d{gamma}/dw given by theory and the detector simulation translating each spectrum d{gamma}/dw into an expectation of the measured w spectrum. d{gamma}/dw depends on a form factor F(w) parameterizing the strong interaction in the decay process. To find the best descriptive d{gamma}/dw a fit to the data determines the following two parameters of d{gamma}/dw: (i) F(1) vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, the product between F at zero D{sup *0}-recoil and the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke; (ii) {rho}{sup 2}{sub A1}, a parameter of the form factor F(w). The former parameter scales the height of d{gamma}/dw and {rho}{sup 2}{sub A1} varies the shape of it. The determined values of F(1) vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke, {rho}{sup 2}{sub A1} and B(B{sup -} {yields} D{sup *0}e{sup -} anti {nu}{sub e}) are F(1) vertical stroke V{sub cb} vertical stroke =(35.8{+-}0.5{+-}1.5) x 10{sup -3}, {rho}{sup 2}{sub A1}=(1.08{+-}0.05{+-}0.09) and B(B{sup -} {yields} D{sup *0}e{sup -} anti {nu}{sub e})=(5.60{+-}0.08{+-}0.42)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The values of B(B{sup -} {yields} D{sup *0}e{sup -} anti {nu}{sub e}) has been determined by an integration of d{gamma}/dw over the allowed w range using the fitted values of

  14. Measurement of τ decays into a charged hadron accompanied by neutral π-mesons and determination of the CKM matrix element vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adametz, Aleksandra

    2011-07-06

    This thesis presents the branching fraction measurement of the τ{sup -}→K{sup -}(nπ{sup 0})ν{sub τ} (n=0,1,2,3) and τ{sup -}→π{sup -}(nπ{sup 0})ν{sub τ} (n=3,4) decays. The measurement is based on a data sample of 435 million τ pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and collected with the BABAR detector in 1999-2008. The analysis is validated using precisely known τ decays as control modes. The measured branching fractions are B(τ{sup -}→K{sup -}ν{sub τ})=(7.100±0.033±0.156) x 10{sup -3}, B(τ{sup -}→K{sup -}π{sup 0}ν{sub τ})=(5.000±0.020±0.139) x 10{sup -3}, B(τ{sup -}→K{sup -}(2π{sup 0})ν{sub τ})=(5.654±0.144±0.323) x 10{sup -4}, B(τ{sup -}→K{sup -}(3π{sup 0})ν{sub τ})=(1.642±0.279±0.375) x 10{sup -4}, B(τ{sup -}→π{sup -}(3π{sup 0})ν{sub τ})=(1.216±0.010±0.047) x 10{sup -2}, B(τ{sup -}→π{sup -}(4π{sup 0})ν{sub τ})=(1.041±0.067±0.090) x 10{sup -3}, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. The branching fraction B(τ{sup -}→π{sup -}(4π{sup 0})ν{sub τ}) is measured for the first time. The precision of the results is comparable or significantly improved with respect to previous measurements. The branching fraction B(τ{sup -}→K{sup -}ν{sub τ}) is combined with a lattice QCD calculation of the kaon decay constant to obtain the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke =0.2224±0.0025(exp)±0.0029(theo). The branching fractions of the τ decays into a kaon are combined with the current world averages. The resulting averages are used in the determination of the total τ branching fraction, B{sub s}, into strangeness vertical stroke S vertical stroke =1 final states. B{sub s} is used in conjunction with vertical stroke V{sub ud} vertical stroke and a small SU(3)-symmetry breaking correction to compute vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke =0.2176±0.0025(exp)±0.0010(theo).

  15. Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Change in alertness (including sleepiness, unconsciousness, and coma) Changes in hearing or taste Changes that affect ... or prevent more strokes Nutrients and fluids Physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and swallowing therapy will ...

  16. Stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s greatly facilitated the diagnosis and management of stroke and added significantly to our understanding of the pathophysiologic brain alterations it causes in humans. With CT it is now possible for the first time to noninvasively and reliably diagnose and distinguish between stroke resulting from cerebral infraction and that resulting from cerebral hemorrhage. In addition, other brain lesions that at times may clinically present as stroke-like syndromes, such as primary or metastatic brain tumor, brain abscess, or subdural hematoma, can usually be clearly differentiated by the CT examination. In most instances it is no longer necessary to perform cerebral angiography to exclude a possible surgical lesion in patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of stroke may have been in doubt

  17. The universal Racah-Wigner symbol for U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawelkiewicz, Michal; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Suchanek, Paulina [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-10-15

    We propose a new and elegant formula for the Racah-Wigner symbol of self-dual continuous series of representations of U{sub q}(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). It describes the entire fusing matrix for both NS and R sector of N=1 supersymmetric Liouville field theory. In the NS sector, our formula is related to an expression derived in an earlier paper (L. Hadaz, M. Pawelkiewicz, and V. Schomerus, arXiv:1305.4596[hep-th]). Through analytic continuation in the spin variables, our universal expression reproduces known formulas for the Racah-Wigner coefficients of finite dimensional representations.

  18. Self-dual continuous series of representations for Uq(sl(2)) and Uq(osp(1 vertical stroke 2))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determine the Clebsch-Gordan and Racah-Wigner coefficients for continuous series of representations of the quantum deformed algebras Uq(sl(2)) and Uq(osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). While our results for the former algebra reproduce formulas by Ponsot and Teschner, the expressions for the orthosymplectic algebra are new. Up to some normalization factors, the associated Racah-Wigner coefficients are shown to agree with the fusing matrix in the Neveu-Schwarz sector of N=1 supersymmetric Liouville field theory.

  19. Subliminal galvanic-vestibular stimulation recalibrates the distorted visual and tactile subjective vertical in right-sided stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenländer, Karin; Utz, Kathrin S; Reinhart, Stefan; Keller, Ingo; Kerkhoff, Georg; Schaadt, Anna-Katharina

    2015-07-01

    Stroke of the right cerebral hemisphere often causes deficits in the judgement of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and subjective tactile vertical (STV) which are related to central vestibular functioning. Clinically, deficits in the SVV/STV are linked to balance problems and poor functional outcome. Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) is a non-invasive, save stimulation technique that induces polarity-specific changes in the cortical vestibular systems. Subliminal GVS induces imperceptible vestibular stimulation without unpleasant side effects. Here, we applied bipolar subliminal GVS over the mastoids (mean intensity: 0.7 mA, 20 min duration per session) to investigate its online-influence on constant errors, difference thresholds and range values in the SVV and STV. 24 patients with subacute, single, unilateral right hemisphere stroke were studied and assigned to two patient groups (impaired vs. normal in the SVV and STV) on the basis of cut-off scores from healthy controls. Both groups performed these tasks under three experimental conditions on three different days: a) sham GVS where electric current was applied only for 30s and then turned off, b) left-cathodal GVS and c) right-cathodal GVS, for a period of 20 min per session. Left-cathodal GVS, but not right-cathodal GVS significantly reduced all parameters in the SVV. Concerning STV GVS also reduced constant error and range numerically, though not significantly. These effects occurred selectively in the impaired patient group. In conclusion, we found that GVS rapidly influences poststroke verticality deficits in the visual and tactile modality, thus highlighting the importance of the vestibular system in the multimodal elaboration of the subjective vertical. PMID:25744870

  20. Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you. Learn more What Is Stroke? Hemorrhagic Stroke Ischemic Stroke What is TIA? Stroke Facts Recognizing ... Stroke Survey Faces of Stroke What is stroke? Hemorrhagic stroke Ischemic stroke What is TIA? Stroke facts I ...

  1. Hemispatial neglect and deficits of verticality perception after stroke - neuropsychological results and modulation via galvanic vestibular stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Utz, Kathrin Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a multimodal syndrome that often follows unilateral right-brain damage. Patients with hemispatial neglect fail to notice or respond to sensory stimuli presented in the contralesional hemispace, which is not caused by primary motor or sensory deficits. Associated disorders often co-occurring with hemispatial neglect are deficits of verticality perception. Patients with those deficits show significant deviations in their subjective visual or haptic vertical away from the ...

  2. On the fusion in SL(2)-WZNW models and 6j symbols of Uqsl(2) x Uq'osp(1 vertical stroke 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a novel method to determine 6j-symbols of quantum groups. This method is inspired by the methods used in the determination of fusing matrices of WZNW models. With this method we determine the 6j-symbols of the quantum group Uqsl(2) and the super quantum group Uqosp(1 vertical stroke 2). We present the 6j-symbols as a recurrence relation and its initial values. The 6j-symbols transform between the s-channel and the u-channel decomposition of the invariants of the four-fold tensor product of modules of a quantum group. These invariants fulfil certain difference equations. We set one of the representations in the invariant to the fundamental representation, and deduce a system of linear equations for the initial values of the recurrence relation determining the 6j-symbols. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of the partial branching fraction for inclusive semileptonic B meson decays to light hadrons B {yields} X{sub u}lv and an improved determination of the quark-mixing matrix element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Alexei

    2009-07-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of inclusive semileptonic B{yields} X{sub u}e anti {nu}{sub e} decays using approximately 454 million {upsilon}(4S){yields}B anti B decays collected during the years 1999 to 2008 with the BABAR detector. The electron energy, E{sub e}, and the invariant mass squared of the electron-neutrino pair, q{sup 2}, are reconstructed, where the neutrino kinematics is deduced from the decay products of both B mesons. The final hadronic state, X{sub u}, consists of a sum of many hadronic channels, each of which contains at least one u quark. The variables q{sup 2} and E{sub e} are then combined to compute the maximum kinematically allowed invariant mass squared of the hadronic system, s{sub h}{sup max}. Using these kinematic quantities, the partial branching fraction, {delta}B(B {yields} X{sub u}lv), unfolded for detector effects, is measured to be {delta}B(E{sub e}>2.0 GeV, s{sub h}{sup max}<3.52 GeV{sup 2}) (3.33{+-}0.18{+-}0.21) x 10{sup -4} in the {upsilon}(4S) and {delta}B(E{sub e}>1.9 GeV, s{sub h}{sup max}<3.5 GeV{sup 2})= (4.57{+-}0.24{+-}0.32) x 10{sup -4} in the B meson rest frames. The quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The CKM matrix element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke is determined from the measured {delta}B using theoretical calculation based on Heavy Quark Expansion. The result is vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke =(4.19{+-}0.18{sub -0.20-0.25}{sup +0.26+0.26}) x 10{sup -3}, where the errors represent experimental uncertainties, uncertainties from HQE parameters and theoretical uncertainties, respectively. (orig.)

  4. Pediatric Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... communicate with your child’s doctor. Symptoms of a Stroke Stroke is an injury to part of the ...

  5. Stroke Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. Quiz 5 Things to Know About Stroke Stroke Treatments A stroke occurs when a vessel in ... Busting Clots to Save Lives Hemorrhagic Stroke Treatment Stroke Prevention The good news is that 80 percent ...

  6. Measurement of the partial branching fraction for inclusive semileptonic B meson decays to light hadrons B → Xulv and an improved determination of the quark-mixing matrix element vertical stroke Vub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents an analysis of inclusive semileptonic B→ Xue anti νe decays using approximately 454 million Υ(4S)→B anti B decays collected during the years 1999 to 2008 with the BABAR detector. The electron energy, Ee, and the invariant mass squared of the electron-neutrino pair, q2, are reconstructed, where the neutrino kinematics is deduced from the decay products of both B mesons. The final hadronic state, Xu, consists of a sum of many hadronic channels, each of which contains at least one u quark. The variables q2 and Ee are then combined to compute the maximum kinematically allowed invariant mass squared of the hadronic system, shmax. Using these kinematic quantities, the partial branching fraction, ΔB(B → Xulv), unfolded for detector effects, is measured to be ΔB(Ee>2.0 GeV, shmax2) (3.33±0.18±0.21) x 10-4 in the Υ(4S) and ΔB(Ee>1.9 GeV, shmax2)= (4.57±0.24±0.32) x 10-4 in the B meson rest frames. The quoted errors are statistical and systematic, respectively. The CKM matrix element vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke is determined from the measured ΔB using theoretical calculation based on Heavy Quark Expansion. The result is vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke =(4.19±0.18-0.20-0.25+0.26+0.26) x 10-3, where the errors represent experimental uncertainties, uncertainties from HQE parameters and theoretical uncertainties, respectively. (orig.)

  7. Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Ischemic stroke is the most common type. It is usually ... are at risk for having a more serious stroke. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness ...

  8. Stroke - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke - discharge; Brain bleeding - discharge; Brain hemorrhage - discharge; Stroke - hemorrhagic - discharge; Hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease - discharge; Cerebrovascular accident - discharge

  9. Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke can cause lasting brain damage. People who survive a stroke need to relearn skills they lose because of ... damage. Rehabilitation can help them relearn those skills. Stroke can cause five types of disabilities: Paralysis or ...

  10. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when ... an artery wall that breaks open. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, ...

  11. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... A stroke occurs when the blood supply is cut off to any part of the brain. A stroke is ...

  12. Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Dokoutsidou; Konstantina Antoniou

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is currently the third leading cause of death, ranking after heart disease and cancer and causes 10% of deaths, worldwide.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the types of stroke and the risk factors for ischemic stroke.The methodoly that was followed included bibliography review from the both the research and the review literature of Greek and international data base which referred to ischemic stroke.Results: Stroke, according to its’ underlying etio...

  13. On the fusion in SL(2)-WZNW models and 6j symbols of U{sub q}sl(2) x U{sub q'}osp(1 vertical stroke 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koesling, Jens

    2010-06-15

    We introduce a novel method to determine 6j-symbols of quantum groups. This method is inspired by the methods used in the determination of fusing matrices of WZNW models. With this method we determine the 6j-symbols of the quantum group U{sub q}sl(2) and the super quantum group U{sub q}osp(1 vertical stroke 2). We present the 6j-symbols as a recurrence relation and its initial values. The 6j-symbols transform between the s-channel and the u-channel decomposition of the invariants of the four-fold tensor product of modules of a quantum group. These invariants fulfil certain difference equations. We set one of the representations in the invariant to the fundamental representation, and deduce a system of linear equations for the initial values of the recurrence relation determining the 6j-symbols. (orig.)

  14. [Cerebellar stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowski, Michał; Zimny, Anna; Paradowski, Bogusław

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar stroke belongs to a group of rare diseases of vascular origin. Cerebellum, supplied by three pairs of arteries (AICA, PICA, SCA) with many anastomoses between them is less susceptible for a stroke, especially ischemic one. Diagnosis of the stroke in this region is harder due to lower sensibility of commonly used CT of the head in case of stroke suspicion. The authors highlight clinical symptoms distinguishing between vascular territories or topographical locations of the stroke, diagnostic procedures, classical and surgical treatment, the most common misdiagnoses are also mentioned. The authors suggest a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm development, including rtPA treatment criteria for ischemic cerebellar stroke. PMID:26181157

  15. Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Dokoutsidou

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is currently the third leading cause of death, ranking after heart disease and cancer and causes 10% of deaths, worldwide.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the types of stroke and the risk factors for ischemic stroke.The methodoly that was followed included bibliography review from the both the research and the review literature of Greek and international data base which referred to ischemic stroke.Results: Stroke, according to its’ underlying etiology, can be classified into two major categories, ischemic and hemorrhagic. 20% of stroke are of hemorrhagic type, whereas 80% are of ischemic type. Although, ischemic stroke is the most common type, its’ etiology differs. Ischemic stroke is categorized in thrombotic, embolic, lacunar, unknown etiology, transient and due to systematic low blood pressure. In the literature is cited that risk factors for stroke are classified in non-modifiable and modifiable. Non-modifiable risk factors are age, gender, ethnicity and heredity. The most important modifiable risk factors for stroke are high blood pressure and atrial fibrillation. Other modifiable risk factors include high blood cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking (active and passive, carotid artery stenosis, heavy alcohol consumption, drug abuse, lack of physical activity, obesity and unhealthy diet.Conclusions: As it is supported by published evidence, ischemic stroke is of higher incidence compared to hemorrhagic stroke. Risk factor modification remains as the principal aspect of care for ischemic stroke prevention.

  16. Stroke: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Stroke: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death ...

  17. Know Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Know Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... D. Director, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Photo courtesy of NIH/NINDS Welcome to this ...

  18. Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relearn skills they lose because of the damage. Rehabilitation can help them relearn those skills. Stroke can ... Problems with thinking and memory Emotional disturbances Stroke rehabilitation involves many kinds of health professionals. The goal ...

  19. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... live a longer, healthier life. This is called preventive care. An important way to help prevent stroke ...

  20. Recovery After Stroke: Recurrent Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who have had transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or mini- strokes. TIAs are brief episodes of stroke-like ... exerts on blood vessel walls as your heart pumps. The second, diastolic blood pressure, is the measurement ...

  1. Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Teri; Murphy, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Each year, more than 795,000 people in the United States suffer a stroke and by 2030, it is estimated that 4% of the U.S. population will have had a stroke. Home healthcare clinicians will be increasingly called upon to assist stroke survivors and their caregivers adjust to disability and assist the survivor during their reintegration into the community. Therapeutic modalities are changing with advanced technology. Great strides are being made in the treatment of acute stroke; particularly endovascular interventions. More patients are surviving the acute stroke event and therefore will need to learn how to live with various degrees of disability. It is important for home healthcare clinicians to understand the process from acute event to medical stabilization, and from rehabilitation to long-term adaptation. PMID:27145407

  2. Post stroke dementia and Post stroke depression

    OpenAIRE

    Trkanjec, Zlatko

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is the rapid loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain causing predominantly motor and sensory symptoms. However, stroke can cause some other symptoms. Post stroke dementia and depression are probably the most important non-motor consequences of stroke. Post stroke dementia and depression are important and often overlooked symptoms following stroke. Treatment options for Post stroke dementia and depression are still limited, therefore diagnosis of Post ...

  3. How a Stroke Is Diagnosed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... Diagnosis » How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed How a Stroke is Diagnosed Lab ...

  4. After Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much function as possible. Learn more about spasticity . Deep Venous Thrombosis – Deep venous thrombosis happens when a clot forms in ... from all RESCUE fact sheets. American Stroke Association Web: www.strokeassociation.org * Phone: 1-888-478-7653 ...

  5. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Stroke Weight Training After Stroke Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills Functional Tone Management Arm Training Program Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Emotional & Behavioral Challenges Self-Esteem after Stroke Post-Stroke Mood Disorders One-side ...

  6. Atherosclerosis and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Stroke Weight Training After Stroke Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills Functional Tone Management Arm Training Program Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Emotional & Behavioral Challenges Self-Esteem after Stroke Post-Stroke Mood Disorders One-side ...

  7. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Stroke Weight Training After Stroke Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills Functional Tone Management Arm Training Program Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Emotional & Behavioral Challenges Self-Esteem after Stroke Post-Stroke Mood Disorders One-side ...

  8. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke.......This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  9. Mixed Stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangRuxun(黄如训); Zeng Jinsheng(曾进胜)

    2000-01-01

    Purpose To summarize the chnical, autoptic and animal experimental dala of stroke, propose the concept of mixed stroke (MS) and demonstrate the enoiogy, pathogenesis, clinical mainfestations, prophylaxis and treatment of MS Background At present. stroke still is classified in the national and international academic fields as two main groups: hemorrhage and ischema In fact, thc cerebral vascular disease with hemorrhage forus and ischema focus at the same time is not rare moreover, this type of stroke has special etiology, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. But it is always made a main dagnosis and neglected the other nature of coexistent focus on either clinical or pathological diagnosis according to traditional classification of stroke Data sources and methods Mort of pablished originsl articles about MS in our department and laboralory wcre reviewed. Resulta The clinical autoptic and animal experimental dats all prcved that hemorrhage and infarction could occur in the course of a stroke simultaneously or in suecession during a short time, which demonstrated the existence of MS It was found clinically that MS patients all had the hustory of hypcrtension and in the autoptic data the MS patients dying of stroke all had typical hypertensive changes in the heart and kidney. and had hypertensive arteriosclerosis in the cerebral arteriole and small artery. MS was cas lily thdueed in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensivc rats This kind of rats are free from genetic deficiency and arc not affected by senile factor, so their cerebral vascular foci are mainly induced by the single factor -hypertension. TThese indicate definitely that hypertensive cerebral vascular lesion is the basis inducing MS. The main lesions of hypertensive cerebral arteriole and small artery were hyalinosis and fibrinoid of the walls, and the formation of microaneurysms or hyperplasla of iniernal and external layers The math lcsions of hypertensive cerebral capillaries were increasing vascular

  10. B-decay form factors from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Standard Model of particle physics there is only one source of CP-violation. Namely, a single complex phase in the unitary 3 x 3 CKM-Matrix governing flavor transitions in the weak interaction. The unitarity is usually visualized by a triangle in the complex ρ - η-plane. Therefore testing this framework comes down to measuring weak decays, relating observables to sides and angles of this so called Unitarity Triangle(UT). Particular interest in this respect is payed to decays of mesons containing a heavy b-quark, giving the opportunity to alone determine all parameters of the UT. Doing this is far from easy. Besides tedious experimental measurements the theoretical calculations are plagued by hadronic quantities which cannot be determined by perturbation theory. In this work several of these quantities so called form factors are computed using the well known method of light cone sum rules(LCSR). Two different setups have been used. One, established in this work, utilizing a correlation function with an on-shell B-Meson and one following the traditional calculation by taking the light meson on-shell. Both using light cone expansion in the respective on-shell mesons distribution amplitudes. While the first approach allows to calculate a whole bunch of phenomenologically interesting quantities by just changing Dirac-structures of the relevant currents it has the drawback that it does not have access to the well developed twist expansion of the latter. To incorporate higher Fock-state contributions the first models for three-particle distribution amplitudes of the B-Meson have been derived. αs-corrections remain out of the scope of this work. Nevertheless does a comparison with more sophisticated methods show an encouraging numerical agreement. In the second setup all known corrections especially the never verified αs-corrections to Twist three terms have been recalculated and a competitive result for the CKM-matrixelement vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke

  11. Stroke awareness in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, Thomas; Krarup, Lars-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the awareness of major stroke symptoms and stroke risk factors among the general population in Denmark. Early recognition of stroke warning signs and means of reducing stroke occurrence could improve the treatment and prevention of stroke....

  12. Stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorne, Peter; Bernhardt, Julie; Kwakkel, Gert

    2011-05-14

    Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially beneficial treatment options for motor recovery of the arm include constraint-induced movement therapy and robotics. Promising interventions that could be beneficial to improve aspects of gait include fitness training, high-intensity therapy, and repetitive-task training. Repetitive-task training might also improve transfer functions. Occupational therapy can improve activities of daily living; however, information about the clinical effect of various strategies of cognitive rehabilitation and strategies for aphasia and dysarthria is scarce. Several large trials of rehabilitation practice and of novel therapies (eg, stem-cell therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual reality, robotic therapies, and drug augmentation) are underway to inform future practice. PMID:21571152

  13. Multiple Strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obododimma Oha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This poem playfully addresses the slippery nature of linguistic signification, employing humour and sarcasm in presenting a wide range of human experience. It ironical twists -- and "strokes" (read ambiguously as both a giving a punishment and erotic pleasuring -- move from the naming of location through international discourse of capital to the crumbling relationships between nation states. It reading of the signs of language is tied to the unease and fracture in cultural and political experience.

  14. Depression after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library CARING FOR SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Depression After Stroke After a stroke, your loved one ... available! Almost half of all stroke survivors have depression. Depression is a normal response to the losses ...

  15. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to ...

  16. Recovering after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke rehabilitation; Cerebrovascular accident - rehabilitation; Recovery from stroke; Stroke - recovery; CVA - recovery ... This includes healthy eating, controlling illnesses such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and sometimes taking medicine ...

  17. Two Kinds of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... are often a warning sign for future strokes. Stroke Can Affect Anyone Award-winning actress Julie Harris ...

  18. Questions and Answers about Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find People About NINDS Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

  19. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  20. Nonequilibrium approach to vertical stroke ΔL vertical stroke =2 scattering processes in leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the baryogenesis-via-leptogenesis scenario the lepton asymmetry produced by the decay of the heavy Majorana neutrinos is partially washed out by the inverse decay and ΔL=2 scattering processes. In the canonical approach amplitudes of these processes are computed in vacuum and used in the Boltzmann equation which describes the time evolution of the asymmetry. The resulting equation suffers from the so-called double-counting problem and neglects the medium effects. A consistent description of the asymmetry generation in the early Universe can be achieved using methods of nonequilibrium QFT. Starting from first principles we derive a Boltzmann-like equation for the lepton number which includes the decay, inverse decay and ΔL=2 scattering processes. The obtained equation takes into account the medium effects, incorporates quantum statistical factors and is free of the double-counting problem.

  1. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H;

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  2. Stroke: secondary prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Lip, Gregory YH; Kalra, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    Prevention in this context is the long-term management of people with previous stroke or TIA, and of people at high risk of stroke for other reasons, such as atrial fibrillation. Risk factors for stroke include: previous stroke or TIA; increasing age; hypertension; diabetes; cigarette smoking; and emboli associated with atrial fibrillation, artificial heart valves, or MI.

  3. Adapting the Home After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis Stroke ... after a Stroke Adapting the Home after a Stroke Caregiver Introduction What is Aphasia? Stroke Recovery Guides ...

  4. Sleep disorders and stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Douglas M; Ramos, Alberto R.; Rundek, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight existing literature on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatments of stroke sleep disorders. Stroke sleep disorders are associated with many intermediary vascular risk factors leading to stroke, but they may also influence these risk factors through direct or indirect mechanisms. Sleep disturbances may be further exacerbated by stroke or caused by stroke. Unrecognized and untreated sleep disorders may influence rehabilitation efforts and poor ...

  5. Sleep and stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Salim; Ramos, Alberto R.; Wallace, Douglas M; Rundek, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing (OSDB) is an under-recognized risk factor for stroke. OSDB is associatedwith traditional vascular risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and diabetes, and can influence the risk for stroke through direct and indirect mechanisms. Untreated OSDB may also influence rehabilitation efforts and functional outcome following a stroke, as well as the risk for stroke recurrence. Stroke risk is greatly reduced if the OSDB is adequately treated. Conversely, ...

  6. Stroke in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Teber; Gülhis Deda

    2011-01-01

    Stroke in childhood is one of the most common causes of death or severe impairment worldwide, with annual incidence estimated from 1,3 to 13 cases/100.000 population. The definition of stroke consists both of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children is approximately the same, in contrast to adults, while the incidence is higher in boys than it is in girls. Risks factors for pediatric stroke differ from those for adults...

  7. Let's Talk about Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About Hemorrhagic Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 About 13 percent of ... or near the brain. This is called a hemorrhagic stroke. When a hemorrhagic stroke happens, blood collects in ...

  8. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After Stroke Weight Training After Stroke Tips for Improving Fine Motor Skills Functional Tone Management Arm Training Program Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy Emotional & Behavioral Challenges Self-Esteem after Stroke Post-Stroke Mood Disorders One-side ...

  9. Vertically reciprocating auger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Mark; Morgan, Scott; Fain, Robert; Pearson, Jonathan; Weldi, Kevin; Woodrough, Stephen B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model and test results developed for the Vertically Reciprocating Auger (VRA) are summarized. The VRA is a device capable of transporting cuttings that result from below surface drilling. It was developed chiefly for the lunar surface, where conventional fluid flushing while drilling would not be practical. The VRA uses only reciprocating motion and transports material through reflections with the surface above. Particles are reflected forward and land ahead of radially placed fences, which prevent the particles from rolling back down the auger. Three input wave forms are considered to drive the auger. A modified sawtooth wave form was chosen for testing, over a modified square wave or sine wave, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. The three-dimensional mathematical model predicted a sand throughput rate of 0.2667 pounds/stroke, while the actual test setup transported 0.075 pounds/stroke. Based on this result, a correction factor of 0.281 is suggested for a modified sawtooth input.

  10. Developing Precision Stroke Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DavidSLiebeskind

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke experts stand at the cusp of a unique opportunity to advance the care of patients with cerebrovascular disorders across the globe through improved imaging approaches. NIH initiatives including the Stroke Progress Review Group (SPRG promotion of imaging in stroke research and the newly established NINDS Stroke Trials network converge with the rapidly evolving concept of precision medicine. Precision stroke imaging portends the coming shift to individualized approaches to cerebrovascular disorders where big data may be leveraged to identify and manage stroke risk with specific treatments utilizing an improved neuroimaging infrastructure, data collection and analysis. We outline key aspects of the stroke imaging field where precision medicine may rapidly transform the care of stroke patients in the next few years.

  11. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk of stroke goes up with age. Your gender. Men have a higher risk of getting heart disease than women, except in older adults. Your genes and race. If your parents had a stroke, you are at higher risk. ...

  12. Two Kinds of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ...

  13. Stroke Trials Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Trials Registry Clinical Trials Interventions Conditions Sponsors ... a clinical trial near you Welcome to the Stroke Trials Registry Our registry of clinical trials in ...

  14. Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find People About NINDS NINDS Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials What is Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke? Atrial fibrillation (AF) describes the rapid, irregular beating ...

  15. Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free mailed brochure Cómo Prevenir un Accidente Cerebrovascular Brain Basics: Preventing Stroke Request free mailed brochure Table ... Americans are protecting their most important asset—their brain. Are you? Stroke ranks as the fourth leading ...

  16. Stroke: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormone replacement therapy can reduce some of the effects of menopause and decrease stroke risk. Currently, the NINDS is sponsoring the Women's Estrogen for Stroke Trial (WEST), a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, to determine whether estrogen ...

  17. Stroke Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tells you to. Return to top Does taking birth control pills increase my risk for stroke? Taking birth ... your vagina Return to top Does using the birth control patch increase my risk for stroke? The patch ...

  18. Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan M.D., Lori C.; Hillis M.D., Argye E.

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research ...

  19. Sleep and Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-01-01

    Circadian variations in conjunction with sleep-related heart rhythm changes and sleepdisordered breathing (SDB) are contributing risk factors for stroke. Strong scientificevidence now exists indicating that SDB contributes to systemic hypertension, aprominent risk factor for stroke, and compelling circumstantial evidence is presentsuggesting that SDB raises the risk for development of stroke through other circulatorymechanisms as well. Preliminary evidence indicates that post-stroke patients ...

  20. MRI of Stroke Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Quan; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Chopp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    MRI is a vital tool for the measurement of acute stroke and has been used to visualize changes in activation patterns during stroke recovery. There is emerging interest on using MRI to monitor the structural substrates of spontaneous recovery and neurorestorative treatment of stroke. In this review, we describe the use of MRI and its associated challenges to measure vascular and neuronal remodeling in response to spontaneous and therapy-induced stroke recovery. We demonstrate that MRI methodo...

  1. Sex Disparities in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2015-01-01

    between 2003 and 2012 (N=79 617), and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Information was available on age, sex, marital status, stroke severity, stroke subtype, socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk profile. We studied only deaths due to the index stroke, with the assumption that death.......5%) or 1 month (6.9%), respectively. After the age of 60 years, women had more severe strokes than men. Up to ages in the mid-60s, no difference in the risk of death from stroke was seen between the 2 sexes. For people aged >65 years, however, the risk gradually became greater in men than in women and...

  2. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  3. Airplane stroke syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidan, Hani; Yassi, Nawaf; Weir, Louise; Davis, Stephen M; Meretoja, Atte

    2016-07-01

    Only 37 cases of stroke during or soon after long-haul flights have been published to our knowledge. In this retrospective observational study, we searched the Royal Melbourne Hospital prospective stroke database and all discharge summaries from 1 September 2003 to 30 September 2014 for flight-related strokes, defined as patients presenting with stroke within 14days of air travel. We hypothesised that a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an important, but not the only mechanism, of flight-related stroke. We describe the patient, stroke, and flight characteristics. Over the study period, 131 million passengers arrived at Melbourne airport. Our centre admitted 5727 stroke patients, of whom 42 (0.73%) had flight-related strokes. Flight-related stroke patients were younger (median age 65 versus 73, patheroma. Paradoxical embolism was confirmed in six patients. Stroke related to air travel is a rare occurrence, less than one in a million. Although 20% of patients had a PFO, distribution of stroke aetiologies was diverse and was not limited to PFO and paradoxical embolism. PMID:26898578

  4. Sleep and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Padma Srivastav

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian variations in conjunction with sleep-related heart rhythm changes and sleepdisordered breathing (SDB are contributing risk factors for stroke. Strong scientificevidence now exists indicating that SDB contributes to systemic hypertension, aprominent risk factor for stroke, and compelling circumstantial evidence is presentsuggesting that SDB raises the risk for development of stroke through other circulatorymechanisms as well. Preliminary evidence indicates that post-stroke patients have ahigher prevalence of SDB, which is likely to compromise their rehabilitation outcomes.Since SDB is modifiable with the application of CPAP and other treatment modalities,there is practical value in investigating patients at risk of stroke or post stroke forpresence of SDB. Successful application of CPAP or BiPAP therapy may improve theoutcome in both instances.Key words : Sleep, Stroke, SDB, CPAP

  5. [Post Stroke Dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    Post-stroke dementia (PSD) is a clinical entity that encompasses all types of dementia following an index stroke. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment or vascular dementia. The type of stroke can be either ischemic, hemorrhagic or hypoperfusive. There are multiple risk factors for PSD including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Pre-stroke dementia refers to the occurrence of cognitive impairment before the index stroke, which may be caused by a vascular burden as well as insidious neurodegenerative changes. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke include silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Published clinical trials have not been promising and there is little information on whether PSD can be prevented using pharmacological agents. Control of vascular disease risk and prevention of recurrent strokes are key to reducing the burden of cognitive decline and post-stroke dementia. Modern imaging and analysis techniques will help to elucidate the mechanism of PSD and establish better treatment. PMID:27395459

  6. Stroke in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feske, Steven K

    2007-11-01

    Although pregnancy-associated stroke is uncommon, the risk of stroke is greatly increased above the low baseline rate in young patients during late pregnancy and, even more so, during the puerperium. Stroke is a major contributor to the serious morbidity and mortality of pregnancy. The physiological hormonally mediated changes in circulation, vascular tissue structure, and coagulability, and the pathological state of pre-eclampsia-eclampsia contribute to this increased risk of stroke. Pregnancy-associated strokes are roughly evenly divided among hemorrhagic strokes, mainly from rupture of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs); ischemic strokes, mainly from late pregnancy and postpartum cerebral venous thrombosis; and strokes associated with pre-eclampsia-eclampsia, with a contribution from cardioembolism, especially in populations at risk from a high rate of underlying rheumatic valvular heart disease. Awareness of the types of stroke to expect during pregnancy will facilitate early diagnosis. This article discusses the pathogenesis of pregnancy-associated stroke, its epidemiology, and some diagnostic and therapeutic issues unique to pregnancy. PMID:17940923

  7. Sequential strokes in a hyperacute stroke unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesalingam, Jeban; Buddha, Sandeep; Carlton-Jones, Anoma L; Nicholas, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Vasculitis is a rare, but treatable condition that can present to hyperacute stroke units. Thrombolysis does not treat the underlying pathology, and a rapidly evolving clinical picture drives clinical decision often before all the investigation results are available. PMID:25289143

  8. Etiologic Classification in Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Ay

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is an etiologically heterogenous disorder. Classification of ischemic stroke etiology into categories with discrete phenotypic, therapeutic, and prognostic features is indispensible to generate consistent information from stroke research. In addition, a functional classification of stroke etiology is critical to ensure unity among physicians and comparability among studies. There are two major approaches to etiologic classification in stroke. Phenotypic systems define subtypes...

  9. Sleep apnea and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence has established that sleep apnea is a risk factor for stroke. Patients with stroke have a high prevalence of sleep apnea that may have preceded or developed as a result of the stroke. Well-established concurrent stroke risk factors for stroke like hypertension and atrial fibrillation respond favorably to the successful treatment of sleep apnea. The gold standard diagnosis of sleep apnea is obtained in the sleep laboratory, but unattended polysomnography is gaining acceptance. Positive airway pressure (PAP) (continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] or bilevel positive airway pressure [BiPAP]) applications are the gold-standard treatment of sleep apnea. Suggestive evidence indicates that stroke occurrence or recurrence may be reduced with treatment of sleep apnea. PMID:25407131

  10. Registration of acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Mehnert, Frank; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validity of the registration of patients in stroke-specific registries has seldom been investigated, nor compared with administrative hospital discharge registries. The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the registration of patients in a stroke-specific registry...... (The Danish Stroke Registry [DSR]) and a hospital discharge registry (The Danish National Patient Registry [DNRP]). METHODS: Assuming that all patients with stroke were registered in either the DSR, DNRP or both, we first identified a sample of 75 patients registered with stroke in 2009; 25 patients in...... the DSR, 25 patients in the DNRP, and 25 patients registered in both data sources. Using the medical record as a gold standard, we then estimated the sensitivity and positive predictive value of a stroke diagnosis in the DSR and the DNRP. Secondly, we reviewed 160 medical records for all potential...

  11. Stroke and Stroke-like Episodes in Muscle Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Background: Though not obvious at a first glance, myopathies may be associated with ischemic stroke. Stroke-like episodes resemble ischemic stroke only to some extent but are a unique feature of certain mitochondrial disorders with a pathogenesis at variance from that of ischemic stroke. Only limited data are available about ischemic stroke in pri-mary myopathies and the management of stroke-like episodes in mitochondrial disorders. This review aims to summarize and discuss current knowledge ...

  12. Inflammatory Disequilibrium in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic-Djergovic, Danica; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Pinsky, David J

    2016-06-24

    Over the past several decades, there have been substantial advances in our knowledge of the pathophysiology of stroke. Understanding the benefits of timely reperfusion has led to the development of thrombolytic therapy as the cornerstone of current management of ischemic stroke, but there remains much to be learned about mechanisms of neuronal ischemic and reperfusion injury and associated inflammation. For ischemic stroke, novel therapeutic targets have continued to remain elusive. When considering modern molecular biological techniques, advanced translational stroke models, and clinical studies, a consistent pattern emerges, implicating perturbation of the immune equilibrium by stroke in both central nervous system injury and repair responses. Stroke triggers activation of the neuroimmune axis, comprised of multiple cellular constituents of the immune system resident within the parenchyma of the brain, leptomeninges, and vascular beds, as well as through secretion of biological response modifiers and recruitment of immune effector cells. This neuroimmune activation can directly impact the initiation, propagation, and resolution phases of ischemic brain injury. To leverage a potential opportunity to modulate local and systemic immune responses to favorably affect the stroke disease curve, it is necessary to expand our mechanistic understanding of the neuroimmune axis in ischemic stroke. This review explores the frontiers of current knowledge of innate and adaptive immune responses in the brain and how these responses together shape the course of ischemic stroke. PMID:27340273

  13. Neurorestoration after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Tej D; Veeravagu, Anand; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-05-01

    Recent advancements in stem cell biology and neuromodulation have ushered in a battery of new neurorestorative therapies for ischemic stroke. While the understanding of stroke pathophysiology has matured, the ability to restore patients' quality of life remains inadequate. New therapeutic approaches, including cell transplantation and neurostimulation, focus on reestablishing the circuits disrupted by ischemia through multidimensional mechanisms to improve neuroplasticity and remodeling. The authors provide a broad overview of stroke pathophysiology and existing therapies to highlight the scientific and clinical implications of neurorestorative therapies for stroke. PMID:27132523

  14. PET studies of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET already has been helpful in ischemic stroke disease. It has given us new data on physiological events occurring after a stroke; PET indices of blood flow and metabolism have provided the basis for staging the severity of tissue injury and predicting outcome, and PET has shown alterations in tissue function in response to therapy. Experience with PET in hemorrhagic disease is more limited, but initial results suggest a useful role for PET in the evaluation of nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage as well [Ackerman et al., 1983a]. This brief review discusses general problems in the study of stroke disease using PET and then the contribution of PET to the stroke field

  15. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about ... well-being. Does menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) prevent heart disease? Once you reach menopause, your ovaries stop making ...

  16. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Koehrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Warach, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (

  17. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.;

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  18. Body Mass Index and Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2013-01-01

    Although obesity is associated with excess mortality and morbidity, mortality is lower in obese than in normal weight stroke patients (the obesity paradox). Studies now indicate that obesity is not associated with increased risk of recurrent stroke in the years after first stroke. We studied the ...... the association between body mass index (BMI) and stroke patient's risk of having a history of previous stroke (recurrent stroke)....

  19. Vertical Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Núñez, Antonio José

    2012-01-01

    El fin de la instalación es producir frutas y verduras utilizando la menor superficie posible en planta, debido a la escasez y encarecimiento de esta, incremento de la población y desertificación. Para ello esta modalidad de plantación, Vertical farming, utiliza el desarrollo en altura, aprovechando la superficie lo máximo posible combinado con una nueva técnica, hidroponia, que es la forma de cultivar las plantas sin tierra. Facultad de Ciencias de la Empresa Universidad...

  20. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  1. Diagnostic neuroimaging in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the development of cerebral angiography 60 years ago, there has been a proliferation of increasingly sophisticated, expensive, and, fortunately, safe imaging techniques for patients with cerebrovascular disease. In addition, occlusive and hemorrhagic stroke are now recognized as having a wide variety of possible causes. This chapter addresses the different imaging options available for particular kinds of stroke

  2. Stroke (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on how bad the stroke was and how healthy the person was before the stroke. People who have had ... talk with someone if you have questions or worries about someone who has had a ... you love, especially if this person isn't able to do stuff with you ...

  3. GANGGUAN MOOD PADA STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Tantular

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stroke adalah salah satu sindrom neurologi yang dapat menimbulkan kecacatan dalam kehidupanmanusia. Salah  satu gejala yang dapat  timbul  setelah  seseorang  terkena  stroke adalah gangguanmood. Gangguan mood berhubungan dengan disabilitas fisik, beratnya stroke dan gangguan kognitif.Gangguan mood yang ditemukan pada stroke adalah depresi, gangguan afektif bipolar dan mania.Gambaran  gejala  berhubungan dengan  lesi  anatomis  stroke. Terapi  yang diberikan dapat  berupafarmakologis, psikoterapi, dan rehabilitasi. [MEDICINA 2015;46:33-36].Stroke is one of neurology syndrome that cause disability in human life. One of the symptoms thatappear after stroke was mood disorder. Mood disorder were related to physical disability, severity ofstroke  and  cognitive  dysfunction. Mood  disorder  found  in  stroke was  depression,  affective  bipolardisorder, and mania. Symptoms were associated with anatomical lesion. Treatment for this disorderare pharmacologic treatment, psychotherapy, and rehabilitation. [MEDICINA 2015;46:33-36].

  4. The Optimal Golf Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchinger, Mikael; Durigen, Susan; Dahl, Johan Rambech;

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a preliminary investigation into aspects of the game of golf. A series of models is proposed for the golf stroke, the momentum transfer between club and ball and the flight of the ball.Numerical and asymptotic solutions are presented reproducing many of the features observed in...... the golf stroke of a professional golfer....

  5. Hyperacute cognitive stroke syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, J M

    2001-10-01

    Cognitive syndromes are common clinical manifestations of hyperacute stroke and may be the single or dominant presenting features. They are related to acute dysfunction of complex integrated distributed functional networks serving different cognitive domains. The most common cortical syndromes include nonfluent or fluent aphasia, neglect, collor agnosia, pure alexia and Balint's syndrome. Disturbances of declarative memory are common following posterior cerebral artery and thalamic strokes. Abulia can follow thalamic, caudate and capsular lesions. Intraventricular and subarachnoid haemorrhages can cause preeminent neuropsychological changes. Disorientation is present in about 40% of acute stroke patients and delirium complicates the course of 25% of acute strokes. Some hyperacute cognitive stroke syndromes are useful indicators of later disability. Cognitive syndromes may pose special difficulties to neurology residents, unless formal teaching in neuropsychology and psychiatry is included in their training programs. PMID:11697519

  6. Stroke and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Benbir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the differences in vascular risk factor and etiology of stroke in two sexes. METHODS: We reviewed the medical files of 2798 patients being followed-up in our Stroke Clinic between the years 1996-2011. The stroke subtypes and risk factors were recorded on the basis of clinical data, physical and neurological examinations, and neuroimaging findings. Data were collected in SPSS 11.5 system and Pearson chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Of a total of 2798 patients, 2564 patients (91,6% had ischemic stroke, and 234 of them (8,4% had hemorrhagic stroke. The mean follow-up duration was 50.2+42.7 months. Of whole study population, 1289 patients were women (46%, 1509 of them were men (54%. The analysis of stroke subtypes showed that the most common subtype was stroke of unknown etiology in both sexes. Following this, the most common subtype was atherothrombotic stroke in men, and cardioembolic stroke in women. Coronary heart disease was more common in men, while atrial fibrillation and other rhythm anomalies were more common in women. Smoking and alcohol consumption were more common in men. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that there are major differences in stroke subtypes and vascular risk factors. Better knowledge of these differences, as well as influencing factors, is of crucial value – in addition to the need of hormonal changes, pregnancy and depression to be better identified in women – for both primary and secondary prevention.

  7. Stroke burden and stroke care system in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Suwanwela, Nijasri C.; Niphon Poungvarin; the Asian Stroke Advisory Panel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability. Asia is the largest and mostly populated continent of the world. The Asian Stroke Advisory Panel (ASAP) consists of stroke neurologists from 12 different countries in 13 Asian regions. It has been established for 17 years, and holds regular meetings for reviewing the stroke activities in Asia. It also helps in conducting several multinational research projects. This study is one of the ASAP projects and aims to explore stroke care s...

  8. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Stroke and High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 6,2015 Stroke is a leading ... heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  9. Let's Talk about Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About Ischemic Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 The majority of strokes occur when blood vessels to the brain become ... cuts off blood flow to brain cells. A stroke caused by lack of blood reaching part of ...

  10. The Migraine–Stroke Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Ji; Lee, Chungbin; Chung, Chin-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and stroke are common neurovascular disorders which share underlying physiological processes. Increased risks of ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and subclinical ischemic lesions have been consistently found in migraineurs. Three possible associations are suggested. One is that underlying pathophysiology of migraine can lead to ischemic stroke. Second, common comorbidities between migraine and stroke can be present. Lastly, some syndromes can manifest with both migraine-like headache and cerebrovascular disease. Future studies should be targeted on bidirectional influence of migraine on different stroke mechanisms and optimal prevention of stroke in migraine patients. PMID:27283278

  11. Strokes in mitochondrial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Pizova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that mitochondrial diseases might be identified in 22—33% of cryptogenic stroke cases in young subjects. The incidence of mitochondrial disorders in patients with stroke is unknown; it is 0.8 to 7.2% according to the data of some authors. The paper gives data on the prevalence, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of mitochondrial diseases, such as mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like syndrome (MELAS and insulin-like episodes; myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF syndrome, and Kearns-Sayre syndrome (sporadic multisystem mitochondrial pathology.

  12. Cost of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Iversen, Helle K; Ibsen, Rikke;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To estimate the direct and indirect costs of stroke in patients and their partners. DESCRIPTION: Direct and indirect costs were calculated using records from the Danish National Patient Registry from 93,047 ischemic, 26,012 hemorrhagic and 128,824 unspecified stroke patients and...... attributable cost of direct net health care costs after the stroke (general practitioner services, hospital services, and medication) and indirect costs (loss of labor market income) were €10,720, €8,205 and €7,377 for patients, and €989, €1,544 and €1.645 for their partners, over and above that of controls...

  13. Stroke: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Megan; Sharma, Jitendra

    2014-11-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) are the leading cause of disability and the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. The WHO defines stroke as "rapidly developing clinical signs of focal disturbance of cerebral function lasting more than 24 hours with no apparent cause other than of vascular origin." Strokes are subdivided into two major classifications: ischemic (80-87 percent) andhemorrhagic (13-20 percent). Ischemic strokes occur from thrombi, emboli, or global hypoperfusion. Hemorrhagic strokes are either parenchymal (10 percent of all strokes) or subarachnoid (3 percent of all strokes). There are a variety of recognized risk factors for stroke which include: age, race, family history, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmias, prosthetic valves, hyperlipidemia, cigarette smoking, and others (drugs or hormones). The initial assessment of a patient suspected of stroke should be done quickly enough to ensure maximal reperfusion of brain tissue. The steps to achieve this goal are: 1) exclude an intracranial hemorrhage, 2) assess for contraindications to thrombolytics, 3) characterize the infarct. The workup for a patient should first include a history (especially the time when neurologic symptoms began), a physical exam (including the NIHSS), and imaging studies (to rule out hemorrhagic components). In addition, several lab studies can also be obtained including: PT/INR, glucose, complete blood count, metabolic panel, creatine kinase, ECG, echocardiogram, lipid panel, carotid Doppler, MRA or CTA. Acute management of a stroke is primarily focused on stabilizing the patient and allowing as much reperfusion as possible for at-risk brain tissue. Stroke management in the acute setting includes: use of thrombolytics if indicated, and re-assessment to monitor progression. Several trials have been completed in pursuit of safety and effectiveness of intra-arterial stroke therapy for patients outside the recommended thrombolytic time window

  14. Hypertension and experimental stroke therapies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Collins, Victoria E; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an established target for long-term stroke prevention but procedures for management of hypertension in acute stroke are less certain. Here, we analyze basic science data to examine the impact of hypertension on candidate stroke therapies and of anti-hypertensive treatments on stroke outcome. Methods: Data were pooled from 3,288 acute ischemic stroke experiments (47,899 animals) testing the effect of therapies on infarct size (published 1978–2010). Data were combined using meta...

  15. Stroke Statistics in Korea: Part II Stroke Awareness and Acute Stroke Care, A Report from the Korean Stroke Society and Clinical Research Center For Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Jong S.; Heo, Ji Hoe; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kang, Dong-Wha; Lee, Jin Soo; Kwon, Sun U.; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current Part II of Stroke Statistics in Korea is to summarize nationally representative data on public awareness, pre-hospital delay, thrombolysis, and quality of acute stroke care in a single document. The public's knowledge of stroke definition, risk factors, warning signs, and act on stroke generally remains low. According to studies using open-ended questions, the correct definition of stroke was recognized in less than 50%, hypertension as a stroke risk factor in less than...

  16. Epilepsy after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Høgenhaven, H; Thage, O

    1987-01-01

    Development of epilepsy was studied prospectively in a group of 77 consecutive stroke patients. Included were stroke patients less than 75 years old admitted within the first 3 days after the stroke. Excluded were patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, vertebrobasilar stroke, and patients with...... other severe diseases. Cerebral angiography, CT, and EEG were performed in all patients. The patients were followed clinically for 2 to 4 years. Seven patients (9%) developed epilepsy. Of 23 patients with lesions involving the cortex, 6 (26%) developed epilepsy. Of 54 patients in whom the cortex was not...... involved, only 1 (2%) developed epilepsy. Patients with persisting paresis and cortical involvement seem to be at particularly high risk of developing epilepsy, as 50% of such patients (6 of 12) developed the disease....

  17. Stroke Briefing: Technical Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2012-01-01

    A stroke happens when blood flow to a part of the brain is interrupted by a blocked or burst blood vessel. A lack of blood supply can damage brain cells and affect body functions. IPH has systematically estimated and forecast the prevalence of stroke on the island of Ireland. This document details the methods used to calculate these estimates and forecasts. Technical documentation      

  18. Neonatal Stroke : Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal stroke refers to cerebrovascular events between 28 weeks of gestational age and 28 days postnatal and includes thromboembolic cerebral infarction and all kinds of intracranial haemorrhage. Neonatal stroke may contribute to severe neurological deficit, such as cerebral palsy and even death. International reports suggest the incidence to be approximately 1/4000 live births per year (1). There are several etiological hypothesises regarding risk factors, such as maternal, obstetrical...

  19. Dysphagia in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S; Hamdy, S.

    2006-01-01

    Swallowing musculature is asymmetrically represented in both motor cortices. Stroke affecting the hemisphere with the dominant swallowing projection results in dysphagia and clinical recovery has been correlated with compensatory changes in the previously non‐dominant, unaffected hemisphere. This asymmetric bilaterality may explain why up to half of stroke patients are dysphagic and why many will regain a safe swallow over a comparatively short period. Despite this propensity for recovery, dy...

  20. What You Need to Know about Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mailed brochure What You Need to Know About Stroke Table of Contents Know Stroke Why is Stroke ... a healthy diet and exercising regularly. WHY IS STROKE TREATMENT URGENT? Every minute counts. The longer blood ...

  1. Patient's Guide to Antithrombotic Therapy in Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding into the brain. This is called a“hemorrhagic” stroke (see section C). ! Patients who have had strokes ... intermittent compression devices. C. Bleeding in the Brain (Hemorrhagic Stroke) 1. What is a hemorrhagic stroke? ! A hemorrhagic ...

  2. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Heuschmann Peter U; Heidrich Jan; Kraywinkel Klaus; Wagner Markus; Berger Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. S...

  3. Hubungan Stres dan Sleep Stroke dengan Outcome Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Surya, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Backgound and Purpose : The vascular events could be precipitated by acute factors, called triggers like acute stressors, such as stressful life events, might trigger stroke. Almost every fifth stroke occurs during the night, and patients wake from sleep with their handicap, having gone to sleep with no neurologic deficit. to investigate the association of known vascular risk factors with stroke occurring during sleep with first-ever stroke. Methods : We conducted a cross-sectional study o...

  4. From stroke unit care to stroke care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1999-01-01

    In some stroke units continuous monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, body temperature, and oxygen saturation has become an integral part of the management of acute stroke. In addition, regular measurements of blood glucose are performed. Stroke units equipped with such monitoring facilit

  5. An Economic Evaluation Comparing Stroke Telemedicine to Conventional Stroke Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhram, Stanley Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is not only a serious medical problem, but it also poses an enormous economic burden on society. Stroke ranks the third as the leading cause of death in the United States behind heart disease and cancer. The survivors of stroke suffer from various degrees of long-term disability which create a severe financial burden on society. University…

  6. Echocardiographic Findings And Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Gamletovna Dadamyants

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study cardiac pathology in different subtypes of ischemic stroke we examined 165 stroke patients. The 1st group included 90 (54.5% patients with hemodynamic stroke, the 2nd one - 75 (45.5% patients with cardioembolic stroke. Control group consisted of 45 individuals without cerebrovascular diseases. Cardiac pathologies with the prevalence of various types of ischemic heart disease were observed in all groups. The parameters of left ventricular stroke volume and ejection fraction were lower in patients with hemodynamic stroke than in other groups, but were within normal limits. Potential sources of cardiogenic embolism were found in all groups: in the 1st group at 74.4%, in the 2nd one at 100%. Thus, most patients with ischemic stroke have different heart defects related to the subtypes of ischemic stroke

  7. Stroke rehabilitation and discharge planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter

    Nurses play a pivotal role in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process of patients who have had a stroke. The nurse's role in the wider stroke multidisciplinary team is complex and diverse and, as such, stroke nurses may find it hard to describe their role and how it fits into the rehabilitation and discharge planning process. A definition of the stroke nurse role in prominent publications such as those of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Royal College of Physicians is lacking. This article emphasises the role of the stroke nurse in the rehabilitation and discharge planning process in the stroke unit, while highlighting the complexity, diversity and importance of this role in providing holistic care and support for patients who have survived a stroke. The author draws on his clinical experience of stroke nursing practice in primary, secondary and tertiary care in west central Scotland. PMID:23082362

  8. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann;

    2013-01-01

    , 54.6% for 80-89 years; SAH: 20.3% for 20-49 years, 56.7% for 80-89 years; both p-trend < 0.001), and decreased over the period 2000-2001 to 2006-2008 (ICH: from 53.1% to 35.8%, p-trend < 0.001; SAH: from 33.3% to 24.7%, p-trend = 0.02). Risk of death was significantly higher among stroke patients...... = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of individuals die in the first month after hemorrhagic stroke, and patients younger than 50 years are more likely to die after ICH than SAH. Short-term case fatality has decreased over time. Patients who survive hemorrhagic stroke have a continuing elevated...

  9. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  10. Brain plasticity and stroke recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Laaksonen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Brain plasticity and stroke recovery Recovery from stroke is based on the capability of the brain to reorganize its structure and function after lesion. An acute stroke triggers a cascade of time-dependent metabolic and physiological reactions, which enable changes in the organization and function of widespread cortical regions. A wide range of studies, using various functional imaging methods, have thrown light on the reorganizational changes after stroke. However, less is known about t...

  11. Stroke and neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Zavoreo, Iris; Bašić-Kes, Vanja; Demarin, Vida

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability in modern countries. Clinical manifestation of stroke is rapidly developing loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. Neuroplasticity, also known as cortical mapping, challenges the idea that brain functions are fixed in certain time. It refers to ability of the human brain to change as result of one’s experience, that the brain is »plastic« and »flexible«. Neuroplasticity can act through two pos...

  12. Biotherapies in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detante, O; Jaillard, A; Moisan, A; Barbieux, M; Favre, I M; Garambois, K; Hommel, M; Remy, C

    2014-12-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the most common cause of severe disability. Neuroprotection and repair mechanisms supporting endogenous brain plasticity are often insufficient to allow complete recovery. While numerous neuroprotective drugs trials have failed to demonstrate benefits for patients, they have provided interesting translational research lessons related to neurorestorative therapy mechanisms in stroke. Stroke damage is not limited to neurons but involve all brain cell type including the extracellular matrix in a "glio-neurovascular niche". Targeting a range of host brain cells, biotherapies such as growth factors and therapeutic cells, currently hold great promise as a regenerative medical strategy for stroke. These techniques can promote both neuroprotection and delayed neural repair through neuro-synaptogenesis, angiogenesis, oligodendrogliogenesis, axonal sprouting and immunomodulatory effects. Their complex mechanisms of action are interdependent and vary according to the particular growth factor or grafted cell type. For example, while "peripheral" stem or stromal cells can provide paracrine trophic support, neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC) or mature neurons can act as more direct neural replacements. With a wide therapeutic time window after stroke, biotherapies could be used to treat many patients. However, guidelines for selecting the optimal time window, and the best delivery routes and doses are still debated and the answers may depend on the chosen product and its expected mechanism including early neuroprotection, delayed neural repair, trophic systemic transient effects or graft survival and integration. Currently, the great variety of growth factors, cell sources and cell therapy products form a therapeutic arsenal that is available for stroke treatment. Their effective clinical use will require prior careful considerations regarding safety (e.g. tumorgenicity, immunogenicity), potential efficacy, cell

  13. Stroke and Episodic Memory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun; Alexander, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Memory impairments are common after stroke, and the anatomical basis for impairments may be quite variable. To determine the range of stroke-related memory impairment, we identified all case reports and group studies through the Medline database and the Science Citation Index. There is no hypothesis about memory that is unique to stroke, but there…

  14. Personal accounts of stroke experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachters-Kaufmann, CSM

    2000-01-01

    As there appeared to be a need for personal accounts of stroke experiences, a book called "Speaking about Stroke" was written for stroke patients and their caregivers. For the past two years, a questionnaire was sent to the people who had ordered the book, to gain an insight into the characteristics

  15. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought of...

  16. Heart Disease and Stroke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-03

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the number one killer in the United States - heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/3/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  17. Ischemic strokes and migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasting neurological deficits, though most infrequent, do occur in migrainous subjects and are well documented by clinical angiographic computed tomographic (CT scan) and even pathological studies. However the mechanism of cerebral ischemia in migraine remains widely unknown and the precise role of migraine in the pathogenesis of ischemic strokes is still debated. (orig./MG)

  18. Stroke? Localized, otogenic meningitis!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Harpa Maria; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a patient admitted with aphasia, treated for a stroke. Subsequently, it was revealed that the symptoms were caused by complicated otitis media with localized meningitis. This case draws attention to the possible intracranial spread of infection when neurological symptoms occur...

  19. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature is...... directly related to stroke severity and outcome, and fever after stroke is associated with substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Normalisation of temperature in acute stroke by antipyretics is generally recommended, although there is no direct evidence to support this treatment. Despite its...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought of...

  20. [Therapy of acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobesky, J

    2009-11-01

    New diagnostic and therapeutic developments have led to an innovative approach to stroke therapy. The slogan "time is brain" emphasizes that stroke is a medical emergency comparable to myocardial infarction. The stroke unit conception is an evidence based therapy for all stroke patients and improves outcome significantly. The monitoring of vital signs and the management of stroke specific complications are highly effective. Early secondary prophylaxis reduces the risk of recurrence. The effect of CT based thrombolysis within the time window of 4,5 h has been substantiated by current data. Stroke MRI holds the promise for an improved therapy by patient stratification and by opening the time window. Interventional recanalisation, vascular interventions and hemicraniectomy complement the therapeutic options in the acute phase of stroke. PMID:19838656

  1. Gangguan Psikotik Akibat Stroke Iskemik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Gusya Liza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakStroke atau yang disebut juga dengan penyakit serebrovaskuler berkontribusi terhadap timbulnya delusi dan halusinasi di kemudian hari.Pengobatan yang diberikan pada kondisi medis sering menghasilkan remisi dari psikosistetapi hal tersebut tidaklah selalu terjadi. Gejala psikosis dapat bertahan lama setelah kondisi medis yangmenyebabkannya sembuh. Dilaporkan seorang pasien yang mengalami gangguan psikotik setelah mengalami strokeiskemik. Gangguan psikotik akibat stroke iskemik merupakan suatu kasus dalam Consultation Liaison Psychiatry.Kata kunci: gangguan psikotik, stroke iskemik, delusi dan halusinasiAbstract Stroke or also called cerebrovascular disease contributed to the emergence of delusions and hallucinations inthe future. Treatment given to medical conditions often produce remission of psychosis but it is not always happen.Psychotic symptoms can persist longer after recovery.  Reported a patient who suffered a psychotic disorder afterischemic stroke. Psychotic disorders due to ischemic stroke is a case in Consultation Liaison PsychiatryKeywords: psychotic disorder, ischemic stroke, delusions and hallucinations

  2. Rehabilitating the Stroke Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Grimmond

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this project was to complete an analysis of monograph and audiovisual items held in the Central Coast Health Service (CCHS Libraries and containing information relevant to the treatment of acute stroke. Acute stroke is treated by multidisciplinary teams of clinicians based at two hospitals within the CCHS. The adequacy of the library collection was measured by subject coverage and age. Methods The methodology used consisted of three main steps: a literature review; design, administration, and analysis of a questionnaire to members of the CCHS Acute Stroke Team; and an analysis of the libraries’ collections. The research project utilised project management methodology and an evidence based librarianship framework. Results The questionnaire revealed that electronic resources were by far the most frequently used by participants, followed in order by print journals, books, interlibrary loan articles, and audiovisual items. Collection analysis demonstrated that the monograph and audiovisual collections were adequate in both scope and currency to support the information needs of Acute Stroke Team members, with the exception of resources to support patient education. Conclusion The researchers developed recommendations for future collection development in the area of acute stroke resources. Conducting this project within the evidence based librarianship framework helped to develop library staff members’ confidence in their ability to make future collection development decisions, informed by the target group’s information needs and preferences. The collection analysis methodology was designed to be replicated, and new specialist groups within the client base of the library will be targeted to repeat the collection analysis process.

  3. Outcome Determinants of Stroke in a Brazilian Primary Stroke Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo W. Kuster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stroke mortality in Brazil is one of the highest among Western countries. Nonetheless, stroke outcome determinants are still poorly known in this country. In this study we evaluate outcome determinants of stroke in a primary stroke center in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods. We evaluated demographic, clinical, and outcome data of patients with ischemic stroke (IS, transient ischemic attack (TIA, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH admitted at “Hospital Paulistano,” São Paulo, Brazil. In-hospital mortality and functional outcome determinants were assessed. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. Results. Three hundred forty-one patients were included in the study, 52.2% being male with 66.8±15.7 years. The stroke type distribution was IS: 59.2%, TIA: 29.6%, and ICH: 11.1%. ICH was associated with greater severity and poorer functional outcome. The determinants of poorer functional outcome were higher NIHSS, lower Glasgow score, and lower oxygen saturation level. The most important mortality determinant was the presence of visual symptoms. Conclusions. The stroke mortality and stroke outcome determinants found in the present study do not remarkably differ from studies carried out in developed countries. Stroke prognosis studies are crucial to better understand the high burden of stroke in Brazil.

  4. Understanding Stroke - Know Stroke • Know the Signs • Act in Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Understanding Stroke Know Stroke • Know the Signs • Act in Time Past Issues / ... Julie Harris, and motivational speaker David Layton. Preventing Stroke "Until I had my stroke, I didn't ...

  5. Challenging comparison of stroke scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke scales can be classified as clinicometric scales and functional impairment, handicap scales. All studies describing stroke scales were reviewed by internet searching engines with the final search performed on January 1, 2013. The following string of keywords was entered into search engines; stroke, scale, score and disability. Despite advantages of modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Scandinavian stroke scale comparing to the NIHSS, including their simplification and less inter-rater variability; most of the stroke neurologists around the world continue using the NIHSS. The modified Rankin scale (mRS and Barthel index (BI are widely used functional impairment and disability scales. Distinction between grades of mRS is poorly defined. The Asian stroke disability scale is a simplified functional impairment, handicap scale which is as valid as mRS and BI. At the present time, the NIHSS, mRS and BI are routine stroke scales because physicians have used to work with these scales for more than two decades, although it could not be an acceptable reason. On the other side, results of previous stroke trials, which are the basis of stroke management guidelines are driven using these scales.

  6. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  7. Organizational issues in stroke treatment: The Swiss paradigm - Stroke units

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios K Matis; Chrysou, Olga I; Birbilis, Theodossios A.

    2013-01-01

    Stroke represents the leading cause of acquired disability in adults and poses a tremendous socioeconomic burden both on patients and the society. In this sense, prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment are needed in order to radically reduce the devastating consequences of this disease. Herein the authors present the new guidelines recently adopted by the Swiss Stroke Society concerning the establishment of stroke units. Standardized treatment and allocation protocols along with an acute rehabi...

  8. Stroke and atrial fibrillation: is stroke prevention treatment appropriate beforehand?

    OpenAIRE

    DEPLANQUE, D; Corea, F; Arquizan, C; Parnetti, L.; Mas, J.; Gallai, V.; Leys, D; the, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To undertake a pilot study before conducting a large European multicentre prospective study, to determine the proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation who were not receiving antithrombotic treatment before stroke onset, and their characteristics.
DESIGN AND PATIENTS—The stroke in atrial fibrillation ensemble (SAFE) I study was an observational study conducted in 213 patients with atrial fibrillation consecutively admitted in 1997 to three European centres for an acute stroke ...

  9. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  10. Family stroke education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R L; Held, S; Kleinman, L; Halar, E M

    1985-01-01

    To increase families' involvement in rehabilitation, an informational session called Family Stroke Education Class was implemented at a 305 bed medical center serving disabled veterans and their families. After a year, a study of questionnaires completed by family and patients at the meetings showed that anxiety level about their illness had decreased significantly. Twenty-six (86.7 percent) of thirty participants felt more comfortable about approaching team members with questions in the future, and 76.7 percent felt more informed as a result of taking the class. Knowledge scores improved significantly on the post tests. Thus it appears that the educational format is a practical way of including the needs and soliciting participation of families as well as a means for providing basic information to patients on stroke rehabilitation. PMID:23952227

  11. Progressive micrographia shown in horizontal, but not vertical, writing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-Ing; Hwang, Wen-Juh; Chang, Shao-Hsia; Wang, Tsui-Ying

    2013-01-01

    All published studies on micrographia, a diminution of letter size, examine handwriting in the horizontal direction. Writing horizontally typically requires increased wrist extension as handwriting progresses from left to right. Chinese characters, however, can be written not only horizontally from left to right, but also vertically from top to bottom. We examined the effect of handwriting direction on character size and stroke length. Fifteen participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 15 age-matched controls wrote the same Chinese characters both horizontally and vertically. Handwriting performance was recorded with a digitizing tablet, and a custom-written computer program was used to provide objective data about character size and stroke length. The PD group had a linear decrease in overall character size and horizontal strokes along the writing sequence in the horizontal direction, but not in the vertical direction. The controls had shorter horizontal strokes in the horizontal than the vertical direction, but there was no progressive shortening of stroke length along the writing sequence. The results suggest that traditionally reported progressive micrographia in horizontal writing may not be generalizable to vertical writing. The observed decrease of handwriting size in the horizontal direction suggests that micrographia in PD may be associated with wrist extension. For clinical implications, patients may mitigate their micrographia by changing handwriting direction. PMID:23242350

  12. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  13. Calorie restriction and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzanero Silvia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR or intermittent fasting (IF, extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78; antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1, uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.

  14. Khat and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay V Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Khat chewing, though a tradition followed majorly in African countries, has of late spread widely across the globe due to faster transport systems and advanced preservation techniques. Many complications such as psychosis, arterial hypertension, angina pectoris, and myocardial infarction have been reported in connection to khat abuse. We present a case of a young man who presented with acute onset left-sided weakness. He was a known khat addict for over three decades. A diagnosis of left hemiplegia due to right middle cerebral artery infarction was established. Detailed evaluation revealed no significant underlying cause for stroke. Since the main central nervous system effects of khat are comparable with those of amphetamines and there are established reports of stroke in amphetamine abuse, the former was assumed to be the etiological factor. The patient was discontinued from taking khat and was managed conservatively. The subject showed significant recovery with no further complications or similar episodes during follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of stroke associated with khat. Since the management is essentially conservative, a vigilant history eliciting of khat abuse in prevalent countries would cut down unnecessary healthcare costs.

  15. Cerebrogenic tachyarrhythmia in acute stroke

    OpenAIRE

    A S Praveen Kumar; Babu, E; D K Subrahmanyam

    2012-01-01

    The electrocardiac abnormalities following acute stroke are frequent and seen in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The changes seen in electrocardiogram (ECG) consist of repolarization abnormalities such as ST elevation, ST depression, negative T waves, and QT prolongation. Among tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation is the most common and occurrence of focal atrial tachycardia is very rare though any cardiac arrhythmias can follow acute stroke. We report a case of focal atrial tachycardi...

  16. Multifaceted web resources for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Kashif; Raghubir, Ram

    2008-01-01

    The Internet is an increasingly important tool for stroke survivors, their family members, and health care providers and researchers. An immense amount of information on stroke, ranging from pathophysiology and treatment to poststroke management, is available on the World Wide Web. This article presents lists of Internet search engines related to life science research, web pages of societies working in the field of stroke, and links to websites providing information on treatment, support, and poststroke survival and rehabilitation programs. Policies should be made to promote use of the Internet by patients, caregivers, and researchers working in the field of stroke to encourage improved patient care, communication, and research. PMID:18589343

  17. Cerebrogenic tachyarrhythmia in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiac abnormalities following acute stroke are frequent and seen in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The changes seen in electrocardiogram (ECG consist of repolarization abnormalities such as ST elevation, ST depression, negative T waves, and QT prolongation. Among tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation is the most common and occurrence of focal atrial tachycardia is very rare though any cardiac arrhythmias can follow acute stroke. We report a case of focal atrial tachycardia following acute ischemic stroke in 50-year-old female without structural heart disease, and their mechanisms and clinical implications.

  18. Cerebrovascular stroke at high altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To asses the high altitude as a risk factor for cerebrovascular stroke in people residing at a height greater than 15,000 feet above sea level. Results: Ten patients suffered from stroke at high altitude while just one case had stroke in indexed age group at lower heights (p-value<0.05). Relative risk was 10 times greater at high altitude. Conclusion: High altitude is a risk factor for stroke in persons residing at altitudes of over 15, 000 ft. (author)

  19. Chinese Ischemic Stroke Subclassification (CISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShanGAO

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate classification of stroke has significant impact on patient care and conduction of stroke clinical trials. The current systems such as TOAST, SSS-TOAST, Korean TOAST and A-S-C-O have limitations. With the advent of new imaging technology, there is a need to have a more accurate stroke subclassification system. Chinese Ischemic Stroke Subclassification (CISS system is a new two step system aims at the etiology and then underlying mechanism of a stroke. The first step classifies stroke into five categories: large artery atherosclerosis (LAA, including atherosclerosis of aortic arch and intra-/extracranial large arteries, cardiogenic stroke (CS, penetrating artery disease (PAD, other etiology (OE and undetermined etiology (UE. The second step is to further classify the underlying mechanism of ischemic stroke from the intracranial and extracranial large artery atherosclerosis into the parent artery (plaque or thrombosis occluding penetrating artery, artery-to-artery embolism, hypoperfusion/impaired emboli clearance and multiple mechanisms. Although clinical validation of CISS is being planned, CISS is an innovative system that offers much more detailed information on the pathophysiology of a stroke.

  20. Stroke scale score and early prediction of outcome after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as a predictor of functional outcome after ischemic stroke. Subjects and Methods: The study included 50 patients who presented to Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the study period with acute stroke and were evaluated with CT scan of brain. Only those patients were enrolled in the study that had acute ischemic stroke. The enrolled subjects were then evaluated for the neurological impairment using National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). The subjects were followed-up and their functional outcome was assessed using Barthel index (BI) on the 7th day of their admission. Results: Of the fifty patients enrolled in the study, 31 (62%) were males and 19 (38%) were females, with age ranging from 45 years to 95 years and a mean age of 59.9 years. Neurological impairment at presentation was assessed by NIHSS. The score ranged between 2 and 28. The functional outcome was evaluated on the 7th day using Barthel index (BI), which ranged from 0 to 80. NIHSS score was found to be a good predictor of functional outcome in patients with ischemic stroke (p<0.001). Other factors like gender, hypertension and heart disease did not affect the functional recovery in such patients. Various factors were found to be significant for early prediction of stroke recovery. The NIHSS score was the strongest predictor of outcome after ischemic stroke. Age at the time of the event was also found to be an important predictor for stroke recovery. Conclusion: The NIHSS score is a good predictor of patient's recovery after stroke. Assessing the patient's neurological impairment at first presentation of ischemic stroke can guide the physician regarding the prognosis and management plan. (author)

  1. Stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and

  2. The burden of stroke in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khealani, Bhojo A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiologic literature on stroke burden, patterns of stroke is almost non existent from Pakistan. However, several hospital-based case series on the subject are available, mainly published in local medical journals. Despite the fact that true stroke incidence and prevalence of stroke in Pakistan is not known, the burden is assumed to be high because of highly prevalent stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia and smoking) in the community. High burden of these conventional stroke risk factors is further compounded by lack of awareness, poor compliance hence poor control, and inappropriate management/treatment practices. In addition certain risk factors like rheumatic valvular heart disease may be more prevalent in Pakistan. We reviewed the existing literature on stroke risk factors in community, the risk factor prevalence among stroke patients, patterns of stroke, out come of stroke, availability of diagnostic services/facilities related to stroke and resources for stroke care in Pakistan. PMID:18811747

  3. Recovery After Stroke: Managing Life at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... installed for safety.  Consider an over-the-stove mirror to help you see stovetop contents if cooking ... Contact your local stroke association.  Subscribe to Stroke Smart magazine at www.stroke.org to view the ...

  4. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  5. What to Know - and Do! - about Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation What to Know – and Do! – About Stroke Past Issues / ... around them recognizes the symptoms and acts quickly. What are the symptoms of a stroke?— The symptoms ...

  6. Mathematical Simulation of Transient Parameters of Vertical Grounding Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dziaruhina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a mathematical simulation of transient parameters of vertical grounding electrodes for the first and subsequent short strokes of a lightning current. Results of the research show that transient resistances of grounding electrodes change appreciably in time. The transient resistances are always higher in the moment of voltage maximum then in the moment of current maximum. The dependences of transient resistances on grounding electrode length at different ground conductivity and lightning current parameters (first and subsequent short strokes are obtained in the paper. The paper proposes an approximate criterion for estimation of grounding electrode equivalent length at transient condition that considers short stroke parameters of the lightning current and ground conductivity.

  7. Diagnosis in stroke - an uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In practical day-to-day terms, most patients have one of the common causes of stroke: ischemic stroke caused by the complications of atherothrombosis, intracranial small vessel disease, embolism from the heart, primary intracerebral hemorrhage caused by hypertension, or subarachnoid hemorrhage as a result of a ruptured saccular aneurysm. There are three issues to be considered in assessing the reliability of the clinical diagnosis of stroke: the diagnosis of stroke itself: is it a stroke or not; whether the stroke is caused by an infarct or a hemorrhage and particular in ischemic stroke the site and size of the lesion (anterior vs. posterior circulation, lacunar vs. cortical, etc.). No clinical scoring method can differentiate with absolute reliability ischemic stroke from primary intracerebral hemorrhage. To do this brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is required. For vascular diagnosis ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography are ideal and complementary non-invasive techniques. Both have no risks and are reasonably sensitive. Catheterangiography is only reserved for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage with a view to surgical or endovascular treatment or in exceptional cases to establish a more firm prognosis. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke caused by embolism from the heart can only be considered at all if there is an identifiable cardioembolic source which is the case in about 30 % of ischemic stroke, a higher proportion in recent studies using transoesophageal echocardiography. It is not clear that transoesophageal echocardiography provides much more information for clinical decision-making than transthoracic echocardiography, although it certainly provides more anatomical information in selected patients. This article summarizes the diagnostic armamentarium which is used for the diagnosis of stroke and gives an overview of clinically reliable and relevant measures. Refs. 23 (author)

  8. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheugt, F.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The only major and potentially fatal risk for patients with atrial fibrillation is the development of systemic thromboembolism. Stroke occurs five times more frequently in patients with atrial fibrillation than in comparable patients in sinus rhythm. The yearly incidence of stroke in atrial fibrilla

  9. Specific antismoking advice after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete; Larsen, Klaus; Brink-Kjær, Tove;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Many stroke survivors would benefit from modification of their lifestyle in order to reduce their risk of recurrent stroke. We investigated if tailored smoking cessation advice would yield a higher smoking cessation rate and a higher rate with sustained abstinence in ex-smokers in the...

  10. Stroke and restricted sensory syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been sporadic case reports of a restricted sensory syndrome caused by stroke, most often as a cheiro-oral syndrome. We describe 14 patients with stroke who showed various restricted sensory syndromes and correlated their symptoms with the radiological findings. (orig./MG)

  11. One Stroke at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollibaugh, Molly

    2012-01-01

    At first glance, a Zentangle creation can seem intricate and complicated. But, when you learn how it is done, you realize how simple it is. Zentangles are patterns, or "tangles," that have been reduced to a simple sequence of elemental strokes. When you learn to focus on each stroke you find yourself capable of things that you may have once…

  12. The imaging of ischaemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroke is a clinical syndrome of a rapidly developing focal neurological deficit that may be classified for practical purposes into ischaemic and haemorrhagic. The role of imaging is to exclude mimics of ischaemic stroke or intracranial haemorrhage and confirm the presence of an ischaemic stroke. Computed tomography (CT) remains the investigation of choice to exclude acute intracranial haemorrhage but diffusion weighted magnetic resonance (MR) has proved to be a sensitive method of detecting early ischaemic infarction. Perfusion weighted MR allows further assessment at the same examination that could help guide the clinician in the risk/benefit analysis of treatment with thrombolytics or neuroprotective agents under evaluation. This can also be achieved with CT. This review article discusses the imaging of ischaemic stroke, relating the pathophysiology of stroke to it. It deals separately in more detail with these newer MR techniques. Hoggard, N. et al. (2001)

  13. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  14. Estimated errors in vertical bar Vcd vertical bar / vertical bar Vcs vertical bar from semileptonic D decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We estimate statistical and systematic errors in the extraction of the CKM ratio vertical bar Vcd vertical bar / vertical bar Vcs vertical bar from exclusive D-meson semileptonic decays using lattice QCD and anticipated new experimental results

  15. Basics of acute stroke treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute stroke presents an emergency that requires immediate referral to a specialized hospital, preferably with a stroke unit. Disability and mortality are reduced by 30% in patients treated in stroke units compared to those treated on regular wards, even if a specialized team is present on the ward. Systolic blood pressure may remain high at 200-220 mmHg in the acute phase and should not be lowered too quickly. Further guidelines for basic care include: optimal O2 delivery, blood sugar levels below 100-150 mg%, and lowering body temperature below 37.5 C using physical means or drugs. Increased intracranial pressure should be treated by raising the upper body of the patient, administration of glycerol, mannitol, and/or sorbitol, artificial respiration, and special monitoring of Tris buffer. Decompressive craniectomy may be considered in cases of ''malignant'' media stroke and expansive cerebellar infarction. Fibrinolysis is the most effective stroke treatment and is twice as effective in the treatment of stroke than myocardial infarction. Fibrinolysis may be initiated within 3 h of a stroke in the anterior circulation. If a penumbra is detectable by ''PWI-DWI mismatch MRI,'' specialized hospitals may perform fibrinolysis up to 6 h after symptom onset. In cases of stroke in the basilar artery, fibrinolysis may be performed even later after symptom onset. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis is performed in these cases using rt-PA or urokinase. Follow-up treatment of stroke patients should not only address post-stroke depression and neuropsychological deficits, but also include patient education about risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.)

  16. Rehabilitative Games for Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pyae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the major problems in medical and healthcare that can cause severe disability and death of patients especially for older population. Rehabilitation plays an important role in stroke therapy. However, most of the rehabilitative exercises are monotonous and tiring for the patients. For a particular time, they can easily get bored in doing these exercises. The role of patient’s motivation in rehabilitation is vital. Motivation and rehabilitative outcomes are strongly related. Digital games promise to help stroke patients to feel motivated and more engaged in rehabilitative training through motivational gameplay. Most of the commercial games available in the market are not well-designed for stroke patients and their motivational needs in rehabilitation. This study aims at understanding the motivational requirements of stroke patients in doing rehabilitative exercises and living in a post-stroke life. Based on the findings from the literature review, we report factors that can influence the stroke patients’ level of motivation such as social functioning, patient-therapist relationship, goal-setting, and music. These findings are insightful and useful for ideating and designing interactive motivation-driven games for stroke patients. The motivational factors of stroke patients in rehabilitation may help the game designers to design motivation-driven game contexts, contents, and gameplay. Moreover, these findings may also help healthcare professionals who concern stroke patient’s motivation in rehabilitative context. In this paper, we reported our Virtual Nursing Home (VNH concept and the games that we are currently developing and re-designing. Based on this literature review, we will present and test out the ideas how we can integrate these motivational factors in our future game design, development, and enhancement.

  17. [Neurorehabilitation after stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimüller, Manfred; Fheodoroff, Klemens

    2003-01-01

    After stroke most patients need to undergo extensive neurological and neuropsychological rehabilitation (neurorehabilitation). It is important to have an individual treatment programme that takes into account that the stroke patient is impaired in terms of his receptive skills, his capacity to act and his personal integrity. Based on the "phase model" of the Austrian Society for Neurological Rehabilitation (OGNR) individual goals have to be agreed and measures have to be taken. After maintaining the vital functions and a stable vegetative state, the remaining abilities have to be stimulated, functions have to be regained and deficits have to be compensated. An interdisciplinary neurological rehabilitation team has, for example, the following responsibilities: treatment of impaired motor skills and balance, treatment of swallowing and breathing impairments, training of activities of daily living, and special concepts for the treatment of cognitive deficits and impaired behaviour. A decisive factor for rehabilitation success is the relationship between therapists and patients and their relatives/carers. Preparation for independent or care-managed life after inpatient rehabilitation is of paramount importance, this means organization of continuing out-patient treatment, out-patient care management, as well as measurement and documentation of rehabilitation success. Regaining quality of life is an active process of analysing and working on the remaining activity limitations and participation restrictions in society. The work of the interdisciplinary neurological rehabilitation team contributes decisively to this process. PMID:12621687

  18. Quantitative videofluoroscopic analysis of penetration-aspiration in post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Dysphagia is a common complication of stroke and is a potential cause for aspiration and malnutrition and is also associated with poor outcome. Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS is the most objective method for evaluation of swallowing disorders. Aim : To investigate the incidence and characteristics of penetration-aspiration in post-stroke patients, and to study the relationship between penetration-aspiration and kinematic parameters of swallow. Materials and Methods : We prospectively studied swallowing function in 105 consecutive post-stroke patients and 100 normal adults by videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. The severity of airway invasion, penetration-aspiration, was studied quantitatively and kinematic parameters of swallow i.e. oral transit time, pharyngeal transit time (PTT, pharyngeal delay timem (PDT, maximal extent of vertical and anterior movement of larynx and hyoid bone for four kinds of boluses were also studied. Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between aspiration and kinematic parameters of swallow. Results : Stroke patients scored significantly higher scores on penetration-aspiration scale than the normal subjects (P < 0.001 during four bolus swallows. Logistic regression analysis showed that PTT, PDT, maximal extent of vertical laryngeal and hyoid movement were statistically associated with the prevalence of aspiration (P < 0.05. Conclusion : Penetration-aspiration is common in stroke patients. Several kinematic parameters of swallow are associated with the presence of aspiration on fluoroscopy. These data demonstrate that VFSS may be helpful for objective identification of dysphagia in stroke patients.

  19. Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke – Increasing Stroke Risk With Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher V. DeSimone; Malini Madhavan; Elisa Ebrille; Alejandro A. Rabinstein; Paul A. Friedman; Samuel J. Asirvatham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on the important newly recognized appreciation for the paradoxical increase in stroke and TIA as a result of intervention meant to treat atrial fibrillation (AF with the hope of decreasing stroke risk in the long term. The impact of silent cerebral lesions recently appreciated as a potentially major limitation and risk with AF ablation is explained. We categorize our present understanding of how we can minimize risk and provide a platform for what will undoubtedly be newer study, changes in the way procedures are done today, and possibly vascular-based stroke-reduction strategies.

  20. Pre-stroke use of beta-blockers does not affect ischaemic stroke severity and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, S.; Haentjens, P.; De Smedt, A.; Brouns, R.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; Luijckx, G. J.; De Keyser, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: It is unclear whether pre-stroke beta-blockers use may influence stroke outcome. This study evaluates the independent effect of pre-stroke use of beta-blockers on ischaemic stroke severity and 3 months functional outcome. Methods: Pre-stroke use of beta-blockers was investiga

  1. Let's Talk about Emotional Changes After Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke More Let's Talk About Emotional Changes After Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 Right after a stroke, a survivor may respond one way, yet weeks ... because of biological or psychological causes due to stroke. These changes may vary with time and can ...

  2. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome. In...... addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  3. What's Your Stroke I.Q.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What's Your Stroke I.Q.? Often, it is believed that stroke is a disease of old age. You may be surprised to learn that stroke ... to help prevent it. Test your stroke I.Q. by answering these six questions. By knowing the ...

  4. Stroke in Childhood and New Treatment Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Herguner

    2003-01-01

    The risk factors for stroke in chidren are very different from those leading to stroke in adults. In recent years, several potential treatments for various specific stroke syndromes have been made. In this article, the risk factors and new treatment modalities for stroke in children and adolescents are reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(3.000): 177-198

  5. Stroke in Childhood and New Treatment Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Hergüner, Özlem

    2003-01-01

    The risk factors for stroke in chidren are very different from those leading to stroke in adults. In recent years, several potential treatments for various specific stroke syndromes have been made. In this article, the risk factors and new treatment modalities for stroke in children and adolescents are reviewed.

  6. Stroke rehabilitation: recent advances and future therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brewer, L

    2012-09-27

    Despite advances in the acute management of stroke, a large proportion of stroke patients are left with significant impairments. Over the coming decades the prevalence of stroke-related disability is expected to increase worldwide and this will impact greatly on families, healthcare systems and economies. Effective neuro-rehabilitation is a key factor in reducing disability after stroke. In this review, we discuss the effects of stroke, principles of stroke rehabilitative care and predictors of recovery. We also discuss novel therapies in stroke rehabilitation, including non-invasive brain stimulation, robotics and pharmacological augmentation. Many trials are currently underway, which, in time, may impact on future rehabilitative practice.

  7. Stroke Unit: General principles and standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif Topçuoğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medicinal methods have convincingly shown that stroke unit approach reduces mortality and disability rates, improves the quality of life and economic burden resulting from acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Any contemporary stroke system of care cannot be successful without putting the stroke unit concept in the center of its organization. Stroke units are the main elements of primary and comprehensive stroke centers. As a modernization process, this article focuses on practical issues and suggestions related to integration of the stroke unit approach to a regionally organized stroke system of care for perusal by not only national health authorities and service providers, but also neurologists. Stroke unit quality metrics revisited herein are of critical importance for hospitals establishing or renovating primary and comprehensive stroke centers.

  8. [Cerebrolysin for acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    iganshina, L E; Abakumova, T R

    2013-01-01

    The review discusses existing evidence of benefits and risks of cerebrolysin--a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and amino acids derived from pigs' brain tissue with proposed neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, for acute ischemic stroke. The review presents results of systematic search and analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing cerebrolysin with placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Only one trial was selected as meeting quality criteria. No difference in death and adverse events between cerebrolysin and placebo was established. The authors conclude about insufficiency of evidence to evaluate the effect of cerebrolysin on survival and dependency in people with acute ischemic stroke. PMID:23805635

  9. Plasma cytokines in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Boysen, Gudrun; Christensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    months later plasma levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2) were......GOALS: The aim of this study was to test the relations between plasma cytokines and the clinical characteristics, course, and risk factors in acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 179 patients with acute stroke included within 24 hours of stroke onset. On inclusion and 3...

  10. Antioxidants and Stroke Prevention Management

    OpenAIRE

    Komanapali, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. Many of these strokes can be prevented using a bit of dietary management with dietary, non-supplementary, antioxidants. Vitamins C, B-complex, E, and beta-carotene due their part in stroke prevention by preventing oxidation of LDL and free-radical oxidation in aqueous phase, a mechanism in part responsible for atherosclerotic plaques. Vitamin B12, another antioxidant vitamin, does its part in the equation by preventing hyperhomocysteinemi...

  11. ACUTE STROKE: FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME PREDICTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ischemic strokes account for >80% of total stroke events. Biochemical modalities like serum uric acid, ESR, CRP, Serum Fibrinogen will be a low cost and useful way to predict functional outcome after ischemic stroke. The Barthel ADL index it is an ordinal scale helping us to measure performances in ADL-activities in daily living. The present study aims to study the Biochemical parameters Uric Acid, CRP, ESR and Fibrinogen in Ischemic Stroke patients and to assess functional outcome in these patients using Barthel Index at admission and at discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was undertaken under the Department of Internal Medicine, Govt. Stanley Hospital, Chennai, in 75 patients above 18 yrs. of age presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute stroke at medical OPD/wards/ICU, proven by imaging as ischemic stroke after proper consent were subjected to detailed history taking, complete physical examination and the relevant laboratory investigations as per proforma. Subjects were grouped under mild/moderate/severe categories as per Barthel scoring. A prospective observational study design was chosen and descriptive statistics was done for all data and suitable statistical tests of comparison were done. RESULTS The groups contain subjects with the same basic demographic characteristics, age and gender. The duration of stay in hospital increases with Barthel score. There is an increasing trend of diabetes mellitus and hypertension with stroke severity assessed functionally as per Barthel scores. There is an increasing trend of raised CRP, ESR levels, Uric Acid and Fibrinogen levels with stroke severity. By assessing the functional outcome using Barthel index in ischemic stroke patients at admission and discharge, the average Barthel score in patients at the time of admission was 52.27 in comparison to significantly increased Barthel score at discharge (56 with a p-value of 0.0000 according to paired t-test. CONCLUSION CRP

  12. [Post-stroke apathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Dóriga Bonnardeaux, Pedro; Andrino Díaz, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is a motivational disturbance that can be defined as a quantitative reduction of goal-directed behaviour. Patients present with loss of motivation, concern, interest, and emotional response, resulting in a loss of initiative, decreased interaction with their environment, and a reduced interest in social life. Apathy not only appears to be common in stroke patients, but it has also been related to a wide range of negative consequences for the patients and their caregivers, including poor functional recovery, loss of social independence, and caregiver distress. Clear definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for apathy are needed to accomplish an accurate assessment and an individualised treatment plan. Although there have been reports of successful behavioural therapy treatment of apathetic states, there is a paucity of controlled clinical trials on the efficacy of apathetic behaviours using pharmacotherapy. PMID:26522489

  13. Pediatric Stroke: Clinical Findings and Radiological Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Di Sibio; Massimo Gallucci; Amalia Paonessa; Laura Conti; Alessia Catalucci; Giuseppe Lanni

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on radiological approach in pediatric stroke including both ischemic stroke (Arterial Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis) and hemorrhagic stroke. Etiopathology and main clinical findings are examined as well. Magnetic Resonance Imaging could be considered as the first-choice diagnostic exam, offering a complete diagnostic set of information both in the discrimination between ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and in the identification of underlying causes. In addit...

  14. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović D

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more

  15. Secondary stroke prevention: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Esenwa C; Gutierrez J

    2015-01-01

    Charles Esenwa, Jose GutierrezDepartment of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the USA and a major cause of mortality worldwide. One out of four strokes is recurrent. Secondary stroke prevention starts with deciphering the most likely stroke mechanism. In general, one of the main goals in stroke reduction is to control vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dy...

  16. Post-stroke seizures in consecutive elderly stroke patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Chen; Lufang Chen; Yiqing Tao; Maomao Han; Chunlan Cui; Shichao Liu

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study sought to investigate the clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of seizures in elderly stroke patients, and their outcomes. Over a 2-year study period, 158 consecutive eldedy patients with stroke were examined and followed up. Of these patients, 32 (20%) developed seizures, primarily related to stroke, within a follow up period between 5 months and 2 years. Of these 32 cases, 20 experienced infarctions, and 12 experienced hemorrhages. Involvement of cortical regions was detected in most of the patients exhibiting seizures. In these patients, 44% of the lesions involved cortical areas exclusively or in addition to subcortical areas observed on computed tomography (CT) images. Twenty-five patients (78%)developed early seizures (within 2 weeks after stroke), and half exhibited immediate post-stroke seizures. None of the patients exhibiting early onset seizures developed recurrent seizures or epilepsy, while 57% of late onset seizures (four cases) developed epilepsy. No specific EEG patterns were apparent in those who later developed epilepsy. Overall, early onset seizures after stroke were found to be relatively common, and did not affect outcome. Late onset seizures were less common, but were associated with chronic epilepsy.

  17. Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Strokes Compared Stroke Severity, Mortality, and Risk Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, T. S.; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    were diabetes, atrial fibrillation, previous myocardial infarction, previous stroke, and intermittent arterial claudication. Smoking and alcohol consumption favored HS, whereas age, sex, and hypertension did not herald stroke type. Compared with ischemic strokes, HS was associated with an overall...

  18. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Diabetes Educators JDRF American Heart Association MedlinePlus Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Page Content On this ...

  19. Clinical neurorestorative progress in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Liyan Qiao,1,* Jun Lu,2,* Hongyun Huang3–5 1Department of Neurology, Tsinghua University Yuquan Hospital, 2Department of Emergency, 2nd Artillery Hospital, 3Center of Neurorestoratology, Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital, Capital Medical University, 4Beijing Hongtianji Neuroscience Academy, Beijing, 5Neuroscience Institute of Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors are co-first authors Abstract: Stroke is the second most common single cause of death worldwide, with over five million deaths per year globally. So far, conventional therapy has failed to restore neurological function poststroke. Neurorestorative strategy has provided therapeutic benefit for the treatment of stroke. This review outlines the clinical advances, in which cell-based neurorestorative strategies offer the broadest range of potential treatments for stroke. Keywords: stroke, cerebral infarction, treatment, neurorestorative strategy, neurological function recovery, cell therapy

  20. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    Blood glucose is often elevated in acute stroke, and higher admission glucose levels are associated with larger lesions, greater mortality and poorer functional outcome. In patients treated with thrombolysis, hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation of...... infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating to the...... risk of inducing potentially harmful hypoglycemia has been raised. Still, basic and observational research is overwhelmingly in support of a causal relationship between blood glucose and stroke outcome and further research on glucose-lowering therapy in acute stroke is highly warranted....

  1. Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes, Heart Disease, and Stroke Having diabetes or prediabetes ... can help prevent future health problems. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disorder of metabolismthe way our ...

  2. Relationship between plasma glutamate levels and post-stroke depression in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱方媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between the plasma glutamate levels during acute ischemic stroke andpost-stroke depression(PSD)initially.Methods Seventy-four ischemic stroke patients admitted to the hospital within the first day of stroke onset were evaluated at a follow-up of 2 weeks.The Beck Depression Inventory(BDI,21-item)and DSM-Ⅳcriteria was used to diagnose post-stroke depression(PSD)at 2 weeks after stroke.

  3. The relation between oxidative stress parameters, ischemic stroke,and hemorrhagic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    İçme, Ferhat; EREL, ÖZCAN; AVCİ, AKKAN; SATAR, SALİM; Gülen, Müge; Acehan, Selen

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim: The aims of this study were to investigate the significance of oxidative stress parameters in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke and to investigate their effects on stroke severity using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Materials and methods: A total of 92 patients, including 74 with ischemic stroke and 18 with hemorrhagic stroke, and 75 volunteers were enrolled in the study. Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (...

  4. Stroke and Disorders of Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Zikrija Dostović; Dževdet Smajlović; Ernestina Dostović; Omer Ć. Ibrahimagić

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the severity of stroke and mortality in relation to the type of disturbance of consciousness and outcome of patients with disorders of consciousness. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 201 patients. Assessment of disorders of consciousness is performed by Glasgow Coma Scale (Teasdale and Jennet, 1974) and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Anonymous, 2000). The severity of stroke was determined by National Institutes of Health St...

  5. Stroke in Canon of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alorizi, Seyed Morteza Emami; Nimruzi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke has a huge negative impact on the society and more adversely affect women. There is scarce evidence about any neuroprotective effects of commonly used drug in acute stroke. Bushnell et al. provided a guideline focusing on the risk factors of stroke unique to women, including reproductive factors, metabolic syndrome, obesity, atrial fibrillation, and migraine with aura. The ten variables cited by Avicenna in Canon of Medicine would compensate for the gaps mentioned in this guideline. The prescribed drugs should be selected qualitatively opposite to Mizaj (warm-cold and wet-dry qualities induced by disease state) of the disease and according to ten variables, including the nature of the affected organ, intensity of disease, sex, age, habit, season, place of living, occupation, stamina and physical status. Methods: Information related to stroke was searched in Canon of Medicine, which is an outstanding book in traditional Persian medicine written by Avicenna. Results: A hemorrhagic stroke is the result of increasing sanguine humor in the body. Sanguine has warm-wet quality, and should be treated with food and drugs that quench the abundance of blood in the body. An acute episode of ischemic stroke is due to the abundance of phlegm that causes a blockage in the cerebral vessels. Phlegm has cold-wet quality and treatment should be started with compound medicines that either solve the phlegm or eject it from the body. Conclusion: Avicenna has cited in Canon of Medicine that women have cold and wet temperament compared to men. For this reason, they are more prone to accumulation of phlegm in their body organs including the liver, joints and vessels, and consequently in the risk of fatty liver, degenerative joint disease, atherosclerosis, and stroke especially the ischemic one. This is in accordance with epidemiological studies that showed higher rate of ischemic stroke in women rather than hemorrhagic one. PMID:26722147

  6. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation.

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Katsnelson,; Sebastian Koch; Tatjana Rundek

    1997-01-01

    Non-valvular atrial fibrillation is a common and from a neurological perspective the most significant cardiac arrhythmia with a growing world-wide incidence. It also carries a significant associated morbidity and mortality, with cardioembolic strokes arguably being the most disabling sequelae. This brief review will highlight the important studies and the latest treatment modalities available for stroke prevention in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

  7. Protein consumptions in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stroke is one of the most common causes of disabilities and death all over the world. The mortality rate of stroke is predicted to be doubled by 2030 in the Middle East countries. Nutrition is an effective strategy in prevention and management of stroke. This study assessed the relationship between various protein types and stroke risk. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based case-control study was performed in a University hospital. The data regarding consumption of usual food intake of 69 cases (46 men and 23 women and 60 controls (30 men and 30 women was collected with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The mean consumption of red and white meat and vegetable and processed proteins consumption were compared between two groups. Results: The percent of total of daily protein intake were lower in patients with stroke in both sexes (25.92% vs 30.55% in men and 30.7% vs 31.14% in women. Conclusion: Lower protein consumption may be observed in patients with stroke patients in both sex.

  8. Fatigue after Stroke: The Patient's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Louise Barbour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fatigue after stroke is common and distressing to patients. Aims. Our aims were to explore patients' perceptions of post-stroke fatigue, including the causes of fatigue and the factors that alleviate fatigue, in a mixed methods study. Results. We interviewed 15 patients who had had a stroke and were inpatients on stroke rehabilitation wards. A substantial proportion of patients reported that their fatigue started at the time of their stroke. Various different factors were reported to improve fatigue, including exercise, good sleep, rehabilitation and rest. Fatigue influences patients' sense of “control” after their stroke. Conclusion. Our results are consistent with the possibility that poststroke fatigue might be triggered by factors that occur at the time of the stroke (e.g., the stroke lesion itself, or admission to hospital and then exacerbated by poor sleep and boredom. These factors should be considered when developing complex interventions to improve post-stroke fatigue.

  9. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N.; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25–30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood–brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  10. Stroke injury, cognitive impairment and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N; Akinyemi, Rufus; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The global burden of ischaemic strokes is almost 4-fold greater than haemorrhagic strokes. Current evidence suggests that 25-30% of ischaemic stroke survivors develop immediate or delayed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD). Dementia after stroke injury may encompass all types of cognitive disorders. States of cognitive dysfunction before the index stroke are described under the umbrella of pre-stroke dementia, which may entail vascular changes as well as insidious neurodegenerative processes. Risk factors for cognitive impairment and dementia after stroke are multifactorial including older age, family history, genetic variants, low educational status, vascular comorbidities, prior transient ischaemic attack or recurrent stroke and depressive illness. Neuroimaging determinants of dementia after stroke comprise silent brain infarcts, white matter changes, lacunar infarcts and medial temporal lobe atrophy. Until recently, the neuropathology of dementia after stroke was poorly defined. Most of post-stroke dementia is consistent with VaD involving multiple substrates. Microinfarction, microvascular changes related to blood-brain barrier damage, focal neuronal atrophy and low burden of co-existing neurodegenerative pathology appear key substrates of dementia after stroke injury. The elucidation of mechanisms of dementia after stroke injury will enable establishment of effective strategy for symptomatic relief and prevention. Controlling vascular disease risk factors is essential to reduce the burden of cognitive dysfunction after stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. PMID:26806700

  11. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  12. Composition of vertical gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Vertical gardens are fully functional gardens in areas where there is less oxygen and space, ideal for residential and urban cities where there is no vegetation; occupy a special place in interiors furniture. The gardens occupy an important aesthetic problem. Aesthetic task in vertical gardens can be achieved by forming sectors of identification in the urban landscape through the choice of a particular plant spatial composition and composition, to create comfort and representation in commu...

  13. Stroke and the "stroke belt" in dialysis: contribution of patient characteristics to ischemic stroke rate and its geographic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, James B; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Phadnis, Milind A; Rigler, Sally K; Spertus, John A; Zhou, Xinhua; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Shireman, Theresa I

    2013-12-01

    Geographic variation in stroke rates is well established in the general population, with higher rates in the South than in other areas of the United States. ESRD is a potent risk factor for stroke, but whether regional variations in stroke risk exist among dialysis patients is unknown. Medicare claims from 2000 to 2005 were used to ascertain ischemic stroke events in a large cohort of 265,685 incident dialysis patients. A Poisson generalized linear mixed model was generated to determine factors associated with stroke and to ascertain state-by-state geographic variability in stroke rates by generating observed-to-expected (O/E) adjusted rate ratios for stroke. Older age, female sex, African American race and Hispanic ethnicity, unemployed status, diabetes, hypertension, history of stroke, and permanent atrial fibrillation were positively associated with ischemic stroke, whereas body mass index >30 kg/m(2) was inversely associated with stroke (P1.0 were all in the South: North Carolina, Mississippi, and Oklahoma. Regional efforts to increase primary prevention in the "stroke belt" or to better educate dialysis patients on the signs of stroke so that they may promptly seek care may improve stroke care and outcomes in dialysis patients. PMID:23990675

  14. Study and Analysis of Six Stroke Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Six Stroke engine, the name itself indicates a cycle of six strokes out of which two are useful power strokes. According to its mechanical design, the six-stroke engine with external and internal combustion and double flow is similar to the actual internal reciprocating combustion engine. However, it differentiates itself entirely, due to its thermodynamic cycle and a modified cylinder head with two supplementary chambers: combustion and an air heating chamber, both independent from the cylinder. In this the cylinder and the combustion chamber are separated which gives more freedom for design analysis. In addition to the two valves in the four stroke engine two more valves are incorporated which are operated by a piston arrangement. The Six Stroke is thermodynamically more efficient because the change in volume of the power stroke is greater than the intake stroke and the compression stroke. The main advantages of six stroke engine includes reduction in fuel consumption by 40%, two power strokes in the six stroke cycle, dramatic reduction in pollution, adaptability to multi fuel operation. Six stroke engine’s adoption by the automobile industry would have a tremendous impact on the environment and world economy .

  15. [New aspects of stroke medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, H C; Frank, B; Hajjar, K; Weimar, C

    2014-08-01

    Systemic thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) remains the only effective and approved medical treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of rapid recanalization. The efficacy of thrombectomy has so far not been sufficiently shown in randomized clinical trials; therefore, inclusion of suitable patients in one of the currently ongoing randomized trials is of great importance. The early treatment with magnesium after acute ischemic stroke during the pre-hospital phase did not prove to be neuroprotective. Intermittent pneumatic compression of the lower extremities in immobilized stroke patients effectively prevents deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. In patients with lacunar stroke the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel is not superior to aspirin alone and causes more bleeding complications. The novel oral anticoagulants are superior to warfarin in secondary prevention and carry a lower risk of intracranial and systemic bleeding complications. New studies will investigate whether dabigatran or rivaroxaban are superior to aspirin in secondary prevention after cryptogenic stroke. PMID:24969949

  16. Patent Foramen Ovale and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yee-Ping; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-07-25

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is common and found in nearly 25% of healthy individuals. The majority of patients with PFO remain asymptomatic and they are not at increased risk for developing a stroke. The presence of PFO, however, has been found to be higher in patients with cryptogenic stroke, suggesting there may be a subset of patients with PFO who are indeed at risk for stroke. Paradoxical embolization of venous thrombi through the PFO, which then enter the arterial circulation, is hypothesized to account for this relationship. Although aerated-saline transesophageal echocardiography is the gold standard for diagnosis, aerated-saline transthoracic echocardiography and transcranial Doppler are often used as the initial diagnostic tests for detecting PFO. Patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO are generally treated with antiplatelet therapy in the absence of another condition for which anticoagulation is necessary. Based on the findings of 3 large randomized clinical trials, current consensus guidelines do not recommend percutaneous closure, though this is an area of controversy. The following review discusses the relationship of PFO and cryptogenic stroke, focusing on the epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnostic tools, associated clinical/anatomic factors and treatment. (Circ J 2016; 80: 1665-1673). PMID:27334127

  17. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  18. Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158939.html Aspirin After Mini-Stroke May Help Prevent Full-Blown Stroke Study finds risk is reduced by as much ... HealthDay News) -- Taking aspirin immediately after a mini-stroke significantly reduces the risk of a major stroke, ...

  19. Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Sleep Apnea and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Sep 16, ... be life-threatening. It’s a condition known as sleep apnea, in which the person may experience pauses ...

  20. Flu and Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and Heart Disease & Stroke Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir People with Heart Disease* and Those Who Have Had a Stroke Are ...

  1. What Are Heart Disease and Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What Are Heart Disease and Stroke? Updated:Dec 8,2015 There are ... include: High blood pressure Smoking Diabetes High cholesterol Heart disease Atrial fibrillation (Abnormal heart rhythm) Call 9-1- ...

  2. Stroke Rehabilitation: What Research is Being Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation What Research is Being Done? Past Issues / ... Table of Contents To Find Out More MedlinePlus: Stroke Rehabilitation medlineplus.gov/strokerehabilitation.html National Institute of ...

  3. Kirk Douglas: "My Stroke of Luck"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Kirk Douglas: "My Stroke of Luck" Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of ... active. Photo courtesy of Kirk Douglas When a stroke felled actor and writer Kirk Douglas in 1996, ...

  4. FastStats: Cerebrovascular Disease or Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button NCHS Home Cerebrovascular Disease or Stroke Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Morbidity Number of adults who ever had a stroke: 6.3 million Percent of adults who ever ...

  5. Anemia Boosts Stroke Death Risk, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160476.html Anemia Boosts Stroke Death Risk, Study Finds Blood condition ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Older stroke victims suffering from anemia -- a lack of red blood cells -- may have ...

  6. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  7. Professionals' views on interprofessional stroke team functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Cramm (Jane); A.P. Nieboer (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction: The quality of integrated stroke care depends on smooth team functioning but professionals may not always work well together. Professionals’ perspectives on the factors that influence stroke team functioning remain largely unexamined. Understanding their e

  8. Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000080.htm Diabetes - preventing heart attack and stroke To use the sharing features on ... with diabetes have a higher chance of having heart attacks and strokes. Smoking and having high blood pressure ...

  9. EXPERT-SYSTEM BASED MEDICAL STROKE PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke always comes unexpected and the general public is not usually aware of its symptoms. Individuals who have had their first stroke with permanent damage could become an economic burden to their family and a social burden to the society due to their unproductive nature. Stroke could be prevented and its risk factors have been identified. Through a stroke prevention information system, the user could be made more aware of stroke risks and symptoms. An expert system would be able to direct and motivate users to keep themselves healthy therefore preventing first and recurrent strokes. The expert system is built using an inference engine that provides stroke risk level based on information provided by the user. Information collected are self measured blood pressure, cigarettes consumed, amount of physical activity and body mass index. Users are presented with suggested preventive tasks to reduce their stroke risk.

  10. New Guidelines Recommend Inpatient Rehab After Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... computer, books, music and virtual reality games could help enhance rehabilitation for stroke patients, making it more engaging and mentally stimulating. Stroke patients who have trouble speaking should undergo speech therapy. Patients who have vision problems and have trouble ...

  11. STATINS IN PREVENTION OF ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Susekov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidence base of statin therapy in primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke is surveyed. Results of classical trails with statins in ischemic stroke prevention as well as results of meta-analyses are discussed.

  12. Statins in prevention of ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    A.V. Susekov; A. B. Blohin; Z. G. Luginova; E. J. Soloveva; N. V. Maltseva; O.E. Tarasova; V.V. Kuharchuk

    2013-01-01

    The evidence base of statin therapy in primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke is surveyed. Results of classical trails with statins in ischemic stroke prevention as well as results of meta-analyses are discussed.

  13. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... routine or in a less populated place, tiny pollution particles in the air can lead to big ...

  14. Multisensory stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbro Birgitta Johansson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, or various kinds of music therapy. Several studies have shown positive effects been reported but to give general recommendation more studies are needed. Patient heterogeneity and the interactions of age, gender, genes and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation.

  15. Fabry disease and early stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2011-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, results from deficient activity of the enzyme a-galactosidase A. Affected males with the classic phoenotype have acroparaesthesias, hypohidrosis, and corneal opacities in childhood and develop renal failure, cardiac hypertrophy or strokes in...... the third to fifth decade of life. Some female heterozygotes are asymptomatic, some as severely affected as males. The natural history of Fabry patients includes transitory cerebral ischaemia and strokes, even in very young persons of both genders. The mechanism is partly due to vascular endothelial...... accumulation of GL-3. White matter lesions on MRI occur. Both males and females can be safely treated with enzyme replacement; and thus screening for Fabry disease of young stroke populations should be considered. There are, however, no hard data of treatment effect on mortality and morbidity. The analyses of...

  16. Fabry disease and early stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2011-01-01

    Fabry disease, an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder, results from deficient activity of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Affected males with the classic phoenotype have acroparaesthesias, hypohidrosis, and corneal opacities in childhood and develop renal failure, cardiac hypertrophy or strokes in...... the third to fifth decade of life. Some female heterozygotes are asymptomatic, some as severely affected as males. The natural history of Fabry patients includes transitory cerebral ischaemia and strokes, even in very young persons of both genders. The mechanism is partly due to vascular endothelial...... accumulation of GL-3. White matter lesions on MRI occur. Both males and females can be safely treated with enzyme replacement; and thus screening for Fabry disease of young stroke populations should be considered. There are, however, no hard data of treatment effect on mortality and morbidity. The analyses of...

  17. The Brine Shrimp's Butterfly Stroke

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Brennan; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the fluid dynamics of brine shrimp larvae swimming in this gallery of fluid motion video. Time resolved particle image velocimetry was performed using nano-particles as seeding material to measure the time dependent velocity and vorticity fields. The Reynolds number of the flow was roughly 8 and the Womerseley number (ratio of periodic forcing to viscous forcing) was about 5. Vorticity dynamics reveals the formation of a vortex ring structure at the tip of each arm at the beginning of the power stroke. This two vortex system evolves dramatically with time as the stroke progresses. The outer circulation is noted to weaken while the inner circulation strengthens over the power stroke. The gaining strength of the inner vortex correlates with the acceleration and forward movement of the larvae.

  18. Visual attention in posterior stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Charlotte; Petersen, Anders; Iversen, Helle K;

    Objective: Impaired visual attention is common following strokes in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, particularly in the right hemisphere. However, attentional effects of more posterior lesions are less clear. The aim of this study was to characterize visual processing speed and...... apprehension span following posterior cerebral artery (PCA) stroke. We also relate these attentional parameters to visual word recognition, as previous studies have suggested that reduced visual speed and span may explain pure alexia. Methods: Nine patients with MR-verified focal lesions in the PCA......-territory (four left PCA; four right PCA; one bilateral, all >1 year post stroke) were compared to 25 controls using single case statistics. Visual attention was characterized by a whole report paradigm allowing for hemifield-specific speed and span measurements. We also characterized visual field defects and...

  19. Study and Analysis of Six Stroke Engine

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ramya

    2014-01-01

    Six Stroke engine, the name itself indicates a cycle of six strokes out of which two are useful power strokes. According to its mechanical design, the six-stroke engine with external and internal combustion and double flow is similar to the actual internal reciprocating combustion engine. However, it differentiates itself entirely, due to its thermodynamic cycle and a modified cylinder head with two supplementary chambers: combustion and an air heating chamber, both independen...

  20. Autoimmune Responses to Brain Following Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Kyra

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the work done by our laboratory that demonstrates the presence of cellular immune responses directed towards brain antigens in animals following experimental stroke as well as in patients following ischemic stroke. These responses include both antigenspecific Th1(+) responses, which are associated with worse stroke outcome, and antigen-specific Treg responses, which are associated with better stroke outcome. The likelihood of developing a detrimental Th1(+)...

  1. Current Status of Cell Therapies in Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Oh Young

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. Recovery after stroke is usually limited as there is no definite therapy to restore lost brain function. Cell therapy is an emerging paradigm in stroke therapy for patients with fixed neurologic deficits. Cell therapy for stroke may be greatly different from cell therapy for other disease conditions; the complexity of central nervous system structures and functions may limit its effectiveness. Recently, there have been several clini...

  2. Strokes in young adults: epidemiology and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Smajlović D

    2015-01-01

    Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of str...

  3. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Di Legge; Giacomo Koch; Marina Diomedi; Paolo Stanzione; Fabrizio Sallustio

    2012-01-01

    Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI...

  4. Recent Advances in Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Christine K.; Fullerton, Heather J.

    2010-01-01

    Although many underlying diseases have been reported in the setting of childhood arterial ischemic stroke, emerging research demonstrates that non-atherosclerotic intracerebral arteriopathies in otherwise healthy children are prevalent. Minor infections may play a role in arteriopathies that have no other apparent underlying cause. Although stroke in childhood differs in many aspects from adult stroke, few systematic studies specific to pediatrics are available to inform stroke management. Tr...

  5. Recognition of tennis strokes using key postures

    OpenAIRE

    Connaghan, Damien; Ó Conaire, Ciarán; Kelly, Philip; O''Connor, Noel E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe an approach for automatic recognition of tennis strokes using a single low cost camera. Professional tennis is played at high speed so the ability to classify tennis strokes on camera is hindered by the rapid movement of the players. We have developed an accurate recognition system which can automatically index tennis strokes from video footage. We aim to evolve this system so that meta data, such as time codes and descriptions of the strokes played, can be automatic...

  6. Prehospital care of the acute stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajajee, Venkatakrishna; Saver, Jeffrey

    2005-06-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) is the first medical contact for most acute stroke patients, thereby playing a pivotal role in the identification and treatment of acute cerebrovascular brain injury. The benefit of thrombolysis and interventional therapies for acute ischemic stroke is highly time dependent, making rapid and effective EMS response of critical importance. In addition, the general public has suboptimal knowledge about stroke warning signs and the importance of activating the EMS system. In the past, the ability of EMS dispatchers to recognize stroke calls has been documented to be poor. Reliable stroke identification in the field enables appropriate treatment to be initiated in the field and potentially inappropriate treatment avoided; the receiving hospital to be prenotified of a stroke patient's imminent arrival, rapid transport to be initiated; and stroke patients to be diverted to stroke-capable receiving hospitals. In this article we discuss research studies and educational programs aimed at improving stroke recognition by EMS dispatchers, prehospital personnel, and emergency department (ED) physicians and how this has impacted stroke treatment. In addition public educational programs and importance of community awareness of stroke symptoms will be discussed. For example, general public's utilization of 911 system for stroke victims has been limited in the past. However, it has been repeatedly shown that utilization of the 911 system is associated with accelerated arrival times to the ED, crucial to timely treatment of stroke patients. Finally, improved stroke recognition in the field has led investigators to study in the field treatment of stroke patients with neuroprotective agents. The potential impact of this on future of stroke treatment will be discussed. PMID:16194754

  7. Generalized Myoclonus: A Rare Manifestation of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Inoa, Violiza; McCullough, Louise D.

    2015-01-01

    Movement disorders have been reported as rare complications of stroke. The basal ganglia have been implicated in the pathophysiology of most post-stroke dyskinesias. We outline different types of post-stroke myoclonus and their possible pathophysiology. A middle-aged man developed generalized myoclonus after an ischemic stroke in the superior midbrain and subthalamic nuclei. Spontaneous resolution was seen by 72 hours. A lesion to the subthalamic nuclei disrupted the normal thalamic inhibitio...

  8. Atrial fibrillation and stroke: epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffel, James A

    2014-04-01

    The statistics for AFib are impressive. (online video available at: http://education.amjmed.com/video.php?event_id=445&stage_id=5&vcs=1). The principal risk with AFib, stroke or thrombotic embolism, is increased 5-fold in some series; AFib accounts for ≥15% of all strokes in the United States, 36% of strokes for individuals aged >80, and up to 20% of cryptogenic strokes, which means >100,000-125,000 embolic strokes per year, of which >20% are fatal. Patients with ischemic stroke and AFib are significantly (PPrevention of these thromboembolic outcomes requires prophylactic anticoagulation therapy. The "gold standard" for anticoagulation has been warfarin, despite its well-known side effects and adherence challenges for patients. The recent approvals of several new, novel oral anticoagulation (NOAC) agents, however, presents physicians with a benefit/risk profile that represents an important advance over warfarin prophylaxis. The principal risk with all oral anticoagulants is bleeding. An important misconception about warfarin is that if anticoagulated patients bleed, the risk can be quickly reversed, but most trial experience has found that warfarin reversal requires 24 hours to halve the INR value. Reversal of anticoagulation with the NOACs is unproven at present; possible approaches are presented in this review, but since the NOACs have both rapid onsets of action and short biologic half-lives, they do not present the same reversal challenges as warfarin. Finally, physicians must be aware of thromboembolic risk assessment. The principal risk assessment scores are CHADS2, updated with the more recent CHA2DS2-VASc to provide more accurate assessment of low-risk patients; this review concludes with a novel flow-chart showing physicians how the CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc scoring systems can be used. PMID:24655742

  9. Stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Satink, Ton; Steultjens, Esther

    2011-01-01

    needs, 3) Physical and non-physical needs, 4) Being personally valued and treated with respect, 5) Collaboration with health care professionals and 6) Assuming responsibility and seizing control. DISCUSSION: The synthesis showed that stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation reflected individual......INTRODUCTION: The aim was to obtain the best available knowledge on stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation. The increase in demands for accountability in health care and acknowledgement of the importance of client participation in health decisions calls for systematic ways of integrating...

  10. CT perfusion in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome caused by multiple mechanisms, all of which result in disruption of normal cerebral blood flow and thereby cause cerebral dysfunction. Its early diagnosis is important as its treatment is dependent on the time elapsed since ictus. Delay in diagnosis and treatment translates into increase neuronal loss and thereby increased morbidity. CT scan, and in particular perfusion CT, has helped greatly in the early diagnosis of stroke. This article is an endeavor to explain the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia and the role of CT perfusion in detecting it

  11. The obesity paradox in stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2015-01-01

    of recurrent stroke. Mortality was significantly lower in overweight (hazard ratio 0·72; confidence interval 0·68–0·78) and obese (hazard ratio 0·80; confidence interval 0·73–0·88) patients while significantly higher in underweight patients (hazard ratio 1·66; confidence interval 1·49–1·84) compared...... with normal weight patients. Risk of readmission for recurrent stroke was significantly lower in obese than in normal weight patients (hazard ratio 0·84; confidence interval 0·72–0·92). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was not only associated with reduced mortality relative to normal weight patients. Compared with normal...

  12. Potential blood biomarkers for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Carlos M; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Akerstrom, Finn; Padial, Luis R; Vivanco, Fernando; Gil-Dones, Felix; Barderas, Maria G

    2012-08-01

    Stroke is one of the most common causes of death worldwide and a major cause of acquired disability in adults. Despite advances in research during the last decade, prevention and treatment strategies still suffer from significant limitations, and therefore new theoretical and technical approaches are required. Technological advances in the proteomic and metabolomic areas, during recent years, have permitted a more effective search for novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may allow for effective risk stratification and early diagnosis with subsequent rapid treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the latest candidate proteins and metabolites proposed as new potential biomarkers in stroke. PMID:22967080

  13. Stroke Prevention Trials in Sickle Cell Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    As part of an International Pediatric Stroke Study launched in 2002, the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP) reports a reduction in the number of overt clinical strokes in children with critically high transcranial Doppler velocities (>200 cm/sec) who were regularly transfused.

  14. An overview of antithrombotics in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweickert, Patricia A; Gaughen, John R; Kreitel, Elizabeth M; Shephard, Timothy J; Solenski, Nina J; Jensen, Mary E

    2016-06-19

    The use of antithrombotic medications is an important component of ischemic stroke treatment and prevention. This article reviews the evidence for best practices for antithrombotic use in stroke with focused discussion on the specific agents used to treat and prevent stroke. PMID:27153001

  15. Stroke Prevention Trials in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of an International Pediatric Stroke Study launched in 2002, the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP reports a reduction in the number of overt clinical strokes in children with critically high transcranial Doppler velocities (>200 cm/sec who were regularly transfused.

  16. Stroke in Patients With Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anders Møller; Dalsgaard, Morten; Bang, Casper N;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are limited data on risk stratification of stroke in aortic stenosis. This study examined predictors of stroke in aortic stenosis, the prognostic implications of stroke, and how aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without concomitant coronary artery bypass graftin...... associated with mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00092677....

  17. Social Participation after Stroke: One-Year Follow-Up of Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent-Onabajo, Grace O.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Stroke may negatively affect social participation in survivors. Aims. This study assessed the pattern of social participation in a sample of Nigerian stroke survivors across the first 12 months after stroke. Methods. Stroke survivors were consecutively recruited while on admission at a tertiary health institution. The London handicap scale was used to assess social participation at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at the homes of the stroke survivors. Overall and domain-specific patterns...

  18. Family history and stroke outcome in a bi-ethnic, population-based stroke surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchino Ken

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The genetic epidemiology of ischemic stroke remains relatively unstudied, and information about the genetic epidemiology of ischemic stroke in populations with significant minority representation is currently unavailable. Methods The Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project (BASIC is a population-based stroke surveillance study conducted in the bi-ethnic community of Nueces County, Texas, USA. Completed ischemic strokes were identified among patients 45 years or older seen at hospitals in the county between January 1, 2000 – December 31, 2002. A random sample of ischemic stroke patients underwent an in-person interview and detailed medical record abstraction (n = 400. Outcomes, including initial stroke severity (NIH stroke scale, age at stroke onset, 90-day mortality and functional outcome (modified Rankin scale ≥2, were studied for their association with family history of stroke among a first degree relative using multivariable logistic and linear regression. A chi-square test was used to test the association between family history of stroke and ischemic stroke subtype. Results The study population was 53.0% Mexican American and 58.4% female. Median age was 73.2 years. Forty percent reported a family history of stroke among a first degree relative. Family history of stroke was borderline significantly associated with stroke subtype (p = 0.0563. Family history was associated with poor functional outcome in the multivariable model (OR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.14–3.09. Family history was not significantly related to initial stroke severity, age at stroke onset, or 90-day mortality. Conclusion Family history of stroke was related to ischemic stroke subtype and to functional status at discharge. More research is needed to understand whether stroke subtype would be a useful selection criterion for genetic association studies and to hypothesize about a possible genetic link to recovery following ischemic stroke.

  19. Vertical market participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrader, Alexander; Martin, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Firms that operate at both levels of vertically related Cournot oligopolies will purchase some input supplies from independent rivals, even though they can produce the good at a lower cost, driving up input price for nonintegrated firms at the final good level. Foreclosure, which avoids this stra...

  20. Global Vertical Reference Frame

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vojtíšková, M.

    -, č. 5 (2009), s. 53-63. ISSN 1801-8483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/0328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sea surface topography * satellite altimetry * vertical frames Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Recurrent stroke: what have we learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2007-01-01

    Stroke is the third leading cause of death, a major cause of disability in adults, and is frequently more disabling than fatal. With a decline in mortality from initial cerebral infarction and an increase in the life expectancy of the population, the number of patients with recurrent stroke and ensuing cardiovascular events will become greater. Thus it is important to find out those patients at high risk of stroke recurrence. This case report illustrates the process of recurrent stroke and the resulting disabilities and morbidities in a 42-year- old man. The role of integrated stroke rehabilitation programme is described. PMID:25606084

  2. Sleep-wake disturbances after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENG Li-ying

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-wake disturbances (SWD after stroke is a sleep-wake disorder resulting from central nervous system lesion caused by stroke. SWD includes hypersomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, fatigue and so on. The prevalence rate of SWD is only less than sleep-related breathing disturbances (SBD. Recent studies suggest that SWD is frequent and negatively affects rehabilitation and quality of life of patients with stroke, and treatment of poststroke SWD may favorably influence stroke outcome. SWD may become a new target of treatment and rehabilitation of stroke. This paper reviewed the progress of this issue.

  3. Patient Education Among Stroke Survivor Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is one of the most serious health problems in the world, cited as being the second leading cause of death. After stroke, there is a greater risk of suffering second and further subsequent stroke-events. Given the heavy burden of disease present by stroke, there is a great need to improve patient education for stroke survivors, who are at an increased risk of another cerebrovascular accident. The purpose of this thesis is to develop the quality of patient education in nursing care o...

  4. Supernumerary phantom limb after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Bakheit, A; Roundhill, S

    2005-01-01

    The perception of a phantom limb is commonly reported after amputations. However, only a few cases have been described after a stroke. This article presents a patient who reported a supernumerary phantom limb (pseudopolymelia) after spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage and discusses the possible underlying mechanisms for this rare phenomenon.

  5. Predictors of Perinatal Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and predictors of perinatal hemorrhagic stroke were determined in a case-control study of infants born from 1993 to 2003 in the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Oakland, CA, and reported from the University of California, San Francisco, CA.

  6. Predictors of Perinatal Hemorrhagic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and predictors of perinatal hemorrhagic stroke were determined in a case-control study of infants born from 1993 to 2003 in the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, Oakland, CA, and reported from the University of California, San Francisco, CA.

  7. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  8. Ischemic strokes and oral contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the epidemiology and the physiopathological aspects of ischemic strokes in patients with history of oestroprogestogen use. They then study their main radiological correlates: arterial infarcts at CT scan and angiographic non-specific lesions which can be included in the extremely wide framework of arteritis, much more rarely venous thrombophlebitis. (orig.)

  9. Ischemic strokes and oral contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe the epidemiology and the physiopathological aspects of ischemic strokes in patients with a history of oestroprogestogen use. They then study their main radiological correlates: arterial infarcts at CT scan and angiographic non-specific lesions which can be included in the extremely wide framework of arteritis and, much more rarely, venous thrombophlebitis

  10. Risk of Stroke in Migraineurs Using Triptans. Associations with Age, Sex, Stroke Severity and Subtype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albieri, Vanna; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2016-01-01

    for a first stroke were identified in the Danish Registries. Information on stroke severity/subtype and cardiovascular risk factors was available for stroke patients. FINDINGS: Of the 49,711 patients hospitalized for a first stroke, 1084 were migraineurs using triptans. Adjusting for age, sex, income......, and educational level, risk for stroke was higher among migraineurs in respect to all strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.01-1.14) and ischemic strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.00-1.14). Risk for hemorrhagic stroke was increased but only in women (RR 1.41; CI 1.11-1.79). Risk was for mild strokes (RR 1.31; CI 1...

  11. Quality of stroke care at an Irish Regional General Hospital and Stroke Rehabilitation Unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, T

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Robust international data support the effectiveness of stroke unit (SU) care. Despite this, most stroke care in Ireland are provided outside of this setting. Limited data currently exist on the quality of care provided. AIM: The aim of this study is to examine the quality of care for patients with stroke in two care settings-Regional General Hospital (RGH) and Stroke Rehabilitation Unit (SRU). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the stroke records of consecutive patients admitted to the SRU between May-November 2002 and April-November 2004 was performed applying the UK National Sentinel Audit of Stroke (NSAS) tool. RESULTS: The results of the study reveal that while SRU processes of care was 74% compliant with standards; compliance with stroke service organisational standards was only 15 and 43% in the RGH and SRU, respectively. CONCLUSION: The quality of stroke care in our area is deficient. Comprehensive reorganisation of stroke services is imperative.

  12. A systematic approach to the definition of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, RTF

    2014-01-01

    The 24-hour time-line for symptomsin the current definition of stroke is arbitrary. Moreover, this definition does not include silent stroke, encourage acute stroke therapy and consider dramatic recovery after successful therapy. Silent stroke, which is five times more common than symptomatic stroke, is a risk factor for future stroke and is associated with adverse neurological and cognitive functions. Whilst pathological confirmation remains the gold standard in defining stroke and its under...

  13. Identification of Stroke Mimics in the Emergency Department Setting

    OpenAIRE

    W. Oliver Tobin; Joseph G. Hentz; Bobrow, Bentley J.; Demaerschalk, Bart M.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous studies have shown a stroke mimic rate of 9%–31%. We aimed to establish the proportion of stroke mimics amongst suspected acute strokes, to clarify the aetiology of stroke mimic and to develop a prediction model to identify stroke mimics. Methods This was a retrospective cohort observational study. Consecutive “stroke alert” patients were identified over nine months in a primary stroke centre. 31 variables were collected. Final diagnosis was defined as “stroke”...

  14. Hurdles in stroke thrombolysis: Experience from 100 consecutive ischemic stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Badachi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute management of ischemic stroke involves thrombolysis within 4.5 h. For a successful outcome, early recognition of stroke, transportation to the hospital emergency department immediately after stroke, timely imaging, proper diagnosis, and thrombolysis within 4.5 h is of paramount importance. Aim: To analyze the obstacles for thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. A total of hundred consecutive patients of acute ischemic stroke who were not thrombolysed, but otherwise fulfilled the criteria for thrombolysis were evaluated prospectively for various factors that prevented thrombolysis. The constraints to thrombolysis were categorized into: i Failure of patient to recognize stroke symptoms, ii patient′s awareness of thrombolysis as a treatment modality for stroke, iii failure of patient′s relative to recognize stroke, iv failure of primary care physician to recognize stroke, v transport delays, vi lack of neuroimaging and thrombolysis facility, and vii nonaffordability. Results: The biggest hurdle for early hospital presentation is failure of patients to recognize stroke (73%, followed by lack of neuroimaging facility (58%, nonaffordability (56%, failure of patient′s relative to recognize stroke (38%, failure of the primary care physician to recognize stroke (21%, and transport problems (13%. Awareness of thrombolysis as a treatment modality for stroke was seen only in 2%. Conclusion: Considering the urgency of therapeutic measures in acute stroke, there is necessity and room for improvement to overcome various hurdles that prevent thrombolysis.

  15. Vertical organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  16. Vertical School of Art

    OpenAIRE

    Feijoo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Vertical Buildings (skyscrapers) challenge our perception of space, our perception of scale, our idea of movement, they challenge the way we live. Currently urban cities are becoming more and more dense. Lack of space is a big issue and now buildings are being torn down and are replaced by skyscrapers. And these new skyscrapers are being redefined to house a living and working environment. Cubism challenges our perception of depth, our tactile sense, our ideas of proportion. Cubism, as a 20th...

  17. NET vertical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elongated cross-section of the plasma in NET leads to vertical positional instability so that a passive and active stabilizing system is required. The passive action is performed essentially by the segmented first wall, while the active action is performed by two feedback driven toroidal bars. The performance of such a system is presented for a reference case, as well as a sensitivity analysis with respect to some parameters. (author)

  18. NET vertical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elongated cross-section of the plasma in NET leads to vertical positional instability so that a passive and active stabilizing system is required. The passive action is performed essentially by the segmented first wall, while the active action is performed by two feedback driven toroidal bars. The performance of such a system is presented here for a reference case, as well as a sensitivity analysis with respect to some parameters

  19. 5-year survival and rehospitalization due to stroke recurrence among patients with hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yan; Lee, Sze Haur; Heng, Bee Hoon; Chin, Vivien S

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is the 4th leading cause of death and 1st leading cause of disability in Singapore. However the information on long-term post stroke outcomes for Singaporean patients was limited. This study aimed to investigate the post stroke outcomes of 5-year survival and rehospitalization due to stroke recurrence for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke patients in Singapore. The outcomes were stratified by age, ethnic group, gender and stroke types. The causes of death and stroke recurrence...

  20. Stroke Statistics in Korea: Part I. Epidemiology and Risk Factors: A Report from the Korean Stroke Society and Clinical Research Center for Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Bang, Oh Young; Kang, Dong-Wha; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Jin Soo; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kwon, Sun U.; Oh, Chang Wan; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Jong S.; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the Part I of Stroke Statistics in Korea is to summarize nationally representative data of the epidemiology and risk factors of stroke in a single document. Every year, approximately 105,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke and more than 26,000 die of stroke, which indicates that every 5 minutes stroke attacks someone and every 20 minutes stroke kills someone in Korea. Stroke accounts for roughly 1 of every 10 deaths. The estimated stroke prevalence is about 795,000 in p...

  1. Acute [corrected] stroke thrombolysis: an update [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdiratta, Manu; Caplan, Louis R

    2007-01-01

    Acute stroke therapy took a major step forward in 1996 after the approval of Intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) by the US Food and Drug Administration for patients presenting within 3 hours of the onset of stroke symptoms. Since that time, there have been considerable advances in imaging techniques as well as the advent of devices to help in the management of acute stroke patients. As a result, the arsenal to treat acute stroke has grown, and the field of stroke as a subspecialty of neurology has emerged. Despite these advances, only 3% to 8% of eligible patients with acute stroke in the United States are administered thrombolytics.(1) We herein review the use of thrombolytics in stroke and provide an overview of the imaging advances, new devices, and recent trials that are shaping modern stroke therapy. Finally, we provide a practical approach to the management of acute stroke, specifically for the practicing cardiologist, who may encounter stroke during cardiac catheterization, post myocardial infarction (MI), and in a variety of other settings. PMID:17498523

  2. Secondary stroke prevention: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenwa, Charles; Gutierrez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the USA and a major cause of mortality worldwide. One out of four strokes is recurrent. Secondary stroke prevention starts with deciphering the most likely stroke mechanism. In general, one of the main goals in stroke reduction is to control vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking cessation. Changes in lifestyle like a healthy diet and aerobic exercise are also recommended strategies. In the case of cardioembolism due to atrial fibrillation, mechanical valves, or cardiac thrombus, anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy. The role of anticoagulation is less evident in the case of bioprosthetic valves, patent foramen ovale, and dilated cardiomyopathy with low ejection fraction. Strokes due to larger artery atherosclerosis account for approximately a third of all strokes. In the case of symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis, surgical intervention as close as possible in time to the index event seems highly beneficial. In the case of intracranial large artery atherosclerosis, the best medical therapy consists of antiplatelets, high-dose statins, aggressive controls of vascular risk factors, and lifestyle modifications, with no role for intracranial arterial stenting or angioplasty. For patients with small artery occlusion (ie, lacunar stroke), the therapy is similar to that used in patients with intracranial large artery atherosclerosis. Despite the constant new evidence on how to best treat patients who have suffered a stroke, the risk of stroke recurrence remains unacceptably high, thus evidencing the need for novel therapies. PMID:26300647

  3. Verbal learning and memory after childhood stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Max, Jeffrey E; Delis, Dean C; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack; Manes, Facundo F; Schatz, Amy

    2004-09-01

    Verbal learning and memory (VLM) following pediatric stroke was characterized in a cross-sectional neuropsychological and neuroimaging study of 26 subjects, aged 5 to 17, with a history of pediatric stroke and 26 age, SES, and gender matched orthopedic controls. Further comparisons were made between the VLM profiles of stroke subjects with right versus left hemisphere lesions and early (> 12 months) versus late (12 months) strokes. Overall, stroke subjects scored significantly lower than control subjects on several VLM indices (California Verbal Learning Test-Children; CVLT-C), as well as on measures of intellectual functioning (IQ) and auditory attention/working memory (Digit Span). Subgroup analyses of the stroke population found no significant differences in VLM, Digit Span, Verbal IQ or Performance IQ when left-hemisphere lesion subjects were compared to right-hemisphere lesion subjects. In contrast, early strokes were associated with significantly fewer words recalled after delay, reduced discriminability (fewer correct hits relative to false positive errors on recognition testing), and relatively worse auditory attention/working memory scores (Digit Span). These findings indicate that pediatric stroke subjects demonstrated more VLM impairment than control subjects, and early strokes were associated with greater recall and recognition deficits. In stark contrast with adult-onset stroke, both left- and right-hemisphere lesions during childhood resulted in similar VLM performance. PMID:15327721

  4. Epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Daneshfard

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is the main cause of physical disability and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Two-thirds of all strokes occur in the developing countries. Despite being preventable, stroke is increasingly becoming a major health issue in these countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of stroke in Shiraz, Iran, one of the main referral centers in the southwestern part of Iran.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all stroke patients admitted to the Namazee Hospital, affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, between August 2010 and January 2011. Patients’ demographic data, atherosclerosis risk factors, type of stroke, drug history, outcomes, and neurological signs were recorded. Chi-square test, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, t-test, and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to analyze the data.Results: A total of 305 patients with stroke, aged 27-97 years (mean ± SD = 68.33 ± 12.99, 269 patients (88.2% had ischemic stroke (IS and 36 (11.8% had hemorrhagic stroke (HS. 133 patients (43.6% were men and 172 (56.4% were women. 11.4% of the patients with IS and 40.6% with HS died during hospitalization, causing 12.1% death in all stroke patients [Odds ratio (Or = 5.34, 95% Confidence intervals (CI = 2.35-12.11]. Hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, and recurrent stroke were the most common risk factors.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the epidemiology of stroke in the southwestern part of Iran may be similar to other places. However, it seems necessary and helpful to design a registration system for patients with stroke in Shiraz Namazee Hospital.

  5. Patent foramen ovale (PFO), stroke and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Deng, Wenjun; Palacios, Igor; Inglessis-Azuaje, Ignacio; McMullin, David; Zhou, Dong; Lo, Eng H; Buonanno, Ferdinando; Ning, MingMing

    2016-06-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO)-related stroke is increasingly recognized as an important etiology of ischemic embolic stroke-accounting for up to 50% of strokes previously considered 'cryptogenic' or with an unknown mechanism. As a 'back door to the brain,' PFO can allow venous clots to enter arterial circulation via interatrial right-to-left shunting, potentially resulting in ischemic stroke. We observe that clinically, PFO-related stroke affects women of childbearing age, and that pregnancy-owing to major changes in hemocoagulative, hormonal, and cardiovascular parameters-can enhance stroke risks. However, no systematic study has been performed and little is known regarding complications, pregnancy outcomes and treatment for PFO-related stroke during pregnancy. To identify and characterize the complications and clinical outcomes related to PFOs during pregnancy, we performed a literature review and analysis from all reported cases of pregnancy with PFO-related complications in the medical literature from 1970 to 2015. We find that during pregnancy and post-partum, PFO is associated with complications affecting multiple organs, including the brain, heart and lung. The three principal complications reported are stroke, pulmonary emboli and myocardial infarction. In contrast to other pregnancy-related stroke etiologies, which peak during later pregnancy and postpartum, PFO-related stroke peaks during early pregnancy (first and second trimester-60%), and most patients had good neurological outcome (77%). In patients with PFO with recurrent stroke during pregnancy, additional key factors include high-risk PFO morphology (atrial septal aneurysm), larger right-to-left shunt, multiple gestation and concurrent hypercoagulability. Compared to strokes of other etiologies during pregnancy, most PFO stroke patients experienced uneventful delivery (93%) of healthy babies with a good clinical outcome. We conclude with recommended clinical treatment strategies for pregnant patients

  6. Trade elasticity and vertical specialisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Buono; Filippo Vergara Caffarelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows that vertical specialisation can increase the elasticity of trade to income, hence explaining dramatic events such as the great trade collapse. We argue that a change in the extent of vertical specialisation affects the elasticity of trade to income, while a mere change in global production levels for a given extent of vertical specialisation does not. In the model we show that only large demand shocks induce firms to vary the extent of vertical specialisation. Using panel da...

  7. Joint dependent passive stiffness in paretic and contralateral limbs of spastic patients with hemiparetic stroke.

    OpenAIRE

    Given, J D; Dewald, J P; Rymer, W Z

    1995-01-01

    Torque-angle relations at the elbow and ankle joints of relaxed normal controls and patients with hemiparetic stroke were compared. Low velocity flexion/hold/extension angular perturbations were applied to the joint under examination. The resulting torque-angle profiles described a hysteresis loop with similar slopes during the extension and flexion stages but separated by a vertical torque offset. Torque-angle responses obtained in the absence of significant muscle activation, as recorded by...

  8. Lift vs. drag based mechanisms for vertical force production in the smallest flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S K; Laurenza, R; Hedrick, T L; Griffith, B E; Miller, L A

    2015-11-01

    We used computational fluid dynamics to determine whether lift- or drag-based mechanisms generate the most vertical force in the flight of the smallest insects. These insects fly at Re on the order of 4-60 where viscous effects are significant. Detailed quantitative data on the wing kinematics of the smallest insects is not available, and as a result both drag- and lift-based strategies have been suggested as the mechanisms by which these insects stay aloft. We used the immersed boundary method to solve the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction problem of a flexible wing immersed in a two-dimensional viscous fluid to compare three idealized hovering kinematics: a drag-based stroke in the vertical plane, a lift-based stroke in the horizontal plane, and a hybrid stroke on a tilted plane. Our results suggest that at higher Re, a lift-based strategy produces more vertical force than a drag-based strategy. At the Re pertinent to small insect hovering, however, there is little difference in performance between the two strategies. A drag-based mechanism of flight could produce more vertical force than a lift-based mechanism for insects at Re<5; however, we are unaware of active fliers at this scale. PMID:26300066

  9. Ischemic stroke and incomplete infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Javier; Lassen, N A; Weiller, C;

    1996-01-01

    The concept of selective vulnerability or selective loss o f individual neurons, with survival of glial and vascular elements as one of the consequences of a systemic ischemic-hypoxic insult (eg, transient cardiac arrest or severe hypotension), has been recognized for decades. In contrast, select......, selective neuronal death as one of the lesions that may develop in the brain after occluding an intracranial artery is an idea not readily acknowledged in the current medical literature dealing with human stroke....

  10. Dysphagia after Stroke: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    González-Fernández, Marlís; Ottenstein, Lauren; Atanelov, Levan; Christian, Asare B.

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia affects the vast majority of acute stroke patients. Although it improves within 2 weeks for most, some face longstanding swallowing problems that place them at risk for pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, and significantly affect quality of life. This paper discusses the scope, the disease burden, and the tools available for screening and formal evaluation of dysphagia. The most common and recently developed treatment interventions that might be useful in the treatment of this pop...

  11. STROKE PREVENTION IN INTERNIST PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Napalkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke secondary prevention in internist practice is discussed in accordance with up to date guidelines. Modern pharmacotherapy includes antiaggregants or anticoagulants, statins, and antihypertensive drugs. The choice of drugs is mostly founded on the rules of evidence based medicine, which allow adjusting individual treatment depending on clinical conditions. The composition of perindopril and indapamide is a preferred nowadays combination of antihypertensive drugs.

  12. GPS, su datum vertical.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de la metodología GPS en aplicaciones topográficas y geodésicas pone en notoria evidencia la clásica separación de sistemas de referencia en horizontal y vertical. Con GPS el posicionamiento es tridimensional, pero el concepto de altura difiere del clásico. Si se desea utilizar la información altimétrica debe contemplarse la ondulación del geoide.

  13. Heat stroke: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Theresa Pluth

    2004-01-01

    Heat stroke (HS) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition defined as a core body temperature >40.6 degrees C. Two forms of HS are recognized, classic heat stroke, usually occurring in very young or elderly persons, and exertional heat stroke, more common in physically active individuals. An elevated body temperature and neurologic dysfunction are necessary but not sufficient to diagnose HS. Associated clinical manifestations such as extreme fatigue; hot dry skin or heavy perspiration; nausea; vomiting; diarrhea; disorientation to person, place, or time; dizziness; uncoordinated movements; and reddened face are frequently observed. Potential complications related to severe HS are acute renal failure, disseminated intravascular coagulation, rhabdomyolysis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, acid-base disorders, and electrolyte disturbances. Long-term neurologic sequelae (varying degrees of irreversible brain injury) occur in approximately 20% of patients. The prognosis is optimal when HS is diagnosed early and management with cooling measures and fluid resuscitation and electrolyte replacement begins promptly. The prognosis is poorest when treatment is delayed >2 hours. PMID:15461044

  14. Endovascular therapy for acute stroke: Quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh S Madhugiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endovascular therapy (EVT has gained vogue in the management of patients with acute stroke. Newer stent-retriever devices have led to better recanalization rates. In many centers, EVT is slowly being used as an add on to or in some instances, even as an alternative to intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA. The publication of the results of the SYNTHESIS expansion, Interventional Management of Stroke III and Mechanical Retrieval Recanalization of Stroke Clots Using Embolectomy trials in 2013 has questioned the enthusiastic use of EVT in acute stroke. They demonstrate that EVT (using a variety of devices is no superior to IV tPA in the management of acute stroke. In the light of these controversial findings, we review the current status of EVT in the management of acute stroke.

  15. Cause-specific mortality after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae;

    2013-01-01

    We investigated cause-specific mortality in relation to age, sex, stroke severity, and cardiovascular risk factor profile in the Copenhagen Stroke Study cohort with 10 years of follow-up. In a Copenhagen community, all patients admitted to the hospital with stroke during 1992-1993 (n = 988) were...... registered on admission. Evaluation included stroke severity, computed tomography scan, and a cardiovascular risk profile. Cause of death within 10 years according to death certificate information was classified as stroke, heart/arterial disease, or nonvascular disease. Competing-risks analyses were...... performed by cause-specific Cox regression after multiple imputation of missing data, assuming that values were missing at random. Death was due to stroke in 310 patients (31%), to heart/arterial disease in 209 patients (21%), and to nonvascular diseases in 289 patients (29%); 180 patients were still alive...

  16. Role of echocardiography in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Koki; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of potential embolic source is an important diagnostic step in treating patients with ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack. Cardiogenic embolism has been estimated to be the causative factor in 15-30% of all cases of ischemic stroke. Cardioembolic strokes are generally severe and recurrence and mortality rate high. Various cardiac disorders including atrial fibrillation, ventricular thrombus, valvular heart disease, cardiac tumors, and structural heart defects can cause cardioembolic stroke. Although the aortic arch is not a cardiac structure, it is usually considered under source of cardiac embolism (cardioaortic source) and is reviewed in this article. Echocardiography (both transthoracic and transesophageal) is a widely used and versatile technique that can provide comprehensive information of thromboembolic risk in patients with stroke. This article reviews potential cardiac sources of stroke and discusses the role of echocardiography in clinical practice. PMID:27256218

  17. Evolving Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerna, Charlotte; Hegedus, Janka; Hill, Michael D

    2016-04-29

    The purpose of this article is to review advances in stroke treatment in the hyperacute period. With recent evolutions of technology in the fields of imaging, thrombectomy devices, and emergency room workflow management, as well as improvement in statistical methods and study design, there have been ground breaking changes in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. We describe how stroke presents as a clinical syndrome and how imaging as the most important biomarker will help differentiate between stroke subtypes and treatment eligibility. The evolution of hyperacute treatment has led to the current standard of care: intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator and endovascular treatment for proximal vessel occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation. All patients with acute ischemic stroke are in need of hyperacute secondary prevention because the risk of recurrence is highest closest to the index event. The dominant themes of modern stroke care are the use of neurovascular imaging and speed of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27126651

  18. Fifty years of stroke researches in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tapas Kumar; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the stroke incidence in India is much higher than Western industrialized countries. Large vessel intracranial atherosclerosis is the commonest cause of ischemic stroke in India. The common risk factors, that is, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and dyslipidemia are quite prevalent and inadequately controlled; mainly because of poor public awareness and inadequate infrastructure. Only a small number of ischemic stroke cases are able to have the benefit of thrombolytic therapy. Benefits from stem cell therapy in established stroke cases are under evaluation. Presently, prevention of stroke is the best option considering the Indian scenario through control and/or avoiding risk factors of stroke. Interventional studies are an important need for this scenario. PMID:27011621

  19. Comprehensive Stroke Centers May Be Associated With Improved Survival in Hemorrhagic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    McKinney, James S; Cheng, Jerry Q.; Rybinnik, Igor; Kostis, John B.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) provide a full spectrum of neurological and neurosurgical services to treat complex stroke patients. CSCs have been shown to improve clinical outcomes and mitigate disparities in ischemic stroke patients. It is believed that CSCs also improve outcomes in hemorrhagic stroke. Methods and Results We used the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System (MIDAS) database, which includes data on patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of intracer...

  20. Hurdles in stroke thrombolysis: Experience from 100 consecutive ischemic stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar Badachi; Thomas Mathew; Arvind Prabhu; Raghunandan Nadig; Gosala R. K Sarma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute management of ischemic stroke involves thrombolysis within 4.5 h. For a successful outcome, early recognition of stroke, transportation to the hospital emergency department immediately after stroke, timely imaging, proper diagnosis, and thrombolysis within 4.5 h is of paramount importance. Aim: To analyze the obstacles for thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care center in South India. A total of hundred consecu...

  1. Determination of vertical strokeVudvertical stroke from Fermi decays and the unitarity of the KM-mixing matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We re-evaluate the ft-values and their radiative corrections for the eight superallowed β+ decays for which very accurate data are available and also include the results for 10C, for which the measurements are approaching a similar accuracy. The main new feature is a recalculation of the nuclear-structure dependent part CNS of the O(α) radiative correction using wave functions more realistic than those used previously. This determines the value of the element Vud of the quark mixing matrix. Moreover, we recalculate Vus in the framework of a quark model. The resulting values of these two matrix elements indicate a violation of unitarity of the mixing matrix. We discuss implications of this regarding possible extensions of the minimal version of the standard model of electroweak interactions. (orig.)

  2. Rehabilitation of a patient with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Apurba Barman; Ashok K Mahapatra

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a significant cause of long-term disability world-wide. The post-stroke disabilities are due to loss of locomotion, activity of daily living, cognition and communication skills. Rehabilitation is an integral part of medical management and continues longitudinally through acute care, post-acute care and community reintegration. The objectives of stroke rehabilitation are to maximize the functional independence, minimize the disabilities, reintegrate back into the home and community a...

  3. Emerging Treatments for Motor Rehabilitation After Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Claflin, Edward S.; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Khot, Sandeep P.

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous treatments are available to improve cerebral perfusion after acute stroke and prevent recurrent stroke, few rehabilitation treatments have been conclusively shown to improve neurologic recovery. The majority of stroke survivors with motor impairment do not recover to their functional baseline, and there remains a need for novel neurorehabilitation treatments to minimize long-term disability, maximize quality of life, and optimize psychosocial outcomes. In recent years, sever...

  4. Urinary Proteomics to Support Diagnosis of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, J.; Walters, M.; Delles, C.; Mischak, H.; Mullen, W

    2012-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis in suspected ischaemic stroke can be difficult. We explored the urinary proteome in patients with stroke (n = 69), compared to controls (n = 33), and developed a biomarker model for the diagnosis of stroke. We performed capillary electrophoresis online coupled to micro-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Potentially disease-specific peptides were identified and a classifier based on these was generated using support vector machine-based software. Candidate biomarkers were seq...

  5. Professionals' views on interprofessional stroke team functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Cramm, Jane Murray; Nieboer, Anna Petra

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractIntroduction: The quality of integrated stroke care depends on smooth team functioning but professionals may not always work well together. Professionals’ perspectives on the factors that influence stroke team functioning remain largely unexamined. Understanding their experiences is critical to indentifying measures to improve team functioning. The aim of this study was to identify the factors that contributed to the success of interprofessional stroke teams as perceived by te...

  6. Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, May; Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite ongoing advances in stroke imaging and treatment, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke continue to debilitate patients with devastating outcomes at both the personal and societal levels. While the ultimate goal of therapy in ischemic stroke is geared towards restoration of blood flow, even when mitigation of initial tissue hypoxia is successful, exacerbation of tissue injury may occur in the form of cell death, or alternatively, hemorrhagic transformation of reperfused tissue. Animal model...

  7. Stroke in Women: Disparities and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Persky, Rebecca W.; Turtzo, Lisa Christine; McCullough, Louise D.

    2010-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the United States and affects 15 million people worldwide. Studies performed in various parts of the world have found differences between sexes in stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, and outcomes. Although men are at higher risk of stroke for most age groups below age 85 years, after this age the incidence reverses dramatically, with women being much more at risk. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that women have worse recovery than men post...

  8. Insular Ischemic Stroke: Clinical Presentation and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Lemieux, F.; Lanthier, S.; Chevrier, M.-C.; de Gioia, L.; I. Rouleau; Cereda, C.; Nguyen, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The insula is a small but complex structure located in the depth of the sylvian fissure, covered by the frontal, parietal and temporal operculum. Ischemic strokes limited to the insula are rare and have not been well studied. Our objective is to better define the clinical presentation and outcome of insular ischemic strokes (IIS). Methods We reviewed the institutional prospective, consecutive stroke database from two centers to identify patients with IIS seen between 2008 and 2010....

  9. Cerebrovascular Complications of Diabetes: Focus on Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Ergul, Adviye; Kelly-Cobbs, Aisha; Abdalla, Maha; Fagan, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Cerebrovascular complications make diabetic patients 2–6 times more susceptible to a stroke event and this risk is magnified in younger individuals and in patients with hypertension and complications in other vascular beds. In addition, when patients with diabetes and hyperglycemia experience an acute ischemic stroke they are more likely to die or be severely disabled and less likely to benefit from the one FDA-approved therapy, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Experimental stroke mo...

  10. Impaired Hyperemic Response to Exercise Post Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Matthew J.; Murphy, Spencer A.; Schaefer, Kathleen K.; HUNTER, SANDRA K.; Schmit, Brian D.; Gutterman, David D.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with chronic stroke have reduced perfusion of the paretic lower limb at rest; however, the hyperemic response to graded muscle contractions in this patient population has not been examined. This study quantified blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs of subjects with chronic stroke after submaximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles and correlated those measures with limb function and activity. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and ten controls had blood flow ...

  11. Computer generated ·D strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Forés Solar, Enric

    2014-01-01

    StrokeEbased rendering (SBR) is an approach to creating nonE photorealistic images (NPI) by placing discrete elements called strokes, such as paint strokes or stipples. Several lines of investigation are being followed to obtain software that authomatises this process, both in still and moving images The aim of this present work is to adapt the Computer Generated Images (CGI) part of a common 3D animation pipeline (concatenated processes with which a 3D animation is made,...

  12. Stroke in the Eye of the Beholder

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Hiroto; Caputo, Mathew; Franzese, Nicholas; Weinbren, Nathan L.; Slakter, Adam; Patel, Milan; Stahl, Christine E.; Jacotte, Maria Alejandra; Acosta, Sandra; Franyuti, Giorgio; Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Tajiri, Naoki; van Loveren, Harry; Kaneko, Yuji; Cesar V. Borlongan

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiological changes that occur during ischemic stroke can have a profound effect on the surrounding nerve tissue. To this end, we advance the hypothesis that retinal damage can occur as a consequence of ischemic stroke in animal models. We discuss the preclinical evidence over the last 3 decades supporting this hypothesis of retinal damage following ischemic stroke. In our evaluation of the hypothesis, we highlight the animal models providing evidence of pathological and mechanisti...

  13. Multi-sensor classification of tennis strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Connaghan, Damien; Kelly, Philip; O''Connor, Noel E.; Gaffney, Mark; Ó Mathúna, S. Cian

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we investigate tennis stroke recognition using a single inertial measuring unit attached to a player’s forearm during a competitive match. This paper evaluates the best approach for stroke detection using either accelerometers, gyroscopes or magnetometers, which are embedded into the inertial measuring unit. This work concludes what is the optimal training data set for stroke classification and proves that classifiers can perform well when tested on players who were not used ...

  14. Antithrombotic Medication for Cardioembolic Stroke Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    M. Àngels Font; Jerzy Krupinski; Adrià Arboix

    2011-01-01

    Embolism of cardiac origin accounts for about 20% of ischemic strokes. Nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is the most frequent cause of cardioembolic stroke. Approximately 1% of population is affected by atrial fibrillation, and its prevalence is growing with ageing in the modern world. Strokes due to cardioembolism are in general severe and prone to early recurrence and have a higher long-term risk of recurrence and mortality. Despite its enormous preventive potential, continuous oral anticoagu...

  15. Factors relating to emotional distress after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Shirley Ann

    2006-01-01

    Emotional distress is common after stroke and has a negative impact on rehabilitation outcome. The aim of this thesis was to identify factors relating to emotional distress after stroke to inform future interventions. This thesis developed a theoretical framework to guide the study of emotional distress and included stroke and demographic characteristics, background information, disability (personal and extended activities of daily living and aphasia) and psychosocial factors (coping, locus o...

  16. Secondary stroke prevention: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esenwa C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Charles Esenwa, Jose GutierrezDepartment of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the USA and a major cause of mortality worldwide. One out of four strokes is recurrent. Secondary stroke prevention starts with deciphering the most likely stroke mechanism. In general, one of the main goals in stroke reduction is to control vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and smoking cessation. Changes in lifestyle like a healthy diet and aerobic exercise are also recommended strategies. In the case of cardioembolism due to atrial fibrillation, mechanical valves, or cardiac thrombus, anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy. The role of anticoagulation is less evident in the case of bioprosthetic valves, patent foramen ovale, and dilated cardiomyopathy with low ejection fraction. Strokes due to larger artery atherosclerosis account for approximately a third of all strokes. In the case of symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis, surgical intervention as close as possible in time to the index event seems highly beneficial. In the case of intracranial large artery atherosclerosis, the best medical therapy consists of antiplatelets, high-dose statins, aggressive controls of vascular risk factors, and lifestyle modifications, with no role for intracranial arterial stenting or angioplasty. For patients with small artery occlusion (ie, lacunar stroke, the therapy is similar to that used in patients with intracranial large artery atherosclerosis. Despite the constant new evidence on how to best treat patients who have suffered a stroke, the risk of stroke recurrence remains unacceptably high, thus evidencing the need for novel therapies.Keywords: stroke mechanisms, stroke risk, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia

  17. Vertical organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. (topical review)

  18. Results of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial by stroke subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Benavente, Oscar; Goldstein, Larry B;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The SPARCL trial showed that atorvastatin 80 mg/d reduces the risk of stroke and other cardiovascular events in patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We tested the hypothesis that the benefit of treatment varies according to index event stroke sub...

  19. Stroke: 'time is brain' after stroke, regardless of age and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Heinrich J; Sobesky, Jan

    2014-12-01

    Two recent studies highlight the importance of prompt, coordinated intervention after stroke. A meta-analysis confirms that intravenous thrombolysis is effective within 4.5 h of onset, irrespective of age (below or above 80 years) and stroke severity. Another study demonstrates successful reorganization of care through centralization of stroke services in England. PMID:25330727

  20. A CLINICAL STUDY OF STROKE IN YOUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbha Thulasi Ram

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available NTRIDUCTION : Stroke is one of the important causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world. Incidence of stroke steadily increases with age. Experts are concerned of the emerging stroke epidemic in India. Stroke affecting the young has potentially devastating consequence son the individual and his family. Certain risk factors are unique to the young. I t needs more studies for identification and modification of risk factors. The study aims to evaluate clinical features, risk factors, etiology and mortality of stroke in young patients. METHODS : 74 young patients satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in this study. A detailed history was taken from young stroke patients, systemic examination and required investigations were done. Data was collected in standardized proforma and analysed. RESULTS: Stroke in young accounts for 7.95% of stroke cases of all age groups. The mean age of the patients was 34.66 ± 7.48 years. Among 74 patients, 47(63.51% were male and 27(36.49% were female. Seizures, decreased consciousness, speech involvement and motor deficit were observed in 33.78%, 44.59%, 22.97% and 100% of cases respectively. 82.43% patients had ischemic and 17.57% patients had hemorrhagic stroke. Among ischemic stroke, large artery atherosclerosis was 16.21%, tuberculous meningoencephalitis with vasculitis was 16.21%, lacunar stroke was 10.81%, CVT was 10.81% and cardio embolic stroke was 6.76%. Smoking (59.45%, alcoholism (58.10%, hypertension (43.24%, coronary artery disease (8.10%, diabetes mellitus (10.81%, elevated total cholesterol (25.67%, elevated low density lipo proteins (22.97%, elevated triglycerides (27.02% and low HDL (22.97% were important risk factors. Carotid doppler was abnormal in 9.45% of patients. 6.76% patients had mitral stenosis in echocardiogram. Low protein C and protein S were found in 1.35% of patients. Eight (10.81% patients died during the hospital stay. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The major risk

  1. Artificial Neural Networks in Stroke Predisposition Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, José; Vicente, Henrique; Gonçalves, Nuno(*); Oliveira, Ruben; Neves, João; Abelha, António; Machado, José

    2015-01-01

    On the one hand there are stroke events that cannot be avoid, which stem from unchangeable processes like aging, sex, family or medical history. In particular, elderly people have a higher risk of stroke, with almost 80% of strokes occurring in individuals over 60 years of age, and at an earlier age than in women, although women are catching up fast (in fact more women than men die from heart incidents). Stroke diseases have severe consequences for the patients and for the society in gener...

  2. Prediction of Major Vascular Events after Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovbiagele, Bruce; Goldstein, Larry B.; Amarenco, Pierre;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identifying patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) at high risk of major vascular events (MVEs; stroke, myocardial infarction, or vascular death) may help optimize the intensity of secondary preventive interventions. We evaluated the relationships between the...... baseline Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS) and a novel risk prediction model and with the occurrence of MVEs after stroke or TIA in subjects enrolled in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Level (SPARCL) trial. METHODS: Data from the 4731 subjects enrolled in the SPARCL study...

  3. In-hospital stroke: characteristics and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Briggs, R

    2015-01-01

    In-hospital stroke (IS) made up 6.5% of strokes recorded in the Irish National Stroke Register in 2012. International research has demonstrated poorer outcomes post IS compared to out of hospital stroke (OS). We aimed to profile all IS and OS over a 22 month period and compare the two groups by gathering data from the HIPE portal stroke register. The study site is a primary stroke centre. IS represented 11% (50\\/458) of total strokes with over half (27\\/50, 54%) admitted initially with medical complaints. IS patients had a significantly longer length of stay (79.2 +\\/- 87.4 days vs. 21.9 +\\/- 45.9 days, p < 0.01) and higher mortality (13\\/50 vs. 39\\/408, p < 0.01). Patients in the IS group were also less likely to receive stroke unit care (1\\/50 vs. 136\\/408, p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the significant morbidity and mortality associated with IS and highlights the need for efforts to be made to optimize identification and management of acute stroke in this cohort.

  4. [The Austrian Stroke-Unit-Registry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Christine; Kiechl, Stefan; Lang, Wilfried

    2008-01-01

    Since 2003 the Austrian Stroke-Unit-Registry has been administered by the Gesundheit Osterreich GmbH. A total of 26 out of the 32 existing Stroke Units in Austria take part in the project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Health and accompanied by a steering group. This paper provides a description of the objectives, organisation, methodology and the data set of the registry. The main objective of the registry is quality assurance and quality improvement of stroke-treatment in stroke units. Therefore, the participating stroke units document their cases using a web-based database. The data are discussed in the steering group and the stroke units get feedback in terms of benchmarking-graphs. The data set follows a modular approach and contains information about stroke, transport, admission to the hospital, stroke unit discharge and the 3-month follow-up. Between 2003 and 2007 about 27,000 cases (containing about 20,000 strokes) were documented in the registry. PMID:18766309

  5. Stroke in young: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Kameshwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of stroke in young in India has long been of interest to neurologists in the country. The age group for stroke in young has been variable between different studies but perhaps should be restricted to 15-49 years as this age group tends to have a unique set of causes and risk factors. There is no evidence indicating higher incidence of stroke in young in India than in other countries. Age-specific incidence rates from recent population-based studies from India are comparable to the western populations. Though the traditional risk factors of stroke play a significant role in young age group also, the presence of high number of cryptogenic strokes, cardioembolic and venous strokes makes diagnostic evaluation in this age group more challenging. This review aims at defining the age group for stroke in young, focuses on incidence of stroke in young on the basis of different population-based studies and details the risk factors and diagnostic approach of different stroke subtypes in young.

  6. Patent Foramen Ovale: Stroke and Device Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suradi, Hussam S; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2016-05-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common finding in healthy adults and has long been implicated in cryptogenic stroke. The pathogenesis is hypothesized to be caused by microemboli gaining access into the systemic circulation via a PFO. Proposed treatment options include medical therapy and/or PFO closure. Despite numerous studies and several randomized trials, much debate persists regarding the efficacy of this approach in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke in cryptogenic stroke patients. This article reviews the association between PFO and cryptogenic stroke, as well as current evidence for PFO device closure. PMID:27150171

  7. Stroke findings in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Kaplan, Robert C; Salazar, Christian R

    2014-11-01

    The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials of estrogen with or without progestin versus placebo in 27,341 postmenopausal women are the largest randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trials to look at the effect of hormone therapy on the outcomes of stroke, dementia, and cognition. Data from a parallel prospective observational study of 93,676 women examine biomarkers and risk factors associated with stroke. We summarize the results of 29 published articles in the WHI with stroke or cognition as outcomes of interest. Estrogen alone or in combination with progestin resulted in approximately 50% excess risk of ischemic stroke and in a 76% excess risk of dementia in women 65 years or older. Other risk factors for stroke identified in the WHI were panic attacks, depression, use of antidepressants (particularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for hemorrhagic but not ischemic stroke), high triglycerides, low walking speed, long sleep duration, certain inflammatory factors, and systolic blood pressure variability. Hormone therapy has adverse effects on the brain as manifested by higher risks of stroke and dementia. Additional risk factors for stroke identified in WHI should be followed up to determine if reversing them would result in lower stroke rates. PMID:25321421

  8. Determining Optimal Post-Stroke Exercise (DOSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Cerebrovascular Accident; Stroke; Cerebral Infarction; Brain Infarction; Brain Ischemia; Cerebrovascular Disorders; Brain Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases; Nervous System Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  9. Acute MRI changes in progressive ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalowska, E.; Rostrup, E.; Rosenbaum, S.;

    2008-01-01

    aimed to assess if acute MRI findings could be used for the prediction of stroke in progression (SIP). METHODS: Prospectively 41 patients, 13 with lacunar infarcts and 28 with territorial infarcts, were admitted to an acute stroke unit within 24 h of stroke onset (median 11 h, range 3- 22). Diffusion...... the modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index and SSS score. Patients with and without SIP were compared using both clinical and MRI data obtained on admission, on day 7 and after 3 months. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (37%) developed SIP. Increased DWI lesion volume on day 7 in all strokes was associated...

  10. Acute MRI Changes in Progressive Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalowska, Elizabeth; Rostrup, Egill; Rosenbaum, S;

    2008-01-01

    aimed to assess if acute MRI findings could be used for the prediction of stroke in progression (SIP). Methods: Prospectively 41 patients, 13 with lacunar infarcts and 28 with territorial infarcts, were admitted to an acute stroke unit within 24 h of stroke onset (median 11 h, range 3- 22). Diffusion...... the modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index and SSS score. Patients with and without SIP were compared using both clinical and MRI data obtained on admission, on day 7 and after 3 months. Results: Fifteen patients (37%) developed SIP. Increased DWI lesion volume on day 7 in all strokes was associated...

  11. Innovations in Stroke Prevention: An Update on Carotid Stenting

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with stroke per year. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the U.S.A., and ... carotid stenting in stroke had to have 20 leading cases. Next. And then a patient -- then a ...

  12. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Let's Talk About High Blood Pressure and Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 What is ... Blood Pressure? How Can I Reduce High Blood Pressure? High Blood Pressure and Stroke What Is Diabetes and How ...

  13. Stroke Stories | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Stroke Rehabilitation Stroke Stories Past Issues / Spring 2013 Table of Contents ... these well-known personalities suffered one or more strokes. In each case, he or she has returned ...

  14. Stroke Hospitalization Down for Many in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158779.html Stroke Hospitalization Down for Many in U.S. But higher ... 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- While Americans suffered fewer strokes overall from 2000 to 2010, stroke rates climbed ...

  15. Stroke Hospitalization Down for Many in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158779.html Stroke Hospitalization Down for Many in U.S. But higher ... 11, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- While Americans suffered fewer strokes overall from 2000 to 2010, stroke rates climbed ...

  16. Skipping Meds Greatly Ups Heart Patients' Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skipping Meds Greatly Ups Heart Patients' Risk of Stroke: Study Fatal strokes seven times more likely if drugs to control ... are much more likely to die from a stroke if they don't take cholesterol-lowering statin ...

  17. Challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, L. C.; Hillis, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    The onset of stroke in children rarely owes to traditional stroke risk factors such as hypertension or diabetes. Rather, stroke in this patient group typically results from the simultaneous occurrence of multiple stroke risk factors, the presence of which necessitates a thorough evaluation. Several challenges exist in the care of children with stroke. Of note, recognition of pediatric stroke onset by parents and caregivers is often delayed, highlighting the need for increased awareness of and...

  18. Stroke and Pregnancy: Clinical Presentation, Evaluation, Treatment and Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Grear, Karrie E; Bushnell, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Stroke is a neurological emergency that carries a risk of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have shown that the incidence of stroke, while rare, is increasing in pregnant females. In this review, stroke and other vasculopathies in the pregnant and post-partum female are examined. A discussion of the symptoms and clinical presentation of stroke is provided, as well as the current guideline for treatment of stroke in pregnancy. Finally, the data illustrating the recent increases in stroke...

  19. Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care in Taiwan: The Breakthrough Collaborative in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Fang-I; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Liao, Hsun-Hsiang; Chang, Hang; LaBresh, Kenneth A; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lien, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the management of acute ischemic stroke, guideline adherence is often suboptimal, particularly for intravenous thrombolysis or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. We sought to improve stroke care quality via a collaborative model, the Breakthrough Series (BTS)-Stroke activity, in a nationwide, multi-center activity in Taiwan. A BTS Collaborative, a short-term learning system for a large number of multidisciplinary teams from hospitals, was applied to enhance acute ischemic stroke care quality. Twenty-four hospitals participated in and submitted data for this stroke quality improvement campaign in 2010-2011. Totally, 14 stroke quality measures, adopted from the Get With The Guideline (GWTG)-Stroke program, were used to evaluate the performance and outcome of the ischemic stroke patients. Data for a one-year period from 24 hospitals with 13,181 acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. In 14 hospitals, most stroke quality measures improved significantly during the BTS-activity compared with a pre-BTS-Stroke activity period (2006-08). The rate of intravenous thrombolysis increased from 1.2% to 4.6%, door-to-needle time ≤60 minutes improved from 7.1% to 50.8%, symptomatic hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis decreased from 11.0% to 5.6%, and anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation increased from 32.1% to 64.1%. The yearly composite measures of five stroke quality measures revealed significant improvements from 2006 to 2011 (75% to 86.3%, p<0.001). The quarterly composite measures also improved significantly during the BTS-Stroke activity. In conclusion, a BTS collaborative model is associated with improved guideline adherence for patients with acute ischemic stroke. GWTG-Stroke recommendations can be successfully applied in countries besides the United States. PMID:27487190

  20. Canadian stroke best practice recommendations: Stroke rehabilitation practice guidelines, update 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Debbie; Lindsay, M Patrice; McIntyre, Amanda; Kirton, Adam; Rumney, Peter G; Bagg, Stephen; Bayley, Mark; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Dukelow, Sean; Garnhum, Maridee; Glasser, Ev; Halabi, Mary-Lou; Kang, Ester; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Martino, Rosemary; Rochette, Annie; Rowe, Sarah; Salbach, Nancy; Semenko, Brenda; Stack, Bridget; Swinton, Luchie; Weber, Valentine; Mayer, Matthew; Verrilli, Sue; DeVeber, Gabrielle; Andersen, John; Barlow, Karen; Cassidy, Caitlin; Dilenge, Marie-Emmanuelle; Fehlings, Darcy; Hung, Ryan; Iruthayarajah, Jerome; Lenz, Laura; Majnemer, Annette; Purtzki, Jacqueline; Rafay, Mubeen; Sonnenberg, Lyn K; Townley, Ashleigh; Janzen, Shannon; Foley, Norine; Teasell, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Stroke rehabilitation is a progressive, dynamic, goal-orientated process aimed at enabling a person with impairment to reach their optimal physical, cognitive, emotional, communicative, social and/or functional activity level. After a stroke, patients often continue to require rehabilitation for persistent deficits related to spasticity, upper and lower extremity dysfunction, shoulder and central pain, mobility/gait, dysphagia, vision, and communication. Each year in Canada 62,000 people experience a stroke. Among stroke survivors, over 6500 individuals access in-patient stroke rehabilitation and stay a median of 30 days (inter-quartile range 19 to 45 days). The 2015 update of the Canadian Stroke Best Practice Recommendations: Stroke Rehabilitation Practice Guidelines is a comprehensive summary of current evidence-based recommendations for all members of multidisciplinary teams working in a range of settings, who provide care to patients following stroke. These recommendations have been developed to address both the organization of stroke rehabilitation within a system of care (i.e., Initial Rehabilitation Assessment; Stroke Rehabilitation Units; Stroke Rehabilitation Teams; Delivery; Outpatient and Community-Based Rehabilitation), and specific interventions and management in stroke recovery and direct clinical care (i.e., Upper Extremity Dysfunction; Lower Extremity Dysfunction; Dysphagia and Malnutrition; Visual-Perceptual Deficits; Central Pain; Communication; Life Roles). In addition, stroke happens at any age, and therefore a new section has been added to the 2015 update to highlight components of stroke rehabilitation for children who have experienced a stroke, either prenatally, as a newborn, or during childhood. All recommendations have been assigned a level of evidence which reflects the strength and quality of current research evidence available to support the recommendation. The updated Rehabilitation Clinical Practice Guidelines feature several

  1. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    composition, and it is truly commonplace in today’s communication with the diversity of VPNs and secure browser sessions. In fact, it is normal that we have several layers of secure channels: For instance, on top of a VPN-connection, a browser may establish another secure channel (possibly with a different...... end point). Even using the same protocol several times in such a stack of channels is not unusual: An application may very well establish another TLS channel over an established one. We call this selfcomposition. In fact, there is nothing that tells us that all these compositions are sound, i.e., that...... the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and...

  2. Association between acute statin therapy, survival, and improved functional outcome after ischemic stroke: the North Dublin Population Stroke Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-04-01

    Statins improve infarct volume and neurological outcome in animal stroke models. We investigated the relationship between statin therapy and ischemic stroke outcome in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study.

  3. Direct Observation of Ultralow Vertical Emittance using a Vertical Undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Kent

    2015-09-17

    In recent work, the first quantitative measurements of electron beam vertical emittance using a vertical undulator were presented, with particular emphasis given to ultralow vertical emittances [K. P. Wootton, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams, 17, 112802 (2014)]. Using this apparatus, a geometric vertical emittance of 0.9 ± 0.3 pm rad has been observed. A critical analysis is given of measurement approaches that were attempted, with particular emphasis on systematic and statistical uncertainties. The method used is explained, compared to other techniques and the applicability of these results to other scenarios discussed.

  4. Short- and long-term prognosis for very old stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;

    2004-01-01

    prognosis after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In this study very old age per se was a strong predictor of outcome and mortality after stroke. Apart from very old age, factors such as prestroke medical and functional status, and onset stroke severity should be taken into consideration when planning treatment and...... after stroke very old age predicted mortality or nursing home placement (OR 3.9; 95% CI 2.1-7.3), and long-term mortality (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5). However, other factors such as onset stroke severity, pre-existing disability and atrial fibrillation were also significant independent predictors of...

  5. An alternative approach to the analysis of sucker-rod dynamics in vertical and deviated wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lollback, P.A.; Wang, G.Y.; Rahman, S.S. [The Centre for Petroleum Engineering, School of Applied Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    1997-05-01

    A set of partial differential equations which consider the combined effects of fluid column, sucker-rod string and tubing motion were developed to describe the motion of a sucker-rod pumping system. If the tubing is fixed, only the fluid column and rod motion need be considered; however, when the tubing is free to move, energy in the system is lost and, therefore, pump system efficiency declines, hence, the need to consider these effects in the design of the sucker-rod system. Using finite differences this model was used to evaluate performance of sucker-rod pumps (pumping rate as a function of number of strokes, stroke length, rod length, ratio of plunger to cylinder diameter, etc.) in both vertical and deviated wells. The results indicate that the developed model simply and accurately models the dynamic motion of the sucker-rod string. The examples presented illustrate its general applicability in both vertical and deviated wells

  6. Participation in Complex and Social Everyday Activities Six Years after Stroke: Predictors for Return to Pre-Stroke Level

    OpenAIRE

    Singam, Avvai; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Tham, Kerstin; von Koch, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term disability following stroke can lead to participation restrictions in complex and social everyday activities, yet information is lacking on to what extent stroke survivors return to their pre-stroke levels of participation. Objectives The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of participation in complex and social everyday activities 6 years after stroke, to compare this with pre-stroke participation and to identify predictors of returning to pre-stroke l...

  7. Little change of modifiable risk factors 1 year after stroke: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Nete; Larsen, Klaus; Boysen, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent stroke accounts for about 25% of admissions for acute stroke. For the prevention of recurrent cerebro and cardiovascular disease, stroke patients are advised to change modifiable stroke risk factors before discharge from stroke units.......Recurrent stroke accounts for about 25% of admissions for acute stroke. For the prevention of recurrent cerebro and cardiovascular disease, stroke patients are advised to change modifiable stroke risk factors before discharge from stroke units....

  8. Sex differences in stroke survival: 10-year follow-up of the Copenhagen stroke study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using the...... factors showed no difference between sexes for ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke. Men more often were smokers and alcohol consumers. Unadjusted survival in men and women did not differ: 70.3% versus 66.7% (1-year), 40.0% versus 38.9% (5-year...... (hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.76). Before 9 months poststroke, no difference in survival was seen. Severity of stroke had the same effect on sex. CONCLUSION: Stroke is equally severe in men and women. Short-term survival is the same. Having survived stroke, women, however, live longer....

  9. Sex Differences in Stroke Survival: 10-Year Follow-up of the Copenhagen Stroke Study Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using the...... factors showed no difference between sexes for ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke. Men more often were smokers and alcohol consumers. Unadjusted survival in men and women did not differ: 70.3% versus 66.7% (1-year), 40.0% versus 38.9% (5-year...... (hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.76). Before 9 months poststroke, no difference in survival was seen. Severity of stroke had the same effect on sex. CONCLUSION: Stroke is equally severe in men and women. Short-term survival is the same. Having survived stroke, women, however, live longer....

  10. Thrombolysis outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior stroke and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, N K; Ahmed, N; Davalos, A; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Melo, T; Soinne, L; Wahlgren, N; Lees, K R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and prior stroke (PS) were excluded from European approval of alteplase in stroke. We examined the influence of DM and PS on the outcomes of patients who received thrombolytic therapy (T; data from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in...... Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register) compared to nonthrombolyzed controls (C; data from Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive). METHODS: We selected ischemic stroke patients on whom we held data on age, baseline NIH Stroke Scale score (NIHSS), and 90-day modified Rankin Scale score (m...... treatment (tissue plasminogen activator × DM × PS, p = 0.5). Age ≤80 years or >80 years did not influence our findings. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes from thrombolysis are better than the controls among patients with DM, PS, or both. We find no statistical justification for the exclusion of these patients from...

  11. Short- and long-term prognosis for very old stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J; Nakayama, H; Pedersen, P M; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; NN, NN

    2004-01-01

    prognosis after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In this study very old age per se was a strong predictor of outcome and mortality after stroke. Apart from very old age, factors such as prestroke medical and functional status, and onset stroke severity should be taken into consideration when planning treatment and......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age as an...... independent predictor of short- and long-term outcome. METHODS: In the community-based Copenhagen Stroke Study we recorded admission clinical characteristics in 1197 consecutive stroke patients. Patients were stratified according to age groups on admission. Follow-up was performed at a mean of 7 years after...

  12. Malaria and stroke: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEOPOLDINO JOSÉ FÁBIO SANTOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a parasitic disease with high prevalence in several regions of the world. Infestation by Plasmodium faciparum can, in some cases, affect the central nervous system producing encephalitis resulting in death or neurological sequelae. The mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of the cerebral lesion are not totally clear and there are currently two theories (mechanical and humoral concerning this. We report a case of malaria with an atypical evolution, with a stroke lesion in the territory of the middle cerebral artery, with no association with encephalitis. We conclude that the mechanical theory is the one applicable to this patient.

  13. Neurosonology and neuroimaging of stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monograph is systematically organized: the first part contains the basic principles of neurosonology and cerebrovascular diseases. Ultrasound principles are described and illustrated with diagrams and images. The anatomy, pathophysiology (intracranial hemodynamics and functional tests, pathogenesis of stroke, vascular pathology) and the cervico-cranial arteries are discussed. Other vascular imaging techniques (CT and MR angiography and dye contrast catheter angiography) are also discussed and compared. The second part contains 30 case scenarios grouped according to the expected difficulty of neurosonology exploration and interpretation

  14. Sex Hormones and Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegard, Haya N; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B;

    2016-01-01

    = 4615) and women (n = 4724) with measurements of endogenous sex hormones during the 1981-1983 examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, were followed for up to 29 years for incident IS, with no loss to follow-up. Mediation analyses assessed whether risk of IS was mediated through......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Whether endogenous sex hormones are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that extreme concentrations of endogenous sex hormones are associated with risk of IS in the general population. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Adult men (n...

  15. Psychological factors determine depressive symptomatology after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mierlo, Maria L.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.; Post, Marcel W.; De Kort, Paul L.; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify psychological factors related to poststroke depressive symptoms. Design Cross-sectional study, with patients assessed at 2 months poststroke. Setting Patients with stroke from 6 general hospitals. Participants Stroke patients (N=344; mean age ± SD, 66.9±12.3y). Interventions No

  16. Obstruction of cerebral arteries in childhood stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middle cerebral artery obstruction in children is reviewed by our two cases. Ischemic childhood stroke was caused by moyamoya disease in the first, and by fibromuscular dysplasia in the second patient. In both cases transcranial Doppler sonography and cranial CT were performed, but the final diagnosis was made by angiography. The importance of angiography in childhood stroke is emphasized. (orig.)

  17. Atrial fibrillation and risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Gerds, Thomas A; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Although the relation between stroke risk factors and stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has been extensively examined, only few studies have explored the association of AF and the risk of ischaemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism/transient ischaemic attack (stroke/TE/TIA) in the...... presence of concomitant stroke risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: From nationwide registries, all persons who turned 50, 60, 70, or 80 from 1997 to 2011 were identified. Persons receiving warfarin were excluded. The absolute risk of stroke/TE/TIA was reported for a 5-year period, as was the absolute risk...... ratios for AF vs. no AF according to prior stroke and the number of additional risk factors. The study cohort comprised of 3 076 355 persons without AF and 48 189 with AF. For men aged 50 years, with no risk factors, the 5-year risk of stroke was 1.1% (95% confidence interval 1.1-1.1); with AF alone 2...

  18. Oral care post stroke: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, C; McIntyre, A; Janzen, S; Mays, R; Teasell, R

    2015-01-01

    Health concerns post stroke may be the result of, or exacerbated by, neglected oral health care (OHC). However, OHC may be challenging post stroke due to hemiparesis, hemiplegia, a lack of coordination, and/or cognitive deficits. The objective of this study was to conduct a scoping review and summarise the current state of knowledge pertaining to OHC post stroke. A literature search was conducted using the multiple databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, etc.). Combinations of multiple keywords were searched: oral, dental, health, care, hygiene, teeth, dentures, tooth brushing, stroke, cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease. A grey literature search was also conducted. Articles included were those published in English between 1970 and July 2013, which focused on at least one aspect of OHC among a stroke population. For clinical trials, ≥50% of the sample must have sustained a stroke. In total, 60 articles met inclusion and focused on three primary area: (i) OHC Importance/Stroke Implications; (ii) Current Research; and (iii) Current Practice. It was found that OHC concerns are mainly related to mastication, dysphagia/nutrition, hygiene, prostheses and quality of life. Research indicates that there is limited specialised and individual care provided, and there are few assessment tools, guidelines and established protocols for oral health that are specific to the stroke population. Further, dental professionals' and nurses' knowledge of OHC is generally inadequate; hence, proper education for health professionals in acute and rehabilitation settings, patients, and caregivers has been discussed. PMID:25244419

  19. Stroke - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chinese Community Health Resource Center French (français) Stroke AVC - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi ( ... Information Translations Portuguese (português) Stroke Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC ou derrame) - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  20. Unassisted Assessment of Stroke Severity Using Telemedicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; De Smedt, Ann; De Raedt, Sylvie; Moens, Maarten; Marien, Peter; Paquier, Philippe; De Keyser, Jacques; Brouns, Raf

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Quantification of stroke severity through telemedicine consultation is challenging and relies on professional support at the patient's bedside. We aimed to develop a novel scale for assessing stroke severity through telemedicine without assistance from a third party (Unassiste

  1. Stroke and nutrition: A review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Foroughi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Adherence to Mediterranean diet or DASH diet and increasing the consumption of antioxidant, vitamins, potassium, calcium food sources, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains intake can lower the risk of stroke. Healthy diet is effective in reducing risk of stroke, however, more studies need to be carried out in this area.

  2. Hypothermia for Stroke: call to action 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macleod, Malcolm R; Petersson, Jesper; Norrving, Bo;

    2010-01-01

    The European Hypothermia Stroke Research Workshop was held in January 2010, in response to the alarming prospects of a significant increase of stroke expected in the coming years globally. Considering that a minority of patients (around 10%) are currently eligible for thrombolytic treatment, ther...

  3. Ultrasonic echolucent carotid plaques predict future strokes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Nordestgaard, B G; Schroeder, T V; Vorstrup, S; Sillesen, H

    2001-01-01

    We tested prospectively the hypothesis that stroke development can be predicted by echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in previously symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.......We tested prospectively the hypothesis that stroke development can be predicted by echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in previously symptomatic and asymptomatic patients....

  4. A Case of Stroke in a Toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Deshmukh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 2 year male child, case of stroke on right side with associated anemia and thrombocytosis has been presented and discussed. Stroke is one of the rare neurological manifestation in children with multipleaetiological factors. Child was investigated to rule out various etiological conditions and was treated supportively for anemia to which he responded uneventfully.

  5. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  6. Progressive Micrographia Shown in Horizontal, but not Vertical, Writing in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Ing Ma; Wen-Juh Hwang; Shao-Hsia Chang; Tsui-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    All published studies on micrographia, a diminution of letter size, examine handwriting in the horizontal direction. Writing horizontally typically requires increased wrist extension as handwriting progresses from left to right. Chinese characters, however, can be written not only horizontally from left to right, but also vertically from top to bottom. We examined the effect of handwriting direction on character size and stroke length. Fifteen participants with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 15...

  7. Latitude and longitude vertical disparity

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparity. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite d...

  8. Latitude and longitude vertical disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Phillipson, Graeme P.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The literature on vertical disparity is complicated by the fact that several different definitions of the term “vertical disparity” are in common use, often without a clear statement about which is intended or a widespread appreciation of the properties of the different definitions. Here, we examine two definitions of retinal vertical disparity: elevation-latitude and elevation-longitude disparities. Near the fixation point, these definitions become equivalent, but in general, they have quite...

  9. Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care in Taiwan: The Breakthrough Collaborative in Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Chang-Ming; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Tang, Sung-Chun; Tsai, Li-Kai; Liao, Hsun-Hsiang; Chang, Hang; LaBresh, Kenneth A.; Lin, Hung-Jung; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chiu, Hou-Chang; Lien, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the management of acute ischemic stroke, guideline adherence is often suboptimal, particularly for intravenous thrombolysis or anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. We sought to improve stroke care quality via a collaborative model, the Breakthrough Series (BTS)-Stroke activity, in a nationwide, multi-center activity in Taiwan. A BTS Collaborative, a short-term learning system for a large number of multidisciplinary teams from hospitals, was applied to enhance acute ischemic stroke care quality. Twenty-four hospitals participated in and submitted data for this stroke quality improvement campaign in 2010–2011. Totally, 14 stroke quality measures, adopted from the Get With The Guideline (GWTG)-Stroke program, were used to evaluate the performance and outcome of the ischemic stroke patients. Data for a one-year period from 24 hospitals with 13,181 acute ischemic stroke patients were analyzed. In 14 hospitals, most stroke quality measures improved significantly during the BTS-activity compared with a pre-BTS-Stroke activity period (2006–08). The rate of intravenous thrombolysis increased from 1.2% to 4.6%, door-to-needle time ≤60 minutes improved from 7.1% to 50.8%, symptomatic hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis decreased from 11.0% to 5.6%, and anticoagulation therapy for atrial fibrillation increased from 32.1% to 64.1%. The yearly composite measures of five stroke quality measures revealed significant improvements from 2006 to 2011 (75% to 86.3%, pcollaborative model is associated with improved guideline adherence for patients with acute ischemic stroke. GWTG-Stroke recommendations can be successfully applied in countries besides the United States. PMID:27487190

  10. Risk of Stroke in Migraineurs Using Triptans. Associations with Age, Sex, Stroke Severity and Subtype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albieri, Vanna; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying migraineurs by triptan utilization we studied risk for stroke in migraineurs compared to the general population. Methods A cohort study including all citizens 25–80 years of age in Denmark 2003–2011 was conducted. All persons prescribed triptans, and all those hospitalized for a first stroke were identified in the Danish Registries. Information on stroke severity/subtype and cardiovascular risk factors was available for stroke patients. Findings Of the 49,711 patients hospitalized for a first stroke, 1084 were migraineurs using triptans. Adjusting for age, sex, income, and educational level, risk for stroke was higher among migraineurs in respect to all strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.01–1.14) and ischemic strokes (RR 1.07; CI 1.00–1.14). Risk for hemorrhagic stroke was increased but only in women (RR 1.41; CI 1.11–1.79). Risk was for mild strokes (RR 1.31; CI 1.16–1.48) while risk for severe strokes was lower among migraineurs (RR 0.77; CI 0.65–0.91). Risk was age-related; highest among women 25–45 years (RR ≈ 1.7). Risk was unrelated to numbers of dispensations. Interpretation Migraineurs identified by triptan utilization had higher risk for stroke. Strokes were minor and cardiovascular risk factors were less prevalent pointing to a migraine-specific etiology of stroke different from that of thromboembolism.

  11. [Primary and secondary prevention of stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkwalder, Peter; Rüchardt, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The basis for primary and secondary prevention of stroke (and also TIA) are both a healthy lifestyle with a healthy diet, non smoking, weight reduction and regular exercise, and consistent treatment of arterial hypertension with a target of choice of the antihypertensive is depending on concomitant diseases, more important than the class of antihypertensive is treatment to target. Reduction of cholesterol with statins in primary prevention is dependant on total cardiovascular risk, in secondary prevention statins are integral part of modern treatment in non cardioembolic stroke. Atrial fibrillation is one of the major causes of stroke and should be treated with anticoagulation depending on the CHA2DS2-VASc score. Platelet inhibition is mandatory lifelong in all non cardioembolic strokes, in primary prevention only for patients with high total cardiovascular risk. Treatment of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis should be determined on an individual basis. Symptomatic carotid artery stenosis should be treated immediately after the index stroke. PMID:26488098

  12. Dialectical tensions in stroke survivor relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Maria; Himes, Kimberly Leezer; Dillow, Megan R; Weber, Keith

    2010-06-01

    Stroke is an unpredictable and life-altering medical occurrence that causes immediate change in survivors' relationships. This study unearthed dialectical tensions expressed by spouses of stroke survivors and examined how those dialectical tensions compare to those experienced by stroke survivors themselves. Sixteen spouses of stroke survivors participated in interviews, and four tensions ultimately emerged: self-orientation-partner-orientation, realism-idealism, uncertainty-acceptance, and emotional release-emotional reservation. Three dialectical tensions (i.e., uncertainty-acceptance, realism-idealism, self-orientation-partner-orientation) were similar to those communicated by stroke survivors. Recognizing dialectical tensions experienced and shared can open communication lines and ultimately improve the health of individuals and their relationships. PMID:20512714

  13. Stroke-related sarcopenia: specific characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbakov, Nadja; Sandek, Anja; Doehner, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by muscle wasting and is primarily a disease of the elderly. A stroke-specific sarcopenia has been described recently. Stroke-related sarcopenia has a number of features that distinguish it from the age-related sarcopenia. The disability from stroke depends on the brain lesion leading to impairment of the efferent neuronal pathways. However, the alterations of structural and functional muscle capacity are secondary and depend rather on complex pathophysiological reactions including imbalanced efferent neurovegetative control, systemic and local metabolic imbalance, feeding difficulties, and inflammation. Muscle structural changes start to develop within hours after stroke, followed by rapid reduction of muscle mass. The pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the muscle mass decline are still not understood in details. This review provides insights into the specific features of the stroke-related sarcopenia. Recent research achievements in this area and clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:25676847

  14. Methotrexate induced leucoencephalopathy: A stroke mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar D Gosavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing usage of thrombolysis in the treatment of acute ischemic strokes within 4.5- hour window, it is becoming more important to recognize stroke mimics. Though the incidence of stroke mimics being thrombolysed is less than 3%, it is essential to diagnose them so as to avoid wrong thrombolytic treatment which carries potential complications of bleeding. We describe the case of a 17 year old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, who developed stroke like episodes on two consecutive challenges with a chemotherapeutic regime which included intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate. She had MRI changes consistent with acute ischemic stroke on both occasions. Her deficits recovered completely and spontaneously, as did the MRI changes. She did not have any further episodes when methotrexate was excluded from the chemotherapeutic regime.

  15. Changes in chronotype after stroke: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eKantermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate associations between stroke onset and severity as well as chronotype (phase of entrainment and internal time of stroke. Fifty-six first-ever ischemic stroke patients participated in a cross-sectional study assessing chronotype (mid-sleep on work-free days corrected for sleep deficit on workdays; MSFsc by applying the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ. The MCTQ was completed twice, on average 68 ± 24 (SD days post stroke and retrospectively for the time before stroke. To assess the impact of stroke in relation to internal time, InTstroke was calculated as MSFsc minus local time of stroke. Stroke severity was assessed via the standard clinical National Institute Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS and modified Ranking Scale (mRS, both at hospital admission and discharge. Overall, most strokes occurred between noon and midnight. There was no significant association between MSFsc and stroke onset. MSFsc changed significantly after stroke, especially in patients with more severe strokes. Changes in MSFsc varied with InTstroke – the earlier the internal time of a stroke relative to MSFsc-before-stroke, the more MSFsc advanced after stroke. In addition, we provide first evidence that MSFsc changes varied between stroke locations. Larger trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  16. Swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargo Remesso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate occurrences of swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke. METHOD: This was a retrospective study on 596 medical files. The inclusion criterion was that the patients needed to have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke; the exclusion criteria were the presence of associated cardiac problems and hospital stay already more than 14 days. RESULTS: 50.5% were men and 49.5% women; mean age 65.3 years (SD=±11.7 (p<0.001. Among the risk factors, 79.4% had hypertension, 36.7% had diabetes (p<0.001 and 42.7% were smokers. 13.3% of the patients died. Swallowing disorders occurred in 19.6%, among whom 91.5% had mild difficulty and 8.5% had severe difficulty. 87.1% had spontaneous recovery after a mean of 2.4 months. A lesion in the brainstem region occurred in 6.8% (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Swallowing disorders occurred in almost 20% of the population and most of the difficulty in swallowing found was mild. The predictors for swallowing disorders were older age, diabetes mellitus and lesions in the brainstem region.

  17. Vitamin D deficiency and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D comprises a group of fat-soluble pro-hormones, obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements, and it must undergo two hydroxylation reactions to be activated in the body. Several studies have shown the role of vitamin D in mineral metabolism regulation, especially calcium, phosphorus, and bone metabolism. Some factors such as inadequate vitamin intake and liver or kidney disorders can lead to vitamin D deficiency. Furthermore, vitamin D malnutrition may also be linked to susceptibility to chronic diseases such as heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, cognitive impairment including foggy brain and memory loss, and autoimmune diseases including diabetes type I. Recent research has revealed that low levels of vitamin D increase the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity (Sato et al., 2004 and mortality (Pilz et al., 2008. Also, hypertension contributes to a reduction in bone mineral density and increase in the incidence of stroke and death. This article reviews the function and physiology of vitamin D and examines the effects of vitamin D deficiency on susceptibility to stroke, as a cardiovascular event, and its morbidity and subsequent mortality.

  18. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  19. Vertical separation for TCF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied an insertion for electrostatic separation of the electron and positron beams with the aims of: increasing luminosity by decreasing the minimum bunch spacing, matching the vertical dispersion function (not done in the Jowett lattice). The authors looked at three possibilities for the start of the insertion: a quadrupole doublet followed by the electrostatic separator (Jowett), a quadrupole doublet with the electrostatic separator between the two quadrupoles (Kamada), a separator followed by a quadrupole doublet. The third possibility was immediately discharged. Although possible for a B-factor with magnetic separation it is impractical for use with electrostatic separation because of the length and cross section of separator required. The Kamada scheme looked promising for getting very short inter-bunch spacing, but suffered from the disadvantage of requiring a very large ratio of beta functions at the Interaction Point (IP) (βx*/βy* = 100). (They would rather have a β* ratio closer to 20 to 1). They decided to persue the doublet scheme to see whether it could match the performance of Kamada insertion. They assumed superconducting magnets could be used for the insertion quadrupoles, and they used as strong an electrostatic field for the separator as Kamada

  20. Vertical guidance of shearers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining Engineers have always been aware of the basic need to avoid contamination of the mined product, by controlling the cutting horizon at the coal face. The ability to maintain the optimum cutting horizon results in more effective roof control and ensures a safer and more efficient working environment, for men and machinery. The cost of treatment in the surface coal preparation plant is reduced. Transportation through the total mine system of material finally destined for the spoil heap is minimised. A reduction in product contamination is achieved and makes more effective use of the mine capacity. These benefits make possible significant improvements in productivity and financial returns. Exploitation of micro computer based systems has enabled the successful development of equipment which employs sensors to detect the very low natural gamma radiation from roof strata; to determine and allow control of the position of the cut relative to the roof and floor. This paper reviews the experience gained by the National Coal Board, particularly in South Yorkshire Area, with the vertical steering of ranging drum shearers. It outlines the benefits and considers the future for this technology and its contribution to total coal face automation

  1. Large Animal Stroke Models vs. Rodent Stroke Models, Pros and Cons, and Combination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bin; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability worldwide and the second leading cause of death in many countries. Long-time attempts to salvage dying neurons via various neuroprotective agents have failed in stroke translational research, owing in part to the huge gap between animal stroke models and stroke patients, which also suggests that rodent models have limited predictive value and that alternate large animal models are likely to become important in future translational research. The genetic background, physiological characteristics, behavioral characteristics, and brain structure of large animals, especially nonhuman primates, are analogous to humans, and resemble humans in stroke. Moreover, relatively new regional imaging techniques, measurements of regional cerebral blood flow, and sophisticated physiological monitoring can be more easily performed on the same animal at multiple time points. As a result, we can use large animal stroke models to decrease the gap and promote translation of basic science stroke research. At the same time, we should not neglect the disadvantages of the large animal stroke model such as the significant expense and ethical considerations, which can be overcome by rodent models. Rodents should be selected as stroke models for initial testing and primates or cats are desirable as a second species, which was recommended by the Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) group in 2009. PMID:26463926

  2. Lipid management in the prevention of stroke: a meta-analysis of fibrates for stroke prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yu-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibrates has been extensively used to improve plasma lipid levels and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of fibrates on stroke is unclear at the present time. We therefore carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of fibrates on stroke. Methods We systematically searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings to identify studies for our analysis. We included randomized placebo controlled trials which reported the effects of fibrates on stroke. Relative risk (RR was used to measure the effect of fibrates on the risk of stroke under random effect model. The analysis was further stratified by factors that could affect the treatment effects. Results Overall, fibrate therapy was not associated with a significant reduction on the risk of stroke (RR, 1.02, 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.16, P = 0.78. In the subgroup analyses, we observed that gemfibrozil therapy showed a beneficial effect on stroke (RR, 0.72, 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.98, P = 0.04. Similarly, fibrate therapy comparing to placebo had no effect on the incidence of fatal stroke. Subgroup analysis suggested that fibrate therapy showed an effect on fatal stroke when the Jadad score more than 3 (RR, 0.41, 95% CI, 0.17 to 1.00, P = 0.049. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis indicated that fibrate therapy may play a role in fatal stroke (RR, 0.49, 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.93, P = 0.03 for patients with previous diabetes, cardiovascular disease or stroke. Conclusions Our study indicated that fibrate therapy might play an important role in reducing the risk of fatal stroke in patients with previous diabetes, cardiovascular disease or stroke. However, it did not have an effect on the incidence of stroke.

  3. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: findings from Tuscan FADOI Stroke Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Masotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite vitamin K antagonists (VKAs are considered the first choice treatment for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF, literature shows their underuse in this context. Since data about VKAs use prior and after acute stroke lack, the aim of this study was to focus on management of anticoagulation with VKAs in this context. Data were retrieved from Tuscan FADOI Stroke Registry, an online data bank aimed to report on characteristics of stroke patients consecutively admitted in Internal Medicine wards in 2010 and 2011. In this period 819 patients with mean age 76.5±12.3 years were enrolled. Data on etiology were available for 715 of them (88.1%, 87% being ischemic and 13% hemorrhagic strokes. AF was present in 238 patients (33%, 165 (69.3% having a known AF before hospitalization, whereas 73 patients (31.7% received a new diagnosis of AF. A percentage of 89% of strokes in patients with known AF were ischemic and 11% hemorrhagic. A percentage of 86.7% of patients with known AF had a CHADS2 ≥2, but only 28.3% were on VKAs before hospitalization. A percentage of 78.8% of patients treated with VKAs before stroke had an international normalized ratio (INR ≤2.0; 68.7% of patients with VKAs-related hemorrhagic strokes had INR ≤3.0. Combined endpoint mortality or severe disability in patients with ischemic stroke associated with AF was present in 47%, while it was present in 19.30% and 19.20% of atherothrombotic and lacunar strokes, respectively. At hospital discharge, VKAs were prescribed in 25.9% of AF related ischemic stroke patients. AF related strokes are burdened by severe outcome but VKAs are dramatically underused in patients with AF, even in higher risk patients. Efforts to improve anticoagulation in this stroke subtype are warranted.

  4. Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colledge NR, Ralston SH, Penman ID, eds. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014: ... American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. ... Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Functional Genomics ...

  5. Stroke disease management--a framework for comprehensive stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venketasubramanian, N; Chan, B P L; Lim, E; Hafizah, Noor; Goh, K T; Lew, Y J; Loo, L; Yin, A; Widjaja, L; Loke, W C; Kuick, G; Lee, N L; Ong, B S; Koh, S F; Heng, B H; Cheah, J

    2002-07-01

    Disease management is an approach to patient care that coordinates medical resources for the patient across the entire healthcare delivery system throughout the lifetime of the patient with the disease. Stroke is suitable for disease management as it is a well-known disease with a high prevalence, high cost, variable practice pattern, poor clinical outcome, and managed by a non-integrated healthcare system. It has measurable and actionable outcomes, with available local expertise and support of the Ministry of Health. Developing the programme requires a multidisciplinary team, baseline data on target populations and healthcare services, identification of core components, collaboration with key stakeholders, development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and carepaths, institution of care coordinators, use of information technology and continuous quality improvement to produce an effective plan. Core components include public education, risk factor screening and management, primary care and specialist clinics, acute stroke units, inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation facilities, and supportive community services including medical, nursing, therapy, home help and support groups for patients and carers. The family physician plays a key role. Coordination of services is best done by a network of hospital and community-based care managers, and is enhanced by a coordinating call centre. Continuous quality improvement is required, with audit of processes and outcomes, facilitated by a disease registry. Pitfalls include inappropriate exclusion of deserving patients, misuse, loss of physician and patient independence, over-estimation of benefits, and care fragmentation. Collaboration and cooperative among all parties will help ensure a successful and sustainable programme. PMID:12161880

  6. Innovations in Stroke Prevention: An Update on Carotid Stenting

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stroke per year. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the U.S.A., and the first cause of adult disability. Symptoms of stroke: the -- what ... carotid artery to embolize the brain and potentially cause a stroke. There are several ways that we ...

  7. Acoustic Analysis of Voice in Dysarthria following Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Tsai; Kent, Ray D.; Kent, Jane Finley; Duffy, Joseph R.; Thomas, Jack E.

    2009-01-01

    Although perceptual studies indicate the likelihood of voice disorders in persons with stroke, there have been few objective instrumental studies of voice dysfunction in dysarthria following stroke. This study reports automatic analysis of sustained vowel phonation for 61 speakers with stroke. The results show: (1) men with stroke and healthy…

  8. Mixed Cerebrovascular Disease and the Future of Stroke Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Mark; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Cribbs, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke prevention efforts typically focus on either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This approach is overly simplistic due to the frequent coexistence of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease. This coexistence, termed “mixed cerebrovascular disease”, offers a conceptual framework that appears useful for stroke prevention strategies. Mixed cerebrovascular disease incorporates clinical and subclinical syndromes, including ischemic stroke, subclinical infarct, white matter disease of ...

  9. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  10. Simulation training for hyperacute stroke unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roots, Angela; Thomas, Libby; Jaye, Peter; Birns, Jonathan

    National clinical guidelines have emphasized the need to identify acute stroke as a clinical priority for early assessment and treatment of patients on hyperacute stroke units. Nurses working on hyperacute stroke units require stroke specialist training and development of competencies in dealing with neurological emergencies and working in multidisciplinary teams. Educational theory suggests that experiential learning with colleagues in real-life settings may provide transferable results to the workplace with improved performance. Simulation training has been shown to deliver situational training without compromising patient safety and has been shown to improve both technical and non-technical skills (McGaghie et al, 2010). This article describes the role that simulation training may play for nurses working on hyperacute stroke units explaining the modalities available and the educational potential. The article also outlines the development of a pilot course involving directly relevant clinical scenarios for hyperacute stroke unit patient care and assesses the benefits of simulation training for hyperacute stroke unit nurses, in terms of clinical performance and non-clinical abilities including leadership and communication. PMID:22241424

  11. Seizures after stroke : a prospective clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanuka A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of the most common causes of epilepsy in elderly. However, there have been very few prospective studies to define the incidence, pattern and outcome of seizures in stroke. Most studies are based on retrospective analysis of hospital records. Hence, we planned this prospective study to see the clinical, radiological and electroencephalographic characteristics of seizures in stroke and their outcome, from a north Indian tertiary care centre. Over a span of approximately 6 years, 269 consecutive patients with stroke were studied and followed up. Thirty-five (13% of these developed seizures, primarily related to stroke, during mean follow up period of 15.9 months. Twenty of these had infarctions while 15 had haemorrhages. Involvement of the cortical region was seen in most of the patients with seizures. In these patients, 86% of the lesions involved cortical areas exclusively or in addition to subcortical areas on CT scan of the brain. Twenty-seven (77% developed early seizures, two third of them had immediate post-stroke seizures. None of the patients with early onset seizures developed recurrent seizures or epilepsy, while 50% of late onset seizures developed epilepsy. No specific EEG pattern was found in those who later developed epilepsy. In the present study, early onset seizures after stroke were rather common and did not affect outcome and did not recur even when not treated with anti-epileptics. Late onset seizures were less common but were associated with recurrent seizures.

  12. Stroke genetics: prospects for personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hugh S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiologic evidence supports a genetic predisposition to stroke. Recent advances, primarily using the genome-wide association study approach, are transforming what we know about the genetics of multifactorial stroke, and are identifying novel stroke genes. The current findings are consistent with different stroke subtypes having different genetic architecture. These discoveries may identify novel pathways involved in stroke pathogenesis, and suggest new treatment approaches. However, the already identified genetic variants explain only a small proportion of overall stroke risk, and therefore are not currently useful in predicting risk for the individual patient. Such risk prediction may become a reality as identification of a greater number of stroke risk variants that explain the majority of genetic risk proceeds, and perhaps when information on rare variants, identified by whole-genome sequencing, is also incorporated into risk algorithms. Pharmacogenomics may offer the potential for earlier implementation of 'personalized genetic' medicine. Genetic variants affecting clopidogrel and warfarin metabolism may identify non-responders and reduce side-effects, but these approaches have not yet been widely adopted in clinical practice.

  13. Job strain and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Nyberg, Solja T; Heikkilä, Katriina;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort...... studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke. RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job...... strain was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.05;1.47) for ischemic stroke, 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.75;1.36) for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 0.94;1.26) for overall stroke. The association with ischemic stroke was robust to further adjustment for socioeconomic status...

  14. Stroke prevention in diabetes and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulasuriya, L Romayne; Govindarajan, Gurushankar; Sowers, James

    2006-07-01

    Stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and is an economic burden. Diabetes and obesity are two important modifiable risk factors for stroke. Patients with diabetes have a higher incidence of stroke and a poorer prognosis after stroke. Risk-factor modification is the most important aspect of prevention of stroke in diabetes and obesity. This includes lifestyle modifications and different therapeutic modalities to control conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and arrhythmia. Recent landmark studies have shown the beneficial effects of statins in diabetic patients even with close to normal or normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia has been shown to be an independent risk factor for stroke. Increased leptin, dysregulation of adipocyte proteins, increased insulin resistance and C-reactive protein may be factors involved in the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality directly related to obesity. Visceral fat is a much bigger health risk than subcutaneous fat. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapeutic agents have been used to manage obesity. In morbidly obese patients, surgical intervention seems to be the best method of treatment with a long-lasting favorable metabolic outcome. In the 21st Century, with the advanced medical knowledge and the therapeutic modalities available, it should be possible to reduce the incidence of stroke associated with diabetes and obesity. PMID:16918267

  15. Cryptogenic Stroke: Making the Management Less Cryptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Stephen J; Khera, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Cryptogenic stroke (CS) accounts for 20% to 40% of ischemic strokes. CS is defined as a cortical infarct suggestive of an embolic stroke with no identifiable cardiac etiology, large vessel occlusive disease, or small vessel lacunar stroke. The likely etiologies for CS are patent foramen ovale (PFO) and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, which can be detected by transesophageal echocardiography and long-term cardiac rhythm monitoring. In a busy academic hospital, the stroke service is frequently asked to provide a rational approach to patients with such a presentation. The 2011 American Heart Association/American Stroke Association recommends that antiplatelet therapy is "reasonable" (Class IIa; Level of Evidence B) for patients with PFO and a clinical presentation of CS. Confounding PFO management is the lack of a controlled trial comparing anticoagulation with antiplatelet therapy in patients with CS, despite the belief that the primary mechanism of PFO-mediated stroke would be that it serves as a conduit for venous emboli. Data from 3 recent prospective PFO closure device trials further compound the management protocols for these patients. Also complicating the management of CS is increasing evidence that paroxysmal atrial fibrillation may be found as often as 30% with extensive monitoring and long-term follow-up of 36 months. Based on these recent developments, we summarize the factors that we deemed relevant in our approach to patients with CS. PMID:25867760

  16. Rehabilitation of a patient with stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Barman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a significant cause of long-term disability world-wide. The post-stroke disabilities are due to loss of locomotion, activity of daily living, cognition and communication skills. Rehabilitation is an integral part of medical management and continues longitudinally through acute care, post-acute care and community reintegration. The objectives of stroke rehabilitation are to maximize the functional independence, minimize the disabilities, reintegrate back into the home and community and improve the self-esteem of patient. A comprehensive stroke rehabilitation service should provide early assessment of impairments and disabilities, management and prevention of complications and well-organized rehabilitation program in both in-patient and out-patient settings. A multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary team approach is necessary to reduce the post-stroke disabilities. It has many members, including physicians, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, orthotist, psychotherapists, social workers, vocational rehabilitation therapists, rehabilitation nurse, patients, families and other caregivers. Physicians caring for patients with stroke during rehabilitation must be aware of potential medical complications, as well as a number of special problems that may complicate recovery, including cognitive deficits, aphasia, dysphagia, urinary incontinence, shoulder pain, spasticity, falls and depression. Involvement of patient and caregivers in the rehabilitation process is essential. This article outlines the salient features of the early comprehensive rehabilitation after stroke.

  17. Immediate effects of kinesio taping on fixed postural alignment and foot balance in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung Rae; Heo, Seo Yoon; Lee, Hee Jae

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The main aim of this study was to identify the short-term effects of Kinesio taping (KT) on the static body alignment and overall balance function presented by the coordinate and foot balance in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight stroke subjects were randomly allocated into the study groups. The kinematic analysis measured deviation or changes from standard body alignment and foot pressure by the human anatomy-based coordinates were examined using the Shisei Innovation System PA200 ver.9.0. [Results] The glabellas on the front view, larynx on the front view, rt. greater tubercle of the humerus (vertical changes), lt. greater tubercle of the humerus (vertical changes), posterior superior iliac spine, and greater trochanter (horizontal changes) showed statistically significant decreases, indicating dislocation from the axis center, after taping. [Conclusion] The clinical use of KT for stroke patients who have asymmetrical and imbalanced body posture could be an optimal therapeutic approach. Since more evidence based practices are needed, future studies should include large numbers of subjects and examine diverse KT application patterns. PMID:26696733

  18. Overexpression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus protects against post-stroke depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-hao Chen; Ning Zhang; Wei-yun Li; Ma-rong Fang; Hui Zhang; Yuan-shu Fang; Ming-xing Ding; Xiao-yan Fu

    2015-01-01

    Post-stroke depression is associated with reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In this study, we evaluated whether BDNF overexpression affects depression-like behavior in a rat model of post-stroke depression. The middle cerebral artery was occluded to produce a model of focal cerebral ischemia. These rats were then subjected to isolation-housing combined with chronic unpredictable mild stress to generate a model of post-stroke depression. ABDNF gene lentiviral vector was injected into the hippocampus. At 7 days after injection, western blot assay and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that BDNF expression in the hippo-campus was increased in depressive rats injected with BDNF lentivirus compared with depressive rats injected with control vector. Furthermore, sucrose solution consumption was higher, and horizontal and vertical movement scores were increased in the open ifeld test in these rats as well. These ifndings suggest that BDNF overexpression in the hippocampus of post-stroke depressive rats alleviates depression-like behaviors.

  19. Temporal trends in stroke admissions in Denmark 1997–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Malene Nøhr; Andersson, Charlotte; Ahlehoff, Ole; Charlot, Mette; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Gjesing, Anne; Hansen, Peter R.; Gislason, Gunnar H.; Truelsen, Thomas; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Stroke burden is increasing in many populations where health institutions may experience more patients. We wanted to examine whether incidence rates and absolute number of hospitalized stroke patients remained stable in Denmark during a 13 years period where exposure to major stroke risk fact...... factors decreased, changes in stroke treatment was implemented, and the age of the population increased.......The Stroke burden is increasing in many populations where health institutions may experience more patients. We wanted to examine whether incidence rates and absolute number of hospitalized stroke patients remained stable in Denmark during a 13 years period where exposure to major stroke risk...

  20. Endothelial progenitor cells in acute ischemic stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Crespo, Javier; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Martínez-Ramírez, Sergi; Peña, Esther; Marín, Rebeca; Dinia, Lavinia; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Fernández-Arcos, Ana; Pérez-Pérez, Jesús; Querol, Luis; Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Badimon, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in ischemic stroke have not been studied extensively and reported results are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the time course, the prognostic relevance, and the variables associated with EPC counts in patients with ischemic stroke at different time points. Material and methods We studied prospectively 146 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke within the first 48 h from the onset of symptoms (baseline). We evaluated demographic data, classical vascular risk factors, treatment with thrombolysis and statins, stroke etiology, National Institute of Health and Stroke Scale score and outcome (favorable when Rankin scale score 0–2). Blood samples were collected at baseline, at day 7 after stroke (n = 121) and at 3 months (n = 92). The EPC were measured by flow cytometry. Results We included 146 patients with a mean age of 70.8 ± 12.2 years. The circulating EPC levels were higher on day 7 than at baseline or at 3 months (P = 0.045). Pretreatment with statins (odds ratio [OR] 3.11, P = 0.008) and stroke etiology (P = 0.032) were predictive of EPC counts in the baseline sample. EPC counts were not associated with stroke severity or functional outcome in all the patients. However, using multivariate analyses, a better functional outcome was found in patients with higher EPC counts in large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel disease etiologic subtypes. Conclusions After acute ischemic stroke, circulating EPC counts peaked at day 7. Pretreatment with statins increased the levels of EPC. In patients with large-artery atherosclerosis and small-vessel disease subtypes, higher counts were related to better outcome at 3 months. PMID:24363968

  1. Ischaemic strokes : management in first six hours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal P

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular disease (CVD or stroke is one of the foremost causes of high morbidity and mortality for many nations of the world, posing a major socio-economic challenge in the occupational and neuro-rehabilitational programmes of the ′stroke-survivors′. For example, in USA alone it has been estimated that a sum of 3261 million dollars is spent as direct cost for treatment, in addition to 4104 million dollars as indirect costs, consequent on economic losses of ′stroke victims′. Thus, the new concept in stroke pathophysiology and strategies for stroke prevention have assumed global importance. Among all risk factors for strokes, hypertension is one of the most important and treatable factor. Community screening surveys, by well defined WHO protocol, have shown that nearly 15% of urban population is hypertensive (160/95 mm Hg or more. Though high blood pressure has the highest attributable risk for stroke, there are many other reasons such as patient′s compliance in taking medicine and poor followup in clinical practice that may lead to failure in reducing stroke mortality. In subjects, who have transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs, regular use of antiplatelet agents like aspirin is well established in prevention of stroke. It is also mandatory to prohibit tobacco use and adjust dietary habits to control body weight. Associated conditions like diabetes mellitus etc. should also be treated. It is advisable to initiate community screening surveys on well defined populations for early detection of hypertension and TIAs. Primary health care centres should be the base stations for these surveys, because data gathered from urban hospitals will not truly reflect the crude prevalence rates for the community to design practical prevention programmes.

  2. Lacunar strokes: a single institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: Lacunar ischemic strokes comprise approximately 25% of all ischemic strokes. We compared the risk factors and clinical pattern of this type of stroke between males and females. Methods: This observational study involved 50 consecutive patients with their first-ever lacunar stroke and was conducted at the department of neurology of Sulaimaniya general teaching hospital, Iraq from December 1, 2010 to March 1, 2013. Patients’ risk factors, clinical presentation, and strokes’ patterns were noted and a comparison was made between males and females. Results: Males (64% outnumbered females (36% with a male to female ration of 1.7. The mean age of males was 63 years while it was 61 years in females. Although hypertension was more common in females than in males, diabetes and smoking were more common in the latter group; however, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 genders in terms of hypertension (P-value <0.3 and diabetes (P-value < 0.07 while smoking was strongly associated with male gender (P-value<0.0001. Pure motor hemiparesis, ataxic hemiparesis, pure sensory stroke, and dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome were more common in males; only senori-motor stroke revealed a statistically significant difference in favor males (P-value<0.0001; 95% CI -1.7 to 19.2. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of which side of the brain was infarcted between males and females (P-value<0.4. Conclusion: Males around the age of 63 years were the main target for these lacunar strokes. Cigarette smoking and sensorimotor strokes were significantly associated with male gender. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 659-666

  3. The Utility of the Faces Pain Scale in the Assessment of Shoulder Pain in Turkish Stroke Patients: Its Relation with Quality of Life and Psychologic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sebnem Koldas; Ay, Saime; Oztuna, Derya; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Evcik, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the utility of the vertical Faces Pain Scale (FPS) in the assessment of pain in stroke patients using the shoulder pain model and to assess its utility in the Turkish patient population. The secondary aim was to analyze the association of FPS with the quality of life and depression in the study population.…

  4. White matter changes in stroke patients. Relationship with stroke subtype and outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leys, D; Englund, E; Del Ser, T;

    1999-01-01

    vascular dementia. WMC are more frequent in patients with lacunar infarcts, deep intracerebral hemorrhages, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. After an acute ischemic stroke, WMC are associated with a higher risk of...... death or dependency, recurrent stroke of any type, cerebral bleeding under anticoagulation, myocardial infarction, and poststroke dementia. WMC in stroke patients are often associated with small-vessel disease and lead to a higher risk of death, and poor cardiac and neurological outcome. However......White matter changes (WMC), detected by imaging techniques, are frequent in stroke patients. The aim of the study was to determine how WMC relate to stroke subtypes and to stroke outcome. We made a systematic Medline search for articles appearing with two of the following key words: either 'WMC or...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging to visualize stroke and characterize stroke recovery: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J MacIntosh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of stroke continues to grow. Although stroke prevention strategies (eg. medications, diet and exercise can contribute to risk reduction, options for acute interventions (eg. thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke are limited to the minority of patients. The remaining patients are often left with profound neurological disabilities that substantially impact quality of life, economic productivity, and increase caregiver burden. In the last decade, however, the future outlook for such patients has been tempered by movement away from the view that the brain is incapable of reorganizing after injury. Many now view brain recovery after stroke as an area of scientific research with large potential for therapeutic advances, far into the future [1]. As a probe of brain anatomy, function and physiology, magnetic resonance imaging is a noninvasive and highly versatile modality that promises to play a particularly important role in such research, towards improving stroke rehabilitation methods and stroke recovery.

  6. Achieving a holistic perspective in stroke rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Lund, Hans; Jones, Dorrie;

    2015-01-01

    by health professionals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to explore how the components of the ICF were addressed by physiotherapists and occupational therapists in stroke rehabilitation. Methods: A prospective cohort study, including all service levels within Danish stroke rehabilitation......, was carried out. Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of stroke (n=131; 70 males and 61 females; mean age: 72 years) admitted to a university hospital between May and December 2012 were enrolled by 13 physiotherapists and occupational therapists. Physiotherapist and occupational therapist documentation...

  7. OSA – a risk factor for stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan CM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh M RyanCentre for Sleep Health and Research, University of Toronto/Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder characterized by recurrent and intermittent hypoxia with continued respiratory effort against a closed glottis. The result of this is a cascade of acute and chronic systemic pathophysiological responses that cause endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and lead to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article focuses on the clinical evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea and stroke and on the specific mechanisms perpetuating stroke risk in this population.Keywords: stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, brain injury, atherosclerosis, continuous positive airway pressure, outcomes

  8. Early home-supported discharge after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorne, P.; Jepsen, Birgitte G.; Larsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    This report is a brief practical problem-based guide to support clinical management in the implementation of early home-supported discharge as an integrated part of stroke care. However, it is clear that skilled members of a multidisciplinary team are needed and they need to work in a coordinated...... benefit most are likely to have moderate stroke severity and may be able to cooperate with rehabilitation in the home setting. Staffing requirements will vary according to several factors. These will include (a) the severity and complexity of stroke impairments, (b) the current level of community support...

  9. Acute Phase Reactants and Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sahan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases which called as stroke causes severe mortality and morbidity. Stoke is the third cause of death and first cause of the sequela among in its disorder group. Stroke with a 80-85% has the most frequency and the most cause of death in among the neurological disorders. Besides its lethal effects, sequela of stroke also cause physiological problems on individuals, families and social groups, it also brings some economic problems. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(2.000: 85-140

  10. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis in ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meneghetti, G; Vorstrup, S; Mickey, B; Lindewald, H; Lassen, N A

    1984-01-01

    Seventy measurements of CBF were performed in 12 stroke patients by 133Xe inhalation and a rapidly rotating single photon emission computerized tomograph. CBF was measured every other day during the acute phase and at 2- and 6-month follow-up visits. A persistent contralateral cerebellar blood flow...... is concluded from this serial study that crossed cerebellar diaschisis is a common finding in completed stroke. It is probably caused by disconnection of the corticopontine pathways, a disconnection that tends to persist. The phenomenon is in fact less variable than the stroke-related CBF changes in...

  11. Diagnostic imaging in neonatal stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cerebral artery infarction is an important differential diagnosis in the newborn with neurological abnormalities. Based on clinical data, its incidence is estimated to be 1 in 4000 newborns. Since the course is often subclinical, the true incidence is probably higher. Diagnosis: Cerebral ultrasound and Doppler sonography as readily available screening tools play a central role in the initial diagnosis of neonatal cerebral infarction. Definitive diagnosis is made by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Beside symptomatic anticonvulsive therapy, treatment aims at the prevention of secondary ischemic injury. Discussion: Three term infants with different clinical courses of neonatal stroke are presented to sensitize the clinician and the radiologist for this probably underdiagnosed entity. The role of imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of neonatal cerebral infarction is discussed. (orig.)

  12. QTc Interval Prolongation and Stroke: Any Differences between Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Strokes?

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin; Hawar Adnan Myckan; Emad Hama Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Strokes results in a multitude of electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, and a prolongation of the QTc interval is a well-observed one. We analyzed QTc interval prolongation among males and females who presented with acute stroke. Material and Methods: This observational study was conducted at the department of neurology of the Sulaimaniya general teaching hospital, from August 2012 to May 2013, and involved 100 consecutive patients who presented with acute stroke; 50 had ischemic s...

  13. Population shifts and the future of stroke: forecasts of the future burden of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, George; Goff, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Population distribution estimates by age and race/ethnicity from the U.S. Census Bureau for the years 2010 and 2050 were combined with estimates of stroke incidence from population-based surveillance studies to forecast the distribution of incident stroke cases for the years 2010 and 2050. Over these 40 years, the number of incident strokes will more than double, with the majority of the increase among the elderly (age 75+) and minority groups (particularly Hispanics). These increases are lik...

  14. Airborne pollutants and lacunar stroke: a case cross-over analysis on stroke unit admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Baccarelli, Andrea; Giua, Alessandra; Previdi, Paolo; Siliprandi, Giorgio; Murgia, Nicola

    2012-06-14

    Particulate air pollution is known to be associated with cardiovascular disease. The relation of particulate air pollution with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) has not been extensively studied, particularly in relation to different subtypes of stroke. A time-series study was conducted to evaluate the association between daily air pollution and acute stroke unit hospitalizations in Mantua, Italy. We analyzed 781 CVD consecutive patients living in Mantua county admitted between 2006-08. Data on stroke types, demographic variables, risk factors were available from the Lombardia Stroke Registry. Daily mean value of particulate matter with a diameter <10 µm (PM(10)), carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, benzene and ozone were used in the analysis. The association between CVD, ischemic strokes subtypes and pollutants was investigated with a case-crossover design, using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and holidays. Among the 781 subjects admitted 75.7% had ischemic stroke, 11.7% haemorrhagic stroke 12.6% transient ischemic attack. In men admission for stroke was associated with PM(10) [odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95%; confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.02; P<0.05]. According to the clinical classification, lacunar anterior circulation syndrome stroke type was related to PM(10) level registered on the day of admission for both genders (OR: 1.01, 95%; CI: 1.00-1.02; P<0.05) while for total anterior circulation syndrome stroke only in men (OR: 1.04, 95%; CI 1.01-1.07; P<0.05).In conclusion, our study confirms that air pollution peaks may contribute to increase the risk of hospitalization for stroke and particulate matter seems to be a significant risk factor, especially for lacunar stroke. PMID:23139849

  15. Airborne pollutants and lacunar stroke: a case cross-over analysis on stroke unit admissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Corea

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is known to be associated with cardiovascular disease. The relation of particulate air pollution with cerebrovascular disease (CVD has not been extensively studied, particularly in relation to different subtypes of stroke. A time-series study was conducted to evaluate the association between daily air pollution and acute stroke unit hospitalizations in Mantua, Italy. We analyzed 781 CVD consecutive patients living in Mantua county admitted between 2006-08. Data on stroke types, demographic variables, risk factors were available from the Lombardia Stroke Registry. Daily mean value of particulate matter with a diameter <10 mm (PM10, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, benzene and ozone were used in the analysis. The association between CVD, ischemic strokes subtypes and pollutants was investigated with a case-crossover design, using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and holidays. Among the 781 subjects admitted 75.7% had ischemic stroke, 11.7% haemorrhagic stroke 12.6% transient ischemic attack. In men admission for stroke was associated with PM10 [odds ratio (OR 1.01, 95%; confidence interval (CI 1.00-1.02; P<0.05]. According to the clinical classification, lacunar anterior circulation syndrome stroke type was related to PM10 level registered on the day of admission for both genders (OR: 1.01, 95%; CI: 1.00-1.02; P<0.05 while for total anterior circulation syndrome stroke only in men (OR: 1.04, 95%; CI 1.01-1.07; P<0.05. In conclusion, our study confirms that air pollution peaks may contribute to increase the risk of hospitalization for stroke and particulate matter seems to be a significant risk factor, especially for lacunar stroke.

  16. Functional recovery in aging mice after experimental stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Manwani, Bharti; Liu, Fudong; Xu, Yan; Persky, Rebecca; Li, Jun; McCullough, Louise D.

    2011-01-01

    Aging is a non modifiable risk factor for stroke. Since not all strokes can be prevented, a major emerging area of research is the development of effective strategies to enhance functional recovery after stroke. However, in the vast majority of pre-clinical stroke studies, the behavioral tests used to assess functional recovery have only been validated for use in young animals, or are designed for rats. Mice are increasingly utilized in stroke models but well validated behavioral tests design...

  17. Little association between intracranial arterial stenosis and lacunar stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Doubal, Fergus N; Eadie, Elizabeth; Chappell, Francesca; Shuler, Kirsten; Cvoro, Vera

    2011-01-01

    Atheromatous middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis could cause lacunar stroke by occluding lenticulostriate artery origins, but atheroma is common, and previous studies lacked suitable controls. We aimed to determine if intracranial atheroma was more common in lacunar than in cortical ischaemic stroke. We recruited patients with lacunar stroke and controls with mild cortical stroke, confirmed the stroke subtype with magnetic resonance imaging and used transcranial Doppler ultrasound imaging t...

  18. Sex differences in antiplatelet response in ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Dawn M; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Compton, Margaret P; Gylys, Karen; Zivin, Justin A; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Sex differences exist in the occurrence, treatment and outcome of ischemic stroke. Compared with men, women have more stroke events and are less likely to fully recover from a stroke. Given the rapidly aging population, stroke incidence and mortality among women are projected to substantially rise by 2050. This has important public health consequences. Mitigating the burden of stroke among women will require a fundamental understanding of sex differences and sex-specific issues including cere...

  19. Post-stroke Movement Disorders: Clinical Manifestations and Pharmacological Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gallelli, Luca; Labate, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Palleria, Caterina; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary abnormal movements have been reported after ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke. Post stroke movement disorders can appear as acute or delayed sequel. At the moment, for many of these disorders the knowledge of pharmacological treatment is still inadequate. Dopaminergic and GABAergic systems may be mainly involved in post-stroke movement disorders. This article provides a review on drugs commonly used in post-stroke movement disorders, given that some post-stroke movement disorders ...

  20. Neuroprotection for Stroke: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Kleinschnitz; Sutherland, Brad A; Jens Minnerup; Buchan, Alastair M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroprotection aims to prevent salvageable neurons from dying. Despite showing efficacy in experimental stroke studies, the concept of neuroprotection has failed in clinical trials. Reasons for the translational difficulties include a lack of methodological agreement between preclinical and clinical studies and the heterogeneity of stroke in humans compared to homogeneous strokes in animal models. Even when the international recommendations for preclinical stroke research, the Stroke Academi...

  1. Exploration of Chinese style management for stroke prevention and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Feng; Bao-hua CHAO; Zhao, Dong-Sheng; Li, Mei; Ji-heng HAO; He-hong CHEN; Yue, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wang, Long-De

    2016-01-01

    With the acceleration of the aging process, chronic diseases have become the major threat to Chinese people's health. Stroke is in particular and has become the first death cause in China in recent years. However, there are still obvious deficiencies in the management system of stroke. An effective prevention and control model of stroke has not yet been established on national scale. The prevention and treatment of stroke is still in a low level in China. Good effects of stroke preventi...

  2. Vertical Collective Action: Addressing Vertical Asymmetries in Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Juan-Camilo; Rodriguez, Luz Angela; Johnson, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Watersheds and irrigation systems have the characteristic of connecting people vertically by water flows. The location of users along these systems defines their role in the provision and appropriation of water which adds complexity to the potential for cooperation. Verticality thus imposes a challenge to collective action. This paper presents the results of field experiments conducted in four watersheds of Colombia (South America) and Kenya (East Africa) to study the role that location plays...

  3. Survival after stroke. Risk factors and determinants in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2010-01-01

    The eight papers included in this doctoral thesis were made during my position as a clinical research assistant at the Department of Neurology, Bispebjerg Hospital. All papers are based on the Copenhagen Stroke Study, which comprises a cohort of 1197 patients with acute stroke admitted to a single...... stroke unit and recruited from a well-defined area in Copenhagen, Denmark. This thesis focuses on the survival after stroke in relation to several baseline clinical characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The thesis comes in three sections with regard to whether factors or clinical...

  4. Stroke and the “Stroke Belt” in Dialysis: Contribution of Patient Characteristics to Ischemic Stroke Rate and Its Geographic Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Phadnis, Milind A.; Rigler, Sally K.; Spertus, John A.; Zhou, Xinhua; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Shireman, Theresa I.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic variation in stroke rates is well established in the general population, with higher rates in the South than in other areas of the United States. ESRD is a potent risk factor for stroke, but whether regional variations in stroke risk exist among dialysis patients is unknown. Medicare claims from 2000 to 2005 were used to ascertain ischemic stroke events in a large cohort of 265,685 incident dialysis patients. A Poisson generalized linear mixed model was generated to determine factors associated with stroke and to ascertain state-by-state geographic variability in stroke rates by generating observed-to-expected (O/E) adjusted rate ratios for stroke. Older age, female sex, African American race and Hispanic ethnicity, unemployed status, diabetes, hypertension, history of stroke, and permanent atrial fibrillation were positively associated with ischemic stroke, whereas body mass index >30 kg/m2 was inversely associated with stroke (P1.0 were all in the South: North Carolina, Mississippi, and Oklahoma. Regional efforts to increase primary prevention in the “stroke belt” or to better educate dialysis patients on the signs of stroke so that they may promptly seek care may improve stroke care and outcomes in dialysis patients. PMID:23990675

  5. Predictors of long-term survival among first-ever ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in a Brazilian stroke cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart, Alessandra C.; Fernandes, Tiotrefis G; Santos, Itamar S.; Airlane P. Alencar; Bensenor, Isabela M; Paulo A Lotufo

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke to identify prognostic factors associated to long-term stroke survival. We investigated long-term survival and predictors that could adversely influence ischemic and hemorrhagic first-ever stroke prognosis. Methods We prospectively ascertained 665 consecutive first-ever ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke cases from “The Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity” (The EMMA Study) in a community hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. ...

  6. Effect of pre-stroke statin use on stroke severity and early functional recovery: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Chol; Lee, Ji Sung; Park, Tai Hwan; Cho, Yong-Jin; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Soo-Joo; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Jun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Chul; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Experimental studies suggest that pre-stroke statin treatment has a dual effect of neuroprotection during ischemia and neurorestoration after ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-stroke statin use on initial stroke severity and early clinical outcome. Methods We used a prospective database enrolling patients with acute ischemic stroke from 12 hospitals in Korea between April 2008 and January 2012. Primary endpoint was the initial stroke severity ...

  7. Functional connectivity metrics during stroke recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Schmah, Tanya; Small, Steven L.; Rasmussen, Peter Mondrup; Strother, Stephen C.

    We explore functional connectivity in nine subjects measured with 1 5T fMRI-BOLD in a longitudinal study of recovery from unilateral stroke affecting the motor area (Small et al, 2002) We found that several measures of complexity of covariance matrices show strong correlations with behavioral...... this longitudinal stroke recovery data set We used three complexity measures the sphericity index described by Abdi (2010), "unsupervised dimensionality", which is the number of PCs that minimizes unsupervised generalization error of a covariance matrix (Hansen et al, 1999), and "QD dimensionality...... are suggestive, but limited, results given the sample size, restricted behavioral measurements and older 1 5T BOLD data sets Nevertheless, they indicate one potentially fruitful direction for future data-driven fMRI studies of stroke recovery in larger, better-characterized longitudinal stroke data...

  8. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  9. Functional connectivity metrics during stroke recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yourganov, Grigori; Schmah, Tanya; Small, Steven L.;

    2010-01-01

    We explore functional connectivity in nine subjects measured with 1 5T fMRI-BOLD in a longitudinal study of recovery from unilateral stroke affecting the motor area (Small et al, 2002) We found that several measures of complexity of covariance matrices show strong correlations with behavioral...... this longitudinal stroke recovery data set We used three complexity measures the sphericity index described by Abdi (2010), "unsupervised dimensionality", which is the number of PCs that minimizes unsupervised generalization error of a covariance matrix (Hansen et al, 1999), and "QD dimensionality...... are suggestive, but limited, results given the sample size, restricted behavioral measurements and older 1 5T BOLD data sets Nevertheless, they indicate one potentially fruitful direction for future data-driven fMRI studies of stroke recovery in larger, better-characterized longitudinal stroke data...

  10. Genetics of ischemic stroke: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Kaul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A stroke is still a major cause of long-term disability and the third largest killer in the world after heart attack and cancer. Inherited genetic variation has been shown to play a role in its pathogenesis and therefore, there is a need to identify the culprit genetic variants. They may provide novel targets for preventive therapeutics. The most intensively investigated candidate gene is PDE4D. There are several positive replication studies of PDE4D gene with stroke. The genetic contribution to ischemic stroke risk in India has not been explored adequately. Reports on few candidate genes are available but we are still lagging behind in this aspect. Most of the reports are from Andhra Pradesh, a province in south India and a few parts of north India. PDE4D has been identified as a predisposition gene for ischemic stroke in Southern as well as the Northern population of India.

  11. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and symptomatic ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Jacobsen, Peter; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Schnohr, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that low plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with increased risk of symptomatic ischemic stroke in the general population. METHODS: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D in 10,170 individuals from the general population, the Copenhagen...... City Heart Study. During 21 years of follow-up, 1,256 and 164 persons developed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively. In a meta-analysis of ischemic stroke, we included 10 studies, 58,384 participants, and 2,644 events. RESULTS: Stepwise decreasing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations...... were associated with stepwise increasing risk of ischemic stroke both as a function of seasonally adjusted percentile categories and as a function of clinical categories of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (p for trend ≤ 2 × 10(-3) ). In a Cox regression model comparing individuals with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D...

  12. Less Heart Care, More Strokes for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Care, More Strokes for Women? Study reflects gender differences in treatment of atrial fibrillation To use the ... subtle symptoms so they need to pay more attention to their blood sugar and blood pressure and ...

  13. Blood Pressure Patterns May Predict Stroke Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure reading) of more than 6,700 Dutch adults. Participants were ages 55 to 106 and ... stroke or death from other blood pressure-related diseases up to age 80, the study found. Moderately ...

  14. [The association between oral diseases and stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelito-Barglik, Katarzyna; Pierzchała, Krystyna; Postek-Stefańska, Lidia; Pierzchała, Bogna; Labuz-Roszak, Beata

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there have been many studies concerning the effect of periodontal disease on the vascular system, including the development of stroke, either ischemic or hemorrhagic. The aim of this study was to present the relationship between periodontal disease and stroke based on the available literature. As it is evident from studies, patients with periodontal disease are predisposed to the formation of chronic systemic inflammation, which in turn is a risk facto for cardiovascular diseases, particularly diseases of the large vessels, including atherosclerosis, as well as chronic inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque Atherosclerosis is a recognized risk factor for stroke. Current knowledge indicates the relationship between periodontal inflammation and stroke. Periodonta diseases are considered as an independent risk factor for vascular disease of the brain. Therefore, the prevention of periodontal disease is important, also early detection and treatment. Dental care should be an essential element of primary and secondary prevention of vascular events of central nervous system. PMID:26030963

  15. Early Arterial Ischemic Stroke in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presentation, clinical course, and outcomes for 23 premature children with arterial ischemic stroke before 44 weeks gestational age are reported from Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN.

  16. The vestibular control of balance after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, J. F.; Playford, E. D.; Day, B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine vestibular control of balance in those who recovered the ability to stand after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke.Methods: Sixteen patients with MCA stroke were compared with 10 age matched controls. Two additional patients were studied with isolated corticospinal tract lesions, one each at the level of the pons and medulla. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) while patients stood with their eyes closed and he...

  17. Age trajectories of stroke case fatality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2011-01-01

    Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages.......Mortality rates level off at older ages. Age trajectories of stroke case-fatality rates were studied with the aim of investigating prevalence of this phenomenon, specifically in case-fatality rates at older ages....

  18. Copeptin: Limited Usefulness in Early Stroke Differentiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes von Recum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stroke can be a challenging diagnosis in an emergency-setting. We sought to determine whether copeptin may be a useful biomarker to differentiate between ischemic stroke (IS, transient ischemic attack (TIA, and stroke-mimics. Methods. In patients with suspected stroke arriving within 4.5 hours of symptom-onset, copeptin-levels were measured in initial blood-samples. The final diagnosis was adjudicated by vascular neurologists blinded to copeptin-values. Results. Of all 36 patients with available copeptin-values (median age 71 years, IQR: 54–76; 44% female, 20 patients (56% were diagnosed with IS, no patient was diagnosed with hemorrhagic stroke, nine patients (25% were diagnosed with TIA, and seven patients (19% were stroke-mimics. Copeptin-levels (in pmol/L tended to be higher in patients with IS [19.1 (11.2–48.5] compared to TIA [9.4 (5.4–13.8]. In stroke-mimics the range of values was extremely broad [33.3 (7.57–255.7]. The diagnostic accuracy of copeptin for IS was 63% with a sensitivity of 80% and a positive predictive value of 64%. Conclusion. In this cohort of patients copeptin-levels within 4.5 hours of symptom onset were higher in patients with IS compared to TIA but the broad range of values in stroke-mimics limits diagnostic accuracy. This trial is registered with UTN: U1111-1119-7602.

  19. Early changes in physiological variables after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Andrew; Read Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of physiology, notably blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose, and blood oxygen saturation, may be altered after an ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. Generally, blood pressure and temperature rise acutely after a stroke, before returning to normal. Blood glucose and oxygen levels may be abnormal in individuals, but they do not follow a set pattern. Several aspects of these physiological alterations remain unclear, including their principal determinants - w...

  20. Practical Assessment of Dysphagia in Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung Moo; Kim, Hyo Jong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative and organ-specific practical test for the diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia based on assessment of stroke patients. Methods An initial test composed of 24 items was designed to evaluate the function of the organs involved in swallowing. The grading system of the initial test was based on the analysis of 50 normal adults. The initial test was performed in 52 stroke patients with clinical symptoms of dysphagia. Aspiration was measured via a videofluoroscop...

  1. Death caused by heat stroke: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Slobodan; Pavlekić Snežana; Alempijević Đorđe; Ječmenica Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Heat stroke is the most dangerous among numerous disorders caused by elevated environmental temperature. It is characterized by an increased body temperature of over 40°C, the dysfunction of the central nervous system and the development of multiple organ failure. The aim of this paper was to highlight problems in the clinical and post-mortal diagnosis of fatal heat stroke. Case Outline. A 20-year-old male was found unconscious on the street; ...

  2. Hemodynamic findings in patients with brain stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Siebert, Janusz; Gutknecht, Piotr; Molisz, Andrzej; Trzeciak, Bartosz; Nyka, Walenty

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Standard procedures carried out at a stroke department in patients after a cerebral event may prove insufficient for monitoring hemodynamic indices. Impedance cardiography enables hemodynamic changes to be monitored non-invasively. The aim of the work was to describe hemodynamic parameters in patients with acute phase of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and to analyse the correlation between the type of hemodynamic response and long-term prognosis. Material and methods The 45 cons...

  3. Demographic Characteristics of Strokes Types in Sanliurfa

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Inanc

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment of patients with stroke admitted demographic features planned. We aimed to study demographic feature of stroke patient who admitted to Sanliurfa training and research hospital for diagnosis and treatment. Material and Method: 01/10/2011 and 01/9/2012, ischemic and hemorrhagic brain training and research hospital in Sanliurfa vascular disease diagnosis and treatment without any exclusion criteria, patient sequential 454 ...

  4. The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Anthony F.

    1987-01-01

    The Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario is a non-profit volunteer-driven organization that is active in supporting research and education programs with the ultimate goal of reducing death and disability from heart disease and stroke. The Foundation has over 65 chapters across the province, a full-time staff of 130, and over 70,000 volunteers involved in various programs and fund-raising activities. Several of the Foundation's programs offer direct assistance to family physicians and their ...

  5. Early Detection of Post-Stroke Depression

    OpenAIRE

    de Man - van Ginkel, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the first two years after stroke approximately one-third of the patients suffer from depression, also referred to as post-stroke depression (PSD). Patients with PSD suffer from symptoms, such as a diminished interest or pleasure (anhedonia), depressed mood, sleep disturbances, loss of energy, changes in appetite, feelings of inappropriate guilt, concentration difficulties, psychomotor retardation or agitation, and suicidal thoughts. PSD aggravates the burden of physical, psychological and ...

  6. Neonatal stroke: Neonatal neuroimaging & brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    van der Aa, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite major improvements in perinatal care, perinatal stroke remains a severe problem of the newborn and is commonly encountered in the care of these infants in the neonatal intensive care setting. The reported incidence of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) varies from 1:1600-1:5000, and most likely depends on how often neuroimaging studies are performed. Periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) has a lower incidence, but still occurs in 1-10% of the very preterm born infants,...

  7. Stroke in central nervous system infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke subtypes and etiology may differ between developing and developed countries. Infections are a relatively common cause of stroke in tropical regions. Objective: To review the main infectious diseases associated with stroke. Discussion: Prevalence of stroke in HIV patients is around 1%. Pathogenic mechanisms include HIV vasculopathy, vasculitis, cardioembolism, acquired hypercoagulability, and the effect of opportunistic infections. Treatment with protease inhibitors has been associated with premature atherosclerotic vascular disease. Emerging viral infections that are associated with stroke include viral hemorrhagic fevers, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and West Nile virus. Vasculitis involving perforating vessels of the brain is a cerebrovascular complication of tuberculous meningitis. Small, medium, and large arteries of the anterior circulation can be involved. A progressive intracranial arteriopathy after Leptospira interrogans infection has been described, which involves the large intracranial arteries. Cerebrovascular complications of mycosis are associated with large vessel vasculitis, direct vessel damage by invasion or embolization, and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to mycotic aneurysm rupture. Pathological findings of cerebral malaria include diffuse cerebral edema, perivascular ring hemorrhages, white matter necrosis, parenchyma petechial hemorrhages, occlusion of brain vessels, and sequestration of infected erythrocytes in cortical and perforating arteries. Stroke can occur in subarachnoid neurocysticercosis and the lesions in such cases consist mostly of deep lacunar infarctions resulting from endarteritis of small penetrating arteries. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, apical aneurysm, and mural thrombus are the conditions that predispose patients with American trypanosomiasis to cardioembolism. Gnathostoma spinigerum infestation is a cause of hemorrhagic stroke in Asia. Conclusion: Infectious and

  8. Bone-density changes after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaupre, Gary S; Lew, Henry L

    2006-05-01

    It has been many years since bone loss and fracture risk were first recognized as serious complications of stroke. Hip fracture is associated with a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality for stroke survivors, and therefore, assessing and maintaining skeletal health after stroke should be an important clinical goal. Recent long-term, prospective studies have illustrated a highly nonuniform pattern of bone changes after stroke. In general, there is significant bone loss on the paretic side, which is greatest in those patients with the most severe functional deficits. In some patients, bone loss in the paretic arm during the first year after stroke is the equivalent of >20 yrs of bone loss in healthy individuals of comparable age. Bone density in the nonparetic upper limb can actually increase after stroke, consistent with an increase in habitual use of the nonparetic hand. Bone density in the paretic lower limb can decrease by >10% in 12 mos poststroke are needed to determine how long excess bone loss continues after stroke. Studies with more subjects and with more varied disability levels are needed to better understand the relationships between functional deficits and bone loss. New metrics are needed to quantify the intensity and duration of physical activity in the upper and lower limbs that are consistent with previous research on the role of mechanical stimuli in bone adaptation. Finally, an assessment of skeletal health and the factors that affect bone quantity and quality should be a standard component in the clinical management of all survivors of stroke. PMID:16628156

  9. Epidemiology and etiology of strokes in babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Lvova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes an update on the morbidity, mortality, and a risk for recurrence of stroke occurring in babies. It shows a variety of conditions and syndromes which may be responsible for stroke in infancy. Babies with the signs of intrauterine infection and congenital heart disease, the carriers of major thrombophilia gene mutations, may be regarded as a risk group.

  10. Mechanical Thrombectomy for Stroke After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Márcio; Martins, Catarina; Koukoulis, Giovanna; Marques, Marta; Reis, João; Abecassis, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Stroke after cardiac surgery remains a devastating complication and its treatment options are limited. Systemic fibrinolysis is a relative contraindication, because it raises the risk of systemic hemorrhage. Endovascular therapy, mechanical thrombectomy, and intra-arterial fibrinolysis have emerged as safer options. We present three patients who developed strokes following cardiac surgery who underwent successful mechanical thrombectomy and review the literature on this subject. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12776 (J Card Surg 2016;31:517-520). PMID:27282492

  11. NADPH OXIDASE IN STROKE AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xian Nan; Cairns, Belinda; Kim, Jong Youl; Midori A Yenari

    2012-01-01

    NADPH oxidase (NOX) was originally identified in immune cells as playing an important microbicidal role. In stroke and cerebrovascular disease, inflammation is increasingly being recognized as contributing negatively to neurological outcome, with NOX as an important source of superoxide. Several labs have now shown that blocking or deleting NOX in the experimental stroke models protects from brain ischemic. Recent work has implicated glucose as an important NOX substrate leading to reperfusio...

  12. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  13. Vertical Integration, innovation and foreclosure

    OpenAIRE

    Allain, Marie-Laure; Chambolle, Claire; Rey, Patrick; Ecole Polytechnique Chaire d'économie

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the potential effects of vertical integration on downstream firms’incentives to innovate. Interacting efficiently with a supplier may require information exchanges, which raises the concern that sensitive information may be disclosed to rivals. This may be particularly harmful in case of innovative activities, as it increases the risk of imitation. We show that vertical integration exacerbates this threat of imitation, which de facto degrades the integrated supplier’s abili...

  14. Autonomous vertical profiler data management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Navelkar, G.S.; Desa, E.S.; Madhan, R.; Dabholkar, N.; Prabhudesai, S.P.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.

    and reduced data �� Ease in operation and one man deployable 2 Fig.1. Autonomous Vertical Profiler Table 1. Autonomous Vertical Profiler Specifications 2. Communication Communication with the AVP is through the satellite modem... Aluminum alloy, Acetal nose & tail cones Propulsion Single DC thruster Electronics 8051 and ARM7 microcontroller based Communication Radio modem (2.4 GHz) & Satellite Transmission (Iridium) GUI Labview based Energy Source Lithium Ion Polymer batteries...

  15. Does Stroke Impair Learning in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia das Dores Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess cognitive development and learning in children who have had strokes. Method. Twenty-nine stroke patients and 18 children with no brain lesions and no learning impairments were evaluated. For the cognitive assessment, Piaget's clinical method was used. Writing, arithmetic, and reading abilities were assessed by the school performance test. Results. The mean age at evaluation was 9.6 years. Among the 29 children, 20 had early lesions (mean of 2.4 years old. The stroke was ischemic in 18 subjects; there were 7 cases of recurrence. Six children could not answer the tests. A high index of cognitive delay and low performance in writing, arithmetic, and reading were verified. Comparison with the control group revealed that the children who have had strokes had significantly lower performances. Conclusion. In this sample, strokes impaired cognitive development and learning. It is important that children have access to educational support and cognitive rehabilitation after injury. These approaches may minimise the effects of strokes on learning in children.

  16. Early changes in physiological variables after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of physiology, notably blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose, and blood oxygen saturation, may be altered after an ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. Generally, blood pressure and temperature rise acutely after a stroke, before returning to normal. Blood glucose and oxygen levels may be abnormal in individuals, but they do not follow a set pattern. Several aspects of these physiological alterations remain unclear, including their principal determinants - whether they genuinely affect prognosis (as opposed to merely representing underlying processes such as inflammation or a stress response, whether these effects are adaptive or maladaptive, whether the effects are specific to certain subgroups (e.g. lacunar stroke and whether modifying physiology also modifies its prognostic effect. Hypertension and hyperglycemia may be helpful or harmful, depending on the perfusion status after an ischemic stroke; the therapeutic response to their lowering may be correspondingly variable. Hypothermia may provide benefits, in addition to preventing harm through protection from hyperthermia. Hypoxia is harmful, but normobaric hyperoxia is unhelpful or even harmful in normoxic patients. Hyperbaric hyperoxia, however, may be beneficial, though this remains unproven. The above-mentioned uncertainties necessitate generally conservative measures for physiology management, although there are notably specific recommendations for thrombolysis-eligible patients. Stroke unit care is associated with better outcome, possibly through better management of poststroke physiology. Stroke units can also facilitate research to clarify the relationship between physiology and prognosis, and to subsequently clarify management guidelines.

  17. Is it important to classify ischaemic stroke?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iqbal, M

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-five percent of all ischemic events remain classified as cryptogenic. This study was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of diagnosis of ischaemic stroke based on information given in the medical notes. It was tested by applying the clinical information to the (TOAST) criteria. Hundred and five patients presented with acute stroke between Jan-Jun 2007. Data was collected on 90 patients. Male to female ratio was 39:51 with age range of 47-93 years. Sixty (67%) patients had total\\/partial anterior circulation stroke; 5 (5.6%) had a lacunar stroke and in 25 (28%) the mechanism of stroke could not be identified. Four (4.4%) patients with small vessel disease were anticoagulated; 5 (5.6%) with atrial fibrillation received antiplatelet therapy and 2 (2.2%) patients with atrial fibrillation underwent CEA. This study revealed deficiencies in the clinical assessment of patients and treatment was not tailored to the mechanism of stroke in some patients.

  18. Genetic basis of stroke: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshi Anjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke or "brain attack" is a complex disease caused by a combination of multiple risk factors. It has major social and economic consequences. Various epidemiological studies in families and twins have revealed that there is a genetic component to stroke risk. Stroke may be the outcome of single gene disorders or more commonly, a polygenic multifactorial disease. Mutations in several candidate genes have been found to be associated with stroke. However, association studies in population-based samples have failed to identify reliable disease markers. The publication of the "Human Genome Project" has indeed improved our knowledge about the potential role of genetics in complex disorders including stroke. Rapidly expanding field of genetics is in a state of transforming medicine into a new kind in future, the individualized medicine, using tailor made drugs according to the genetic makeup of the individuals. However, this involves integrating genome wide genetic information with medical information. The first genome wide association study on ischemic stroke has been published recently. Further studies will hopefully tell us how far the genetic information will assist us to tailor clinical and therapeutic decisions to an individual′s genotype.

  19. Hypercholesterolemia in patients of ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Stroke is a common neurological disease that results in significant mortality and morbidity globally. Several risk factors have been identified for stroke among which hyperlipidaemia is one of the modifiable risk factors. Recent clinical trials have shown a reduction in ischemic stroke for patients taking lipid lowering medications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out the frequency of hypercholesterolemia in patients of ischemic stroke in Hazara region. Method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Medical Department of Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad. Ninety patients of stroke confirmed as ischemic by CT scan brain were enrolled in the study after informed consent. The frequency of hypercholesterolemia in patients was recorded. Results: There were 55 (61.1 percentage) males. The mean age of patients was 64.4±11.5 years. The mean serum cholesterol in all patients was 4.16±1.1 mmol/l. The mean serum cholesterol of male patients was 4.3±1.2 mmol/l and 4.0±10.9 mmol/l in the case of females. Conclusions: Hypercholesterolemia could not be established as a major risk factor for stroke in our setup through this study that allude to the fact that other risk factors might be contributing more to the incidence of cerebrovascular accident in our population. (author)

  20. Cognitive impairment and stroke in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Daniele; Lopez, Gianluca; Corrao, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed current knowledge about the interaction between stroke and vascular risk factors and the development of cognitive impairment and dementia. Stroke is increasingly recognized as an important cause of cognitive problems and has been implicated in the development of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The prevalence of cognitive impairment after stroke is high, and their combined effects significantly increase the cost of care and health resource utilization, with reflections on hospital readmissions and increased mortality rates. There is also substantial evidence that vascular risk factors (such as hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and tobacco smoking) are independently associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Thus, a successful management of these factors, as well as optimal acute stroke management, might have a great impact on the development of cognitive impairment. Notwithstanding, the pathological link between cognitive impairment, stroke, and vascular risk factors is complex and still partially unclear so that further studies are needed to better elucidate the boundaries of this relationship. Many specific pharmacological treatments, including anticholinergic drugs and antihypertensive medications, and nonpharmacological approaches, such as diet, cognitive rehabilitation, and physical activity, have been studied for patients with vascular cognitive impairment, but the optimal care is still far away. Meanwhile, according to the most recent knowledge, optimal stroke care should also include cognitive assessment in the short and long term, and great efforts should be oriented toward a multidisciplinary approach, including quality-of-life assessment and support of caregivers. PMID:27069366

  1. Post-stroke disposition from a geriatric-rehabilitative stroke care area: an Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of stroke patients cannot be discharged at home. Studies on post stroke disposition have low validity outside the country in which they are carried out because healthcare systems offer different rehabilitative and long-term facilities. Moreover absolute selection criteria for admission to rehabilitation are not available yet. Few studies on post-stroke disposition from Italian stroke units are available. Authors evaluated data of a 18-month period from a geriatric managed stroke care area where comprehensive multi-professional assessment and discharge planning are routinely carried out. Only patients discharged with diagnosis related to acute stroke were considered. Baseline characteristics, clinical, neurological and functional conditions according to the structured multidimensional assessment were prospectively collected in the stroke unit registry. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression were performed to identify independent variables associated with three discharge settings: home, rehabilitation and skilled long-term ward. Out of 188 patients evaluated, 56.4% were discharged home, 18.6% to rehabilitation and 25.0% to long-term ward. Data showed an efficient disposition to intermediate settings with a shorter length of stay compared to other international studies. Factors associated with post-stroke disposition were age, dysphagia, neurological impairment on admission (NIH-SS≥6, after stroke functional status (mRankin≥3, poor pre-stroke functional level (mRankin≥3 and hemorrhagic stroke. Dysphagia, severe neurological impairment and post-stroke disability were associated with discharge to rehabilitation and long term ward. These two settings differed in age and pre-stroke functional condition. Patients discharged to long-term wards were about 10 years older than those admitted to rehabilitative ward. Only 5% of patients discharged to rehabilitation had a pre-stroke mRankin score ≥3. Disposition to a skilled

  2. Differences in the distribution of stroke subtypes in a UK black stroke population – final results from the South London Ethnicity and Stroke Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gulli, Giosue; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Kalra, Lalit; Rudd, Anthony G.; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Markus, Hugh S

    2016-01-01

    Background Stroke incidence is increased in Black individuals but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Exploring the differences in aetiological stroke subtypes, and the extent to which they are explained by conventional and novel risk factors, is an important step in elucidating the underlying mechanisms for this increased stroke risk. Methods Between 1999 and 2010, 1200 black and 1200 white stroke patients were prospectively recruited from a contiguous geographical area in South Lond...

  3. Stroke and the “Stroke Belt” in Dialysis: Contribution of Patient Characteristics to Ischemic Stroke Rate and Its Geographic Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Wetmore, James B.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Phadnis, Milind A; Rigler, Sally K.; Spertus, John A.; Zhou, Xinhua; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Shireman, Theresa I.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic variation in stroke rates is well established in the general population, with higher rates in the South than in other areas of the United States. ESRD is a potent risk factor for stroke, but whether regional variations in stroke risk exist among dialysis patients is unknown. Medicare claims from 2000 to 2005 were used to ascertain ischemic stroke events in a large cohort of 265,685 incident dialysis patients. A Poisson generalized linear mixed model was generated to determine facto...

  4. Post-stroke depression therapy: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Turner, Alyna; Dean, Olivia; Sureda, Antoni; Mohammad, Seyed

    2014-01-01

    Post-stroke depression is an important psychological consequence of ischemic stroke, and affects around one third of stroke patients at any time post-stroke. It has a negative impact on patient morbidity and mortality, and as such development of effective post-stroke recognition and treatment strategies are very important. There are several therapeutic strategies for post-stroke depression, including both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. In this review, we present evidence regarding the underlying biology of post-stroke depression, commonalities between post-stroke depression and Major Depressive Disorder and explore several treatment approaches, including antidepressant therapy, psychotherapy, surgical therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, acupuncture, music therapy and natural products. Further experimental and clinical studies are required, particularly in emerging fields such as the role of nutraceuticals in the treatment of stroke. PMID:24852795

  5. Evaluation of stroke services in Anglia stroke clinical network to examine the variation in acute services and stroke outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and the leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. A series of national stroke audits in the UK highlighted the differences in stroke care between hospitals. The study aims to describe variation in outcomes following stroke and to identify the characteristics of services that are associated with better outcomes, after accounting for case mix differences and individual prognostic factors. Methods/Design We will conduct a cohort study in eight acute NHS trusts within East of England, with at least one year of follow-up after stroke. The study population will be a systematically selected representative sample of patients admitted with stroke during the study period, recruited within each hospital. We will collect individual patient data on prognostic characteristics, health care received, outcomes and costs of care and we will also record relevant characteristics of each provider organisation. The determinants of one year outcome including patient reported outcome will be assessed statistically with proportional hazards regression models. Self (or proxy completed EuroQol (EQ-5D questionnaires will measure quality of life at baseline and follow-up for cost utility analyses. Discussion This study will provide observational data about health service factors associated with variations in patient outcomes and health care costs following hospital admission for acute stroke. This will form the basis for future RCTs by identifying promising health service interventions, assessing the feasibility of recruiting and following up trial patients, and provide evidence about frequency and variances in outcomes, and intra-cluster correlation of outcomes, for sample size calculations. The results will inform clinicians, public, service providers, commissioners and policy makers to drive further improvement in health services which will bring direct benefit to the patients.

  6. The role of neuroimaging in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhamija Rajinder

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a need for early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy in patients with acute stroke. The most important therapies are thrombolysis or aspirin in hyperacute ischemic stroke and, for secondary prevention, antiplatelet agents, statins, ACE inhibitors (for lowering blood pressure, warfarin, and carotid endarterectomy or stenting. Imaging technology has a crucial role to play in the diagnosis and treatment of stroke. In recent years, significant advances have been made due to the availability of physiological imaging using a variety of techniques, ranging from computerized tomography (CT to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which enable clinicians to define brain anatomy and physiology in greater detail than ever before. Objective: In this article we discuss the imaging techniques currently available for patients with acute stroke, with an emphasis on the utility of these techniques for diagnosis and refining patient selection for early interventions. This is placed in the context of the needs of developing countries . Discussion: Although noncontrast CT (NCCT remains the most commonly used imaging modality to differentiate between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, to identify early CT changes, and to rule out stroke mimics, it is not sensitive enough to identify the infarct core or the mechanism of ischemic stroke. MRI, including magnetic resonance angiography (MRA, is the most useful imaging modality for the evaluation of acute stroke; it provides information about the mechanism as well as the vascular territory of the stroke. MRI also provides complete information about the status of tissue through diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and about arterial patency by means of MRA. DWI shows acute lesions within minutes of onset of ischemia, while MRA can evaluate extracranial as well as intracranial vessels Evaluation of the proportion of penumbra vs infarcted tissue is another issue to be considered when instituting thrombolysis, and

  7. Stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾进胜; 贷如训; 苏镇培

    2000-01-01

    Purpose To summarized the methods for establishment, characteristics of vascular lesions in brain and heart and thc application of stroke-pronc renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP). Background Spontaneously hypcrtensivc rats (STR) and subtypes of SH R, especially stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are considered as most important animal models at present for the studies of hypertension and its complications in heart and brain, evcn SHRSP arc considered as thc unique animal model in which prcvention of stroke can be studied cxperimentally Howcver, the applications of SHR and SHRSP are limited because of the effects of genetic deficits and thc difficulties with breeding Theretore, most of the researches on experimental stroke have been performed on the animal models with normotcnsion and normal structure of cerebral vessels. In fact, there are great differences in structure of cerebrovesscls, autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and extent of lesions in brain tissue, even the reaction to the medication after ischemia between the animals with extcnsive arteriosclerosis and with normal cerebral blood vessels. Obviously, thc relevancc of experimental stroke on normal animals to the stroke on cerebral arteriosclerotic patients clinically remains dubious. Data sources and methods Most published original articles about RHRSP in our laboratory were reviewed Results After the renal arteries were constricted bilaterally with ring-shape silver clips, the stroke-prone rcnovascular hypertensive rats were established. Hypertension was produced in all RHRSP(100%).The peak of blood pressure in RHRSP reached 29.1 ±3.0kPa. The lesions of cerebral arteries and arterioles and the damage of cerebral capillary structure by hypertension were observed in the RHRSP. The incidence of spontaneous stroke was 56.4% with in 40 weeks after the renal artery constriction. Left ventricular hypertrophy and small coronary arterial lesions in myocardium were discovered in all

  8. Clues to occult cancer in patients with ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Jae Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that hidden malignancy could be detected in patients with cryptogenic stroke without active cancer when they showed the distinctive characteristics of cancer-related stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Among 2,562 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, patients with cryptogenic stroke were analyzed and categorized into two groups according to the presence of active cancer: cryptogenic stroke with active cancer (cancer-related stroke, CA-stroke group and without active cancer (CR-stroke group. Patients with active lung cancer without stroke were also recruited for comparison purposes (CA-control. Clinical factors, lesion patterns on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI, and laboratory findings were analyzed among groups. A total of 348 patients with cryptogenic stroke were enrolled in this study. Among them, 71 (20.4% patients had active cancer at the time of stroke. The D-dimer levels were significantly higher in patients with CA-stroke than those with CR-stroke or CA-control (both p<0.001. Regarding lesion patterns, patients with CA-stroke mostly had multiple lesions in multiple vascular territories, while more than 80% of patients with CR-stroke had single/multiple lesions in a single vascular territory (P<0.001. D-dimer levels (OR 1.11 per 1 µg/mL increase; 95% CI 1.06-1.15; P<0.001 and DWI lesion patterns (OR 7.13; 95% CI 3.42-14.87; P<0.001 were independently associated with CA-stroke. Workup for hidden malignancy was performed during hospitalization in 10 patients who showed elevated D-dimer levels and multiple infarcts involving multiple vascular territories but had no known cancer, and it revealed hidden malignancies in all the patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CA-stroke have distinctive D-dimer levels and lesion patterns. These characteristics can serve as clues to occult cancer in patients with cryptogenic stroke.

  9. Perception of Kinematic Characteristics of Tennis Strokes for Anticipating Stroke Type and Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaeho; Carlton, Les G.; Kwon, Young-Hoo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of visual information used by highly skilled tennis players in anticipating their opponent's shots. In Experiment 1, motion analysis of the strokes showed that the relative motion between the racquet and forearm was different between the ground strokes and lobs, but there were no reliable…

  10. Insulin resistance and the risk of stroke and stroke subtypes in the nondiabetic elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Wieberdink (Renske); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); M. Arfan Ikram

    2012-01-01

    textabstractInsulin resistance, which plays a key role in the development of diabetes mellitus, is a putative modifiable risk factor for stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate if markers of insulin resistance were associated with risk of stroke in the general elderly population. This study

  11. Acute stroke unit improves stroke management-four years on from INASC.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, E

    2015-02-01

    The Irish Heart Foundation carried out the Irish National Audit of Stroke Care (INASC) in 2008. Management practices were significantly poorer than those in the UK Sentinel audits. Since then an acute stroke unit has been established in University Hospital Limerick. A stroke database was established. 12 key indicators of stroke management audited by INASC were identified. Results were compared to those in INASC. 89 stroke patients were admitted. 8 of the 12 key indicators scored significantly better than in INASC. 92.5% had a brain scan within 24hrs (INASC-40%, p = < 0.001). 100% of ischaemic strokes received anti-thrombotics (INASC-85%, p = 0.001). 94% had rehab goals agreed by MDT (22% in INASC p = 0.0000). 55% were treated in stroke unit (2% in INASC, p = 0.0000). MDT input improved with regard to physiotherapy (87% vs 43% in INASC, p = < 0.02) and SALT (74% vs 26%, p = < 0.02). Stroke management has significantly improved from 2008, however some deficiencies remain.

  12. Morbidity predictors in ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panicker J

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although ischemic CVA is one of the leading causes for death and disability, parameters for predicting long-term outcome in such patients have not been clearly delineated, especially in the Indian context. Methods: A prospective hospital-based study of 105 patients of ischemic stroke, focal neurological deficits and functional score was assessed and the C-reactive protein level (CRP was measured. A follow-up was done at 5 days and at 6 months and outcome variable was the functional status at 6 months using Barthel Index of Activities of Daily Living. Accordingly, patients were grouped into 3 - Barthel Index < 41: Severely disabled, Barthel Index 41-60: Moderately disabled and Barthel Index > 60: Mildly disabled. Results: At admission, if upper limb power was less than Medical Research Council (MRC grade 4, or aphasia was present or CRP assay was positive, then at 6 months, these patients most likely belonged to the severely disabled group. If upper limb or lower limb power was greater than MRC grade 3 or there was no aphasia or conjugate gaze deviation or CRP assay was negative, these patients most likely belonged to the mildly disabled group at 6 months. Follow-up rate was 86%. Conclusion: Patients can be stratified according to the predicted prognosis. The treatment and rehabilitation can be properly planned and strictly adhered to in patients predicted to have worse prognosis.

  13. Hemorrhagic stroke in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Szarek, M.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) study, atorvastatin 80 mg/day reduced the risk of stroke in patients with recent stroke or TIA. Post hoc analysis found this overall benefit included an increase in the numbers of treated patients having...... hemorrhagic stroke (n = 55 for active treatment vs n = 33 for placebo). METHODS: We explored the relationships between hemorrhage risk and treatment, baseline patient characteristics, most recent blood pressure, and most recent low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels prior to the hemorrhage. RESULTS...... disproportionately affect the hemorrhagic stroke risk associated with these other factors. There were no relationships between hemorrhage risk and baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level or recent LDL cholesterol level in treated patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/10...

  14. Survival after stroke. Risk factors and determinants in the Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2010-01-01

    stroke unit and recruited from a well-defined area in Copenhagen, Denmark. This thesis focuses on the survival after stroke in relation to several baseline clinical characteristics and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The thesis comes in three sections with regard to whether factors or clinical...... definitions of the intensity of exposure. Smoking is uniformly associated with a poorer survival after stroke. Stroke unit treatment improves both short- and longterm survival regardless of stroke type, severity, age, and cardiovascular risk factor profile.......-based surveys is emphasized. For factors such as sex, and most cardiovascular risk factors further studies are necessary to clarify the relation to survival because studies disagree. Conclusions from studies of the relation between survival and alcohol intake are still debatable, mostly because of diverging...

  15. Cardioembolic stroke: An update on etiology, diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leary Megan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke and ischemic heart diseases are among the most common causes of death and disability throughout the world. Even more worrisome is the suggestion that stroke rates may further increase in certain developing nations. The purpose of this article is to review the particular subtype of stroke known as cardioembolic stroke. A cardioembolic stroke occurs when the heart pumps unwanted materials into the brain circulation, resulting in the occlusion of a brain blood vessel and damage to the brain tissue. The etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of cardioembolic stroke are reviewed.

  16. Perception of stroke and knowledge of potential risk factors among Omani patients at increased risk for stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Asmi Abdullah R

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated poor knowledge of stroke among patients with established risk factors. This study aims to assess the baseline knowledge, among patients with increased risk for stroke in Oman, of warning symptoms of stroke, impending risk factors, treatment, and sources of information. Methods In April 2005, trained family practice residents at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital Clinics (cardiology, neurology, diabetic, and lipid clinics, using a standardised, structured, pre-tested questionnaire, conducted a survey of 400 Omani patients. These patients all demonstrated potential risk factors for stroke. Results Only 35% of the subjects stated that the brain is the organ affected by a stroke, 68% correctly identified at least one symptom/sign of a stroke, and 43% correctly identified at least one stroke risk factor. The majority (62% did not believe they were at increased risk for stroke, and 98% had not been advised by their attending physician that their clinical conditions were risk factors for stroke. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower age and higher levels of education were associated with better knowledge regarding the organ involved in stroke, stroke symptoms, and risk factors. Conclusion Because their knowledge about stroke risk factors was poor, the subjects in this study were largely unaware of their increased risk for stroke. Intensive health education is needed to improve awareness of stroke, especially among the most vulnerable groups.

  17. Stroke outreach in an inner city market: A platform for identifying African American males for stroke prevention interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjail Zarinah Sharrief

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: There are significant racial disparities in stroke incidence and mortality. Health fairs and outreach programs can be used to increase stroke literacy, but they often fail to reach those at highest risk, including African American males. Methods: We conducted a stroke outreach and screening program at an inner city market in order to attract a high-risk group for a stroke education intervention. A modified Framingham risk tool was used to estimate stroke risk and a 10-item quiz was developed to assess stroke literacy among 80 participants. We report results of the demographic and stroke risk analyses and stroke knowledge assessment. Results: The program attracted a majority male (70% and African American (95% group of participants. Self-reported hypertension (57.5%, tobacco use (40%, and diabetes (23.8% were prevalent. Knowledge of stroke warning signs, risk factors, and appropriate action to take for stroke symptoms was not poor when compared to the literature. Conclusions: Stroke outreach and screening in an inner city public market may be an effective way to target a high-risk population for stroke prevention interventions. Stroke risk among participants was high despite adequate stroke knowledge.

  18. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to analyse stroke's severity and functional outcomes, respectively. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases were the most common risk factors. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of serum bilirubin, i.e., =0.6 mg/dl (Group-1), 0.7-0.9 mg/dl (Group-2), and =1.0 mg/dl (Group-3). The mean pre-hospitalisation NIHSS score for Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 5.62, 11.66 and 25.33, respectively; and post-hospitalisation score was 0.875, 3.76 and 16.26, respectively. The pre-hospitalisation mRS score was 4 for Group-1, 4.52 for Group-2 and 4.93 for Group-3; while post-hospitalisation Mrs Score was 1.50, 2.38 and 4.26, respectively. Average serum bilirubin level was significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes as compared with good outcomes (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with increased stroke severity, longer hospitalisation and poor prognosis. (author)

  19. Non-Surgical Procedures Open Blocked Arteries to Prevent and Treat Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgical Procedures Open Blocked Arteries to Prevent and Treat Stroke Stroke is a "Brain Attack" and a ... first sign of stroke, Call 911 Vascular Experts Treat Blocked Carotid Arteries Without Surgery to Prevent Stroke ...

  20. What Are Some Common Outcomes of Stroke and Some Common Treatments for These Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Publications What are some common outcomes of stroke & some common treatments for these outcomes? Skip sharing on social media ... temperature changes Depression Types of Treatment for Stroke Stroke treatment includes: Emergency treatment Preventing another stroke Rehabilitation Emergency ...