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Sample records for ck2 regulates cytoskeletal

  1. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-08-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21{sup waf1/Cip1}, and p16{sup INK4A}), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2{alpha} resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity.

  2. CK2 phosphorylates Sec31 and regulates ER-To-Golgi trafficking.

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    Mayuko Koreishi

    Full Text Available Protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an initial and rate-limiting step of molecular trafficking and secretion. This is mediated by coat protein II (COPII-coated vesicles, whose formation requires small GTPase Sar1 and 6 Sec proteins including Sec23 and Sec31. Sec31 is a component of the outer layer of COPII coat and has been identified as a phosphoprotein. The initiation and promotion of COPII vesicle formation is regulated by Sar1; however, the mechanism regulating the completion of COPII vesicle formation followed by vesicle release is largely unknown. Hypothesizing that the Sec31 phosphorylation may be such a mechanism, we identified phosphorylation sites in the middle linker region of Sec31. Sec31 phosphorylation appeared to decrease its association with ER membranes and Sec23. Non-phosphorylatable mutant of Sec31 stayed longer at ER exit sites and bound more strongly to Sec23. We also found that CK2 is one of the kinases responsible for Sec31 phosphorylation because CK2 knockdown decreased Sec31 phosphorylation, whereas CK2 overexpression increased Sec31 phosphorylation. Furthermore, CK2 knockdown increased affinity of Sec31 for Sec23 and inhibited ER-to-Golgi trafficking. These results suggest that Sec31 phosphorylation by CK2 controls the duration of COPII vesicle formation, which regulates ER-to-Golgi trafficking.

  3. GSK-3 and CK2 Kinases Converge on Timeless to Regulate the Master Clock

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    Deniz Top

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular clock relies on a delayed negative feedback loop of transcriptional regulation to generate oscillating gene expression. Although the principal components of the clock are present in all circadian neurons, different neuronal clusters have varying effects on rhythmic behavior, suggesting that the clocks they house are differently regulated. Combining biochemical and genetic techniques in Drosophila, we identify a phosphorylation program native to the master pacemaker neurons that regulates the timing of nuclear accumulation of the Period/Timeless repressor complex. GSK-3/SGG binds and phosphorylates Period-bound Timeless, triggering a CK2-mediated phosphorylation cascade. Mutations that block the hierarchical phosphorylation of Timeless in vitro also delay nuclear accumulation in both tissue culture and in vivo and predictably change rhythmic behavior. This two-kinase phosphorylation cascade is anatomically restricted to the eight master pacemaker neurons, distinguishing the regulatory mechanism of the molecular clock within these neurons from the other clocks that cooperate to govern behavioral rhythmicity.

  4. Protein kinase CK2 localizes to sites of DNA double-strand break regulating the cellular response to DNA damage

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    Olsen Birgitte B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK is a nuclear complex composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs and a heterodimeric DNA-targeting subunit Ku. DNA-PK is a major component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ repair mechanism, which is activated in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation, reactive oxygen species and radiomimetic drugs. We have recently reported that down-regulation of protein kinase CK2 by siRNA interference results in enhanced cell death specifically in DNA-PKcs-proficient human glioblastoma cells, and this event is accompanied by decreased autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at S2056 and delayed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Results In the present study, we show that CK2 co-localizes with phosphorylated histone H2AX to sites of DNA damage and while CK2 gene knockdown is associated with delayed DNA damage repair, its overexpression accelerates this process. We report for the first time evidence that lack of CK2 destabilizes the interaction of DNA-PKcs with DNA and with Ku80 at sites of genetic lesions. Furthermore, we show that CK2 regulates the phosphorylation levels of DNA-PKcs only in response to direct induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Conclusions Taken together, these results strongly indicate that CK2 plays a prominent role in NHEJ by facilitating and/or stabilizing the binding of DNA-PKcs and, possibly other repair proteins, to the DNA ends contributing to efficient DNA damage repair in mammalian cells.

  5. Cytoskeletal regulation of dermal regeneration.

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    Strudwick, Xanthe L; Cowin, Allison J

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing results in the repair of injured tissues however fibrosis and scar formation are, more often than not the unfortunate consequence of this process. The ability of lower order vertebrates and invertebrates to regenerate limbs and tissues has been all but lost in mammals; however, there are some instances where glimpses of mammalian regenerative capacity do exist. Here we describe the unlocked potential that exists in mammals that may help us understand the process of regeneration post-injury and highlight the potential role of the actin cytoskeleton in this process. The precise function and regulation of the cytoskeleton is critical to the success of the healing process and its manipulation may therefore facilitate regenerative healing. The gelsolin family of actin remodelling proteins in particular has been shown to have important functions in wound healing and family member Flightless I (Flii) is involved in both regeneration and repair. Understanding the interactions between different cytoskeletal proteins and their dynamic control of processes including cellular adhesion, contraction and motility may assist the development of therapeutics that will stimulate regeneration rather than repair. PMID:24710556

  6. Regulation of taurine transport systems by protein kinase CK2 in mammalian cells

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    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hansen, Daniel Bloch

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining cell volume is critical for cellular function yet shift in cell volume is a prerequisite for mitosis and apoptosis. The ubiquitously and evolutionary conserved serine/threonine kinase CK2 promotes cell survival and suppresses apoptosis. The present review describes how mammalian cells...

  7. Inhibition of CK2α down-regulates Hedgehog/Gli signaling leading to a reduction of a stem-like side population in human lung cancer cells.

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    Shulin Zhang

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK2 is frequently elevated in a variety of human cancers. The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway has been implicated in stem cell maintenance, and its aberrant activation has been indicated in several types of cancer, including lung cancer. In this study, we show that CK2 is positively involved in Hh/Gli signaling in lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299. First, we found a correlation between CK2α and Gli1 mRNA levels in 100 primary lung cancer tissues. Down-regulation of Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity were demonstrated after the silencing of CK2α in lung cancer cells. In addition, CK2α siRNA down-regulated the expression of Hh target genes. Furthermore, two small-molecule CK2α inhibitors led to a dose-dependent inhibition of Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity in lung cancer cells. Reversely, forced over-expression of CK2α resulted in an increase both in Gli1 expression and transcriptional activity in A549 cells. Finally, the inhibition of Hh/Gli by CK2α siRNA led to a reduction of a cancer stem cell-like side population that shows higher ABCG2 expression level. Thus, we report that the inhibition of CK2α down-regulates Hh/Gli signaling and subsequently reduces stem-like side population in human lung cancer cells.

  8. The Protein Kinase CK2 Mediates Cross-Talk between Auxin- and Salicylic Acid-Signaling Pathways in the Regulation of PINOID Transcription.

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    Armengot, Laia; Caldarella, Eleonora; Marquès-Bueno, Maria Mar; Martínez, M Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous and highly conserved enzyme, the activity of which is vital for eukaryotic cells. We recently demonstrated that CK2 modulates salicylic acid (SA) homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana, and that functional interplay between CK2 and SA sustains transcriptional expression of PIN-FORMED (PIN) genes. In this work, we show that CK2 also plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of PINOID (PID), an AGC protein kinase that modulates the apical/basal localization of auxin-efflux transporters. We show that PID transcription is up-regulated by auxin and by SA and that CK2 is involved in both pathways. On the one hand, CK2 activity is required for proteosome-dependent degradation of AXR3, a member of the AUX/IAA family of auxin transcriptional repressors that must be degraded to activate auxin-responsive gene expression. On the other hand, the role of CK2 in SA homeostasis and, indirectly, in SA-driven PID transcription, was confirmed by using Arabidopsis NahG transgenic plants, which cannot accumulate SA. In conclusion, our results evidence a role for CK2 as a functional link in the negative cross-talk between auxin- and SA-signaling. PMID:27275924

  9. The Protein Kinase CK2 Mediates Cross-Talk between Auxin- and Salicylic Acid-Signaling Pathways in the Regulation of PINOID Transcription.

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    Laia Armengot

    Full Text Available The protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous and highly conserved enzyme, the activity of which is vital for eukaryotic cells. We recently demonstrated that CK2 modulates salicylic acid (SA homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana, and that functional interplay between CK2 and SA sustains transcriptional expression of PIN-FORMED (PIN genes. In this work, we show that CK2 also plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of PINOID (PID, an AGC protein kinase that modulates the apical/basal localization of auxin-efflux transporters. We show that PID transcription is up-regulated by auxin and by SA and that CK2 is involved in both pathways. On the one hand, CK2 activity is required for proteosome-dependent degradation of AXR3, a member of the AUX/IAA family of auxin transcriptional repressors that must be degraded to activate auxin-responsive gene expression. On the other hand, the role of CK2 in SA homeostasis and, indirectly, in SA-driven PID transcription, was confirmed by using Arabidopsis NahG transgenic plants, which cannot accumulate SA. In conclusion, our results evidence a role for CK2 as a functional link in the negative cross-talk between auxin- and SA-signaling.

  10. Ability of CK2beta to selectively regulate cellular protein kinases

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    Olsen, Birgitte; Guerra, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Wee1 protein kinase plays a prominent role in keeping cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) inactive during the G2 phase of the cell cycle. At the onset of mitosis, Wee1 is ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(beta-TrCP) and subsequently degraded by the proteasome machinery. Previously...... additional phosphodegrons recognised by beta-TrCP. These events contribute to destabilise Wee1 at the onset of mitosis (Watanabe et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:4419-4424, 2004). We show here that in addition to the ability of CK2 to phosphorylate Wee1 as reported earlier, the regulatory beta...

  11. The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 regulates cell-cycle progression at the onset of mitosis

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    Yde, C W; Olsen, B B; Meek, D;

    2008-01-01

    Cell-cycle transition from the G(2) phase into mitosis is regulated by the cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDK1) in complex with cyclin B. CDK1 activity is controlled by both inhibitory phosphorylation, catalysed by the Myt1 and Wee1 kinases, and activating dephosphorylation, mediated by the CDC......25 dual-specificity phosphatase family members. In somatic cells, Wee1 is downregulated by phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation to ensure rapid activation of CDK1 at the beginning of M phase. Here, we show that downregulation of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 by RNA...

  12. Conformational plasticity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 and its consequences for regulation and drug design

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    Niefind, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2010-01-01

    plasticity of important ATP-binding elements - the interdomain hinge region and the glycine-rich loop - was discovered. In fully active CK2alpha the hinge region is open and does not anchor the ATP ribose, but alternatively it can adopt a closed conformation, form hydrogen bonds to the ribose moiety and thus......At the first glance CK2alpha, the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2, is a rigid molecule: in contrast to many eukaryotic protein kinases in CK2alpha the canonical regulatory key elements like the activation segment occur exclusively in their typical active conformations. This observation fits...... well to the constitutive activity of the enzyme, meaning, its independence from phosphorylation or other characteristic control factors. Most CK2alpha structures are based on the enzyme from Zea mays, supplemented by an increasing number of human CK2alpha structures. In the latter a surprising...

  13. Protein kinase CK2 in health and disease: Protein kinase CK2: from structures to insights

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    Niefind, K; Raaf, J; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade, 40 crystal structures corresponding to protein kinase CK2 (former name 'casein kinase 2'), to its catalytic subunit CK2alpha and to its regulatory subunit CK2beta were published. Together they provide a valuable, yet by far not complete basis to rationalize the biochemical...... critical region of CK2alpha recruitment is pre-formed in the unbound state. In CK2alpha the activation segment - a key element of protein kinase regulation - adapts invariably the typical conformation of the active enzymes. Recent structures of human CK2alpha revealed a surprising plasticity in the ATP...

  14. Cytoskeletal network morphology regulates intracellular transport dynamics

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    Ando, David; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular transport is essential for maintaining proper cellular function in most eukaryotic cells, with perturbations in active transport resulting in several types of disease. Efficient delivery of critical cargos to specific locations is accomplished through a combination of passive diffusion and active transport by molecular motors that ballistically move along a network of cytoskeletal filaments. Although motor-based transport is known to be necessary to overcome cytoplasmic crowding and the limited range of diffusion within reasonable time scales, the topological features of the cytoskeletal network that regulate transport efficiency and robustness have not been established. Using a continuum diffusion model, we observed that the time required for cellular transport was minimized when the network was localized near the nucleus. In simulations that explicitly incorporated network spatial architectures, total filament mass was the primary driver of network transit times. However, filament traps that r...

  15. Regulation of cytoskeletal organization by syndecan transmembrane proteoglycans

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    Yoneda, Atsuko; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    have recently suggested that signaling through core protein of syndecans can regulate cytoskeletal organization through their clustering, association with cytoskeletal structures, binding to cytoplasmic binding proteins, and intracellular phosphorylation. Here we will review current understanding...... of signaling through syndecans in cytoskeletal organization....

  16. Phosphorylation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) serine-511 by the combined action of tyrosine kinases and CK2: the implication of tyrosine-512 and phenylalanine-508.

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    Cesaro, Luca; Marin, Oriano; Venerando, Andrea; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2013-12-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) harbors, close to Phe-508, whose deletion is the commonest cause of cystic fibrosis, a conserved potential CK2 phospho-acceptor site (Ser511), which however is not susceptible to phosphorylation by CK2. To shed light on this apparent paradox, a series of systematically substituted peptides encompassing Ser511 were assayed for their ability to be phosphorylated. The main outcomes of our study are the following: (a) Tyr512 plays a prominent role as a negative determinant as its replacement by Ala restores Ser511 phosphorylation by CK2; (b) an even more pronounced phosphorylation of Ser511 is promoted if Tyr512 is replaced by phospho-tyrosine instead of alanine; (c) Tyr512 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr515 are readily phosphorylated by Lyn, a protein tyrosine kinase of the Src family, in a manner which is enhanced by the concomitant Phe508 deletion. Collectively taken, our data, in conjunction with the notion that Tyr515 is phosphorylated in vivo, disclose the possibility that CFTR Ser511 can be phosphorylated by the combined action of tyrosine kinases and CK2 and disclose a new mechanism of hierarchical phosphorylation where the role of the priming kinase is that of removing negative determinant(s).

  17. Biotechnological aspects of cytoskeletal regulation in plants.

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    Komis, George; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    The cytoskeleton is a protein-based intracellular superstructure that evolved early after the appearance of bacterial prokaryotes. Eventually cytoskeletal proteins and their macromolecular assemblies were established in eukaryotes and assumed critical roles in cell movements, intracellular organization, cell division and cell differentiation. In biomedicine the small-molecules targeting cytoskeletal elements are in the frontline of anticancer research with plant-derived cytoskeletal drugs such as Vinca alkaloids and toxoids, being routinely used in the clinical practice. Moreover, plants are also major material, food and energy resources for human activities ranging from agriculture, textile industry, carpentry, energy production and new material development to name some few. Most of these inheritable traits are associated with cell wall synthesis and chemical modification during primary and secondary plant growth and inevitably are associated with the dynamics, organization and interactions of the plant cytoskeleton. Taking into account the vast intracellular spread of microtubules and actin microfilaments the cytoskeleton collectively assumed central roles in plant growth and development, in determining the physical stance of plants against the forces of nature and becoming a battleground between pathogenic invaders and the defense mechanisms of plant cells. This review aims to address the role of the plant cytoskeleton in manageable features of plants including cellulose biosynthesis with implications in wood and fiber properties, in biofuel production and the contribution of plant cytoskeletal elements in plant defense responses against pathogens or detrimental environmental conditions. Ultimately the present work surveys the potential of cytoskeletal proteins as platforms of plant genetic engineering, nominating certain cytoskeletal proteins as vectors of favorable traits in crops and other economically important plants.

  18. Biotechnological aspects of cytoskeletal regulation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    The cytoskeleton is a protein-based intracellular superstructure that evolved early after the appearance of bacterial prokaryotes. Eventually cytoskeletal proteins and their macromolecular assemblies were established in eukaryotes and assumed critical roles in cell movements, intracellular organization, cell division and cell differentiation. In biomedicine the small-molecules targeting cytoskeletal elements are in the frontline of anticancer research with plant-derived cytoskeletal drugs such as Vinca alkaloids and toxoids, being routinely used in the clinical practice. Moreover, plants are also major material, food and energy resources for human activities ranging from agriculture, textile industry, carpentry, energy production and new material development to name some few. Most of these inheritable traits are associated with cell wall synthesis and chemical modification during primary and secondary plant growth and inevitably are associated with the dynamics, organization and interactions of the plant cytoskeleton. Taking into account the vast intracellular spread of microtubules and actin microfilaments the cytoskeleton collectively assumed central roles in plant growth and development, in determining the physical stance of plants against the forces of nature and becoming a battleground between pathogenic invaders and the defense mechanisms of plant cells. This review aims to address the role of the plant cytoskeleton in manageable features of plants including cellulose biosynthesis with implications in wood and fiber properties, in biofuel production and the contribution of plant cytoskeletal elements in plant defense responses against pathogens or detrimental environmental conditions. Ultimately the present work surveys the potential of cytoskeletal proteins as platforms of plant genetic engineering, nominating certain cytoskeletal proteins as vectors of favorable traits in crops and other economically important plants. PMID:25784147

  19. First inactive conformation of CK2 alpha, the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2

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    Raaf, Jennifer; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    The Ser/Thr kinase casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic chains (CK2alpha, catalytic subunit of CK2) attached to a dimer of two noncatalytic subunits (CK2beta, noncatalytic subunit of CK2). CK2alpha belongs to the superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases...

  20. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

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    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  1. Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

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    Poulomi Ray

    Full Text Available Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

  2. Interaction between CK2α and CK2β, the subunits of protein kinase CK2: thermodynamic contributions of key residues on the CK2α surface

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    Raaf, Jennifer; Bischoff, Nils; Klopffleisch, Karsten;

    2011-01-01

    The protein Ser/Thr kinase CK2 (former name: casein kinase II) exists predominantly as a heterotetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic subunits (CK2α) bound to a dimer of noncatalytic subunits (CK2β). We undertook a study to further understand how these subunits interact to form the tetra...

  3. Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases

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    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure....... The catalytic alpha subunits are distantly related to the CMGC subfamily of kinases, such as the Cdk kinases. There are some peculiarities associated with protein kinase CK2, which are not found with most other protein kinases: (i) the enzyme is constitutively active, (ii) it can use ATP and GTP and...... specifically target this protein kinase [10]. Since not all the aspects of what has been published on CK2 can be covered in this review, we would like to recommend the following reviews; (i) for general information on CK2 [11-18] and (ii) with a focus on aberrant CK2 [19-22]....

  4. Quinalizarin as a potent, selective and cell-permeable inhibitor of protein kinase CK2.

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    Cozza, Giorgio; Mazzorana, Marco; Papinutto, Elena; Bain, Jenny; Elliott, Matthew; di Maira, Giovanni; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Pagano, Mario A; Sarno, Stefania; Ruzzene, Maria; Battistutta, Roberto; Meggio, Flavio; Moro, Stefano; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2009-08-01

    Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is a moderately potent and poorly selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, one of the most pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinases, implicated in neoplasia and in other global diseases. By virtual screening of the MMS (Molecular Modeling Section) database, we have now identified quinalizarin (1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone) as an inhibitor of CK2 that is more potent and selective than emodin. CK2 inhibition by quinalizarin is competitive with respect to ATP, with a Ki value of approx. 50 nM. Tested at 1 microM concentration on a panel of 75 protein kinases, quinalizarin drastically inhibits only CK2, with a promiscuity score (11.1), which is the lowest ever reported so far for a CK2 inhibitor. Especially remarkable is the ability of quinalizarin to discriminate between CK2 and a number of kinases, notably DYRK1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylated and -regulated kinase), PIM (provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukaemia virus) 1, 2 and 3, HIPK2 (homeodomain-interacting protein kinase-2), MNK1 [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)-interacting kinase 1], ERK8 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 8) and PKD1 (protein kinase D 1), which conversely tend to be inhibited as drastically as CK2 by commercially available CK2 inhibitors. The determination of the crystal structure of a complex between quinalizarin and CK2alpha subunit highlights the relevance of polar interactions in stabilizing the binding, an unusual characteristic for a CK2 inhibitor, and disclose other structural features which may account for the narrow selectivity of this compound. Tested on Jurkat cells, quinalizarin proved able to inhibit endogenous CK2 and to induce apoptosis more efficiently than the commonly used CK2 inhibitors TBB (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole) and DMAT (2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole). PMID:19432557

  5. Emerging roles of protein kinase CK2 in abscisic acid (ABA signaling

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    Belmiro eVilela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA regulates many aspects of plant growth and development as well as responses to multiple stresses. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitination have pivotal roles in the regulation of ABA signaling. In addition to the positive regulator sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2, the relevance of the role of other protein kinases, such as CK2, has been recently highlighted. We have recently established that CK2 phosphorylates the maize ortholog of open stomata 1 OST1, ZmOST1, suggesting a role of CK2 phosphorylation in the control of ZmOST1 protein degradation (Vilela et al., 2015. CK2 is a pleiotropic enzyme involved in multiple developmental and stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes recent advances that taken together suggest a prominent role of protein kinase CK2 in ABA signaling and related processes.

  6. In vitro and in vivo assays of protein kinase CK2 activity.

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    Prudent, Renaud; Sautel, Céline F; Moucadel, Virginie; Laudet, Béatrice; Filhol, Odile; Cochet, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase 2) is recognized as a central component in the control of the cellular homeostasis; however, much remains unknown regarding its regulation and its implication in cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Moreover, study of CK2 function and regulation in a cellular context is complicated by the dynamic multisubunit architecture of this protein kinase. Although a number of robust techniques are available to assay CK2 activity in vitro, there is a demand for sensitive and specific assays to evaluate its activity in living cells. We hereby provide a detailed description of several assays for monitoring the CK2 activity and its subunit interaction in living cells. The guidelines presented herein should enable researchers in the field to establish strategies for cellular screenings of CK2 inhibitors. PMID:21050938

  7. Cooperation of the BTB-Zinc finger protein, Abrupt, with cytoskeletal regulators in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis

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    Nezaket Turkel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence in human epithelial cancer that BTB-ZF genes, such as Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, are oncogenic. From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab. Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. Together with ab, these genes affect the expression of differentiation genes, resulting in tumours locked in a progenitor cell fate. Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. This highlights the need for further investigation of the cooperation between these genes in mammalian systems.

  8. Dominant-negative CK2alpha induces potent effects on circadian rhythmicity.

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    Elaine M Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks organize the precise timing of cellular and behavioral events. In Drosophila, circadian clocks consist of negative feedback loops in which the clock component PERIOD (PER represses its own transcription. PER phosphorylation is a critical step in timing the onset and termination of this feedback. The protein kinase CK2 has been linked to circadian timing, but the importance of this contribution is unclear; it is not certain where and when CK2 acts to regulate circadian rhythms. To determine its temporal and spatial functions, a dominant negative mutant of the catalytic alpha subunit, CK2alpha(Tik, was targeted to circadian neurons. Behaviorally, CK2alpha(Tik induces severe period lengthening (approximately 33 h, greater than nearly all known circadian mutant alleles, and abolishes detectable free-running behavioral rhythmicity at high levels of expression. CK2alpha(Tik, when targeted to a subset of pacemaker neurons, generates period splitting, resulting in flies exhibiting both long and near 24-h periods. These behavioral effects are evident even when CK2alpha(Tik expression is induced only during adulthood, implicating an acute role for CK2alpha function in circadian rhythms. CK2alpha(Tik expression results in reduced PER phosphorylation, delayed nuclear entry, and dampened cycling with elevated trough levels of PER. Heightened trough levels of per transcript accompany increased protein levels, suggesting that CK2alpha(Tik disturbs negative feedback of PER on its own transcription. Taken together, these in vivo data implicate a central role of CK2alpha function in timing PER negative feedback in adult circadian neurons.

  9. Cytoskeletal Regulation by AUTS2 in Neuronal Migration and Neuritogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Hori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Autism susceptibility candidate 2 gene (AUTS2, whose protein is believed to act in neuronal cell nuclei, have been associated with multiple psychiatric illnesses, including autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Here we show that cytoplasmic AUTS2 is involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and neural development. Immunohistochemistry and fractionation studies show that AUTS2 localizes not only in nuclei, but also in the cytoplasm, including in the growth cones in the developing brain. AUTS2 activates Rac1 to induce lamellipodia but downregulates Cdc42 to suppress filopodia. Our loss-of-function and rescue experiments show that a cytoplasmic AUTS2-Rac1 pathway is involved in cortical neuronal migration and neuritogenesis in the developing brain. These findings suggest that cytoplasmic AUTS2 acts as a regulator of Rho family GTPases to contribute to brain development and give insight into the pathology of human psychiatric disorders with AUTS2 mutations.

  10. Sex hormones regulate cytoskeletal proteins involved in brain plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    VALERIA eHANSBERG-PASTOR; ALIESHA eGONZÁLEZ-ARENAS; ANA GABRIELA PIÑA-MEDINA; IGNACIO eCAMACHO-ARROYO

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depend on the cytoske...

  11. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytos...

  12. The CK2 alpha/CK2 beta interface of human protein kinase CK2 harbors a binding pocket for small molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Brunstein, Elena; Issinger, Olaf-Georg;

    2008-01-01

    , selective CK2 inhibitors are required. An often-used CK2 inhibitor is 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB). In a complex structure with human CK2 alpha, DRB binds to the canonical ATP cleft, but additionally it occupies an allosteric site that can be alternatively filled by glycerol....... Inhibition kinetic studies corroborate the dual binding mode of the inhibitor. Structural comparisons reveal a surprising conformational plasticity of human CK2 alpha around both DRB binding sites. After local rearrangement, the allosteric site serves as a CK2 beta interface. This opens the potential...

  13. Structure of the human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit CK2α' and interaction thermodynamics with the regulatory subunit CK2β

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Nils; Olsen, Birgitte; Raaf, Jennifer;

    2011-01-01

    the limited biochemical knowledge about the second paralog (CK2α'), we developed a well-soluble catalytically active full-length mutant of human CK2α', characterized it by Michaelis-Menten kinetics and isothermal titration calorimetry, and determined its crystal structure to a resolution of 2 Å. The affinity...... in CK2α' is stabilized by two elements that are absent in CK2α: (1) the extension of the N-terminal β-sheet by an additional β-strand, and (2) the filling of a conserved hydrophobic cavity between the β4/β5 loop and helix αC by a tryptophan residue. Moreover, the interdomain hinge region of CK2α' adopts...... a fully functional conformation, while unbound CK2α is often found with a nonproductive hinge conformation that is overcome only by CK2β binding. Taken together, CK2α' exhibits a significantly lower affinity for CK2β than CK2α; moreover, in functionally critical regions, it is less dependent on CK2β...

  14. Protein kinase CK2: evidence for a protein kinase CK2beta subunit fraction, devoid of the catalytic CK2alpha subunit, in mouse brain and testicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Siemer, S; Boldyreff, B;

    1999-01-01

    The highest CK2 activity was found in mouse testicles and brain, followed by spleen, liver, lung, kidney and heart. The activity values were directly correlated with the protein expression level of the CK2 subunits alpha (catalytic) and beta (regulatory). The alpha' subunit was only detected...... found for testicles and brain. The amount of CK2beta protein in brain in comparison to the other organs (except testicles) was estimated to be ca. 2-3-fold higher whereas the ratio of CK2beta between testicles and brain was estimated to be 3-4-fold. Results from the immunoprecipitation experiments...... support the notion for the existence of free CK2beta population and/or CK2beta in complex with other protein(s) present in brain and testicles. In all other mouse organs investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen, no comparable amount of free CK2beta was observed. This is the first...

  15. The CK2 kinase stabilizes CLOCK and represses its activity in the Drosophila circadian oscillator.

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    Aron Szabó

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation is a pivotal regulatory mechanism for protein stability and activity in circadian clocks regardless of their evolutionary origin. It determines the speed and strength of molecular oscillations by acting on transcriptional activators and their repressors, which form negative feedback loops. In Drosophila, the CK2 kinase phosphorylates and destabilizes the PERIOD (PER and TIMELESS (TIM proteins, which inhibit CLOCK (CLK transcriptional activity. Here we show that CK2 also targets the CLK activator directly. Downregulating the activity of the catalytic α subunit of CK2 induces CLK degradation, even in the absence of PER and TIM. Unexpectedly, the regulatory β subunit of the CK2 holoenzyme is not required for the regulation of CLK stability. In addition, downregulation of CK2α activity decreases CLK phosphorylation and increases per and tim transcription. These results indicate that CK2 inhibits CLK degradation while reducing its activity. Since the CK1 kinase promotes CLK degradation, we suggest that CLK stability and transcriptional activity result from counteracting effects of CK1 and CK2.

  16. Structure-function analysis of the beta regulatory subunit of protein kinase CK2 by targeting embryonic stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziercher, Léa; Filhol, Odile; Laudet, Béatrice; Prudent, Renaud; Cochet, Claude; Buchou, Thierry

    2011-10-01

    Programs that govern stem cell maintenance and pluripotency are dependent on extracellular factors and of intrinsic cell modulators. Embryonic stem (ES) cells with a specific depletion of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2β) revealed a viability defect. However, analysis of CK2β functions along the neural lineage established CK2β as a positive regulator for neural stem/progenitor cell (NSC) proliferation and multipotency. By using an in vitro genetic conditional approach, we demonstrate in this work that specific domains of CK2β involved in the regulatory function towards CK2 catalytic subunits are crucial structural determinants for ES cell homeostasis. PMID:21861102

  17. CK2: a protein kinase in need of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Sarno, S;

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a heterotetrameric alpha2beta2 Ser/Thr protein kinase with some features unusual among the eukaryotic protein kinases: (1) CK2 recognizes phosphoacceptor sites specified by several acidic determinants; (2) CK2 can use both ATP and GTP as phosphoryl donors; and (3...... response to nucleotide analogs. The increasing knowledge of CK2 structure-function relationships will allow the design of highly selective inhibitors of this pleiotropic kinase with oncogenic potential....

  18. CK2 phosphorylation of human centrins 1 and 2 regulates their binding to the DNA repair protein XPC, the centrosomal protein Sfi1 and the phototransduction protein transducin β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Dora; Assairi, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Centrins are calcium-binding proteins that can interact with several cellular targets (Sfi1, XPC, Sac3 and transducin β) through the same hydrophobic triad. However, two different orientations of the centrin-binding motif have been observed: W(1)xxL(4)xxxL(8) for XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein) and the opposite orientation L(8)xxxL(4)xxW(1) for Sfi1 (suppressor of fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance protein 1), Sac3 and transducin β. Centrins are also phosphorylated by several protein kinases, among which is CK2. The purpose of this study was to determine the binding mechanism of human centrins to three targets (transducin β, Sfi1 and XPC), and the effects of in vitro phosphorylation by CK2 of centrins 1 and 2 with regard to this binding mechanism. We identified the centrin-binding motif at the COOH extremity of transducin β. Human centrin 1 binds to transducin β only in the presence of calcium with a binding constant lower than the binding constant observed for Sfi1 and for XPC. The affinity constants of centrin 1 were 0.10 10(6) M(-1), 249 10(6) M(-1) and 52.5 10(6) M(-1) for Trd, R17-Sfi1 and P17-XPC respectively. CK2 phosphorylates human centrin 1 at residue T138 and human centrin 2 at residues T138 and S158. Consequently CK2 phosphorylation abolished the binding of centrin 1 to transducin β and reduced the binding to Sfi1 and XPC. CK2 phosphorylation of centrin 2 at T138 and S158 abolished the binding to Sfi1 as assessed using a C-HsCen2 T138D-S158D phosphomimetic form of centrin 2.

  19. CK2 phosphorylation of human centrins 1 and 2 regulates their binding to the DNA repair protein XPC, the centrosomal protein Sfi1 and the phototransduction protein transducin β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecu, Dora; Assairi, Liliane

    2014-01-01

    Centrins are calcium-binding proteins that can interact with several cellular targets (Sfi1, XPC, Sac3 and transducin β) through the same hydrophobic triad. However, two different orientations of the centrin-binding motif have been observed: W1xxL4xxxL8 for XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein) and the opposite orientation L8xxxL4xxW1 for Sfi1 (suppressor of fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance protein 1), Sac3 and transducin β. Centrins are also phosphorylated by several protein kinases, among which is CK2. The purpose of this study was to determine the binding mechanism of human centrins to three targets (transducin β, Sfi1 and XPC), and the effects of in vitro phosphorylation by CK2 of centrins 1 and 2 with regard to this binding mechanism. We identified the centrin-binding motif at the COOH extremity of transducin β. Human centrin 1 binds to transducin β only in the presence of calcium with a binding constant lower than the binding constant observed for Sfi1 and for XPC. The affinity constants of centrin 1 were 0.10 106 M−1, 249 106 M−1 and 52.5 106 M−1 for Trd, R17-Sfi1 and P17-XPC respectively. CK2 phosphorylates human centrin 1 at residue T138 and human centrin 2 at residues T138 and S158. Consequently CK2 phosphorylation abolished the binding of centrin 1 to transducin β and reduced the binding to Sfi1 and XPC. CK2 phosphorylation of centrin 2 at T138 and S158 abolished the binding to Sfi1 as assessed using a C-HsCen2 T138D-S158D phosphomimetic form of centrin 2. PMID:24918055

  20. CK2 phosphorylation of human centrins 1 and 2 regulates their binding to the DNA repair protein XPC, the centrosomal protein Sfi1 and the phototransduction protein transducin β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Grecu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrins are calcium-binding proteins that can interact with several cellular targets (Sfi1, XPC, Sac3 and transducin β through the same hydrophobic triad. However, two different orientations of the centrin-binding motif have been observed: W1xxL4xxxL8 for XPC (xeroderma pigmentosum group C protein and the opposite orientation L8xxxL4xxW1 for Sfi1 (suppressor of fermentation-induced loss of stress resistance protein 1, Sac3 and transducin β. Centrins are also phosphorylated by several protein kinases, among which is CK2. The purpose of this study was to determine the binding mechanism of human centrins to three targets (transducin β, Sfi1 and XPC, and the effects of in vitro phosphorylation by CK2 of centrins 1 and 2 with regard to this binding mechanism. We identified the centrin-binding motif at the COOH extremity of transducin β. Human centrin 1 binds to transducin β only in the presence of calcium with a binding constant lower than the binding constant observed for Sfi1 and for XPC. The affinity constants of centrin 1 were 0.10 106 M−1, 249 106 M−1 and 52.5 106 M−1 for Trd, R17-Sfi1 and P17-XPC respectively. CK2 phosphorylates human centrin 1 at residue T138 and human centrin 2 at residues T138 and S158. Consequently CK2 phosphorylation abolished the binding of centrin 1 to transducin β and reduced the binding to Sfi1 and XPC. CK2 phosphorylation of centrin 2 at T138 and S158 abolished the binding to Sfi1 as assessed using a C-HsCen2 T138D-S158D phosphomimetic form of centrin 2.

  1. RP1 is a phosphorylation target of CK2 and is involved in cell adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Stenner

    Full Text Available RP1 (synonym: MAPRE2, EB2 is a member of the microtubule binding EB1 protein family, which interacts with APC, a key regulatory molecule in the Wnt signalling pathway. While the other EB1 proteins are well characterized the cellular function and regulation of RP1 remain speculative to date. However, recently RP1 has been implicated in pancreatic cancerogenesis. CK2 is a pleiotropic kinase involved in adhesion, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. Overexpression of protein kinase CK2 is a hallmark of many cancers and supports the malignant phenotype of tumor cells. In this study we investigate the interaction of protein kinase CK2 with RP1 and demonstrate that CK2 phosphorylates RP1 at Ser(236 in vitro. Stable RP1 expression in cell lines leads to a significant cleavage and down-regulation of N-cadherin and impaired adhesion. Cells expressing a Phospho-mimicking point mutant RP1-ASP(236 show a marked decrease of adhesion to endothelial cells under shear stress. Inversely, we found that the cells under shear stress downregulate endogenous RP1, most likely to improve cellular adhesion. Accordingly, when RP1 expression is suppressed by shRNA, cells lacking RP1 display significantly increased cell adherence to surfaces. In summary, RP1 phosphorylation at Ser(236 by CK2 seems to play a significant role in cell adhesion and might initiate new insights in the CK2 and EB1 family protein association.

  2. Identification of hematein as a novel inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 from a natural product library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is dysregulated in various human cancers and is a promising target for cancer therapy. To date, there is no small molecular CK2 inhibitor in clinical trial yet. With the aim to identify novel CK2 inhibitors, we screened a natural product library. We adopted cell-based proliferation and CK2 kinase assays to screen CK2 inhibitors from a natural compound library. Dose-dependent response of CK2 inhibitors in vitro was determined by a radioisotope kinase assay. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate down stream Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis. Apoptosis was also evaluated by annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) labeling method using flow cytometry. Inhibition effects of CK2 inhibitors on the growth of cancer and normal cells were evaluated by cell proliferation and viability assays. Hematein was identified as a novel CK2 inhibitor that is highly selective among a panel of kinases. It appears to be an ATP non-competitive and partially reversible CK2 inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.55 μM. In addition, hematein inhibited cancer cell growth partially through down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Furthermore, hematein exerted stronger inhibition effects on the growth of cancer cells than in normal cells. In this study, we showed that hematein is a novel selective and cell permeable small molecule CK2 inhibitor. Hematein showed stronger growth inhibition effects to cancer cells when compared to normal cells. This compound may represent a promising class of CK2 inhibitors

  3. Downregulation of protein kinase CK2 activity facilitates tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated chondrocyte death through apoptosis and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous studies of protein kinase CK2, little progress has been made in understanding its function in chondrocyte death. Our previous study first demonstrated that CK2 is involved in apoptosis of rat articular chondrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that CK2 downregulation is associated with aging. Thus examining the involvement of CK2 downregulation in chondrocyte death is an urgently required task. We undertook this study to examine whether CK2 downregulation modulates chondrocyte death. We first measured CK2 activity in articular chondrocytes of 6-, 21- and 30-month-old rats. Noticeably, CK2 activity was downregulated in chondrocytes with advancing age. To build an in vitro experimental system for simulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-induced cell death in aged chondrocytes with decreased CK2 activity, chondrocytes were co-treated with CK2 inhibitors and TNF-α. Viability assay demonstrated that CK2 inhibitors facilitated TNF-α-mediated chondrocyte death. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, nuclear staining, flow cytometry, TUNEL staining, confocal microscopy, western blot and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to assess cell death modes. The results of multiple assays showed that this cell death was mediated by apoptosis. Importantly, autophagy was also involved in this process, as supported by the appearance of a punctuate LC3 pattern and autophagic vacuoles. The inhibition of autophagy by silencing of autophage-related genes 5 and 7 as well as by 3-methyladenine treatment protected chondrocytes against cell death and caspase activation, indicating that autophagy led to the induction of apoptosis. Autophagic cells were observed in cartilage obtained from osteoarthritis (OA model rats and human OA patients. Our findings indicate that CK2 down regulation facilitates TNF-α-mediated chondrocyte death through apoptosis and autophagy. It should be clarified in the future if autophagy observed is a consequence

  4. Cytoskeletal Regulation of Inflammation and Its Impact on Skin Blistering Disease Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecki, Zlatko; Ludwig, Ralf J; Cowin, Allison J

    2016-01-01

    Actin remodelling proteins regulate cytoskeletal cell responses and are important in both innate and adaptive immunity. These responses play a major role in providing a fine balance in a cascade of biological events that results in either protective acute inflammation or chronic inflammation that leads to a host of diseases including autoimmune inflammation mediated epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA). This review describes the role of the actin cytoskeleton and in particular the actin remodelling protein called Flightless I (Flii) in regulating cellular inflammatory responses and its subsequent effect on the autoimmune skin blistering disease EBA. It also outlines the potential of an antibody based therapy for decreasing Flii expression in vivo to ameliorate the symptoms associated with EBA. PMID:27420054

  5. Protein kinase CK2 modulates IL-6 expression in inflammatory breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drygin, Denis, E-mail: ddrygin@cylenepharma.com; Ho, Caroline B.; Omori, Mayuko; Bliesath, Joshua; Proffitt, Chris; Rice, Rachel; Siddiqui-Jain, Adam; O' Brien, Sean; Padgett, Claire; Lim, John K.C.; Anderes, Kenna; Rice, William G.; Ryckman, David

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the potential cross-talk between CK2 and IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CK2 by siRNA or CX-4945 inhibits expression of IL-6 in models of IBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of IBC patient in the clinic with CX-4945 reduces her IL-6 plasma levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CK2 is a potential therapeutic target for IL-6 driven diseases. -- Abstract: Inflammatory breast cancer is driven by pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines. One of them Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival, and promotes angiogenesis, inflammation and metastasis. While IL-6 has been shown to be upregulated by several oncogenes, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is not well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the pleotropic Serine/Threonine kinase CK2 is implicated in the regulation of IL-6 expression in a model of inflammatory breast cancer. We used siRNAs targeted toward CK2 and a selective small molecule inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945, to inhibit the expression and thus suppress the secretion of IL-6 in in vitro as well as in vivo models. Moreover, we report that in a clinical trial, CX-4945 was able to dramatically reduce IL-6 levels in plasma of an inflammatory breast cancer patient. Our data shed a new light on the regulation of IL-6 expression and position CX-4945 and potentially other inhibitors of CK2, for the treatment of IL-6-driven cancers and possibly other diseases where IL-6 is instrumental, including rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. CK2 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 potentiates cell cycle progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Wada, Ikuo; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Yamaki, Junko; Krebs, Edwin G.; Homma, Yoshimi

    2005-01-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein kinase that plays an important role in cell cycle progression. Although its function in this process remains unclear, it is known to be required for the G1 and G2/M phase transitions in yeast. Here, we show that CK2 activity changes notably during cell cycle progression and is increased within 3 h of serum stimulation of quiescent cells. During the time period in which it exhibits high enzymatic activity, CK2 associates with and phosphorylates a key molecule for translation initiation, eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 5. Using MS, we show that Ser-389 and -390 of eIF5 are major sites of phosphorylation by CK2. This is confirmed using eIF5 mutants that lack CK2 sites; the phosphorylation levels of mutant eIF5 proteins are significantly reduced, relative to WT eIF5, both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of these mutants reveals that they have a dominant-negative effect on phosphorylation of endogenous eIF5, and that they perturb synchronous progression of cells through S to M phase, resulting in a significant reduction in growth rate. Furthermore, the formation of mature eIF5/eIF2/eIF3 complex is reduced in these cells, and, in fact, restricted diffusional motion of WT eIF5 was almost abolished in a GFP-tagged eIF5 mutant lacking CK2 phosphorylation sites, as measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These results suggest that CK2 may be involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression by associating with and phosphorylating a key molecule for translation initiation. PMID:16227438

  7. Abelson tyrosine kinase links PDGFbeta receptor activation to cytoskeletal regulation of NMDA receptors in CA1 hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beazely Michael A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously demonstrated that PDGF receptor activation indirectly inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA currents by modifying the cytoskeleton. PDGF receptor ligand is also neuroprotective in hippocampal slices and cultured neurons. PDGF receptors are tyrosine kinases that control a variety of signal transduction pathways including those mediated by PLCγ. In fibroblasts Src and another non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Abelson kinase (Abl, control PDGF receptor regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. The mechanism whereby PDGF receptor regulates cytoskeletal dynamics in central neurons remains poorly understood. Results Intracellular applications of active Abl, but not heat-inactivated Abl, decreased NMDA-evoked currents in isolated hippocampal neurons. This mimics the effects of PDGF receptor activation in these neurons. The Abl kinase inhibitor, STI571, blocked the inhibition of NMDA currents by Abl. We demonstrate that PDGF receptors can activate Abl kinase in hippocampal neurons via mechanisms similar to those observed previously in fibroblasts. Furthermore, PDGFβ receptor activation alters the subcellular localization of Abl. Abl kinase is linked to actin cytoskeletal dynamics in many systems. We show that the inhibition of NMDA receptor currents by Abl kinase is blocked by the inclusion of the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, and that activation of Abl correlates with an increase in ROCK tyrosine phosphorylation. Conclusion This study demonstrates that PDGFβ receptors act via an interaction with Abl kinase and Rho kinase to regulated cytoskeletal regulation of NMDA receptor channels in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  8. CRY Drives Cyclic CK2-Mediated BMAL1 Phosphorylation to Control the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Teruya; Hattori, Mitsuru; Honda, Kousuke; Nakahata, Yasukazu; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Ozawa, Takeaki; Takamatsu, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular circadian clocks, composed of clock genes that act in transcription-translation feedback loops, drive global rhythmic expression of the mammalian transcriptome and allow an organism to anticipate to the momentum of the day. Using a novel clock-perturbing peptide, we established a pivotal role for casein kinase (CK)-2-mediated circadian BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation (BMAL1-P) in regulating central and peripheral core clocks. Subsequent analysis of the underlying mechanism showed a novel role of CRY as a repressor for protein kinase. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and real-time monitoring of protein–protein interactions revealed that CRY-mediated periodic binding of CK2β to BMAL1 inhibits BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation by CK2α. The FAD binding domain of CRY1, two C-terminal BMAL1 domains, and particularly BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation/deacetylation by CLOCK/SIRT1, were shown to be critical for CRY-mediated BMAL1–CK2β binding. Reciprocally, BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation is prerequisite for BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation. We propose a dual negative-feedback model in which a CRY-dependent CK2-driven posttranslational BMAL1–P-BMAL1 loop is an integral part of the core clock oscillator. PMID:26562092

  9. CRY Drives Cyclic CK2-Mediated BMAL1 Phosphorylation to Control the Mammalian Circadian Clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruya Tamaru

    Full Text Available Intracellular circadian clocks, composed of clock genes that act in transcription-translation feedback loops, drive global rhythmic expression of the mammalian transcriptome and allow an organism to anticipate to the momentum of the day. Using a novel clock-perturbing peptide, we established a pivotal role for casein kinase (CK-2-mediated circadian BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation (BMAL1-P in regulating central and peripheral core clocks. Subsequent analysis of the underlying mechanism showed a novel role of CRY as a repressor for protein kinase. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions revealed that CRY-mediated periodic binding of CK2β to BMAL1 inhibits BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation by CK2α. The FAD binding domain of CRY1, two C-terminal BMAL1 domains, and particularly BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation/deacetylation by CLOCK/SIRT1, were shown to be critical for CRY-mediated BMAL1-CK2β binding. Reciprocally, BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation is prerequisite for BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation. We propose a dual negative-feedback model in which a CRY-dependent CK2-driven posttranslational BMAL1-P-BMAL1 loop is an integral part of the core clock oscillator.

  10. Protein Kinase CK2 Expression Predicts Relapse Survival in ERα Dependent Breast Cancer, and Modulates ERα Expression in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon D. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 has been associated with oncogenic transformation, and our previous studies have shown that it may affect estrogenic signaling. Here, we investigate the role of the protein kinase CK2 in regulating ERα (estrogen receptor α signaling in breast cancer. We determined the correlation of CK2α expression with relapse free breast cancer patient survival utilizing Kaplan Meier Plotter (kmplot.com/analysis/ to mine breast cancer microarrays repositories. Patients were stratified according to ERα status, histological grade, and hormonal therapy. Luciferase reporter assays and flow cytometry were implemented to determine the impact of CK2 inhibition on ERE-mediated gene expression and expression of ERα protein. CK2α expression is associated with shorter relapse free survival among ERα (+ patients with grade 1 or 2 tumors, as well as among those patients receiving hormonal therapy. Biochemical inhibition of CK2 activity results in increased ER-transactivation as well as increased expression among ERα (+ and ERα (− breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that CK2 may contribute to estrogen-independent cell proliferation and breast tumor progression, and may potentially serve as a biomarker and pharmacological target in breast cancer.

  11. The Selectivity of CK2 Inhibitor Quinalizarin: A Reevaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Cozza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many polyphenolic compounds have been reported to inhibit protein kinases, with special reference to CK2, a pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase, implicated in neoplasia, neurodegenerative disease, and viral infections. In general however these compounds are not endowed with stringent selectivity. Among them quinalizarin (1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone turned out to be particularly potent (Ki = 0.058 μM and quite selective as judged by profiling it on a small panel of 70 protein kinases. Here, by profiling quinalizarin on a larger panel of 140 kinases we reach the conclusion that quinalizarin is one of the most selective inhibitors of CK2, superior to the first-in-class CK2 inhibitor, CX-4945, now in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Moreover here we show that quinalizarin is able to discriminate between the isolated CK2 catalytic subunit (CK2α and CK2 holoenzyme (CK2α2β2, consistent with in silico and in vitro analyses.

  12. TRPV4 regulates calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal remodeling, conventional outflow and intraocular pressure in the mammalian eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Frye, Amber M.; Phuong, Tam T. T.; Yarishkin, Oleg; Jo, Andrew O.; Xu, Yong; Lakk, Monika; Iuso, Anthony; Redmon, Sarah N.; Ambati, Balamurali; Hageman, Gregory; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Torrejon, Karen Y.; Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    An intractable challenge in glaucoma treatment has been to identify druggable targets within the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway, which is thought to be regulated/dysregulated by elusive mechanosensitive protein(s). Here, biochemical and functional analyses localized the putative mechanosensitive cation channel TRPV4 to the plasma membrane of primary and immortalized human TM (hTM) cells, and to human and mouse TM tissue. Selective TRPV4 agonists and substrate stretch evoked TRPV4-dependent cation/Ca2+ influx, thickening of F-actin stress fibers and reinforcement of focal adhesion contacts. TRPV4 inhibition enhanced the outflow facility and lowered perfusate pressure in biomimetic TM scaffolds populated with primary hTM cells. Systemic delivery, intraocular injection or topical application of putative TRPV4 antagonist prodrug analogs lowered IOP in glaucomatous mouse eyes and protected retinal neurons from IOP-induced death. Together, these findings indicate that TRPV4 channels function as a critical component of mechanosensitive, Ca2+-signaling machinery within the TM, and that TRPV4-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling regulates TM stiffness and outflow. Thus, TRPV4 is a potential IOP sensor within the conventional outflow pathway and a novel target for treating ocular hypertension. PMID:27510430

  13. The functional interplay between protein kinase CK2 and CCA1 transcriptional activity is essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Portolés

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are daily biological oscillations driven by an endogenous mechanism known as circadian clock. The protein kinase CK2 is one of the few clock components that is evolutionary conserved among different taxonomic groups. CK2 regulates the stability and nuclear localization of essential clock proteins in mammals, fungi, and insects. Two CK2 regulatory subunits, CKB3 and CKB4, have been also linked with the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian system. However, the biological relevance and the precise mechanisms of CK2 function within the plant clockwork are not known. By using ChIP and Double-ChIP experiments together with in vivo luminescence assays at different temperatures, we were able to identify a temperature-dependent function for CK2 modulating circadian period length. Our study uncovers a previously unpredicted mechanism for CK2 antagonizing the key clock regulator CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1. CK2 activity does not alter protein accumulation or subcellular localization but interferes with CCA1 binding affinity to the promoters of the oscillator genes. High temperatures enhance the CCA1 binding activity, which is precisely counterbalanced by the CK2 opposing function. Altering this balance by over-expression, mutation, or pharmacological inhibition affects the temperature compensation profile, providing a mechanism by which plants regulate circadian period at changing temperatures. Therefore, our study establishes a new model demonstrating that two opposing and temperature-dependent activities (CCA1-CK2 are essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis.

  14. Disruption of the regulatory beta subunit of protein kinase CK2 in mice leads to a cell-autonomous defect and early embryonic lethality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchou, Thierry; Vernet, Muriel; Blond, Olivier;

    2003-01-01

    . Attempts to generate homozygous embryonic stem (ES) cells failed. By using a conditional knockout approach, we show that lack of CK2beta is deleterious for mouse ES cells and primary embryonic fibroblasts. This is in contrast to what occurs with yeast cells, which can survive without functional CK2beta...... in mice leads to postimplantation lethality. Mutant embryos were reduced in size at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5). They did not exhibit signs of apoptosis but did show reduced cell proliferation. Mutant embryos were resorbed at E7.5. In vitro, CK2beta(-/-) morula development stopped after the blastocyst stage......Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous protein kinase implicated in proliferation and cell survival. Its regulatory beta subunit, CK2beta, which is encoded by a single gene in mammals, has been suspected of regulating other protein kinases. In this work, we show that knockout of the CK2beta gene...

  15. Cell cycle regulation and cytoskeletal remodelling are critical processes in the nutritional programming of embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream phenotypic effects. By using a cross-over design of two well established models of maternal protein and iron restriction we aimed to identify putative common "gatekeepers" which may drive nutritional programming.Both protein and iron deficiency in utero reduced the nephron complement in adult male Wistar and Rowett Hooded Lister rats (P<0.05. This occurred in the absence of damage to the glomerular ultrastructure. Microarray, proteomic and pathway analyses identified diet-specific and strain-specific gatekeeper genes, proteins and processes which shared a common association with the regulation of the cell cycle, especially the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and cytoskeletal remodelling. A cell cycle-specific PCR array confirmed the down-regulation of cyclins with protein restriction and the up-regulation of apoptotic genes with iron deficiency.The timing and experimental design of this study have been carefully controlled to isolate the common molecular mechanisms which may initiate the sequelae of events involved in nutritional programming of embryonic development. We propose that despite differences in the individual genes and proteins affected in each strain and with each diet, the general response to nutrient deficiency in utero is perturbation of the cell cycle, at the level of interaction with the cytoskeleton and the mitotic checkpoints, thereby diminishing control over the integrity of DNA which is allowed to replicate. These findings offer novel

  16. Biochemical characterization of CK2alpha and alpha' paralogues and their derived holoenzymes: evidence for the existence of a heterotrimeric CK2alpha'-holoenzyme forming trimeric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Tine; Niefind, Karsten;

    2008-01-01

    Altogether 2 holoenzymes and 4 catalytic CK2 constructs were expressed and characterized i.e. CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2); CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme; CK2alpha(1-335); MBP-CK2alpha'; His-tagged CK2alpha and His-tagged CK2alpha'. The two His-tagged catalytic subunits were expressed in insect......2alpha'-derived holoenzyme eluted at a position corresponding to a molecular mass of 105 kDa which is significantly below the elution of the CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2) holoenzyme (145 kDa). Calmodulin was not phosphorylated by either CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2) or the CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme...

  17. Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, M; Kim, S O; Salh, B S;

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of proteins that are important in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the stress signaling agents anisomycin, arsenite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulate the specific enzyme activity of CK2...... to be an allosteric mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that anisomycin- and tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser-392, which is important for the transcriptional activity of this growth suppressor protein, requires p38 MAP kinase and CK2 activities....... in the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by up to 8-fold, and this could be blocked by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. We show that p38alpha MAP kinase, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, can directly interact with the alpha and beta subunits of CK2 to activate the holoenzyme through what appears...

  18. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2-Induced Signaling and Osteogenesis Is Regulated by Cell Shape, RhoA/ROCK, and Cytoskeletal Tension

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang-Kao; Yu, Xiang; Cohen, Daniel M.; Wozniak, Michele A.; Yang, Michael T.; Gao, Lin; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is classically thought to be mediated by different cytokines such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Here, we report that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM), and its effects on cell shape and cytoskeletal mechanics, regulates BMP-induced signaling and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Using micropatterned substrates to progressively restrict cell spreading and flattening against ECM, we demonstrated that BM...

  19. Protein kinase CK2 structure-function relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A;

    1994-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 subunits alpha and beta were expressed either separately or together in a bacterial expression system (pT7-7/BL21(DE3)) and purified to homogeneity. After mixing the subunits, a CK2 holoenzyme (alpha 2 beta 2) was spontaneously reconstituted, which displays identical features...... conditions, (b) it protects the alpha subunit against denaturing agents or conditions, and (c) it alters the substrate specificity of the alpha subunit. By site-directed mutagenesis, certain functions of the beta subunit could be assigned to specific amino acids or domains. Twenty one mutants of the beta...

  20. Characterization of CK2 holoenzyme variants with regard to crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Niefind, K; Ermakowa, I;

    2001-01-01

    that the catalytic subunit moiety of the human CK2 holoenzyme is not stable neither as a free subunit nor in the tetrameric complex. All attempts to prevent degradation failed. Hence, alternative approaches were designed in order to avoid this degradation, which was expected to hamper any crystallization efforts...... strategy to tackle the problem of instability was to produce the homologous recombinant human CK2 holoenzyme and then, instead of trying to avoid degradation, attempt to accelerate degradation until all catalytic subunit material was converted to the degraded form, i.e. a 40 kDa polypeptide....

  1. Oncogenic potential of CK2α and its regulatory role in EGF-induced HDAC2 expression in human liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung S; Chang, Young G; Bae, Hyun J; Eun, Jung W; Shen, Qingyu; Park, Se J; Shin, Woo C; Lee, Eun K; Park, Soha; Ahn, Young M; Park, Won S; Lee, Jung Y; Nam, Suk W

    2014-02-01

    Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is aberrantly regulated and plays a pivotal role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through regulation of cell-cycle components at the transcriptional level, but the underlying mechanism leading to oncogenic HDAC2 remains unknown. In this study, we show that expression of CK2α (casein kinase II α subunit) was up-regulated in a large cohort of human HCC patients, and that high expression of CK2α was significantly associated with poor prognosis of HCC patients in terms of five-year overall survival. It was also found that CK2α over-expression positively correlated with HDAC2 over-expression in a subset of HCCs. We observed that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicited an increase in CK2α expression and Akt phosphorylation, causing induction of HDAC2 expression in liver cancer cells. It was also observed that ectopic expression of dominant-negative CK2α blocked EGF-induced HDAC2 expression, and that ectopic CK2α expression attenuated the suppressive effect of Akt knockdown on HDAC2 expression in liver cancer cells. Targeted disruption of CK2α influenced the cell cycle, causing a significant increase in the number of liver cancer cells remaining in G₂/M phase, and suppressed growth via repression of Cdc25c and cyclin B in liver cancer cells. Taken together, our findings suggest the oncogenic potential of CK2α in liver tumorigenesis. Furthermore, a regulatory mechanism for HDAC2 expression is proposed whereby EGF induces transcriptional activation of HDAC2 by CK2α/Akt activation in liver cancer cells. Therefore, this makes CK2α a promising target in cancer therapy.

  2. Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2: insights into basic properties of the CK2 holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Ermakowa, I;

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 A resolution. In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalytic...... as a docking partner for various protein kinases. Furthermore it shows an inter-domain mobility in the catalytic subunit known to be functionally important in protein kinases and detected here for the first time directly within one crystal structure....

  3. Phosphorylation of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 by checkpoint kinase Chk1: identification of the in vitro CK2beta phosphorylation site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars P; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Højrup, Peter;

    2004-01-01

    The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 mediates the formation of the CK2 tetrameric form and it has functions independent of CK2 catalytic subunit through interaction with several intracellular proteins. Recently, we have shown that CK2beta associates with the human checkpoint kinase Chk...... by the modification of Thr213 but it does require the presence of an active Chk1 kinase....

  4. Development of a high-throughput screening-compatible assay to identify inhibitors of the CK2alpha/CK2beta interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochscherf, Jennifer; Lindenblatt, Dirk; Steinkrueger, Michaela;

    2015-01-01

    active site-directed approaches. The current article describes the development of a fluorescence anisotropy-based assay that mimics the principle of CK2 subunit interaction by using CK2alpha1-335 and the fluorescent probe CF-Ahx-Pc as a CK2beta analog. In addition, we identified new inhibitors able...

  5. Detection of phospho-sites generated by protein kinase CK2 in CFTR: mechanistic aspects of Thr1471 phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Venerando

    Full Text Available By mass spectrometry analysis of mouse Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane-conductance Regulator (mCFTR expressed in yeast we have detected 21 phosphopeptides accounting for 22 potential phospho-residues, 12 of which could be unambiguously assigned. Most are conserved in human CFTR (hCFTR and the majority cluster in the Regulatory Domain, lying within consensus sequences for PKA, as identified in previous mammalian studies. This validates our yeast expression model. A number of phospho-residues were novel and human conserved, notably mouse Ser670, Ser723, Ser737, and Thr1467, that all lie in acidic sequences, compatible with their phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Thr1467 is localized in the C-terminal tail, embedded in a functionally important and very acidic sequence (EETEEE which displays an optimal consensus for protein kinase CK2. Herein, we show that Thr1467, homologous to human Thr1471 is readily phosphorylated by CK2. Indeed a 42 amino acid peptide encompassing the C-terminal segment of human CFTR is readily phosphorylated at Thr1471 with favorable kinetics (Km 1.7 µM by CK2 holoenzyme, but neither by its isolated catalytic subunit nor by other acidophilic Ser/Thr kinases (CK1, PLK2/3, GCK/FAM20C. Our finding that by treating CFTR expressing BHK cells with the very specific CK2 inhibitor CX4945, newly synthesized wild type CFTR (and even more its Phe508del mutant accumulates more abundantly than in the absence of CK2 inhibitor, supports the conclusion that phosphorylation of CFTR by CK2 correlates with decreased stability of the protein.

  6. Identification and characterization of a set of conserved and new regulators of cytoskeletal organization, cell morphology and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryavanshi Narendra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell migration is essential during development and in human disease progression including cancer. Most cell migration studies concentrate on known or predicted components of migration pathways. Results Here we use data from a genome-wide RNAi morphology screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells together with bioinformatics to identify 26 new regulators of morphology and cytoskeletal organization in human cells. These include genes previously implicated in a wide range of functions, from mental retardation, Down syndrome and Huntington's disease to RNA and DNA-binding genes. We classify these genes into seven groups according to phenotype and identify those that affect cell migration. We further characterize a subset of seven genes, FAM40A, FAM40B, ARC, FMNL3, FNBP3/FBP11, LIMD1 and ZRANB1, each of which has a different effect on cell shape, actin filament distribution and cell migration. Interestingly, in several instances closely related isoforms with a single Drosophila homologue have distinct phenotypes. For example, FAM40B depletion induces cell elongation and tail retraction defects, whereas FAM40A depletion reduces cell spreading. Conclusions Our results identify multiple regulators of cell migration and cytoskeletal signalling that are highly conserved between Drosophila and humans, and show that closely related paralogues can have very different functions in these processes.

  7. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

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    Allyson G Hindle

    Full Text Available 13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins

  8. Differential impact of REM sleep deprivation on cytoskeletal proteins of brain regions involved in sleep regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jennifer; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is involved in memory consolidation, which implies synaptic plasticity. This process requires protein synthesis and the reorganization of the neural cytoskeleton. REM sleep deprivation (REMSD) has an impact on some neuronal proteins involved in synaptic plasticity, such as glutamate receptors and postsynaptic density protein 95, but its effects on cytoskeletal proteins is unknown. In this study, the effects of REMSD on the content of the cytoskeletal proteins MAP2 and TAU were analyzed. Adult female rats were submitted to selective REMSD by using the multiple platform technique. After 24, 48 or 72 h of REMSD, rats were decapitated and the following brain areas were dissected: pons, preoptic area, hippocampus and frontal cortex. Protein extraction and Western blot were performed. Results showed an increase in TAU content in the pons, preoptic area and hippocampus after 24 h of REMSD, while in the frontal cortex a significant increase in TAU content was observed after 72 h of REMSD. A TAU content decrease was observed in the hippocampus after 48 h of REMSD. Interestingly, a marked increase in TAU content was observed after 72 h of REMSD. MAP2 content only increased in the preoptic area at 24 h, and in the frontal cortex after 24 and 72 h of REMSD, without significant changes in the pons and hippocampus. These results support the idea that REM sleep plays an important role in the organization of neural cytoskeleton, and that this effect is tissue-specific.

  9. Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2011-08-01

    1. Introduction and the biological basis for cell mechanics Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm; 2. Experimental measurements of intracellular mechanics Paul Janmey and Christoph Schmidt; 3. The cytoskeleton as a soft glassy material Jeffrey Fredberg and Ben Fabry; 4. Continuum elastic or viscoelastic models for the cell Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Helene Karcher and Roger Kamm; 5. Multiphasic models of cell mechanics Farshid Guuilak, Mansoor A. Haider, Lori A. Setton, Tod A. Laursen and Frank P. T. Baaijens; 6. Models of cytoskeletal mechanics based on tensegrity Dimitrije Stamenovic; 7. Cells, gels and mechanics Gerald H. Pollack; 8. Polymer-based models of cytoskeletal networks F. C. MacKintosh; 9. Cell dynamics and the actin cytoskeleton James L. McGrath and C. Forbes Dewey, Jr; 10. Active cellular motion: continuum theories and models Marc Herant and Micah Dembo; 11. Summary Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm.

  10. GTP plus water mimic ATP in the active site of protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Pütter, M; Guerra, B;

    1999-01-01

    The structures of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays complexed with Mg2+ and with analogs of ATP or GTP were determined to 2.2 A resolution. Unlike most other protein kinases, CK2 from various sources shows 'dual-cosubstrate specificity', that is, the ability to efficiently...... that target CK2 or other kinases with this property....

  11. Effects of the CK2 inhibitors CX-4945 and CX-5011 on drug-resistant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zanin

    Full Text Available CK2 is a pleiotropic protein kinase, which regulates many survival pathways and plays a global anti-apoptotic function. It is highly expressed in tumor cells, and is presently considered a promising therapeutic target. Among the many inhibitors available for this kinase, the recently developed CX-4945 and CX-5011 have proved to be very potent, selective and effective in inducing cell death in tumor cells; CX-4945 has recently entered clinical trials. However, no data are available on the efficacy of these compounds to overcome drug resistance, a major reasons of cancer therapy failure. Here we address this point, by studying their effects in several tumor cell lines, each available as variant R resistant to drug-induced apoptosis, and normal-sensitive variant S. We found that the inhibition of endogenous CK2 was very similar in S and R treated cells, with more than 50% CK2 activity reduction at sub-micromolar concentrations of CX-4945 and CX-5011. A consequent apoptotic response was induced both in S and R variants of each pairs. Moreover, the combined treatment of CX-4945 plus vinblastine was able to sensitize to vinblastine R cells that are otherwise almost insensitive to this conventional antitumor drug. Consistently, doxorubicin accumulation in multidrug resistant (MDR cells was greatly increased by CX-4945.In summary, we demonstrated that all the R variants are sensitive to CX-4945 and CX-5011; since some of the treated R lines express the extrusion pump Pgp, often responsible of the MDR phenotype, we can also conclude that the two inhibitors can successfully overcome the MDR phenomenon.

  12. Regulation of cytoskeletal organization and junctional remodeling by the atypical cadherin Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinkevicius, Emily; Zallen, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The atypical cadherin Fat is a conserved regulator of planar cell polarity, but the mechanisms by which Fat controls cell shape and tissue structure are not well understood. Here, we show that Fat is required for the planar polarized organization of actin denticle precursors, adherens junction proteins and microtubules in the epidermis of the late Drosophila embryo. In wild-type embryos, spatially regulated cell-shape changes and rearrangements organize cells into highly aligned columns. Junc...

  13. Vascular Endothelial-Cadherin Regulates Cytoskeletal Tension, Cell Spreading, and Focal Adhesions by Stimulating RhoAD⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Celeste M.; Pirone, Dana M.; Tan, John L.; Chen, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    Changes in vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin–mediated cell-cell adhesion and integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesion coordinate to affect the physical and mechanical rearrangements of the endothelium, although the mechanisms for such cross talk remain undefined. Herein, we describe the regulation of focal adhesion formation and cytoskeletal tension by intercellular VE-cadherin engagement, and the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. Increasing the density of endothelial cells to increase cell-cell contact decreased focal adhesions by decreasing cell spreading. This contact inhibition of cell spreading was blocked by disrupting VE-cadherin engagement with an adenovirus encoding dominant negative VE-cadherin. When changes in cell spreading were prevented by culturing cells on a micropatterned substrate, VE-cadherin–mediated cell-cell contact paradoxically increased focal adhesion formation. We show that VE-cadherin engagement mediates each of these effects by inducing both a transient and sustained activation of RhoA. Both the increase and decrease in cell-matrix adhesion were blocked by disrupting intracellular tension and signaling through the Rho-ROCK pathway. In all, these findings demonstrate that VE-cadherin signals through RhoA and the actin cytoskeleton to cross talk with cell-matrix adhesion and thereby define a novel pathway by which cell-cell contact alters the global mechanical and functional state of cells. PMID:15075376

  14. Casein Kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated Phosphorylation of Hsp90β as a Novel Mechanism of Rifampin-induced MDR1 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Won; Hasanuzzaman, Md; Cho, Munju; Heo, Ye Rang; Ryu, Min-Jung; Ha, Na-Young; Park, Hyun June; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2015-07-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 gene is a drug-exporting transporter located in the cellular membrane. P-gp induction is regarded as one of the main mechanisms underlying drug-induced resistance. Although there is great interest in the regulation of P-gp expression, little is known about its underlying regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that casein kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated phosphorylation of heat shock protein 90β (Hsp90β) and subsequent stabilization of PXR is a key mechanism in the regulation of MDR1 expression. Furthermore, we show that CK2 is directly activated by rifampin. Upon exposure to rifampin, CK2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of Hsp90β at the Ser-225/254 residues. Phosphorylated Hsp90β then interacts with PXR, causing a subsequent increase in its stability, leading to the induction of P-gp expression. In addition, inhibition of CK2 and Hsp90β enhances the down-regulation of PXR and P-gp expression. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new strategies to prevent multidrug resistance and provide a plausible mechanism for acquired drug resistance by CK2-mediated regulation of P-gp expression. PMID:25995454

  15. Fas-associated factor 1 interacts with protein kinase CK2 in vivo upon apoptosis induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    2001-01-01

    We show here that in several different cell lines protein kinase CK2 and Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) exist together in a complex which is stable to high monovalent salt concentration. The CK2/FAF1 complex formation is significantly increased after induction of apoptosis with various DNA damaging...... the view that protein kinase CK2 plays an important role in certain steps of apoptosis....

  16. Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays at 2.1 A resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Pinna, L A;

    1998-01-01

    CK2alpha is the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2, an acidophilic and constitutively active eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinase involved in cell proliferation. A crystal structure, at 2.1 A resolution, of recombinant maize CK2alpha (rmCK2alpha) in the presence of ATP and Mg2+, shows the enzyme in an ...

  17. Protein kinase CK2 inhibition down modulates the NF-κB and STAT3 survival pathways, enhances the cellular proteotoxic stress and synergistically boosts the cytotoxic effect of bortezomib on multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Manni

    Full Text Available CK2 is a pivotal pro-survival protein kinase in multiple myeloma that may likely impinge on bortezomib-regulated cellular pathways. In the present study, we investigated CK2 expression in multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, two bortezomib-responsive B cell tumors, as well as its involvement in bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity and signaling cascades potentially mediating bortezomib resistance. In both tumors, CK2 expression correlated with that of its activated targets NF-κB and STAT3 transcription factors. Bortezomib-induced proliferation arrest and apoptosis were significantly amplified by the simultaneous inhibition of CK2 with two inhibitors (CX-4945 and K27 in multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma cell lines, in a model of multiple myeloma bone marrow microenvironment and in cells isolated from patients. CK2 inhibition empowered bortezomib-triggered mitochondrial-dependent cell death. Phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 on Ser529 (a CK2 target site and rise of the levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress kinase/endoribonuclease Ire1α were markedly reduced upon CK2 inhibition, as were STAT3 phospho Ser727 levels. On the contrary, CK2 inhibition increased phospho Ser51 eIF2α levels and enhanced the bortezomib-dependent accumulation of poly-ubiquitylated proteins and of the proteotoxic stress-associated chaperone Hsp70. Our data suggest that CK2 over expression in multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma cells might sustain survival signaling cascades and can antagonize bortezomib-induced apoptosis at different levels. CK2 inhibitors could be useful in bortezomib-based combination therapies.

  18. Expression and characterization of a recombinant maize CK-2 alpha subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Dobrowolska, G;

    1993-01-01

    CKIIB, one of the CK-2 like enzymes which have been isolated from maize, has been shown to be a monomeric enzyme that cross-reacts with anti CK-2 alpha specific antibodies suggesting a possible relationship between the two proteins (Dobrowolska et al. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 299-303). In order...... to support the immunological data also by biochemical and biophysical experiments the availability of a recombinant CK-2 alpha from maize was a prerequisite. A maize cDNA clone of maize CK-2 alpha was expressed in the bacterial strain BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity; its...... molecular mass on one-dimensional SDS PAGE was estimated to be 36.5 kDa. The calculated molecular mass according to the amino acid composition is 39,228 Da (332 amino acids). The recombinant maize CK-2 alpha (rmCK-2 alpha) exhibited mostly the same properties as the recombinant human CK-2 alpha (rhCK-2...

  19. Structure of the gene encoding the murine protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1995-01-01

    The mouse protein kinase CK2 beta subunit gene (Csnk2b) is composed of seven exons contained within 7874 bp. The exon and intron lengths extend from 76 to 321 and 111 to 1272 bp, respectively. The lengths of the murine coding exons correspond exactly to the lengths of the exons in the human CK2...

  20. Structure of protein kinase CK2: dimerization of the human beta-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Mietens, U; Issinger, O G

    1996-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been shown to be elevated in all so far investigated solid tumors and its catalytic subunit has been shown to serve as an oncogene product. CK2 is a heterotetrameric serine-threonine kinase composed of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory beta...

  1. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1997-01-01

    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposite...

  2. Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis identifies protein kinase CK2 as a key signaling node in an inflammatory cytokine network in ovarian cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbe, Hagen; Iorio, Francesco; Chakravarty, Probir; Milagre, Carla S.; Moore, Robert; Thompson, Richard G.; Everitt, Gemma; Canosa, Monica; Montoya, Alexander; Drygin, Denis; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Cutillas, Pedro R.; Balkwill, Frances R.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed how key pathways in cancer-related inflammation and Notch signaling are part of an autocrine malignant cell network in ovarian cancer. This network, which we named the “TNF network”, has paracrine actions within the tumor microenvironment, influencing angiogenesis and the immune cell infiltrate. The aim of this study was to identify critical regulators in the signaling pathways of the TNF network in ovarian cancer cells that might be therapeutic targets. To achieve our aim, we used a systems biology approach, combining data from phospho-proteomic mass spectrometry and gene expression array analysis. Among the potential therapeutic kinase targets identified was the protein kinase Casein kinase II (CK2). Knockdown of CK2 expression in malignant cells by siRNA or treatment with the specific CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 significantly decreased Notch signaling and reduced constitutive cytokine release in ovarian cancer cell lines that expressed the TNF network as well as malignant cells isolated from high grade serous ovarian cancer ascites. The expression of the same cytokines was also inhibited after treatment with CX-4945 in a 3D organotypic model. CK2 inhibition was associated with concomitant inhibition of proliferative activity, reduced angiogenesis and experimental peritoneal ovarian tumor growth. In conclusion, we have identified kinases, particularly CK2, associated with the TNF network that may play a central role in sustaining the cytokine network and/or mediating its effects in ovarian cancer. PMID:26871292

  3. Protein kinase CK2 and its role in cellular proliferation, development and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Issinger, O G

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a pleiotropic, ubiquitous and constitutively active protein kinase that can use both ATP and GTP as phosphoryl donors with specificity for serine/threonine residues in the vicinity of acidic amino acids. Recent results show that the enzyme is involved in transcription...... conserved throughout evolution. Furthermore the existence of different CK2beta-related proteins together with the observation of deregulated CK2beta levels in tumor cells and the reported association of CK2beta protein with key proteins in signal transduction, e.g. A-Raf, Mos, pg90rsk etc. are suggestive...... for an additional physiological role of CK2beta protein beside being the regulatory compound in the tetrameric holoenzyme....

  4. The neurogenic basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor NeuroD6 concomitantly increases mitochondrial mass and regulates cytoskeletal organization in the early stages of neuronal differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kathleen Baxter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a central role during neurogenesis by providing energy in the form of ATP for cytoskeletal remodelling, outgrowth of neuronal processes, growth cone activity and synaptic activity. However, the fundamental question of how differentiating neurons control mitochondrial biogenesis remains vastly unexplored. Since our previous studies have shown that the neurogenic bHLH (basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor NeuroD6 is sufficient to induce differentiation of the neuronal progenitor-like PC12 cells and that it triggers expression of mitochondrial-related genes, we investigated whether NeuroD6 could modulate the mitochondrial biomass using our PC12-ND6 cellular paradigm. Using a combination of flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and mitochondrial fractionation, we demonstrate that NeuroD6 stimulates maximal mitochondrial mass at the lamellipodia stage, thus preceding axonal growth. NeuroD6 triggers remodelling of the actin and microtubule networks in conjunction with increased expression of the motor protein KIF5B, thus promoting mitochondrial movement in developing neurites with accumulation in growth cones. Maintenance of the NeuroD6-induced mitochondrial mass requires an intact cytoskeletal network, as its disruption severely reduces mitochondrial mass. The present study provides the first evidence that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in co-ordinating increase in mitochondrial mass with cytoskeletal remodelling, suggestive of a role of this transcription factor as a co-regulator of neuronal differentiation and energy metabolism.

  5. CK2 Secreted by Leishmania braziliensis Mediates Macrophage Association Invasion: A Comparative Study between Virulent and Avirulent Promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Madeira Brito Zylbersztejn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CK2 is a protein kinase distributed in different compartments of Leishmania braziliensis: an externally oriented ecto-CK2, an intracellular CK2, and a secreted CK2. This latter form is constitutively secreted from the parasite (CsCK2, but such secretion may be highly enhanced by the association of specific molecules, including enzyme substrates, which lead to a higher enzymatic activity, called inductively secreted CK2 (IsCK2. Here, we examined the influence of secreted CK2 (sCK2 activity on the infectivity of a virulent L. braziliensis strain. The virulent strain presented 121-fold higher total CK2 activity than those found in an avirulent strain. The use of specific CK2 inhibitors (TBB, DRB, or heparin inhibited virulent parasite growth, whereas no effect was observed in the avirulent parasites. When these inhibitors were added to the interaction assays between the virulent L. braziliensis strain and macrophages, association index was drastically inhibited. Polyamines enhanced sCK2 activity and increased the association index between parasites and macrophages. Finally, sCK2 and the supernatant of the virulent strain increased the association index between the avirulent strain and macrophages, which was inhibited by TBB. Thus, the kinase enzyme CK2 seems to be important to invasion mechanisms of L. braziliensis.

  6. CK2 Secreted by Leishmania braziliensis Mediates Macrophage Association Invasion: A Comparative Study between Virulent and Avirulent Promastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylbersztejn, Ana Madeira Brito; de Morais, Carlos Gustavo Vieira; Lima, Ana Karina Castro; Souza, Joyce Eliza de Oliveira; Lopes, Angela Hampshire; Da-Silva, Sílvia Amaral Gonçalves; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso; Dutra, Patrícia Maria Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    CK2 is a protein kinase distributed in different compartments of Leishmania braziliensis: an externally oriented ecto-CK2, an intracellular CK2, and a secreted CK2. This latter form is constitutively secreted from the parasite (CsCK2), but such secretion may be highly enhanced by the association of specific molecules, including enzyme substrates, which lead to a higher enzymatic activity, called inductively secreted CK2 (IsCK2). Here, we examined the influence of secreted CK2 (sCK2) activity on the infectivity of a virulent L. braziliensis strain. The virulent strain presented 121-fold higher total CK2 activity than those found in an avirulent strain. The use of specific CK2 inhibitors (TBB, DRB, or heparin) inhibited virulent parasite growth, whereas no effect was observed in the avirulent parasites. When these inhibitors were added to the interaction assays between the virulent L. braziliensis strain and macrophages, association index was drastically inhibited. Polyamines enhanced sCK2 activity and increased the association index between parasites and macrophages. Finally, sCK2 and the supernatant of the virulent strain increased the association index between the avirulent strain and macrophages, which was inhibited by TBB. Thus, the kinase enzyme CK2 seems to be important to invasion mechanisms of L. braziliensis. PMID:26120579

  7. Exploiting the repertoire of CK2 inhibitors to target DYRK and PIM kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Giorgio; Sarno, Stefania; Ruzzene, Maria; Girardi, Cristina; Orzeszko, Andrzej; Kazimierczuk, Zygmunt; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Di Paolo, Maria Luisa; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2013-07-01

    Advantage has been taken of the relative promiscuity of commonly used inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 to develop compounds that can be exploited for the selective inhibition of druggable kinases other than CK2 itself. Here we summarize data obtained by altering the scaffold of CK2 inhibitors to give rise to novel selective inhibitors of DYRK1A and to a powerful cell permeable dual inhibitor of PIM1 and CK2. In the former case one of the new compounds, C624 (naphto [1,2-b]benzofuran-5,9-diol) displays a potency comparable to that of the first-in-class DYRK1A inhibitor, harmine, lacking however the drawback of drastically inhibiting monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) as harmine does. On the other hand the promiscuous CK2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (TBI,TBBz) has been derivatized with a sugar moiety to generate a 1-(β-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (TDB) compound which inhibits PIM1 and CK2 with comparably high efficacy (IC50 values<100nM) and remarkable selectivity. TDB, unlike other dual PIM1/CK2 inhibitors described in the literature is readily cell permeable and displays a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells consistent with concomitant inhibition of both its onco-kinase targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases (2012). PMID:23360763

  8. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Chun J; Scala, Federico; Nenov, Miroslav N; Wildburger, Norelle C; Elferink, Hannah; Singh, Aditya K; Chesson, Charles B; Buzhdygan, Tetyana; Sohail, Maveen; Shavkunov, Alexander S; Panova, Neli I; Nilsson, Carol L; Rudra, Jai S; Lichti, Cheryl F; Laezza, Fernanda

    2016-06-01

    Recent data shows that fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) binds to and controls the function of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel with phenotypic outcomes on neuronal excitability. Mutations in the FGF14 gene in humans have been associated with brain disorders that are partially recapitulated in Fgf14(-/-) mice. Thus, signaling pathways that modulate the FGF14:Nav channel interaction may be important therapeutic targets. Bioluminescence-based screening of small molecule modulators of the FGF14:Nav1.6 complex identified 4,5,6,7 -: tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), a potent casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor, as a strong suppressor of FGF14:Nav1.6 interaction. Inhibition of CK2 through TBB reduces the interaction of FGF14 with Nav1.6 and Nav1.2 channels. Mass spectrometry confirmed direct phosphorylation of FGF14 by CK2 at S228 and S230, and mutation to alanine at these sites modified FGF14 modulation of Nav1.6-mediated currents. In 1 d in vitro hippocampal neurons, TBB induced a reduction in FGF14 expression, a decrease in transient Na(+) current amplitude, and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of Nav channel steady-state inactivation. In mature neurons, TBB reduces the axodendritic polarity of FGF14. In cornu ammonis area 1 hippocampal slices from wild-type mice, TBB impairs neuronal excitability by increasing action potential threshold and lowering firing frequency. Importantly, these changes in excitability are recapitulated in Fgf14(-/-) mice, and deletion of Fgf14 occludes TBB-dependent phenotypes observed in wild-type mice. These results suggest that a CK2-FGF14 axis may regulate Nav channels and neuronal excitability.-Hsu, W.-C. J., Scala, F., Nenov, M. N., Wildburger, N. C., Elferink, H., Singh, A. K., Chesson, C. B., Buzhdygan, T., Sohail, M., Shavkunov, A. S., Panova, N. I., Nilsson, C. L., Rudra, J. S., Lichti, C. F., Laezza, F. CK2 activity is required for the interaction of FGF14 with voltage-gated sodium channels and neuronal

  9. CK2 phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 potentiates cell cycle progression

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Wada, Ikuo; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Yamaki, Junko; Krebs, Edwin G.; Homma, Yoshimi

    2005-01-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous eukaryotic Ser/Thr protein kinase that plays an important role in cell cycle progression. Although its function in this process remains unclear, it is known to be required for the G1 and G2/M phase transitions in yeast. Here, we show that CK2 activity changes notably during cell cycle progression and is increased within 3 h of serum stimulation of quiescent cells. During the time period in which it exhibits high enzymatic activity, CK2 associates with and...

  10. Quinalizarin as a potent, selective and cell permeable inhibitor of protein kinase CK2

    OpenAIRE

    Cozza, Giorgio; Mazzorana, Marco; Papinutto, Elena; Bain, Jenny; Elliott, Matthew; Di Maira, Giovanni; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Pagano, Mario A.; Sarno, Stefania; Ruzzene, Maria; Battistutta, Roberto; Meggio, Flavio; Moro, Stefano; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Pinna, Lorenzo A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is a moderately potent and poorly selective inhibitor of CK2, one of the most pleiotropic Ser/Thr protein kinases, implicated in neoplasia and in other global diseases. By virtual screening of the MMS database we have now identified quinalizarin (1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxy-anthraquinone) as an inhibitor of CK2 more potent and selective than emodin. CK2 inhibition by quinalizarin is competitive with respect to ATP, with a Ki value ...

  11. A specific inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 delays gamma-H2Ax foci removal and reduces clonogenic survival of irradiated mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Peter E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein kinase CK2 sustains multiple pro-survival functions in cellular DNA damage response and its level is tightly regulated in normal cells but elevated in cancers. Because CK2 is thus considered as potential therapeutic target, DNA double-strand break (DSB formation and rejoining, apoptosis induction and clonogenic survival was assessed in irradiated mammalian cells upon chemical inhibition of CK2. Methods MRC5 human fibroblasts and WIDR human colon carcinoma cells were incubated with highly specific CK2 inhibitor 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB, or mock-treated, 2 hours prior to irradiation. DSB was measured by pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE as well as gamma-H2AX foci formation and removal. Apoptosis induction was tested by DAPI staining and sub-G1 flow cytometry, survival was quantified by clonogenic assay. Results TBB treatment did not affect initial DNA fragmention (PFGE; up to 80 Gy or foci formation (1 Gy. While DNA fragment rejoining (PFGE was not inhibited by the drug, TBB clearly delayed gamma-H2AX foci disappearence during postirradiation incubation. No apoptosis induction could be detected for up to 38 hours for both cell lines and exposure conditions (monotherapies or combination, but TBB treatment at this moderately toxic concentration of 20 μM (about 40% survival enhanced radiation-induced cell killing in the clonogenic assay. Conclusions The data imply a role of CK2 in gamma-H2AX dephosporylation, most likely through its known ability to stimulate PP2A phosphatase, rather than DSB rejoining. The slight but definite clonogenic radiosensitization by TBB does apparently not result from interference with an apoptosis suppression function of CK2 in these cells but could reflect inhibitor-induced uncoupling of DNA damage response decay from break ligation.

  12. Purification and characterization of recombinant protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Marta; Pages, Montserrat; Issinger, Olaf Georg;

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant protein kinase subunits rmCK2alpha-1 and rmCK2beta-1 from Zea mays were expressed separately in Escherichia coli and assembled to a fully active tetrameric holoenzyme complex in vitro. The obtained maize holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity, biochemically characterized, and compared...... to CK2 from human. Kinetic measurements of the recombinant maize holoenzyme (rmCK2) revealed k(cat) values for ATP and GTP of 4 and 2s(-1), respectively; whereas the recombinant maize catalytic subunit showed almost equal values for ATP and GTP, i.e., ca. 0.8s(-1). A comparison of the k(cat)/K(m) ratio...

  13. Phosphoproteome Profiling of SH-SY5y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with Anesthetics: Sevoflurane and Isoflurane Affect the Phosphorylation of Proteins Involved in Cytoskeletal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joomin; Ahn, Eunsook; Park, Wyun Kon; Park, Seyeon

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation anesthetics are used to decrease the spinal cord transmission of painful stimuli. However, the molecular or biochemical processes within cells that regulate anesthetic-induced responses at the cellular level are largely unknown. Here, we report the phosphoproteome profile of SH-SY5y human neuroblastoma cells treated with sevoflurane, a clinically used anesthetic. Phosphoproteins were isolated from cell lysates and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The phosphorylation of putative anesthetic-responsive marker proteins was validated using western blot analysis in cells treated with both sevoflurane and isoflurane. A total of 25 phosphoproteins were identified as differentially phosphorylated proteins. These included key regulators that signal cytoskeletal remodeling steps in pathways related to vesicle trafficking, axonal growth, and cell migration. These proteins included the Rho GTPase, Ras-GAP SH3 binding protein, Rho GTPase activating protein, actin-related protein, and actin. Sevoflurane and isoflurane also resulted in the dissolution of F-actin fibers in SH-SY5y cells. Our results show that anesthetics affect the phosphorylation of proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling pathways. PMID:27611435

  14. The protein kinase CK2(Andante) holoenzyme structure supports proposed models of autoregulation and trans-autophosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnitzler, Alexander; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Issinger, Olaf-Georg;

    2014-01-01

    (Andante) that contains a CK2β variant mutated in a CK2α-contact helix and described to be responsible for a prolonged circadian rhythm in Drosophila. The increased propensity of CK2(Andante) to form aggregates with completely blocked active sites may contribute to this phenotype....

  15. Low-density crystal packing of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit in complex with resorufin or other ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopffleisch, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf Georg; Niefind, Karsten;

    2012-01-01

    A low-resolution structure of the catalytic subunit CK2α of human protein kinase CK2 (formerly known as casein kinase 2) in complex with the ATP-competitive inhibitor resorufin is presented. The structure supplements previous human CK2α structures in which the interdomain hinge/helix αD region...

  16. Two putative protein kinase CK2 phosphorylation sites are important for Myf-5 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, B; Kautzner, I; Issinger, O G;

    1997-01-01

    Myf-5, a member of a family of muscle-specific transcription factors, is important for myogenic cell determination and differentiation. Here, we report that Myf-5 protein constitutes a substrate for phosphorylation in vitro by protein kinase CK2. We identified two potential phosphorylation sites...... localization and/or protein stability. Our data suggest that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Myf-5 is required for Myf-5 activity....

  17. Design, validation and efficacy of bisubstrate inhibitors specifically affecting ecto-CK2 kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Giorgio; Zanin, Sofia; Sarno, Stefania; Costa, Elena; Girardi, Cristina; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Salvi, Mauro; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Ruzzene, Maria; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2015-11-01

    By derivatizing the purely competitive CK2 inhibitor N1-(4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-propane-1,3-diamine (K137) at its 3-amino position with a peptidic fragment composed of three or four glutamic or aspartic acid residues, a new family of bisubstrate inhibitors has been generated whose ability to simultaneously interact with both the ATP and the phosphoacceptor substrate-binding sites has been probed by running mixed competition kinetics and by mutational mapping of the kinase residues implicated in substrate recognition. The most effective bisubstrate inhibitor, K137-E4, interacts with three functional regions of the kinase: the hydrophobic pocket close to the ATP-binding site, the basic residues of the p+1 loop that recognizes the acidic determinant at position n+1 and the basic residues of α-helixC that recognize the acidic determinant at position n+3. Compared with the parent inhibitor (K137), K137-E4 is severalfold more potent (IC50 25 compared with 130 nM) and more selective, failing to inhibit any other kinase as drastically as CK2 out of 140 enzymes, whereas 35 kinases are inhibited more potently than CK2 by K137. K137-E4 is unable to penetrate the cell and to inhibit endogenous CK2, its pro-apoptotic efficacy being negligible compared with cell-permeant inhibitors; however, it readily inhibits ecto-CK2 on the outer cell surface, reducing the phosphorylation of several external phosphoproteins. Inhibition of ecto-CK2 by K137-E4 is accompanied by a slower migration of cancer cells as judged by wound healing assays. On the basis of the cellular responses to K137-E4, we conclude that ecto-CK2 is implicated in cell motility, whereas its contribution to the pro-survival role of CK2 is negligible. PMID:26349539

  18. Thermodynamics parameters for binding of halogenated benzotriazole inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiewska, Maria; Kucińska, Katarzyna; Makowska, Małgorzata; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of human CK2α (hCK2α) with nine halogenated benzotriazoles, TBBt and its analogues representing all possible patterns of halogenation on the benzene ring of benzotriazole, was studied by biophysical methods. Thermal stability of protein-ligand complexes, monitored by calorimetric (DSC) and optical (DSF) methods, showed that the increase in the mid-point temperature for unfolding of protein-ligand complexes (i.e. potency of ligand binding to hCK2α) follow the inhibitory activities determined by biochemical assays. The dissociation constant for the ATP-hCK2α complex was estimated with the aid of microscale thermophoresis (MST) as 4.3±1.8 μM, and MST-derived dissociation constants determined for halogenated benzotriazoles, when converted according to known ATP concentrations, perfectly reconstruct IC50 values determined by the biochemical assays. Ligand-dependent quenching of tyrosine fluorescence, together with molecular modeling and DSC-derived heats of unfolding, support the hypothesis that halogenated benzotriazoles bind in at least two alternative orientations, and those that are efficient hCK2α inhibitors bind in the orientation which TBBt adopts in its complex with maize CK2α. DSC-derived apparent heat for ligand binding (ΔΔHbind) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions between Lys68 and the triazole ring of the ligand, as indicated by a good correlation between ΔΔHbind and ligand pKa. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly (~40 kJ/mol), relative to possible intermolecular halogen/hydrogen bonding (less than 10 kJ/mol), in binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the ATP-binding site of hCK2α. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases.

  19. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienberg, Christian; Retterath, Anika; Becher, Kira-Sophie; Saenger, Thorsten; Mootz, Henning D; Jose, Joachim

    2016-06-27

    Human CK2 is a heterotetrameric constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and is an emerging target in current anti-cancer drug discovery. The kinase is composed of two catalytic CK2α subunits and two regulatory CK2β subunits. In order to establish an assay to identify protein-protein-interaction inhibitors (PPI) of the CK2α/CK2β interface, a bioorthogonal click reaction was used to modify the protein kinase α-subunit with a fluorophore. By expanding the genetic code, the unnatural amino acid para azidophenylalanine (pAzF) could be incorporated into CK2α. Performing the SPAAC click reaction (Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition) by the use of a dibenzylcyclooctyne-fluorophore (DBCO-fluorophore) led to a specifically labeled human protein kinase CK2α. This site-specific labeling does not impair the phosphorylation activity of CK2, which was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore a dissociation constant (KD) of 631 ± 86.2 nM was determined for the substrate αS1-casein towards CK2α. This labeling strategy was also applied to CK2β subunit on Escherichia coli, indicating the site-specific modifications of proteins on the bacterial cell surface when displayed by Autodisplay.

  20. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nienberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human CK2 is a heterotetrameric constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and is an emerging target in current anti-cancer drug discovery. The kinase is composed of two catalytic CK2α subunits and two regulatory CK2β subunits. In order to establish an assay to identify protein-protein-interaction inhibitors (PPI of the CK2α/CK2β interface, a bioorthogonal click reaction was used to modify the protein kinase α-subunit with a fluorophore. By expanding the genetic code, the unnatural amino acid para azidophenylalanine (pAzF could be incorporated into CK2α. Performing the SPAAC click reaction (Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition by the use of a dibenzylcyclooctyne-fluorophore (DBCO-fluorophore led to a specifically labeled human protein kinase CK2α. This site-specific labeling does not impair the phosphorylation activity of CK2, which was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore a dissociation constant (KD of 631 ± 86.2 nM was determined for the substrate αS1-casein towards CK2α. This labeling strategy was also applied to CK2β subunit on Escherichia coli, indicating the site-specific modifications of proteins on the bacterial cell surface when displayed by Autodisplay.

  1. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienberg, Christian; Retterath, Anika; Becher, Kira-Sophie; Saenger, Thorsten; Mootz, Henning D.; Jose, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Human CK2 is a heterotetrameric constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and is an emerging target in current anti-cancer drug discovery. The kinase is composed of two catalytic CK2α subunits and two regulatory CK2β subunits. In order to establish an assay to identify protein-protein-interaction inhibitors (PPI) of the CK2α/CK2β interface, a bioorthogonal click reaction was used to modify the protein kinase α-subunit with a fluorophore. By expanding the genetic code, the unnatural amino acid para azidophenylalanine (pAzF) could be incorporated into CK2α. Performing the SPAAC click reaction (Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition) by the use of a dibenzylcyclooctyne-fluorophore (DBCO-fluorophore) led to a specifically labeled human protein kinase CK2α. This site-specific labeling does not impair the phosphorylation activity of CK2, which was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore a dissociation constant (KD) of 631 ± 86.2 nM was determined for the substrate αS1-casein towards CK2α. This labeling strategy was also applied to CK2β subunit on Escherichia coli, indicating the site-specific modifications of proteins on the bacterial cell surface when displayed by Autodisplay. PMID:27355959

  2. Interactions of protein kinase CK2beta subunit within the holoenzyme and with other proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, M; Ahmed, R; Thomsen, B;

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous, highly conserved protein kinase with a tetrameric alpha2beta2 structure. For the formation of this tetrameric complex a beta-alpha dimer seems to be a prerequisite. Using the two-hybrid system and a series of CK2beta deletion mutants, we mapped domains involved...... in alpha-beta and beta-beta interactions. We also detected an intramolecular beta interaction within the amino acid stretch 132-165. Using CK2beta as a bait in a two-hybrid library screening several new putative cellular partners have been identified, among them the S6 kinase p90rsk, the putative tumor...... suppressor protein Doc-1, the Fas-associated protein FAF1, the mitochondrial translational initiation factor 2 and propionyl CoA carboxylase beta subunit....

  3. Expression, purification and crystallization of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Niefind, K; Pinna, L A;

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic (alpha) subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) was originally cloned and overexpressed in the Escherichia coli strain pT7-7/BL21(DE3). The protein has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, they have unit-cell parameters...... a = 142.6, b = 61.3, c = 45.6 A, beta = 103.3 degrees and diffract X-rays to at least 2.0 A resolution. The calculated crystal packing parameter is Vm = 2.47 A3 Da-1 suggesting that one CK2alpha molecule is contained in the asymmetric unit and that the solvent content of the unit cell is 50%....

  4. Mutational analysis of residues implicated in the interaction between protein kinase CK2 and peptide substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Vaglio, P; Marin, O;

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen derivatives of the optimal peptide substrate RRRA-DDSDDDDD in which aspartic acids were singly or multiply substituted by alanine have been assayed for their phosphorylation efficiency by either wild type protein kinase CK2 or CK2 alpha mutants defective in substrate recognition. With wild...... substitutions tend to have a more than additive effect even if they affect individually dispensable aspartic acids; thus, double, triple, and quintuple substitutions at positions n - 2 and -1, and n + 2, +4, and +5 had detrimental consequences comparable to those observed with substitutions at n + 1 and n + 3....... However, if the suboptimal substrate RRRA-AASDDDDD was used, the single mutants K49A, K71A, K77A, R80A, and H160A also exhibited Km values significantly higher than those of wild type CK2. Kinetic analysis with singly substituted derivatives of peptide RRRA-DDSDDDDD revealed that K49 is implicated in the...

  5. Systematic diversification of benzylidene heterocycles yields novel inhibitor scaffolds selective for Dyrk1A, Clk1 and CK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Marica; Hartmann, Rolf W; Engel, Matthias

    2016-04-13

    The dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) has gathered much interest as a pharmacological target in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but it plays a role in malignant brain tumors as well. As both diseases are multi-factorial, further protein kinases, such as Clk1 and CK2, were proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis. We designed a new class of α-benzylidene-γ-butyrolactone inhibitors that showed low micromolar potencies against Dyrk1A and/or Clk1 and a good selectivity profile among the most frequently reported off-target kinases. A systematic replacement of the heterocyclic moiety gave access to further inhibitor classes with interesting selectivity profiles, demonstrating that the benzylidene heterocycles provide a versatile tool box for developing inhibitors of the CMGC kinase family members Dyr1A/1B, Clk1/4 and CK2. Efficacy for the inhibition of Dyrk1A-mediated tau phosphorylation was demonstrated in a cell-based assay. Multi-targeted but not non-specific kinase inhibitors were also obtained, that co-inhibited the lipid kinases PI3Kα/γ. These compounds were shown to inhibit the proliferation of U87MG cells in the low micromolar range. Based on the molecular properties, the inhibitors described here hold promise for CNS activity. PMID:26896709

  6. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates the proliferation, motility and invasiveness of lung cancer cells through its effects on cytoskeletal remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Li; Gu, Run-Xia; Zhou, Xiao-Shu; Zhou, Fang-Zheng; Wu, Gang

    2015-09-01

    Determining the molecular phenotype is a key to understanding and predicting the metastatic potential and the prognosis for patients with lung cancer. Our previous study demonstrated that increased expression of cyclin‑dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) in patients with non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with a poorer prognosis. The present study aimed to further investigate the underlying mechanism of CDK5 in vitro and in vivo using the A549 human NSCLC cell line. A 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl)‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to quantify the proliferation of the A549 cells; migration assay and invasiveness assays were performed using Transwell chambers and wound healing assays were used to assess cell motility, which was assessed by measuring the movement of cells. Inhibition of CDK5 by roscovitine and small interfering (si)RNA was used to investigate the mechanism of CDK5 in the process of A549 lung cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The results demonstrated that functional inhibition of CDK5 using roscovitine and siRNA markedly suppressed the proliferation of A549 cells and resulted in a reduced tumor mass in vivo. In addition, the hinhibition of CDK5 reduced the migration and invasiveness of the A549 cells in vitro and in vivo. Notably, CDK5 inhibition also impaired tumor cell cytoskeletal remodeling and led to loss of cell polarity, which may partially explain the reduction of A549 cell mobility and invasiveness. The results of the present study revealed that CDK5 may be important in the regulation of migration and invasiveness in NSCLC through its effects on cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:26018459

  7. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces CYP24A1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Chernov, Mikhail; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and anti-tumor effects. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D3. Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D3 anti-tumor activity. In order to isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D3 in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D3 induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D3 mediated target gene expression. Lastly, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhanced 1,25D3 mediated anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D3 and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D3 mediated anti-tumor effect. PMID:23358686

  8. Identification of ellagic acid as potent inhibitor of protein kinase CK2: a successful example of a virtual screening application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Giorgio; Bonvini, Paolo; Zorzi, Elisa; Poletto, Giorgia; Pagano, Mario A; Sarno, Stefania; Donella-Deana, Arianna; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Rosolen, Angelo; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Meggio, Flavio; Moro, Stefano

    2006-04-20

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous, essential, and highly pleiotropic protein kinase whose abnormally high constitutive activity is suspected to underlie its pathogenic potential in neoplasia and other diseases. Using a virtual screening approach, we have identified the ellagic acid, a naturally occurring tannic acid derivative, as a novel potent CK2 inhibitor. At present, ellagic acid represents the most potent known CK2 inhibitor (K(i) = 20 nM). PMID:16610779

  9. A subnanomolar fluorescent probe for protein kinase CK2 interaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkvist, Erki; Viht, Kaido; Bischoff, Nils;

    2012-01-01

    assay that used thin layer chromatography for the measurement of the rate of phosphorylation of fluorescently labelled peptide 5-TAMRA-RADDSDDDDD. The most potent inhibitor, ARC-1502 (K(i) = 0.5 nM), revealed high selectivity for CK2α in a panel of 140 protein kinases. Labelling of ARC-1502 with PromoFluor...

  10. Mapping the residues of protein kinase CK2 implicated in substrate recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O;

    1995-01-01

    Six mutants of protein kinase CK2 alpha subunit in which basic residues have been mutated into alanines were assayed for their capability to phosphorylate the peptide RRRADDSDDDDD. Two mutants (R228A and R278K279R280A) behaved more or less as alpha wild type and one (H160,166A) was nearly inactive...

  11. Mapping the residues of protein kinase CK2 alpha subunit responsible for responsiveness to polyanionic inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaglio, P; Sarno, S; Marin, O;

    1996-01-01

    The quadruple mutation of the whole basic cluster, K74KKK77 conserved in the catalytic subunits of protein kinase CK2 and implicated in substrate recognition, not only abolishes inhibition by heparin but even induces with some peptide substrates an up to 5-fold stimulation by heparin in the 0...

  12. Mitotic Activation of a Novel Histone Deacetylase 3-Linker Histone H1.3 Protein Complex by Protein Kinase CK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemangi; Wilks, Carrie; Gonzalez, Rhiannon W; Dhanireddy, Sudheer; Conrad-Webb, Heather; Bergel, Michael

    2016-02-12

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and linker histone H1 are involved in both chromatin compaction and the regulation of mitotic progression. However, the mechanisms by which HDAC3 and H1 regulate mitosis and the factors controlling HDAC3 and H1 activity during mitosis are unclear. Furthermore, as of now, no association between class I, II, or IV (non-sirtuin) HDACs and linker histones has been reported. Here we describe a novel HDAC3-H1.3 complex containing silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) and nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (N-CoR) that accumulated in synchronized HeLa cells in late G2 phase and mitosis. Nonetheless, the deacetylation activity by HDAC3 in the complex was evident only in mitotic complexes. HDAC3 associated with H1.3 was highly phosphorylated on Ser-424 only during mitosis. Isolation of inactive HDAC3-H1.3 complexes from late G2 phase cells, and phosphorylation of HDAC3 in the complexes at serine 424 by protein kinase CK2 (also known as casein kinase 2) activated the HDAC3 in vitro. In vivo, CK2α and CK2α' double knockdown cells demonstrated a significant decrease in HDAC3 Ser-424 phosphorylation during mitosis. HDAC3 and H1.3 co-localized in between the chromosomes, with polar microtubules and spindle poles during metaphase through telophase, and partially co-localized with chromatin during prophase and interphase. H1 has been reported previously to associate with microtubules and, therefore, could potentially function in targeting HDAC3 to the microtubules. We suggest that phosphorylation of HDAC3 in the complex by CK2 during mitosis activates the complex for a dual role: compaction of the mitotic chromatin and regulation of polar microtubules dynamic instability.

  13. Pivotal Role of AKAP12 in the Regulation of Cellular Adhesion Dynamics: Control of Cytoskeletal Architecture, Cell Migration, and Mitogenic Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Akakura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular dynamics are controlled by key signaling molecules such as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA and protein kinase C (PKC. AKAP12/SSeCKS/Gravin (AKAP12 is a scaffold protein for PKA and PKC which controls actin-cytoskeleton reorganization in a spatiotemporal manner. AKAP12 also acts as a tumor suppressor which regulates cell-cycle progression and inhibits Src-mediated oncogenic signaling and cytoskeletal pathways. Reexpression of AKAP12 causes cell flattening, reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, and the production of normalized focal adhesion structures. Downregulation of AKAP12 induces the formation of thickened, longitudinal stress fibers and the proliferation of adhesion complexes. AKAP12-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibit hyperactivation of PKC, premature cellular senescence, and defects in cytokinesis, relating to the loss of PKC scaffolding activity by AKAP12. AKAP12-null mice exhibit increased cell senescence and increased susceptibility to carcinogen-induced oncogenesis. The paper describes the regulatory and scaffolding functions of AKAP12 and how it regulates cell adhesion, signaling, and oncogenic suppression.

  14. Biophysical characterization of the structural change of Nopp140, an intrinsically disordered protein, in the interaction with CK2α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Yuyoung; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Song, Seung Soo; Cha, Sun-Shin; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2016-08-19

    Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140) is a nucleolar protein, more than 80% of which is disordered. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Nopp140 (residues 568-596) interacts with protein kinase CK2α, and inhibits the catalytic activity of CK2. Although the region of Nopp140 responsible for the interaction with CK2α was identified, the structural features and the effect of this interaction on the structure of Nopp140 have not been defined due to the difficulty of structural characterization of disordered protein. In this study, the disordered feature of Nopp140 and the effect of CK2α on the structure of Nopp140 were examined using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The interaction with CK2α was increased conformational rigidity of the CK2α-interacting region of Nopp140 (Nopp140C), suggesting that the disordered and flexible conformation of Nopp140C became more rigid conformation as it binds to CK2α. In addition, site specific spin labeling and EPR analysis confirmed that the residues 574-589 of Nopp140 are critical for binding to CK2α. Similar technical approaches can be applied to analyze the conformational changes in other IDPs during their interactions with binding partners. PMID:27297113

  15. The carboxy terminus of p53 mimics the polylysine effect of protein kinase CK2-catalyzed MDM2 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Götz, C; Wagner, P;

    1997-01-01

    The oncogene product MDM2 can be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 in vitro 0.5-1 mol of phosphate were incorporated per mol MDM2 protein. The catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (alpha-subunit) catalyzed the incorporation of twice as much phosphate into the MDM2 protein as it was obtained...

  16. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of crystals of human protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Ermakowa, I;

    2000-01-01

    The heterotetrameric recombinant holoenzyme of human protein kinase CK2 was purified to homogeneity. It degraded spontaneously to a stable and fully active state in which the catalytic subunit was about 5 kDa smaller than the wild type. The degraded enzyme was crystallized using polyethylene glycol...... 3350 as precipitant. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(3). They have unit-cell parameters a = b = 176.0, c = 93.6 A and diffract X-rays to at least 3.5 A resolution. The calculated crystal packing parameter is V(M) = 3.22 A(3) Da(-1), suggesting that one CK2 tetramer is contained...

  17. RNA Helicase DDX5 Regulates MicroRNA Expression and Contributes to Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Basal Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Daojing; Huang, Jing; Hu, Zhi

    2011-11-15

    RNA helicase DDX5 (also p68) is involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism and serves as a transcriptional co-regulator, but its functional role in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we report an integrative biology study of DDX5 in breast cancer, encompassing quantitative proteomics, global MicroRNA profiling, and detailed biochemical characterization of cell lines and human tissues. We showed that protein expression of DDX5 increased progressively from the luminal to basal breast cancer cell lines, and correlated positively with that of CD44 in the basal subtypes. Through immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays containing over 200 invasive human ductal carcinomas, we observed that DDX5 was upregulated in the majority of malignant tissues, and its expression correlated strongly with those of Ki67 and EGFR in the triple-negative tumors. We demonstrated that DDX5 regulated a subset of MicroRNAs including miR-21 and miR-182 in basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of DDX5 resulted in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and reduction of cellular proliferation. The effects were accompanied by upregulation of tumor suppressor PDCD4 (a known miR-21 target); as well as upregulation of cofilin and profilin, two key proteins involved in actin polymerization and cytoskeleton maintenance, as a consequence of miR-182 downregulation. Treatment with miR-182 inhibitors resulted in morphologic phenotypes resembling those induced by DDX5 knockdown. Using bioinformatics tools for pathway and network analyses, we confirmed that the network for regulation of actin cytoskeleton was predominantly enriched for the predicted downstream targets of miR-182. Our results reveal a new functional role of DDX5 in breast cancer via the DDX5→miR-182→actin cytoskeleton pathway, and suggest the potential clinical utility of DDX5 and its downstream MicroRNAs in the theranostics of breast cancer.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta-subunit antibody of the IgG class for the direct detection of CK2 beta-subunit in tissue cultures of various mammalian species and human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastainczyk, W; Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B;

    1995-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta antibody was isolated and characterized. The antibody detects 1 pmol of purified recombinant CK2 beta-subunit after analysis on SDS-PAGE. Alternatively undenatured CK2 beta-subunit was detected by an ELISA assay either as recombinant CK2 beta-subun...

  19. Nanofiber Alignment Regulates NIH3T3 Cell Orientation and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression on Electrospun PCL+Gelatin Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Timothy; Surianarayanan, Swetha; Downs, Crawford; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of substrate topology on the behavior of fibroblasts, tissue engineering scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL) and a blend of PCL and gelatin (PCL+Gel) to produce matrices with both random and aligned nanofibrous orientations. The addition of gelatin to the scaffold was shown to increase the hydrophilicity of the PCL matrix and to increase the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells compared to scaffolds of PCL alone. The orientation of nanofibers within the matrix did not have an effect on the proliferation of adherent cells, but cells on aligned substrates were shown to elongate and align parallel to the direction of substrate fiber alignment. A microarray of cyotoskeleton regulators was probed to examine differences in gene expression between cells grown on an aligned and randomly oriented substrates. It was found that transcriptional expression of eight genes was statistically different between the two conditions, with all of them being upregulated in the aligned condition. The proteins encoded by these genes are linked to production and polymerization of actin microfilaments, as well as focal adhesion assembly. Taken together, the data indicates NIH3T3 fibroblasts on aligned substrates align themselves parallel with their substrate and increase production of actin and focal adhesion related genes. PMID:27196306

  20. Mapping the cytoskeletal prestress

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Chan Young; Tambe, Dhananjay; Alencar, Adriano M.; Trepat, Xavier; Zhou, En Hua; Millet, Emil; Butler, James P.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    Cell mechanical properties on a whole cell basis have been widely studied, whereas local intracellular variations have been less well characterized and are poorly understood. To fill this gap, here we provide detailed intracellular maps of regional cytoskeleton (CSK) stiffness, loss tangent, and rate of structural rearrangements, as well as their relationships to the underlying regional F-actin density and the local cytoskeletal prestress. In the human airway smooth muscle cell, we used micro...

  1. Thermodynamic parameters for binding of some halogenated inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiewska, Maria; Makowska, Małgorzata [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Maj, Piotr [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Wielechowska, Monika; Bretner, Maria [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Poznański, Jarosław, E-mail: jarek@ibb.waw.pl [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Shugar, David [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Two new compounds being potential human CK2a inhibitors are studied. • Their IC50 values were determined in vitro. • The heats of binding and kbind were estimated using DSC. • The increased stability of protein–ligand complexes was followed by fluorescence. • Methylated TBBt derivative (MeBr3Br) is almost as active as TBBt. - Abstract: The interaction of human CK2α with a series of tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt) and tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) analogs, in which one of the bromine atoms proximal to the triazole/imidazole ring is replaced by a methyl group, was studied by biochemical (IC{sub 50}) and biophysical methods (thermal stability of protein–ligand complex monitored by DSC and fluorescence). Two newly synthesized tri-bromo derivatives display inhibitory activity comparable to that of the reference compounds, TBBt and TBBz, respectively. DSC analysis of the stability of protein–ligand complexes shows that the heat of ligand binding (H{sub bind}) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions involving the triazole/imidazole ring, as indicated by a strong correlation between H{sub bind} and ligand pK{sub a}. Screening, based on fluorescence-monitored thermal unfolding of protein–ligand complexes, gave comparable results, clearly identifying ligands that most strongly bind to the protein. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly, relative to possible intermolecular halogen bonding, in binding of the ligands to the CK2α ATP-binding site.

  2. Protein kinase CK2 mutants defective in substrate recognition. Purification and kinetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Vaglio, P; Meggio, F;

    1996-01-01

    Five mutants of protein kinase CK2 alpha subunit in which altogether 14 basic residues were singly to quadruply replaced by alanines (K74A,K75A,K76A,K77A; K79A, R80A,K83A; R191A,R195A,K198A; R228A; and R278A, K279A,R280A) have been purified to near homogeneity either as such or after addition...... downstream from serine, the other basic residues seem to play a more elusive and/or indirect role in catalysis....

  3. Resorufin: a lead for a new protein kinase CK2 inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Iben Skjøth; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Guerra, Barbara;

    2009-01-01

    treatment with 40 mol/l resorufin led to 15-20% dead cells; however, no caspase-mediated apoptosis was observed. In the case of the colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cell line, a similar picture was obtained, yet, when resorufin was administered to cells treated with doxorubicin, apoptosis was strongly induced...... other kinases by 90%. The IC50 values determined for the CK2 holoenzymes were 1.5 mol/l and for the free catalytic subunits ca. 4 mol/l. Altogether four cell lines were subjected to resorufin and emodin treatment. In the case of the three prostate carcinoma cell lines (PC-3, DU-145, LNCaP), 24 h...... within 24 h. Endogenous protein kinase CK2 was inhibited by resorufin by ca. 80% in the three prostate cell lines. In the case of the HCT116 cells, the inhibition was only 40% supporting the notion of cell line-specific selectivity. Moreover, we analysed the effect of resorufin and emodin on selected...

  4. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by condensed polyphenolic derivatives. An in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggio, Flavio; Pagano, Mario A; Moro, Stefano; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Ruzzene, Maria; Sarno, Stefania; Cozza, Giorgio; Bain, Jenny; Elliott, Matthew; Deana, Arianna Donella; Brunati, Anna Maria; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2004-10-12

    ATP site-directed inhibitors that can target individual kinases are powerful tools for use in signal transduction research, all the more so in the case of a pleiotropic, constitutively active protein kinase such as CK2, which is not turned on in response to specific stimuli. By screening a library of more than 200 derivatives of natural polyphenolic compounds, we have identified 16 molecules which inhibit CK2 with IC(50) values of CK2 within a panel of 33 protein kinases tested. Treatment of Jurkat cells with these compounds promotes inhibition of endogenous CK2 and induction of apoptosis. A correlation is observed between their efficacy as CK2 inhibitors (as judged from IC(50) values) and their capacity to induce cell death (DC(50) values). Mutations of the unique CK2alpha residues Val66 and/or Ile174 to alanine have a detrimental effect on inhibition by these compounds with 16-67-fold increases in IC(50) values. The combined usage of these reagents can be exploited to gain information about cellular functions mediated by CK2. PMID:15461466

  5. Different Persistence of the Cellular Effects Promoted by Protein Kinase CK2 Inhibitors CX-4945 and TDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Girardi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the cellular efficacy of two selective and cell permeable inhibitors of the antiapoptotic kinase CK2. One inhibitor, CX-4945, is already in clinical trials as antitumor drug, while the other, TDB, has been recently successfully employed to demonstrate the implication of CK2 in cellular (disregulation. We found that, upon treatment of cancer cells with these compounds, the extent of inhibition of endocellular CK2 is initially comparable but becomes significantly different after the inhibitors are removed from the cellular medium: while in CX-4945 treated cells CK2 activity is restored to control level after 24 h, in the case of TDB it is still strongly reduced after 4 days from removal. The biological effects of the two inhibitors have been analyzed by performing clonogenic, spheroid formation, and wound-healing assays: we observed a permanent inhibition of cell survival and migration in TDB-treated cells even after the inhibitor removal, while in the case of CX-4945 only its maintenance for the whole duration of the assay insured a persisting effect. We suggest that the superiority of TDB in maintaining kinase activity inhibited and perpetuating the consequent effects is an added value to be considered when planning new therapies based on CK2 targeting.

  6. Tetrabromocinnamic acid (TBCA) and related compounds represent a new class of specific protein kinase CK2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Mario A; Poletto, Giorgia; Di Maira, Giovanni; Cozza, Giorgio; Ruzzene, Maria; Sarno, Stefania; Bain, Jenny; Elliott, Matthew; Moro, Stefano; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Meggio, Flavio; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Abnormally high constitutive activity of protein kinase CK2, levels of which are elevated in a variety of tumours, is suspected to underlie its pathogenic potential. The most widely employed CK2 inhibitor is 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), which exhibits a comparable efficacy toward another kinase, DYRK1 a. Here we describe the development of a new class of CK2 inhibitors, conceptually derived from TBB, which have lost their potency toward DYRK1 a. In particular, tetrabromocinnamic acid (TBCA) inhibits CK2 five times more efficiently than TBB (IC50 values 0.11 and 0.56 microM, respectively), without having any comparable effect on DYRK1 a (IC50 24.5 microM) or on a panel of 28 protein kinases. The usefulness of TBCA for cellular studies has been validated by showing that it reduces the viability of Jurkat cells more efficiently than TBB through enhancement of apoptosis. Collectively taken, the reported data support the view that suitably derivatized tetrabromobenzene molecules may provide powerful reagents for dissecting the cellular functions of CK2 and counteracting its pathogenic potentials. PMID:17133643

  7. Urolithin as a converging scaffold linking ellagic acid and coumarin analogues: design of potent protein kinase CK2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Giorgio; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Bonvini, Paolo; Zorzi, Elisa; Pasquale, Riccardo; Rosolen, Angelo; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Meggio, Flavio; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Moro, Stefano

    2011-12-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a ubiquitous, essential, and highly pleiotropic protein kinase; its abnormally high constitutive activity is suspected to underlie its pathogenic potential in neoplasia and other relevant diseases. Previously, using different in silico screening approaches, two potent and selective CK2 inhibitors were identified by our group: ellagic acid, a naturally occurring tannic acid derivative (K(i)=20 nM) and 3,8-dibromo-7-hydroxy-4-methylchromen-2-one (DBC, K(i)=60 nM). Comparing the crystallographic binding modes of both ellagic acid and DBC, an X-ray structure-driven merging approach was taken to design novel CK2 inhibitors with improved target affinity. A urolithin moiety is proposed as a possible bridging scaffold between the two known CK2 inhibitors, ellagic acid and DBC. Optimization of urolithin A as the bridging moiety led to the identification of 4-bromo-3,8-dihydroxy-benzo[c]chromen-6-one as a novel, potent and selective CK2 inhibitor, which shows a K(i) value of 7 nM against the protein kinase, representing a significant improvement in affinity for the target compared with the two parent fragments. PMID:21972104

  8. Effects of siRNA specific to the protein kinase CK2α on apoptosis of laryngeal carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ting; GONG Shu-sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationship between apoptosis and tumors is a major focus in cancer research.RNA interference (RNAi) technology has emerged as a very potent tool to generate cellular knockdown phenotypes of a desired gene.The aim of this study was to explore the effect of siRNA specific to the protein casein kinase 2a (CK2α) on apoptosis of laryngeal carcinoma cells and to explore possible mechanisms.Methods An siRNA expression plasmid specific to CK2α,psiRNA-hH1neo-CK2a,and a non-specific siRNA expression plasmid,psiRNA-hH1neo-cont,were constructed and transfected into Hep-2 cells by a lipofectamine method.The mRNA and protein levels of CK2a in transfected cells were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting analysis.Apoptosis was measured by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining methods.The morphological changes to Hep-2 cells were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The levels of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins were measured by Western blotting analysis.Results Levels of CK2a mRNA and protein were significantly decreased in the psiRNA-hHlneo-CK2α group compared to the other groups (P <0.05).The apoptotic rate of the psiRNA-hHlneo-CK2a transfected group was significantly higher compared to that in the untransfected group and the siRNA-hH1neo-cont transfected group (25.66%±0.83%,3.66%±0.43%,and 5.18%±0.22%) (P <0.05).Compared with the untransfected group and the siRNA-hH1neo-cont transfected group,the psiRNA-hH1neo-CK2a transfected group presented with classical ultrastructural features of apoptosis,such as karyopyknosis,chromatic agglutination adjacent to the nuclear membrane,and apoptotic bodies.Compared with the other two groups,the level of Bcl-2 protein in the psiRNA-hH1neo-CK2α transfected group was decreased (0.20±0.09 vs.0.72±0.16,0.56±0.11,P <0.01),while the Bax protein level was increased (0.81±0.17 vs.0.26±0.12,0.33±0

  9. Pharmacologic inhibition of the CK2-mediated phosphorylation of B23/NPM in cancer cells selectively modulates genes related to protein synthesis, energetic metabolism, and ribosomal biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Yasser; Pedroso, Seidy; Borras-Hidalgo, Orlando; Vázquez, Dania M; Miranda, Jamilet; Villareal, Adelaida; Falcón, Viviana; Cruz, Luis D; Farinas, Hernán G; Perea, Silvio E

    2015-06-01

    B23/NPM is a multifunctional nucleolar protein frequently overexpressed, mutated, or rearranged in neoplastic tissues. B23/NPM is involved in diverse biological processes and is mainly regulated by heteroligomer association and posttranslational modification, phosphorylation being a major posttranslational event. While the role of B23/NPM in supporting and/or driving malignant transformation is widely recognized, the particular relevance of its CK2-mediated phosphorylation remains unsolved. Interestingly, the pharmacologic inhibition of such phosphorylation event by CIGB-300, a clinical-grade peptide drug, was previously associated to apoptosis induction in tumor cell lines. In this work, we sought to identify the biological processes modulated by CIGB-300 in a lung cancer cell line using subtractive suppression hybridization and subsequent functional annotation clustering. Our results indicate that CIGB-300 modulates a subset of genes involved in protein synthesis (ES = 8.4, p NPM in cancer cells, revealing at the same time the potentialities of its pharmacological manipulation for cancer therapy. Finally, this work also suggests several candidate gene biomarkers to be evaluated during the clinical development of the anti-CK2 peptide CIGB-300.

  10. 抑制CK2增加Sorbitol引起的肺癌细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐昕; 徐晓光; 蒋颖超

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨抑制CK2对雷帕霉素引起的肺癌细胞凋亡的影响。方法选用人肺癌A549细胞,MTT方法检测单独利用山梨醇( Sor-bitol)或者联合CK2抑制剂TBB对A549细胞活性的影响,Western印迹检测单独利用 Sorbitol或者联合 CK2抑制剂TBB凋亡相关蛋白 caspase-3和PARP,以及线粒体凋亡相关蛋白细胞色素C表达水平的影响。结果 MTT结果显示,Sorbitol可以显著引起A549细胞活性下降,并呈现时间依赖性和剂量依赖性。 Western印迹结果显示,Sorbitol可以引起凋亡相关蛋白Cleaved PARP、Cleaved caspase-3以及细胞色素C表达水平明显上升。 MTT结果显示,联合应用CK2抑制剂可以明显增加Sorbitol,引起细胞活性降低。 Western印迹显示,与单独给予Sorbitol比较,联合应用CK2抑制剂 TBB,凋亡相关蛋白Cleaved PARP、Cleaved caspase-3进一步增加。结论 CK2抑制剂TBB可提高人肺癌A549细胞对Sorbitol的敏感性。

  11. A surface-plasmon-resonance analysis of polylysine interactions with a peptide substrate of protein kinase CK2 and with the enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez, María J.; Mier, Gerardo; Briones Fernández-Pola, Fernando; Moreno, Francisco J.; Juan S Jiménez

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of protein kinase CK2 (CK2) activity stimulation by polylysine has been studied by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The kinetics of the polylysine interaction with a peptide substrate of the enzyme, and with the enzyme itself, have been investigated. A peptide containing a threonine (T) residue surrounded by a cluster of negatively charged acidic [arginine (R) and glutamic acid (E)] residues, RRREEETEEE, and specifically phosphorylated by CK2, was selected. Polylysine interacts ...

  12. Inhibition of CK2 Activity by TCDD via Binding to ATP-competitive Binding Site of Catalytic Subunit:Insight from Computational Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xian-jin; CANNISTRARO Salvatore; BIZZARRI Anna-rita; ZENG Yi; CHEN Wei-zu; WANG Cun-xin

    2013-01-01

    Alternative mechanisms of toxic effects induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD),instead of the binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor(AhR),have been taken into consideration.It has been recently shown that TCDD reduces rapidly the activity of CK2(casein kinase Ⅱ) both in vivo and in vitro.It is found that TCDD has high molecular similarities to the known inhibitors of CK2 catalytic subunit(CK2α).This suggests that TCDD could also be an ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK2α.In this work,docking TCDD to CK2 was carried out based on the two structures of CK2α from maize and human,respectively.The binding free energies of the predicted CK2α-TCDD complexes estimated by the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area(MM/PBSA) method are from -85.1 kJ/mol to-114.3 kJ/mol for maize and are from-96.1 kJ/mol to-118.2 kJ/mol for human,which are comparable to those estimated for the known inhibitor and also ATP with CK2α.The energetic analysis also reveals that the van der Waals interaction is the dominant contribution to the binding free energy.These results are also useful for designing new drugs for a target of overexpressing CK2 in cancers.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the ...

  14. Protein kinase CK2 inhibition is associated with the destabilization of HIF-1α in human cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Barbara; Rasmussen, Tine D. L.; Schnitzler, Alexander;

    2015-01-01

    CK2-catalyzed HSP90/Cdc37 phosphorylation and induces HIF-1alpha degradation. Furthermore, E9 exerts a strong anti-tumour activity by inducing necrosis in murine xenograft models underlining its potential to be used for cancer treatment in future clinical studies. Crystal structure analysis of human...

  15. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylates the deubiquitylase OTUB1 at Ser16 to trigger its nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herhaus, Lina; Perez-Oliva, Ana B; Cozza, Giorgio; Gourlay, Robert; Weidlich, Simone; Campbell, David G; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Sapkota, Gopal P

    2015-01-01

    The deubiquitylating enzyme OTUB1 is present in all tissues and targets many substrates, in both the cytosol and nucleus. We found that casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylated OTUB1 at Ser(16) to promote its nuclear accumulation in cells. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of CK2 blocked the phosphorylation of OTUB1 at Ser(16), causing its nuclear exclusion in various cell types. Whereas we detected unphosphorylated OTUB1 mainly in the cytosol, we detected Ser(16)-phosphorylated OTUB1 only in the nucleus. In vitro, Ser(16)-phosphorylated OTUB1 and nonphosphorylated OTUB1 exhibited similar catalytic activity, bound K63-linked ubiquitin chains, and interacted with the E2 enzyme UBE2N. CK2-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear localization of OTUB1 promoted the formation of 53BP1 (p53-binding protein 1) DNA repair foci in the nucleus of osteosarcoma cells exposed to ionizing radiation. Our findings indicate that the activity of CK2 is necessary for the nuclear translocation and subsequent function of OTUB1 in DNA damage repair. PMID:25872870

  16. Isomeric mono-, di-, and tri-bromobenzo-1H-triazoles as inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2α.

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    Romualda Wąsik

    Full Text Available To further clarify the role of the individual bromine atoms of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromotriazole (TBBt, a relatively selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, we have examined the inhibition (IC(50 of human CK2α by the two mono-, the four di-, and the two tri- bromobenzotriazoles relative to that of TBBt. Halogenation of the central vicinal C(5/C(6 atoms proved to be a key factor in enhancing inhibitory activity, in that 5,6-di-Br(2Bt and 4,5,6-Br(3Bt were almost as effective inhibitors as TBBt, notwithstanding their marked differences in pK(a for dissociation of the triazole proton. The decrease in pK(a on halogenation of the peripheral C(4/C(7 atoms virtually nullifies the gain due to hydrophobic interactions, and does not lead to a decrease in IC(50. Molecular modeling of structures of complexes of the ligands with the enzyme, as well as QSAR analysis, pointed to a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as a discriminator of inhibitory activity. The role of halogen bonding remains debatable, as originally noted for the crystal structure of TBBt with CK2α (pdb1j91. Finally we direct attention to the promising applicability of our series of well-defined halogenated benzotriazoles to studies on inhibition of kinases other than CK2.

  17. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 by anthraquinone-related compounds. A structural insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moliner, Erika; Moro, Stefano; Sarno, Stefania; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Battistutta, Roberto

    2003-01-17

    Protein kinases play key roles in signal transduction and therefore are among the most attractive targets for drug design. The pharmacological aptitude of protein kinase inhibitors is highlighted by the observation that various diseases with special reference to cancer are because of the abnormal expression/activity of individual kinases. The resolution of the three-dimensional structure of the target kinase in complex with inhibitors is often the starting point for the rational design of this kind of drugs, some of which are already in advanced clinical trial or even in clinical practice. Here we present and discuss three new crystal structures of ATP site-directed inhibitors in complex with "casein kinase-2" (CK2), a constitutively active protein kinase implicated in a variety of cellular functions and misfunctions. With the help of theoretical calculations, we disclose some key features underlying the inhibitory efficiency of anthraquinone derivatives, outlining three different binding modes into the active site. In particular, we show that a nitro group in a hydroxyanthraquinone scaffold decreases the inhibitory constants K(i) because of electron-withdrawing and resonance effects that enhance the polarization of hydroxylic substituents in paraposition. PMID:12419810

  18. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M;

    1996-01-01

    that in vitro protein kinase CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation of human NDPK A inhibits its enzymatic activity by inhibiting the first step of its ping-pong mechanism of catalysis: its autophosphorylation. Upon in vivo 32P labeling of HeLa cells, we observed that both human NDPKs, A and B, were autophosphorylated......Although a number of nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) have been reported to act as inhibitors of metastasis or as a transcription factor in mammals, it is not known whether these functions are linked to their enzymatic activity or how this protein is regulated. In this report, we show...... on histidine residues, however, only the B isoform appeared to be serine phosphorylated....

  19. Protein kinase CK2 is widely expressed in follicular, Burkitt and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and propels malignant B-cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Marco; Piazza, Francesco; Agostinelli, Claudio; Fuligni, Fabio; Benvenuti, Pietro; Mandato, Elisa; Casellato, Alessandro; Rugge, Massimo; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Pileri, Stefano A

    2015-03-30

    Serine-threonine kinase CK2 is highly expressed and pivotal for survival and proliferation in multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma. Here, we investigated the expression of α catalytic and β regulatory CK2 subunits by immunohistochemistry in 57 follicular (FL), 18 Burkitt (BL), 52 diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) and in normal reactive follicles. In silico evaluation of available Gene Expression Profile (GEP) data sets from patients and Western blot (WB) analysis in NHL cell-lines were also performed. Moreover, the novel, clinical-grade, ATP-competitive CK2-inhibitor CX-4945 (Silmitasertib) was assayed on lymphoma cells. CK2 was detected in 98.4% of cases with a trend towards a stronger CK2α immunostain in BL compared to FL and DLBCL. No significant differences were observed between Germinal Center B (GCB) and non-GCB DLBCL types. GEP data and WB confirmed elevated CK2 mRNA and protein levels as well as active phosphorylation of specific targets in NHL cells. CX-4945 caused a dose-dependent growth-arresting effect on GCB, non-GCB DLBCL and BL cell-lines and it efficiently shut off phosphorylation of NF-κB RelA and CDC37 on CK2 target sites. Thus, CK2 is highly expressed and could represent a suitable therapeutic target in BL, FL and DLBCL NHL.

  20. The catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 structurally deviates from its maize homologue in complex with the nucleotide competitive inhibitor emodin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg;

    2008-01-01

    biological research, and small organic inhibitors addressing CK2 are of considerable interest. We describe here the complex structure between a C-terminal deletion mutant of human CK2alpha and the ATP-competitive inhibitor emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, International Union of Pure...

  1. Selectivity analysis of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBB and resorufin in cisplatin-induced stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, Gerhard; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann

    2009-01-01

    Targeting protein kinases as a therapeutic approach to treat various diseases, especially cancer is currently a fast growing business. Although many inhibitors are available, exhibiting remarkable potency, the major challenge is their selectivity. Here we show that the protein kinase CK2 inhibitors...... DMAT, TBB and resorufin differ in their selectivity against PI3K family members, since PI3K and DNA-PK are subject to inhibition by DMAT and TBB, however, not by resorufin. TBB and DMAT treatment together with cisplatin lead to an inhibition of cisplatin-induced stress signaling (as detected...... by phosphorylation of JNK and H2AX). In the case of resorufin no interference with the stress-signaling pathway is observed, supporting the notion that TBB and DMAT interfere with upstream molecules involved in genotoxic stress signaling. We have also tested the protein kinase CK2 inhibitors with respect to cell...

  2. CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 blocks TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT is a major phenotype of cancer metastasis and invasion. As a druggable cancer target, the inhibition of protein kinase CK2 (formally named to casein kinase 2 has been suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to treat EMT-controlled cancer metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 on the processes of cancer migration and invasion during the EMT in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced EMT was evaluated in A549 cells treated with TGF-β1 (5 ng/ml and CX-4945. The effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad, non-Smad, Wnt and focal adhesion signaling pathways were investigated by Western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry and reporter assay. Additionally, the effect of CX-4945 on TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion was investigated by wound healing assay, Boyden chamber assay, gelatin zymography, and the quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: CX-4945 inhibits the TGF-β1-induced cadherin switch and the activation of key signaling molecules involved in Smad (Smad2/3, Twist and Snail, non-Smad (Akt and Erk, Wnt (β-catenin and focal adhesion signaling pathways (FAK, Src and paxillin that cooperatively regulate the overall process of EMT. As a result, CX-4945 inhibits the migration and invasion of A549 cells accompanied with the downregulation of MMP-2 and 9. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical evaluation of CX-4945 in humans as a single agent in solid tumors and multiple myeloma has established its promising pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profiles. Beyond regression of tumor mass, CX-4945 may be advanced as a new therapy for cancer metastasis and EMT-related disorders.

  3. Exploring the prominent performance of CX-4945 derivatives as protein kinase CK2 inhibitors by a combined computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuwen; Pan, Peichen; Li, Youyong; Li, Dan; Hou, Tingjun

    2014-05-01

    Protein kinase CK2, also known as casein kinase II, is related to various cellular events and is a potential target for numerous cancers. In this study, we attempted to gain more insight into the inhibition process of CK2 by a series of CX-4945 derivatives through an integrated computational study that combines molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and binding free energy calculations. Based on the binding poses predicted by molecular docking, the MD simulations were performed to explore the dynamic binding processes for ten selected inhibitors. Then, both Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) and Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area (MM/GBSA) techniques were employed to predict the binding affinities of the studied systems. The predicted binding energies of the selected inhibitors correlate well with their experimental activities (r(2) = 0.78). The van der Waals term is the most favorable component for the total energies. The free energy decomposition on a per residue basis reveals that the residue K68 is essential for the electrostatic interactions between CK2 and the studied inhibitors and numerous residues, including L45, V53, V66, F113, M163 and I174, play critical roles in forming van der Waals interactions with the inhibitors. Finally, a number of new derivatives were designed and the binding affinity and the predicted binding free energies of each designed molecule were obtained on the basis of molecular docking and MM/PBSA. It is expected that our research will benefit the future rational design of novel and potent inhibitors of CK2. PMID:24647611

  4. Protein kinase CK2 interacts at the neuromuscular synapse with Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7 proteins and phosphorylates the latter two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Dustin; Straubinger, Marion; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2015-09-11

    Previously, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CK2 associates with and phosphorylates the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle specific receptor tyrosine kinase) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), thereby preventing fragmentation of the NMJs (Cheusova, T., Khan, M. A., Schubert, S. W., Gavin, A. C., Buchou, T., Jacob, G., Sticht, H., Allende, J., Boldyreff, B., Brenner, H. R., and Hashemolhosseini, S. (2006) Genes Dev. 20, 1800-1816). Here, we asked whether CK2 interacts with other proteins involved in processes at the NMJ, which would be consistent with the previous observation that CK2 appears enriched at the NMJ. We identified the following proteins to interact with protein kinase CK2: (a) the α and β subunits of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with weak interaction, (b) dishevelled (Dsh), and (c) another four proteins, Rapsyn, Rac1, 14-3-3γ, and Dok-7, with strong interaction. CK2 phosphorylated 14-3-3γ at serine residue 235 and Dok-7 at several serine residues but does not phosphorylate Rapsyn or Rac1. Furthermore, phosphomimetic Dok-7 mutants aggregated nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in C2C12 myotubes with significantly higher frequency than wild type Dok-7. Additionally, we mapped the interacting epitopes of all four binding partners to CK2 and thereby gained insights into the potential role of the CK2/Rapsyn interaction.

  5. Cytoskeletal Dynamics: Concepts in Measles Virus Replication and Immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibylle Schneider-Schaulies

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In common with most viruses, measles virus (MV relies on the integrity of the cytoskeleton of its host cells both with regard to efficient replication in these cells, but also retention of their motility which favors viral dissemination. It is, however, the surface interaction of the viral glycoprotein (gp complex with receptors present on lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DCs, that signals effective initiation of host cell cytoskeletal dynamics. For DCs, these may act to regulate processes as diverse as viral uptake and sorting, but also the ability of these cells to successfully establish and maintain functional immune synapses (IS with T cells. In T cells, MV signaling causes actin cytoskeletal paralysis associated with a loss of polarization, adhesion and motility, which has been linked to activation of sphingomyelinases and subsequent accumulation of membrane ceramides. MV modulation of both DC and T cell cytoskeletal dynamics may be important for the understanding of MV immunosuppression at the cellular level.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives as inhibitors of the human protein kinase CK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Jean; Le Borgne, Marc; Rimbault, Charlotte; Moreau, Stéphane; Savrimoutou, Solène; Pinaud, Noël; Baratin, Sophie; Marchivie, Mathieu; Roche, Séverine; Bollacke, Andre; Pecci, Adali; Alvarez, Lautaro; Desplat, Vanessa; Jose, Joachim

    2013-07-01

    Herein we describe the synthesis and properties of substituted phenylaminopyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-carboxylic acid derivatives as a novel class of potent inhibitors of the human protein kinase CK2. A set of 15 compounds was designed and synthesized using convenient and straightforward synthesis protocols. The compounds were tested for inhibition of human protein kinase CK2, which is a potential drug target for many diseases including inflammatory disorders and cancer. New inhibitors with IC50 in the micro- and sub-micromolar range were identified. The most promising compound, the 4-[(3-chlorophenyl)amino]pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-3-carboxylic acid 1c inhibited human CK2 with an IC50 of 49 nM. Our findings indicate that pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxalines are a promising starting scaffold for further development and optimization of human protein kinase CK2 inhibitors.

  7. Coumarin as attractive casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor scaffold: an integrate approach to elucidate the putative binding motif and explain structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilin, Adriana; Battistutta, Roberto; Bortolato, Andrea; Cozza, Giorgio; Zanatta, Samuele; Poletto, Giorgia; Mazzorana, Marco; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Uriarte, Eugenio; Guiotto, Adriano; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Meggio, Flavio; Moro, Stefano

    2008-02-28

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is an ubiquitous, essential, and highly pleiotropic protein kinase whose abnormally high constitutive activity is suspected to underlie its pathogenic potential in neoplasia and other diseases. Recently, using different virtual screening approaches, we have identified several novel CK2 inhibitors. In particular, we have discovered that coumarin moiety can be considered an attractive CK2 inhibitor scaffold. In the present work, we have synthetized and tested a small library of coumarins (more than 60), rationalizing the observed structure-activity relationship. Moreover, the most promising inhibitor, 3,8-dibromo-7-hydroxy-4-methylchromen-2-one (DBC), has been also crystallized in complex with CK2, and the experimental binding mode has been used to derive a linear interaction energy (LIE) model. PMID:18251491

  8. Chorein Sensitive Arrangement of Cytoskeletal Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Honisch

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chorein is a protein expressed in various cell types. Loss of function mutations of the chorein encoding gene VPS13A lead to chorea-acanthocytosis, an autosomal recessive genetic disease characterized by movement disorder and behavioral abnormalities. Recent observations revealed that chorein is a powerful regulator of actin cytoskeleton in erythrocytes, platelets, K562 and endothelial HUVEC cells. Methods: In the present study we have used Western blotting to study actin polymerization dynamics, laser scanning microscopy to evaluate in detail the role of chorein in microfilaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments cytoskeleton architecture and RT-PCR to assess gene transcription of the cytoskeletal proteins. Results: We report here powerful depolymerization of actin microfilaments both, in erythrocytes and fibroblasts isolated from chorea-acanthocytosis patients. Along those lines, morphological analysis of fibroblasts from chorea-acanthocytosis patients showed disarranged microtubular network, when compared to fibroblasts from healthy donors. Similarly, the intermediate filament networks of desmin and cytokeratins showed significantly disordered organization with clearly diminished staining in patient's fibroblasts. In line with this, RT-PCR analysis revealed significant downregulation of desmin and cytokeratin gene transcripts. Conclusion: Our results provide for the first time evidence that defective chorein is accompanied by significant structural disorganization of all cytoskeletal structures in human fibroblasts from chorea-acanthocytosis patients.

  9. Tenfibgen ligand nanoencapsulation delivers bi-functional anti-CK2 RNAi oligomer to key sites for prostate cancer targeting using human xenograft tumors in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen H Trembley

    Full Text Available Protected and specific delivery of nucleic acids to malignant cells remains a highly desirable approach for cancer therapy. Here we present data on the physical and chemical characteristics, mechanism of action, and pilot therapeutic efficacy of a tenfibgen (TBG-shell nanocapsule technology for tumor-directed delivery of single stranded DNA/RNA chimeric oligomers targeting CK2αα' to xenograft tumors in mice. The sub-50 nm size TBG nanocapsule (s50-TBG is a slightly negatively charged, uniform particle of 15 - 20 nm size which confers protection to the nucleic acid cargo. The DNA/RNA chimeric oligomer (RNAi-CK2 functions to decrease CK2αα' expression levels via both siRNA and antisense mechanisms. Systemic delivery of s50-TBG-RNAi-CK2 specifically targets malignant cells, including tumor cells in bone, and at low doses reduces size and CK2-related signals in orthotopic primary and metastatic xenograft prostate cancer tumors. In conclusion, the s50-TBG nanoencapsulation technology together with the chimeric oligomer targeting CK2αα' offer significant promise for systemic treatment of prostate malignancy.

  10. INHIBITORY EFFECT AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF SODIUM QUERCETIN-7,4′-DISULPHATE ON RECOMBINANT HUMAN PROTEIN KINASE CK2 HOLOENZYME%槲皮素-7,4′-二硫酸酯钠对重组人CK2全酶的抑制作用及动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新光; 梁念慈; 刘文; 佘戟; 莫丽儿

    2002-01-01

    目的观察槲皮素-7,4′-二硫酸酯钠(sodium quercetin-7,4′-disulphate,SQDS)对重组人CK2全酶的直接作用及酶动力学机制.方法通过测定转移到CK2底物上的[γ-32P]ATP的32P放射活度检测不同条件下的重组人CK2全酶的活性.结果重组人CK2是一种Ca2+,cAMP和cGMP等第二信使非依赖性蛋白激酶,与天然CK2的性质一致.SQDS对重组人CK2全酶有很强的抑制作用,IC50为4.4 μmol·L-1,抑制作用大于已知CK2抑制剂DRB和A3.CK2的动力学研究表明:SQDS与ATP和酪蛋白分别呈竞争性和非竞争性抑制作用.结论 SQDS是有效的CK2抑制剂,对于开发更有效的CK2抑制剂及将SQDS用于临床提供了一定的实验依据.

  11. GRAIL (Gene Related to Anergy in Lymphocytes) Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization through Ubiquitination and Degradation of Arp2/3 Subunit 5 and Coronin 1A*

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Daiju; Mizuno, Miho; Yamamura, Takashi; Miyake, Sachiko

    2011-01-01

    Anergy is an important mechanism for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and avoidance of autoimmunity. The up-regulation of E3 ubiqitin ligases, including GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes), is a key event in the induction and preservation of anergy in T cells. However, the mechanisms of GRAIL-mediated anergy induction are still not completely understood. We examined which proteins serve as substrates for GRAIL in anergic T cells. Arp2/3-5 (actin-related protein 2/3 subunit 5)...

  12. The anti-migratory effects of FKBPL and its peptide derivative, AD-01: regulation of CD44 and the cytoskeletal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Yakkundi

    Full Text Available FK506 binding protein-like (FKBPL and its peptide derivatives exert potent anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo and control tumour growth in xenograft models, when administered exogenously. However, the role of endogenous FKBPL in angiogenesis is not well characterised. Here we investigated the molecular effects of the endogenous protein and its peptide derivative, AD-01, leading to their anti-migratory activity. Inhibition of secreted FKBPL using a blocking antibody or siRNA-mediated knockdown of FKBPL accelerated the migration of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 tumour cells stably overexpressing FKBPL inhibited tumour vascular development in vivo suggesting that FKBPL secreted from tumour cells could inhibit angiogenesis. Whilst FKBPL and AD-01 target CD44, the nature of this interaction is not known and here we have further interrogated this aspect. We have demonstrated that FKBPL and AD-01 bind to the CD44 receptor and inhibit tumour cell migration in a CD44 dependant manner; CD44 knockdown abrogated AD-01 binding as well as its anti-migratory activity. Interestingly, FKBPL overexpression and knockdown or treatment with AD-01, regulated CD44 expression, suggesting a co-regulatory pathway for these two proteins. Downstream of CD44, alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, indicated by intense cortical actin staining and a lack of cell spreading and communication were observed following treatment with AD-01, explaining the anti-migratory phenotype. Concomitantly, AD-01 inhibited Rac-1 activity, up-regulated RhoA and the actin binding proteins, profilin and vinculin. Thus the anti-angiogenic protein, FKBPL, and AD-01, offer a promising and alternative approach for targeting both CD44 positive tumours and vasculature networks.

  13. Endothelial permeability is controlled by spatially defined cytoskeletal mechanics: AFM force mapping of pulmonary endothelial monolayer

    OpenAIRE

    Birukova, Anna A.; Arce, Fernando T.; Moldobaeva, Nurgul; Dudek, Steven M.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Lal, Ratnesh; Birukov, Konstantin G.

    2008-01-01

    Actomyosin contraction directly regulates endothelial cell (EC) permeability, but intracellular redistribution of cytoskeletal tension associated with EC permeability is poorly understood. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM), EC permeability assays and fluorescence microscopy to link barrier regulation, cell remodeling and cytoskeletal mechanical properties in EC treated with barrier-protective as well as barrier-disruptive agonists. Thrombin, VEGF and H2O2 increased EC permeability, disrup...

  14. Characterization of protein kinase CK2 protein subunits and p53 in F9 teratocarcinoma cells in the absence and presence of cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küpper, M; Köster, M; Schmidt-Spaniol, I;

    1994-01-01

    cell extracts treated with and without cisplatin were analyzed by ion exchange chromatography for protein kinase CK2 alpha/beta subunits and p53 distribution. The following results were obtained: (a) in crude extracts of cisplatin-treated cells, CK2 activity was sometimes reduced by as much as 50%; (b......The effect of cis-diaminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) on the induction of p53 and protein kinase CK2 activity was studied in the mouse teratocarcinoma cell line F9. Treatment of the cells with the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin led to the detection of p53 3 h after addition of the drug. F9...... by immunostaining, we have detected, at a concentration of approximately 200 mM NaCl, a protein of approximately 46 kDa which reacted with the CK2 alpha-specific antibody. This fraction was devoid of CK2 activity; and (d) cisplatin-treated cells exhibited p53 protein, which was mostly eluting ahead but also partly...

  15. Rational Design of Coumarin Derivatives as CK2 Inhibitors by Improving the Interaction with the Hinge Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Chen, Wen-Juan; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongtao; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Design of novel coumarin derivatives as CK2 inhibitors were attempted by targeting the interaction with the hinge region. A set of substituents capable of forming a hydrogen bond or halogen bond with the hinge region were screened in silico, and trifluoromethyl emerges as a promising motif by forming favorable electrostatic interaction and a presumable halogen bond with the hinge region. As proof of concept, three trifluoromethyl derivatives of coumarin were synthesized and tested in vitro. The results indicated that replacement of methyl by trifluoromethyl leads to a modest 5-fold improvement in potency, with the most active compound being 0.4 µM. The newly designed compounds were further screened on one lung cancer cell line A549, showing low micromolar anti-proliferative activity.

  16. A CK2-dependent mechanism for activation of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ying; Qin, Hongwei; Frank, Stuart J.; Deng, Luqin; Litchfield, David W.; Tefferi, Ayalew; Pardanani, Animesh; Lin, Fang-Tsyr; Li, Jingzhi; Sha, Bingdong; Benveniste, Etty N.

    2011-01-01

    JAK-STAT signaling is involved in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. JAK tyrosine kinases can be transiently activated by cytokines or growth factors in normal cells, whereas they become constitutively activated as a result of mutations that affect their function in tumors. Specifically, the JAK2V617F mutation is present in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) and is implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In the present...

  17. Ck2-Dependent Phosphorylation Is Required to Maintain Pax7 Protein Levels in Proliferating Muscle Progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia González

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle regeneration and long term maintenance is directly link to the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of resident adult stem cells known as satellite cells. In turn, satellite cell fate is influenced by a functional interaction between the transcription factor Pax7 and members of the MyoD family of muscle regulatory factors. Thus, changes in the Pax7-to-MyoD protein ratio may act as a molecular rheostat fine-tuning acquisition of lineage identity while preventing precocious terminal differentiation. Pax7 is expressed in quiescent and proliferating satellite cells, while its levels decrease sharply in differentiating progenitors Pax7 is maintained in cells (reacquiring quiescence. While the mechanisms regulating Pax7 levels based on differentiation status are not well understood, we have recently described that Pax7 levels are directly regulated by the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4, thus promoting proteasome-dependent Pax7 degradation in differentiating satellite cells. Here we show that Pax7 levels are maintained in proliferating muscle progenitors by a mechanism involving casein kinase 2-dependent Pax7 phosphorylation at S201. Point mutations preventing S201 phosphorylation or casein kinase 2 inhibition result in decreased Pax7 protein in proliferating muscle progenitors. Accordingly, this correlates directly with increased Pax7 ubiquitination. Finally, Pax7 down regulation induced by casein kinase 2 inhibition results in precocious myogenic induction, indicating early commitment to terminal differentiation. These observations highlight the critical role of post translational regulation of Pax7 as a molecular switch controlling muscle progenitor fate.

  18. Inhibitory effect and its kinetic analysis of tyrphostin AG1478 on recombinant human protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme%Tyrphostin AG1478对重组人蛋白激酶CK2全酶的抑制作用及其动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新光; 梁念慈

    2002-01-01

    目的:观察Tyrphostin AG1478[4-(3-氯苯胺基)-6,7-二甲氧喹唑啉]对重组人蛋白激酶CK2全酶的直接作用及其酶动力学机制.方法:在体外等摩尔数混合重组蛋白激酶CK2 α和β亚基构成CK2全酶,在不同条件下测定CK2的活性.CK2活性通过测定转移到CK2底物上的[γ-32P]ATP或[γ-32P]GTP的32P放射活度来检测.结果:重组人CK2是一种Ca2+、[KG*2]cAMP和cGMP等第二信使非依赖性蛋白激酶,与天然CK2的性质一致.AG1478对重组人CK2全酶具有很强的抑制作用,IC50为25.9 μmol/L,抑制作用接近于已知的CK2抑制剂N-(2-氨乙基)-5-氯萘-1-硫胺(A3),稍小于5,6-二氯-1-β-呋喃糖苯并咪唑(DRB).AG1478对重组人CK2的动力学研究表明:它与GTP和酪蛋白均呈竞争性抑制作用,是一种双底物抑制剂.结论:AG1478不仅是高效特异的表皮生长因子受体酪氨酸蛋白激酶的抑制剂,而且也是一种新型有效的蛋白激酶CK2抑制剂.重组人蛋白激酶CK2可作为一种较为简便的筛选和开发有效CK2抑制剂的分子靶点.%AIM: To study the direct effect of tyrphostin AG1478[4-( 3-chloroanilino )-6, 7-dimethoxyquinazoline ] on re-combinant human protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme and itskinetics. METHODS: Recombinant human proteinkinase CK2 α and β subunits were mixed at equal molar ratio and CK2 holoenzyme were reconstituted. The CK2activity was assayed by detecting incorporation of [γ-32P]ATP or [γ-32P]GTP into substrates in various conditions. RESULTS: These results demonstrated that the recombinant human CK2 was a second messengers (Ca2+ , cAMP, and cGMP)-independent protein kinase,the characterization and function of the reconstituted holoenzyme were consistent with those of native CK2. AG1478 strongly inhibited the holoenzyme activity of recombinant human protein kinase CK2 with IC50 of 25.9μmol/L, the inhibition is very close to that of N-(2-aminoethyl )-5-chloronaphthalene-l-sulfonamide ( A3 ),but less potent than that of 5

  19. Phosphorylation of murine double minute clone 2 (MDM2) protein at serine-267 by protein kinase CK2 in vitro and in cultured cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, M; Milne, D; Dumaz, N;

    2001-01-01

    activation, promote disruption of the p53-MDM2 complex, as in the case of ionizing radiation, or block MDM2 synthesis and thereby reduce cellular MDM2 levels, as in the case of UV radiation. It is therefore likely that MDM2, which is known to be modified by ubiquitination, SUMOylation and multi...... the central acidic domain of MDM2. Fractionation of cellular extracts revealed the presence of a single Ser(267) protein kinase which co-purified with CK2 on ion-exchange chromatography and, like CK2, was subject to inhibition by micromolar concentrations of the CK2-specific inhibitor 5......,6-dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazole. Radiolabelling of cells expressing tagged recombinant wild-type MDM2 or a S267A (Ser(267)-->Ala) mutant, followed by phosphopeptide analysis, confirmed that Ser(267) is a cellular target for phosphorylation. Ser(267) mutants are still able to direct the degradation of p53, but in a slightly...

  20. Structure and Property Based Design of Pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine Inhibitors of CK2 Kinase with Activity in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, James E; Alimzhanov, Marat; Bao, Larry; Block, Michael H; Chuaqui, Claudio; Cooke, Emma L; Denz, Christopher R; Hird, Alex; Huang, Shan; Larsen, Nicholas A; Peng, Bo; Pontz, Timothy W; Rivard-Costa, Caroline; Saeh, Jamal Carlos; Thakur, Kumar; Ye, Qing; Zhang, Tao; Lyne, Paul D

    2013-08-01

    In this letter, we describe the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of 5-anilinopyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine inhibitors of CK2 kinase. Property-based optimization of early leads using the 7-oxetan-3-yl amino group led to a series of matched molecular pairs with lower lipophilicity, decreased affinity for human plasma proteins, and reduced binding to the hERG ion channel. Agents in this study were shown to modulate pAKT(S129), a direct substrate of CK2, in vitro and in vivo, and exhibited tumor growth inhibition when administered orally in a murine DLD-1 xenograft. PMID:24900749

  1. The Cytoskeletal Regulatory Scaffold Protein GIT2 Modulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Osteoblastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Liao, Shaoxi; Nelson, Erik R.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Spurney, Robert F.; Guilak, Farshid; Premont, Richard T.; Gesty-Palmer, Diane

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) is a signaling scaffold protein involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal structure, membrane trafficking, and G protein-coupled receptor internalization. Since dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization plays key roles both in osteoblast differentiation and in the maintenance of osteoclast polarity during bone resorption, we hypothesized that skeletal physiology would be altered in GIT2−/− mice. We found that adult GIT2−/− mice have de...

  2. Protein kinase CK2 is coassembled with small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels and regulates channel gating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bildl, Wolfgang; Strassmaier, Tim; Thurm, Henrike;

    2004-01-01

    Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels (SK channels) couple the membrane potential to fluctuations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in many types of cells. SK channels are gated by Ca2+ ions via calmodulin that is constitutively bound to the intracellular C terminus of the channels and...

  3. Simulated Microgravity Induced Cytoskeletal Rearrangements are Modulated by Protooncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhado, C. D.; Sanford, G. L.; Bosah, F.; Harris-Hooker, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microgravity is the environment living systems encounter during space flight and gravitational unloading is the effect of this environment on living systems. The cell, being a multiphasic chemical system, is a useful starting point to study the potential impact of gravity unloading on physiological function. In the absence of gravity, sedimentation of organelles including chromosomes, mitochondria, nuclei, the Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum may be affected. Most of these organelles, however, are somewhat held in place by cytoskeleton. Hansen and Igber suggest that intermediate filaments act to stabilize the nuleus against rotational movement, and integrate cell and nuclear structure. The tensegrity theory supports the idea that mechanical or physical forces alters the cytoskeletal structures of a cell resulting in the changes in cell: matrix interactions and receptor-signaling coupling. This type of stress to the cytoskeleton may be largely responsible regulating cell shape, growth, movement and metabolism. Mouse MC3T3 El cells under microgravity exhibited significant cytoskeletal changes and alterations in cell growth. The alterations in cytoskeleton architecture may be due to changes in the expression of actin related proteins or integrins. Philopott and coworkers reported on changes in the distribution of microtubule and cytoskeleton elements in the cells of heart tissue from space flight rats and those centrifuged at 1.7g. Other researchers have showed that microgravity reduced EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression compared to 1 g controls. Since c-fos and c-jun are known regulators of cell growth, it is likely that altered signal transduction involving protooncogenes may play a crucial role in the reduced growth and alterations in cytoskeletal arrangements found during space flight. It is clear that a microgravity environment induces a number of changes in cell shape, cell surface molecules, gene expression, and cytoskeletal

  4. Intracellular transport driven by cytoskeletal motors: General mechanisms and defects

    CERN Document Server

    Appert-Rolland, Cecile; Santen, Ludger

    2015-01-01

    Cells are strongly out-of-equilibrium systems driven by continuous energy supply. They carry out many vital functions requiring active transport of various ingredients and organelles, some being small, others being large. The cytoskeleton, composed of three types of filaments, determines the shape of the cell and plays a role in cell motion. It also serves as a road network for the so-called cytoskeletal motors. These molecules can attach to a cytoskeletal filament, perform directed motion, possibly carrying along some cargo, and then detach. It is a central issue to understand how intracellular transport driven by molecular motors is regulated, in particular because its breakdown is one of the signatures of some neuronal diseases like the Alzheimer. We give a survey of the current knowledge on microtubule based intracellular transport. We first review some biological facts obtained from experiments, and present some modeling attempts based on cellular automata. We start with background knowledge on the origi...

  5. Converting potent indeno[1,2-b]indole inhibitors of protein kinase CK2 into selective inhibitors of the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabor Gozzi, Gustavo; Bouaziz, Zouhair; Winter, Evelyn; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Aichele, Dagmar; Nacereddine, Abdelhamid; Marminon, Christelle; Valdameri, Glaucio; Zeinyeh, Waël; Bollacke, Andre; Guillon, Jean; Lacoudre, Aline; Pinaud, Noël; Cadena, Silvia M; Jose, Joachim; Le Borgne, Marc; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2015-01-01

    A series of indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione derivatives were synthesized as human casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors. The most potent inhibitors contained a N(5)-isopropyl substituent on the C-ring. The same series of compounds was found to also inhibit the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2 but with totally different structure-activity relationships: a N(5)-phenethyl substituent was critical, and additional hydrophobic substituents at position 7 or 8 of the D-ring or a methoxy at phenethyl position ortho or meta also contributed to inhibition. The best ABCG2 inhibitors, such as 4c, 4h, 4i, 4j, and 4k, behaved as very weak inhibitors of CK2, whereas the most potent CK2 inhibitors, such as 4a, 4p, and 4e, displayed limited interaction with ABCG2. It was therefore possible to convert, through suitable substitutions of the indeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione scaffold, potent CK2 inhibitors into selective ABCG2 inhibitors and vice versa. In addition, some of the best ABCG2 inhibitors, which displayed a very low cytotoxicity, thus giving a high therapeutic ratio, and appeared not to be transported, constitute promising candidates for further investigations.

  6. Structural features underlying the selectivity of the kinase inhibitors NBC and dNBC: role of a nitro group that discriminates between CK2 and DYRK1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Mazzorana, Marco; Traynor, Ryan; Ruzzene, Maria; Cozza, Giorgio; Pagano, Mario A; Meggio, Flavio; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Battistutta, Roberto; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2012-02-01

    8-hydroxy-4-methyl-9-nitrobenzo(g)chromen-2-one (NBC) has been found to be a fairly potent ATP site-directed inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 (Ki = 0.22 μM). Here, we show that NBC also inhibits PIM kinases, especially PIM1 and PIM3, the latter as potently as CK2. Upon removal of the nitro group, to give 8-hydroxy-4-methyl-benzo(g)chromen-2-one (here referred to as "denitro NBC", dNBC), the inhibitory power toward CK2 is almost entirely lost (IC(50) > 30 μM) whereas that toward PIM1 and PIM3 is maintained; in addition, dNBC is a potent inhibitor of a number of other kinases that are weakly inhibited or unaffected by NBC, with special reference to DYRK1A whose IC(50) values with NBC and dNBC are 15 and 0.60 μM, respectively. Therefore, the observation that NBC, unlike dNBC, is a potent inducer of apoptosis is consistent with the notion that this effect is mediated by inhibition of endogenous CK2. The structural features underlying NBC selectivity have been revealed by inspecting its 3D structure in complex with the catalytic subunit of Z. mays CK2. The crucial role of the nitro group is exerted both through a direct electrostatic interaction with the side chain of Lys68 and, indirectly, by enhancing the acidic dissociation constant of the adjacent hydroxyl group which interacts with a conserved water molecule in the deepest part of the cavity. By contrast, the very same nitro group is deleterious for the binding to the active site of DYRK1A, as disclosed by molecular docking. This provides the rationale for preferential inhibition of DYRK1A by dNBC. PMID:21720886

  7. 甜菜BvCK2基因全长cDNA的克隆和序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Full-length cDNA of Gene BvCK2 from Beta vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁振强; 潘彦遥; 陈连江; 朱延明; 李春宇

    2009-01-01

    甜菜M14品系在细胞胚胎学和遗传学特征上具有鲜明的无融合生殖现象.为了寻找在这一特殊的生殖过程中的相关基因及其调控作用,实验通过同源克隆及cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)的方法,首次从甜菜M14品系中克隆了与生殖相关的基因ByCK2(Beta vulgaris casein kinase 2)的全长cDNA序列,长度为1 501 bp,开放阅读框为1002 bp,编码333个氨基酸.根据氨基酸序列计算蛋白分子量为39.28kDa,pI=8.16.同源比对表明,ByCK2与烟草CK2(GenBank No.A1437635)的相似度为64.22%,与百合CK2(GenBank No.AF517838)的相似度为65.18%.通过细胞内定位分析,BvCK2所编码的蛋白主要存在于细胞核中.

  8. Monitoring the cytoskeletal EGF response in live gastric carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Felkl

    Full Text Available Altered cell motility is considered to be a key factor in determining tumor invasion and metastasis. Epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling has been implicated in this process by affecting cytoskeletal organization and dynamics in multiple ways. To sort the temporal and spatial regulation of EGF-dependent cytoskeletal re-organization in relation to a cell's motile behavior time-lapse microscopy was performed on EGF-responsive gastric carcinoma-derived MKN1 cells co-expressing different fluorescently labeled cytoskeletal filaments and focal adhesion components in various combinations. The experiments showed that EGF almost instantaneously induces a considerable increase in membrane ruffling and lamellipodial activity that can be inhibited by Cetuximab EGF receptor antibodies and is not elicited in non-responsive gastric carcinoma Hs746T cells. The transient cell extensions are rich in actin but lack microtubules and keratin intermediate filaments. We show that this EGF-induced increase in membrane motility can be measured by a simple image processing routine. Microtubule plus-ends subsequently invade growing cell extensions, which start to accumulate focal complexes at the lamellipodium-lamellum junction. Such paxillin-positive complexes mature into focal adhesions by tyrosine phosphorylation and recruitment of zyxin. These adhesions then serve as nucleation sites for keratin filaments which are used to enlarge the neighboring peripheral keratin network. Focal adhesions are either disassembled or give rise to stable zyxin-rich fibrillar adhesions which disassemble in the presence of EGF to support formation of new focal adhesion sites in the cell periphery. Taken together the results serve as a basis for modeling the early cytoskeletal EGF response as a tightly coordinated and step-wise process which is relevant for the prediction of the effectiveness of anti-EGF receptor-based tumor therapy.

  9. Enhancing the Apoptotic Potential of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-3 in Prostate Cancer by Modulation of CK2 Phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb, Laura J.; Mehta, Hemal; Cohen, Pinchas

    2009-01-01

    IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) promotes apoptosis by both IGF-dependent and -independent mechanisms. We have previously reported that phosphorylation of IGFBP-3 (S156) by DNA-dependent protein kinase enhances its nuclear accumulation and is essential for its ability to interact with retinoid X receptor-α and induce apoptosis in cultured prostate cancer cells. Using specific chemical inhibitors and small interfering RNA, we demonstrate that preventing casein kinase 2 (CK2) activation enhanced...

  10. Human herpesvirus 6B induces phosphorylation of p53 in its regulatory domain by a CK2- and p38-independent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øster, Bodil; Bundgaard, Bettina; Hupp, TR;

    2008-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) infection upregulates the tumour suppressor p53 and induces phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392. Interestingly, phosphorylation at the equivalent site has previously been shown to correlate with p53 tumour suppression in murine models. Although...... or Cdk9, eluted in column fractions that phosphorylated p53 at Ser392. However, treatment of cells with neither the CK2 and Cdk9 inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) nor p38 kinase inhibitors reduced HHV-6B-induced Ser392 phosphorylation significantly. Knockdown of the CK2......beta subunit or p38alpha by small interfering RNA had no effect on HHV-6B-induced phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392. Thus, HHV-6B induces p53 Ser392 phosphorylation by an atypical pathway independent of CK2 and p38 kinases, whereas mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling pathways are involved...

  11. Visualization of Actin Cytoskeletal Dynamics in Fixed and Live Drosophila Egg Chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Christopher M; Tootle, Tina L

    2015-01-01

    Visualization of actin cytoskeletal dynamics is critical for understanding the spatial and temporal regulation of actin remodeling. Drosophila oogenesis provides an excellent model system for visualizing the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we present methods for imaging the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila egg chambers in both fixed samples by phalloidin staining and in live egg chambers using transgenic actin labeling tools.

  12. pVHL acts as an Adapter to Promote the Inhibitory Phosphorylation of the NF-κB Agonist Card9 by CK2

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haifeng; Minamishima, Yoji Andrew; Yan, Qin; Schlisio, Susanne; Benjamin L Ebert; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Liang; Kim, William Y.; Olumi, Aria F.; William G Kaelin

    2007-01-01

    The VHL tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) is part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets HIF for destruction. pVHL-defective renal carcinoma cells exhibit increased NF-κB activity but the mechanism is unclear. NF-κB affects tumorigenesis and therapeutic resistance in some settings. We found that pVHL associates with the NF-κB agonist Card9 but does not target Card9 for destruction. Instead, pVHL serves as an adaptor that promotes the phosphorylation of the Card9 C-terminus by CK2. Elimination o...

  13. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-01

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated. PMID:26580496

  14. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-01

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated.

  15. Reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins of mouse oocytes mediated by integrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE; Limin; ZHANG; Lei; HE; Yaping; ZHANG; Jinhu; ZHENG; Ji

    2004-01-01

    To study whether integrins on cell membrane ligate with intracellular cytoskeletal proteins and mediate their reorganization in egg activation, female mice were used for superovulation. The zona-free oocytes were incubated separately with specific ligand of integrins,an active RGD peptide, in vitro for certain period of time. RGE peptide and mouse capacitated sperm were used as controls. Freshly ovulated oocytes and those treated with different factors were immunostained with FITC-labeled anti-actin antibody, then detected with confocal microscope. The results demonstrated that freshly ovulated mouse oocytes, oocytes incubated for 2 h in vitro and those treated with control RGE peptide for 15 min showed hardly visible fluorescene or only thin fluorescence in plasma membrane region. Oocytes coincubated with sperms for 15 min and those treated with active RGD peptide for 10 min, 30 min and 2 hours respectively had strong and thick fluorescence in the plasma membrane and cortical region of oocytes, and some of them showed asymmetrically fluorescent distribution. It is proved that integrins on membrane are ligated directly with cytoskeletal protein. Integrins binding with their ligands regulate reorganization of cytoskelal protein, which may be involved in transmembrane signaling in egg activation.

  16. Cell Forces and Cytoskeletal Order Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discher, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    Nematic, Smectic and Isotropic Order parameters have found wide-spread use in characterizing all manner of soft matter systems, but have not yet been applied to characterize and understand the structures within living cells, particularly cytoskeletal structures. Several examples will be used to illustrate the utility of such analyses, ranging from experiments on stem cells attached to or in various elastic matrices to embryonic heart tissue and simulations of membrane cytoskeletons under all manner of stressing. Recently developed theory will be shown to apply in general with account of cell contractility, matrix elasticity and dimensionality as well as cell shape and a newly defined ``cytoskeletal polarizability.'' The latter property of cells is likely different between different cell types due to different amounts of key cytoskeletal components with some types of stem cells being more polarizable than others. Evidence of coupling to the nucleus as a viscoelastic inclusion will also be presented. [4pt] References: (1) P. Dalhaimer, D.E. Discher, T. Lubensky. Crosslinked actin networks exhibit liquid crystal elastomer behavior, including soft-mode elasticity. Nature Physics 3: 354-360 (2007). (2) A. Zemel, F.Rehfeldt, A.E.X. Brown, D.E. Discher, and S.A. Safran. Optimal matrix rigidity in the self-polarization of stem cells. Nature Physics 6: 468 - 473 (2010).

  17. Measurements and models of cytoskeletal rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, Roger

    2006-11-01

    Much attention has recently focused on understanding the rheology of living cells and reconstituted actin gels using a variety of experimental methods (e.g., single- and multi-particle tracking, magnetic twisting cytometry, AFM indentation) and several different models or descriptors (e.g., biopolymer models, tensegrity, cellular solids, power-law rheology), but the debate continues regarding the fundamental basis for the experimental observations. Our recent studies examine the time-dependent behavior of neutrophils as they deform to enter a narrow channel with capillary-scale dimensions. A sudden drop in the shear modulus is observed, followed by recovery to pre-deformation values in < 1 minute. These rheological changes coincide with a reduction in f-actin content and a transient increase in calcium ion concentration [Ca^++], and the change in storage modulus can be prevented by calcium chelation, suggesting that these observations are causally linked. Cells lacking the ability to increase [Ca^++] also become activated more rapidly following deformation, and the time to activation is independent of intracellular strain rates, contrary to experiments lacking the chelating agent. To better understand these processes and the nature of cytoskeletal rheology in general, we have developed a Brownian dynamics model for cytoskeletal self-assembly and subsequent rheological measurement by single particle tracking. Cross-linking proteins are included possessing a range of properties that lead to a variety of cytoskeletal structures from a fine, homogeneous mesh to a structure containing large stress fibers of varying thickness. These results are described in a multi-dimensional phase space that takes into account the geometry, dimensions and stiffness of the cross-linkers.

  18. Protein signaling and regulation of gene transcription in leukemia: role of the Casein Kinase II-Ikaros axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Chandrika S; Song, Chunhua; Ding, Yali; Kapadia, Malika; Dovat, Sinisa

    2016-03-01

    Protein signaling and regulation of gene expression are the two major mechanisms that regulate cellular proliferation in leukemia. Discerning the function of these processes is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of leukemia and for developing the targeted therapies. Here, we provide an overview of one of the mechanisms that regulates gene transcription in leukemia. This mechanism involves the direct interaction between Casein Kinase II (CK2) and the Ikaros transcription factor. Ikaros (IKZF1) functions as a master regulator of hematopoiesis and a tumor suppressor in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Impaired Ikaros function results in the development of high-risk leukemia. Ikaros binds to the upstream regulatory elements of its target genes and regulates their transcription via chromatin remodeling. In vivo, Ikaros is a target for CK2, a pro-oncogenic kinase. CK2 directly phosphorylates Ikaros at multiple amino acids. Functional experiments showed that CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Ikaros, regulates Ikaros' DNA binding affinity, subcellular localization and protein stability. Recent studies revealed that phosphorylation of Ikaros by CK2 regulates Ikaros binding and repression of the terminal deoxytransferase (TdT) gene in normal thymocytes and in T-cell ALL. Available data suggest that the oncogenic activity of CK2 in leukemia involves functional inactivation of Ikaros and provide a rationale for CK2 inhibitors as a potential treatment for ALL. PMID:26912004

  19. Effect of an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 on radiosensitivity of human lung cancer cells%蛋白激酶CK2抑制剂对肺癌细胞系放射敏感性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩雯; 刘莉; 伍钢; 孟睿; 李珂; 张盛; 杨天洋; 周瑜; 李振宇; 周方正; 马虹; 董晓荣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of an inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 on the radiosensitivity of human lung cancer cells. Methods The protein levels of CK2 α and β subunits in different lung cancer cell lines were measured by Western blot. Clonogenic assays were performed to assess the effect of a CK2 inhibitor, quinalizarin, on the radiosensitivity of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and large cell lung cancer H460 cells. The effects of the combination of quinalizarin and X⁃ray irradiation on the apoptosis and cell cycle of A549 and H460 cells were measured by flow cytometry. The differences between two groups were analyzed by analysis of variance and t⁃test. Results Western blot revealed that theαandβsubunits of CK2 were overexpressed in non⁃small cell lung cancer cells (A549,H460, and H1650 cells), which were considered insensitive to X⁃ray irradiation, whereas a lower expression of these two subunits were found in small cell lung cancer cells ( H446 cells) , which were sensitive to X⁃ray irradiation. The clonogenic assays showed that A549 and H460 cells pre⁃exposed to quinalizarin had a significantly lower survival fraction compared with the control group and had a sensitization enhancement ratio greater than 1. 0( D0 were 2. 771 and 2. 463 respectively) . The combination of quinalizarin and X⁃ray irradiation did not increase the apoptosis of A549 and H460 cells ( X⁃ray+Quinalizarin vs. Quinalizarin, A549, P=0. 487 and H460, P=0. 254) , but caused significant G2/M arrest compared with under X⁃ray irradiation only ( X⁃ray +Quinalizarin:X⁃ray, A549, P=0. 000;H460, P=0. 002 and X⁃ray+Quinalizarin:Quinalizarin, A549, P=0. 000;H460,P=0. 000) . Conclusions Quinalizarin, as a CK2 inhibitor, can increase the radiosensitivity of non⁃small cell lung cancer cells.%目的:探讨蛋白激酶CK2抑制剂对肺癌细胞系放射敏感性的影响。方法通过蛋白印迹法检测蛋白激酶CK2α、β亚基在不同肺癌细胞系中的表达

  20. Diversity-oriented synthesis of pyrazolo[4,3-b]indoles by gold-catalysed three-component annulation: application to the development of a new class of CK2 inhibitors.

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Zengye; Oishi, Shinya; Suzuki, Yamato; Kure, Tatsuhide; Nakanishi, Isao; Hirasawa, Akira; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Ohno, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2013-01-01

    Pyrazolo[4,3-b]indole derivatives have been designed as novel CK2 inhibitor compounds based on the binding mode analysis of a previously reported phenylpyrazole-type CK2 inhibitor. A series of pyrazolo[4,3-b]indoles and related dihydropyrazolo[4,3-b]indoles were efficiently prepared from simple starting materials using a gold-catalysed three-component annulation reaction as a key step. Several of the newly synthesized compounds displayed high levels of inhibitory activity, indicating that the...

  1. Determination of mRNA, and protein levels of p53, MDM2 and protein kinase CK2 subunits in F9 cells after treatment with the apoptosis-inducing drugs cisplatin and carboplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemer, S; Ornskov, D; Guerra, B;

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a pleiotropic serine/threonine kinase which has been shown to phosphorylate numerous substrates. Evidence is accumulating that CK2 may exist complexed to a variety of cellular proteins, e.g. p53, MDM2, and A-Raf. Here, we explored the effects of the chemotherapeutic drugs....... More than 50% apoptotic cells were seen after 6 h. We conclude that cisplatin and its second generation drug carboplatin act similarly i.e. both drugs cause a concomitant decrease in p53 mRNA and an increase in p53 protein level. After 4 h treatment with either of the two drugs, p53 levels reach...

  2. A POROELASTIC MODEL FOR CELL CRAWLING INCLUDING MECHANICAL COUPLING BETWEEN CYTOSKELETAL CONTRACTION AND ACTIN POLYMERIZATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, L A; Shi, Y; Yang, L; Bayly, P V

    2011-01-01

    Much is known about the biophysical mechanisms involved in cell crawling, but how these processes are coordinated to produce directed motion is not well understood. Here, we propose a new hypothesis whereby local cytoskeletal contraction generates fluid flow through the lamellipodium, with the pressure at the front of the cell facilitating actin polymerization which pushes the leading edge forward. The contraction, in turn, is regulated by stress in the cytoskeleton. To test this hypothesis, finite element models for a crawling cell are presented. These models are based on nonlinear poroelasticity theory, modified to include the effects of active contraction and growth, which are regulated by mechanical feedback laws. Results from the models agree reasonably well with published experimental data for cell speed, actin flow, and cytoskeletal deformation in migrating fish epidermal keratocytes. The models also suggest that oscillations can occur for certain ranges of parameter values. PMID:21765817

  3. Mechanical models of the cellular cytoskeletal network for the analysis of intracellular mechanical properties and force distributions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Jung; Wu, Chia-Ching; Su, Fong-Chin

    2012-12-01

    The cytoskeleton, which is the major mechanical component of cells, supports the cell body and regulates the cellular motility to assist the cell in performing its biological functions. Several cytoskeletal network models have been proposed to investigate the mechanical properties of cells. This review paper summarizes these models with a focus on the prestressed cable network, the semi-flexible chain network, the open-cell foam, the tensegrity, and the granular models. The components, material parameters, types of connection joints, tension conditions, and the advantages and disadvantages of each model are evaluated from a structural and biological point of view. The underlying mechanisms that are associated with the morphological changes of spreading cells are expected to be simulated using a cytoskeletal model; however, it is still paid less attention most likely due to the lack of a suitable cytoskeletal model that can accurately model the spreading process. In this review article, the established cytoskeletal models are hoped to provide useful information for the development of future cytoskeletal models with different degrees of cell attachment for the study of the mechanical mechanisms underlying the cellular behaviors in response to external stimulations. PMID:23062682

  4. Methods for modeling cytoskeletal and DNA filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review summarizes the models that researchers use to represent the conformations and dynamics of cytoskeletal and DNA filaments. It focuses on models that address individual filaments in continuous space. Conformation models include the freely jointed, Gaussian, angle-biased chain (ABC), and wormlike chain (WLC) models, of which the first three bend at discrete joints and the last bends continuously. Predictions from the WLC model generally agree well with experiment. Dynamics models include the Rouse, Zimm, stiff rod, dynamic WLC, and reptation models, of which the first four apply to isolated filaments and the last to entangled filaments. Experiments show that the dynamic WLC and reptation models are most accurate. They also show that biological filaments typically experience strong hydrodynamic coupling and/or constrained motion. Computer simulation methods that address filament dynamics typically compute filament segment velocities from local forces using the Langevin equation and then integrate these velocities with explicit or implicit methods; the former are more versatile and the latter are more efficient. Much remains to be discovered in biological filament modeling. In particular, filament dynamics in living cells are not well understood, and current computational methods are too slow and not sufficiently versatile. Although primarily a review, this paper also presents new statistical calculations for the ABC and WLC models. Additionally, it corrects several discrepancies in the literature about bending and torsional persistence length definitions, and their relations to flexural and torsional rigidities. (topical review)

  5. Reinforcement versus fluidization in cytoskeletal mechanoresponsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Krishnan

    Full Text Available Every adherent eukaryotic cell exerts appreciable traction forces upon its substrate. Moreover, every resident cell within the heart, great vessels, bladder, gut or lung routinely experiences large periodic stretches. As an acute response to such stretches the cytoskeleton can stiffen, increase traction forces and reinforce, as reported by some, or can soften and fluidize, as reported more recently by our laboratory, but in any given circumstance it remains unknown which response might prevail or why. Using a novel nanotechnology, we show here that in loading conditions expected in most physiological circumstances the localized reinforcement response fails to scale up to the level of homogeneous cell stretch; fluidization trumps reinforcement. Whereas the reinforcement response is known to be mediated by upstream mechanosensing and downstream signaling, results presented here show the fluidization response to be altogether novel: it is a direct physical effect of mechanical force acting upon a structural lattice that is soft and fragile. Cytoskeletal softness and fragility, we argue, is consistent with early evolutionary adaptations of the eukaryotic cell to material properties of a soft inert microenvironment.

  6. TGF-beta1 enhances SDF-1alpha-induced chemotaxis and homing of naive T cells by up-regulating CXCR4 expression and downstream cytoskeletal effector molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franitza, Susanne; Kollet, Orit; Brill, Alexander; Vaday, Gayle G; Petit, Isabelle; Lapidot, Tsvee; Alon, Ronen; Lider, Ofer

    2002-01-01

    The migration of immunocytes within the extracellular matrix (ECM) is influenced by the activation state of the incoming cell and its responses to the presence of chemokines and cytokines. We studied the regulatory role of TGF-beta1 on T cell homing to secondary lymphatic organs, such as the spleen, and chemotaxis within an ECM-like environment in using an ECM-like 3-dimensional gel system designed to follow the migration of individual leukocytes along chemokine gradients in real time. The numbers of migrating naive, but not memory T cells toward SDF-1alpha markedly increased after pre-incubating the cells with TGF-beta1 (0.25 ng/ml) for 24 h. The mechanisms underlying TGFbeta1-modulated migration involve the up-regulation of the expression of the SDF-1alpha receptor CXCR4, the enhancement of the SDF-1alpha-induced actin polymerization, and increased phosphorylation of Pyk2, a focal adhesion kinase involved in integrin-mediated lymphocyte migration, adhesion and interactions with ECM. Interestingly, priming of naive human T cells with TGF-beta1 increased homing of these cells to the spleen of NOD/SCID mice in a CXCR4-dependent manner. We propose that the effect of TGF-beta1 on the chemotaxis of naive T cells may be important in the locomotion of naive T cells toward SDF-1alpha-rich niches. PMID:11754360

  7. Random walks of cytoskeletal motors in open and closed compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Lipowsky; S. Klumpp

    2001-01-01

    Random walks of molecular motors, which bind to and unbind from cytoskeletal filaments, are studied theoretically. The bound and unbound motors undergo directed and nondirected motion, respectively. Motors in open compartments exhibit anomalous drift velocities. Motors in closed compartments generat

  8. ZEB1 drives prometastatic actin cytoskeletal remodeling by downregulating miR-34a expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young-Ho; Gibbons, Don L.; Chakravarti, Deepavali; Creighton, Chad J.; Rizvi, Zain H.; Adams, Henry P.; Pertsemlidis, Alexander; Gregory, Philip A.; Wright, Josephine A.; Goodall, Gregory J.; Flores, Elsa R.; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic cancer is extremely difficult to treat, and the presence of metastases greatly reduces a cancer patient’s likelihood of long-term survival. The ZEB1 transcriptional repressor promotes metastasis through downregulation of microRNAs (miRs) that are strong inducers of epithelial differentiation and inhibitors of stem cell factors. Given that each miR can target multiple genes with diverse functions, we posited that the prometastatic network controlled by ZEB1 extends beyond these processes. We tested this hypothesis using a mouse model of human lung adenocarcinoma metastasis driven by ZEB1, human lung carcinoma cells, and human breast carcinoma cells. Transcriptional profiling studies revealed that ZEB1 controls the expression of numerous oncogenic and tumor-suppressive miRs, including miR-34a. Ectopic expression of miR-34a decreased tumor cell invasion and metastasis, inhibited the formation of promigratory cytoskeletal structures, suppressed activation of the RHO GTPase family, and regulated a gene expression signature enriched in cytoskeletal functions and predictive of outcome in human lung adenocarcinomas. We identified several miR-34a target genes, including Arhgap1, which encodes a RHO GTPase activating protein that was required for tumor cell invasion. These findings demonstrate that ZEB1 drives prometastatic actin cytoskeletal remodeling by downregulating miR-34a expression and provide a compelling rationale to develop miR-34a as a therapeutic agent in lung cancer patients. PMID:22850877

  9. The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistutta, R; Sarno, S; De Moliner, E;

    2000-01-01

    , presents a molecular twofold axis, with each peptide interacting with both alpha chains. In the derived model of the holoenzyme, the regulatory subunits are positioned on the opposite side with respect to the opening of the catalytic sites, that remain accessible to substrates and cosubstrates. The beta......The crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic alpha subunit of Zea mays CK2 and a 23-mer peptide corresponding the C-terminal sequence 181-203 of the human CK2 regulatory beta subunit has been determined at 3.16-A resolution. The complex, composed of two alpha chains and two peptides...... subunit can influence the catalytic activity both directly and by promoting the formation of the alpha2 dimer, in which each alpha chain interacts with the active site of the other. Furthermore, the two active sites are so close in space that they can simultaneously bind and phosphorylate two...

  10. Drosophila comes of age as a model system for understanding the function of cytoskeletal proteins in cells, tissues, and organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodal, Avital A; Del Signore, Steven J; Martin, Adam C

    2015-05-01

    For the last 100 years, Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerhouse genetic system for understanding mechanisms of inheritance, development, and behavior in animals. In recent years, advances in imaging and genetic tools have led to Drosophila becoming one of the most effective systems for unlocking the subcellular functions of proteins (and particularly cytoskeletal proteins) in complex developmental settings. In this review, written for non-Drosophila experts, we will discuss critical technical advances that have enabled these cell biological insights, highlighting three examples of cytoskeletal discoveries that have arisen as a result: (1) regulation of Arp2/3 complex in myoblast fusion, (2) cooperation of the actin filament nucleators Spire and Cappuccino in establishment of oocyte polarity, and (3) coordination of supracellular myosin cables. These specific examples illustrate the unique power of Drosophila both to uncover new cytoskeletal structures and functions, and to place these discoveries in a broader in vivo context, providing insights that would have been impossible in a cell culture model or in vitro. Many of the cellular structures identified in Drosophila have clear counterparts in mammalian cells and tissues, and therefore elucidating cytoskeletal functions in Drosophila will be broadly applicable to other organisms.

  11. Regulation of Ikaros function by casein kinase 2 and protein phosphatase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy; K; Erbe; Aleksandar; Savic; Sinisa; Dovat

    2011-01-01

    The Ikaros gene encodes a zinc finger,DNA-binding protein that regulates gene transcription and chromatin remodeling.Ikaros is a master regulator of hematopoiesis and an established tumor suppressor.Moderate alteration of Ikaros activity (e.g.haploinsufficiency) appears to be sufficient to promote malignant transformation in human hematopoietic cells.This raises questions about the mechanisms that normally regulate Ikaros function and the potential of these mechanisms to contribute to the development of leukemia.The focus of this review is the regulation of Ikaros function by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.Site-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros by casein kinase 2 (CK2) controls Ikaros DNA-binding ability and subcellular localization.As a consequence,the ability of Ikaros to regulate cell cycle progression,chromatin remodeling,target gene expression,and thymocyte differentiation are controlled by CK2.In addition,hyperphosphorylation of Ikaros by CK2 leads to decreased Ikaros levels due to ubiquitinmediated degradation.Dephosphorylation of Ikaros by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) acts in opposition to CK2 to increase Ikaros stability and restore Ikaros DNA binding ability and pericentromeric localization.Thus,the CK2 and PP1 pathways act in concert to regulate Ikaros activity in hematopoiesis and as a tumor suppressor.This highlights the importance of these signal transduction pathways as potential mediators of leukemogenesis via their role in regulating the activities of Ikaros.

  12. Fibroblast cytoskeletal remodeling contributes to connective tissue tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Helene M; Bouffard, Nicole A; Fox, James R; Palmer, Bradley M; Wu, Junru; Iatridis, James C; Barnes, William D; Badger, Gary J; Howe, Alan K

    2011-05-01

    The visco-elastic behavior of connective tissue is generally attributed to the material properties of the extracellular matrix rather than cellular activity. We have previously shown that fibroblasts within areolar connective tissue exhibit dynamic cytoskeletal remodeling within minutes in response to tissue stretch ex vivo and in vivo. Here, we tested the hypothesis that fibroblasts, through this cytoskeletal remodeling, actively contribute to the visco-elastic behavior of the whole tissue. We measured significantly increased tissue tension when cellular function was broadly inhibited by sodium azide and when cytoskeletal dynamics were compromised by disrupting microtubules (with colchicine) or actomyosin contractility (via Rho kinase inhibition). These treatments led to a decrease in cell body cross-sectional area and cell field perimeter (obtained by joining the end of all of a fibroblast's processes). Suppressing lamellipodia formation by inhibiting Rac-1 decreased cell body cross-sectional area but did not affect cell field perimeter or tissue tension. Thus, by changing shape, fibroblasts can dynamically modulate the visco-elastic behavior of areolar connective tissue through Rho-dependent cytoskeletal mechanisms. These results have broad implications for our understanding of the dynamic interplay of forces between fibroblasts and their surrounding matrix, as well as for the neural, vascular, and immune cell populations residing within connective tissue.

  13. Artificial cytoskeletal structures within enzymatically active bio-inorganic protocells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravinash Krishna; Li, Mei; Olof, Sam N; Patil, Avinash J; Mann, Stephen

    2013-02-11

    The fabrication of enzymatically active, semi-permeable bio-inorganic protocells capable of self-assembling a cytoskeletal-like interior and undergoing small-molecule dephosphorylation reactions is described. Reversible disassembly of an amino acid-derived supramolecular hydrogel within the internalized reaction space is used to tune the enzymatic activity of the nanoparticle-bounded inorganic compartments. PMID:23027575

  14. Cytoskeleton, cytoskeletal interactions, and vascular endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jingli Wang,1 Michael E Widlansky1,21Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Medicine Division, 2Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USAAbstract: Far from being inert, the vascular endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular function. While the endothelium participates in autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signaling, it also transduces mechanical signals from the cell surface involving key cell structural elements. In this review, we discuss the structure of the vascular endothelium and its relationship to traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical cardiovascular events. Further, we review the emerging evidence that cell structural elements, including the glycocalyx, intercellular junctions, and cytoskeleton elements, help the endothelium to communicate with its environment to regulate vascular function, including vessel permeability and signal transduction via nitric oxide bioavailability. Further work is necessary to better delineate the regulatory relationships between known key regulators of vascular function and endothelial cell structural elements.Keywords: endothelium, shear stress, eNOS, cardiovascular risk factors, glycocalyx

  15. Molecular Mechanotransduction: how forces trigger cytoskeletal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlicher, Allen

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical stresses elicit cellular reactions mediated by chemical signals. Defective responses to forces underlie human medical disorders, such as cardiac failure and pulmonary injury. Despite detailed knowledge of the cytoskeleton's structure, the specific molecular switches that convert mechanical stimuli into chemical signals have remained elusive. Here we identify the actin-binding protein, filamin A (FLNa) as a central mechanotransduction element of the cytoskeleton by using Fluorescence Loss After photoConversion (FLAC), a novel high-speed alternative to FRAP. We reconstituted a minimal system consisting of actin filaments, FLNa and two FLNa-binding partners: the cytoplasmic tail of ß-integrin, and FilGAP. Integrins form an essential mechanical linkage between extracellular and intracellular environments, with ß integrin tails connecting to the actin cytoskeleton by binding directly to filamin. FilGAP is a FLNa-binding GTPase-activating protein specific for Rac, which in vivo regulates cell spreading and bleb formation. We demonstrate that both externally-imposed bulk shear and myosin II driven forces differentially regulate the binding of integrin and FilGAP to FLNa. Consistent with structural predictions, strain increases ß-integrin binding to FLNa, whereas it causes FilGAP to dissociate from FLNa, providing a direct and specific molecular basis for cellular mechanotransduction. These results identify the first molecular mechanotransduction element within the actin cytoskeleton, revealing that mechanical strain of key proteins regulates the binding of signaling molecules. Moreover, GAP activity has been shown to switch cell movement from mesenchymal to amoeboid motility, suggesting that mechanical forces directly impact the invasiveness of cancer.

  16. Inactivation of the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species during protein kinase CK2 downregulation-mediated senescence in human colon cancer and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Yeol; Bae, Young-Seuk

    2016-09-01

    We previously showed that protein kinase CK2 downregulation mediates senescence through the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-p53-p21(Cip1/WAF1) pathway in various human cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with ROS production during CK2 downregulation-induced senescence in human colon cancer HCT116 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. FoxO3a overexpression suppressed ROS production and p53 stabilization induced by a CK2α knockdown. CK2α downregulation induced nuclear export of FoxO3a through stimulation of AKT-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO3a and decreased transcription of its target genes (Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, and catalase). In contrast, CK2α overexpression inhibited AKT-mediated FoxO3a phosphorylation. This resulted in nuclear accumulation of FoxO3a, and elevated expression of its target genes. Therefore, these data indicate for the first time that CK2 downregulation stimulates ROS generation by inhibiting FoxO3a during premature senescence in human colon and breast cancer cells. PMID:27470586

  17. The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 accelerates the degradation of CDC25A phosphatase through the checkpoint kinase Chk1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzer, Jan Nicolas; Guerra, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Human CDC25 phosphatases play an important role in cell cycle regulation by removing inhibitory phosphate groups on cyclin-CDKs. Chk1 has been shown to phosphorylate CDC25 family members down-regulating their phosphatase activity through distinct mechanisms. The kinase activity of Chk1 is evident...... cell cycle progression is shown to enhance CDC25A degradation, and this occurs in a manner similar to that by which CDC25A is down-regulated upon activation of cellular checkpoint responses. By using RNA interference to specifically deplete cells of Chk1, we demonstrate that Chk1 mediates the down-regulation...... cell cycle regulation and indicate the mechanism by which CDC25A turnover might be regulated by Chk1 in the absence of DNA damage....

  18. Implementing cell contractility in filament-based cytoskeletal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallqvist, B

    2016-02-01

    Cells are known to respond over time to mechanical stimuli, even actively generating force at longer times. In this paper, a microstructural filament-based cytoskeletal network model is extended to incorporate this active response, and a computational study to assess the influence on relaxation behaviour was performed. The incorporation of an active response was achieved by including a strain energy function of contractile activity from the cross-linked actin filaments. A four-state chemical model and strain energy function was adopted, and generalisation to three dimensions and the macroscopic deformation field was performed by integration over the unit sphere. Computational results in MATLAB and ABAQUS/Explicit indicated an active cellular response over various time-scales, dependent on contractile parameters. Important features such as force generation and increasing cell stiffness due to prestress are qualitatively predicted. The work in this paper can easily be extended to encompass other filament-based cytoskeletal models as well. PMID:26899417

  19. Visualization of Cytoskeletal Elements by the Atomic Force Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Berdyyeva, T; Sokolov, I

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly visualize cytoskeletal fibers in human foreskin epithelial cells. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 in a low concentration was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized in either liquid or air-dried ambient conditions. These two types of scanning provide complimentary information. Scanning in liquid visualizes the surface filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas scanning in air shows both the surface filaments and the total "volume" of the cytoskeletal fibers. The smallest fibers observed were ca. 50 nm in diameter. The lateral resolution of this technique was ca.20 nm, which can be increased to a single nanometer level by choosing sharper AFM tips. Because the AFM is a true three dimensional technique, we are able to quantify the observed cytoskeleton by its density and volume. The types of fibers can be identified by their size, similar to...

  20. Dynamical organization of the cytoskeletal cortex probed by micropipette aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Brugués, Jan; Maugis, Benoit; Casademunt, Jaume; Nassoy, Pierre; Amblard, François; Sens, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Bleb-based cell motility proceeds by the successive inflation and retraction of large spherical membrane protrusions (“blebs”) coupled with substrate adhesion. In addition to their role in motility, cellular blebs constitute a remarkable illustration of the dynamical interactions between the cytoskeletal cortex and the plasma membrane. Here we study the bleb-based motions of Entamoeba histolytica in the constrained geometry of a micropipette. We construct a generic theoretical model that comb...

  1. Epigenetic repression of ribosomal RNA transcription by ROCK-dependent aberrant cytoskeletal organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tse-Hsiang; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Lee, Hsiao-Hui; Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Chang, Zee-Fen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis is regulated by cellular energy and proliferation status. In this study, we investigated rRNA gene transcription in response to cytoskeletal stress. Our data revealed that the cell shape constrained by isotropic but not elongated micropatterns in HeLa cells led to a significant reduction in rRNA transcription dependent on ROCK. Expression of a dominant-active form of ROCK also repressed rRNA transcription. Isotropic constraint and ROCK over-activation led to different types of aberrant F-actin organization, but their suppression effects on rRNA transcription were similarly reversed by inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) or overexpression of a dominant negative form of Nesprin, which shields the signal transmitted from actin filament to the nuclear interior. We further showed that the binding of HDAC1 to the active fraction of rDNA genes is increased by ROCK over-activation, thus reducing H3K9/14 acetylation and suppressing transcription. Our results demonstrate an epigenetic control of active rDNA genes that represses rRNA transcription in response to the cytoskeletal stress. PMID:27350000

  2. Cytoskeletal disease: a role in the etiology of adult periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binderman, I; Gadban, N; Yaffe, A

    2014-01-01

    All cells and organisms across the evolutionary spectrum, from the most primitive to the most complex, are mechanosensitive. As the cytoskeleton is a key in controlling the normal basal prestress of cells and therefore is involved in virtually all physiological cellular processes, abnormalities in this essential cellular characteristic may result in diseases. Indeed, many diseases have now been associated with abnormalities in cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal proteins. We propose that adult periodontitis is, at least in part, such a cytoskeletal disease. It is well established that adult periodontitis starts by bacterial invasion at the interface between the tooth surface and marginal gingiva that induces a local inflammatory response. The inflammatory cells release metalloproteinases which degrade gingival collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of local tissue integrity that reduces the normal prestressed cell-extracellular matrix network. This is a major signaling trigger that induces a local and rapid release of ATP, which then activates P2X receptors and stimulates a calcium influx, further activating osteoclastic resorption of the alveolar bone. As periodontitis is a chronic disease, it seems reasonable to suggest that agents that maintain cytoskeletal tensegrity, for example, inhibitors of ATP receptors, may diminish the bone loss and may have a role in future periodontal therapy. PMID:23679579

  3. Casein Kinase 2 Regulates the mRNA-destabilizing Activity of Tristetraprolin*

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won Hyeok; Lee, Hyun Hee; Vo, Mai-Tram; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Ko, Myoung Seok; Im, Yeong-Cheol; Min, Young Joo; Lee, Byung Ju; Cho, Wha Ja; Park, Jeong Woo

    2011-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an AU-rich element-binding protein that regulates mRNA stability. We previously showed that TTP acts as a negative regulator of VEGF gene expression in colon cancer cells. The p38 MAPK pathway is known to suppress the TTP activity. However, until now the signaling pathway to enhance TTP function is not well known. Here, we show that casein kinase 2 (CK2) enhances the TTP function in the regulation of the VEGF expression in colon cancer cells. CK2 increased TTP protein...

  4. Characterization of cytoskeletal and junctional proteins expressed by cells cultured from human arachnoid granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Bhavya C

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arachnoid granulations (AGs are projections of the arachnoid membrane into the dural venous sinuses. They function, along with the extracranial lymphatics, to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF to the systemic venous circulation. Disruption of normal CSF dynamics may result in increased intracranial pressures causing many problems including headaches and visual loss, as in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus. To study the role of AGs in CSF egress, we have grown cells from human AG tissue in vitro and have characterized their expression of those cytoskeletal and junctional proteins that may function in the regulation of CSF outflow. Methods Human AG tissue was obtained at autopsy, and explanted to cell culture dishes coated with fibronectin. Typically, cells migrated from the explanted tissue after 7–10 days in vitro. Second or third passage cells were seeded onto fibronectin-coated coverslips at confluent densities and grown to confluency for 7–10 days. Arachnoidal cells were tested using immunocytochemical methods for the expression of several common cytoskeletal and junctional proteins. Second and third passage cultures were also labeled with the common endothelial markers CD-31 or VE-cadherin (CD144 and their expression was quantified using flow cytometry analysis. Results Confluent cultures of arachnoidal cells expressed the intermediate filament protein vimentin. Cytokeratin intermediate filaments were expressed variably in a subpopulation of cells. The cultures also expressed the junctional proteins connexin43, desmoplakin 1 and 2, E-cadherin, and zonula occludens-1. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that second and third passage cultures failed to express the endothelial cell markers CD31 or VE-cadherin in significant quantities, thereby showing that these cultures did not consist of endothelial cells from the venous sinus wall. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of

  5. Cytoskeletal mechanics in pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, H.; Wang, N.; Narishige, T.; Ingber, D. E.; Zile, M. R.; Cooper, G. 4th

    1997-01-01

    We have shown that the cellular contractile dysfunction characteristic of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy results not from an abnormality intrinsic to the myofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton but rather from an increased density of the microtubule component of the extramyofilament portion of the cardiocyte cytoskeleton. To determine how, in physical terms, this increased microtubule density mechanically overloads the contractile apparatus at the cellular level, we measured cytoskeletal stiffness and apparent viscosity in isolated cardiocytes via magnetic twisting cytometry, a technique by which magnetically induced force is applied directly to the cytoskeleton through integrin-coupled ferromagnetic beads coated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide. Measurements were made in two groups of cardiocytes from cats with right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding: (1) those from the pressure-overloaded RV and (2) those from the normally loaded same-animal control left ventricle (LV). Cytoskeletal stiffness increased almost twofold, from 8.53 +/- 0.77 dyne/cm2 in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 16.46 +/- 1.32 dyne/cm2 in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Cytoskeletal apparent viscosity increased almost fourfold, from 20.97 +/- 1.92 poise in the normally loaded LV cardiocytes to 87.85 +/- 6.95 poise in the hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. In addition to these baseline data showing differing stiffness and, especially, apparent viscosity in the two groups of cardiocytes, microtubule depolymerization by colchicine was found to return both the stiffness and the apparent viscosity of the pressure overload-hypertrophied RV cells fully to normal. Conversely, microtubule hyperpolymerization by taxol increased the stiffness and apparent viscosity values of normally loaded LV cardiocytes to the abnormal values given above for pressure-hypertrophied RV cardiocytes. Thus, increased microtubule density constitutes primarily a viscous load on

  6. On the significance of microtubule flexural behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrbod, Mehrdad; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative description of cell mechanics has challenged biological scientists for the past two decades. Various structural models have been attempted to analyze the structure of the cytoskeleton. One important aspect that has been largely ignored in all these modeling approaches is related to the flexural and buckling behavior of microtubular filaments. The objective of this paper is to explore the influence of this flexural and buckling behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.In vitro the microtubules are observed to buckle in the first mode, reminiscent of a free, simply-supported beam. In vivo images of microtubules, however, indicate that the buckling mostly occurs in higher modes. This buckling mode switch takes place mostly because of the lateral support of microtubules via their connections to actin and intermediate filaments. These lateral loads are exerted throughout the microtubule length and yield a considerable bending behavior that, unless properly accounted for, would produce erroneous results in the modeling and analysis of the cytoskeletal mechanics.One of the promising attempts towards mechanical modeling of the cytoskeleton is the tensegrity model, which simplifies the complex network of cytoskeletal filaments into a combination merely of tension-bearing actin filaments and compression-bearing microtubules. Interestingly, this discrete model can qualitatively explain many experimental observations in cell mechanics. However, evidence suggests that the simplicity of this model may undermine the accuracy of its predictions, given the model's underlying assumption that "every single member bears solely either tensile or compressive behavior," i.e. neglecting the flexural behavior of the microtubule filaments. We invoke an anisotropic continuum model for microtubules and compare the bending energy stored in a single microtubule with its axial strain energy at the verge of buckling. Our results suggest that the bending energy can exceed the axial energy

  7. On the significance of microtubule flexural behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mehrbod

    Full Text Available Quantitative description of cell mechanics has challenged biological scientists for the past two decades. Various structural models have been attempted to analyze the structure of the cytoskeleton. One important aspect that has been largely ignored in all these modeling approaches is related to the flexural and buckling behavior of microtubular filaments. The objective of this paper is to explore the influence of this flexural and buckling behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.In vitro the microtubules are observed to buckle in the first mode, reminiscent of a free, simply-supported beam. In vivo images of microtubules, however, indicate that the buckling mostly occurs in higher modes. This buckling mode switch takes place mostly because of the lateral support of microtubules via their connections to actin and intermediate filaments. These lateral loads are exerted throughout the microtubule length and yield a considerable bending behavior that, unless properly accounted for, would produce erroneous results in the modeling and analysis of the cytoskeletal mechanics.One of the promising attempts towards mechanical modeling of the cytoskeleton is the tensegrity model, which simplifies the complex network of cytoskeletal filaments into a combination merely of tension-bearing actin filaments and compression-bearing microtubules. Interestingly, this discrete model can qualitatively explain many experimental observations in cell mechanics. However, evidence suggests that the simplicity of this model may undermine the accuracy of its predictions, given the model's underlying assumption that "every single member bears solely either tensile or compressive behavior," i.e. neglecting the flexural behavior of the microtubule filaments. We invoke an anisotropic continuum model for microtubules and compare the bending energy stored in a single microtubule with its axial strain energy at the verge of buckling. Our results suggest that the bending energy can

  8. Arabidopsis Actin-Depolymerizing Factor-4 links pathogen perception, defense activation and transcription to cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Porter

    Full Text Available The primary role of Actin-Depolymerizing Factors (ADFs is to sever filamentous actin, generating pointed ends, which in turn are incorporated into newly formed filaments, thus supporting stochastic actin dynamics. Arabidopsis ADF4 was recently shown to be required for the activation of resistance in Arabidopsis following infection with the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst expressing the effector protein AvrPphB. Herein, we demonstrate that the expression of RPS5, the cognate resistance protein of AvrPphB, was dramatically reduced in the adf4 mutant, suggesting a link between actin cytoskeletal dynamics and the transcriptional regulation of R-protein activation. By examining the PTI (PAMP Triggered Immunity response in the adf4 mutant when challenged with Pst expressing AvrPphB, we observed a significant reduction in the expression of the PTI-specific target gene FRK1 (Flg22-Induced Receptor Kinase 1. These data are in agreement with recent observations demonstrating a requirement for RPS5 in PTI-signaling in the presence of AvrPphB. Furthermore, MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase-signaling was significantly reduced in the adf4 mutant, while no such reduction was observed in the rps5-1 point mutation under similar conditions. Isoelectric focusing confirmed phosphorylation of ADF4 at serine-6, and additional in planta analyses of ADF4's role in immune signaling demonstrates that nuclear localization is phosphorylation independent, while localization to the actin cytoskeleton is linked to ADF4 phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest a novel role for ADF4 in controlling gene-for-gene resistance activation, as well as MAPK-signaling, via the coordinated regulation of actin cytoskeletal dynamics and R-gene transcription.

  9. Stress and strain in the contractile and cytoskeletal filaments of airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhong; Bosse, Ynuk; Brown, Nathan; Chin, Leslie Y M; Connolly, Sarah C; Fairbank, Nigel J; King, Greg G; Maksym, Geoffrey N; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y; Stephen, Newman L

    2009-10-01

    Stress and strain are omnipresent in the lung due to constant lung volume fluctuation associated with respiration, and they modulate the phenotype and function of all cells residing in the airways including the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell. There is ample evidence that the ASM cell is very sensitive to its physical environment, and can alter its structure and/or function accordingly, resulting in either desired or undesired consequences. The forces that are either conferred to the ASM cell due to external stretching or generated inside the cell must be borne and transmitted inside the cytoskeleton (CSK). Thus, maintaining appropriate levels of stress and strain within the CSK is essential for maintaining normal function. Despite the importance, the mechanisms regulating/dysregulating ASM cytoskeletal filaments in response to stress and strain remained poorly understood until only recently. For example, it is now understood that ASM length and force are dynamically regulated, and both can adapt over a wide range of length, rendering ASM one of the most malleable living tissues. The malleability reflects the CSK's dynamic mechanical properties and plasticity, both of which strongly interact with the loading on the CSK, and all together ultimately determines airway narrowing in pathology. Here we review the latest advances in our understanding of stress and strain in ASM cells, including the organization of contractile and cytoskeletal filaments, range and adaptation of functional length, structural and functional changes of the cell in response to mechanical perturbation, ASM tone as a mediator of strain-induced responses, and the novel glassy dynamic behaviors of the CSK in relation to asthma pathophysiology.

  10. Association and regulation of casein kinase 2 activity by adenomatous polyposis coli protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Li, Dongxia; Krebs, Edwin G.; Yuasa, Yasuhito; Homma, Yoshimi

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis coli and also sporadic colorectal cancer development. By using antibodies raised against the N-terminal region of APC protein, we have detected the variable masses of endogenous APC proteins in individual cell lines established from human colorectal carcinomas caused by nonsense mutations of the gene. Phosphorylation of immunoprecipitates of full-length and truncated APC were observed in in vitro kinase reaction, indicating association of APC with protein kinase activity. The kinase activity complexed with APC was sensitive to heparin and used GTP as phosphoryl donor, suggesting an involvement of casein kinase 2 (CK2). Both CK2α- and β-subunits were found to associate with APC in immunoprecipitates as well as in pull-down assays, with preferential interaction of APC with tetrameric CK2 holoenzyme. In synchronized cell populations, the association of APC with CK2 was cell cycle dependent, with the highest association in G2/M. Unexpectedly, APC immunoprecipitates containing full-length APC protein inhibited CK2 in vitro, whereas immunoprecipitates of truncated APC had little effect. This was confirmed by using recombinant APC, and the inhibitory region was localized to the C terminus of APC between residues 2086 and 2394. Overexpression of this fragment in SW480 cells suppressed cell proliferation rates as well as tumorigenesis. These results demonstrate a previously uncharacterized functional interaction between the tumor suppressor protein APC and CK2 and suggest that growth-inhibitory effects of APC may be regulated by inhibition of CK2. PMID:11972058

  11. Altered cytoskeletal structures in transformed cells exhibiting obviously metastatic capabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZHONGXIANG; WUBINGQUAN; 等

    1990-01-01

    Cytoskeletal changes in transformed cells (LM-51) eshibiting obviously metastatic capabilities were investigated by utilization of double-fluorescent labelling through combinations of:(1) tubulin indirect immunofluorescence plus Rhodamine-phalloidin staining of F-actins;(2) indirect immunofluorescent staining with α-actinin polyclonal-and vinculin monoclonal antibodies.The LM-51 cells which showed metastatic index of >50% were derived from lung metastasis in nude mice after subcutaneous inoculation of human highly metastatic tumor DNA transfected NIH3T3 cell transformants.The parent NIH3T3 cells exhibited well-organized microtubules,prominent stress fibers and adhesion plaques while their transformants showed remarkable cytoskeletal alterations:(1)reduced microtubules but increased MTOC fluorescence;(2)disrupted stress fibers and fewer adhesion plaques with their protein components redistributed in the cytoplasm;(3)Factin-and α-actinin/vinculin aggregates appeared in the cytoplasm.These aggregates were dot-like,varied in size(0.1-0.4μm) and number,located near the ventral surface of the cells.TPA-induced actin/vinculin bodies were studied too.Indications that actin and α-actinin/vinculin redistribution might be important alterations involved in the expression of metastatic capabilities of LM-51 transformed cells were discussed.

  12. Role of cyclic nucleotide-dependent actin cytoskeletal dynamics:Ca(2+](i and force suppression in forskolin-pretreated porcine coronary arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M Hocking

    Full Text Available Initiation of force generation during vascular smooth muscle contraction involves a rise in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+]i and phosphorylation of myosin light chains (MLC. However, reversal of these two processes alone does not account for the force inhibition that occurs during relaxation or inhibition of contraction, implicating that other mechanisms, such as actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, play a role in the suppression of force. In this study, we hypothesize that forskolin-induced force suppression is dependent upon changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. To focus on the actin cytoskeletal changes, a physiological model was developed in which forskolin treatment of intact porcine coronary arteries (PCA prior to treatment with a contractile agonist resulted in complete suppression of force. Pretreatment of PCA with forskolin suppressed histamine-induced force generation but did not abolish [Ca(2+]i rise or MLC phosphorylation. Additionally, forskolin pretreatment reduced filamentous actin in histamine-treated tissues, and prevented histamine-induced changes in the phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory proteins HSP20, VASP, cofilin, and paxillin. Taken together, these results suggest that forskolin-induced complete force suppression is dependent upon the actin cytoskeletal regulation initiated by the phosphorylation changes of the actin regulatory proteins and not on the MLC dephosphorylation. This model of complete force suppression can be employed to further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for smooth muscle tone, and may offer cues to pathological situations, such as hypertension and vasospasm.

  13. Cell shape, cytoskeletal mechanics, and cell cycle control in angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, D. E.; Prusty, D.; Sun, Z.; Betensky, H.; Wang, N.

    1995-01-01

    Capillary endothelial cells can be switched between growth and differentiation by altering cell-extracellular matrix interactions and thereby, modulating cell shape. Studies were carried out to determine when cell shape exerts its growth-regulatory influence during cell cycle progression and to explore the role of cytoskeletal structure and mechanics in this control mechanism. When G0-synchronized cells were cultured in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-containing defined medium on dishes coated with increasing densities of fibronectin or a synthetic integrin ligand (RGD-containing peptide), cell spreading, nuclear extension, and DNA synthesis all increased in parallel. To determine the minimum time cells must be adherent and spread on extracellular matrix (ECM) to gain entry into S phase, cells were removed with trypsin or induced to retract using cytochalasin D at different times after plating. Both approaches revealed that cells must remain extended for approximately 12-15 h and hence, most of G1, in order to enter S phase. After this restriction point was passed, normally 'anchorage-dependent' endothelial cells turned on DNA synthesis even when round and in suspension. The importance of actin-containing microfilaments in shape-dependent growth control was confirmed by culturing cells in the presence of cytochalasin D (25-1000 ng ml-1): dose-dependent inhibition of cell spreading, nuclear extension, and DNA synthesis resulted. In contrast, induction of microtubule disassembly using nocodazole had little effect on cell or nuclear spreading and only partially inhibited DNA synthesis. Interestingly, combination of nocodazole with a suboptimal dose of cytochalasin D (100 ng ml-1) resulted in potent inhibition of both spreading and growth, suggesting that microtubules are redundant structural elements which can provide critical load-bearing functions when microfilaments are partially compromised. Similar synergism between nocodazole and cytochalasin D was observed

  14. Hierarchical Distribution of the Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology in the Thalamus of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neuropathological research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), knowledge regarding the exact pathoanatomical distribution of the tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus of AD patients in the advanced Braak and Braak AD stages V or VI of the cortical cytoskeletal path

  15. Precortical Phase of Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Related Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Grinberg, Lea T; Bohl, Jürgen; Wharton, Stephen B; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Rüb, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most frequent progressive neuropsychiatric disorder worldwide leading to dementia. We systematically investigated the presence and extent of the AD-related cytoskeletal pathology in serial thick tissue sections through all subcortical brain nuclei that send efferent projections to the transentorhinal and entorhinal regions in three individuals with Braak and Braak AD stage 0 cortical cytoskeletal pathology and fourteen individuals with Braak and Braak AD stage I cortical cytoskeletal pathology by means of immunostainings with the anti-tau antibody AT8. These investigations revealed consistent AT8 immunoreactive tau cytoskeletal pathology in a subset of these subcortical nuclei in the Braak and Braak AD stage 0 individuals and in all of these subcortical nuclei in the Braak and Braak AD stage I individuals. The widespread affection of the subcortical nuclei in Braak and Braak AD stage I shows that the extent of the early subcortical tau cytoskeletal pathology has been considerably underestimated previously. In addition, our novel findings support the concept that subcortical nuclei become already affected during an early 'pre-cortical' evolutional phase before the first AD-related cytoskeletal changes occur in the mediobasal temporal lobe (i.e. allocortical transentorhinal and entorhinal regions). The very early involved subcortical brain regions may represent the origin of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology, from where the neuronal cytoskeletal pathology takes an ascending course toward the secondarily affected allocortex and spreads transneuronally along anatomical pathways in predictable sequences. PMID:26193084

  16. Probing mechanics and activity of cytoskeletal networks using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Nikta

    2013-03-01

    We use single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as multi-scale micro-probes to monitor transport and fluctuations in cytoskeletal networks. SWNTs are nanometer-diameter hollow carbon filaments with micrometer lengths and a tunable bending stiffness. Their persistence length varies between 20-100 microns. We study the motion of individual SWNTs in reconstituted actin networks by near-infrared fluorescence microscopy. At long times, SWNTs reptate through the networks. At short times, SWNTs sample the spectrum of thermal fluctuations in the networks. We can calculate complex shear moduli from recorded fluctuations and observe power-law scaling in equilibrium actin networks. In the non-equilibrium cytoskeleton of cells we have targeted SWNTs to kinesin motors and thereby to their microtubule tracks. We observe both transport along the tracks as well as active fluctuations of the tracks themselves. Human Frontier Science Program Cross-Disciplinary Fellow

  17. Run-and-tumble dynamics of cytoskeletal motor proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Hafner, Anne E; Rieger, Heiko; Shaebani, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motor proteins are involved in major intracellular transport processes which are vital for maintaining appropriate cellular function. The motor exhibits distinct states of motility: active motion along filaments, and effectively stationary phase in which it detaches from the filaments and performs passive diffusion in the vicinity of the detachment point due to cytoplasmic crowding. The transition rates between motion and pause phases are asymmetric in general, and considerably affected by changes in environmental conditions which influences the efficiency of cargo delivery to specific targets. By considering the motion of molecular motor on a single filament as well as a dynamic filamentous network, we present an analytical model for the dynamics of self-propelled particles which undergo frequent pause phases. The interplay between motor processivity, structural properties of filamentous network, and transition rates between the two states of motility drastically changes the dynamics: multiple t...

  18. Towards Experimental Tests of Quantum Effects in Cytoskeletal Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Miller, J H; Nawarathna, D; Skoulakis, E M C; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Kolomenskij, A A; Schüssler, H A; Luduena, R F; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Mershin, Andreas; Sanabria, Hugo; Miller, John H.; Nawarathna, Dharmakeerthna; Skoulakis, Efthimios M.C.; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E.; Kolomenskii, Alexadre A.; Schuessler, Hans A.; Luduena, Richard F.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2005-01-01

    It has become increasingly evident that fabrication of novel biomaterials through molecular self-assembly is going to play a significant role in material science and possibly the information technology of the future. Tubulin, microtubules (MTs) and the cytoskeleton are dynamic, self-assembling systems and we asked whether their structure and function contain the clues on how to fabricate biomolecular information processing devices. Here we review our neurobiological studies of transgenic Drosophila that strongly suggest the microtubular cytoskeleton is near the 'front lines' of intracellular information manipulation and storage. We also establish that spectroscopic techniques such as refractometry, surface plasmon resonance sensing and dielectric spectroscopy, coupled with molecular dynamic simulations and (quantum) electrodynamic analytical theory are useful tools in the study of the electrodynamic and possible quantum effects in cytoskeletal proteins. Implicit in our driving question is the possibility that...

  19. Cell elasticity with altered cytoskeletal architectures across multiple cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Martha E; Composto, Russell J; Eckmann, David M

    2016-08-01

    The cytoskeleton is primarily responsible for providing structural support, localization and transport of organelles, and intracellular trafficking. The structural support is supplied by actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments, which contribute to overall cell elasticity to varying degrees. We evaluate cell elasticity in five different cell types with drug-induced cytoskeletal derangements to probe how actin filaments and microtubules contribute to cell elasticity and whether it is conserved across cell type. Specifically, we measure elastic stiffness in primary chondrocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells (HUVEC), hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HUH-7), and fibrosarcoma cells (HT 1080) subjected to two cytoskeletal destabilizers: cytochalasin D and nocodazole, which disrupt actin and microtubule polymerization, respectively. Elastic stiffness is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the disruption of the cytoskeleton is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. The two cancer cell lines showed significantly reduced elastic moduli values (~0.5kPa) when compared to the three healthy cell lines (~2kPa). Non-cancer cells whose actin filaments were disrupted using cytochalasin D showed a decrease of 60-80% in moduli values compared to untreated cells of the same origin, whereas the nocodazole-treated cells showed no change in elasticity. Overall, we demonstrate actin filaments contribute more to elastic stiffness than microtubules but this result is cell type dependent. Cancer cells behaved differently, exhibiting increased stiffness as well as stiffness variability when subjected to nocodazole. We show that disruption of microtubule dynamics affects cancer cell elasticity, suggesting therapeutic drugs targeting microtubules be monitored for significant elastic changes. PMID:26874250

  20. Cytoskeletal proteins participate in conserved viral strategies across kingdoms of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Marcella L; Pogliano, Joe

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of tubulin-like cytoskeletal proteins carried on the genomes of bacteriophages that are actively used for phage propagation during both the lytic and lysogenic cycle have revealed that there at least two ways that viruses can utilize a cytoskeleton; co-opt the host cytoskeleton or bring their own homologues. Either strategy underscores the deep evolutionary relationship between viruses and cytoskeletal proteins and points to a conservation of viral strategies that crosses the kingdoms of life. Here we review some of the most recent discoveries about tubulin cytoskeletal elements encoded by phages and compare them to some of the strategies utilized by the gammaherpesvirues of mammalian cells. PMID:24055040

  1. Cytoskeletal Interactions at the Nuclear Envelope Mediated by Nesprins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surayya Taranum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesprin-1 is a giant tail-anchored nuclear envelope protein composed of an N-terminal F-actin binding domain, a long linker region formed by multiple spectrin repeats and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Based on this structure, it connects the nucleus to the actin cytoskeleton. Earlier reports had shown that Nesprin-1 binds to nuclear envelope proteins emerin and lamin through C-terminal spectrin repeats. These repeats can also self-associate. We focus on the N-terminal Nesprin-1 sequences and show that they interact with Nesprin-3, a further member of the Nesprin family, which connects the nucleus to the intermediate filament network. We show that upon ectopic expression of Nesprin-3 in COS7 cells, which are nearly devoid of Nesprin-3 in vitro, vimentin filaments are recruited to the nucleus and provide evidence for an F-actin interaction of Nesprin-3 in vitro. We propose that Nesprins through interactions amongst themselves and amongst the various Nesprins form a network around the nucleus and connect the nucleus to several cytoskeletal networks of the cell.

  2. Forcing it on: Cytoskeletal dynamics during lymphocyte activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Arpita

    2012-02-01

    Formation of the immune synapse during lymphocyte activation involves cell spreading driven by large scale physical rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton and the cell membrane. Several recent observations suggest that mechanical forces are important for efficient T cell activation. How forces arise from the dynamics of the cytoskeleton and the membrane during contact formation, and their effect on signaling activation is not well understood. We have imaged membrane topography, actin dynamics and the spatiotemporal localization of signaling clusters during the very early stages of spreading. Formation of signaling clusters was closely correlated with the movement and topography of the membrane in contact with the activating surface. Further, we observed membrane waves driven by actin polymerization originating at these signaling clusters. Actin-driven membrane protrusions likely play an important role in force generation at the immune synapse. In order to study cytoskeletal forces during T-cell activation, we studied cell spreading on elastic gels. We found that gel stiffness influences cell morphology, actin dynamics and receptor activation. Efforts to determine the quantitative relationships between cellular forces and signaling are underway. Our results suggest a role for cytoskeleton driven forces during signaling activation in lymphocytes.

  3. A model of cytoskeletal reorientation in response to substrate stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazopoulos K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Living adherent cells change their orientation in response to substrate stretching such that their cytoskeletal components reorganize in a new direction. To study this phenomenon, we model the cytoskeleton as a planar system of elastic cables and struts both pinned at their endpoints to a flat flexible substrate. Tensed (pre-strained cables represent acting stress fibers, whereas compression-bearing struts represent microtubules. We assume that in response to uniaxial substrate stretching the model reorients and deforms into a new configuration that minimizes its total potential energy. Using the Maxwell's global stability criterion, we find global minima configurations during static extension and compression of the substrate. Based on these results, we predict reorientation during cyclic stretching of the substrate. We find that in response to cyclic stretching cells either reorient transversely to the direction of stretching, or exhibit multiple configurations symmetrically distributed relative to the direction of stretching. These predictions are consistent with experimental data on living cells from the literature.

  4. Modulators of cytoskeletal reorganization in CA1 hippocampal neurons show increased expression in patients at mid-stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F Kao

    Full Text Available During the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD, hippocampal neurons undergo cytoskeletal reorganization, resulting in degenerative as well as regenerative changes. As neurofibrillary tangles form and dystrophic neurites appear, sprouting neuronal processes with growth cones emerge. Actin and tubulin are indispensable for normal neurite development and regenerative responses to injury and neurodegenerative stimuli. We have previously shown that actin capping protein beta2 subunit, Capzb2, binds tubulin and, in the presence of tau, affects microtubule polymerization necessary for neurite outgrowth and normal growth cone morphology. Accordingly, Capzb2 silencing in hippocampal neurons resulted in short, dystrophic neurites, seen in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Here we demonstrate the statistically significant increase in the Capzb2 expression in the postmortem hippocampi in persons at mid-stage, Braak and Braak stage (BB III-IV, non-familial AD in comparison to controls. The dynamics of Capzb2 expression in progressive AD stages cannot be attributed to reactive astrocytosis. Moreover, the increased expression of Capzb2 mRNA in CA1 pyramidal neurons in AD BB III-IV is accompanied by an increased mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB, mediator of synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. Thus, the up-regulation of Capzb2 and TrkB may reflect cytoskeletal reorganization and/or regenerative response occurring in hippocampal CA1 neurons at a specific stage of AD progression.

  5. Changes in cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology with metastatic ability in cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic outcome is impacted by the biophysical state of the primary tumor cell. To determine if changes in cancer cell biophysical properties facilitate metastasis, we quantified cytoskeletal biophysics in well-characterized human skin, bladder, prostate and kidney cell line pairs that differ in metastatic ability. Using magnetic twisting cytometry with optical detection, cytoskeletal dynamics was observed through spontaneous motion of surface bound marker beads and nonlinear rheology was characterized through large amplitude forced oscillations of probe beads. Measurements of cytoskeletal dynamics and nonlinear rheology differed between strongly and weakly metastatic cells. However, no set of biophysical parameters changed systematically with metastatic ability across all cell lines. Compared to their weakly metastatic counterparts, the strongly metastatic kidney cancer cells exhibited both increased cytoskeletal dynamics and stiffness at large deformation which are thought to facilitate the process of vascular invasion. (paper)

  6. MAPK uncouples cell cycle progression from cell spreading and cytoskeletal organization in cycling cells

    OpenAIRE

    Margadant, Coert; Cremers, Lobke; Sonnenberg, Arnoud; Boonstra, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cytoskeletal tension supports growth-factor-induced proliferation, and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in growth factor-stimulated cells prevents the re-expression of cyclin D and cell cycle re-entry from quiescence. In contrast to cells that enter the cell cycle from G0, cycling cells continuously express cyclin D, and are subject to major cell shape changes during the cell cycle. Here, we investigated the cell cycle requirements for cytoskeletal tension and cell sprea...

  7. The skeleton in the closet: actin cytoskeletal remodeling in β-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arous, Caroline; Halban, Philippe A

    2015-10-01

    Over the last few decades, biomedical research has considered not only the function of single cells but also the importance of the physical environment within a whole tissue, including cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Cytoskeleton organization and focal adhesions are crucial sensors for cells that enable them to rapidly communicate with the physical extracellular environment in response to extracellular stimuli, ensuring proper function and adaptation. The involvement of the microtubular-microfilamentous cytoskeleton in secretion mechanisms was proposed almost 50 years ago, since when the evolution of ever more sensitive and sophisticated methods in microscopy and in cell and molecular biology have led us to become aware of the importance of cytoskeleton remodeling for cell shape regulation and its crucial link with signaling pathways leading to β-cell function. Emerging evidence suggests that dysfunction of cytoskeletal components or extracellular matrix modification influences a number of disorders through potential actin cytoskeleton disruption that could be involved in the initiation of multiple cellular functions. Perturbation of β-cell actin cytoskeleton remodeling could arise secondarily to islet inflammation and fibrosis, possibly accounting in part for impaired β-cell function in type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on the role of actin remodeling in insulin secretion mechanisms and its close relationship with focal adhesions and myosin II.

  8. Mertk deficiency affects macrophage directional migration via disruption of cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    Full Text Available Mertk belongs to the Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases, and plays a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeletal rearrangement during phagocytosis. Phagocytosis by either professional or non-professional phagocytes is impaired in the Mertk deficient individual. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of Mertk mutation on peritoneal macrophage morphology, attachment, spreading and movement. Mertk-mutated macrophages exhibited decreased attachment, weak spreading, loss of spindle-like body shape and lack of clear leading and trailing edges within the first few hours of culture, as observed by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Time-lapse video photography recording showed that macrophage without Mertk conducted mainly random movement with oscillating swing around the cell body, and lost the directional migration action seen on the WT cells. Western blotting showed a decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK. Immunocytochemistry revealed that actin filaments and dynamic protein myosin II failed to concentrate in the leading edge of migrating cells. Microtubules were localized mainly in one side of mutant cell body, with no clear MTOC and associated radially-distributed microtubule bundles, which were clearly evident in the WT cells. Our results suggest that Mertk deficiency affects not only phagocytosis but also cell shape and migration, likely through a common regulatory mechanism on cytoskeletons.

  9. Form, Fabric, and Function of a Flagellum-Associated Cytoskeletal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Morriswood

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei is a uniflagellated protist and the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease. The single flagellum of T. brucei is essential to a number of cellular processes such as motility, and has been a longstanding focus of scientific enquiry. A number of cytoskeletal structures are associated with the flagellum in T. brucei, and one such structure—a multiprotein complex containing the repeat motif protein TbMORN1—is the focus of this review. The TbMORN1-containing complex, which was discovered less than ten years ago, is essential for the viability of the mammalian-infective form of T. brucei. The complex has an unusual asymmetric morphology, and is coiled around the flagellum to form a hook shape. Proteomic analysis using the proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID technique has elucidated a number of its components. Recent work has uncovered a role for TbMORN1 in facilitating protein entry into the cell, thus providing a link between the cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system. This review summarises the extant data on the complex, highlights the outstanding questions for future enquiry, and provides speculation as to its possible role in a size-exclusion mechanism for regulating protein entry. The review additionally clarifies the nomenclature associated with this topic, and proposes the adoption of the term “hook complex” to replace the former name “bilobe” to describe the complex.

  10. Form, Fabric, and Function of a Flagellum-Associated Cytoskeletal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriswood, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a uniflagellated protist and the causative agent of African trypanosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease. The single flagellum of T. brucei is essential to a number of cellular processes such as motility, and has been a longstanding focus of scientific enquiry. A number of cytoskeletal structures are associated with the flagellum in T. brucei, and one such structure-a multiprotein complex containing the repeat motif protein TbMORN1-is the focus of this review. The TbMORN1-containing complex, which was discovered less than ten years ago, is essential for the viability of the mammalian-infective form of T. brucei. The complex has an unusual asymmetric morphology, and is coiled around the flagellum to form a hook shape. Proteomic analysis using the proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) technique has elucidated a number of its components. Recent work has uncovered a role for TbMORN1 in facilitating protein entry into the cell, thus providing a link between the cytoskeleton and the endomembrane system. This review summarises the extant data on the complex, highlights the outstanding questions for future enquiry, and provides speculation as to its possible role in a size-exclusion mechanism for regulating protein entry. The review additionally clarifies the nomenclature associated with this topic, and proposes the adoption of the term "hook complex" to replace the former name "bilobe" to describe the complex. PMID:26540076

  11. Suppression of casein kinase 2 sensitizes tumor cells to antitumor TRAIL therapy by regulating the phosphorylation and localization of p65 in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Xiaokun; Wang, Yao; Wang, Yingdi; Zhao, Yu; Ding, Liya; Zhao, Jingwen; Sun, Lin; Wang, Guixia

    2015-09-01

    In the United States, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males. For PCa at the late hormone-refractory stage, substantial improvement in treatment strategies is critically needed. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising anticancer agent, but both intrinsic and acquired resistance to TRAIL poses a huge problem in establishing clinically effective TRAIL therapies. In the present study, we examined the role played by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in the TRAIL‑induced nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB) pathway in a PCa cell line. Downregulation of CK2 combined with a sub-dose of TRAIL suppressed p65 phosphorylation at serine 536. The combination treatment of TRAIL and the CK2 inhibitor decreased p65 nuclear translocation. Under the treatment of a sub-dose of TRAIL, downregulation of CK2, using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, decreased the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and the expression of NF-κB downstream anti-apoptosis genes. Therefore, we provided novel molecular mechanistic insight reporting that CK2 regulates the sensitivity of PCa cells to the antitumor effect of TRAIL. This is important for understanding how the TRAIL pathway is disrupted in PCa and may help to develop an effective combinatorial therapy for PCa.

  12. Hierarchical Distribution of the Tau Cytoskeletal Pathology in the Thalamus of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüb, Udo; Stratmann, Katharina; Heinsen, Helmut; Del Turco, Domenico; Ghebremedhin, Estifanos; Seidel, Kay; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    In spite of considerable progress in neuropathological research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), knowledge regarding the exact pathoanatomical distribution of the tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus of AD patients in the advanced Braak and Braak AD stages V or VI of the cortical cytoskeletal pathology is still fragmentary. Investigation of serial 100 μm-thick brain tissue sections through the thalamus of clinically diagnosed AD patients with Braak and Braak AD stage V or VI cytoskeletal pathologies immunostained with the anti-tau AT8 antibody, along with the affection of the extraterritorial reticular nucleus of the thalamus, reveals a consistent and severe tau immunoreactive cytoskeletal pathology in the limbic nuclei of the thalamus (e.g., paraventricular, anterodorsal and laterodorsal nuclei, limitans-suprageniculate complex). The thalamic nuclei integrated into the associative networks of the human brain (e.g., ventral anterior and mediodorsal nuclei) are only mildly affected, while its motor precerebellar (ventral lateral nucleus) and sensory nuclei (e.g., lateral and medial geniculate bodies, ventral posterior medial and lateral nuclei, parvocellular part of the ventral posterior medial nucleus) are more or less spared. The highly stereotypical and characteristic thalamic distribution pattern of the AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology represents an anatomical mirror of the hierarchical topographic distribution of the cytoskeletal pathology in the interconnected regions of the cerebral cortex of AD patients. These pathoanatomical parallels support the pathophysiological concept of a transneuronal spread of the disease process of AD along anatomical pathways. The AD-related tau cytoskeletal pathology in the thalamus most likely contributes substantially to the neuropsychiatric disease symptoms (e.g., dementia), attention deficits, oculomotor dysfunctions, altered non-discriminative aspects of pain experience of AD patients, and the disruption of their

  13. Exposure to brominated flame retardant PBDE-99 affects cytoskeletal protein expression in the neonatal mouse cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alm, Henrik; Kultima, Kim; Scholz, Birger;

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental contaminants found in human and animal tissues worldwide. Neonatal exposure to the flame retardant 2,2', 4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE-99) disrupts normal brain development in mice, and results in disturbed spontaneous behavior in the...... adult. The mechanisms underlying the late effects of early exposure are not clear. To gain insight into the initial neurodevelopmental damage inflicted by PBDE-99, we investigated the short-term effects of PBDE-99 on protein expression in the developing cerebral cortex of neonatal mice, and the......-3 activity. These results indicate that the permanent neurological damage induced by PBDE-99 during the brain growth spurt involve detrimental effects on cytoskeletal regulation and neuronal maturation in the developing cerebral cortex....

  14. Clinicopathological Analysis and Multipronged Quantitative Proteomics Reveal Oxidative Stress and Cytoskeletal Proteins as Possible Markers for Severe Vivax Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sandipan; Patel, Sandip K; Venkatesh, Apoorva; Bhave, Amruta; Kumar, Vipin; Singh, Vaidhvi; Chatterjee, Gangadhar; Shah, Veenita G; Sharma, Sarthak; Renu, Durairaj; Nafis, Naziya; Gandhe, Prajakta; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Sehgal, Kunal; Verma, Sumit; Karak, Avik; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Talukdar, Arunansu; Kochar, Sanjay K; S B, Vijeth; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Rojh, Dharmendra; Varma, Santosh G; Gandhi, Mayuri N; Srikanth, Rapole; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    In Plasmodium vivax malaria, mechanisms that trigger transition from uncomplicated to fatal severe infections are obscure. In this multi-disciplinary study we have performed a comprehensive analysis of clinicopathological parameters and serum proteome profiles of vivax malaria patients with different severity levels of infection to investigate pathogenesis of severe malaria and identify surrogate markers of severity. Clinicopathological analysis and proteomics profiling has provided evidences for the modulation of diverse physiological pathways including oxidative stress, cytoskeletal regulation, lipid metabolism and complement cascades in severe malaria. Strikingly, unlike severe falciparum malaria the blood coagulation cascade was not found to be affected adversely in acute P. vivax infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive proteomics study, which identified some possible cues for severe P. vivax infection. Our results suggest that Superoxide dismutase, Vitronectin, Titin, Apolipoprotein E, Serum amyloid A, and Haptoglobin are potential predictive markers for malaria severity. PMID:27090372

  15. Proline-rich region of non-muscle myosin light chain kinase modulates kinase activity and endothelial cytoskeletal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvitch, Patrick; Adyshev, Djanybek; Elangovan, Venkateswaran R; Brown, Mary E; Naureckas, Caitlin; Rizzo, Alicia N; Siegler, Jessica H; Garcia, Joe G N; Dudek, Steven M

    2014-09-01

    Disruption of the pulmonary endothelial barrier and subsequent vascular leak is a hallmark of acute lung injury. Dynamic rearrangements in the endothelial cell (EC) peripheral membrane and underlying cytoskeleton are critical determinants of barrier function. The cytoskeletal effector protein non-muscle myosin light chain kinase (nmMLCK) and the actin-binding regulatory protein cortactin are important regulators of the endothelial barrier. In the present study we functionally characterize a proline-rich region of nmMLCK previously identified as the possible site of interaction between nmMLCK and cortactin. A mutant nmMLCK construct deficient in proline residues at the putative sites of cortactin binding (amino acids 973, 976, 1019, 1022) was generated. Co-immunoprecipitation studies in human lung EC transfected with wild-type or mutant nmMLCK demonstrated similar levels of cortactin interaction at baseline and after stimulation with the barrier-enhancing agonist, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). In contrast, binding studies utilizing recombinant nmMLCK fragments containing the wild-type or proline-deficient sequence demonstrated a two-fold increase in cortactin binding (pmutant construct. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed an increased stress fiber density in ECs expressing GFP-labeled mutant nmMLCK at baseline (p=0.02) and after thrombin (p=0.01) or S1P (p=0.02) when compared to wild-type. Mutant nmMLCK demonstrated an increase in kinase activity in response to thrombin (pthrombin in cells expressing the mutant vs. the wild-type nmMLCK construct. These results provide evidence that critical prolines within nmMLCK (amino acids 973, 976, 1019, 1022) regulate cytoskeletal and membrane events associated with pulmonary endothelial barrier function. PMID:25072537

  16. Cytoskeletal arrangement and its intercellular connection in wheat young leaf cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEIXIANGYUN; LINGCHENGJIAN

    1993-01-01

    By using the techniques of partial digestion of cell wall and selective extraction,we examined the cytoskeleton of wheat yong leaf cells under scanning electron microscope(SEM).A 3-dimensional cytoskeletal system,showing some new features,was observed.The cortical network located beneath the cross wall was an anastomosing organization.The association of nucleus with the cell wall by some skeletal filaments was also found.It is notice able that there were cytoskeletal filaments,which passed through cell wall and connected together with cytoskeletal arrays of adjacent cells,Thus,it is possible that an integral skeletal network existed within the yong leaf tissue of wheat.

  17. Quantitative Evaluation of Stomatal Cytoskeletal Patterns during the Activation of Immune Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Shimono

    Full Text Available Historically viewed as primarily functioning in the regulation of gas and water vapor exchange, it is now evident that stomata serve an important role in plant immunity. Indeed, in addition to classically defined functions related to cell architecture and movement, the actin cytoskeleton has emerged as a central component of the plant immune system, underpinning not only processes related to cell shape and movement, but also receptor activation and signaling. Using high resolution quantitative imaging techniques, the temporal and spatial changes in the actin microfilament array during diurnal cycling of stomatal guard cells has revealed a highly orchestrated transition from random arrays to ordered bundled filaments. While recent studies have demonstrated that plant stomata close in response to pathogen infection, an evaluation of stimulus-induced changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics during immune activation in the guard cell, as well as the relationship of these changes to the function of the actin cytoskeleton and stomatal aperture, remains undefined. In the current study, we employed quantitative cell imaging and hierarchical clustering analyses to define the response of the guard cell actin cytoskeleton to pathogen infection and the elicitation of immune signaling. Using this approach, we demonstrate that stomatal-localized actin filaments respond rapidly, and specifically, to both bacterial phytopathogens and purified pathogen elicitors. Notably, we demonstrate that higher order temporal and spatial changes in the filament array show distinct patterns of organization during immune activation, and that changes in the naïve diurnal oscillations of guard cell actin filaments are perturbed by pathogens, and that these changes parallel pathogen-induced stomatal gating. The data presented herein demonstrate the application of a highly tractable and quantifiable method to assign transitions in actin filament organization to the activation of

  18. Real space flight travel is associated with ultrastructural changes, cytoskeletal disruption and premature senescence of HUVEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitonova, M Y; Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Yusoff, W N W; Othman, S; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H M

    2012-12-01

    Microgravity, hypergravity, vibration, ionizing radiation and temperature fluctuations are major factors of outer space flight affecting human organs and tissues. There are several reports on the effect of space flight on different human cell types of mesenchymal origin while information regarding changes to vascular endothelial cells is scarce. Ultrastructural and cytophysiological features of macrovascular endothelial cells in outer space flight and their persistence during subsequent culturing were demonstrated in the present investigation. At the end of the space flight, endothelial cells displayed profound changes indicating cytoskeletal lesions and increased cell membrane permeability. Readapted cells of subsequent passages exhibited persisting cytoskeletal changes, decreased metabolism and cell growth indicating cellular senescence.

  19. Regulation of cell proliferation by ERK and signal-dependent nuclear translocation of ERK is dependent on Tm5NM1-containing actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevzov, Galina; Kee, Anthony J; Wang, Bin; Sequeira, Vanessa B; Hook, Jeff; Coombes, Jason D; Lucas, Christine A; Stehn, Justine R; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Cretu, Alexandra; Assoian, Richard; Fath, Thomas; Hanoch, Tamar; Seger, Rony; Pleines, Irina; Kile, Benjamin T; Hardeman, Edna C; Gunning, Peter W

    2015-07-01

    ERK-regulated cell proliferation requires multiple phosphorylation events catalyzed first by MEK and then by casein kinase 2 (CK2), followed by interaction with importin7 and subsequent nuclear translocation of pERK. We report that genetic manipulation of a core component of the actin filaments of cancer cells, the tropomyosin Tm5NM1, regulates the proliferation of normal cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Tm5NM1, which have reduced proliferative capacity, are insensitive to inhibition of ERK by peptide and small-molecule inhibitors, indicating that ERK is unable to regulate proliferation of these knockout (KO) cells. Treatment of wild-type MEFs with a CK2 inhibitor to block phosphorylation of the nuclear translocation signal in pERK resulted in greatly decreased cell proliferation and a significant reduction in the nuclear translocation of pERK. In contrast, Tm5NM1 KO MEFs, which show reduced nuclear translocation of pERK, were unaffected by inhibition of CK2. This suggested that it is nuclear translocation of CK2-phosphorylated pERK that regulates cell proliferation and this capacity is absent in Tm5NM1 KO cells. Proximity ligation assays confirmed a growth factor-stimulated interaction of pERK with Tm5NM1 and that the interaction of pERK with importin7 is greatly reduced in the Tm5NM1 KO cells.

  20. The CK2 inhibitor quninalizarin enhances the anti-proliferative effect of icotinib on EGFR-TKIs-resistant cell lines and its underlying mechanisms%蛋白激酶2抑制剂增强盐酸埃克替尼对表皮生长因子受体-酪氨酸激酶抑制剂耐药细胞的增殖抑制作用及机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑜; 伍钢; 孟睿; 张盛; 李珂; 李倩雯; 周方正; 李振宇; 马虹; 董晓荣; 刘莉

    2016-01-01

    suppressed, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01).In addition, the phosphorylation form of Akt and ERK (namely p-Akt and p-ERK) were significantly down-regulated by treating with quninalizarin and icotinib together in the H1650 cells while the expression of Akt and ERK changed little.Conclusions Quinalizarin, as a specific CK2 inhibitor, may overcome icotinib resistance by inhibiting proliferation mediated by Akt and ERK in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, and enhances the suppressive effect of icotinib on the proliferation of EGFR-TKIs-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma cells.%目的:探讨蛋白激酶2(CK2)抑制剂琨茜素增强盐酸埃克替尼在表皮生长因子受体-酪氨酸激酶抑制剂(EGFR-TKIs)耐药细胞中的增殖抑制作用及机制。方法采用四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)法检测盐酸埃克替尼和琨茜素对不同人肺腺癌细胞的增殖抑制作用,Western blot 法检测盐酸埃克替尼和琨茜素作用后不同人肺腺癌细胞中 EGFR 下游信号通路主要蛋白的表达水平及磷酸化水平。结果盐酸埃克替尼在人肺腺癌 HCC827、H1650、H1975和 A549细胞中的 IC50分别为(8.07±2.00)μmol/L、(66.01±6.64)μmol/L、(265.60±9.47)μmol/L 和(87.88±6.80)μmol/L,提示 HCC827细胞为盐酸埃克替尼敏感细胞, H1650、H1975和 A549细胞为盐酸埃克替尼耐药细胞。在50μmol/L 盐酸埃克替尼和50μmol /L 琨茜素联合作用下,H1650、H1975和 A549细胞的存活率分别为(40.64±3.73)%、(65.74±3.27)%和(44.96±0.48)%,明显低于50μmol/L 盐酸埃克替尼作用时的细胞存活率[(55.05±1.22)%、(71.98±1.60)%和(61.74±6.18)%],差异有统计学意义(均 P<0.01)。在100μmol/L 盐酸埃克替尼和100μmol/L 琨茜素联合作用下,H1650、H1975和 A549细胞的存活率分别为(23.35±0.81

  1. Membrane fusion induced by the major lipid-binding domain of the cytoskeletal protein talin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isenberg, G; Doerhoefer, S; Hoekstra, D; Goldmann, WH

    2002-01-01

    Secondary structure predictions have led to the identification of a major membrane-anchoring domain of the cytoskeletal protein talin spanning from amino acid 385 to 406. Using a synthetically derived peptide of this region, researchers have shown that it inserts into POPC/POPG phospholipid membrane

  2. Adhesion and cytoskeletal organisation of fibroblasts in response to fibronectin fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R; Johansson, S;

    1986-01-01

    , they do not form stress fibres terminating in focal adhesions. An additional external stimulus is needed for this cytoskeletal reorganisation and may be provided by one of two heparin-binding fragments of fibronectin. The two 'signals' required for complete adhesion need not be provided simultaneously...

  3. CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in bivalves identified as cytoskeletal and major vault proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøsvik, Bjørn Einar; Jonsson, Henrik; Rodríguez-Ortega, Manuel J;

    2006-01-01

    To identify possible CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in bivalves, we used anti-fish CYP1A antibodies combined with one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and found that two of the main CYP1A-immunopositive proteins in digestive gland of Mytilus edulis, were cytoskeletal...

  4. Preservation of tissue microstructure and functionality during freezing by modulation of cytoskeletal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungman; Seawright, Angela; Park, Sinwook; Craig Dutton, J; Grinnell, Frederick; Han, Bumsoo

    2015-05-01

    Cryopreservation is one of the key enabling technologies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, which can provide reliable long-term storage of engineered tissues (ETs) without losing their functionality. However, it is still extremely difficult to design and develop cryopreservation protocols guaranteeing the post-thaw tissue functionality. One of the major challenges in cryopreservation is associated with the difficulty of identifying effective and less toxic cryoprotective agents (CPAs) to guarantee the post-thaw tissue functionality. In this study, thus, a hypothesis was tested that the modulation of the cytoskeletal structure of cells embedded in the extracellular matrix (ECM) can mitigate the freezing-induced changes of the functionality and can reduce the amount of CPA necessary to preserve the functionality of ETs during cryopreservation. In order to test this hypothesis, we prepared dermal equivalents by seeding fibroblasts in type I collagen matrices resulting in three different cytoskeletal structures. These ETs were exposed to various freeze/thaw (F/T) conditions with and without CPAs. The freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interactions and subsequent functional properties of the ETs were assessed. The results showed that the cytoskeletal structure and the use of CPA were strongly correlated to the preservation of the post-thaw functional properties. As the cytoskeletal structure became stronger via stress fiber formation, the ET's functionality was preserved better. It also reduced the necessary CPA concentration to preserve the post-thaw functionality. However, if the extent of the freezing-induced cell-fluid-matrix interaction was too excessive, the cytoskeletal structure was completely destroyed and the beneficial effects became minimal.

  5. Beta-actin deficiency with oxidative posttranslational modifications in Rett syndrome erythrocytes: insights into an altered cytoskeletal organization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Cortelazzo

    Full Text Available Beta-actin, a critical player in cellular functions ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape to transcription regulation, was evaluated in the erythrocyte membranes from patients with typical Rett syndrome (RTT and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2 gene mutations. RTT, affecting almost exclusively females with an average frequency of 1∶10,000 female live births, is considered the second commonest cause of severe cognitive impairment in the female gender. Evaluation of beta-actin was carried out in a comparative cohort study on red blood cells (RBCs, drawn from healthy control subjects and RTT patients using mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. We observed a decreased expression of the beta-actin isoforms (relative fold changes for spots 1, 2 and 3: -1.82±0.15, -2.15±0.06, and -2.59±0.48, respectively in pathological RBCs. The results were validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, beta-actin from RTT patients also showed a dramatic increase in oxidative posttranslational modifications (PTMs as the result of its binding with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a beta-actin down-regulation and oxidative PTMs for RBCs of RTT patients, thus indicating an altered cytoskeletal organization.

  6. Hepatocyte adhesion to carbohydrate-derivatized surfaces. II. Regulation of cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Rat hepatic lectins mediate adhesion of isolated rat hepatocytes to synthetic surfaces derivatized with galactosides. Initial weak adhesion is followed by rapid adhesion strengthening. After hepatocytes contact galactose-derivatized gels, the hepatic lectins move rapidly into an inaccessible patch at the adhesive surface (Weisz, O. A., and R. L. Schnaar. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 115:485-493). Hepatic lectin patching, which occurs both at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, is not responsible for adhesio...

  7. Cell Cycle Regulation and Cytoskeletal Remodelling Are Critical Processes in the Nutritional Programming of Embryonic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Swali; Sarah McMullen; Helen Hayes; Lorraine Gambling; McArdle, Harry J.; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2011-01-01

    Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream...

  8. A quantitative analysis of contractility in active cytoskeletal protein networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, Poul M; Koenderink, Gijsje H; Cuvelier, Damien; Dogic, Zvonimir; Koeleman, Bernard N; Brieher, William M; Field, Christine M; Mahadevan, L; Weitz, David A

    2008-04-15

    Cells actively produce contractile forces for a variety of processes including cytokinesis and motility. Contractility is known to rely on myosin II motors which convert chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis into forces on actin filaments. However, the basic physical principles of cell contractility remain poorly understood. We reconstitute contractility in a simplified model system of purified F-actin, muscle myosin II motors, and alpha-actinin cross-linkers. We show that contractility occurs above a threshold motor concentration and within a window of cross-linker concentrations. We also quantify the pore size of the bundled networks and find contractility to occur at a critical distance between the bundles. We propose a simple mechanism of contraction based on myosin filaments pulling neighboring bundles together into an aggregated structure. Observations of this reconstituted system in both bulk and low-dimensional geometries show that the contracting gels pull on and deform their surface with a contractile force of approximately 1 microN, or approximately 100 pN per F-actin bundle. Cytoplasmic extracts contracting in identical environments show a similar behavior and dependence on myosin as the reconstituted system. Our results suggest that cellular contractility can be sensitively regulated by tuning the (local) activity of molecular motors and the cross-linker density and binding affinity. PMID:18192374

  9. Kaempferol inhibits Entamoeba histolytica growth by altering cytoskeletal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños, Verónica; Díaz-Martínez, Alfredo; Soto, Jacqueline; Marchat, Laurence A; Sanchez-Monroy, Virginia; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2015-11-01

    The flavonoid kaempferol obtained from Helianthemum glomeratum, an endemic Mexican medicinal herb used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, has been shown to inhibit growth of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in vitro; however, the mechanisms associated with this activity have not been documented. Several works reported that kaempferol affects cytoskeleton in mammalian cells. In order to gain insights into the action mechanisms involved in the anti-amoebic effect of kaempferol, here we evaluated the effect of this compound on the pathogenic events driven by the cytoskeleton during E. histolytica infection. We also carried out a two dimensional gel-based proteomic analysis to evidence modulated proteins that could explain the phenotypical changes observed in trophozoites. Our results showed that kaempferol produces a dose-dependent effect on trophozoites growth and viability with optimal concentration being 27.7 μM. Kaempferol also decreased adhesion, it increased migration and phagocytic activity, but it did not affect erythrocyte binding nor cytolytic capacity of E. histolytica. Congruently, proteomic analysis revealed that the cytoskeleton proteins actin, myosin II heavy chain and cortexillin II were up-regulated in response to kaempferol treatment. In conclusion, kaempferol anti-amoebic effects were associated with deregulation of proteins related with cytoskeleton, which altered invasion mechanisms.

  10. γ-Diketone Axonopathy: Analyses of Cytoskeletal Motors and Highways in CNS Myelinated Axons

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lihai; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony P; LoPachin, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in ...

  11. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter. Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively, such as elemental carbon (EC90, commercial carbon (Printex 90, diesel particulate matter (DEP and urban dust (UD, were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 μg UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 μg/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only.

  12. Diffusion in Cytoplasm: Effects of Excluded Volume Due to Internal Membranes and Cytoskeletal Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, Igor L.; Kraikivski, Pavel; Slepchenko, Boris M.

    2009-01-01

    The intricate geometry of cytoskeletal networks and internal membranes causes the space available for diffusion in cytoplasm to be convoluted, thereby affecting macromolecule diffusivity. We present a first systematic computational study of this effect by approximating intracellular structures as mixtures of random overlapping obstacles of various shapes. Effective diffusion coefficients are computed using a fast homogenization technique. It is found that a simple two-parameter power law prov...

  13. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    OpenAIRE

    Bočina, Ivana; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2006-01-01

    A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to mi...

  14. Loss of cytoskeletal proteins and lens cell opacification in the selenite cataract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, H; David, L L; Hiraoka, T; Clark, J I

    1997-03-01

    This study of lens protein composition found that some cytoskeletal proteins were degraded during the earliest stages of cataract formation. Cataract was induced in 13-14 day old rats by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (19 mumol kg-1). By 24 hr after the injection of selenite, the ratio of insoluble to soluble protein increased as lens opacification began. The increase in insoluble protein aggregates was correlated with an accelerated loss of proteins having molecular weights of 42, 55/57 and 235 kDa which reacted with antibodies to the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin/vimentin and spectrin, respectively. We observed the loss of 49, 60 and 90 kDa proteins which were not identified. In the lenses of animals protected from protein aggregation and opacification by administration of 1.5 mmol kg-1 pantethine, the pattern of proteins in SDS-PAGE gels resembled the pattern for proteins from transparent lenses of normal untreated animals and loss of cytoskeletal proteins was prevented. PMID:9196390

  15. Identification of paralogous life-cycle stage specific cytoskeletal proteins in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Portman

    Full Text Available The life cycle of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, is characterised by a transition between insect and mammalian hosts representing very different environments that present the parasite with very different challenges. These challenges are met by the expression of life-cycle stage-specific cohorts of proteins, which function in systems such as metabolism and immune evasion. These life-cycle transitions are also accompanied by morphological rearrangements orchestrated by microtubule dynamics and associated proteins of the subpellicular microtubule array. Here we employed a gel-based comparative proteomic technique, Difference Gel Electrophoresis, to identify cytoskeletal proteins that are expressed differentially in mammalian infective and insect form trypanosomes. From this analysis we identified a pair of novel, paralogous proteins, one of which is expressed in the procyclic form and the other in the bloodstream form. We show that these proteins, CAP51 and CAP51V, localise to the subpellicular corset of microtubules and are essential for correct organisation of the cytoskeleton and successful cytokinesis in their respective life cycle stages. We demonstrate for the first time redundancy of function between life-cycle stage specific paralogous sets in the cytoskeleton and reveal modification of cytoskeletal components in situ prior to their removal during differentiation from the bloodstream form to the insect form. These specific results emphasise a more generic concept that the trypanosome genome encodes a cohort of cytoskeletal components that are present in at least two forms with life-cycle stage-specific expression.

  16. 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase binds to actin-based cytoskeletal elements in an isoprenylation-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, D A; Braun, P E

    1996-09-01

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is an isoprenylated protein enriched in myelin and oligodendrocytes but also present in several other tissues at low levels. CNP binds avidly to membranes and in addition possesses several characteristics of cytoskeletal proteins. The role of isoprenylation in the association of CNP with the cytoskeleton was analyzed by ectopic expression in L cells of epitope-tagged CNP1 and a non-isoprenylated mutant CNP1. Using nonionic detergent extraction, drug-mediated cytoskeletal disruption, and coimmunoprecipitation with an anti-actin antibody, we show that CNP1 is associated with actin-based cytoskeletal elements independently of its isoprenylation status. A control protein, p21c-H-ras, which is also modified by isoprenylation at its carboxyl-terminus, does not bind to cytoskeletal structures as judged by the same criteria. We present a model that accounts for the association of CNP1 with membranes and the cytoskeleton. PMID:8752099

  17. Ultrastructural appearance and cytoskeletal architecture of the clear, chromophilic, and chromophobe types of human renal cell carcinoma in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerharz, C D; Moll, R.; Störkel, S.; Ramp, U; Thoenes, W.; Gabbert, H E

    1993-01-01

    The clear, chromophilic, and chromophobe types of human renal cell carcinoma have been defined as distinct morphological entities and can be clearly separated by differences of ultrastructural appearance, cytoskeletal architecture, enzyme synthesis, and cytogenetic aberrations. In this report, the cytomorphological aspects of these tumor types are compared in vitro, showing that essential ultrastructural and cytoskeletal characteristics of each tumor type are expressed even after prolonged in...

  18. Induction of membrane ceramides: a novel strategy to interfere with T lymphocyte cytoskeletal reorganisation in viral immunosuppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gassert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Silencing of T cell activation and function is a highly efficient strategy of immunosuppression induced by pathogens. By promoting formation of membrane microdomains essential for clustering of receptors and signalling platforms in the plasma membrane, ceramides accumulating as a result of membrane sphingomyelin breakdown are not only essential for assembly of signalling complexes and pathogen entry, but also act as signalling modulators, e. g. by regulating relay of phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K signalling. Their role in T lymphocyte functions has not been addressed as yet. We now show that measles virus (MV, which interacts with the surface of T cells and thereby efficiently interferes with stimulated dynamic reorganisation of their actin cytoskeleton, causes ceramide accumulation in human T cells in a neutral (NSM and acid (ASM sphingomyelinase-dependent manner. Ceramides induced by MV, but also bacterial sphingomyelinase, efficiently interfered with formation of membrane protrusions and T cell spreading and front/rear polarisation in response to beta1 integrin ligation or alphaCD3/CD28 activation, and this was rescued upon pharmacological or genetic ablation of ASM/NSM activity. Moreover, membrane ceramide accumulation downmodulated chemokine-induced T cell motility on fibronectin. Altogether, these findings highlight an as yet unrecognised concept of pathogens able to cause membrane ceramide accumulation to target essential processes in T cell activation and function by preventing stimulated actin cytoskeletal dynamics.

  19. Effect of focal adhesion kinase on cytoskeletal arrangement of HepG2 cells induced by hypoxia%黏着斑激酶在缺氧促进肝癌细胞细胞骨架重组中的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yan; Yu Fu; Jiazhi Liao; Limin Xia; Min Luo; Oian Zhu; Dean Tian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression in hypoxic HepG2 cells and the effect of FAK siRNA on cytoskeletal arrangement of HepG2 cells induced by hypoxia. Methods: HepG2 cells were cultured in 21% O2 and 1%O2. Morphological changes were observed after hypoxia treatment. Westem blot was used to measure FAK expression. The siRNA expression vector pshRNA-FAK targeting the mRNA of FAK and vector pGensil-2 (as a control) were constructed, and then transfected into HepG2 cells. Western blot was used to detect FAK. The cytoskeletal arrangement of HepG2 cells trans fected with pshRNA-FAK induced by hypoxia was analyzed by phalloidin. The migratory ability of HepG2 cells transfected with pshRNA-FAK induced by hypoxia was analyzed by cell migration assay. Results: Hypoxia-treated cells displayed a more elongated shape with a large degree of cell detachment. FAK expression increased in hypoxic HepG2 cells. FAK protein level was decreased by 75.64% ± 3.12% (P < 0.01) after the pshRNA-FAK transfection. Hypoxia induced cytoskeletal arrangement of HepG2 cells. However, cytoskeletal arrangement of HepG2 cells transfected with pshRNA-FAK induced by hypoxia was inhibited in 1% O2. As cell migration assay showed, the migrating number of HepG cells transfected with pshRNA-FAK was significantly lower than that of control (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The expression of FAK in hypoxic HCC might have a close relationship to the cytoskeletal arrangement of HepG2 cells induced by hypoxia. Up-regulation of FAK expression may be one of mechanisms of cytoskeletal arrangement and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by hypoxia.

  20. Cytoskeletal dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    I worked with reconstitutted contractile acto-myosin systems containing mainly actin, actin cross-linkers and myosin motors. Contractility and rheology of such systems was studied using confocal microscopy and rheology.......I worked with reconstitutted contractile acto-myosin systems containing mainly actin, actin cross-linkers and myosin motors. Contractility and rheology of such systems was studied using confocal microscopy and rheology....

  1. Cytoskeletal inhibitors, anti-adhesion molecule antibodies, and lectins inhibit hepatocyte spheroid formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of cytoskeletons, adhesion molecules, membrane-glycosylations, and proteoglycans in forming the shape of adult rat hepatocyte spheroids. Isolated hepatocytes were cultured on dishes coated with chondroitin sulfate phosphatidyl ethanolamine (CS-PE. Spheroid-forming ability was observed after adding cytoskeletal inhibitors (cytochalasin D, colchicine, okadaic acid, mycalolide B, anti-adhesion molecule antibodies (anti-E-cadherin, anti-connexin 32, anti-zo-1, a glycosphingolipid synthetic inhibitor (N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, a proteoglycan synthetic inhibitor (p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, and several lectins. Localization of actin was studied using confocal microscopy after rhodamine-phalloidin staining. Adding cytoskeletal inhibitors on the initial day resulted in weakly clustered cell aggregates rather than smoothly formed spheroids. These effects disappeared at lower reagent concentrations. When reagents were added on day 3, after the formation of spheroids, only mycalolide B was associated with an irregular spheroid surface; the others had no effect. Adding the anti-E-cadherin, anti-connexin 32 on the initial day showed inhibition of spheroid formation, but anti-zo-1 and proteoglycan synthetic inhibitor had no effects. Among the several lectins, only Wheat Germ Agglutinin (WGA, Ricinus communis Agglutinin I (RCA-I, and Concanavalin A (ConA showed inhibition. These results suggest that cytoskeletal conformation and some adhesion molecules are necessary to form spheroids. Based on the interactions between lectins and hepatocytes in the present study, hepatocytes appear to contain an N-linked complex or N-linked hybrid glycosylated chains.

  2. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Ortiz de Lima, Bárbara; Gonçalves Fernandes, Carolina [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil); Totarelli Monteforte, Priscila; Castro Medaglia, Natalia de; Bincoletto, Claudia; Soubhi Smaili, Soraya [Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa-Pureur, Regina, E-mail: rpureur@ufrgs.br [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca{sup 2+} influx through voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative

  3. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to 32P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca2+/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca2+ quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights:

  4. Induction of Plant Curvature by Magnetophoresis and Cytoskeletal Changes during Root Graviresponse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstein, Karl H.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Blancaflor, Eilson B.

    1996-01-01

    High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF) induce curvature in roots and shoots. It is considered that this response is likely to be based on the intracellular displacement of bulk starch (amyloplasts) by the ponderomotive force generated by the HGMF. This process is called magnetophoresis. The differential elongation during the curvature along the concave and convex flanks of growing organs may be linked to the microtubular and/or microfilament cytoskeleton. The possible existence of an effect of the HGMF on the cytoskeleton was tested for, but none was found. The application of cytoskeletal stabilizers or depolymerizers showed that neither microtubules, nor microfilaments, are involved in the graviresponse.

  5. A versatile framework for simulating the dynamic mechanical structure of cytoskeletal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Freedman, Simon L; Hocky, Glen M; Dinner, Aaron R

    2016-01-01

    Computer simulations can aid in our understanding of how collective materials properties emerge from interactions between simple constituents. Here, we introduce a coarse- grained model of networks of actin filaments, myosin motors, and crosslinking proteins that enables simulation at biologically relevant time and length scales. We demonstrate that the model, with a consistent parameterization, qualitatively and quantitatively captures a suite of trends observed experimentally, including the statistics of filament fluctuations, mechanical responses to shear, motor motilities, and network rearrangements. The model can thus serve as a platform for interpretation and design of cytoskeletal materials experiments, as well as for further development of simulations incorporating active elements.

  6. Regulating Rho GTPases and their regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Richard G; Ridley, Anne J

    2016-08-01

    Rho GTPases regulate cytoskeletal and cell adhesion dynamics and thereby coordinate a wide range of cellular processes, including cell migration, cell polarity and cell cycle progression. Most Rho GTPases cycle between a GTP-bound active conformation and a GDP-bound inactive conformation to regulate their ability to activate effector proteins and to elicit cellular responses. However, it has become apparent that Rho GTPases are regulated by post-translational modifications and the formation of specific protein complexes, in addition to GTP-GDP cycling. The canonical regulators of Rho GTPases - guanine nucleotide exchange factors, GTPase-activating proteins and guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors - are regulated similarly, creating a complex network of interactions to determine the precise spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases. PMID:27301673

  7. Probing bilayer-cytoskeletal interactions in erythrocytes using a two-component dissipative particle dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Li, Xuejin; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming; Karniadakis, George

    2013-11-01

    We develop a two-component dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane by modeling the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton separately. By applying this model to simulate four different experiments on RBCs, including micropipette aspiration, membrane fluctuations, tank-treading motions in shear flow and bilayer tethering in a flow channel, we validated our model and studied the mechanical properties of the bilayer-cytoskeletal interaction in a systematic and controlled manner, such as its elastic stiffness, viscous friction and strength. In the same time, we also resolved several controversies in RBC mechanics, e.g., the dependence of tank-treading frequency on shear rates and the possibility of bilayer-cytoskeletal slip. Furthermore, to investigate RBC dynamics in the microcirculation, we simulated the passages of RBCs through narrow channels of the flow cytometer in vitro and their passages through the splenic inter-endothelial slits in vivo. The effects of RBC geometry and membrane stiffness on the critical pressure gradient of passage were studied, and the simulation results agree well with experimental measurements. This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grant R01HL094270 and the new Department of Energy Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials (CM4).

  8. The cytoskeletal protein α-catenin unfurls upon binding to vinculin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S; Izard, Tina

    2012-05-25

    Adherens junctions (AJs) are essential for cell-cell contacts, morphogenesis, and the development of all higher eukaryotes. AJs are formed by calcium-dependent homotypic interactions of the ectodomains of single membrane-pass cadherin family receptors. These homotypic interactions in turn promote binding of the intracellular cytoplasmic tail domains of cadherin receptors with β-catenin, a multifunctional protein that plays roles in both transcription and AJs. The cadherin receptor-β-catenin complex binds to the cytoskeletal protein α-catenin, which is essential for both the formation and the stabilization of these junctions. Precisely how α-catenin contributes to the formation and stabilization of AJs is hotly debated, although the latter is thought to involve its interactions with the cytoskeletal protein vinculin. Here we report the crystal structure of the vinculin binding domain (VBD) of α-catenin in complex with the vinculin head domain (Vh1). This structure reveals that α-catenin is in a unique unfurled mode allowing dimer formation when bound to vinculin. Finally, binding studies suggest that vinculin must be in an activated state to bind to α-catenin and that this interaction is stabilized by the formation of a ternary α-catenin-vinculin-F-actin complex, which can be formed via the F-actin binding domain of either protein. We propose a feed-forward model whereby α-catenin-vinculin interactions promote their binding to the actin cytoskeleton to stabilize AJs. PMID:22493458

  9. Cytoskeletal proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Farace, Cristiano; Tolu, Paola; Solinas, Giuliana; Asara, Yolande; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Prados, Jose Carlos; Sotgiu, Stefano; Montella, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The axonal cytoskeleton is a finely organized system, essential for maintaining the integrity of the axon. Axonal degeneration is implicated in the pathogenesis of unremitting disability of multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose of this study is to evaluate levels of cytoskeletal proteins such as neurofilament light protein (NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and β-tubulin (β-Tub) isoforms II and III in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients and their correlation with MS clinical indices. CSF levels of cytoskeletal proteins were determined in 51 patients: 33 with MS and 18 with other neurological diseases (OND). NFL, GFAP and β-Tub II proteins were significantly higher (p 0.05) was found between MS and OND with regard to β-Tub III. Interestingly, levels of β-Tub III and NFL were higher in progressive than in remitting MS forms; on the contrary, higher levels of β-Tub II and GFAP were found in remitting MS forms. However, with the exception of β-Tub III, all proteins tend to decrease their CSF levels concomitantly with the increasing disability (EDSS) score. Overall, our results might indicate β-Tub II as a potential candidate for diagnostic and β-Tub III as a possible prognostic biomarker of MS. Therefore, further analyses are legitimated and desirable. PMID:22362332

  10. Location of and post-mortem changes in some cytoskeletal proteins in pork and cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, E.H.; Bremner, Allan; Purslow, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The cytoskeletal proteins actin, nebulin, spectrin, desmin, vinculin and talin were labelled immunohistochemically in sections of muscle from commercially available pigs and cod (Gadus morhua) taken pre-rigor and from samples stored for several days. Actin, nebulin and spectrin gave similar...... labelling in fish. Labelling for talin in pork muscle was intense at the sarcolemma but was not present in samples stored for 4 days. In contrast, the label for talin was concentrated at the myotendinous junction of the cod muscle throughout the storage period. These are the first reports of the detection...... and location of spectrin and vinculin in fish muscle and of the location of talin. The results are discussed in terms of muscle structure, function and post-mortem tenderisation. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry....

  11. Remote Actuation of Magnetic Nanoparticles For Cancer Cell Selective Treatment Through Cytoskeletal Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Alyssa M; Williams, Philise N; Pothayee, Nikorn; Pothayee, Nipon; Zhang, Rui; Vishwasrao, Hemant M; Golovin, Yuri I; Riffle, Judy S; Sokolsky, Marina; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Motion of micron and sub-micron size magnetic particles in alternating magnetic fields can activate mechanosensitive cellular functions or physically destruct cancer cells. However, such effects are usually observed with relatively large magnetic particles (>250 nm) that would be difficult if at all possible to deliver to remote sites in the body to treat disease. Here we show a completely new mechanism of selective toxicity of superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SMNP) of 7 to 8 nm in diameter to cancer cells. These particles are coated by block copolymers, which facilitates their entry into the cells and clustering in the lysosomes, where they are then magneto-mechanically actuated by remotely applied alternating current (AC) magnetic fields of very low frequency (50 Hz). Such fields and treatments are safe for surrounding tissues but produce cytoskeletal disruption and subsequent death of cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact. PMID:27644858

  12. Cytoskeletal components of Beta vulgaris root hairs in altered gravity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, G. V.

    Root hairs of Beta vulgaris are protrusions from rhizodermal cells and are characterised by plagiotropic growth. The roles of the cytoskeleton and of gravity in this growth process are being studied with the help of a clinostat. Through the use of immunocytochemical and fluorescent staining methods which reveal microtubules (MTs) and microfilaments (MFs), it was found that these cytoskeletal components of the root hairs of 4-day-old seedlings of B. vulgaris were affected by clinorotation at 2 r.p.m. In control conditions, MTs were found to be distributed evenly throughout the root hair, and an intense fluorescence due to MFs was observed at the tip of the hairs. With clinorotation, however, MTs became distributed at random, though no redistribution of MFs was observed. The latter finding conforms to the idea that MFs are responsible for tip growth. That MTs are more sensitive to altered gravity conditions is presently being tested.

  13. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to microtubule components (ß-tubulin, particularly in the area close to the epipharyngeal groove. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was expressed in some notochordal cells and in the area of the notochordal attachment to the sheath. Thus muscular nature of notochordal cells was shown by immunohistochemistry in tissue section. Our results confirm that genes encoding intermediate filament proteins, microtubules and microfilaments are highly conserved during evolution. Collagen type I was proven to be the key extracellular matrix protein that forms the amphioxus notochordal sheath.

  14. Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jia; ZHANG Dongyi; CHU Wuying; LIU Fang; LIU Zhen; ZHOU Ruixue; MENG Tao; ZHANG Jianshe

    2008-01-01

    Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 μmol/L resulted in decreased expression of both α- and β-tubulin but γ-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

  15. Gamma-diketone axonopathy: analyses of cytoskeletal motors and highways in CNS myelinated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihai; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony P; LoPachin, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in cosedimentation assays using microtubules and NFs prepared from spinal cord of rats intoxicated at different daily dose rates (175 and 400 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that HD did not alter the presence of alpha- or beta-tubulins in these preparations, nor were changes noted in the distribution of either anterograde (KIF1A, KIF3, KIF5) or retrograde (dynein) molecular motors. The cosedimentation of dynactin, a dynein-associated protein, also was not affected. Immunoblot analysis of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in microtubule preparations revealed substantial reductions (45-80%) in MAP1A, MAP1B heavy chain, MAP2, and tau regardless of HD dose rate. MAP1B light chain content was not altered. Finally, HD intoxication did not influence native NF protein content in either preparation. As per previous research, microtubule and NF preparations were enriched in high-molecular weight NF species. However, these NF derivatives were common to both HD and control samples, suggesting a lack of pathognomonic relevance. These data indicate that, although motor proteins were not affected, HD selectively impaired MAP-microtubule binding, presumably through adduction of lysine residues that mediate such interactions. Given their critical role in cytoskeletal physiology, MAPs could represent a relevant target for the induction of gamma-diketone axonopathy. PMID:20554699

  16. γ-Diketone Axonopathy: Analyses of Cytoskeletal Motors and Highways in CNS Myelinated Axons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihai; Gavin, Terrence; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; LoPachin, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    2,5-Hexanedione (HD) intoxication is associated with axon atrophy that might be responsible for the characteristic gait abnormalities, hindlimb skeletal muscle weakness and other neurological deficits that accompany neurotoxicity. Although previous mechanistic research focused on neurofilament triplet proteins (NFL, NFM, NFH), other cytoskeletal targets are possible. Therefore, to identify potential non-NF protein targets, we characterized the effects of HD on protein-protein interactions in cosedimentation assays using microtubules and NFs prepared from spinal cord of rats intoxicated at different daily dose rates (175 and 400 mg/kg/day). Results indicate that HD did not alter the presence of α- or β-tubulins in these preparations, nor were changes noted in the distribution of either anterograde (KIF1A, KIF3, KIF5) or retrograde (dynein) molecular motors. The cosedimentation of dynactin, a dynein-associated protein, also was not affected. Immunoblot analysis of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) in microtubule preparations revealed substantial reductions (45–80%) in MAP1A, MAP1B heavy chain, MAP2, and tau regardless of HD dose rate. MAP1B light chain content was not altered. Finally, HD intoxication did not influence native NF protein content in either preparation. As per previous research, microtubule and NF preparations were enriched in high–molecular weight NF species. However, these NF derivatives were common to both HD and control samples, suggesting a lack of pathognomonic relevance. These data indicate that, although motor proteins were not affected, HD selectively impaired MAP-microtubule binding, presumably through adduction of lysine residues that mediate such interactions. Given their critical role in cytoskeletal physiology, MAPs could represent a relevant target for the induction of γ-diketone axonopathy. PMID:20554699

  17. Why is cytoskeletal contraction required for cardiac fusion before but not after looping begins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfei; Varner, Victor D.; Taber, Larry A.

    2015-02-01

    Cytoskeletal contraction is crucial to numerous morphogenetic processes, but its role in early heart development is poorly understood. Studies in chick embryos have shown that inhibiting myosin-II-based contraction prior to Hamburger-Hamilton (HH) stage 10 (33 h incubation) impedes fusion of the mesodermal heart fields that create the primitive heart tube (HT), as well as the ensuing process of cardiac looping. If contraction is inhibited at or after looping begins at HH10, however, fusion and looping proceed relatively normally. To explore the mechanisms behind this seemingly fundamental change in behavior, we measured spatiotemporal distributions of tissue stiffness, stress, and strain around the anterior intestinal portal (AIP), the opening to the foregut where contraction and cardiac fusion occur. The results indicate that stiffness and tangential tension decreased bilaterally along the AIP with distance from the embryonic midline. The gradients in stiffness and tension, as well as strain rate, increased to peaks at HH9 (30 h) and decreased afterward. Exposure to the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin reduced these effects, suggesting that they are mainly generated by active cytoskeletal contraction, and finite-element modeling indicates that the measured mechanical gradients are consistent with a relatively uniform contraction of the endodermal layer in conjunction with constraints imposed by the attached mesoderm. Taken together, our results suggest that, before HH10, endodermal contraction pulls the bilateral heart fields toward the midline where they fuse to create the HT. By HH10, however, the fusion process is far enough along to enable apposing cardiac progenitor cells to keep ‘zipping’ together during looping without the need for continued high contractile forces. These findings should shed new light on a perplexing question in early heart development.

  18. Quinolinic acid induces disrupts cytoskeletal homeostasis in striatal neurons. Protective role of astrocyte-neuron interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; de Lima, Bárbara Ortiz; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-02-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway involved in several neurological disorders. Among the several mechanisms involved in QUIN-mediated toxicity, disruption of the cytoskeleton has been demonstrated in striatally injected rats and in striatal slices. The present work searched for the actions of QUIN in primary striatal neurons. Neurons exposed to 10 µM QUIN presented hyperphosphorylated neurofilament (NF) subunits (NFL, NFM, and NFH). Hyperphosphorylation was abrogated in the presence of protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors H89 (20 μM) and staurosporine (10 nM), respectively, as well as by specific antagonists to N-methyl-D-aspartate (50 µM DL-AP5) and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (100 µM MPEP). Also, intra- and extracellular Ca(2+) chelators (10 µM BAPTA-AM and 1 mM EGTA, respectively) and Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (10 µM verapamil) are implicated in QUIN-mediated effects. Cells immunostained for the neuronal markers βIII-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2 showed altered neurite/neuron ratios and neurite outgrowth. NF hyperphosphorylation and morphological alterations were totally prevented by conditioned medium from QUIN-treated astrocytes. Cocultured astrocytes and neurons interacted with one another reciprocally, protecting them against QUIN injury. Cocultured cells preserved their cytoskeletal organization and cell morphology together with unaltered activity of the phosphorylating system associated with the cytoskeleton. This article describes cytoskeletal disruption as one of the most relevant actions of QUIN toxicity in striatal neurons in culture with soluble factors secreted by astrocytes, with neuron-astrocyte interaction playing a role in neuroprotection.

  19. Cytoskeletal Linker Protein Dystonin Is Not Critical to Terminal Oligodendrocyte Differentiation or CNS Myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha F Kornfeld

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination require massive reorganization of the oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Loss of specific actin- and tubulin-organizing factors can lead to impaired morphological and/or molecular differentiation of oligodendrocytes, resulting in a subsequent loss of myelination. Dystonin is a cytoskeletal linker protein with both actin- and tubulin-binding domains. Loss of function of this protein results in a sensory neuropathy called Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy VI in humans and dystonia musculorum in mice. This disease presents with severe ataxia, dystonic muscle and is ultimately fatal early in life. While loss of the neuronal isoforms of dystonin primarily leads to sensory neuron degeneration, it has also been shown that peripheral myelination is compromised due to intrinsic Schwann cell differentiation abnormalities. The role of this cytoskeletal linker in oligodendrocytes, however, remains unclear. We sought to determine the effects of the loss of neuronal dystonin on oligodendrocyte differentiation and central myelination. To address this, primary oligodendrocytes were isolated from a severe model of dystonia musculorum, Dstdt-27J, and assessed for morphological and molecular differentiation capacity. No defects could be discerned in the differentiation of Dstdt-27J oligodendrocytes relative to oligodendrocytes from wild-type littermates. Survival was also compared between Dstdt-27J and wild-type oligodendrocytes, revealing no significant difference. Using a recently developed migration assay, we further analysed the ability of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cell motility, and found that Dstdt-27J oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were able to migrate normally. Finally, in vivo analysis of oligodendrocyte myelination was done in phenotype-stage optic nerve, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The density of myelinated axons and g-ratios of Dstdt-27J optic nerves was normal, as

  20. Magnolol inhibits migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karki, Rajendra [Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City (United States); Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong-Bin [Jeollanamdo Development Institute for Korean Traditional Medicine, Jangheung gun, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Wook, E-mail: dbkim@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-10

    Background: Increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute importantly to the formation of both atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of magnolol on VSMC migration. Methods: The proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) stimulated VSMCs was performed by gelatin zymography. VSMC migration was assessed by wound healing and Boyden chamber methods. Collagen induced VSMC adhesion was determined by spectrofluorimeter and stress fibers formation was evaluated by fluorescence microscope. The expression of signaling molecules involved in stress fibers formation was determined by western blot. The phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC20) was determined by urea-glycerol polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expression of β1-integrin and collagen type I in the injured carotid arteries of rats on day 35 after vascular injury. Results: VSMC migration was strongly inhibited by magnolol without affecting MMPs expression. Also, magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, FAK phosphorylation and RhoA and Cdc42 activation to inhibit the collagen induced stress fibers formation. Moreover, magnolol inhibited the phosphorylation of MLC20. Our in vivo results showed that magnolol inhibited β1-integrin expression, collagen type I deposition and FAK phosphorylation in injured carotid arteries without affecting MMP-2 activity. Conclusions: Magnolol inhibited VSMC migration via inhibition of cytoskeletal remodeling pathway to attenuate neointima formation. General significance: This study provides a rationale for further evaluation of magnolol for the management of atherosclerosis and restenosis. - Highlights: • Magnolol strongly inhibited migration of VSMCs. • Magnolol inhibited stress fibers formation. • MLC20 phosphorylation was also inhibited by magnolol. • Anti

  1. Distribution of cytoskeletal proteins, integrins, leukocyte adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix proteins in plastic-embedded human and rat kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, H; Coers, W; van der Horst, MLC; Suurmeijer, AJH

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins (actin, alpha -actinin, vinculin, beta -tubulin, keratin, vimentin, desmin), adhesion molecules for cell-matrix interations (very later antigens [VLA1-6], beta1, beta2 [CD18], vitronectin receptor [alphav beta3], CD 11b), leukocyte adhesi

  2. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xionggao [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Wei, Yantao; Ma, Haizhi [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Shaochong, E-mail: zhshaochong@163.com [State Key Ophthalmic Laboratory, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells induced by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that vitreous

  3. Estradiol influences the mechanical properties of human fetal osteoblasts through cytoskeletal changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthukumaran, Padmalosini [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, Chwee Teck [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lee, Taeyong, E-mail: bielt@nus.edu.sg [Department of Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol induced stiffness changes of osteoblasts were quantified using AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol causes significant decrease in the stiffness of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreased stiffness was caused by decreased density of f-actin network. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stiffness changes were not associated with mineralized matrix of osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol increases inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts. -- Abstract: Estrogen is known to have a direct effect on bone forming osteoblasts and bone resorbing osteoclasts. The cellular and molecular effects of estrogen on osteoblasts and osteoblasts-like cells have been extensively studied. However, the effect of estrogen on the mechanical property of osteoblasts has not been studied yet. It is important since mechanical property of the mechanosensory osteoblasts could be pivotal to its functionality in bone remodeling. This is the first study aimed to assess the direct effect of estradiol on the apparent elastic modulus (E{sup Asterisk-Operator }) and corresponding cytoskeletal changes of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB 1.19). The cells were cultured in either medium alone or medium supplemented with {beta}-estradiol and then subjected to Atomic Force Microscopy indentation (AFM) to determine E{sup Asterisk-Operator }. The underlying changes in cytoskeleton were studied by staining the cells with TRITC-Phalloidin. Following estradiol treatment, the cells were also tested for proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. With estradiol treatment, E{sup Asterisk-Operator} of osteoblasts significantly decreased by 43-46%. The confocal images showed that the changes in f-actin network observed in estradiol treated cells can give rise to the changes in the stiffness of the cells. Estradiol also increases the inherent alkaline phosphatase activity of the cells. Estradiol induced stiffness

  4. Effects of fixation protocol and gravistimulation on cytoskeletal organization in Brassica rapa roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Andrea; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2012-07-01

    In preparation for a flight experiment we have studied the optimization of the staining protocols for microtubules and actin filaments in Brassica rapa seedlings. Microtubules (MT) were stained with monoclonal antibody (mAb) YOL 1/34. F-actin (FA) staining was achieved with C4 mAb antibody. Fixative prepared more than three weeks before use produces specimens that stained poorly. Storage in fixative for more than four weeks resulted in noticeably poorer staining. Staining was best in cortical cells but more difficult and less consistent in cap cells, especially for FA. In addition, the quality of staining of root cap cells was dependent on the age of the formaldehyde. The organization of the MTs corresponded with previously published descriptions; FA was prominent in the stele with thick and numerous parallel bundles; cortical cells showed less dense and less directional organization of mostly thinner filaments. FA organization was determined by tissue rather than by differential elongation. The organization of MTs in cortical cells of curving roots was uniformly circular and perpendicular to the long cell axis despite different cell length. The effect of clinorotation around the horizontal axis and centrifugation on the cytoskeletal organization was inconsistent. (Supported by NASA grant NNX10AP91G)

  5. A multi-structural single cell model of force-induced interactions of cytoskeletal components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Sara; Clausen, Casper H; Perrault, Cecile M; Fletcher, Daniel A; Lacroix, Damien

    2013-08-01

    Several computational models based on experimental techniques and theories have been proposed to describe cytoskeleton (CSK) mechanics. Tensegrity is a prominent model for force generation, but it cannot predict mechanics of individual CSK components, nor explain the discrepancies from the different single cell stimulating techniques studies combined with cytoskeleton-disruptors. A new numerical concept that defines a multi-structural 3D finite element (FE) model of a single-adherent cell is proposed to investigate the biophysical and biochemical differences of the mechanical role of each cytoskeleton component under loading. The model includes prestressed actin bundles and microtubule within cytoplasm and nucleus surrounded by the actin cortex. We performed numerical simulations of atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments by subjecting the cell model to compressive loads. The numerical role of the CSK components was corroborated with AFM force measurements on U2OS-osteosarcoma cells and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts exposed to different cytoskeleton-disrupting drugs. Computational simulation showed that actin cortex and microtubules are the major components targeted in resisting compression. This is a new numerical tool that explains the specific role of the cortex and overcomes the difficulty of isolating this component from other networks in vitro. This illustrates that a combination of cytoskeletal structures with their own properties is necessary for a complete description of cellular mechanics. PMID:23702149

  6. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanical models for cytoskeletal assembly: Towards understanding tensegrity in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tongye; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2005-10-01

    The cytoskeleton is not an equilibrium structure. To develop theoretical tools to investigate such nonequilibrium assemblies, we study a statistical physical model of motorized spherical particles. Though simple, it captures some of the key nonequilibrium features of the cytoskeletal networks. Variational solutions of the many-body master equation for a set of motorized particles accounts for their thermally induced Brownian motion as well as for the motorized kicking of the structural elements. These approximations yield stability limits for crystalline phases and for frozen amorphous structures. The methods allow one to compute the effects of nonequilibrium behavior and adhesion (effective cross-linking) on the mechanical stability of localized phases as a function of density, adhesion strength, and temperature. We find that nonequilibrium noise does not necessarily destabilize mechanically organized structures. The nonequilibrium forces strongly modulate the phase behavior and have comparable effect as the adhesion due to cross-linking. Modeling transitions such as these allows the mechanical properties of cytoskeleton to rapidly and adaptively change. The present model provides a statistical mechanical underpinning for a tensegrity picture of the cytoskeleton.

  7. Low ozone concentrations stimulate cytoskeletal organization, mitochondrial activity and nuclear transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Costanzo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ozone therapy is a modestly invasive procedure based on the regeneration capabilities of low ozone concentrations and used in medicine as an alternative/adjuvant treatment for different diseases. However, the cellular mechanisms accounting for the positive effects of mild ozonization are still largely unexplored. To this aim, in the present study the effects of low ozone concentrations (1 to 20 µg O3/mL O2 on structural and functional cell features have been investigated in vitro by using morphological, morphometrical, cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques at bright field, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Cells exposed to pure O2 or air served as controls. The results demonstrated that the effects of ozoneadministration are dependent on gas concentration, and the cytoskeletal organization, mitochondrial activity and nuclear transcription may be differently affected. This suggests that, to ensure effective and permanent metabolic cell activation, ozone treatments should take into account the cytological and cytokinetic features of the different tissues. 

  8. Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lora M.; Patel, Zarana; Murray, Deborah K.; Rightnar, Steven; Burell, Cheryl G.; Gridley, Daila S.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Fischer rat thyroid cells were grown under low-shear stress in a bioreactor to a stage of organization composed of integrated follicles resembling small thyroid glands prior to exposure to 3 Gray-gamma radiation. Bioreactor tissues and controls (both irradiated and non-irradiated) were harvested at 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours post-exposure. Tissue samples were fixed and fluorescently labeled for actin and microtubules. Tissues were assessed for changes in cytoskeletal components induced by radiation and quantified by laser scanning cytometry. ELISA's were used to quantify transforming growth factor-beta and thyroxin released from cells to the culture supernatant. Tissue architecture was disrupted by exposure to radiation with the structural organization of actin and loss of follicular content the most obviously affected. With time post-irradiation the actin appeared disordered and the levels of fluorescence associated with filamentous-actin and microtubules cycled in the tissue analogs, but not in the flask-grown cultures. Active transforming growth factor-beta was higher in supernatants from the irradiated bioreactor tissue. Thyroxin release paralleled cell survival in the bioreactors and control cultures. Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation.

  9. The Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Gene Product, merlin, Reverses the F-Actin Cytoskeletal Defects in Primary Human Schwannoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bashour, Anne-Marie; Meng, J.-J.; Ip, Wallace; MacCollin, Mia; Ratner, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Schwannoma tumors, which occur sporadically and in patients with neurofibromatosis, account for 8% of intracranial tumors and can only be treated by surgical removal. Most schwannomas have biallelic mutations in the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. We previously showed that schwannoma-derived Schwann cells exhibit membrane ruffling and aberrant cell spreading when plated onto laminin, indicative of fundamental F-actin cytoskeletal defects. Here we expand these observations to a large group of spora...

  10. A cytoskeletal spring for the control of cell shape in outer hair cells isolated from the guinea pig cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, M C; Ashmore, J F

    1990-01-01

    A two-dimensional cortical cytoskeletal lattice associated with the lateral plasma membranes of mammalian outer hair cells maintains cell shape and provides a restoring force to oppose active changes in cell length. The lattice is composed of two morphologically distinct filaments which are arranged to reinforce the cell circumferentially whilst allowing limited changes in cell length and diameter. This function can only be fulfilled if intracellular pressure is high enough to put the lattice under tension.

  11. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Rapid expression of cytoskeletal components in microvilli of pig small intestinal mucosal explants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Danielsen, E M

    1984-01-01

    Using alkaline extraction to separate cytoskeletal and membrane proteins of intestinal microvilli, the kinetics of assembly of these two microvillar protein compartments was studied by pulse-chase labelling of pig small intestinal mucosal explants, kept in organ culture. Following a 10 min pulse of...... pulse. These different kinetics of appearance indicate that the two microvillar protein compartments have separate mechanisms of biosynthesis and microvillar expression....

  12. Aegeline from Aegle marmelos stimulates glucose transport via Akt and Rac1 signaling, and contributes to a cytoskeletal rearrangement through PI3K/Rac1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sudeep; Ishrat, Nayab; Singh, Rohit; Narender, Tadigoppula; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-09-01

    Aegeline is an alkaloidal-amide, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos and have shown antihyperglycemic as well as antidyslipidemic activities in the validated animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we delineate, aegeline enhanced GLUT4 translocation mediated 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in both time and concentration-dependent manner. 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was completely stymied by the transport inhibitors (wortmannin and genistein) in C2C12 myotubes. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) suggest that both Akt and Rac1 operate aegeline-stimulated glucose transport via distinct parallel pathways. Moreover, aegeline activates p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and cofilin (an actin polymerization regulator). Rac1 inhibitor (Rac1 inhib II) and PAK1 inhibitor (IPA-3) completely blocked aegeline-induced phosphorylation of cofilin and p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In summary, these findings suggest that aegeline stimulates the glucose transport through Akt and Rac1 dependent distinct parallel pathways and have cytoskeletal roles via stimulation of the PI3-kinase-Rac1-PAK1-cofilin pathway in the skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, multiple targets of aegeline in the improvement of insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscle cells may be suggested.

  13. Cytoskeletal signaling: is memory encoded in microtubule lattices by CaMKII phosphorylation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J A Craddock

    Full Text Available Memory is attributed to strengthened synaptic connections among particular brain neurons, yet synaptic membrane components are transient, whereas memories can endure. This suggests synaptic information is encoded and 'hard-wired' elsewhere, e.g. at molecular levels within the post-synaptic neuron. In long-term potentiation (LTP, a cellular and molecular model for memory, post-synaptic calcium ion (Ca²⁺ flux activates the hexagonal Ca²⁺-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII, a dodacameric holoenzyme containing 2 hexagonal sets of 6 kinase domains. Each kinase domain can either phosphorylate substrate proteins, or not (i.e. encoding one bit. Thus each set of extended CaMKII kinases can potentially encode synaptic Ca²⁺ information via phosphorylation as ordered arrays of binary 'bits'. Candidate sites for CaMKII phosphorylation-encoded molecular memory include microtubules (MTs, cylindrical organelles whose surfaces represent a regular lattice with a pattern of hexagonal polymers of the protein tubulin. Using molecular mechanics modeling and electrostatic profiling, we find that spatial dimensions and geometry of the extended CaMKII kinase domains precisely match those of MT hexagonal lattices. This suggests sets of six CaMKII kinase domains phosphorylate hexagonal MT lattice neighborhoods collectively, e.g. conveying synaptic information as ordered arrays of six "bits", and thus "bytes", with 64 to 5,281 possible bit states per CaMKII-MT byte. Signaling and encoding in MTs and other cytoskeletal structures offer rapid, robust solid-state information processing which may reflect a general code for MT-based memory and information processing within neurons and other eukaryotic cells.

  14. FtsZ Cytoskeletal Filaments as a Template for Metallic Nanowire Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Nili; Fichman, Galit; Adler-Abramovich, Lihi; Gazit, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Supramolecular protein assemblies can serve as templates for the fabrication of inorganic nanowires due to their morphological reproducibility and innate proclivity to form well-ordered structures. Amongst the variety of naturally occurring nano-scale assemblies, cytoskeletal fibers from diverse biological sources represent a unique family of scaffolds for biomimetics as they efficiently self-assemble in vitro in a controllable manner to form stable filaments. Here, we harness the bacterial FtsZ filament system as a scaffold for protein-based metal nanowires, and further demonstrate the control of wire alignment with the use of an external magnetic field. Due to the ease at which the bacterial FtsZ is overexpressed and purified, as well as the extensive studies of its ultrastructural properties and physiological significance, FtsZ filaments are an ideal substrate for large-scale production and chemical manipulation. Using a biologically compatible electroless metal deposition technique initiated by adsorption of platinum as a surface catalyst, we demonstrate the coating of assembled FtsZ filaments with iron, nickel, gold, and copper to fabricate continuous nanowires with diameters ranging from 10-50 nm. Organic-inorganic hybrid wires were analyzed using high-resolution field-emission-gun transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and confirmed by energy-dispersive elemental analysis. We also achieved alignment of ferrofluid-coated FtsZ filaments using an external magnetic field. Overall, we provide evidence for the robustness of the FtsZ filament system as a molecular scaffold, and offer an efficient, biocompatible procedure for facile bottom-up assembly of metallic wires on biological templates. We believe that bottom-up fabrication methods as reported herein significantly contribute to the expanding toolkit available for the incorporation of biological materials in nano-scale devices for electronic and electromechanical applications. PMID:26328401

  15. Freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells: Differentiation commitment and cytoskeletal disturbances in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Nelly A; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kipryushina, Yulia O; Maiorova, Mariia A; Boroda, Andrey V

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the freezing tolerance of sea urchin embryonic cells. To significantly reduce the loss of physiological activity of these cells that occurs after cryopreservation and to study the effects of ultra-low temperatures on sea urchin embryonic cells, we tested the ability of the cells to differentiate into spiculogenic or pigment directions in culture, including an evaluation of the expression of some genes involved in pigment differentiation. A morphological analysis of cytoskeletal disturbances after freezing in a combination of penetrating (dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol) and non-penetrating (trehalose and polyvinylpyrrolidone) cryoprotectants revealed that the distribution pattern of filamentous actin and tubulin was similar to that in the control cultures. In contrast, very rare spreading cells and a small number of cells with filamentous actin and tubulin were detected after freezing in the presence of only non-penetrating cryoprotectants. The largest number of pigment cells was found in cultures frozen with trehalose or trehalose and dimethyl sulfoxide. The ability to induce the spicule formation was lost in the cells frozen only with non-penetrating cryoprotectants, while it was maximal in cultures frozen in a cryoprotective mixture containing both non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants (particularly, when ethylene glycol was present). Using different markers for cell state assessment, an effective cryopreservation protocol for sea urchin cells was developed: three-step freezing with a low cooling rate (1-2°C/min) and a combination of non-penetrating and penetrating cryoprotectants made it possible to obtain a high level of cell viability (up to 65-80%). PMID:26049089

  16. Initiation of Chondrocyte Self-Assembly Requires an Intact Cytoskeletal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer K; Hu, Jerry C Y; Yamada, Soichiro; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2016-02-01

    Self-assembly and self-organization have recently emerged as robust scaffold-free tissue engineering methodologies that can be used to generate various tissues, including cartilage, vessel, and liver. Self-assembly, in particular, is a scaffold-free platform for tissue engineering that does not require the input of exogenous energy to the system. Although self-assembly can generate functional tissues, most notably neocartilage, the mechanisms of self-assembly remain unclear. To study the self-assembling process, we used articular chondrocytes as a model to identify parameters that can affect this process. Specifically, the roles of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion molecules, surface-bound collagen, and the actin cytoskeletal network were investigated. Using time-lapse imaging, we analyzed the early stages of chondrocyte self-assembly. Within hours, chondrocytes rapidly coalesced into cell clusters before compacting to form tight cellular structures. Chondrocyte self-assembly was found to depend primarily on integrin function and secondarily on cadherin function. In addition, actin or myosin II inhibitors prevented chondrocyte self-assembly, suggesting that cell adhesion alone is not sufficient, but rather the active contractile actin cytoskeleton is essential for proper chondrocyte self-assembly and the formation of neocartilage. Better understanding of the self-assembly mechanisms allows for the rational modulation of this process toward generating neocartilages with improved properties. These findings are germane to understanding self-assembly, an emerging platform for tissue engineering of a plethora of tissues, especially as these neotissues are poised for translation. PMID:26729374

  17. Nuclear motility in glioma cells reveals a cell-line dependent role of various cytoskeletal components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Kiss

    Full Text Available Nuclear migration is a general term for the movement of the nucleus towards a specific site in the cell. These movements are involved in a number of fundamental biological processes, such as fertilization, cell division, and embryonic development. Despite of its importance, the mechanism of nuclear migration is still poorly understood in mammalian cells. In order to shed light on the mechanical processes underlying nuclear movements, we adapted a micro-patterning based assay. C6 rat and U87 human glioma cells seeded on fibronectin patterns--thereby forced into a bipolar morphology--displayed oscillatory movements of the nucleus or the whole cell, respectively. We found that both the actomyosin system and microtubules are involved in the nuclear/cellular movements of both cell lines, but their contributions are cell-/migration-type specific. Dynein activity was necessary for nuclear migration of C6 cells but active myosin-II was dispensable. On the other hand, coupled nuclear and cellular movements of U87 cells were driven by actomyosin contraction. We explain these cell-line dependent effects by the intrinsic differences in the overall mechanical tension due to the various cytoskeletal elements inside the cell. Our observations showed that the movements of the nucleus and the centrosome are strongly correlated and display large variation, indicating a tight but flexible coupling between them. The data also indicate that the forces responsible for nuclear movements are not acting directly via the centrosome. Based on our observations, we propose a new model for nuclear oscillations in C6 cells in which dynein and microtubule dynamics are the main drivers of nuclear movements. This mechanism is similar to the meiotic nuclear oscillations of Schizosaccharomyces pombe and may be evolutionary conserved.

  18. The 4.1B cytoskeletal protein regulates the domain organization and sheath thickness of myelinated axons

    OpenAIRE

    Einheber, Steven; Maurel, Patrice; Meng, Xiaosong; Rubin, Marina; Lam, Isabel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Shrager, Peter; Kissil, Joseph; Salzer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Myelinated axons are organized into specialized domains critical to their function in saltatory conduction, i.e. nodes, paranodes, juxtaparanodes, and internodes. Here, we describe the distribution and role of the 4.1B protein in this organization. 4.1B is expressed by neurons, and at lower levels by Schwann cells, which also robustly express 4.1G. Immunofluorescence and immuno-EM demonstrates 4.1B is expressed subjacent to the axon membrane in all domains except the nodes. Mice deficient in ...

  19. Autothixotropy of Water and its Possible Importance for the Cytoskeletal Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vybíral, Bohumil

    2011-12-01

    an organization of water in cytoskeletal structures are outlined.

  20. Gamma-Diketone central neuropathy: quantitative analyses of cytoskeletal components in myelinated axons of the rat rubrospinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopachin, Richard M; Jortner, Bernard S; Reid, Maria L; Monir, Alim

    2005-12-01

    Loss of axon caliber is a primary component of gamma-diketone neuropathy [LoPachin RM, DeCaprio AP. gamma-Diketone central neuropathy: axon atrophy and the role of cytoskeletal protein adduction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;199:20-34]. It is possible that this effect is mediated by changes in the density of cytoskeletal components and corresponding spatial relationships. To examine this possibility, morphometric methods were used to quantify the effects of 2,5-hexanedione (HD) intoxication on neurofilament-microtubule densities and nearest neighbor distances in myelinated rubrospinal axons. Rats were exposed to HD at one of two daily dose-rates (175 or 400 mg/kg per day, gavage) until a moderate level of neurotoxicity was achieved (99 or 21 days of intoxication, respectively) as determined by gait analysis and measurements of hindlimb grip strength. Results indicate that, regardless of dose-rate, HD intoxication did not cause changes in axonal neurofilament (NF) density, but did significantly increase microtubule (MT) density. No consistent alterations in interneurofilament or NF-MT distances were detected by ultrastructural morphometric analyses. These data suggest that the axon atrophy induced by HD was not mediated by major disruptions of stationary cytoskeletal organization. Recent biochemical studies of spinal cord from HD intoxicated rats showed that, although the NF protein content in the stationary cytoskeleton (polymer fraction) was not affected, the mobile subunit pool was depleted substantially [LoPachin RM, He D, Reid ML, Opanashuk LA. 2,5-Hexanedione-induced changes in the monomeric neurofilament protein content of rat spinal cord fractions. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004;198:61-73]. The stability of the polymer fraction during HD intoxication is consistent with the absence of significant ultrastructural modifications noted in the present study. Together, these findings implicate loss of mobile NF proteins as the primary mechanism of axon atrophy. PMID

  1. Selective ablation of the androgen receptor in mouse sertoli cells affects sertoli cell maturation, barrier formation and cytoskeletal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Willems

    Full Text Available The observation that mice with a selective ablation of the androgen receptor (AR in Sertoli cells (SC (SCARKO mice display a complete block in meiosis supports the contention that SC play a pivotal role in the control of germ cell development by androgens. To delineate the physiological and molecular mechanism responsible for this control, we compared tubular development in pubertal SCARKO mice and littermate controls. Particular attention was paid to differences in SC maturation, SC barrier formation and cytoskeletal organization and to the molecular mediators potentially involved. Functional analysis of SC barrier development by hypertonic perfusion and lanthanum permeation techniques and immunohistochemical analysis of junction formation showed that SCARKO mice still attempt to produce a barrier separating basal and adluminal compartment but that barrier formation is delayed and defective. Defective barrier formation was accompanied by disturbances in SC nuclear maturation (immature shape, absence of prominent, tripartite nucleoli and SC polarization (aberrant positioning of SC nuclei and cytoskeletal elements such as vimentin. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to study the transcript levels of genes potentially related to the described phenomena between day 8 and 35. Differences in the expression of SC genes known to play a role in junction formation could be shown from day 8 for Cldn11, from day 15 for Cldn3 and Espn, from day 20 for Cdh2 and Jam3 and from day 35 for ZO-1. Marked differences were also noted in the transcript levels of several genes that are also related to cell adhesion and cytoskeletal dynamics but that have not yet been studied in SC (Actn3, Ank3, Anxa9, Scin, Emb, Mpzl2. It is concluded that absence of a functional AR in SC impedes the remodeling of testicular tubules expected at the onset of spermatogenesis and interferes with the creation of the specific environment needed for germ cell development.

  2. Antibody-based analysis reveals “filamentous vs. non-filamentous” and “cytoplasmic vs. nuclear” crosstalk of cytoskeletal proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumeta, Masahiro, E-mail: kumeta@lif.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Hirai, Yuya; Yoshimura, Shige H. [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Horigome, Tsuneyoshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Takeyasu, Kunio [Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-12-10

    To uncover the molecular composition and dynamics of the functional scaffold for the nucleus, three fractions of biochemically-stable nuclear protein complexes were extracted and used as immunogens to produce a variety of monoclonal antibodies. Many helix-based cytoskeletal proteins were identified as antigens, suggesting their dynamic contribution to nuclear architecture and function. Interestingly, sets of antibodies distinguished distinct subcellular localization of a single isoform of certain cytoskeletal proteins; distinct molecular forms of keratin and actinin were found in the nucleus. Their nuclear shuttling properties were verified by the apparent nuclear accumulations under inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Nuclear keratins do not take an obvious filamentous structure, as was revealed by non-filamentous cytoplasmic keratin-specific monoclonal antibody. These results suggest the distinct roles of the helix-based cytoskeletal proteins in the nucleus. - Highlights: • A set of monoclonal antibodies were raised against nuclear scaffold proteins. • Helix-based cytoskeletal proteins were involved in nuclear scaffold. • Many cytoskeletal components shuttle into the nucleus in a CRM1-dependent manner. • Sets of antibodies distinguished distinct subcellular localization of a single isoform. • Nuclear keratin is soluble and does not form an obvious filamentous structure.

  3. Ultrastructural appearance and cytoskeletal architecture of the clear, chromophilic, and chromophobe types of human renal cell carcinoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, C D; Moll, R; Störkel, S; Ramp, U; Thoenes, W; Gabbert, H E

    1993-03-01

    The clear, chromophilic, and chromophobe types of human renal cell carcinoma have been defined as distinct morphological entities and can be clearly separated by differences of ultrastructural appearance, cytoskeletal architecture, enzyme synthesis, and cytogenetic aberrations. In this report, the cytomorphological aspects of these tumor types are compared in vitro, showing that essential ultrastructural and cytoskeletal characteristics of each tumor type are expressed even after prolonged in vitro cultivation. The pattern of intermediate filament proteins of each tumor type was preserved in vitro, permitting the separation of exclusively cytokeratin-positive chromophobe tumor cells from clear and chromophilic tumor cells with a co-expression of vimentin and cytokeratins. In vitro, the chromophobe tumor cells continued to exhibit abundant cytoplasmatic microvesicles and sparsely distributed "studded" vesicles, which are known to be characteristic features of this tumor type in vivo. This observation confirmed the structural similarity of the chromophobe cell to the 'intercalated cell' of the cortical collecting duct and provided further evidence for the histogenetic derivation of this tumor subtype from the collecting duct system.

  4. Actin Cytoskeletal Organization in Drosophila Germline Ring Canals Depends on Kelch Function in a Cullin-RING E3 Ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Andrew M; Mannix, Katelynn M; Cooley, Lynn

    2015-11-01

    The Drosophila Kelch protein is required to organize the ovarian ring canal cytoskeleton. Kelch binds and cross-links F-actin in vitro, and it also functions with Cullin 3 (Cul3) as a component of a ubiquitin E3 ligase. How these two activities contribute to cytoskeletal remodeling in vivo is not known. We used targeted mutagenesis to investigate the mechanism of Kelch function. We tested a model in which Cul3-dependent degradation of Kelch is required for its function, but we found no evidence to support this hypothesis. However, we found that mutant Kelch deficient in its ability to interact with Cul3 failed to rescue the kelch cytoskeletal defects, suggesting that ubiquitin ligase activity is the principal activity required in vivo. We also determined that the proteasome is required with Kelch to promote the ordered growth of the ring canal cytoskeleton. These results indicate that Kelch organizes the cytoskeleton in vivo by targeting a protein substrate for degradation by the proteasome.

  5. Ionising Radiation Immediately Impairs Synaptic Plasticity-Associated Cytoskeletal Signalling Pathways in HT22 Cells and in Mouse Brain: An In Vitro/In Vivo Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Stefan J.; Buratovic, Sonja; von Toerne, Christine; Moertl, Simone; Stenerlöw, Bo; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Atkinson, Michael J.; Eriksson, Per; Tapio, Soile

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from brain malignancies are treated with high-dose ionising radiation. However, this may lead to severe learning and memory impairment. Preventive treatments to minimise these side effects have not been possible due to the lack of knowledge of the involved signalling pathways and molecular targets. Mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were irradiated with acute gamma doses of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy. Changes in the cellular proteome were investigated by isotope-coded protein label technology and tandem mass spectrometry after 4 and 24 hours. To compare the findings with the in vivo response, male NMRI mice were irradiated on postnatal day 10 with a gamma dose of 1.0 Gy, followed by evaluation of the cellular proteome of hippocampus and cortex 24 hours post-irradiation. Analysis of the in vitro proteome showed that signalling pathways related to synaptic actin-remodelling were significantly affected at 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy but not at 0.5 Gy after 4 and 24 hours. We observed radiation-induced reduction of the miR-132 and Rac1 levels; miR-132 is known to regulate Rac1 activity by blocking the GTPase-activating protein p250GAP. In the irradiated hippocampus and cortex we observed alterations in the signalling pathways similar to those in vitro. The decreased expression of miR-132 and Rac1 was associated with an increase in hippocampal cofilin and phospho-cofilin. The Rac1-Cofilin pathway is involved in the modulation of synaptic actin filament formation that is necessary for correct spine and synapse morphology to enable processes of learning and memory. We suggest that acute radiation exposure leads to rapid dendritic spine and synapse morphology alterations via aberrant cytoskeletal signalling and processing and that this is associated with the immediate neurocognitive side effects observed in patients treated with ionising radiation. PMID:25329592

  6. Ionising radiation immediately impairs synaptic plasticity-associated cytoskeletal signalling pathways in HT22 cells and in mouse brain: an in vitro/in vivo comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan J Kempf

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from brain malignancies are treated with high-dose ionising radiation. However, this may lead to severe learning and memory impairment. Preventive treatments to minimise these side effects have not been possible due to the lack of knowledge of the involved signalling pathways and molecular targets. Mouse hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were irradiated with acute gamma doses of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy. Changes in the cellular proteome were investigated by isotope-coded protein label technology and tandem mass spectrometry after 4 and 24 hours. To compare the findings with the in vivo response, male NMRI mice were irradiated on postnatal day 10 with a gamma dose of 1.0 Gy, followed by evaluation of the cellular proteome of hippocampus and cortex 24 hours post-irradiation. Analysis of the in vitro proteome showed that signalling pathways related to synaptic actin-remodelling were significantly affected at 1.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy but not at 0.5 Gy after 4 and 24 hours. We observed radiation-induced reduction of the miR-132 and Rac1 levels; miR-132 is known to regulate Rac1 activity by blocking the GTPase-activating protein p250GAP. In the irradiated hippocampus and cortex we observed alterations in the signalling pathways similar to those in vitro. The decreased expression of miR-132 and Rac1 was associated with an increase in hippocampal cofilin and phospho-cofilin. The Rac1-Cofilin pathway is involved in the modulation of synaptic actin filament formation that is necessary for correct spine and synapse morphology to enable processes of learning and memory. We suggest that acute radiation exposure leads to rapid dendritic spine and synapse morphology alterations via aberrant cytoskeletal signalling and processing and that this is associated with the immediate neurocognitive side effects observed in patients treated with ionising radiation.

  7. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    cases, activation of volume regulatory osmolyte transport. After acute swelling, cell volume is regulated by the process of regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which involves the activation of KCl cotransport and of channels mediating K(+), Cl(-), and taurine efflux. Conversely, after acute shrinkage...... and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...

  8. Cytoskeletal Pathologies of Age-Related Diseases between Elderly Sri Lankan (Colombo) and Indian (Bangalore) Brain Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Printha; Shankar, S K; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Gorrie, Catherine; Amaratunga, Dhammika; Hulathduwa, Sanjayah; Kumara, K Sunil; Samarasinghe, Kamani; Suh, Yoo Hun; Steinbusch, H W; De Silva, K Ranil D

    2016-01-01

    Within South Asia, Sri Lanka represents fastest aging with 13% of the population was aged over 60's in 2011, whereas in India it was 8%. Majority of the Sri Lankan population based genetic studies have confirmed their origin on Indian mainland. As there were inadequate data on aging cytoskeletal pathologies of these two nations with their close genetic affiliations, we performed a comparison on their elderly. Autopsy brain samples of 50 individuals from Colombo, Sri Lanka (mean age 72.1 yrs ± 7.8, mean ± S.D.) and 42 individuals from Bangalore, India (mean age 65.9 yrs ± 9.3) were screened for neurodegenerative pathologies using immunohistochemical techniques. A total of 79 cases with incomplete clinical history (Colombo- 47 and Bangalore- 32) were subjected to statistical analysis and 13 cases, clinically diagnosed with dementia and/or Parkinsonism disorders were excluded. As per National Institute on Aging- Alzheimer's Association guidelines, between Colombo and Bangalore samples, Alzheimer's disease neuropathologic change for intermediate/ high level was 4.25% vs. 3.12% and low level was 19.15% vs. 15.62% respectively. Pathologies associated with Parkinsonism including brainstem predominant Lewy bodies- 6.4% and probable progressive supra nuclear palsy- 2.13% were found solely in Colombo samples. Alzheimer related pathologies were not different among elders, however, in Colombo males, neurofibrillary tangle grade was significantly higher in the region of hippocampus (odds ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 0.07-0.7) and at risk in midbrain substantia nigra (p = 0.075). Other age-related pathologies including spongiform changes (p Colombo samples. Taken together, aging cytoskeletal pathologies are comparatively higher in elderly Sri Lankans and this might be due to their genetic, dietary and/ or environmental variations.

  9. Identification of a novel function of CX-4945 as a splicing regulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongki Kim

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is a nearly ubiquitous versatile process that controls gene expression and creates numerous protein isoforms with different functions from a single gene. The significance of alternative splicing has been confirmed by the increasing number of human diseases that are caused by misregulation of splicing events. Very few compounds, however, have been reported to act as inhibitors of alternative splicing, and their potential clinical use needs to be evaluated. Here, we report that CX-4945, a previously well-characterized inhibitor of casein kinase 2 (CK2 and a molecule currently in clinical trials (Phase II for cancer treatment, regulates splicing in mammalian cells in a CK2-independent manner. Transcriptome-wide analysis using exon array also showed a widespread alteration in alternative splicing of numerous genes. We found that CX-4945 potently inhibits the Cdc2-like kinases (Clks in vitro and in turn, leads to suppression of the phosphorylation of serine/arginine-rich (SR proteins in mammalian cells. Surprisingly, the overall efficacy of CX-4945 on Clks (IC50 = 3-90 nM was stronger than that of TG-003, the strongest inhibitor reported to date. Of the Clks, Clk2 was most strongly inhibited by CX-4945 in an ATP-competitive manner. Our research revealed an unexpected activity of the drug candidate CX-4945 as a potent splicing modulator and also suggested a potential application for therapy of diseases caused by abnormal splicing.

  10. Plasticity of mesenchymal stem cells under microgravity: from cytoskeletal reorganization to commitment shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravkova, Ludmila

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used to examine osteogenesis of uncommitted cells maintaining the bone differentiation potential such as osteogenic gene expression, osteogenic markers, matrix maturation and mineralization. MSCs are therefore a good model for studying osteogenesis in the space environment. Recent investigations have demonstrated that MSCs change in response to microgravity and, consequently, can be involved in the development of osteopenia detected in space travelers. This is a factor that can limit human space missions due to potential risks of osteoporosis and its aftereffects during and after flight. Simulated microgravity inhibited MSC differentiation towards osteoblasts and accelerated adipocyte development due to cytoskeleton modifications, including its structure and regulation associated with signal transduction cascades. We identified transient changes in the actin cytoskeleton of non-committed human bone marrow MSCs in short-term RPM experiments. In addition, we detected transient changes in the expression of genes encoding actin cytoskeleton proteins and associated elements (ACTA1, ACTG, RHOA, CFL1, VCL). When discussing the microgravity effects on MSC osteogenic differentiation, it should be mentioned the inhibition of Runx2 and ALPL and stimulation of PPARg2 in the MSCs induced for osteogenesis. It is probable that the reciprocal regulation of the two transcription factors is a molecular mechanism underlying progenitor cell response to microgravity. It is very likely that these genes are involved in the universal circuits within which mechanical (or gravity ) signals are sensed by MSCs. Recently, the list of osteogenic markers was extended to include several new proteins as microgravity targets (proteoglycans, osteomodulin, osteoglycin). It can be believed that exposure to microgravity produces similar effects on mature bone cells (osteoblasts) and non-committed osteogenic cells (MSCs). This finds a support in the fact that

  11. Nano-ZnO leads to tubulin macrotube assembly and actin bundling, triggering cytoskeletal catastrophe and cell necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hevia, Lorena; Valiente, Rafael; Martín-Rodríguez, Rosa; Renero-Lecuna, Carlos; González, Jesús; Rodríguez-Fernández, Lidia; Aguado, Fernando; Villegas, Juan C.; Fanarraga, Mónica L.

    2016-05-01

    Zinc is a crucial element in biology that plays chief catalytic, structural and protein regulatory roles. Excess cytoplasmic zinc is toxic to cells so there are cell-entry and intracellular buffering mechanisms that control intracellular zinc availability. Tubulin and actin are two zinc-scavenging proteins that are essential components of the cellular cytoskeleton implicated in cell division, migration and cellular architecture maintenance. Here we demonstrate how exposure to different ZnO nanostructures, namely ZnO commercial nanoparticles and custom-made ZnO nanowires, produce acute cytotoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCat) and epithelial cells (HeLa) triggering a dose-dependent cell retraction and collapse. We show how engulfed ZnO nanoparticles dissolve intracellularly, triggering actin filament bundling and structural changes in microtubules, transforming these highly dynamic 25 nm diameter polymers into rigid macrotubes of tubulin, severely affecting cell proliferation and survival. Our results demonstrate that nano-ZnO causes acute cytoskeletal collapse that triggers necrosis, followed by a late reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptotic process.Zinc is a crucial element in biology that plays chief catalytic, structural and protein regulatory roles. Excess cytoplasmic zinc is toxic to cells so there are cell-entry and intracellular buffering mechanisms that control intracellular zinc availability. Tubulin and actin are two zinc-scavenging proteins that are essential components of the cellular cytoskeleton implicated in cell division, migration and cellular architecture maintenance. Here we demonstrate how exposure to different ZnO nanostructures, namely ZnO commercial nanoparticles and custom-made ZnO nanowires, produce acute cytotoxic effects in human keratinocytes (HaCat) and epithelial cells (HeLa) triggering a dose-dependent cell retraction and collapse. We show how engulfed ZnO nanoparticles dissolve intracellularly, triggering actin

  12. The connection of cytoskeletal network with plasma membrane and the cell wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengyu Liu; Staffan Persson; Yi Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall provides external support of the plant cells, while the cytoskeletons including the microtubules and the actin filaments constitute an internal framework. The cytoskeletons contribute to the cell wall biosynthesis by spatially and temporarily regulating the transportation and deposition of cell wall components. This tight control is achieved by the dynamic behavior of the cytoskeletons, but also through the tethering of these structures to the plasma membrane. This tethering may also extend beyond the plasma membrane and impact on the cell wall, possibly in the form of a feedback loop. In this review, we discuss the linking components between the cytoskeletons and the plasma membrane, and/or the cell wall. We also discuss the prospective roles of these components in cell wall biosyn-thesis and modifications, and aim to provide a platform for further studies in this field.

  13. Filament networks attached to membranes: cytoskeletal pressure and local bilayer deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auth, Thorsten [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Safran, S A [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gov, Nir S [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2007-11-15

    Several cell types, among them red blood cells, have a cortical, two-dimensional (2D) network of filaments sparsely attached to their lipid bilayer. In many mammalian cells, this 2D polymer network is connected to an underlying 3D, more rigid cytoskeleton. In this paper, we consider the pressure exerted by the thermally fluctuating, cortical network of filaments on the bilayer and predict the bilayer deformations that are induced by this pressure. We treat the filaments as flexible polymers and calculate the pressure that a network of such linear chains exerts on the bilayer; we then minimize the bilayer shape in order to predict the resulting local deformations. We compare our predictions with membrane deformations observed in electron micrographs of red blood cells. The polymer pressure along with the resulting membrane deformation can lead to compartmentalization, regulate in-plane diffusion and may influence protein sorting as well as transmit signals to the polymerization of the underlying 3D cytoskeleton.

  14. Filament networks attached to membranes: cytoskeletal pressure and local bilayer deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auth, Thorsten; Safran, S. A.; Gov, Nir S.

    2007-11-01

    Several cell types, among them red blood cells, have a cortical, two-dimensional (2D) network of filaments sparsely attached to their lipid bilayer. In many mammalian cells, this 2D polymer network is connected to an underlying 3D, more rigid cytoskeleton. In this paper, we consider the pressure exerted by the thermally fluctuating, cortical network of filaments on the bilayer and predict the bilayer deformations that are induced by this pressure. We treat the filaments as flexible polymers and calculate the pressure that a network of such linear chains exerts on the bilayer; we then minimize the bilayer shape in order to predict the resulting local deformations. We compare our predictions with membrane deformations observed in electron micrographs of red blood cells. The polymer pressure along with the resulting membrane deformation can lead to compartmentalization, regulate in-plane diffusion and may influence protein sorting as well as transmit signals to the polymerization of the underlying 3D cytoskeleton.

  15. Cytoskeletal logic: a model for molecular computation via Boolean operations in microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz-Beltra, R; Hameroff, S R; Dayhoff, J E

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors and dynamic activities within living cells are organized by the cytoskeleton: intracellular networks of interconnected protein polymers which include microtubules (MTs), actin, intermediate filaments, microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) and other protein structures. Cooperative interactions among cytoskeletal protein subunit conformational states have been used to model signal transmission and information processing. In the present work we present a theoretical model for molecular computing in which Boolean logic is implemented in parallel networks of individual MTs interconnected by MAPs. Conformational signals propagate on MTs as in data buses and in the model MAPs are considered as Boolean operators, either as bit-lines (like MTs) where a signal can be transported unchanged between MTs ('BUS-MAP'), or as bit-lines where a Boolean operation is performed in one of the two MAP-MT attachments ('LOGIC-MAP'). Three logic MAPs have been defined ('NOT-MAP, 'AND-MAP', 'XOR-MAP') and used to demonstrate addition, subtraction and other arithmetic operations. Although our choice of Boolean logic is arbitrary, the simulations demonstrate symbolic manipulation in a connectionist system and suggest that MT-MAP networks can perform computation in living cells and are candidates for future molecular computing devices. PMID:8318677

  16. Antinuclear, Cytoskeletal, Antineuronal Antibodies in the Serum Samples of Children with Tic Disorders and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Görker

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available streptococcus infections in the development of tic and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD is controversial. The autoimmune hypothesis states that during infection, formation of autoantibodies leads to an autoimmune disorder, which in turn results in movement disorders, tic disorders and/or OCD. In order to test this hypothesis, we assayed these antibodies in children and adolescents diagnosed with tic disorders and/or OCD.Material and Methods: Children and adolescents who were diagnosed with either tic disorders or OCD according to DSM-IV criteria (n=28, were compared with healthy controls (n=15 having similar age and gender characteristics. Regardless of a streptococcus infection history, serum samples of all patients and controls underwent antinuclear, cytoskeletal, and antineuronal antibody assay using indirect immunofluorescence.Results: The rates of antinuclear antibody positivity were 21% and 20% in the patient and control groups respectively (p>0.05. Antineuronal antibody was positive in 2 (7% of 28 patients versus in 1 (6% of 15 controls (p>0.05.Conclusion: These results suggest that such antibodies may not be involved in the pathogenesis of tic disorders/OCD.

  17. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Bhargava

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1, suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  18. Tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1 blocks bacterial uptake by inducing Vav2-RhoA-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peter Boettcher

    Full Text Available Certain bacterial adhesins appear to promote a pathogen's extracellular lifestyle rather than its entry into host cells. However, little is known about the stimuli elicited upon such pathogen host-cell interactions. Here, we report that type IV pili (Tfp-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (P(+GC induces an immediate recruitment of caveolin-1 (Cav1 in the host cell, which subsequently prevents bacterial internalization by triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements via downstream phosphotyrosine signaling. A broad and unbiased analysis of potential interaction partners for tyrosine-phosphorylated Cav1 revealed a direct interaction with the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav2. Both Vav2 and its substrate, the small GTPase RhoA, were found to play a direct role in the Cav1-mediated prevention of bacterial uptake. Our findings, which have been extended to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, highlight how Tfp-producing bacteria avoid host cell uptake. Further, our data establish a mechanistic link between Cav1 phosphorylation and pathogen-induced cytoskeleton reorganization and advance our understanding of caveolin function.

  19. Overexpression of dishevelled-1 attenuates wortmannin-induced hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins in N2a cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-hong WANG; Ai-hong ZHANG; Ling-qiang ZHU; Qun WANG; Jian-zhi WANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of dishevelled- 1 (DVL- 1) on wortmannin-induced Alzheimer-like hyperphosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins in mouse neuroblastoma 2a (N2a) cells. Methods: Cultured N2a cells were transitorily transfected with DVL-1 expression plasmid using LipofectamineTM 2000. Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy were used to measure the phosphorylation of neurofilament and tau. Results: Level of phosphorylated neurofilament at SMI31 epitope and phosphorylated tau determined by PHF-1 was increased at 1 h and 3 h and back to normal at 6 h after wortmannin 1 μmol/L treatment. The highest level of phosphorylated neurofilament and phosphorylated tau was seen at 1 h and 3 h after wortmannin treatment, respectively. When DVL- 1 protein was overexpressed,the hyperphosphorylation of neurofilament at SMI31 and SMI32 epitopes and tau at PHF- 1 (Ser-396/404), M4 (Thr-231/Ser-235), and Tau- 1 (Ser- 198/199/202) epitopes was attenuated. Conclusion: Overexpression of mouse DVL-1 protein inhibits wortmannin-induced hyperphosphorylation of neurofilament and tau in N2a cells.

  20. Proteomics displays cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones involvement in Hedyotis corymbosa-induced photokilling in skin cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bang-Jau; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wu, Chi-Yu; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chen, Mei-Yu; Chang, Yu-Hao; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2011-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy was found to be an effective therapy for local malignant tumors. This study demonstrated that 80 μg/ml Hedyotis corymbosa extracts with 0.8 J/cm(2) fluence dose caused M21 skin cancer cell death. Photoactivated H. corymbosa-induced M21 cell death is a typical apoptosis that is accompanied by nuclear condensation, externalization of phosphatidylserine and the changes in protein expression of apoptosis-related proteins, such as Bcl-2 and caspase family members. This study applied 2D electrophoresis to analyse the proteins involved in the photoactivated H. corymbosa-induced M21 cell apoptosis. We found 12 proteins to be markedly changed. According to the results of protein sequence analysis of these altered protein spots, we identified that the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones were involved in the photoactivated H. corymbosa-induced M21 cell apoptosis. We further demonstrated that photoactivated H. corymbosa caused a significant effect on the cytoskeleton distribution and mitochondrial activity in M21 cells. Based on the above findings, this study characterized the effects and mechanisms of the photoactivated H. corymbosa-induced apoptosis in M21 skin cancer cells. PMID:21569101

  1. Brain-Specific Cytoskeletal Damage Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Is There a Common Pattern between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhak, Ahmed; Junker, Andreas; Brettschneider, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Otto, Markus; Tumani, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common pathophysiological pathway involving axonal degeneration despite different etiological triggers. Analysis of cytoskeletal markers such as neurofilaments, protein tau and tubulin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be a useful approach to detect the process of axonal damage and its severity during disease course. In this article, we review the published literature regarding brain-specific CSF markers for cytoskeletal damage in primary progressive multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in order to evaluate their utility as a biomarker for disease progression in conjunction with imaging and histological markers which might also be useful in other neurodegenerative diseases associated with affection of the upper motor neurons. A long-term benefit of such an approach could be facilitating early diagnostic and prognostic tools and assessment of treatment efficacy of disease modifying drugs.

  2. Brain-Specific Cytoskeletal Damage Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Is There a Common Pattern between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelhak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common pathophysiological pathway involving axonal degeneration despite different etiological triggers. Analysis of cytoskeletal markers such as neurofilaments, protein tau and tubulin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF may be a useful approach to detect the process of axonal damage and its severity during disease course. In this article, we review the published literature regarding brain-specific CSF markers for cytoskeletal damage in primary progressive multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in order to evaluate their utility as a biomarker for disease progression in conjunction with imaging and histological markers which might also be useful in other neurodegenerative diseases associated with affection of the upper motor neurons. A long-term benefit of such an approach could be facilitating early diagnostic and prognostic tools and assessment of treatment efficacy of disease modifying drugs.

  3. Dexamethasone and azathioprine promote cytoskeletal changes and affect mesenchymal stem cell migratory behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Schneider

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs are commonly used to treat inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, and despite a few improvements, the remission of IBD is still difficult to maintain. Due to their immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have emerged as regulators of the immune response, and their viability and activation of their migratory properties are essential for successful cell therapy. However, little is known about the effects of immunosuppressant drugs used in IBD treatment on MSC behavior. The aim of this study was to evaluate MSC viability, nuclear morphometry, cell polarity, F-actin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK distribution, and cell migratory properties in the presence of the immunosuppressive drugs azathioprine (AZA and dexamethasone (DEX. After an initial characterization, MSCs were treated with DEX (10 μM or AZA (1 μM for 24 hrs or 7 days. Neither drug had an effect on cell viability or nuclear morphometry. However, AZA treatment induced a more elongated cell shape, while DEX was associated with a more rounded cell shape (P < 0.05 with a higher presence of ventral actin stress fibers (P < 0.05 and a decrease in protrusion stability. After 7 days of treatment, AZA improved the cell spatial trajectory (ST and increased the migration speed (24.35%, P < 0.05, n = 4, while DEX impaired ST and migration speed after 24 hrs and 7 days of treatment (-28.69% and -25.37%, respectively; P < 0.05, n = 4. In conclusion, our data suggest that these immunosuppressive drugs each affect MSC morphology and migratory capacity differently, possibly impacting the success of cell therapy.

  4. Motor protein traffic regulation by supply–demand balance of resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cells and in in vitro assays the number of motor proteins involved in biological transport processes is far from being unlimited. The cytoskeletal binding sites are in contact with the same finite reservoir of motors (either the cytosol or the flow chamber) and hence compete for recruiting the available motors, potentially depleting the reservoir and affecting cytoskeletal transport. In this work we provide a theoretical framework in which to study, analytically and numerically, how motor density profiles and crowding along cytoskeletal filaments depend on the competition of motors for their binding sites. We propose two models in which finite processive motor proteins actively advance along cytoskeletal filaments and are continuously exchanged with the motor pool. We first look at homogeneous reservoirs and then examine the effects of free motor diffusion in the surrounding medium. We consider as a reference situation recent in vitro experimental setups of kinesin-8 motors binding and moving along microtubule filaments in a flow chamber. We investigate how the crowding of linear motor proteins moving on a filament can be regulated by the balance between supply (concentration of motor proteins in the flow chamber) and demand (total number of polymerized tubulin heterodimers). We present analytical results for the density profiles of bound motors and the reservoir depletion, and propose novel phase diagrams that present the formation of jams of motor proteins on the filament as a function of two tuneable experimental parameters: the motor protein concentration and the concentration of tubulins polymerized into cytoskeletal filaments. Extensive numerical simulations corroborate the analytical results for parameters in the experimental range and also address the effects of diffusion of motor proteins in the reservoir. We then propose experiments for validating our models and discuss how the ‘supply–demand’ effects can regulate motor traffic also in in vivo

  5. Microcystin-LR induced reactive oxygen species mediate cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis of hepatocytes in Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlin Jiang

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs are a group of cyclic hepatotoxic peptides produced by cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR contains Leucine (L and Arginine (R in the variable positions, and is one of the most common and potently toxic peptides. MC-LR can inhibit protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A activities and induce excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The underlying mechanism of the inhibition of PP1 and PP2A has been extensively studied. The over-production of ROS is considered to be another main mechanism behind MC-LR toxicity; however, the detailed toxicological mechanism involved in over-production of ROS in carp (Cyprinus carpio L. remains largely unclear. In our present study, the hydroxyl radical (•OH was significantly induced in the liver of carp after a relatively short-term exposure to MC-LR. The elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production may play an important role in the disruption of microtubule structure. Pre-injection of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC provided significant protection to the cytoskeleton, however buthionine sulfoximine (BSO exacerbated cytoskeletal destruction. In addition, the elevated ROS formation induced the expression of apoptosis-related genes, including p38, JNKa, and bcl-2. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed at 12-48 hours. Our study further supports evidence that ROS are involved in MC-LR induced damage to liver cells in carp, and indicates the need for further study of the molecular mechanisms behind MC-LR toxicity.

  6. MAL Overexpression Leads to Disturbed Expression of Genes That Influence Cytoskeletal Organization and Differentiation of Schwann Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schmid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the developing peripheral nervous system, a coordinated reciprocal signaling between Schwann cells and axons is crucial for accurate myelination. The myelin and lymphocyte protein MAL is a component of lipid rafts that is important for targeting proteins and lipids to distinct domains. MAL overexpression impedes peripheral myelinogenesis, which is evident by a delayed onset of myelination and reduced expression of the myelin protein zero (Mpz/P0 and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR . This study shows that MAL overexpression leads to a significant reduction of Mpz and p75NTR expression in primary mouse Schwann cell cultures, which was already evident before differentiation, implicating an effect of MAL in early Schwann cell development. Their transcription was robustly reduced, despite normal expression of essential transcription factors and receptors. Further, the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways important for Schwann cell differentiation were correctly induced, highlighting that other so far unknown rate limiting factors do exist. We identified novel genes expressed by Schwann cells in a MAL-dependent manner in vivo and in vitro. A number of those, including S100a4, RhoU and Krt23, are implicated in cytoskeletal organization and plasma membrane dynamics. We showed that S100a4 is predominantly expressed by nonmyelinating Schwann cells, whereas RhoU was localized within myelin membranes, and Krt23 was detected in nonmyelinating as well as in myelinating Schwann cells. Their differential expression during early peripheral nerve development further underlines their possible role in influencing Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

  7. Cdc42 and k-Ras Control Endothelial Tubulogenesis through Apical Membrane and Cytoskeletal Polarization: Novel Stimulatory Roles for GTPase Effectors, the Small GTPases, Rac2 and Rap1b, and Inhibitory Influence of Arhgap31 and Rasa1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter R Norden

    Full Text Available A critical and understudied property of endothelial cells is their ability to form lumens and tube networks. Although considerable information has been obtained concerning these issues, including the role of Cdc42 and Rac1 and their effectors such as Pak2, Pak4, Par6b, and co-regulators such as integrins, MT1-MMP and Par3; many key questions remain that are necessary to elucidate molecular and signaling requirements for this fundamental process. In this work, we identify new small GTPase regulators of EC tubulogenesis including k-Ras, Rac2 and Rap1b that act in conjunction with Cdc42 as well as the key downstream effectors, IQGAP1, MRCKβ, beta-Pix, GIT1, and Rasip1 (which can assemble into multiprotein complexes with key regulators including α2β1 integrin and MT1-MMP. In addition, we identify the negative regulators, Arhgap31 (by inactivating Cdc42 and Rac and Rasa1 (by inactivating k-Ras and the positive regulator, Arhgap29 (by inactivating RhoA which play a major functional role during the EC tubulogenic process. Human EC siRNA suppression or mouse knockout of Rasip1 leads to identical phenotypes where ECs form extensive cord networks, but cannot generate lumens or tubes. Essential roles for these molecules during EC tubulogenesis include; i establishment of asymmetric EC cytoskeletal polarization (subapical distribution of acetylated tubulin and basal membrane distribution of F-actin; and ii directed membrane trafficking of pinocytic vacuoles or other intracellular vesicles along acetylated tubulin tracks to the developing apical membrane surface. Cdc42 co-localizes subapically with acetylated tubulin, while Rac1 and k-Ras strongly label vacuole/ vesicle membranes which accumulate and fuse together in a polarized, perinuclear manner. We observe polarized apical membrane and subapical accumulation of key GTPases and effectors regulating EC lumen formation including Cdc42, Rac1, Rac2, k-Ras, Rap1b, activated c-Raf and Rasip1 to control EC

  8. Novelty-induced activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in frontal cortex requires serotonin 2A receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin; Klein, A B; El-Sayed, M;

    2011-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by cognitive and emotional alterations that are related to abnormal function of the frontal cortex (FC). FC is involved in working memory and decision making and is activated following exposure to a novel environment. The serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT(2A...

  9. Novelty-induced activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) expression in frontal cortex requires serotonin 2A receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Martin; Klein, A B; El-Sayed, M;

    2011-01-01

    , indicating that the involvement of 5-HT(2A)R in this response is restricted to the FC. Similarly, the novelty-induced stress as determined by increasing levels of plasma corticosterone, was not influenced by 5-HT(2A)R antagonism suggesting that Arc mRNA and stress are activated via distinct mechanisms. Taken...

  10. Genetic study of interactions between the cytoskeletal assembly protein sla1 and prion-forming domain of the release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailleul, P A; Newnam, G P; Steenbergen, J N; Chernoff, Y O

    1999-01-01

    Striking similarities between cytoskeletal assembly and the "nucleated polymerization" model of prion propagation suggest that similar or overlapping sets of proteins may assist in both processes. We show that the C-terminal domain of the yeast cytoskeletal assembly protein Sla1 (Sla1C) specifically interacts with the N-terminal prion-forming domain (Sup35N) of the yeast release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in the two-hybrid system. Sla1C and several other Sup35N-interacting proteins also exhibit two-...

  11. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D1 encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E2 synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on different Hu

  12. The cytoskeletal inhibitors latrunculin A and blebbistatin exert antitumorigenic properties in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by interfering with intracellular HuR trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doller, Anke; Badawi, Amel [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Schmid, Tobias; Brauß, Thilo [Institut für Biochemie I (Pathobiochemie), Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pleli, Thomas [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Meyer zu Heringdorf, Dagmar [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Piiper, Albrecht [Medizinische Klinik 1, Schwerpunkt Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Eberhardt, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.eberhardt@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, Klinikum der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the RNA-binding protein HuR for the post-transcriptional deregulation of tumor-relevant genes is well established. Despite of elevations in HuR expression levels, an increase in cytoplasmic HuR abundance in many cases correlates with a high grade of malignancy. Here, we demonstrated that administration of the actin-depolymerizing macrolide latrunculin A, or blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II ATPase activity, caused a dose- and time-dependent reduction in the high cytoplasmic HuR content of HepG2 and Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Subcellular fractionation revealed that in addition, both inhibitors strongly attenuated cytoskeletal and membrane-bound HuR abundance and conversely increased the HuR amount in nuclear cell fractions. Concomitant with changes in intracellular HuR localization, both cytoskeletal inhibitors markedly decreased the half-lives of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cyclin A and cyclin D{sub 1} encoding mRNAs resulting in a significant reduction in their expression levels in HepG2 cells. Importantly, a similar reduction in the expression of these HuR targets was achieved by a RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of either HuR or nonmuscle myoin IIA. Using polysomal fractionation, we further demonstrate that the decrease in cytoplasmic HuR by latrunculin A or blebbistatin is accompanied by a marked change in the allocation of HuR and its mRNA cargo from polysomes to ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. Functionally, the basal migration and prostaglandin E{sub 2} synthesis are similarly impaired in inhibitor-treated and stable HuR-knockdown HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that interfering with the actomyosin-dependent HuR trafficking may comprise a valid therapeutic option for antagonizing pathologic posttranscriptional gene expression by HuR and furthermore emphasize the potential benefit of HuR inhibitory strategies for treatment of HCC. - Highlights: • We tested the effects of latrunculin A and blebbistatin on

  13. Die Trinkwasser-Verhältnisse der Stadt Osnabrück : 2. Teil

    OpenAIRE

    Thörner, Wilhelm (Dr.)

    2013-01-01

    Im fünften Jahresbericht für die Jahre 1880-1882 des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Osnabrück machten wir, an der Hand einer größeren Reihe einschlägiger Untersuchungen, Mitteilungen über die Trinkwasser- Verhältnisse der Stadt Osnabrück. Diese aufklärenden Untersuchungen sind inzwischen stetig fortgesetzt worden und es haben sich, wie aus der umstehenden tabellarischen Zusammenstellung der Resultate der Analysen hervorgeht, die Trinkwasserverhältnisse unserer Stadt eher verschlechtert al...

  14. CRY Drives Cyclic CK2-Mediated BMAL1 Phosphorylation to Control the Mammalian Circadian Clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Tamaru (Teruya); M. Hattori (Mitsuru); K. Honda (Kousuke); Y. Nakahata (Yasukazu); P. Sassone-Corsi (Paolo); G.T.J. van der Horst (Gijsbertus); T. Ozawa (Takeaki); K. Takamatsu (Ken)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntracellular circadian clocks, composed of clock genes that act in transcription-translation feedback loops, drive global rhythmic expression of the mammalian transcriptome and allow an organism to anticipate to the momentum of the day. Using a novel clock-perturbing peptide, we establi

  15. p21WAF1/CIP1 interacts with protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Wagner, P; Issinger, O G;

    1996-01-01

    p21WAF1/CIP1 which belongs to a class of regulatory proteins that interact with cyclin dependent kinases is a potent inhibitor of these kinases. The inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases induces an arrest of cells in the G phase of the cell cycle. In addition p21WAF1/CIP1 associates with PCNA...

  16. Casein kinase 2 regulates the active uptake of the organic osmolyte taurine in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack H; Clement, Christian A; Friis, Martin B;

    2008-01-01

    T to ER but has no detectable effect on TauT protein expression. On the other hand, CK2 inhibition increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+ )and reduces the Na(+)/taurine stoichiometry for active taurine uptake. It is suggested that CK2 controls the cellular taurine uptake in unperturbated NIH3T3......Inhibition of the constitutively active casein kinase 2 (CK2) with 2-dimethyl-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidasole stimulates the Na(+)-dependent taurine influx via the taurine transporter TauT in NIH3T3 cells. CK2 inhibition reduces the TauT mRNA level and increases the localization of Tau...... cells, i.e., inhibition of CK2 increases the affinity of TauT towards Na(+) and hence Na(+)-dependent taurine uptake....

  17. SUMO: regulating the regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossis Guillaume

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.

  18. The Ovary of Tubifex tubifex (Clitellata, Naididae, Tubificinae Is Composed of One, Huge Germ-Line Cyst that Is Enriched with Cytoskeletal Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z Urbisz

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the ovary organization and oogenesis in Tubificinae have revealed that their ovaries are small polarized structures that are composed of germ cells in subsequent stages of oogenesis that are associated with somatic cells. In syncytial cysts, as a rule, each germ cell is connected to the central cytoplasmic mass, the cytophore, via only one stable intercellular bridge (ring canal. In this paper we present detailed data about the composition of germ-line cysts in Tubifex tubifex with special emphasis on the occurrence and distribution of the cytoskeletal elements. Using fixed material and live cell imaging techniques, we found that the entire ovary of T. tubifex is composed of only one, huge multicellular germ-line cyst, which may contain up to 2,600 cells. Its architecture is broadly similar to the cysts that are found in other clitellate annelids, i.e. a common, anuclear cytoplasmic mass in the center of the cyst and germ cells that are connected to it via intercellular bridges. The cytophore in the T. tubifex cyst extends along the long axis of the ovary in the form of elongated and branched cytoplasmic strands. Rhodamine-coupled phalloidin staining revealed that the prominent strands of actin filaments occur inside the cytophore. Similar to the cytophore, F-actin strands are branched and they are especially well developed in the middle and outermost parts of the ovary. Microfilaments are also present in the ring canals that connect the germ cells with the cytophore in the narrow end of the ovary. Using TubulinTracker, we found that the microtubules form a prominent network of loosely and evenly distributed tubules inside the cytophore as well as in every germ cell. The well-developed cytoskeletal elements in T. tubifex ovary seem to ensure the integrity of such a huge germ-line cyst of complex (germ cells-ring canals-cytophore organization. A comparison between the cysts that are described here and other well-known female

  19. Factor interaction analysis for chromosome 8 and DNA methylation alterations highlights innate immune response suppression and cytoskeletal changes in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengauer Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of chromosome 8 and hypomethylation of LINE-1 retrotransposons are common alterations in advanced prostate carcinoma. In a former study including many metastatic cases, they strongly correlated with each other. To elucidate a possible interaction between the two alterations, we investigated their relationship in less advanced prostate cancers. Results In 50 primary tumor tissues, no correlation was observed between chromosome 8 alterations determined by comparative genomic hybridization and LINE-1 hypomethylation measured by Southern blot hybridization. The discrepancy towards the former study, which had been dominated by advanced stage cases, suggests that both alterations converge and interact during prostate cancer progression. Therefore, interaction analysis was performed on microarray-based expression profiles of cancers harboring both alterations, only one, or none. Application of a novel bioinformatic method identified Gene Ontology (GO groups related to innate immunity, cytoskeletal organization and cell adhesion as common targets of both alterations. Many genes targeted by their interaction were involved in type I and II interferon signaling and several were functionally related to hereditary prostate cancer genes. In addition, the interaction appeared to influence a switch in the expression pattern of EPB41L genes encoding 4.1 cytoskeleton proteins. Real-time RT-PCR revealed GADD45A, MX1, EPB41L3/DAL1, and FBLN1 as generally downregulated in prostate cancer, whereas HOXB13 and EPB41L4B were upregulated. TLR3 was downregulated in a subset of the cases and associated with recurrence. Downregulation of EPB41L3, but not of GADD45A, was associated with promoter hypermethylation, which was detected in 79% of carcinoma samples. Conclusion Alterations of chromosome 8 and DNA hypomethylation in prostate cancer probably do not cause each other, but converge during progression. The present analysis implicates their

  20. Drosophila cyfip regulates synaptic development and endocytosis by suppressing filamentous actin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Wang, Dan; Wang, Qifu; Rodal, Avital A; Zhang, Yong Q

    2013-04-01

    The formation of synapses and the proper construction of neural circuits depend on signaling pathways that regulate cytoskeletal structure and dynamics. After the mutual recognition of a growing axon and its target, multiple signaling pathways are activated that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics to determine the morphology and strength of the connection. By analyzing Drosophila mutations in the cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein Cyfip, we demonstrate that this component of the WAVE complex inhibits the assembly of filamentous actin (F-actin) and thereby regulates key aspects of synaptogenesis. Cyfip regulates the distribution of F-actin filaments in presynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) terminals. At cyfip mutant NMJs, F-actin assembly was accelerated, resulting in shorter NMJs, more numerous satellite boutons, and reduced quantal content. Increased synaptic vesicle size and failure to maintain excitatory junctional potential amplitudes under high-frequency stimulation in cyfip mutants indicated an endocytic defect. cyfip mutants exhibited upregulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, a major growth-promoting pathway known to be attenuated by endocytosis at the Drosophila NMJ. We propose that Cyfip regulates synapse development and endocytosis by inhibiting actin assembly.

  1. The plastid casein kinase 2 phosphorylates Rubisco activase at the Thr-78 site but is not essential for regulation of Rubisco activation state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yeol eKim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rubisco activase (RCA is essential for the activation of Rubisco, the carboxylating enzyme of photosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, RCA is composed of a large RCAα and small RCAβ isoform that are formed by alternative splicing of a single gene (At2g39730. The activity of Rubisco is controlled in response to changes in irradiance by regulation of RCA activity, which is known to involve a redox-sensitive disulfide bond located in the carboxy-terminal extension of the RCAα subunit. Additionally, phosphorylation of RCA threonine-78 (Thr-78 has been reported to occur in the dark suggesting that phosphorylation may also be associated with dark-inactivation of RCA and deactivation of Rubisco. In the present study, we developed site-specific antibodies to monitor phosphorylation of RCA at the Thr-78 site and used non-reducing SDS-PAGE to monitor the redox status of the RCAα subunit. By immunoblotting, phosphorylation of both RCA isoforms occurred at low light and in the dark and feeding peroxide or DTT to leaf segments indicated that redox status of the chloroplast stroma was a critical factor controlling RCA phosphorylation. Use of a knockout mutant identified the plastid-targeted casein kinase 2 (cpCK2α as the major protein kinase involved in RCA phosphorylation. Studies with recombinant cpCK2α and synthetic peptide substrates identified acidic residues at the -1, +2 and +3 positions surrounding Thr-78 as strong positive recognition elements. The cpck2 knockout mutant had strongly reduced phosphorylation at the Thr-78 site but was similar to wild type plants in terms of induction kinetics of photosynthesis following transfer from darkness or low light to high light, suggesting that if phosphorylation of RCA Thr-78 plays a direct role it would be redundant to redox regulation for control of Rubisco activation state under normal conditions.

  2. Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-2 is a distinct protein kinase enriched in a novel cytoskeletal fraction associated with adipocyte plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hresko, Richard C; Murata, Haruhiko; Mueckler, Mike

    2003-06-13

    By recombining subcellular components of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a test tube, early insulin signaling events dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) were successfully reconstituted, up to and including the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by the serine/threonine kinase, Akt (Murata, H., Hresko, R.C., and Mueckler, M. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 21607-21614). Utilizing the advantages provided by a cell-free methodology, we characterized phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 2 (PDK2), the putative kinase responsible for phosphorylating Akt on Ser-473. Immunodepleting cytosolic PDK1 from an in vitro reaction containing plasma membrane and cytosol markedly inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt at the PDK1 site (Thr-308) but had no effect on phosphorylation at the PDK2 site (Ser-473). In contrast, PDK2 activity was found to be highly enriched in a novel cytoskeletal subcellular fraction associated with plasma membranes. Akt isoforms 1-3 and a kinase-dead Akt1 (K179A) mutant were phosphorylated in a phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent manner at Ser-473 in an in vitro reaction containing this novel adipocyte subcellular fraction. Our data indicate that this PDK2 activity is the result of a kinase distinct from PDK1 and is not due to autophosphorylation or transphosphorylation of Akt. PMID:12682057

  3. Loss of actin cytoskeletal function and EDS1 activity, in combination, severely compromises non-host resistance in Arabidopsis against wheat powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Byung-Wook; Atkinson, Helen A; Gaborit, Charlotte; Greenland, Andy; Read, Nick D; Pallas, Jacqueline A; Loake, Gary J

    2003-06-01

    Plant immunity against the majority of the microbial pathogens is conveyed by a phenomenon known as non-host resistance (NHR). This defence mechanism affords durable protection to plant species against given species of phytopathogens. We investigated the genetic basis of NHR in Arabidopsis against the wheat powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt). Both primary and appressorial germ tubes were produced from individual Bgt conidia on the surface of the Arabidopsis leaves. Attempted infection occasionally resulted in successful penetration, which led to the development of an abnormal unilateral haustorium. Inoculation of a series of Arabidopsis defence-related mutants with Bgt resulted in the attenuation of reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) production and salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defence gene expression in eds1, pad4 and nahG plants, which are known to be defective in some aspects of host resistance. Furthermore, Bgt often developed bilateral haustoria in the mutant Arabidopsis lines that closely resembled those formed in wheat. A similar decrease in NHR was observed following treatment of the wild-type Arabidopsis plants with cytochalasin E, an inhibitor of actin microfilament polymerisation. In eds1 mutants, inhibition of actin polymerisation severely compromised NHR in Arabidopsis against Bgt. This permitted completion of the Bgt infection cycle on these plants. Therefore, actin cytoskeletal function and EDS1 activity, in combination, are major contributors to NHR in Arabidopsis against wheat powdery mildew.

  4. Adenosine Diphosphate Ribosylation Factor-GTPaseActivating Protein Stimulates the Transport of AUX1Endosome, Which Relies on Actin Cytoskeletal Organization in Rice Root DevelopmentF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Du; Yunyuan XU; Yingdian Wang; Kang Chong

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin transport,which depends on polarized subcellular distribution of AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX1/LAX) influx carriers and PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers,mediates various processes of plant growth and development.Endosomal recycling of PIN1 is mediated by an adenosine diphosphate (ADP)ribosylation factor (ARF)-GTPase exchange factor protein,GNOM.However,the mediation of auxin influx carrier recycling is poorly understood.Here,we report that overexpression of OsAGAP,an ARF-GTPase-activating protein in rice,stimulates vesicle transport from the plasma membrane to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants and induces the accumulation of early endosomes and AUX1.AUX1 endosomes could partially colocalize with FM4-64 labeled early endosome after actin disruption.Furthermore,OsAGAP is involved in actin cytoskeletal organization,and its overexpression tends to reduce the thickness and bundling of actin filaments.Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis revealed exocytosis of the AUX1 recycling endosome was not affected in the OsAGAP overexpression cells,and was only slightly promoted when the actin filaments were completely disrupted by Lat B.Thus,we propose that AUX1 accumulation in the OsAGAP overexpression and actin disrupted cells may be due to the fact that endocytosis of the auxin influx carrier AUX1 early endosome was greatly promoted by actin cytoskeleton disruption.

  5. Swing-out of the β3 hybrid domain is required for αIIbβ3 priming and normal cytoskeletal reorganization, but not adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    Full Text Available Structural and functional analyses of integrin αIIbβ3 has implicated swing-out motion of the β3 hybrid domain in αIIbβ3 activation and ligand binding. Using data from targeted molecular dynamics (TMD simulations, we engineered two disulfide-bonded mutant receptors designed to limit swing-out (XS-O. XS-O mutants cannot bind the high Mr ligand fibrinogen in the presence of an activating mAb or after introducing mutations into the αIIb subunit designed to simulate inside-out signaling. They also have reduced capacity to be "primed" to bind fibrinogen by pretreatment with eptifibatide. They can, however, bind the small RGD venom protein kistrin. Despite their inability to bind soluble fibrinogen, the XS-O mutants can support adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen, although such adhesion does not initiate outside-in signaling leading to normal cytoskeletal reorganization. Collectively, our data further define the biologic role of β3 hybrid domain swing-out in both soluble and immobilized high Mr ligand binding, as well as in priming and outside-in signaling. We also infer that swing-out is likely to be a downstream effect of receptor extension.

  6. Nano- and microscale holes modulate cell-substrate adhesion, cytoskeletal organization, and -beta1 integrin localization in SV40 human corneal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, Nancy W; Porri, Teresa J; Albrecht, Ralph M; Murphy, Christopher J; Nealey, Paul F

    2006-12-01

    Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) interface with a basement membrane in vivo that possesses complex nanoscale topographic features. We report that synthetic substrates patterned with nano- and microscale holes differentially modulate the proliferation, shape and adhesion of SV40 human corneal epithelial cells (SV40-HCECs) as a function of feature size: 1) Cell proliferation was inhibited on nanoscale features (features size less than 800 nm in pitch) compared to microscale features or planar substrates in identical culture conditions. 2) Cells on nanoscale holes had a stellate morphology compared to those on microscale features that were more evenly spread. 3) Cells adhered more to nanoscale features than to microscale features when exposed to shear stress in a laminar flow chamber. Transmission electron microscopy showed that cells cultured on the 400 nm pitch patterns had longer and more numerous filopodia and retraction fibers than cells cultured on the 1600 nm pitch patterns. Immunogold labeling of -beta1 integrins revealed that these receptors were localized at the cell periphery and in the aforementioned cytoskeletal elements. Our findings indicate that surface discontinuities and the activation of mechanochemical cell signaling mechanisms may contribute to the observed responses exhibited by SV40-HCECs cultured on nano- and microscale topography.

  7. Bactofilins, a ubiquitous class of cytoskeletal proteins mediating polar localization of a cell wall synthase in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Juliane; Briegel, Ariane; Mörschel, Erhard; Kahnt, Jörg; Leser, Katja; Wick, Stephanie; Jensen, Grant J; Thanbichler, Martin

    2010-01-20

    The cytoskeleton has a key function in the temporal and spatial organization of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the identification of a new class of polymer-forming proteins, termed bactofilins, that are widely conserved among bacteria. In Caulobacter crescentus, two bactofilin paralogues cooperate to form a sheet-like structure lining the cytoplasmic membrane in proximity of the stalked cell pole. These assemblies mediate polar localization of a peptidoglycan synthase involved in stalk morphogenesis, thus complementing the function of the actin-like cytoskeleton and the cell division machinery in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. In other bacteria, bactofilins can establish rod-shaped filaments or associate with the cell division apparatus, indicating considerable structural and functional flexibility. Bactofilins polymerize spontaneously in the absence of additional cofactors in vitro, forming stable ribbon- or rod-like filament bundles. Our results suggest that these structures have evolved as an alternative to intermediate filaments, serving as versatile molecular scaffolds in a variety of cellular pathways.

  8. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  9. The Rho GTPase Effector ROCK Regulates Cyclin A, Cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 Levels by Distinct Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, Daniel R.; Olson, Michael F.

    2006-01-01

    The members of the Rho GTPase family are well known for their regulation of actin cytoskeletal structures. In addition, they influence progression through the cell cycle. The RhoA and RhoC proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases. The requirement for ROCK function in the proliferation of numerous cell types has been revealed by studies utilizing ROCK-selective inhibitors such as Y-27632. H...

  10. Regulation of tumor cell migration by protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-proline-, glutamate-, serine-,and threonine-rich sequence (PEST)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua Zheng; Zhimin Lu

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-proline-,glutamate-,serine-,and threonine-rich sequence (PEST) is ubiquitously expressed and is a critical regulator of cell adhesion and migration.PTP-PEST activity can be regulated transcriptionally via gene deletion or mutation in several types of human cancers or via post-translational modifications,including phosphorylation,oxidation,and caspase-dependent cleavage.PTP-PEST interacts with and dephosphorylates cytoskeletal and focal adhesion-associated proteins.Dephosphorylation of PTP-PEST substrates regulates their enzymatic activities and/or their interaction with other proteins and plays an essential role in the tumor cell migration process.

  11. 4-(1-Ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide – A new pleiotropic HDAC inhibitor targeting cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahal, Katharina, E-mail: katharina.mahal@uni-bayreuth.de [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Kahlen, Philip, E-mail: philip.kahlen@uni-bayreuth.de [Department of Genetics, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Biersack, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.biersack@yahoo.com [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Schobert, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.schobert@uni-bayreuth.de [Organic Chemistry Laboratory, University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) which play a crucial role in cancer cell proliferation are promising drug targets. However, HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) modelled on natural hydroxamic acids such as trichostatin A frequently lead to resistance or even an increased agressiveness of tumours. As a workaround we developed 4-(1-ethyl-4-anisyl-imidazol-5-yl)-N-hydroxycinnamide (etacrox), a hydroxamic acid that combines HDAC inhibition with synergistic effects of the 4,5-diarylimidazole residue. Etacrox proved highly cytotoxic against a panel of metastatic and resistant cancer cell lines while showing greater specificity for cancer over non-malignant cells when compared to the approved HDACi vorinostat. Like the latter, etacrox and the closely related imidazoles bimacroxam and animacroxam acted as pan-HDACi yet showed some specificity for HDAC6. Akt signalling and interference with nuclear beta-catenin localisation were elicited by etacrox at lower concentrations when compared to vorinostat. Moreover, etacrox disrupted the microtubule and focal adhesion dynamics of cancer cells and inhibited the proteolytic activity of prometastatic and proangiogenic matrix metalloproteinases. As a consequence, etacrox acted strongly antimigratory and antiinvasive against various cancer cell lines in three-dimensional transwell invasion assays and also antiangiogenic in vivo with respect to blood vessel formation in the chorioallantoic membrane assay. These pleiotropic effects and its water-solubility and tolerance by mice render etacrox a promising new HDACi candidate. - Graphical abstract: A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor with pleiotropic anticancer effects. - Highlights: • Etacrox is a new HDACi with cytotoxic, antiangiogenic and antiinvasive activity. • Etacrox causes aberrant cancer cell signalling and cytoskeletal reorganisation. • Pro-metastatic and angiogenic matrix metalloproteinases are inhibited by etacrox. • Etacrox impairs blood vessel maturation in vivo and cancer cell

  12. H-ras-transformed NRK-52E renal epithelial cells have altered growth, morphology, and cytoskeletal structure that correlates with renal cell carcinoma in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, C J; Tanzer, L R; Phelps, P C; Merriman, R L; Boder, G G; Trump, B F; Elliget, K A

    1999-04-01

    We studied the effect of the ras oncogene on the growth kinetics, morphology, cytoskeletal structure, and tumorigenicity of the widely used NRK-52E rat kidney epithelial cell line and two H-ras oncogene-transformed cell lines, H/1.2-NRK-52E (H/1.2) and H/6.1-NRK-52E (H/6.1). Population doubling times of NRK-52E, H/1.2, and H/6.1 cells were 28, 26, and 24 h, respectively, with the transformed cells reaching higher saturation densities than the parent cells. NRK-52E cells had typical epithelial morphology with growth in colonies. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cell colonies were more closely packed, highly condensed, and had increased plasma membrane ruffling compared to parent cell colonies. NRK-52E cells showed microfilament, microtubule, and intermediate filament networks typical of epithelial cells, while H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells showed altered cytoskeleton architecture, with decreased stress fibers and increased microtubule and intermediate filament staining at the microtubule organizing center. H/1.2 and H/6.1 cells proliferated in an in vitro soft agar transformation assay, indicating anchorage-independence, and rapidly formed tumors in vivo with characteristics of renal cell carcinoma, including mixed populations of sarcomatoid, granular, and clear cells. H/6.1 cells consistently showed more extensive alterations of growth kinetics, morphology, and cytoskeleton than H/1.2 cells, and formed tumors of a more aggressive phenotype. These data suggest that analysis of renal cell characteristics in vitro may have potential in predicting tumor behavior in vivo, and significantly contribute to the utility of these cell lines as in vitro models for examining renal epithelial cell biology and the role of the ras proto-oncogene in signal transduction involving the cytoskeleton.

  13. N-terminal Slit2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by regulating the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Appakkudal R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Slit2 is a ~ 200 kDa secreted glycoprotein that has been recently shown to regulate immune functions. However, not much is known about its role in HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-1 pathogenesis. Results In the present study, we have shown that the N-terminal fragment of Slit2 (Slit2N (~120 kDa inhibits replication of both CXCR4 and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses in T-cell lines and peripheral blood T-cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated inhibition of HIV-1 infection in resting CD4+ T-cells. In addition, we showed that Slit2N blocks cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. We have shown that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 infection by blocking viral entry into T-cells. We also ruled out Slit2N-mediated inhibition of various other steps in the life cycle including binding, integration and viral transcription. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism revealed that Slit2N mediates its functional effects by binding to Robo1 receptor. Furthermore, we found that Slit2N inhibited Gp120-induced Robo1-actin association suggesting that Slit2N may inhibit cytoskeletal rearrangements facilitating HIV-1 entry. Studies into the mechanism of inhibition of HIV-1 revealed that Slit2N abrogated HIV-1 envelope-induced actin cytoskeletal dynamics in both T-cell lines and primary T-cells. We further showed that Slit2N specifically attenuated the HIV-1 envelope-induced signaling pathway consisting of Rac1, LIMK and cofilin that regulates actin polymerization. Conclusions Taken together, our results show that Slit2N inhibits HIV-1 replication through novel mechanisms involving modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Our study, thus, provides insights into the role of Slit2N in HIV-1 infection and underscores its potential in limiting viral replication in T-cells.

  14. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaskos, J., E-mail: flaskos@vet.auth.gr [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Nikolaidis, E. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Harris, W. [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom); Sachana, M. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Hargreaves, A.J., E-mail: alan.hargreaves@ntu.ac.uk [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    protein are reduced Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neurofilament heavy chain forms aggregates in cell bodies Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus at least two axon-associated cytoskeletal proteins are disrupted by this agent.

  15. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    bodies ► Thus at least two axon-associated cytoskeletal proteins are disrupted by this agent

  16. Classic 18.5- and 21.5-kDa myelin basic protein isoforms associate with cytoskeletal and SH3-domain proteins in the immortalized N19-oligodendroglial cell line stimulated by phorbol ester and IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham S T; Homchaudhuri, Lopamudra; Boggs, Joan M; Harauz, George

    2012-06-01

    The 18.5-kDa classic myelin basic protein (MBP) is an intrinsically disordered protein arising from the Golli (Genes of Oligodendrocyte Lineage) gene complex and is responsible for compaction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system. This MBP splice isoform also has a plethora of post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, deimination, methylation, and deamidation, that reduce its overall net charge and alter its protein and lipid associations within oligodendrocytes (OLGs). It was originally thought that MBP was simply a structural component of myelin; however, additional investigations have demonstrated that MBP is multi-functional, having numerous protein-protein interactions with Ca²⁺-calmodulin, actin, tubulin, and proteins with SH3-domains, and it can tether these proteins to a lipid membrane in vitro. Here, we have examined cytoskeletal interactions of classic 18.5-kDa MBP, in vivo, using early developmental N19-OLGs transfected with fluorescently-tagged MBP, actin, tubulin, and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1). We show that MBP redistributes to distinct 'membrane-ruffled' regions of the plasma membrane where it co-localizes with actin and tubulin, and with the SH3-domain-containing proteins cortactin and ZO-1, when stimulated with PMA, a potent activator of the protein kinase C pathway. Moreover, using phospho-specific antibody staining, we show an increase in phosphorylated Thr98 MBP (human sequence numbering) in membrane-ruffled OLGs. Previously, Thr98 phosphorylation of MBP has been shown to affect its conformation, interactions with other proteins, and tethering of other proteins to the membrane in vitro. Here, MBP and actin were also co-localized in new focal adhesion contacts induced by IGF-1 stimulation in cells grown on laminin-2. This study supports a role for classic MBP isoforms in cytoskeletal and other protein-protein interactions during membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling in OLGs.

  17. Cdc42 regulates cofilin during the establishment of neuronal polarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garvalov, Boyan K; Flynn, Kevin C; Neukirchen, Dorothee;

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of polarity is an essential process in early neuronal development. Although a number of molecules controlling neuronal polarity have been identified, genetic evidence about their physiological roles in this process is mostly lacking. We analyzed the consequences of loss of Cdc42......, a central regulator of polarity in multiple systems, on the polarization of mammalian neurons. Genetic ablation of Cdc42 in the brain led to multiple abnormalities, including striking defects in the formation of axonal tracts. Neurons from the Cdc42 null animals sprouted neurites but had a strongly...... suppressed ability to form axons both in vivo and in culture. This was accompanied by disrupted cytoskeletal organization, enlargement of the growth cones, and inhibition of filopodial dynamics. Axon formation in the knock-out neurons was rescued by manipulation of the actin cytoskeleton, indicating that the...

  18. Mechanism of regulation of stem cell differentiation by matrix stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongwei; Li, Lisha; Sun, Meiyu; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Li; Rong, Yue; Li, Yulin

    2015-05-27

    Stem cell behaviors are regulated by multiple microenvironmental cues. As an external signal, mechanical stiffness of the extracellular matrix is capable of governing stem cell fate determination, but how this biophysical cue is translated into intracellular signaling remains elusive. Here, we elucidate mechanisms by which stem cells respond to microenvironmental stiffness through the dynamics of the cytoskeletal network, leading to changes in gene expression via biophysical transduction signaling pathways in two-dimensional culture. Furthermore, a putative rapid shift from original mechanosensing to de novo cell-derived matrix sensing in more physiologically relevant three-dimensional culture is pointed out. A comprehensive understanding of stem cell responses to this stimulus is essential for designing biomaterials that mimic the physiological environment and advancing stem cell-based clinical applications for tissue engineering.

  19. Cellular and systemic effects of Parkinson’s disease-related LRRK2 mutations: An investigation of cytoskeletal function and the innate immune system in transgenic mice and human LRRK2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Caesar, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is, after Alzheimer’s disease, the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in the leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common known cause of familial PD but also constitute about 3.5 % of all sporadic PD cases. This work focuses on the effects of LRRK2 mutations on cytoskeletal function and on the innate immune system. Findings from animal models were translated to human material to assess their relevance in human disease states. Changes in ...

  20. Neuronal process structure and growth proteins are targets of heavy PTM regulation during brain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Alistair V G; Schwämmle, Veit; Larsen, Martin Røssel

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Brain development is a process requiring precise control of many different cell types. One method to achieve this is through specific and temporally regulated modification of proteins in order to alter structure and function. Post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins is known...... to have wide-ranging and substantial effects on cellular function, both as part of signalling network modulation and more directly by modifying the function of key proteins. In this study, we show that PTM regulation is differentially targeted at different areas of the proteome, and that cytoskeletal...... provides one of the most comprehensive sets of individual PTM site regulation data for mammalian brain tissue. This will provide a valuable resource for those wishing to perform comparisons or meta-analyses of large scale PTMomic data, as are becoming increasingly common. Furthermore, being focussed...

  1. Global analysis of neuronal phosphoproteome regulation by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Yu

    Full Text Available Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs are major components of the extracellular matrix which mediate inhibition of axonal regeneration after injury to the central nervous system (CNS. Several neuronal receptors for CSPGs have recently been identified; however, the signaling pathways by which CSPGs restrict axonal growth are still largely unknown. In this study, we applied quantitative phosphoproteomics to investigate the global changes in protein phosphorylation induced by CSPGs in primary neurons. In combination with isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ labeling, strong cation exchange chromatography (SCX fractionation, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC and LC-MS/MS, we identified and quantified 2214 unique phosphopeptides corresponding to 1118 phosphoproteins, with 118 changing significantly in abundance with CSPG treatment. The proteins that were regulated by CSPGs included key components of synaptic vesicle trafficking, axon guidance mediated by semaphorins, integrin signaling, cadherin signaling and EGF receptor signaling pathways. A significant number of the regulated proteins are cytoskeletal and related proteins that have been implicated in regulating neurite growth. Another highly represented protein category regulated by CSPGs is nucleic acid binding proteins involved in RNA post-transcriptional regulation. Together, by screening the overall phosphoproteome changes induced by CSPGs, this data expand our understanding of CSPG signaling, which provides new insights into development of strategies for overcoming CSPG inhibition and promoting axonal regeneration after CNS injury.

  2. Spatial regulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase during chemotactic cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Alan K; Baldor, Linda C; Hogan, Brian P

    2005-10-01

    Historically, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) has a paradoxical role in cell motility, having been shown to both facilitate and inhibit actin cytoskeletal dynamics and cell migration. In an effort to understand this dichotomy, we show here that PKA is regulated in subcellular space during cell migration. Immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical enrichment of pseudopodia showed that type II regulatory subunits of PKA and PKA activity are enriched in protrusive cellular structures formed during chemotaxis. This enrichment correlates with increased phosphorylation of key cytoskeletal substrates for PKA, including the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and the protein tyrosine phosphatase containing a PEST motif. Importantly, inhibition of PKA activity or its ability to interact with A kinase anchoring proteins inhibited the activity of the Rac GTPase within pseudopodia. This effect correlated with both decreased guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and increased GTPase activating protein activity. Finally, inhibition of PKA anchoring, like inhibition of total PKA activity, inhibited pseudopod formation and chemotactic cell migration. These data demonstrate that spatial regulation of PKA via anchoring is an important facet of normal chemotactic cell movement.

  3. Telomerase Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cifuentes-Rojas, Catherine; Dorothy E Shippen

    2011-01-01

    The intimate connection between telomerase regulation and human disease is now well established. The molecular basis for telomerase regulation is highly complex and entails multiple layers of control. While the major target of enzyme regulation is the catalytic subunit TERT, the RNA subunit of telomerase is also implicated in telomerase control. In addition, alterations in gene dosage and alternative isoforms of core telomerase components have been described. Finally, telomerase localization,...

  4. Xp54 and related (DDX6-like) RNA helicases: roles in messenger RNP assembly, translation regulation and RNA degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Andrew; Sommerville, John

    2006-01-01

    The DEAD-box RNA helicase Xp54 is an integral component of the messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particles of Xenopus oocytes. In oocytes, several abundant proteins bind pre-mRNA transcripts to modulate nuclear export, RNA stability and translational fate. Of these, Xp54, the mRNA-masking protein FRGY2 and its activating protein kinase CK2α, bind to nascent transcripts on chromosome loops, whereas an Xp54-associated factor, RapA/B, binds to the mRNP complex in the cytoplasm. Over-expression, mutation and knockdown experiments indicate that Xp54 functions to change the conformation of mRNP complexes, displacing one subset of proteins to accommodate another. The sequence of Xp54 is highly conserved in a wide spectrum of organisms. Like Xp54, Drosophila Me31B and Caenorhabditis CGH-1 are required for proper meiotic development, apparently by regulating the translational activation of stored mRNPs and also for sorting certain mRNPs into germplasm-containing structures. Studies on yeast Dhh1 and mammalian rck/p54 have revealed a key role for these helicases in mRNA degradation and in earlier remodelling of mRNP for entry into translation, storage or decay pathways. The versatility of Xp54 and related helicases in modulating the metabolism of mRNAs at all stages of their lifetimes marks them out as key regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression. PMID:16769775

  5. The Strip-Hippo Pathway Regulates Synaptic Terminal Formation by Modulating Actin Organization at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisako Sakuma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Synapse formation requires the precise coordination of axon elongation, cytoskeletal stability, and diverse modes of cell signaling. The underlying mechanisms of this interplay, however, remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Strip, a component of the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK complex that regulates these processes, is required to ensure the proper development of synaptic boutons at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. In doing so, Strip negatively regulates the activity of the Hippo (Hpo pathway, an evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size whose role in synapse formation is currently unappreciated. Strip functions genetically with Enabled, an actin assembly/elongation factor and the presumptive downstream target of Hpo signaling, to modulate local actin organization at synaptic termini. This regulation occurs independently of the transcriptional co-activator Yorkie, the canonical downstream target of the Hpo pathway. Our study identifies a previously unanticipated role of the Strip-Hippo pathway in synaptic development, linking cell signaling to actin organization.

  6. Regulating Transplants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Legislation to determine brain death is viewed as essential in controlling the organ transplant industry Organ transplant represents a very sensitive and complicated issue. Experts say the temporary administrative regulations recently promulgated by the Central Government are an important step, but relevant laws and regulations must follow. Among these, the

  7. Tropomyosin - master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2015-08-15

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this 'master regulator' role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs by regulating the interaction of actin filaments with myosin motors and actin-binding proteins in an isoform-specific manner. Last, the assembly of complex structures, such as stress fibers and podosomes involves the collaboration of multiple types of actin filament specified by their Tpm composition. This allows the cell to specify actin filament function in time and space by simply specifying their Tpm isoform composition. PMID:26240174

  8. Tropomyosin - master regulator of actin filament function in the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C; Lappalainen, Pekka; Mulvihill, Daniel P

    2015-08-15

    Tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms are the master regulators of the functions of individual actin filaments in fungi and metazoans. Tpms are coiled-coil parallel dimers that form a head-to-tail polymer along the length of actin filaments. Yeast only has two Tpm isoforms, whereas mammals have over 40. Each cytoskeletal actin filament contains a homopolymer of Tpm homodimers, resulting in a filament of uniform Tpm composition along its length. Evidence for this 'master regulator' role is based on four core sets of observation. First, spatially and functionally distinct actin filaments contain different Tpm isoforms, and recent data suggest that members of the formin family of actin filament nucleators can specify which Tpm isoform is added to the growing actin filament. Second, Tpms regulate whole-organism physiology in terms of morphogenesis, cell proliferation, vesicle trafficking, biomechanics, glucose metabolism and organ size in an isoform-specific manner. Third, Tpms achieve these functional outputs by regulating the interaction of actin filaments with myosin motors and actin-binding proteins in an isoform-specific manner. Last, the assembly of complex structures, such as stress fibers and podosomes involves the collaboration of multiple types of actin filament specified by their Tpm composition. This allows the cell to specify actin filament function in time and space by simply specifying their Tpm isoform composition.

  9. Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1 negatively regulates Rho/ROCK/MLC pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Chak-Lui Wong

    Full Text Available AIMS: Deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1, a member of RhoGTPase activating protein (GAP family, is known to have suppressive activities in tumorigenicity and cancer metastasis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of how DLC1 suppresses cell motility have not been fully elucidated. Rho-kinase (ROCK is an immediate down-stream effector of RhoA in mediating cellular cytoskeletal events and cell motility. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of DLC1 on Rho/ROCK signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated that DLC1 negatively regulated ROCK-dependent actomyosin contractility. From immunofluorescence study, we found that ectopic expression of DLC1 abrogated Rho/ROCK-mediated cytoskeletal reorganization including formation of stress fibers and focal adhesions. It also downregulated cortical phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2. These inhibitory events by DLC1 were RhoGAP-dependent, as RhoGAP-deficient mutant of DLC1 (DLC1 K714E abolished these inhibitory events. In addition, from western study, DLC1 inhibited ROCK-related myosin light chain phosphatase targeting unit 1 (MYPT1 phosphorylation at Threonine 853. By examining cell morphology under microscope, we found that ectopic expression of dominant-active ROCK released cells from DLC1-induced cytoskeletal collapse and cell shrinkage. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that DLC1 negatively regulates Rho/ROCK/MLC2. This implicates a ROCK-mediated pathway of DLC1 in suppressing metastasis of HCC cells and enriches our understanding in the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. The potential impact of low dose ionizing γ-radiation on immune response activity up-regulated by Ikaros in IM-9 B lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Sung Jn; Jang, Seon A; Yang, Kwang Hee; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Cha Soon; Nam, Seon Young; Jeong, Mee Seon; Jin, Young Woo [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    The biological effects of low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) remain insufficiently understood. We examined for the scientific evidence to show the biological effects of LDIR using radiation-sensitive immune cells. We found that Ikaros protein was responded to low dose-dependent effects of gamma radiation in IM-9 B lymphocytes. Ikaros encodes zinc finger transcription factors that is important regulators of a hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) progression to the B lymphoid lineage development, differentiation and proliferation. In this study, we observed that cell proliferation was enhanced from 10% to 20% by LDIR (0.05 Gy) in IM-9 B lymphocytes. The Ikaros protein was phosphorylated in its serine/threonine (S/T) region and decreased its DNA binding activity in the cells exposed to LDIR. We found that Ikaros phosphorylation was up-regulated by CK2/AKT pathway and the residues of ser-304 and ser-306 in Ikaros was phosphorylated by LDIR. We also observed that Ikaros protein was localized from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after LDIR and bound with Autotaxin (ENPP2, ATX) protein, stimulating proliferation, migration and survival of immune cells. In addition, we found that the lysoPLD activity of ATX was dependent on Ikaros-ATX binding activity. These results indicate that the Ikaros is an important regulator of immune activation. Therefore, we suggest that low dose ionizing radiation can be considered as a beneficial effects, stimulating the activation of immune cells.

  11. NOISE REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Voican; Constantin Stanescu

    2012-01-01

    Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After the watershed passage of the United States Noise Control Act of 1972, other local and state governments passed further regulations. Although the UK and Japan enacted national laws in 1960 and 1967 respectively, these laws were not at all comprehensive or fully enforceable as to address generally rising ambient noise, enforceable...

  12. Funktionelle Charakterisierung der Protein-Kinase CK2 in der Suppression Th2-vermittelter Immunantworten durch regulatorische T-Zellen

    OpenAIRE

    Ulges, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Regulatorische T-Zellen (Tregs) leisten durch ihre suppressiven Eigenschaften einen essenziellen Beitrag zur Aufrechterhaltung der immunologischen Toleranz. Sie verhindern schädliche Immunreaktionen gegen Autoantigene, kommensale Bakterien, sowie harmlose Nahrungsmittel-bestandteile. Gleichzeitig gewährleisten sie die Entwicklung effektiver Immunantworten gegen eindringende Pathogene, wie z.B. Parasiten, Bakterien und Viren. Damit haben Tregs direkten Einfluss auf das Gleichgewicht zwischen I...

  13. Motor regulation results in distal forces that bend partially disintegrated Chlamydomonas axonemes into circular arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Mukundan, V; Geyer, V F; Julicher, F; Howard, J

    2014-01-01

    The bending of cilia and flagella is driven by forces generated by dynein motor proteins. These forces slide adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure. To create regular, oscilla- tory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains, which build up within the moving axoneme, and somehow regulate dynein activity. While experimenting with axonemes subjected to mild proteolysis, we observed pairs of doublets associate with each other and form bends with almost constant curvature. By model- ing the statics of a pair of filaments, we show that the activity of the motors concentrates at the distal tips of the doublets. Furthermore, we show that this distribution of motor activity accords with models in which curvature, or curvature-induced normal forces, regulates the activity of the motors. These observations, together with our theoretical analysis...

  14. Adenomatous polyposis coli regulates axon arborization and cytoskeleton organization via its N-terminus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjun Chen

    Full Text Available Conditional deletion of APC leads to marked disruption of cortical development and to excessive axonal branching of cortical neurons. However, little is known about the cell biological basis of this neuronal morphological regulation. Here we show that APC deficient cortical neuronal growth cones exhibit marked disruption of both microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. Functional analysis of the different APC domains revealed that axonal branches do not result from stabilized β-catenin, and that the C-terminus of APC containing microtubule regulatory domains only partially rescues the branching phenotype. Surprisingly, the N-terminus of APC containing the oligomerization domain and the armadillo repeats completely rescues the branching and cytoskeletal abnormalities. Our data indicate that APC is required for appropriate axon morphological development and that the N-terminus of APC is important for regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton.

  15. Understanding cytoskeleton regulators in glioblastoma multiforme for therapy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Samaneh; Harisankar, Aditya; Gracias, Aileen; Bachinger, Fabian; Fufa, Temesgen; Chandrasekar, Gayathri; Gaunitz, Frank; Walfridsson, Julian; Kitambi, Satish S

    2016-01-01

    The cellular cytoskeleton forms the primary basis through which a cell governs the changes in size, shape, migration, proliferation, and forms the primary means through which the cells respond to their environment. Indeed, cell and tissue morphologies are used routinely not only to grade tumors but also in various high-content screening methods with an aim to identify new small molecules with therapeutic potential. This study examines the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBM is a very aggressive disease with a low life expectancy even after chemo- and radiotherapy. Cancer cells of GBM are notorious for their invasiveness, ability to develop resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy, and to form secondary site tumors. This study aims to gain insight into cytoskeleton regulators in GBM cells and to understand the effect of various oncology drugs, including temozolomide, on cytoskeleton regulators. We compare the expression of various cytoskeleton regulators in GBM-derived tumor and normal tissue, CD133-postive and -negative cells from GBM and neural cells, and GBM stem-like and differentiated cells. In addition, the correlation between the expression of cytoskeleton regulators with the clinical outcome was examined to identify genes associated with longer patient survival. This was followed by a small molecule screening with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved oncology drugs, and its effect on cellular cytoskeleton was compared to treatment with temozolomide. This study identifies various groups of cytoskeletal regulators that have an important effect on patient survival and tumor development. Importantly, this work highlights the advantage of using cytoskeleton regulators as biomarkers for assessing prognosis and treatment design for GBM. PMID:27672311

  16. Controlling the switches: Rho GTPase regulation during animal cell mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yan; Oh, Wonkyung; Frost, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-01

    Animal cell division is a fundamental process that requires complex changes in cytoskeletal organization and function. Aberrant cell division often has disastrous consequences for the cell and can lead to cell senescence, neoplastic transformation or death. As important regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, Rho GTPases play major roles in regulating many aspects of mitosis and cytokinesis. These include centrosome duplication and separation, generation of cortical rigidity, microtubule-kinetochore stabilization, cleavage furrow formation, contractile ring formation and constriction, and abscission. The ability of Rho proteins to function as regulators of cell division depends on their ability to cycle between their active, GTP-bound and inactive, GDP-bound states. However, Rho proteins are inherently inefficient at fulfilling this cycle and require the actions of regulatory proteins that enhance GTP binding (RhoGEFs), stimulate GTPase activity (RhoGAPs), and sequester inactive Rho proteins in the cytosol (RhoGDIs). The roles of these regulatory proteins in controlling cell division are an area of active investigation. In this review we will delineate the current state of knowledge of how specific RhoGEFs, RhoGAPs and RhoGDIs control mitosis and cytokinesis, and highlight the mechanisms by which their functions are controlled.

  17. Rap2B GTPase: structure, functions, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhesi; Di, Jiehui; Lu, Zheng; Gao, Keyu; Zheng, Junnian

    2016-06-01

    Rap2B GTPase, a member of Ras-related protein superfamily, was first discovered from a platelet cDNA library in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been reported to play an important role in regulating cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization, cell growth, and proliferation. It can be stimulated and suppressed by a wide range of external and internal inducers, circulating between GTP-bound active state and GDP-bound inactive state. Increasing focus on Ras signaling pathway reveals critical effects of Rap2B on tumorigenesis. In particular, Rap2B behaves in a p53-dependent manner in regulation of apoptosis and migration. Apart from being an oncogenic activator, Rap2B has been found to participate in many other physiological events via diverse downstream effectors. In this review, we present recent studies on the structure, regulation, and multiple biological functions of Rap2B, shedding light on its potential status in treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. PMID:27012552

  18. The actin-microtubule cross-linking activity of Drosophila Short stop is regulated by intramolecular inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applewhite, Derek A; Grode, Kyle D; Duncan, Mara C; Rogers, Stephen L

    2013-09-01

    Actin and microtubule dynamics must be precisely coordinated during cell migration, mitosis, and morphogenesis--much of this coordination is mediated by proteins that physically bridge the two cytoskeletal networks. We have investigated the regulation of the Drosophila actin-microtubule cross-linker Short stop (Shot), a member of the spectraplakin family. Our data suggest that Shot's cytoskeletal cross-linking activity is regulated by an intramolecular inhibitory mechanism. In its inactive conformation, Shot adopts a "closed" conformation through interactions between its NH(2)-terminal actin-binding domain and COOH-terminal EF-hand-GAS2 domain. This inactive conformation is targeted to the growing microtubule plus end by EB1. On activation, Shot binds along the microtubule through its COOH-terminal GAS2 domain and binds to actin with its NH(2)-terminal tandem CH domains. We propose that this mechanism allows Shot to rapidly cross-link dynamic microtubules in response to localized activating signals at the cell cortex.

  19. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  20. aura (mid1ip1l) regulates the cytoskeleton at the zebrafish egg-to-embryo transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eno, Celeste; Solanki, Bharti; Pelegri, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Embryos from females homozygous for a recessive maternal-effect mutation in the gene aura exhibit defects including reduced cortical integrity, defective cortical granule (CG) release upon egg activation, failure to complete cytokinesis, and abnormal cell wound healing. We show that the cytokinesis defects are associated with aberrant cytoskeletal reorganization during furrow maturation, including abnormal F-actin enrichment and microtubule reorganization. Cortical F-actin prior to furrow formation fails to exhibit a normal transition into F-actin-rich arcs, and drug inhibition is consistent with aura function promoting F-actin polymerization and/or stabilization. In mutants, components of exocytic and endocytic vesicles, such as Vamp2, Clathrin and Dynamin, are sequestered in unreleased CGs, indicating a need for CG recycling in the normal redistribution of these factors. However, the exocytic targeting factor Rab11 is recruited to the furrow plane normally at the tip of bundling microtubules, suggesting an alternative anchoring mechanism independent of membrane recycling. A positional cloning approach indicates that the mutation in aura is associated with a truncation of Mid1 interacting protein 1 like (Mid1ip1l), previously identified as an interactor of the X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome gene product Mid1. A Cas9/CRISPR-induced mutant allele in mid1ip1l fails to complement the originally isolated aura maternal-effect mutation, confirming gene assignment. Mid1ip1l protein localizes to cortical F-actin aggregates, consistent with a direct role in cytoskeletal regulation. Our studies indicate that maternally provided aura (mid1ip1l) acts during the reorganization of the cytoskeleton at the egg-to-embryo transition and highlight the importance of cytoskeletal dynamics and membrane recycling during this developmental period. PMID:26965374

  1. Structural interaction and functional regulation of polycystin-2 by filamin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    Full Text Available Filamins are important actin cross-linking proteins implicated in scaffolding, membrane stabilization and signal transduction, through interaction with ion channels, receptors and signaling proteins. Here we report the physical and functional interaction between filamins and polycystin-2, a TRP-type cation channel mutated in 10-15% patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down experiments demonstrated that the C-termini of filamin isoforms A, B and C directly bind to both the intracellular N- and C-termini of polycystin-2. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous polycystin-2 and filamins are in the same complexes in renal epithelial cells and human melanoma A7 cells. We then examined the effect of filamin on polycystin-2 channel function by electrophysiology studies with a lipid bilayer reconstitution system and found that filamin-A substantially inhibits polycystin-2 channel activity. Our study indicates that filamins are important regulators of polycystin-2 channel function, and further links actin cytoskeletal dynamics to the regulation of this channel protein.

  2. Nuclear regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, 112 nuclear power plants, 22 facilities that support these plants, 54 reactors used in research, and approximately 23,000 organizations hold licenses from either the Nuclear Regulator Commission or various states to use radioactive material; other facilities are operated by various government agencies. Eventually most of these facilities will be decommissioned, which involves removing the radioactive material and terminating the license. NRC needs to ensure that licensees appropriately decontaminate their facilities because, under current regulations, NRC cannot specifically require additional cleanup once it terminates a license. This paper presents a GAO report on NRC's decommissioning procedures. In two of eight cases GAO reviewed, NRC fully or partially released sites for unrestricted use where radioactive contamination was higher than its guidelines allowed; in the other cases, NRC's information was inadequate or incomplete. Further, NRC lacks information on the types and amounts of radioactive waste buried on-site. At five sites reviewed by GAO, groundwater has been found to be contaminated by radioactive waste

  3. Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor affects bone homeostasis by regulating osteoblast and osteoclast function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furlan, Federico; Galbiati, Clara; Jørgensen, Niklas R;

    2007-01-01

    reorganization in mature osteoclasts. INTRODUCTION: Urokinase receptor (uPAR) is actively involved in the regulation of important cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, and migration. It was previously shown that the major players in bone remodeling, osteoblasts and osteoclasts, express u...... with other osteoblasts markers. On the resorptive side, the number of osteoclasts formed in vitro from uPAR KO monocytes was decreased. Podosome imaging in uPAR KO osteoclasts revealed a defect in actin ring formation. CONCLUSIONS: The defective proliferation and differentiation of bone cells, coincident......The uPAR and its ligand uPA are expressed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Their function in bone remodeling is unknown. We report that uPAR-lacking mice display increased BMD, increased osteogenic potential of osteoblasts, decreased osteoclasts formation, and altered cytoskeletal...

  4. Dynamic curvature regulation accounts for the symmetric and asymmetric beats of Chlamydomonas flagella

    CERN Document Server

    Sartori, Pablo; Scholich, Andre; Jülicher, Frank; Howard, Jonathon

    2015-01-01

    Axonemal dyneins are the molecular motors responsible for the beating of cilia and flagella. These motors generate sliding forces between adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure inside the flagellum. To create regular, oscillatory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains that build up within the moving axoneme, but it is not known which components of stress or strain are involved, nor how they feed back on the dyneins. To answer this question, we used isolated, reactivate axonemes of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas as a model system. We derived a theory for beat regulation in a two-dimensional model of the axoneme. We then tested the theory by measuring the beat waveforms of wild type axonemes, which have asymmetric beats, and mutant axonemes, in which the beat is nearly symmetric, using high-precision spatial and temporal imaging....

  5. NMDA Receptors and Oxidative Stress Induced by the Major Metabolites Accumulating in HMG Lyase Deficiency Mediate Hypophosphorylation of Cytoskeletal Proteins in Brain From Adolescent Rats: Potential Mechanisms Contributing to the Neuropathology of This Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Pierozan, Paula; Soares, Gilberto Machado; Ferreira, Fernanda; Zanatta, Ângela; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Wajner, Moacir; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-10-01

    Neurological symptoms and cerebral abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG lyase) deficiency, which is biochemically characterized by predominant tissue accumulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric (HMG), 3-methylglutaric (MGA), and 3-methylglutaconic (MGT) acids. Since the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly known, the present study evaluated the effects of these compounds on the cytoskeleton phosphorylating system in rat brain. HMG, MGA, and MGT caused hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and of the neurofilament subunits NFL, NFM, and NFH. HMG-induced hypophosphorylation was mediated by inhibiting the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on Ser55 residue of NFL and c-Jun kinase (JNK) by acting on KSP repeats of NFM and NFH subunits. We also evidenced that the subunit NR2B of NMDA receptor and Ca(2+) was involved in HMG-elicited hypophosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins. Furthermore, the antioxidants L-NAME and TROLOX fully prevented both the hypophosphorylation and the inhibition of PKA and JNK caused by HMG, suggesting that oxidative damage may underlie these effects. These findings indicate that the main metabolites accumulating in HMG lyase deficiency provoke hypophosphorylation of cytoskeleton neural proteins with the involvement of NMDA receptors, Ca(2+), and reactive species. It is presumed that these alterations may contribute to the neuropathology of this disease. PMID:26174040

  6. Behavioral and hippocampal cytoskeletal alterations in rats following chronic unpredictable mild stress and fluoxetine treatment%慢性应激及氟西汀治疗后大鼠海马细胞支架的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灿; 王高华; 王惠玲; 王晓萍; 刘忠纯; 朱志先

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性不可预见性应激及氟西汀治疗后大鼠细胞支架微管系统的动态性变化及其可能机制.方法 将24只大鼠按随机数字表法分为对照组(空白对照+生理盐水)、慢性不可预见性温和应激(CUMS)组(CUMS+生理盐水)和氟西汀组(CUMS+氟西汀),每组8只.对大鼠进行连续21 d CUMS后,氟西汀组给予氟西汀(10 mg/kg)治疗21 d,对照组和CUMS组给予生理盐水.实验结束后进行行为学观察,并使用免疫印迹法(western blot)检测大鼠海马乙酰化微管蛋白(Acet-Tub),酪氨酸化微管蛋白(Tyr-Tub),微管结合蛋白2(MAP-2)及磷酸化微管结合蛋白2(phospho-MAP-2).结果 (1)CUMS组糖水偏好[(55.13±11.80)%],总行程[(2736.59±511.20)cm],运动平均速度[(5.69±1.08)cm/s]及直立次数[(2.50±2.00)次]均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);氟西汀组上述指标与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).(2)CUMS组与对照组相比,Acet-Tub表达升高[(171.84±10.34)%],Tyr-Tub[(62.06±9.24)%]和phospho-MAP-2[(68.81±8.93)%]的表达降低,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.01),MAP-2的表达与对照组比较无统计学意义(P>0.05);经氟西汀治疗后,Acet-Tub的表达降低为[(96.18±8.92)%],Tyr-Tub和phospho-MAP-2的表达分别升高为[(95.06±8.00)%]、[(100.60±7.30)%],与对照组比较均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 慢性应激后微管动态性减低,神经可塑性受损,氟西汀可以逆转海马的这些损伤,上述过程可能与微管相关蛋白磷酸化水平的变化有关.%Objective To investigate behavior and hippocampal cytoskeletal alterations in rats following chronic unpredictable mild stress and fluoxetine treatment, and explore the possible mechanism. Methods Twenty four male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups, with 8 exposed to 21 consecutive days of chronic unpredicted mild stresses (CUMS) and treated with vehicle, 8 exposed to CUMS and treated with fluoxetine, and 8 as

  7. Arp2/3 inhibition induces amoeboid-like protrusions in MCF10A epithelial cells by reduced cytoskeletal-membrane coupling and focal adhesion assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Beckham

    Full Text Available Here we demonstrate that Arp2/3 regulates a transition between mesenchymal and amoeboid protrusions in MCF10A epithelial cells. Using genetic and pharmacological means, we first show Arp2/3 inhibition impairs directed cell migration. Arp2/3 inhibition results in a dramatically impaired cell adhesion, causing deficient cell attachment and spreading to ECM as well as an 8-fold decrease in nascent adhesion assembly at the leading edge. While Arp2/3 does not play a significant role in myosin-dependent adhesion growth, mature focal adhesions undergo large scale movements against the ECM suggesting reduced coupling to the ECM. Cell edge protrusions occur at similar rates when Arp2/3 is inhibited but their morphology is dramatically altered. Persistent lamellipodia are abrogated and we observe a markedly increased incidence of blebbing and unstable pseuodopods. Micropipette-aspiration assays indicate that Arp2/3-inhibited cells have a weak coupling between the cell cortex and the plasma membrane, and suggest a potential mechanism for increased pseudopod and bleb formation. Pseudopods are not sensitive to reduced in formin or myosin II activity. Collectively, these results indicate that Arp2/3 is not necessary for rapid protrusion of the cell edge but plays a crucial role in assembling focal adhesions required for its stabilization.

  8. Regulation of taurine homeostasis by protein kinase CK2 in mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Guerra, Barbara; Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland;

    2011-01-01

    Increased expression of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 has been associated with increased proliferative capacity and increased resistance towards apoptosis. Taurine is the primary organic osmolyte involved in cell volume control in mammalian cells, and shift in cell volume is ...

  9. Functional dissection of nuclear envelope mRNA translocation system: effects of phorbol ester and a monoclonal antibody recognizing cytoskeletal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, H C; Diehl-Seifert, B; Rottmann, M; Messer, R; Bryson, B A; Agutter, P S; Müller, W E

    1988-03-01

    Unidirectional transport of poly(A)-containing mRNA [poly(A)+ mRNA] through the nuclear envelope pore complex is thought to be an energy (ATP or GTP)-dependent process which involves a nuclear envelope nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase). In the intact envelope, this enzyme is regulatable by poly(A) binding and by poly(A)-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of other components of the mRNA translocation system, which are as yet unidentified. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were elicited against the poly(A) binding nuclear envelope fraction isolated from rat liver. The mAbs were screened for their modulatory effects on mRNA transport in vitro. One stable clone decreased the efflux of rapidly labeled RNA and of one specific mRNA (ovalbumin) from isolated nuclei. It increased the binding of poly(A) to the envelope and increased the maximal catalytic rate of the NTPase, but it did not alter the apparent Km of the enzyme or the extent of its stimulation by poly(A). The nuclear envelope-associated protein kinase that down-regulates the NTPase was inhibited by the antibody, while other protein kinases were not affected. Because both the NTPase and mRNA efflux were inhibited by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, the sensitive kinase is probably protein kinase C. Protein kinase C was found to be associated with the isolated nuclear envelope. The antibody reacted with both a Mr 83,000 and a Mr 65,000 nuclear envelope polypeptide from rat liver and other tissues. By immunofluorescence microscopy in CV-1 cells, the antibody localized to the nuclear envelope and, in addition, to cytoplasmic filaments which show some superposition with the microfilament network.

  10. Regulation of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase in microglia by RANKL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Eric M; Ricofort, Ryan D; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F; Holliday, L Shannon

    2009-11-01

    Vacuolar H(+)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappaB-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor kappaB (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  11. Regulation of Vacuolar H+-ATPase in Microglia by RANKL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian; Ochotny, Noelle; Manolson, Morris F.; Holliday, L. Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPase play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B -ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia. PMID:19715671

  12. Regulation of vacuolar H+-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κB (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  13. Substrate stiffness regulates extracellular matrix deposition by alveolar epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Jessica L; Safi, Asmahan; Wei, Xiaoding; Espinosa, Horacio D; Budinger, GR Scott; Takawira, Desire; Hopkinson, Susan B; Jones, Jonathan CR

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to address whether a stiff substrate, a model for pulmonary fibrosis, is responsible for inducing changes in the phenotype of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lung, including their deposition and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Methods Freshly isolated lung AEC from male Sprague Dawley rats were seeded onto polyacrylamide gel substrates of varying stiffness and analyzed for expression and organization of adhesion, cytoskeletal, differentiation, and ECM components by Western immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results We observed that substrate stiffness influences cell morphology and the organization of focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, however, we found that substrate stiffness has no influence on the differentiation of type II into type I AEC, nor does increased substrate stiffness lead to an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In contrast, our data indicate that substrate stiffness regulates the expression of the α3 laminin subunit by AEC and the organization of both fibronectin and laminin in their ECM. Conclusions An increase in substrate stiffness leads to enhanced laminin and fibronectin assembly into fibrils, which likely contributes to the disease phenotype in the fibrotic lung. PMID:23204878

  14. Regulation of Osteoblast Survival by the Extracellular Matrix and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus. Ruth K.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.; Searby, Nancy D.; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Spaceflight adversely affects the skeleton, posing a substantial risk to astronaut's health during long duration missions. The reduced bone mass observed in growing animals following spaceflight is due at least in part to inadequate bone formation by osteoblasts. Thus, it is of central importance to identify basic cellular mechanisms underlying normal bone formation. The fundamental ideas underlying our research are that interactions between extracellular matrix proteins, integrin adhesion receptors, cytoplasmic signaling and cytoskeletal proteins are key ingredients for the proper functioning of osteoblasts, and that gravity impacts these interactions. As an in vitro model system we used primary fetal rat calvarial cells which faithfully recapitulate osteoblast differentiation characteristically observed in vivo. We showed that specific integrin receptors ((alpha)3(beta)1), ((alpha)5(beta)1), ((alpha)8(betal)1) and extracellular matrix proteins (fibronectin, laminin) were needed for the differentiation of immature osteoblasts. In the course of maturation, cultured osteoblasts switched from depending on fibronectin and laminin for differentiation to depending on these proteins for their very survival. Furthermore, we found that manipulating the gravity vector using ground-based models resulted in activation of key intracellular survival signals generated by integrin/extracellular matrix interactions. We are currently testing the in vivo relevance of some of these observations using targeted transgenic technology. In conclusion, mechanical factors including gravity may participate in regulating survival via cellular interactions with the extracellular matrix. This leads us to speculate that microgravity adversely affects the survival of osteoblasts and contributes to spaceflight-induced osteoporosis.

  15. Feed-forward regulation of phagocytosis by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateriale, Adam; Vaithilingam, Archana; Donnelly, Liam; Miller, Peter; Huston, Christopher D

    2012-12-01

    The parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is aptly named for its capacity to destroy host tissue. When E. histolytica trophozoites invade the lamina propria of a host colon, extracellular matrices are degraded while host cells are killed and phagocytosed. The ability of E. histolytica to phagocytose host cells correlates with virulence in vivo. In order to better understand the mechanism of phagocytosis, we used an E. histolytica Affymetrix microarray chip to measure the total gene expression of phagocytic and nonphagocytic subpopulations. Using paramagnetic beads coated with a known host ligand that stimulates phagocytosis, phagocytic and nonphagocytic amoebae from a single culture were purified. Microarray analysis of the subpopulations identified 121 genes with >2-fold higher expression in phagocytic than in nonphagocytic amoebae. Functional annotation identified genes encoding proteins involved in actin binding and cytoskeletal organization as highly enriched gene clusters. Post hoc analyses of selected genes showed that the gene expression profile identified in the microarray experiment did not exist prior to cell sorting but rather was stimulated through phagocytosis. Further, these expression profiles correlated with an increase in phagocytic ability, as E. histolytica cultures exposed to an initial stimulus of phagocytosis showed increased phagocytic ability upon a second stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such feed-forward regulation of gene expression and phagocytic ability in a phagocyte.

  16. Regulating Rac in the Nervous System: Molecular Function and Disease Implication of Rac GEFs and GAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyang Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rho family GTPases, including RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 as the most studied members, are master regulators of actin cytoskeletal organization. Rho GTPases control various aspects of the nervous system and are associated with a number of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. The activity of Rho GTPases is controlled by two families of regulators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs as the activators and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs as the inhibitors. Through coordinated regulation by GEFs and GAPs, Rho GTPases act as converging signaling molecules that convey different upstream signals in the nervous system. So far, more than 70 members of either GEFs or GAPs of Rho GTPases have been identified in mammals, but only a small subset of them have well-known functions. Thus, characterization of important GEFs and GAPs in the nervous system is crucial for the understanding of spatiotemporal dynamics of Rho GTPase activity in different neuronal functions. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of GEFs and GAPs for Rac1, with emphasis on the molecular function and disease implication of these regulators in the nervous system.

  17. 一次力竭性离心运动损伤模型大鼠骨骼肌波形蛋白的表达%Cytoskeletal vimentin protein expression in rats with exhaustive eccentric exercise injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向东; 李阳

    2014-01-01

    背景:由于不同学者采用的实验方法不同,对离心运动后细胞骨架蛋白的变化仍有争议。  目的:构建一次力竭性离心运动损伤大鼠模型,观察不同时刻骨骼肌细胞骨架波形蛋白表达的变化。  方法:雄性48只 SD 大鼠建立下坡跑运动损伤模型,按运动时间分为安静对照组、运动后即刻组、运动后12 h组、运动后24 h组、运动后48 h组和运动后72 h组,每组8只。各运动组大鼠以速度16 m/min,坡度-16°进行跑台运动,运动100 min后,休息5 min,然后再运动100 min;安静对照组不做运动。应用抗波形蛋白抗体对大鼠骨骼肌波形蛋白进行免疫组化染色,通过观察其目标面积百分比的变化反映在一次力竭性离心运动后不同时刻大鼠骨骼肌细胞骨架波形蛋白的表达水平。  结果与结论:大鼠骨骼肌细胞骨架波形蛋白目标面积百分比结果显示,安静对照组和运动后即刻组两组间差异无显著性意义(P >0.05);与运动后即刻组相比,运动后12 h组目标面积百分比略有增加,但差异无显著性意义(P >0.05);与运动后12 h组相比,运动后24 h组目标面积百分比略有增加,但差异无显著性意义(P>0.05);与安静对照组和运动后即刻组相比,运动后24 h组目标面积百分比有所增加(P OBJECTIVE:To establish exhaustive eccentric exercise injury model in rats and to observe cytoskeletal vimentin protein expression at different time. METHODS:A total of 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly and equal y divided into six groups:quiet control group, immediately after exercise group, and 12, 24, 48, 72 hours after exercise groups. In the exercise groups, the rats were subject treadmil exercise at the speed of 16 m/min in a-16° slope, for 100 minutes at the interval of 5 minutes. The quiet control group maintained unchanged, without exercise. The cytoskeletal vimentin was detected with

  18. Megakaryocytes regulate expression of Pyk2 isoforms and caspase-mediated cleavage of actin in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacena, Melissa A; Eleniste, Pierre P; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Huang, Su; Shivanna, Mahesh; Meijome, Tomas E; Mayo, Lindsey D; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-05-18

    The proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast (OB) precursors are essential for elaborating the bone-forming activity of mature OBs. However, the mechanisms regulating OB proliferation and function are largely unknown. We reported that OB proliferation is enhanced by megakaryocytes (MKs) via a process that is regulated in part by integrin signaling. The tyrosine kinase Pyk2 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and survival in a variety of cells. Pyk2 is also activated by integrin signaling and regulates actin remodeling in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. In this study, we examined the role of Pyk2 and actin in the MK-mediated increase in OB proliferation. Calvarial OBs were cultured in the presence of MKs for various times, and Pyk2 signaling cascades in OBs were examined by Western blotting, subcellular fractionation, and microscopy. We found that MKs regulate the temporal expression of Pyk2 and its subcellular localization. We also found that MKs regulate the expression of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Pyk2 in OBs, which may regulate OB differentiation and proliferation. MKs also induced cytoskeletal reorganization in OBs, which was associated with the caspase-mediated cleavage of actin, an increase in focal adhesions, and the formation of apical membrane ruffles. Moreover, BrdU incorporation in MK-stimulated OBs was blocked by the actin-polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide. Collectively, our studies reveal that Pyk2 and actin play an important role in MK-regulated signaling cascades that control OB proliferation and may be important for therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing bone formation in metabolic diseases of the skeleton. PMID:22447931

  19. Megakaryocytes Regulate Expression of Pyk2 Isoforms and Caspase-mediated Cleavage of Actin in Osteoblasts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacena, Melissa A.; Eleniste, Pierre P.; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Huang, Su; Shivanna, Mahesh; Meijome, Tomas E.; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast (OB) precursors are essential for elaborating the bone-forming activity of mature OBs. However, the mechanisms regulating OB proliferation and function are largely unknown. We reported that OB proliferation is enhanced by megakaryocytes (MKs) via a process that is regulated in part by integrin signaling. The tyrosine kinase Pyk2 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and survival in a variety of cells. Pyk2 is also activated by integrin signaling and regulates actin remodeling in bone-resorbing osteoclasts. In this study, we examined the role of Pyk2 and actin in the MK-mediated increase in OB proliferation. Calvarial OBs were cultured in the presence of MKs for various times, and Pyk2 signaling cascades in OBs were examined by Western blotting, subcellular fractionation, and microscopy. We found that MKs regulate the temporal expression of Pyk2 and its subcellular localization. We also found that MKs regulate the expression of two alternatively spliced isoforms of Pyk2 in OBs, which may regulate OB differentiation and proliferation. MKs also induced cytoskeletal reorganization in OBs, which was associated with the caspase-mediated cleavage of actin, an increase in focal adhesions, and the formation of apical membrane ruffles. Moreover, BrdU incorporation in MK-stimulated OBs was blocked by the actin-polymerizing agent, jasplakinolide. Collectively, our studies reveal that Pyk2 and actin play an important role in MK-regulated signaling cascades that control OB proliferation and may be important for therapeutic interventions aimed at increasing bone formation in metabolic diseases of the skeleton. PMID:22447931

  20. Multiple roles for keratin intermediate filaments in the regulation of epithelial barrier function and apico-basal polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Pedro J; Forteza, Radia; Mashukova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    As multicellular organisms evolved a family of cytoskeletal proteins, the keratins (types I and II) expressed in epithelial cells diversified in more than 20 genes in vertebrates. There is no question that keratin filaments confer mechanical stiffness to cells. However, such a number of genes can hardly be explained by evolutionary advantages in mechanical features. The use of transgenic mouse models has revealed unexpected functional relationships between keratin intermediate filaments and intracellular signaling. Accordingly, loss of keratins or mutations in keratins that cause or predispose to human diseases, result in increased sensitivity to apoptosis, regulation of innate immunity, permeabilization of tight junctions, and mistargeting of apical proteins in different epithelia. Precise mechanistic explanations for these phenomena are still lacking. However, immobilization of membrane or cytoplasmic proteins, including chaperones, on intermediate filaments ("scaffolding") appear as common molecular mechanisms and may explain the need for so many different keratin genes in vertebrates. PMID:27583190

  1. Mechanoregulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by TRP channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, A.J.; Middelbeek, J.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2012-01-01

    The ability of cells to respond to mechanical stimulation is crucial to a variety of biological processes, including cell migration, axonal outgrowth, perception of pain, cardiovascular responses and kidney physiology. The translation of mechanical cues into cellular responses, a process known as me

  2. Simulated cytoskeletal collapse via tau degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Sendek

    Full Text Available We present a coarse-grained two dimensional mechanical model for the microtubule-tau bundles in neuronal axons in which we remove taus, as can happen in various neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimers disease, tauopathies, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Our simplified model includes (i taus modeled as entropic springs between microtubules, (ii removal of taus from the bundles due to phosphorylation, and (iii a possible depletion force between microtubules due to these dissociated phosphorylated taus. We equilibrate upon tau removal using steepest descent relaxation. In the absence of the depletion force, the transverse rigidity to radial compression of the bundles falls to zero at about 60% tau occupancy, in agreement with standard percolation theory results. However, with the attractive depletion force, spring removal leads to a first order collapse of the bundles over a wide range of tau occupancies for physiologically realizable conditions. While our simplest calculations assume a constant concentration of microtubule intercalants to mediate the depletion force, including a dependence that is linear in the detached taus yields the same collapse. Applying percolation theory to removal of taus at microtubule tips, which are likely to be the protective sites against dynamic instability, we argue that the microtubule instability can only obtain at low tau occupancy, from 0.06-0.30 depending upon the tau coordination at the microtubule tips. Hence, the collapse we discover is likely to be more robust over a wide range of tau occupancies than the dynamic instability. We suggest in vitro tests of our predicted collapse.

  3. Motor Regulation Results in Distal Forces that Bend Partially Disintegrated Chlamydomonas Axonemes into Circular Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, V.; Sartori, P.; Geyer, V. F.; Jülicher, F.; Howard, J.

    2014-06-01

    The bending of cilia and flagella is driven by forces generated by dynein motor proteins. These forces slide adjacent microtubule doublets within the axoneme, the motile cytoskeletal structure. To create regular, oscilla- tory beating patterns, the activities of the axonemal dyneins must be coordinated both spatially and temporally. It is thought that coordination is mediated by stresses or strains, which build up within the moving axoneme, and somehow regulate dynein activity. While experimenting with axonemes subjected to mild proteolysis, we observed pairs of doublets associate with each other and form bends with almost constant curvature. By model- ing the statics of a pair of filaments, we show that the activity of the motors concentrates at the distal tips of the doublets. Furthermore, we show that this distribution of motor activity accords with models in which curvature, or curvature-induced normal forces, regulates the activity of the motors. These observations, together with our theoretical analysis, provide evidence that dynein activity can be regulated by curvature or normal forces, which may, therefore, play a role in coordinating the beating of cilia and flagella.

  4. Overexpression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor induces genes regulating migration and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahnke, Jens; Mix, Eilhard; Knoblich, Rupert; Müller, Jana; Zschiesche, Marlies; Schubert, Beke; Koczan, Dirk; Bauer, Peter; Böttcher, Tobias; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Lazarov, Ludmil; Wree, Andreas; Rolfs, Arndt

    2004-07-15

    The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is involved in the development and maintenance of neural tissues. Mutations in components of its signaling pathway lead to severe migration deficits of neuronal crest stem cells, tumor formation, or ablation of the urinary system. In animal models of Parkinson's disease, GDNF has been recognized to be neuroprotective and to improve motor function when delivered into the cerebral ventricles or into the substantia nigra. Here, we characterize the network of 43 genes induced by GDNF overproduction of neuronal progenitor cells (ST14A), which mainly regulate migration and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells. GDNF down-regulates doublecortin, Paf-ah1b (Lis1), dynamin, and alpha-tubulin, which are involved in neocortical lamination and cytoskeletal reorganization. Axonal guidance depends on cell-surface molecules and extracellular matrix proteins. Laminin, Mpl3, Alcam, Bin1, Id1, Id2, Id3, neuregulin1, the ephrinB2-receptor, neuritin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Tc10, Pdpk1, clusterin, GTP-cyclooxygenase1, and follistatin are genes up-regulated by GDNF overexpression. Moreover, we found four key enzymes of the cholesterol-synthesis pathway to be down-regulated leading to decreased farnesyl-pyrophospate production. Many proteins are anchored by farnesyl-derivates at the cell membrane. The identification of these GDNF-regulated genes may open new opportunities for directly influencing differentiation and developmental processes of neurons. PMID:15212950

  5. Membrane tension regulates clathrin-coated pit dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Allen

    2014-03-01

    Intracellular organization depends on close communication between the extracellular environment and a network of cytoskeleton filaments. The interactions between cytoskeletal filaments and the plasma membrane lead to changes in membrane tension that in turns help regulate biological processes. Endocytosis is thought to be stimulated by low membrane tension and the removal of membrane increases membrane tension. While it is appreciated that the opposing effects of exocytosis and endocytosis have on keeping plasma membrane tension to a set point, it is not clear how membrane tension affects the dynamics of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), the individual functional units of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, although it was recently shown that actin dynamics counteracts membrane tension during CCP formation, it is not clear what roles plasma membrane tension plays during CCP initiation. Based on the notion that plasma membrane tension is increased when the membrane area increases during cell spreading, we designed micro-patterned surfaces of different sizes to control the cell spreading sizes. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of living cells and high content image analysis were used to quantify the dynamics of CCPs. We found that there is an increased proportion of CCPs with short (<20s) lifetime for cells on larger patterns. Interestingly, cells on larger patterns have higher CCP initiation density, an effect unexpected based on the conventional view of decreasing endocytosis with increasing membrane tension. Furthermore, by analyzing the intensity profiles of CCPs that were longer-lived, we found CCP intensity decreases with increasing cell size, indicating that the CCPs are smaller with increasing membrane tension. Finally, disruption of actin dynamics significantly increased the number of short-lived CCPs, but also decreased CCP initiation rate. Together, our study reveals new mechanistic insights into how plasma membrane tension regulates

  6. Human Xip1 (C2orf13) is a novel regulator of cellular responses to DNA strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Fugger, Kasper; Danielsen, Jannie Rendtlew;

    2007-01-01

    interacted through recognition of CK2 phosphorylation sites in XRCC1 by the Forkhead-associated (FHA) domain of Xip1, and XRCC1 was required to maintain steady-state levels of Xip1. Moreover, Xip1 was phosphorylated on Ser-116 by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated in response to ionizing radiation, further...

  7. Casein kinase 2 inhibits HomolD-directed transcription by Rrn7 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Ramos, Sandra; Rojas, Diego A; Montes, Matías; Urbina, Fabiola; Miralles, Vicente J; Maldonado, Edio

    2015-02-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ribosomal protein gene (RPG) promoters contain a TATA analogue element called the HomolD box. The HomolD-binding protein Rrn7 forms a complex with the RNA polymerase II machinery. Despite the importance of ribosome biogenesis to cell survival, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of transcription of eukaryotic RPGs are unknown. In this study, we identified Rrn7 as a new substrate of the pleiotropic casein kinase 2 (CK2), which is a regulator of basal transcription. Recombinant Rrn7 from S. pombe, which is often used as a model organism for studying eukaryotic transcription, interacted with CK2 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rrn7 inhibited its HomolD-directed transcriptional activity and ability to bind to an oligonucleotide containing a HomolD box in vitro. Mutation of Rrn7 at Thr67 abolished these effects, indicating that this residue is a critical CK2 phosphorylation site. Finally, Rrn7 interacted with the regulatory subunit of CK2 in vivo, inhibition of CK2 in vivo potentiated ribosomal protein gene transcription, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses identified that the catalytic subunit of CK2 was associated with the rpk5 gene promoter in S. pombe. Taken together, these data suggest that CK2 inhibits ribosomal protein gene transcription in S. pombe via phosphorylation of Rrn7 at Thr67. PMID:25410910

  8. Toward the rational design of protein kinase casein kinase-2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Moro, Stefano; Meggio, Flavio; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Dal Ben, Diego; Ghisellini, Paola; Battistutta, Roberto; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Pinna, Lorenzo A

    2002-01-01

    Casein kinase-2 (CK2) probably is the most pleiotropic member of the protein kinase family, with more than 200 substrates known to date. Unlike the great majority of protein kinases, which are tightly regulated enzymes, CK2 is endowed with high constitutive activity, a feature that is suspected to underlie its oncogenic potential and possible implication in viral infections. This makes CK2 an attractive target for anti-neoplastic and antiviral drugs. Here, we present an overview of our present knowledge about CK2 inhibitors, with special reference to the information drawn from two recently solved crystal structures of CK2alpha in complex with emodin and with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole (TBB), this latter being the most specific CK2 inhibitor known to date. A comparison with a series of anthraquinone and xanthenone derivatives highlights the crucial relevance of the hydroxyl group at position 3 for inhibition by emodin, and discloses the possibility of increasing the inhibitory potency by placing an electron withdrawing group at position 5. We also present mutational data corroborating the relevance of two hydrophobic residues unique to CK2, Val66 and Ile174, for the interactions with emodin and TBB, but not with the flavonoid inhibitors quercetin and fisetin. In particular, the CK2alpha mutant V66A displays 27- and 11-fold higher IC(50) values with emodin and TBB, respectively, as compared with the wild-type, while the IC(50) value with quercetin is unchanged. The data presented pave the road toward the rational design of more potent and selective inhibitors of CK2 and the generation of CK2 mutants refractory to inhibition, useful to probe the implication of CK2 in specific cellular functions. PMID:12191608

  9. Melatonin promotes seed germination under high salinity by regulating antioxidant systems, ABA and GA₄ interaction in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Na; Yang, Rong-Chao; Wang, Li; Sun, Qian-Qian; Li, Dian-Bo; Cao, Yun-Yun; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Although previous studies have found that melatonin can promote seed germination, the mechanisms involved in perceiving and signaling melatonin remain poorly understood. In this study, it was found that melatonin was synthesized during cucumber seed germination with a peak in melatonin levels occurring 14 hr into germination. This is indicative of a correlation between melatonin synthesis and seed germination. Meanwhile, seeds pretreated with exogenous melatonin (1 μM) showed enhanced germination rates under 150 mM NaCl stress compared to water-pretreated seeds under salinity stress. There are two apparent mechanisms by which melatonin alleviated salinity-induced inhibition of seed germination. Exogenous melatonin decreased oxidative damage induced by NaCl stress by enhancing gene expression of antioxidants. Under NaCl stress, compared to untreated control, the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were significantly increased by approximately 1.3-5.0-fold, with a concomitant 1.4-2.0-fold increase of CsCu-ZnSOD, CsFe-ZnSOD, CsCAT, and CsPOD in melatonin-pretreated seeds. Melatonin also alleviated salinity stress by affecting abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin acid (GA) biosynthesis and catabolism during seed germination. Compared to NaCl treatment, melatonin significantly up-regulated ABA catabolism genes (e.g., CsCYP707A1 and CsCYP707A2, 3.5 and 105-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 16 hr, respectively) and down-regulated ABA biosynthesis genes (e.g., CsNECD2, 0.29-fold of CK2 at 16 hr), resulting in a rapid decrease of ABA content during the early stage of germination. At the same time, melatonin positively up-regulated GA biosynthesis genes (e.g., GA20ox and GA3ox, 2.3 and 3.9-fold higher than NaCl treatment at 0 and 12 hr, respectively), contributing to a significant increase of GA (especially GA4) content. In this study, we provide new evidence suggesting that melatonin alleviates the

  10. ROP GTPase-mediated auxin signaling regulates pavement cell interdigitation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deshu Lin; Huibo Ren; Ying Fu

    2015-01-01

    In multicel ular plant organs, cel shape formation depends on molecular switches to transduce developmental or environmental signals and to coordinate cel‐to‐cel communi-cation. Plants have a specific subfamily of the Rho GTPase family, usual y cal ed Rho of Plants (ROP), which serve as a critical signal transducer involved in many cel ular processes. In the last decade, important advances in the ROP‐mediated regulation of plant cel morphogenesis have been made by using Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and cotyledon pavement cel s. Especial y, the auxin‐ROP signaling networks have been demonstrated to control interdigitated growth of pavement cel s to form jigsaw‐puzzle shapes. Here, we review findings related to the discovery of this novel auxin‐signaling mecha-nism at the cel surface. This signaling pathway is to a large extent independent of the wel‐known Transport Inhibitor Response (TIR)–Auxin Signaling F‐Box (AFB) pathway, and instead requires Auxin Binding Protein 1 (ABP1) interaction with the plasma membrane‐localized, transmembrane kinase (TMK) receptor‐like kinase to regulate ROP proteins. Once activated, ROP influences cytoskeletal organization and inhibits endocytosis of the auxin transporter PIN1. The present review focuses on ROP signaling and its self‐organizing feature al owing ROP proteins to serve as a bustling signal decoder and integrator for plant cel morphogenesis.

  11. Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Regulates Axon Guidance by Stabilizing CRMP2A Selectively in Distal Axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Balastik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Axon guidance relies on precise translation of extracellular signal gradients into local changes in cytoskeletal dynamics, but the molecular mechanisms regulating dose-dependent responses of growth cones are still poorly understood. Here, we show that during embryonic development in growing axons, a low level of Semaphorin3A stimulation is buffered by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. We demonstrate that Pin1 stabilizes CDK5-phosphorylated CRMP2A, the major isoform of CRMP2 in distal axons. Consequently, Pin1 knockdown or knockout reduces CRMP2A levels specifically in distal axons and inhibits axon growth, which can be fully rescued by Pin1 or CRMP2A expression. Moreover, Pin1 knockdown or knockout increases sensitivity to Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse in vitro and in vivo, leading to developmental abnormalities in axon guidance. These results identify an important isoform-specific function and regulation of CRMP2A in controlling axon growth and uncover Pin1-catalyzed prolyl isomerization as a regulatory mechanism in axon guidance.

  12. Integrins Regulate Apical Constriction via Microtubule Stabilization in the Drosophila Eye Disc Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaiwan M. Fernandes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During morphogenesis, extracellular signals trigger actomyosin contractility in subpopulations of cells to coordinate changes in cell shape. To illuminate the link between signaling-mediated tissue patterning and cytoskeletal remodeling, we study the progression of the morphogenetic furrow (MF, the wave of apical constriction that traverses the Drosophila eye imaginal disc preceding photoreceptor neurogenesis. Apical constriction depends on actomyosin contractility downstream of the Hedgehog (Hh and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. We identify a role for integrin adhesion receptors in MF progression. We show that Hh and BMP regulate integrin expression, the loss of which disrupts apical constriction and slows furrow progression; conversely, elevated integrins accelerate furrow progression. We present evidence that integrins regulate MF progression by promoting microtubule stabilization, since reducing microtubule stability rescues integrin-mediated furrow acceleration. Thus, integrins act as a genetic link between tissue-level signaling events and morphological change at the cellular level, leading to morphogenesis and neurogenesis in the eye.

  13. Structural and functional diversity in the activity and regulation of DAPK-related protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Koen; Simon, Bertrand; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Within the large group of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) of the human kinome, there is a distinct branch of highly related kinases that includes three families: death-associated protein-related kinases, myosin light-chain-related kinases and triple functional domain protein-related kinases. In this review, we refer to these collectively as DMT kinases. There are several functional features that span the three families, such as a broad involvement in apoptotic processes, cytoskeletal association and cellular plasticity. Other CAMKs contain a highly conserved HRD motif, which is a prerequisite for kinase regulation through activation-loop phosphorylation, but in all 16 members of the DMT branch, this is replaced by an HF/LD motif. This DMT kinase signature motif substitutes phosphorylation-dependent active-site interactions with a local hydrophobic core that maintains an active kinase conformation. Only about half of the DMT kinases have an additional autoregulatory domain, C-terminal to the kinase domain that binds calcium/calmodulin in order to regulate kinase activity. Protein substrates have been identified for some of the DMT kinases, but little is known about the mechanism of recognition. Substrate conformation could be an equally important parameter in substrate recognition as specific preferences in sequence position. Taking the data together, this kinase branch encapsulates a treasure trove of features that renders it distinct from many other protein kinases and calls for future research activities in this field. PMID:23745726

  14. NKp46 clusters at the immune synapse and regulates NK cell polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi eHadad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells play an important role in first-line defense against tumor and virus-infected cells. The activity of NK cells is tightly regulated by a repertoire of cell-surface expressed inhibitory and activating receptors. NKp46 is a major NK cell activating receptor that is involved in the elimination of target cells. NK cells form different types of synapses that result in distinct functional outcomes: cytotoxic, inhibitory, and regulatory. Recent studies revealed that complex integration of NK receptor signaling controls cytoskeletal rearrangement and other immune synapse-related events. However the distinct nature by which NKp46 participates in NK immunological synapse formation and function remains unknown. In this study we determined that NKp46 forms microclusters structures at the immune synapse between NK cells and target cells. Over-expression of human NKp46 is correlated with increased accumulation of F-actin mesh at the immune synapse. Concordantly, knock-down of NKp46 in primary human NK cells decreased recruitment of F-actin to the synapse. Live cell imaging experiments showed a linear correlation between NKp46 expression and lytic granules polarization to the immune synapse. Taken together, our data suggest that NKp46 signaling directly regulates the NK lytic immune synapse from early formation to late function.

  15. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  16. Regulation of Genetic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... advertised. The Commission has the authority to regulate advertising that delivers health-related information to consumers to ensure that it is not false or misleading. Top of page FDA Regulation and ...

  17. Casein Kinase 2: a novel player in glioblastoma therapy and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Maya; Nitta, Ryan T; Li, Gordon

    2013-12-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is an oncogenic protein kinase which contributes to tumor development, proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis in multiple cancer types. The mechanism by which CK2 expression and activity leads to tumorigenesis in glioblastoma (GBM), a stage IV primary brain tumor, is being studied. Recent studies demonstrate that CK2 plays an important role in GBM formation and growth through the inhibition of tumor suppressors and activation of oncogenes. In addition, intriguing new reports indicate that CK2 may regulate GBM formation in a novel manner; CK2 may play a critical role in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance. Since glial CSCs have the ability to self-renew and initiate tumor growth, new treatments which target these CSCs are needed to treat this fatal disease. Inhibition of CK2 is potentially a novel method to inhibit GBM growth and reoccurrence by targeting the glial CSCs. A new, orally available, selective CK2 inhibitor, CX-4945 has had promising results when tested in cancer cell lines, in vivo xenograft models, and human clinical trials. The development of CK2 targeted inhibitors, starting with CX-4945, may lead to a new class of more effective cancer therapies. PMID:25264454

  18. General Theories of Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, J.A. den

    1999-01-01

    This chapter makes a distinction between three types of theories of regulation: public interest theories, the Chicago theory of regulation and the public choice theories. The Chicago theory is mainly directed at the explanation of economic regulation; public interest theories and public choice theor

  19. Hepcidin: regulation of the master iron regulator

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Iron, an essential nutrient, is required for many diverse biological processes. The absence of a defined pathway to excrete excess iron makes it essential for the body to regulate the amount of iron absorbed; a deficiency could lead to iron deficiency and an excess to iron overload and associated disorders such as anaemia and haemochromatosis respectively. This regulation is mediated by the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin binds to the only known iron export protein, ferroportin (FP...

  20. 生物材料表面性能调控干细胞分化的研究进展%Advances in the study of regulation of stem cell differentiation by surface properties of biomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓晨; 李学拥

    2014-01-01

    The differentiation of stem cells into target cells in a particular region is an important prerequisite for the organ construction and tissue engineering.The processes are multi-directionally regulated by the surface properties of biomaterials,and among them the influences of mechanical rigidity and surface morphology of biomaterials on morphological characteristics,focal adhesion assemblies,and cytoskeletal structure of cells are considered to be the most important factors in regulating the differentiation of stem cells into specific cell lineages.This review summarizes the progresses on this topic in the past few years,which may provide a reference to the design of the biomaterials in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  1. RhoC GTPase Is a Potent Regulator of Glutamine Metabolism and N-Acetylaspartate Production in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Michelle L; Yates, Joel A; Evans, Charles R; Van Wassenhove, Lauren D; Wu, Zhi Fen; Bridges, Sydney; Bao, Liwei; Fournier, Chelsea; Ashrafzadeh, Sepideh; Merrins, Matthew J; Satin, Leslie S; Schnell, Santiago; Burant, Charles F; Merajver, Sofia D

    2016-06-24

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely lethal cancer that rapidly metastasizes. Although the molecular attributes of IBC have been described, little is known about the underlying metabolic features of the disease. Using a variety of metabolic assays, including (13)C tracer experiments, we found that SUM149 cells, the primary in vitro model of IBC, exhibit metabolic abnormalities that distinguish them from other breast cancer cells, including elevated levels of N-acetylaspartate, a metabolite primarily associated with neuronal disorders and gliomas. Here we provide the first evidence of N-acetylaspartate in breast cancer. We also report that the oncogene RhoC, a driver of metastatic potential, modulates glutamine and N-acetylaspartate metabolism in IBC cells in vitro, revealing a novel role for RhoC as a regulator of tumor cell metabolism that extends beyond its well known role in cytoskeletal rearrangement. PMID:27129239

  2. Substrate stiffness regulates extracellular matrix deposition by alveolar epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Eisenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Eisenberg1,2, Asmahan Safi3, Xiaoding Wei3, Horacio D Espinosa3, GR Scott Budinger2, Desire Takawira1, Susan B Hopkinson1, Jonathan CR Jones1,21Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USAAim: The aim of the study was to address whether a stiff substrate, a model for pulmonary fibrosis, is responsible for inducing changes in the phenotype of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC in the lung, including their deposition and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins.Methods: Freshly isolated lung AEC from male Sprague Dawley rats were seeded onto polyacrylamide gel substrates of varying stiffness and analyzed for expression and organization of adhesion, cytoskeletal, differentiation, and ECM components by Western immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy.Results: We observed that substrate stiffness influences cell morphology and the organization of focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, however, we found that substrate stiffness has no influence on the differentiation of type II into type I AEC, nor does increased substrate stiffness lead to an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In contrast, our data indicate that substrate stiffness regulates the expression of the α3 laminin subunit by AEC and the organization of both fibronectin and laminin in their ECM.Conclusions: An increase in substrate stiffness leads to enhanced laminin and fibronectin assembly into fibrils, which likely contributes to the disease phenotype in the fibrotic lung.Keywords: alveolar epithelial cells, fibrosis, extracellular matrix, substrate stiffness

  3. Views of the regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In dealing with a challenging problem in occupational exposure the nuclear regulator in South Africa concluded that the involvement of stake holders was critical. Valuable lessons were learnt in the process. These related to co-operation amongst regulators, the involvement of regulators in addressing occupational exposure problems, the training of workers by the regulator and the need for technical training of the workers. In general, it was also learnt that regulators should establish mechanisms to measure and continuously improve the satisfaction of their stake holders. (author)

  4. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Safety Regulations for Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Safety Codes for Nuclear Pressure Retaining Components were issued by the NNSA in 1995. The Atomic Act and Regulations on the Safety Regulation for Transportation of Radioactive Materials have been finished and submitted to the State Council in 1995. At the same time the NNSA organized a revised collection of regulations on nuclear safety in both Chinese and English, titled 'The Collection of Regulations on Nuclear Safety of the People's Republic of China'. To enhance the implementation of newly issued nuclear safety regulations, the NNSA conducted seven times of propagating activities in relation to the regulations for nuclear pressure retaining components and research reactors design and operating in 1995

  5. p21-activated kinase 2 regulates HSPC cytoskeleton, migration, and homing via CDC42 activation and interaction with β-Pix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pavankumar N G; Radu, Maria; Xu, Ke; Wood, Jenna; Harris, Chad E; Chernoff, Jonathan; Williams, David A

    2016-04-21

    Cytoskeletal remodeling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is essential for homing to the bone marrow (BM). The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (Rac)/cell division control protein 42 homolog (CDC42) effector p21-activated kinase (Pak2) has been implicated in HSPC homing and engraftment. However, the molecular pathways mediating Pak2 functions in HSPCs are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that both Pak2 kinase activity and its interaction with the PAK-interacting exchange factor-β (β-Pix) are required to reconstitute defective ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPC homing to the BM. Pak2 serine/threonine kinase activity is required for stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF1α) chemokine-induced HSPC directional migration, whereas Pak2 interaction with β-Pix is required to regulate the velocity of HSPC migration and precise F-actin assembly. Lack of SDF1α-induced filopodia and associated abnormal cell protrusions seen in ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPCs were rescued by wild-type (WT) Pak2 but not by a Pak2-kinase dead mutant (KD). Expression of a β-Pix interaction-defective mutant of Pak2 rescued filopodia formation but led to abnormal F-actin bundles. Although CDC42 has previously been considered an upstream regulator of Pak2, we found a paradoxical decrease in baseline activation of CDC42 in ITALIC! Pak2 (ITALIC! Δ/Δ)HSPCs, which was rescued by expression of Pak2-WT but not by Pak2-KD; defective homing of ITALIC! Pak2-deleted HSPCs was rescued by constitutive active CDC42. These data demonstrate that both Pak2 kinase activity and its interaction with β-Pix are essential for HSPC filopodia formation, cytoskeletal integrity, and homing via activation of CDC42. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the role of Pak2 in HSPC migration and homing.

  6. Insights from soft X-rays: the chlorine and sulfur sub-structures of a CK2alpha/DRB complex

    OpenAIRE

    Raaf, J.; Issinger, O.-G.; Niefind, K.

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction pattern of a protein crystal is normally a product of the interference of electromagnetic waves scattered by electrons of the crystalline sample. The diffraction pattern undergoes systematic changes in case additionally X-ray absorption occurs, meaning if the wavelength of the primary X-ray beam is relatively close to the absorption edge of selected elements of the sample. The resulting effects are summarized as "anomalous dispersion" and can be always observed with "soft" X-r...

  7. 磁刺激对小鼠海马原代神经元即刻早期基因和细胞骨架蛋白表达的影响%Influence of magnetic stimulation on the expression of immediate early genes and cytoskeletal protein in primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张展翅; 马隽; 栾峰; 康林; 苏玉红; 王彦永; 王铭维; 崔慧先

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effects of magnetic stimulation on the expression of c-fos, activity regulated cytoskeletal protein, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurite growth in primary cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, and to explore the possible mechanism of magnetic stimulation on cell neurite growth. Methods:The primary cultured hippocampal neurons were divided into five groups: control group, sham group, 20% maximum stimulus intensity group (20% intensity), 30% maximum stimulus intensity group (30% intensity), and 40% maximum stimulus intensity group (40% intensity). The neurons were stimulated at a rate of 1 Hz after 24h, and the maximum output intensity of magnetic field was 3. 7 Tesla. Continuous stimulation for 5d, the stimulation coil was held paralleled 1 cm above the dish. Cellular immunofluorescence staining was executed immediately in the fifth day after stimulation; the immunofluorescence intensity of c-fos, Arc and MAP2-positive neurons was detected, and the multiple neurites neurons and the cell neurite length of MAP2 positive neurons were counted. Meanwhile, semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting were applied to verify the results. Results:The percentage of multiple neurites neurons(n≥2)and the cell neurite length in each stimulation group was significantly higher than that in the control group. Meanwhile, it was higher in the 30% intensity group than that in 20% and 40% intensity groups, and there was significant difference in the results. C-fos positive neurons proportion and the immunofluorescence intensity of Arc and MAP2 in the 30% intensity group was significantly higher than that in the related control group. The results of Western blotting and RT-PCR were consistent with the immunofluorescence. Conclusion: Magnetic stimulation can promote the neurite outgrowth of primary cultured hippocampus neuron, and the mechanism may be related to the up-regulation of c-fos, Arc and MAP2.%目的:观察磁刺激对小鼠海马原代神经

  8. Cooperative signaling between Slit2 and Ephrin-A1 regulates a balance between angiogenesis and angiostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, Charlene M; Hwang, Yoonha; Lindsley, Craig W; Cook, Rebecca S; Wu, Jane Y; Boothby, Mark; Chen, Jin; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M

    2011-02-01

    Slit proteins induce cytoskeletal remodeling through interaction with roundabout (Robo) receptors, regulating migration of neurons and nonneuronal cells, including leukocytes, tumor cells, and endothelium. The role of Slit2 in vascular remodeling, however, remains controversial, with reports of both pro- and antiangiogenic activity. We report here that cooperation between Slit2 and ephrin-A1 regulates a balance between the pro- and antiangiogenic functions of Slit2. While Slit2 promotes angiogenesis in culture and in vivo as a single agent, Slit2 potently inhibits angiogenic remodeling in the presence of ephrin-A1. Slit2 stimulates angiogenesis through mTORC2-dependent activation of Akt and Rac GTPase, the activities of which are inhibited in the presence of ephrin-A1. Activated Rac or Akt partially rescues vascular assembly and motility in costimulated endothelium. Taken together, these data suggest that Slit2 differentially regulates angiogenesis in the context of ephrin-A1, providing a plausible mechanism for the pro- versus antiangiogenic functions of Slit2. Our results suggest that the complex roles of Slit-Robo signaling in angiogenesis involve context-dependent mechanisms.

  9. CDNA microarray analysis of nerve growth factor-regulated gene expression profile in rat PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Ryu, Chun Jeih; Hong, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Eunjoo H

    2005-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)-driven differentiation of PC12 cells into neuronal-like cells provides a representative model system for studying neuronal differentiation processes. Despite of extensive research, gene regulation associated with the differentiation program in PC12 cells still needs to be elucidated. We used cDNA microarray analysis to characterize the response of PC12 cells to NGF at mRNA expression. Forty-six genes were reproducibly influenced by 2-fold or more after NGF treatment for 5 days. Twenty-five of the regulated transcripts were matched to genes which have known functions. Among the microarray results confirmed with real-time reverse transcriptase assay, several genes have not previously known to be modulated by NGF. The results mostly reflected changes in molecules regulating neural plasticity, cytoskeletal organization, and lipid metabolism, which include neuritin, PDZ protein Mrt1, lipoprotein lipase, tropomodulin 1 and rhoB. These observed genetic changes may provide new information about molecular mechanisms underlying NGF-promoted differentiation of PC12 cells. PMID:16076023

  10. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis. PMID:14551255

  11. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  12. The development of regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2002, The Act on Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety which regulates all aspects of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety entered into force in Slovenia. The Slovenian government and its responsible ministries shall issue several governmental and ministerial regulations to support the above - mentioned act. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) which acts within the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planing and Energy takes an active part in drafting the regulations which are defined in the act. Due to a very comprehensive and pretentious task, that is to be completed in a relatively short period of time, taking into consideration the involvement of stakeholders and all competent ministries, the SNSA within the Quality Management System developed a special procedure that insures the systematic approach to the preparation of regulations. The article will briefly represent the process that: defines the preparation, development, harmonisation, review, approval and issue of regulations and uniforms the format of developed regulations. (author)

  13. TOWARD MORE EFFECTIVE REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. GRAF

    2000-06-01

    This paper proposes a model relationship between the operator engaged in a hazardous activity, the regulator of that activity, and the general public. The roles and responsibilities of each entity are described in a way that allows effective communication flow. The role of the regulator is developed using the steam boiler as an example of a hazard subject to regulation; however, the model applies to any regulated activity. In this model the safety analyst has the extremely important role of communicating sometimes difficult technical information to the regulator in a way that the regulator can provide credible assurance to the general public as to the adequacy of the control of the hazardous activity. The conclusion asserts that acceptance of the model, understanding of the roles and responsibilities and definition of who communicates what information to whom will mitigate frustration on the part of each of the three entities.

  14. Effects of oridonin on cytoskeletal protein F-actin in human pancreatic carcinoma cells%冬凌草甲素对胰腺癌细胞骨架蛋白F-actin的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军楼; 沈洪; 徐力; 杨继兵; 于希忠; 孙志岭

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的:中医药治疗肿瘤不良反应低且疗效显著,在防治胰腺癌方面有较大的潜力与优势,日益受到国内、外医学界的关注。本研究观察中草药冬凌草的有效成分冬凌草甲素对人胰腺癌SW1990凋亡及细胞骨架蛋白F-actin的影响。方法:以不同浓度的冬凌草甲素作用于体外培养的SW1990细胞,采用MTT法检测细胞生长抑制率,DAPI染色法染色后荧光显微镜观察细胞核凋亡、流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率,激光共聚焦显微镜观察F-actin形态学变化。结果:冬凌草甲素对人胰腺癌SW1990细胞具有明显的增殖抑制作用,荧光显微镜见到典型的凋亡形态学改变。流式细胞仪检测结果显示,25、50μmol/L冬凌草甲素给药组早期凋亡的百分率显著高于对照组(3.78±0.46,9.51±0.63 vs 0.73±0.06,P<0.05),晚期凋亡和坏死细胞的百分率也显著高于未给药组(14.40±1.78,20.53±2.54 vs 4.16±0.31,P<0.05)。细胞骨架蛋白F-actin呈现解聚状态。结论:冬凌草甲素可抑制胰腺癌SW1990细胞增殖,促进肿瘤细胞凋亡,其作用机制可能是药物引起了细胞骨架蛋白F-actin解聚。%Background and purpose:Traditional Chinese medicine with notable effect and little adverse reaction is increasingly concerned about the medical profession because of its great potential and advantage in treating pancreatic carcinoma. In this experiment, we studied the effects of oridonin on apoptosis and cytoskeletal protein F-actin in human pancreatic carcinoma SW1990 cells. Methods:SW1990 cells in culture medium were treated with different concentrations of oridonin. The inhibitory rate of the cells was measured by MTT assay. Morphology of cell apoptosis was observed by DAPI stain and cell apoptotic rate was detected by lfow cytometry (FCM). The morphological changes of F-actin were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Results:The growth of human pancreatic

  15. Effects of oridonin on cytoskeletal protein F-actin in human pancreatic carcinoma cells%冬凌草甲素对胰腺癌细胞骨架蛋白F-actin的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军楼; 沈洪; 徐力; 杨继兵; 于希忠; 孙志岭

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose:Traditional Chinese medicine with notable effect and little adverse reaction is increasingly concerned about the medical profession because of its great potential and advantage in treating pancreatic carcinoma. In this experiment, we studied the effects of oridonin on apoptosis and cytoskeletal protein F-actin in human pancreatic carcinoma SW1990 cells. Methods:SW1990 cells in culture medium were treated with different concentrations of oridonin. The inhibitory rate of the cells was measured by MTT assay. Morphology of cell apoptosis was observed by DAPI stain and cell apoptotic rate was detected by lfow cytometry (FCM). The morphological changes of F-actin were observed by laser confocal microscopy. Results:The growth of human pancreatic carcinoma SW1990 cells was signiifcantly inhibited by oridonin. Apoptosis morphological changes including condensation of chromatin and nuclear fragmentation were observed clearly by DAPI stain. The early apoptotic rate of SW1990 cells treated with 25, 50μmol/L oridonin was signiifcantly higher than that of the control group (3.78±0.46, 9.51±0.63 vs 0.73±0.06, P<0.05), and the late apoptotic rate and cell necrosis rate were also signiifcantly higher than that of the control group (14.40±1.78, 20.53±2.54 vs 4.16±0.31, P<0.05). F-actin was showed from polymerization to depolymerization after oridonin treatment. Conclusion:Oridonin can obviously inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of SW1990 cells. The mechanisms may involve the depolymerization of F-actin after treatment with oridonin.%背景与目的:中医药治疗肿瘤不良反应低且疗效显著,在防治胰腺癌方面有较大的潜力与优势,日益受到国内、外医学界的关注。本研究观察中草药冬凌草的有效成分冬凌草甲素对人胰腺癌SW1990凋亡及细胞骨架蛋白F-actin的影响。方法:以不同浓度的冬凌草甲素作用于体外培养的SW1990细胞,采用MTT法检测细胞生长

  16. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enactment of nuclear safety regulations in 1996 is mainly focused on the preparation of related regulations, and safety guides for nuclear materials control, the reprocessing installations of spent fuels, the treatment and disposal for radioactive waste. The NNSA also assists the departments concerned of the State Council for modification on the 'Atomic Energy Act' (draft) and the' Regulations on the Safety Supervision and Control of Radioactive Materials Transportation' (draft)

  17. Emotional regulation and friendship

    OpenAIRE

    Zaccagnini, J.L.; Ruiz-Aranda, D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature has been shown that emotional regulation facilitates the establishment and maintenance of social relations (Dodge Garber, 1991; Saarni, 1999). The objective of the present study was to analyze the influence of emotional regulation (Gross y John, 2003) in positive friendship (Berscheid, 2003), specifically at the level of intimacy with friends. In addition, we examined the mediating role of positive emotions in the relationship between the emotional regulation and the leve...

  18. Accounting Regulation in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Hora, Michal; Chyzevska, Ludmila

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate the regulation and organization of accounting in Ukraine under the changes in the national economic system development and impact of IFRS implementation. The system of legal regulation of accounting in Ukraine is presented by five levels, each comprised of a number of corresponding subjects of regulation and documents. Typical Chart of Accounts is evidence of the continental accounting model in Ukraine. The accounting standards provide freedom of choice as ...

  19. Contribution of casein kinase 2 and spleen tyrosine kinase to CFTR trafficking and protein kinase A-induced activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Simão; Kongsuphol, Patthara; Mendes, Ana Isabel; Romeiras, Francisco; Sousa, Marisa; Schreiber, Rainer; Matos, Paulo; Jordan, Peter; Mehta, Anil; Amaral, Margarida D; Kunzelmann, Karl; Farinha, Carlos M

    2011-11-01

    Previously, the pleiotropic "master kinase" casein kinase 2 (CK2) was shown to interact with CFTR, the protein responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF). Moreover, CK2 inhibition abolished CFTR conductance in cell-attached membrane patches, native epithelial ducts, and Xenopus oocytes. CFTR possesses two CK2 phosphorylation sites (S422 and T1471), with unclear impact on its processing and trafficking. Here, we investigated the effects of mutating these CK2 sites on CFTR abundance, maturation, and degradation coupled to effects on ion channel activity and surface expression. We report that CK2 inhibition significantly decreased processing of wild-type (wt) CFTR, with no effect on F508del CFTR. Eliminating phosphorylation at S422 and T1471 revealed antagonistic roles in CFTR trafficking: S422 activation versus T1471 inhibition, as evidenced by a severe trafficking defect for the T1471D mutant. Notably, mutation of Y512, a consensus sequence for the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) possibly acting in a CK2 context adjacent to the common CF-causing defect F508del, had a strong effect on both maturation and CFTR currents, allowing the identification of this kinase as a novel regulator of CFTR. These results reinforce the importance of CK2 and the S422 and T1471 residues for regulation of CFTR and uncover a novel regulation of CFTR by SYK, a recognized controller of inflammation.

  20. Plant Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  1. Mortgage market regulation: Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Aalbers

    2012-01-01

    Despite several European Union (EU) initiatives, there is only limited pan-European mortgage market regulation. The EU strategy can be characterised as one of parallel liberalisation and consolidation. This article highlights the key differences in regulation among European mortgage markets. Mortgag

  2. Emotion-regulation choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheppes, Gal; Scheibe, Susanne; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite centuries of speculation about how to manage negative emotions, little is actually known about which emotion-regulation strategies people choose to use when confronted with negative situations of varying intensity. On the basis of a new process conception of emotion regulation, we hypothesiz

  3. Benchmarking and Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    nchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The applica......nchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  4. Sensors and signal transduction pathways in vertebrate cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-01-01

    to the identification of transporter binding partners such as protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements and lipids. Considerable progress has also been made recently in understanding the upstream elements in volume sensing and volume-sensitive signal transduction, and salient features of these systems...

  5. Lamin A/C and emerin regulate MKL1/SRF activity by modulating actin dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Yee; Jaalouk, Diana E.; Vartiainen, Maria K.; Lammerding, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Laminopathies, caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C, represent a diverse group of diseases that include Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (EDMD), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS).1 The majority of LMNA mutations affect skeletal and cardiac muscle by mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Loss of structural function and disturbed interaction of mutant lamins with (tissue-specific) transcription factors have been proposed to explain the tissue-specific phenotypes.1 We report here that lamin A/C-deficient (Lmna−/−) and Lmna N195K mutant cells have impaired nuclear translocation and downstream signaling of the mechanosensitive transcription factor megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 (MKL1), a myocardin family member that is pivotal in cardiac development and function.2 Disturbed nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of MKL1 was caused by altered actin dynamics in Lmna−/− and N195K mutant cells. Ectopic expression of the nuclear envelope protein emerin, which is mislocalized in Lmna mutant cells and also linked to EDMD and DCM, restored MKL1 nuclear translocation and rescued actin dynamics in mutant cells. These findings present a novel mechanism that could provide insight into the disease etiology for the cardiac phenotype in many laminopathies, whereby lamins A/C and emerin regulate gene expression through modulation of nuclear and cytoskeletal actin polymerization. PMID:23644458

  6. Lamin A/C and emerin regulate MKL1-SRF activity by modulating actin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin Yee; Jaalouk, Diana E; Vartiainen, Maria K; Lammerding, Jan

    2013-05-23

    Laminopathies, caused by mutations in the LMNA gene encoding the nuclear envelope proteins lamins A and C, represent a diverse group of diseases that include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, and Hutchison-Gilford progeria syndrome. Most LMNA mutations affect skeletal and cardiac muscle by mechanisms that remain incompletely understood. Loss of structural function and altered interaction of mutant lamins with (tissue-specific) transcription factors have been proposed to explain the tissue-specific phenotypes. Here we report in mice that lamin-A/C-deficient (Lmna(-/-)) and Lmna(N195K/N195K) mutant cells have impaired nuclear translocation and downstream signalling of the mechanosensitive transcription factor megakaryoblastic leukaemia 1 (MKL1), a myocardin family member that is pivotal in cardiac development and function. Altered nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of MKL1 was caused by altered actin dynamics in Lmna(-/-) and Lmna(N195K/N195K) mutant cells. Ectopic expression of the nuclear envelope protein emerin, which is mislocalized in Lmna mutant cells and also linked to EDMD and DCM, restored MKL1 nuclear translocation and rescued actin dynamics in mutant cells. These findings present a novel mechanism that could provide insight into the disease aetiology for the cardiac phenotype in many laminopathies, whereby lamin A/C and emerin regulate gene expression through modulation of nuclear and cytoskeletal actin polymerization.

  7. Regulation of vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase in microglia by RANKL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Eric M.; Ricofort, Ryan D.; Zuo, Jian [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Ochotny, Noelle [Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Manolson, Morris F. [Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1G6 (Canada); Holliday, L. Shannon, E-mail: sholliday@dental.ufl.edu [Department of Orthodontics, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2009-11-06

    Vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPases (V-ATPases) are large electrogenic proton pumps composed of numerous subunits that play vital housekeeping roles in the acidification of compartments of the endocytic pathway. Additionally, V-ATPases play specialized roles in certain cell types, a capacity that is linked to cell type selective expression of isoforms of some of the subunits. We detected low levels of the a3 isoform of the a-subunit in mouse brain extracts. Examination of various brain-derived cell types by immunoblotting showed a3 was expressed in the N9 microglia cell line and in primary microglia, but not in other cell types. The expression of a3 in osteoclasts requires stimulation by Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B-ligand (RANKL). We found that Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (RANK) was expressed by microglia. Stimulation of microglia with RANKL triggered increased expression of a3. V-ATPases in microglia were shown to bind microfilaments, and stimulation with RANKL increased the proportion of V-ATPase associated with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeletal fraction and with actin. In summary, microglia express the a3-subunit of V-ATPase. The expression of a3 and the interaction between V-ATPases and microfilaments was modulated by RANKL. These data suggest a novel molecular pathway for regulating microglia.

  8. Rab, Arf, and Arl-Regulated Membrane Traffic in Cortical Neuron Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-07-01

    The migration of projection neurons from its birthplace in the subventricular zone to their final destination in the cortical plate is a complex process that requires a series of highly coordinated cellular events. Amongst the key factors involved in the processes are modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, as well as cellular membrane traffic. Members of the small GTPases family responsible for the latter process, the Rabs and Arfs, have been recently implicated in cortical neuron migration. Rab5 and Rab11, which are key modulators of endocytosis and endocytic recycling respectively, ensure proper surface expression and distribution of N-cadherin, a key adhesion protein that tethers migrating neurons to the radial glia fiber tracts during pia-directed migration. Rab7, which is associated with lysosomal biogenesis and function, is important for the final step of terminal translocation when N-cadherin is downregulated by lysosomal degradation. Arf6 activity, which is known to be important in neuronal processes outgrowth, may negatively impact the multipolar-bipolar transition of cortical neurons undergoing radial migration, but the downstream effector of Arf6 in this regard is not yet known. In addition to the above, members of the Arl family which have been recently shown to be important in radial glia scaffold formation, would also be important for cortical neuron migration. In this short review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the importance of membrane traffic regulated by the Rab, Arf, and Arl family members in cortical neuron migration. PMID:26587959

  9. Ferlins: regulators of vesicle fusion for auditory neurotransmission, receptor trafficking and membrane repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Angela; Evesson, Frances J; Sutton, R Bryan; North, Kathryn N; Cooper, Sandra T

    2012-02-01

    Ferlins are a family of multiple C2 domain proteins with emerging roles in vesicle fusion and membrane trafficking. Ferlin mutations are associated with muscular dystrophy (dysferlin) and deafness (otoferlin) in humans, and infertility in Caenorhabditis elegans (Fer-1) and Drosophila (misfire), demonstrating their importance for normal cellular functioning. Ferlins show ancient origins in eukaryotic evolution and are detected in all eukaryotic kingdoms, including unicellular eukaryotes and apicomplexian protists, suggesting origins in a common ancestor predating eukaryotic evolutionary branching. The characteristic feature of the ferlin family is their multiple tandem cytosolic C2 domains (five to seven C2 domains), the most of any protein family, and an extremely rare feature amongst eukaryotic proteins. Ferlins also bear a unique nested DysF domain and small conserved 60-70 residue ferlin-specific sequences (Fer domains). Ferlins segregate into two subtypes based on the presence (type I ferlin) or absence (type II ferlin) of the DysF and FerA domains. Ferlins have diverse tissue-specific and developmental expression patterns, with ferlin animal models united by pathologies arising from defects in vesicle fusion. Consistent with their proposed role in vesicle trafficking, ferlin interaction partners include cytoskeletal motors, other vesicle-associated trafficking proteins and transmembrane receptors or channels. Herein we summarize the research history of the ferlins, an intriguing family of structurally conserved proteins with a preserved ancestral function as regulators of vesicle fusion and receptor trafficking.

  10. Impaired endothelial shear stress induces podosome assembly via VEGF up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Theres; Schubert, Kai Michael; Schneider, Holger; Fein, Evelyn; Kleinert, Eike; Pohl, Ulrich; Dendorfer, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Podosomes are dynamic cytoskeletal membrane structures with local adhesive and proteolytic activity. They are critically involved in angiogenesis and vascular adaptive growth. Here, we studied in HUVECs and murine small vessels whether shear stress controls podosome assembly and local proteolytic activity. Podosomes were characterized by immunohistochemistry, and their proteolytic activity was assessed as degradation imprints in fluorescent gelatin that was used as growth substrate. Compared with controls (10 dyn/cm(2)), the number of podosomes formed per time was doubled when cells were exposed to low shear stress (0.3 dyn/cm(2)) or even increased 5-fold under static conditions. This was a result of an enhanced expression of VEGF after reduction of shear stress. Consequently, enhanced podosome formation could be prevented by a VEGF receptor antagonist as well by interruption of VEGF signaling via inhibition of PI3K, Src, or p38. Increase of podosome assembly went along with significantly augmented cell motility. In vivo experiments in mouse arteries confirmed increased endothelial podosome numbers when shear stress was abolished by vessel occlusion. We conclude that shear stress, by reducing VEGF release, inhibits podosome assembly. Hence, endothelial cell-mediated matrix proteolysis and migratory activity are inhibited, thereby stabilizing the structure of the vessel wall.-Fey, T., Schubert, K. M., Schneider, H., Fein, E., Kleinert, E., Pohl, U., Dendorfer, A. Impaired endothelial shear stress induces podosome assembly via VEGF up-regulation.

  11. Rab, Arf, and Arl-Regulated Membrane Traffic in Cortical Neuron Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bor Luen

    2016-07-01

    The migration of projection neurons from its birthplace in the subventricular zone to their final destination in the cortical plate is a complex process that requires a series of highly coordinated cellular events. Amongst the key factors involved in the processes are modulators of cytoskeletal dynamics, as well as cellular membrane traffic. Members of the small GTPases family responsible for the latter process, the Rabs and Arfs, have been recently implicated in cortical neuron migration. Rab5 and Rab11, which are key modulators of endocytosis and endocytic recycling respectively, ensure proper surface expression and distribution of N-cadherin, a key adhesion protein that tethers migrating neurons to the radial glia fiber tracts during pia-directed migration. Rab7, which is associated with lysosomal biogenesis and function, is important for the final step of terminal translocation when N-cadherin is downregulated by lysosomal degradation. Arf6 activity, which is known to be important in neuronal processes outgrowth, may negatively impact the multipolar-bipolar transition of cortical neurons undergoing radial migration, but the downstream effector of Arf6 in this regard is not yet known. In addition to the above, members of the Arl family which have been recently shown to be important in radial glia scaffold formation, would also be important for cortical neuron migration. In this short review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the importance of membrane traffic regulated by the Rab, Arf, and Arl family members in cortical neuron migration.

  12. A novel genetic mechanism regulates dorsolateral hinge-point formation during zebrafish cranial neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyholm, Molly K; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Grinblat, Yevgenya

    2009-06-15

    During neurulation, vertebrate embryos form a neural tube (NT), the rudiment of the central nervous system. In mammals and birds, a key step in cranial NT morphogenesis is dorsolateral hinge-point (DLHP) bending, which requires an apical actomyosin network. The mechanism of DLHP formation is poorly understood, although several essential genes have been identified, among them Zic2, which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor. We found that DLHP formation in the zebrafish midbrain also requires actomyosin and Zic function. Given this conservation, we used the zebrafish to study how genes encoding Zic proteins regulate DLHP formation. We demonstrate that the ventral zic2a expression border predicts DLHP position. Using morpholino (MO) knockdown, we show zic2a and zic5 are required for apical F-actin and active myosin II localization and junction integrity. Furthermore, myosin II activity can function upstream of junction integrity during DLHP formation, and canonical Wnt signaling, an activator of zic gene transcription, is necessary for apical active myosin II localization, junction integrity and DLHP formation. We conclude that zic genes act downstream of Wnt signaling to control cytoskeletal organization, and possibly adhesion, during neurulation. This study identifies zic2a and zic5 as crucial players in the genetic network linking patterned gene expression to morphogenetic changes during neurulation, and strengthens the utility of the zebrafish midbrain as a NT morphogenesis model.

  13. SLAMF1 regulation of chemotaxis and autophagy determines CLL patient response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, Cinzia; Buonincontri, Roberta; Serra, Sara; Vaisitti, Tiziana; Audrito, Valentina; Brusa, Davide; Pagnani, Andrea; Coscia, Marta; D’Arena, Giovanni; Mereu, Elisabetta; Piva, Roberto; Furman, Richard R.; Rossi, Davide; Gaidano, Gianluca; Terhorst, Cox; Deaglio, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a variable disease; therefore, markers to identify aggressive forms are essential for patient management. Here, we have shown that expression of the costimulatory molecule and microbial sensor SLAMF1 (also known as CD150) is lost in a subset of patients with an aggressive CLL that associates with a shorter time to first treatment and reduced overall survival. SLAMF1 silencing in CLL-like Mec-1 cells, which constitutively express SLAMF1, modulated pathways related to cell migration, cytoskeletal organization, and intracellular vesicle formation and recirculation. SLAMF1 deficiency associated with increased expression of CXCR4, CD38, and CD44, thereby positively affecting chemotactic responses to CXCL12. SLAMF1 ligation with an agonistic monoclonal antibody increased ROS accumulation and induced phosphorylation of p38, JNK1/2, and BCL2, thereby promoting the autophagic flux. Beclin1 dissociated from BCL2 in response to SLAMF1 ligation, resulting in formation of the autophagy macrocomplex, which contains SLAMF1, beclin1, and the enzyme VPS34. Accordingly, SLAMF1-silenced cells or SLAMF1lo primary CLL cells were resistant to autophagy-activating therapeutic agents, such as fludarabine and the BCL2 homology domain 3 mimetic ABT-737. Together, these results indicate that loss of SLAMF1 expression in CLL modulates genetic pathways that regulate chemotaxis and autophagy and that potentially affect drug responses, and suggest that these effects underlie unfavorable clinical outcome experienced by SLAMF1lo patients. PMID:26619119

  14. Regulation of actin dynamics by WNT-5A: implications for human airway smooth muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Tim; Kumawat, Kuldeep; Halayko, Andrew J; Gosens, Reinoud

    2016-01-01

    A defining feature of asthma is airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), which underlies the exaggerated bronchoconstriction response of asthmatics. The role of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) in AHR has garnered increasing interest over the years, but how asthmatic ASM differs from healthy ASM is still an active topic of debate. WNT-5A is increasingly expressed in asthmatic ASM and has been linked with Th2-high asthma. Due to its link with calcium and cytoskeletal remodelling, we propose that WNT-5A may modulate ASM contractility. We demonstrated that WNT-5A can increase maximum isometric tension in bovine tracheal smooth muscle strips. In addition, we show that WNT-5A is preferentially expressed in contractile human airway myocytes compared to proliferative cells, suggesting an active role in maintaining contractility. Furthermore, WNT-5A treatment drives actin polymerisation, but has no effect on intracellular calcium flux. Next, we demonstrated that WNT-5A directly regulates TGF-β1-induced expression of α-SMA via ROCK-mediated actin polymerization. These findings suggest that WNT-5A modulates fundamental mechanisms that affect ASM contraction and thus may be of relevance for AHR in asthma. PMID:27468699

  15. Multiple oxygen tension environments reveal diverse patterns of transcriptional regulation in primary astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Chadwick

    Full Text Available The central nervous system normally functions at O(2 levels which would be regarded as hypoxic by most other tissues. However, most in vitro studies of neurons and astrocytes are conducted under hyperoxic conditions without consideration of O(2-dependent cellular adaptation. We analyzed the reactivity of astrocytes to 1, 4 and 9% O(2 tensions compared to the cell culture standard of 20% O(2, to investigate their ability to sense and translate this O(2 information to transcriptional activity. Variance of ambient O(2 tension for rat astrocytes resulted in profound changes in ribosomal activity, cytoskeletal and energy-regulatory mechanisms and cytokine-related signaling. Clustering of transcriptional regulation patterns revealed four distinct response pattern groups that directionally pivoted around the 4% O(2 tension, or demonstrated coherent ascending/decreasing gene expression patterns in response to diverse oxygen tensions. Immune response and cell cycle/cancer-related signaling pathway transcriptomic subsets were significantly activated with increasing hypoxia, whilst hemostatic and cardiovascular signaling mechanisms were attenuated with increasing hypoxia. Our data indicate that variant O(2 tensions induce specific and physiologically-focused transcript regulation patterns that may underpin important physiological mechanisms that connect higher neurological activity to astrocytic function and ambient oxygen environments. These strongly defined patterns demonstrate a strong bias for physiological transcript programs to pivot around the 4% O(2 tension, while uni-modal programs that do not, appear more related to pathological actions. The functional interaction of these transcriptional 'programs' may serve to regulate the dynamic vascular responsivity of the central nervous system during periods of stress or heightened activity.

  16. JNK Signaling: Regulation and Functions Based on Complex Protein-Protein Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeke, András; Misheva, Mariya; Reményi, Attila; Bogoyevitch, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), as members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, mediate eukaryotic cell responses to a wide range of abiotic and biotic stress insults. JNKs also regulate important physiological processes, including neuronal functions, immunological actions, and embryonic development, via their impact on gene expression, cytoskeletal protein dynamics, and cell death/survival pathways. Although the JNK pathway has been under study for >20 years, its complexity is still perplexing, with multiple protein partners of JNKs underlying the diversity of actions. Here we review the current knowledge of JNK structure and isoforms as well as the partnerships of JNKs with a range of intracellular proteins. Many of these proteins are direct substrates of the JNKs. We analyzed almost 100 of these target proteins in detail within a framework of their classification based on their regulation by JNKs. Examples of these JNK substrates include a diverse assortment of nuclear transcription factors (Jun, ATF2, Myc, Elk1), cytoplasmic proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation (DCX, Tau, WDR62) or vesicular transport (JIP1, JIP3), cell membrane receptors (BMPR2), and mitochondrial proteins (Mcl1, Bim). In addition, because upstream signaling components impact JNK activity, we critically assessed the involvement of signaling scaffolds and the roles of feedback mechanisms in the JNK pathway. Despite a clarification of many regulatory events in JNK-dependent signaling during the past decade, many other structural and mechanistic insights are just beginning to be revealed. These advances open new opportunities to understand the role of JNK signaling in diverse physiological and pathophysiological states. PMID:27466283

  17. Proteins involved in platelet signaling are differentially regulated in acute coronary syndrome: a proteomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fernández Parguiña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelets play a fundamental role in pathological events underlying acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Because platelets do not have a nucleus, proteomics constitutes an optimal approach to follow platelet molecular events associated with the onset of the acute episode. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed the first high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteome analysis of circulating platelets from patients with non-ST segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS. Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and validations were by western blotting. Forty protein features (corresponding to 22 unique genes were found to be differentially regulated between NSTE-ACS patients and matched controls with chronic ischemic cardiopathy. The number of differences decreased at day 5 (28 and 6 months after the acute event (5. Interestingly, a systems biology approach demonstrated that 16 of the 22 differentially regulated proteins identified are interconnected as part of a common network related to cell assembly and organization and cell morphology, processes very related to platelet activation. Indeed, 14 of those proteins are either signaling or cytoskeletal, and nine of them are known to participate in platelet activation by αIIbβ3 and/or GPVI receptors. Several of the proteins identified participate in platelet activation through post-translational modifications, as shown here for ILK, Src and Talin. Interestingly, the platelet-secreted glycoprotein SPARC was down-regulated in NSTE-ACS patients compared to stable controls, which is consistent with a secretion process from activated platelets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provides novel information on platelet proteome changes associated with platelet activation in NSTE-ACS, highlighting the presence of proteins involved in platelet signaling. This investigation paves the way for future studies in the search for novel platelet-related biomarkers and drug targets

  18. Regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caen, J P; Han, Z C; Bellucci, S; Alemany, M

    1999-09-01

    After 35 years of research, a physiological regulator of platelet production has been identified and the recombinant protein is available. With the discovery of thrombopoietin (TPO), its potential use in a wide variety of clinical megakaryocytic and platelet disorders has been expected and clinical trials have been undertaken. To date, the reported encouraging pre-clinical studies indicate that, as with erythropoietin or G-CSF, minimal toxicity can be expected. A potential limiting side-effect of TPO could be the induction of thrombosis. Nevertheless, it is too early to know whether this cytokine will be of major therapeutic importance for patients with life-threatening thrombocytopenia, such as patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation or subjected to a high dose of chemotherapy. Several experimental and clinical studies are still needed to determine the efficacy of TPO in the prevention or the amelioration of bleeding, which is the ultimate goal for the appropriate use of cytokines with haemostatic benefit. Basic and clinical studies on regulators of megakaryocytopoiesis have rapidly progressed. Now, there is no doubt that some of these regulators are effective in correcting haematopoietic disorders of various aetiologies. Studies on negative regulators not only are important to understand the regulation of megakaryocytopoiesis in normal and pathological states but also have a potential clinical application. Some of these regulators have been shown to be effective in the treatment of essential thrombocythaemia and other myeloproliferative disorders. Platelet factor 4 (PF4) and some other chemokines are also capable of protecting progenitor cells from the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. However, detailed investigations are still required to determine the precise mechanism(s) of action of these regulators and to establish the optimal clinical protocols of negative regulators alone or in association with positive regulators for the treatment of various

  19. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  20. The power of regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slides accompanying a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about regulations affecting the power industry were presented. Issues addressed included customer choice, incentive regulation changes (price-caps, revenue sharing and pricing flexibility), the reactions of Canadian industry to regulatory changes, and anticipated reactions of the financial markets to changes in regulations. The potential effects of competition and changes that will create competition were discussed. The level of readiness of Canadian financial, ownership and regulatory bodies was discussed. The needs and expectations of investors from a new regulatory regime were quesstimated. Possible alternatives to the present regulatory framework were suggested

  1. Fusion-related host proteins are actively regulated by NA during influenza infection as revealed by quantitative proteomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Sui

    Full Text Available Three recombinant influenza A viruses with different neuraminidases (NAs in the background of A/PR/8/34 (PR8, named rPR8-H5N1NA, rPR8-H9N2NA, and rPR8-H1N1NA, derived from H5N1, H9N2, H1N1 (swine viruses, respectively, were constructed. We performed a quantitative proteomics analysis to investigate differential protein expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells infected with recombinant and wild-type influenza viruses to determine whether NA replacement would alter host cell gene expression. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, we identified 12 up-regulated and 49 down-regulated protein spots, including cytoskeletal proteins, molecular biosynthesis proteins, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway proteins, and heat shock proteins. The most significant changes in infected cells were observed for molecular biosynthesis proteins. We found more differentially expressed protein spots in cells infected with rPR8-H5N1NA or rPR8-H9N2NA viruses than cells infected with wild-type virus. Many of those proteins are postulated to be involved in cell-cell fusion, but the full mechanism remains to be explored. Meanwhile, our data demonstrate that the wild-type virus has evolutionary advantages over recombinant viruses.

  2. Fluvastatin mediated breast cancer cell death: a proteomic approach to identify differentially regulated proteins in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantha Koteswararao Kanugula

    Full Text Available Statins are increasingly being recognized as anti-cancer agents against various cancers including breast cancer. To understand the molecular pathways targeted by fluvastatin and its differential sensitivity against metastatic breast cancer cells, we analyzed protein alterations in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with fluvastatin using 2-DE in combination with LC-MS/MS. Results revealed dys-regulation of 39 protein spots corresponding to 35 different proteins. To determine the relevance of altered protein profiles with breast cancer cell death, we mapped these proteins to major pathways involved in the regulation of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cell cycle, Rho GDI and proteasomal pathways using IPA analysis. Highly interconnected sub networks showed that vimentin and ERK1/2 proteins play a central role in controlling the expression of altered proteins. Fluvastatin treatment caused proteolysis of vimentin, a marker of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. This effect of fluvastatin was reversed in the presence of mevalonate, a downstream product of HMG-CoA and caspase-3 inhibitor. Interestingly, fluvastatin neither caused an appreciable cell death nor did modulate vimentin expression in normal mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, fluvastatin alters levels of cytoskeletal proteins, primarily targeting vimentin through increased caspase-3- mediated proteolysis, thereby suggesting a role for vimentin in statin-induced breast cancer cell death.

  3. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  4. Regulating deregulated energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North American gas and electricity markets are fast evolving, and regulators are currently faced with a host of issues such as market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, and incentive regulation are surfacing as a result of deregulation. The regulatory environment in Ontario was reviewed by the author. Deregulated markets rule, from commodities to gas and electricity. Additionally, there is an evolution of traditional utility regulation. A look at deregulated markets revealed that there are regulations on boundary conditions on the deregulated market. Under the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), all generators, transmitters, distributors, and retailers of electricity must be licensed. The standard supply service (SSS) offered by electricity distributors and system gas which is still being sold by natural gas distributors continues to be regulated by OEB. One issue that was addressed was separation for revenues and costs of the utility's purchase and sale of gas business, at least for accounting purposes. The next issue discussed was cost of system gas and SSS, followed by timely signals and prudent incurred costs. Historical benefits were reviewed, such as historical commitments to low-cost electricity. Pooling transportation costs, transmission pricing continued, market-based rates, unbundling, stranded costs, open access, incentive regulation/ performance based regulation (PBR) were all discussed. Price cap on PBR, both partial and comprehensive were looked at. A requirement to review guidelines on cost of capital and an application to extend blanket approval provisions for gas storage were discussed, as they are amongst some of the challenges of the future. Other challenges include revised rules and practice and procedure; practice directions for cost awards, appeals, and other functions; confidentiality guidelines; and refinements to the role of and approaches to alternative dispute resolution. The future role of regulators was examined in light

  5. Optimal Regulation of Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    Pagano, Marco; Immordino, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    We study regulation of the auditing profession in a model where audit quality is unobservable and enforcing regulation is costly. The optimal audit standard falls short of the first-best audit quality, and is increasing in the riskiness of firms and in the amount of funding they seek. The model can encompass collusion between clients and auditors, arising from the joint provision of auditing and consulting services: deflecting collusion requires less ambitious standards. Finally, banning the ...

  6. Financial Regulation Going Forward

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin Allen; Elena Carletti

    2010-01-01

    The financial sector is heavily regulated in order to prevent financial crises. The recent crisis showed how ineffective this regulation and other types of government intervention were in achieving this aim. We argue that the crisis was primarily caused by housing price bubbles. These occurred because of too loose monetary policies and the easy availability of credit resulting from the build up of large foreign exchange reserves by Asian central banks. A number of regulatory reforms are sugge...

  7. Regulating energy industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of sector-based regulation takes on significant importance in the context of market liberalization. The overall aim is to conciliate, in the considered sector, fair competition with the achievement of public service missions. However, the nature of the authority in charge of this regulation is not prone to harmonized clauses, even in Europe. For electricity for example, the 96/92/CE directive of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the inner electricity market, does not state this and Germany, which has not designed any sector-based regulator, applies the general procedure of litigation settlement by the equivalent of the competition Council. In France, the law Nr 2000-108 of 10 February 2000 defines the CRE (Electricity Regulation Commission) is article 28 as including six members, three of which are appointed by Government and the three others respectively by each of the presidents of the parliamentary assemblies. Many other countries have made the same choice. However, the scope of the missions given to these specialized authorities varies considerably according to the country. At European level, what are the different models of organisation of sector-based regulation in the energy field? How are the new regulators organised in relation with the competition authorities? Will the new models converge on the medium term or on the long term? Must we anticipate the creation of European regulation authorities to rule the problems concerning several national markets? What can we learn from the recent electricity crisis in California? To try and answer these questions, Mr Michel Matheu presented a European comparative study and before the debate started, Mr Pierre Couveinhes suggested a reflection on the practical implications of the analyses carried out. (authors)

  8. Nuclear regulation in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed. (author)

  9. Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Hans P

    2002-01-01

    Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in the 1960s, regulations have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the harmful effects of mycotoxins that may contaminate foodstuffs. Various factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors such as the availability of toxicological data, survey data, knowledge about the distribution of mycotoxins in commodities, and analytical methodology. Economical and political factors such as commercial interests and sufficiency of food supply have their impact as well. International enquiry's on existing mycotoxin legislation in foodstuffs and animal feedstuffs have been carried out several times in the 1980s and 1990s and details about tolerances, legal basis, responsible authorities, official protocols of analysis and sampling have been published. Recently a comprehensive update on worldwide regulations was published as FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 64. It appeared that at least 77 countries now have specific regulations for mycotoxins, 13 countries are known to have no specific regulations, whereas no data are available for about 50 countries, many of them in Africa. Over the years, a large diversity in tolerance levels for mycotoxins has remained. Some free trade zones (EU, MERCOSUR) are in the process of harmonizing the limits and regulations for mycotoxins in their respective member states, but it is not likely that worldwide harmonized limits for mycotoxins will soon be within reach.

  10. Effect of HIV-1gp41 ectodomain on Cryptococcus neoformans-induced cytoskeletal changes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells%HIV-1gp41胞外域对新生隐球菌致人脑微血管内皮细胞骨架改变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙敏; 曹虹; Ambrose Jong

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain (gp41-I90) on the cytoskeletal changes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) induced by Cryptococcus neoformans. Methods HBMECs were cultured on collagen-coated chamber slide or transwell to allow the formation of cell monolayers. After pre-treatment with gp41-I90 and infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, the HBMECs were examined for the expression of actin or filamin by immunofluorescence assay. HRP permeability of the HBMECs treated with gp41-I90 was detected by ELISA. Transcytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans through the gp41-I90-treated HBMECs was detected by direct counting from a hemocytometer. Results gp41-I90 obviously enhanced the cytoskeletal changes of the HBMECs infected by Cryptococcus neoformans, causing curved and sparse filamentous arrangement of actin and filamin. Gp41-I90 treatment also resulted in obviously increased HRP permeability of the cells and transcytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Conclusion gp41-190 enhances Cryptococcus neoformans binding to HBMECs, which is related to its effect in enhancing Cryptococcus neoformans-induced cytoskeletal changes of the cells.%目的 探讨HIV-1 gp41胞外域gp41-I90肽对新生隐球菌致人脑微血管内皮细胞骨架改变的影响.方法 以人脑微血管内皮细胞作为体外血脑屏障模型,在细胞培养玻片或transwell小室上长成单层,用HIV-1 gp41-I90预处理后,再用新生隐球菌感染细胞单层,免疫荧光方法检测细胞骨架蛋白actin(肌动蛋白)和filamin(肌动蛋白连接蛋白)的形态变化,并测定gp41-I90处理的人脑微血管内皮细胞单层对辣根过氧化物酶和新生隐球菌的通过率.结果 gp41-I90能明显增强新生隐球菌所致的人脑微血管内皮细胞骨架蛋白actin和filamin的改变,actin和filamin的丝状排列扭曲,纹理稀疏;gp41-I90处理的人脑微血管内皮细胞单层通透性增强,对辣根过氧化物酶和新生隐球菌的

  11. The NAV2 homolog Sickie regulates F-actin-mediated axonal growth in Drosophila mushroom body neurons via the non-canonical Rac-Cofilin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Murakami, Satoshi; Hiroi, Makoto; Nitta, Yohei; Maeyama, Yuko; Tabata, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    The Rac-Cofilin pathway is essential for cytoskeletal remodeling to control axonal development. Rac signals through the canonical Rac-Pak-LIMK pathway to suppress Cofilin-dependent axonal growth and through a Pak-independent non-canonical pathway to promote outgrowth. Whether this non-canonical pathway converges to promote Cofilin-dependent F-actin reorganization in axonal growth remains elusive. We demonstrate that Sickie, a homolog of the human microtubule-associated protein neuron navigator 2, cell-autonomously regulates axonal growth of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons via the non-canonical pathway. Sickie was prominently expressed in the newborn F-actin-rich axons of MB neurons. A sickie mutant exhibited axonal growth defects, and its phenotypes were rescued by exogenous expression of Sickie. We observed phenotypic similarities and genetic interactions among sickie and Rac-Cofilin signaling components. Using the MARCM technique, distinct F-actin and phospho-Cofilin patterns were detected in developing axons mutant for sickie and Rac-Cofilin signaling regulators. The upregulation of Cofilin function alleviated the axonal defect of the sickie mutant. Epistasis analyses revealed that Sickie suppresses the LIMK overexpression phenotype and is required for Pak-independent Rac1 and Slingshot phosphatase to counteract LIMK. We propose that Sickie regulates F-actin-mediated axonal growth via the non-canonical Rac-Cofilin pathway in a Slingshot-dependent manner.

  12. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  13. ANTICIPATING AND REGULATING BIOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Iorga Siman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulating biosystems closely related to human beings are structures still difficult to understand.Numerous intimate processes taking place in these systems, even their actual constitution, are insufficiently decoded, and that they have populated the world long before man invented the first regulator, appears not to have contributed much to their knowledge. This work is intended to highlight what regulating biosystems are.There is no secret that somatic muscles perform control operations which no act of moving would be possible without. All actions are the result of dynamic controlled processes adjusted to strict control laws. By treating them very seriously may lead to knowledge of processes occurring in complex systems

  14. Staff rules and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The 11th edition of the Staff Rules and Regulations, dated 1 January 2007, adopted by the Council and the Finance Committee in December 2006, is currently being distributed to departmental secretariats. The Staff Rules and Regulations, together with a summary of the main modifications made, will be available, as from next week, on the Human Resources Department's intranet site: http://cern.ch/hr-web/internal/admin_services/rules/default.asp The main changes made to the Staff Rules and Regulations stem from the five-yearly review of employment conditions of members of the personnel. The changes notably relate to: the categories of members of the personnel (e.g. removal of the local staff category); the careers structure and the merit recognition system; the non-residence, installation and re-installation allowances; the definition of family, family allowances and family-related leave; recognition of partnerships; education fees. The administrative circulars, some of which are being revised following the ...

  15. Environmentally regulated aerospace coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Virginia L.

    1995-01-01

    Aerospace coatings represent a complex technology which must meet stringent performance requirements in the protection of aerospace vehicles. Topcoats and primers are used, primarily, to protect the structural elements of the air vehicle from exposure to and subsequent degradation by environmental elements. There are also many coatings which perform special functions, i.e., chafing resistance, rain erosion resistance, radiation and electric effects, fuel tank coatings, maskants, wire and fastener coatings. The scheduled promulgation of federal environmental regulations for aerospace manufacture and rework materials and processes will regulate the emissions of photochemically reactive precursors to smog and air toxics. Aerospace organizations will be required to identify, qualify and implement less polluting materials. The elimination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's) and implementation of pollution prevention requirements are added constraints which must be addressed concurrently. The broad categories of operations affected are the manufacture, operation, maintenance, and repair of military, commercial, general aviation, and space vehicles. The federal aerospace regulations were developed around the precept that technology had to be available to support the reduction of organic and air toxic emissions, i.e., the regulations cannot be technology forcing. In many cases, the regulations which are currently in effect in the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), located in Southern California, were used as the baseline for the federal regulations. This paper addresses strategies used by Southern California aerospace organizations to cope with these regulatory impacts on aerospace productions programs. All of these regulatory changes are scheduled for implementation in 1993 and 1994, with varying compliance dates established.

  16. Regulation as Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Györy, Csaba

    This paper analyses the way regulatory agencies strategically use public ‘rhetoric’ and ‘management of appearance’ to strengthen their regulation. It reports a comparative study of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) which is the US federal securities regulator and the Danish Tax and...... environment, these two agencies apply strategies that appear to be strikingly similar, and these similarities are worth investigating not despite, but exactly because of the differing political and social environment. We track recent shifts in organizational practice at these two agencies and argue that both...

  17. Nuclear regulations and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an historical overview of the nuclear regulation system in Argentina a description is made of the country's Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) and of its regulation and control functions. Its organic structure is also outlined. A detailed report is given of the environmental monitoring activities in the sites of the operating Argentine nuclear power plants as well as those of the nuclear research centres. A special reference is made of the monitoring of the relevant uranium mining districts in Argentina. The radon determination in houses of several regions of the country is also mentioned

  18. Regulated underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance package is designed to assist DOE Field operations by providing thorough guidance on the underground storage tank (UST) regulations. [40 CFR 280]. The guidance uses tables, flowcharts, and checklists to provide a ''roadmap'' for DOE staff who are responsible for supervising UST operations. This package is tailored to address the issues facing DOE facilities. DOE staff should use this guidance as: An overview of the regulations for UST installation and operation; a comprehensive step-by-step guidance for the process of owning and operating an UST, from installation to closure; and a quick, ready-reference guide for any specific topic concerning UST ownership or operation

  19. Volume Regulation in Epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    We review studies on regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and regulatory volume increase (RVI) of major ion and water transporting vertebrate epithelia. The rate of RVD and RVI is faster in cells of high osmotic permeability like amphibian gallbladder and mammalian proximal tubule as compared...... to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...

  20. Cyberplagiarism in University Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cavanillas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the legal framework for plagiarism, and its twofold nature of illicit appropriation (from the author of the plagiarized work and fraud (with regard to the target audience of the plagiarism. Based on these premises, academic cyberplagiarism is analysed as a form of plagiarism carried out using electronic tools in the university setting. The question of responsibility (who can regulate the legal consequences of plagiarism? before and after the Ley Orgánica de Universidades (organic law on universities, LOU is studied, as is the disciplinary handling of cyberplagiarism with the limited regulations currently in place at universities.

  1. Regulation, Competition, and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mian Muhammad Javed

    2002-01-01

    You know it is very hard after the Governor, State Bank, to make a presentation but I will try to do it in a very mundane way. You know the Regulatory Bodies specially in the Economic Sector in recent times. There has been a sort of resurgence, leaving aside the regulation of the financial sector, which has been doing very well. Our old memory of regulation is not so pleasant. Long ago, there used to be a transport Authority which used to dole out “Route Permits” as political favours, and the...

  2. Proteomic profiling in Drosophila reveals potential Dube3a regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and neuronal homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jensen

    Full Text Available The molecular defects associated with Angelman syndrome (AS and 15q duplication autism are directly correlated to expression levels of the E3 ubiquitin ligase protein UBE3A. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster to screen for the targets of this ubiquitin ligase under conditions of both decreased (as in AS or increased (as in dup(15 levels of the fly Dube3a or human UBE3A proteins. Using liquid phase isoelectric focusing of proteins from whole fly head extracts we identified a total of 50 proteins that show changes in protein, and in some cases transcriptional levels, when Dube3a fluctuates. We analyzed head extracts from cytoplasmic, nuclear and membrane fractions for Dube3a regulated proteins. Our results indicate that Dube3a is involved in the regulation of cellular functions related to ATP synthesis/metabolism, actin cytoskeletal integrity, both catabolism and carbohydrate metabolism as well as nervous system development and function. Sixty-two percent of the proteins were >50% identical to homologous human proteins and 8 have previously be shown to be ubiquitinated in the fly nervous system. Eight proteins may be regulated by Dube3a at the transcript level through the transcriptional co-activation function of Dube3a. We investigated one autism-associated protein, ATPα, and found that it can be ubiquitinated in a Dube3a dependent manner. We also found that Dube3a mutants have significantly less filamentous actin than wild type larvae consistent with the identification of actin targets regulated by Dube3a. The identification of UBE3A targets is the first step in unraveling the molecular etiology of AS and duplication 15q autism.

  3. The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durosinmi, Brenda Braxton

    2011-01-01

    The Impact of Regulating Social Science Research with Biomedical Regulations Since 1974 Federal regulations have governed the use of human subjects in biomedical and social science research. The regulations are known as the Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, and often referred to as the "Common Rule" because 18 Federal…

  4. Ezrin mediates neuritogenesis via down-regulation of RhoA activity in cultured cortical neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphogenesis is implicated in neuronal function and development with rearrangement of cytoskeletal organization. Ezrin, a member of Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin (ERM proteins links between membrane proteins and actin cytoskeleton, and contributes to maintenance of cellular function and morphology. In cultured hippocampal neurons, suppression of both radixin and moesin showed deficits in growth cone morphology and neurite extensions. Down-regulation of ezrin using siRNA caused impairment of netrin-1-induced axon outgrowth in cultured cortical neurons. However, roles of ezrin in the neuronal morphogenesis of the cultured neurons have been poorly understood. In this report, we performed detailed studies on the roles of ezrin in the cultured cortical neurons prepared from the ezrin knockdown (Vil2(kd/kd mice embryo that showed a very small amount of ezrin expression compared with the wild-type (Vil2(+/+ neurons. Ezrin was mainly expressed in cell body in the cultured cortical neurons. We demonstrated that the cultured cortical neurons prepared from the Vil2(kd/kd mice embryo exhibited impairment of neuritogenesis. Moreover, we observed increased RhoA activity and phosphorylation of myosin light chain 2 (MLC2, as a downstream effector of RhoA in the Vil2(kd/kd neurons. In addition, inhibition of Rho kinase and myosin II rescued the impairment of neuritogenesis in the Vil2(kd/kd neurons. These data altogether suggest a novel role of ezrin in the neuritogenesis of the cultured cortical neurons through down-regulation of RhoA activity.

  5. Nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Departmental Rules and The Safety Guides were issued by the NNSA in 1998. The NNSA performed the activities of propagation and implementation of nuclear safety regulations at QTNPP in order to improve the nuclear safety culture of operating organization and construct and contract organizations

  6. Situated bio-regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prainsack, Barbara; Wahlberg, Ayo

    2013-01-01

    Several years ago, both authors engaged in research into bioscience and biomedical regulation in Asian countries. One of us (BP) explored why the regulatory and discursive embedding of human embryonic stem cell in Israel was much more permissive than elsewhere. The other author (AW) sought to und...

  7. Regulating the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Byron

    2007-01-01

    The Internet's breakthrough to primetime usage beginning in the mid-1990s evolved in an era of openness. Unfettered access seemed key to Internet development. An important foundation for the 1996 Telecommunications Act was the theory that the telecom industry would work best if it were free of government regulation, a guiding principle that has…

  8. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max;

    2016-01-01

    instruments. However, solving the open-access externality problem also affects CO2 emissions. By using a bio-economic model covering Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands, it is shown that regulations of the open-access externality problem have a large effect on both economic performance...

  9. Jordan Corporate Governance Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Institute of Directors

    2013-01-01

    As the importance of Corporate Governance increases, an awareness and understanding of the different relevant regulations becomes of paramount value. The importance and value of Corporate Governance is not the core of this publication. The publication is built around the premise that Corporate Governance is important and increasingly becoming of significant importance for growth, continued...

  10. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  11. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  12. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  13. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    expressed ICl, swell will decrease proliferation in several cell types, including Ehrlich cells. A differentiated expression of ICl, swell in the cell cycle has been described in different cell types indicating a regulating role. In Ehrlich Lettré ascites (ELA) cells we suggest the differentiated expression...

  14. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  15. International telecommunications market regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2001-01-01

    On 23 February 1999 the Assistant Treasurer referred international telecommunic-ations market regulation for inquiry and report within six months. The report focused on the reform of international telecommunications markets, in particular on the payment arrangements between providers of international telecommunications services.

  16. Regulation of Energy Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.

    1985-01-01

    Explains relationships between energy intake and expenditure focusing on the cellular, chemical and neural mechanisms involved in regulation of energy balance. Information is referenced specifically to conditions of obesity. (Physicians may earn continuing education credit by completing an appended test). (ML)

  17. Genetic and systems level analysis of Drosophila sticky/citron kinase and dFmr1 mutants reveals common regulation of genetic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarnescu Daniela C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila, the genes sticky and dFmr1 have both been shown to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and chromatin structure. These genes also genetically interact with Argonaute family microRNA regulators. Furthermore, in mammalian systems, both genes have been implicated in neuronal development. Given these genetic and functional similarities, we tested Drosophila sticky and dFmr1 for a genetic interaction and measured whole genome expression in both mutants to assess similarities in gene regulation. Results We found that sticky mutations can dominantly suppress a dFmr1 gain-of-function phenotype in the developing eye, while phenotypes produced by RNAi knock-down of sticky were enhanced by dFmr1 RNAi and a dFmr1 loss-of-function mutation. We also identified a large number of transcripts that were misexpressed in both mutants suggesting that sticky and dFmr1 gene products similarly regulate gene expression. By integrating gene expression data with a protein-protein interaction network, we found that mutations in sticky and dFmr1 resulted in misexpression of common gene networks, and consequently predicted additional specific phenotypes previously not known to be associated with either gene. Further phenotypic analyses validated these predictions. Conclusion These findings establish a functional link between two previously unrelated genes. Microarray analysis indicates that sticky and dFmr1 are both required for regulation of many developmental genes in a variety of cell types. The diversity of transcripts regulated by these two genes suggests a clear cause of the pleiotropy that sticky and dFmr1 mutants display and provides many novel, testable hypotheses about the functions of these genes. As both of these genes are implicated in the development and function of the mammalian brain, these results have relevance to human health as well as to understanding more general biological processes.

  18. Regulating the private security industry

    CERN Document Server

    Percy, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The under-regulation of the private security industry has increasingly become a topic of media and academic interest. This Adelphi Paper enters the debate by explaining why the industry requires further regulation, and what is wrong with the current system. It begins by briefly defining the industry and explaining the need for more effective regulation, before analysing three types of regulation: domestic, international and informal (including self-regulation).

  19. Markets, religion, regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    of regulation, certification and standardization on a global scale. Building on research on global kosher (a Hebrew term meaning “fit” or “proper”), halal (an Arabic word that literally means “permissible” or “lawful”) and Hindu vegetarianism this paper argues that these economies or markets to a large extent...... are conditioned by and themselves condition forms of transnational governmentality, that is, new and often overlapping practices of government and grassroots politics. I explore religious economies and markets at three interrelated levels of the social scale: state and non-state regulation, the marketplace......Most recent scholarship on moral economies or religious markets argues for the compatibility of economies/markets and religious practices in particular national or regional contexts. However, over the last couple of decades or so religious markets have entered a new phase characterized by new forms...

  20. Regulation of Meiotic Recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory p. Copenhaver

    2011-11-09

    Meiotic recombination results in the heritable rearrangement of DNA, primarily through reciprocal exchange between homologous chromosome or gene conversion. In plants these events are critical for ensuring proper chromosome segregation, facilitating DNA repair and providing a basis for genetic diversity. Understanding this fundamental biological mechanism will directly facilitate trait mapping, conventional plant breeding, and development of genetic engineering techniques that will help support the responsible production and conversion of renewable resources for fuels, chemicals, and the conservation of energy (1-3). Substantial progress has been made in understanding the basal recombination machinery, much of which is conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast, plants and mammals (4, 5). Significantly less is known about the factors that regulate how often and where that basal machinery acts on higher eukaryotic chromosomes. One important mechanism for regulating the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination is crossover interference - or the ability of one recombination event to influence nearby events. The MUS81 gene is thought to play an important role in regulating the influence of interference on crossing over. The immediate goals of this project are to use reverse genetics to identify mutants in two putative MUS81 homologs in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, characterize those mutants and initiate a novel forward genetic screen for additional regulators of meiotic recombination. The long-term goal of the project is to understand how meiotic recombination is regulated in higher eukaryotes with an emphasis on the molecular basis of crossover interference. The ability to monitor recombination in all four meiotic products (tetrad analysis) has been a powerful tool in the arsenal of yeast geneticists. Previously, the qrt mutant of Arabidopsis, which causes the four pollen products of male meiosis to remain attached, was developed as a facile system