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Sample records for ck2 phosphorylation-dependent interaction

  1. Interaction between CK2α and CK2β, the Subunits of Protein Kinase CK2: Thermodynamic Contributions of Key Residues on the CK2α Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, J; Bischoff, N; Kloppfleisch, K

    2011-01-01

    that Leu41 or Phe54 single mutations were most disruptive to binding of CK2β. Additionally, these CK2α mutants retained their kinase activity. Furthermore, the substitution of Leu41 in combination with Phe54 showed that the individual mutations were not additive, suggesting that the cooperative action...

  2. Stress-induced activation of protein kinase CK2 by direct interaction with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sayed, M; Kim, S O; Salh, B S

    2000-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 has been implicated in the regulation of a wide range of proteins that are important in cell proliferation and differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the stress signaling agents anisomycin, arsenite, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulate the specific enzyme activity of CK2...... in the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by up to 8-fold, and this could be blocked by the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. We show that p38alpha MAP kinase, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, can directly interact with the alpha and beta subunits of CK2 to activate the holoenzyme through what appears...

  3. Development of a high-throughput screening-compatible assay to identify inhibitors of the CK2alpha/CK2beta interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochscherf, Jennifer; Lindenblatt, Dirk; Steinkrueger, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Increased activity of protein kinase CK2 is associated with various types of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and chronic inflammation. In the search for CK2 inhibitors, attention has expanded toward compounds disturbing the interaction between CK2alpha and CK2beta in addition to established a...

  4. The interaction of CK2alpha and CK2beta, the subunits of protein kinase CK2, requires CK2beta in a preformed conformation and is enthalpically driven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Brunstein, Elena; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    . In contrast to the cyclins in the case of the cyclin-dependent kinases CK2beta is no on-switch of CK2alpha; rather the formation of the CK2 holoenzyme is accompanied with an overall change of the enzyme's profile including a modulation of the substrate specificity, an increase of the thermostability......, and an allocation of docking sites for membranes and other proteins. In this study we used C-terminal deletion variants of human CK2alpha and CK2beta that were enzymologically fully competent and in particular able to form a heterotetrameric holoenzyme. With differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) we confirmed...

  5. Biophysical characterization of the structural change of Nopp140, an intrinsically disordered protein, in the interaction with CK2α

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Won-Kyu; Kim, Yuyoung; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Song, Seung Soo; Cha, Sun-Shin; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140) is a nucleolar protein, more than 80% of which is disordered. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Nopp140 (residues 568–596) interacts with protein kinase CK2α, and inhibits the catalytic activity of CK2. Although the region of Nopp140 responsible for the interaction with CK2α was identified, the structural features and the effect of this interaction on the structure of Nopp140 have not been defined due to the difficulty of structural characterization of disordered protein. In this study, the disordered feature of Nopp140 and the effect of CK2α on the structure of Nopp140 were examined using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The interaction with CK2α was increased conformational rigidity of the CK2α-interacting region of Nopp140 (Nopp140C), suggesting that the disordered and flexible conformation of Nopp140C became more rigid conformation as it binds to CK2α. In addition, site specific spin labeling and EPR analysis confirmed that the residues 574–589 of Nopp140 are critical for binding to CK2α. Similar technical approaches can be applied to analyze the conformational changes in other IDPs during their interactions with binding partners. - Highlights: • Nopp140 is intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). • Conformation of Nopp140 became more rigid conformation due to interaction with CK2α. • smFRET and EPR could be applied to analyze the structural changes of IDPs.

  6. Biophysical characterization of the structural change of Nopp140, an intrinsically disordered protein, in the interaction with CK2α

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jung-Hyun [Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Kyu [Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yuyoung; Jeong, Cherlhyun [Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung Soo [Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Sun-Shin [Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Kyou-Hoon [Division of Biosystems Research, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yeon-Kyun [Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Yu, Yeon Gyu, E-mail: ygyu@kookmin.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Kookmin University, Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-19

    Nucleolar phosphoprotein 140 (Nopp140) is a nucleolar protein, more than 80% of which is disordered. Previous studies have shown that the C-terminal region of Nopp140 (residues 568–596) interacts with protein kinase CK2α, and inhibits the catalytic activity of CK2. Although the region of Nopp140 responsible for the interaction with CK2α was identified, the structural features and the effect of this interaction on the structure of Nopp140 have not been defined due to the difficulty of structural characterization of disordered protein. In this study, the disordered feature of Nopp140 and the effect of CK2α on the structure of Nopp140 were examined using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The interaction with CK2α was increased conformational rigidity of the CK2α-interacting region of Nopp140 (Nopp140C), suggesting that the disordered and flexible conformation of Nopp140C became more rigid conformation as it binds to CK2α. In addition, site specific spin labeling and EPR analysis confirmed that the residues 574–589 of Nopp140 are critical for binding to CK2α. Similar technical approaches can be applied to analyze the conformational changes in other IDPs during their interactions with binding partners. - Highlights: • Nopp140 is intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). • Conformation of Nopp140 became more rigid conformation due to interaction with CK2α. • smFRET and EPR could be applied to analyze the structural changes of IDPs.

  7. Fas-associated factor 1 interacts with protein kinase CK2 in vivo upon apoptosis induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    2001-01-01

    We show here that in several different cell lines protein kinase CK2 and Fas-associated factor 1 (FAF1) exist together in a complex which is stable to high monovalent salt concentration. The CK2/FAF1 complex formation is significantly increased after induction of apoptosis with various DNA damaging...

  8. A-Raf kinase is a new interacting partner of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1997-01-01

    In a search for protein kinase CK2 beta subunit binding proteins using the two-hybrid system, more than 1000 positive clones were isolated. Beside clones for the alpha' and beta subunit of CK2, there were clones coding for a so far unknown protein, whose partial cDNA sequence was already deposited...

  9. A subnanomolar fluorescent probe for protein kinase CK2 interaction studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkvist, Erki; Viht, Kaido; Bischoff, Nils

    2012-01-01

    of the functions of CK2 could be facilitated by the application of small-molecule fluorescent probes that bind to the active site of the enzyme with high affinity and selectivity. We have used a bisubstrate approach for the development of a highly potent inhibitor of CK2. 4,5,6,7-Tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole...

  10. The Drosophila melanogaster DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for functionally non-redundant protein isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Eike; Wecklein, Heike; Stark, Felix; Jauch, Mandy; Raabe, Thomas

    2006-06-07

    Genes encoding for the two evolutionary highly conserved subunits of a heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme are present in all examined eukaryotic genomes. Depending on the organism, multiple transcription units encoding for a catalytically active CK2alpha subunit and/or a regulatory CK2beta subunit may exist. The phosphotransferase activity of members of the protein kinase CK2alpha family is thought to be independent of second messengers but is modulated by interaction with CK2beta-like proteins. In the genome of Drosophila melanogaster, one gene encoding for a CK2alpha subunit and three genes encoding for CK2beta-like proteins are present. The X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit encodes for several CK2beta protein isoforms due to alternative splicing of its primary transcript. We addressed the question whether CK2beta-like proteins are redundant in function. Our in vivo experiments show that variations of the very C-terminal tail of CK2beta isoforms encoded by the X-linked DmCK2beta transcription unit influence their functional properties. In addition, we find that CK2beta-like proteins encoded by the autosomal D. melanogaster genes CK2betates and CK2beta' cannot fully substitute for a loss of CK2beta isoforms encoded by DmCK2beta.

  11. In Search of Small Molecule Inhibitors Targeting the Flexible CK2 Subunit Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Bestgen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic (α and/or α’ subunits and two regulatory (β subunits. Crystallographic data paired with fluorescence imaging techniques have suggested that the formation of the CK2 holoenzyme complex within cells is a dynamic process. Although the monomeric CK2α subunit is endowed with a constitutive catalytic activity, many of the plethora of CK2 substrates are exclusively phosphorylated by the CK2 holoenzyme. This means that the spatial and high affinity interaction between CK2α and CK2β subunits is critically important and that its disruption may provide a powerful and selective way to block the phosphorylation of substrates requiring the presence of CK2β. In search of compounds inhibiting this critical protein–protein interaction, we previously designed an active cyclic peptide (Pc derived from the CK2β carboxy-terminal domain that can efficiently antagonize the CK2 subunit interaction. To understand the functional significance of this interaction, we generated cell-permeable versions of Pc, exploring its molecular mechanisms of action and the perturbations of the signaling pathways that it induces in intact cells. The identification of small molecules inhibitors of this critical interaction may represent the first-choice approach to manipulate CK2 in an unconventional way.

  12. Protein kinase CK2 in health and disease: Protein kinase CK2: from structures to insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Raaf, J; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2009-01-01

    the critical region of CK2alpha recruitment is pre-formed in the unbound state. In CK2alpha the activation segment - a key element of protein kinase regulation - adapts invariably the typical conformation of the active enzymes. Recent structures of human CK2alpha revealed a surprising plasticity in the ATP......Within the last decade, 40 crystal structures corresponding to protein kinase CK2 (former name 'casein kinase 2'), to its catalytic subunit CK2alpha and to its regulatory subunit CK2beta were published. Together they provide a valuable, yet by far not complete basis to rationalize the biochemical...

  13. Crystal structure of human protein kinase CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Ermakowa, I

    2001-01-01

    The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 A resolution. In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalyt...... as a docking partner for various protein kinases. Furthermore it shows an inter-domain mobility in the catalytic subunit known to be functionally important in protein kinases and detected here for the first time directly within one crystal structure.......The crystal structure of a fully active form of human protein kinase CK2 (casein kinase 2) consisting of two C-terminally truncated catalytic and two regulatory subunits has been determined at 3.1 A resolution. In the CK2 complex the regulatory subunits form a stable dimer linking the two catalytic...... subunits, which make no direct contact with one another. Each catalytic subunit interacts with both regulatory chains, predominantly via an extended C-terminal tail of the regulatory subunit. The CK2 structure is consistent with its constitutive activity and with a flexible role of the regulatory subunit...

  14. CK2 Secreted by Leishmania braziliensis Mediates Macrophage Association Invasion: A Comparative Study between Virulent and Avirulent Promastigotes

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    Ana Madeira Brito Zylbersztejn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CK2 is a protein kinase distributed in different compartments of Leishmania braziliensis: an externally oriented ecto-CK2, an intracellular CK2, and a secreted CK2. This latter form is constitutively secreted from the parasite (CsCK2, but such secretion may be highly enhanced by the association of specific molecules, including enzyme substrates, which lead to a higher enzymatic activity, called inductively secreted CK2 (IsCK2. Here, we examined the influence of secreted CK2 (sCK2 activity on the infectivity of a virulent L. braziliensis strain. The virulent strain presented 121-fold higher total CK2 activity than those found in an avirulent strain. The use of specific CK2 inhibitors (TBB, DRB, or heparin inhibited virulent parasite growth, whereas no effect was observed in the avirulent parasites. When these inhibitors were added to the interaction assays between the virulent L. braziliensis strain and macrophages, association index was drastically inhibited. Polyamines enhanced sCK2 activity and increased the association index between parasites and macrophages. Finally, sCK2 and the supernatant of the virulent strain increased the association index between the avirulent strain and macrophages, which was inhibited by TBB. Thus, the kinase enzyme CK2 seems to be important to invasion mechanisms of L. braziliensis.

  15. Protein kinase CK2 in human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Barbara; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. There are two paralog catalytic subunits, i.e. alpha (A1) and alpha' (A2). The alpha and alpha' subunits are linked to two beta subunits to produce a heterotetrameric structure...

  16. Cancer-type dependent expression of CK2 transcripts.

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    Melissa M J Chua

    Full Text Available A multitude of proteins are aberrantly expressed in cancer cells, including the oncogenic serine-threonine kinase CK2. In a previous report, we found increases in CK2 transcript expression that could explain the increased CK2 protein levels found in tumors from lung and bronchus, prostate, breast, colon and rectum, ovarian and pancreatic cancers. We also found that, contrary to the current notions about CK2, some CK2 transcripts were downregulated in several cancers. Here, we investigate all other cancers using Oncomine to determine whether they also display significant CK2 transcript dysregulation. As anticipated from our previous analysis, we found cancers with all CK2 transcripts upregulated (e.g. cervical, and cancers where there was a combination of upregulation and/or downregulation of the CK2 transcripts (e.g. sarcoma. Unexpectedly, we found some cancers with significant downregulation of all CK2 transcripts (e.g. testicular cancer. We also found that, in some cases, CK2 transcript levels were already dysregulated in benign lesions (e.g. Barrett's esophagus. We also found that CK2 transcript upregulation correlated with lower patient survival in most cases where data was significant. However, there were two cancer types, glioblastoma and renal cell carcinoma, where CK2 transcript upregulation correlated with higher survival. Overall, these data show that the expression levels of CK2 genes is highly variable in cancers and can lead to different patient outcomes.

  17. Drosophila Protein Kinase CK2: Genetics, Regulatory Complexity and Emerging Roles during Development

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    Mohna Bandyopadhyay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase that is highly conserved amongst all eukaryotes. It is a well-known oncogenic kinase that regulates vital cell autonomous functions and animal development. Genetic studies in the fruit fly Drosophila are providing unique insights into the roles of CK2 in cell signaling, embryogenesis, organogenesis, neurogenesis, and the circadian clock, and are revealing hitherto unknown complexities in CK2 functions and regulation. Here, we review Drosophila CK2 with respect to its structure, subunit diversity, potential mechanisms of regulation, developmental abnormalities linked to mutations in the gene encoding CK2 subunits, and emerging roles in multiple aspects of eye development. We examine the Drosophila CK2interaction map” and the eye-specific “transcriptome” databases, which raise the prospect that this protein kinase has many additional targets in the developing eye. We discuss the possibility that CK2 functions during early retinal neurogenesis in Drosophila and mammals bear greater similarity than has been recognized, and that this conservation may extend to other developmental programs. Together, these studies underscore the immense power of the Drosophila model organism to provide new insights and avenues to further investigate developmentally relevant targets of this protein kinase.

  18. RP1 is a phosphorylation target of CK2 and is involved in cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Frank; Liewen, Heike; Göttig, Stephan; Henschler, Reinhard; Markuly, Norbert; Kleber, Sascha; Faust, Michael; Mischo, Axel; Bauer, Stefan; Zweifel, Martin; Knuth, Alexander; Renner, Christoph; Wadle, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    RP1 (synonym: MAPRE2, EB2) is a member of the microtubule binding EB1 protein family, which interacts with APC, a key regulatory molecule in the Wnt signalling pathway. While the other EB1 proteins are well characterized the cellular function and regulation of RP1 remain speculative to date. However, recently RP1 has been implicated in pancreatic cancerogenesis. CK2 is a pleiotropic kinase involved in adhesion, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. Overexpression of protein kinase CK2 is a hallmark of many cancers and supports the malignant phenotype of tumor cells. In this study we investigate the interaction of protein kinase CK2 with RP1 and demonstrate that CK2 phosphorylates RP1 at Ser(236) in vitro. Stable RP1 expression in cell lines leads to a significant cleavage and down-regulation of N-cadherin and impaired adhesion. Cells expressing a Phospho-mimicking point mutant RP1-ASP(236) show a marked decrease of adhesion to endothelial cells under shear stress. Inversely, we found that the cells under shear stress downregulate endogenous RP1, most likely to improve cellular adhesion. Accordingly, when RP1 expression is suppressed by shRNA, cells lacking RP1 display significantly increased cell adherence to surfaces. In summary, RP1 phosphorylation at Ser(236) by CK2 seems to play a significant role in cell adhesion and might initiate new insights in the CK2 and EB1 family protein association.

  19. RP1 is a phosphorylation target of CK2 and is involved in cell adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Stenner

    Full Text Available RP1 (synonym: MAPRE2, EB2 is a member of the microtubule binding EB1 protein family, which interacts with APC, a key regulatory molecule in the Wnt signalling pathway. While the other EB1 proteins are well characterized the cellular function and regulation of RP1 remain speculative to date. However, recently RP1 has been implicated in pancreatic cancerogenesis. CK2 is a pleiotropic kinase involved in adhesion, proliferation and anti-apoptosis. Overexpression of protein kinase CK2 is a hallmark of many cancers and supports the malignant phenotype of tumor cells. In this study we investigate the interaction of protein kinase CK2 with RP1 and demonstrate that CK2 phosphorylates RP1 at Ser(236 in vitro. Stable RP1 expression in cell lines leads to a significant cleavage and down-regulation of N-cadherin and impaired adhesion. Cells expressing a Phospho-mimicking point mutant RP1-ASP(236 show a marked decrease of adhesion to endothelial cells under shear stress. Inversely, we found that the cells under shear stress downregulate endogenous RP1, most likely to improve cellular adhesion. Accordingly, when RP1 expression is suppressed by shRNA, cells lacking RP1 display significantly increased cell adherence to surfaces. In summary, RP1 phosphorylation at Ser(236 by CK2 seems to play a significant role in cell adhesion and might initiate new insights in the CK2 and EB1 family protein association.

  20. Peptides derived from human galectin-3 N-terminal tail interact with its carbohydrate recognition domain in a phosphorylation-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbís, M. Álvaro [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); André, Sabine [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, 80539 Munich (Germany); Cañada, F. Javier [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pipkorn, Rüdiger [Central Peptide Synthesis Unit, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ippel, Hans [Department of Biochemistry, CARIM, University of Maastricht, Maastricht (Netherlands); Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Mayo, Kevin H. [Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kübler, Dieter [Biomolecular Interactions, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Gabius, Hans-Joachim [Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, 80539 Munich (Germany); Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús, E-mail: jjbarbero@cib.csic.es [Chemical and Physical Biology Department, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Galectin-3 is composed of a carbohydrate recognition domain and an N-terminal tail. •Synthetic peptides derived from the tail are shown to interact with the CRD. •This interaction is modulated by Ser- and Tyr-phosphorylation of the peptides. -- Abstract: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multi-functional effector protein that functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, as well as extracellularly following non-classical secretion. Structurally, Gal-3 is unique among galectins with its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) attached to a rather long N-terminal tail composed mostly of collagen-like repeats (nine in the human protein) and terminating in a short non-collagenous terminal peptide sequence unique in this lectin family and not yet fully explored. Although several Ser and Tyr sites within the N-terminal tail can be phosphorylated, the physiological significance of this post-translational modification remains unclear. Here, we used a series of synthetic (phospho)peptides derived from the tail to assess phosphorylation-mediated interactions with {sup 15}N-labeled Gal-3 CRD. HSQC-derived chemical shift perturbations revealed selective interactions at the backface of the CRD that were attenuated by phosphorylation of Tyr 107 and Tyr 118, while phosphorylation of Ser 6 and Ser 12 was essential. Controls with sequence scrambling underscored inherent specificity. Our studies shed light on how phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail may impact on Gal-3 function and prompt further studies using phosphorylated full-length protein.

  1. Peptides derived from human galectin-3 N-terminal tail interact with its carbohydrate recognition domain in a phosphorylation-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berbís, M. Álvaro; André, Sabine; Cañada, F. Javier; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Ippel, Hans; Mayo, Kevin H.; Kübler, Dieter; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Galectin-3 is composed of a carbohydrate recognition domain and an N-terminal tail. •Synthetic peptides derived from the tail are shown to interact with the CRD. •This interaction is modulated by Ser- and Tyr-phosphorylation of the peptides. -- Abstract: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a multi-functional effector protein that functions in the cytoplasm and the nucleus, as well as extracellularly following non-classical secretion. Structurally, Gal-3 is unique among galectins with its carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) attached to a rather long N-terminal tail composed mostly of collagen-like repeats (nine in the human protein) and terminating in a short non-collagenous terminal peptide sequence unique in this lectin family and not yet fully explored. Although several Ser and Tyr sites within the N-terminal tail can be phosphorylated, the physiological significance of this post-translational modification remains unclear. Here, we used a series of synthetic (phospho)peptides derived from the tail to assess phosphorylation-mediated interactions with 15 N-labeled Gal-3 CRD. HSQC-derived chemical shift perturbations revealed selective interactions at the backface of the CRD that were attenuated by phosphorylation of Tyr 107 and Tyr 118, while phosphorylation of Ser 6 and Ser 12 was essential. Controls with sequence scrambling underscored inherent specificity. Our studies shed light on how phosphorylation of the N-terminal tail may impact on Gal-3 function and prompt further studies using phosphorylated full-length protein

  2. Protein Kinase CK2 Content in GL261 Mouse Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Font, Laura; Alcaraz, Estefania; Plana, Maria; Candiota, Ana Paula; Itarte, Emilio; Arús, Carles

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and aggressive human glial tumour with a median survival of 14-15 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment. Unfortunately, chemoresistence always ensues with concomitant tumour regrowth. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) contributes to tumour development, proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis in cancer and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Targeting CK2 in GBM treatment may benefit patients. With this translational perspective in mind, we have studied the CK2 expression level by Western blot analysis in a preclinical model of GBM: GL261 cells growing orthotopically in C57BL/6 mice. The expression level of the CK2 catalytic subunit (CK2α) was higher in tumour (about 4-fold) and in contralateral brain parenchyma (more than 2-fold) than in normal brain parenchyma (p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant changes were found in CK2 regulatory subunit (CK2β) expression, suggesting an increased unbalance of CK2α/CK2β in GL261 tumours with respect to normal brain parenchyma, in agreement with a differential role of these two subunits in tumours.

  3. Thermodynamics parameters for binding of halogenated benzotriazole inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2α.

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    Winiewska, Maria; Kucińska, Katarzyna; Makowska, Małgorzata; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-10-01

    The interaction of human CK2α (hCK2α) with nine halogenated benzotriazoles, TBBt and its analogues representing all possible patterns of halogenation on the benzene ring of benzotriazole, was studied by biophysical methods. Thermal stability of protein-ligand complexes, monitored by calorimetric (DSC) and optical (DSF) methods, showed that the increase in the mid-point temperature for unfolding of protein-ligand complexes (i.e. potency of ligand binding to hCK2α) follow the inhibitory activities determined by biochemical assays. The dissociation constant for the ATP-hCK2α complex was estimated with the aid of microscale thermophoresis (MST) as 4.3±1.8 μM, and MST-derived dissociation constants determined for halogenated benzotriazoles, when converted according to known ATP concentrations, perfectly reconstruct IC50 values determined by the biochemical assays. Ligand-dependent quenching of tyrosine fluorescence, together with molecular modeling and DSC-derived heats of unfolding, support the hypothesis that halogenated benzotriazoles bind in at least two alternative orientations, and those that are efficient hCK2α inhibitors bind in the orientation which TBBt adopts in its complex with maize CK2α. DSC-derived apparent heat for ligand binding (ΔΔHbind) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions between Lys68 and the triazole ring of the ligand, as indicated by a good correlation between ΔΔHbind and ligand pKa. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly (~40 kJ/mol), relative to possible intermolecular halogen/hydrogen bonding (less than 10 kJ/mol), in binding of halogenated benzotriazoles to the ATP-binding site of hCK2α. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Role of Protein Kinase CK2 in Glioblastoma Development

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Haitao; Lu, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant primary brain tumor in adults, and its response to current therapies is limited. Protein kinase CK2 is overexpressed in GBM and regulates GBM cell survival, proliferation, and migration and brain tumorigenesis. Targeting CK2 for GBM treatment may benefit GBM patients.

  5. A CK2 site is reversibly phosphorylated in the photosystem II subunit CP29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, M G; Croce, R; Polverino-De Laureto, P; Bassi, R

    1996-12-16

    Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of protein function. In chloroplast thylakoids several photosystem II subunits, including the major antenna light-harvesting complex II and several core complex components, are reversibly phosphorylated depending on the redox state of the electron carriers. A previously unknown reversible phosphorylation event has recently been described on the CP29 subunit which leads to conformational changes and protection from cold stress (Bergantino, E., Dainese, P., Cerovic, Z. Sechi, S. and Bassi, R. (1995) J. Biol Chem. 270, 8474-8481). In this study, we have identified the phosphorylation site on the N-terminal, stroma-exposed domain, showing that it is located in a sequence not homologous to the other members of the Lhc family. The phosphorylated sequence is unique in chloroplast membranes since it meets the requirements for CK2 (casein kinase II) kinases. The possibility that this phosphorylation is involved in a signal transduction pathway is discussed.

  6. Chimeric peptides as modulators of CK2-dependent signaling: Mechanism of action and off-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanin, Sofia; Sandre, Michele; Cozza, Giorgio; Ottaviani, Daniele; Marin, Oriano; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Ruzzene, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic (α/α') and two regulatory (β) subunits. It has a global prosurvival function, especially in cancer, and represents an attractive therapeutic target. Most CK2 inhibitors available so far are ATP-competitive compounds; however, the possibility to block only the phosphorylation of few substrates has been recently explored, and a compound composed of a Tat cell-penetrating peptide and an active cyclic peptide, selected for its ability to bind to the CK2 substrate E7 protein of human papilloma virus, has been developed [Perea et al., Cancer Res. 2004; 64:7127-7129]. By using a similar chimeric peptide (CK2 modulatory chimeric peptide, CK2-MCP), we performed a study to dissect its molecular mechanism of action and the signaling pathways that it affects in cells. We found that it directly interacts with CK2 itself, counteracting the regulatory and stabilizing functions of the β subunit. Cell treatment with CK2-MCP induces a rapid decrease of the amount of CK2 subunits, as well as of other signaling proteins. Concomitant cell death is observed, more pronounced in tumor cells and not accompanied by apoptotic events. CK2 relocalizes to lysosomes, whose proteases are activated, while the proteasome machinery is inhibited. Several sequence variants of the chimeric peptide have been also synthesized, and their effects compared to those of the parental peptide. Intriguingly, the Tat moiety is essential not only for cell penetration but also for the in vitro efficacy of the peptide. We conclude that this class of chimeric peptides, in addition to altering some properties of CK2 holoenzyme, affects several other cellular targets, causing profound perturbations of cell biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CRY Drives Cyclic CK2-Mediated BMAL1 Phosphorylation to Control the Mammalian Circadian Clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruya Tamaru

    Full Text Available Intracellular circadian clocks, composed of clock genes that act in transcription-translation feedback loops, drive global rhythmic expression of the mammalian transcriptome and allow an organism to anticipate to the momentum of the day. Using a novel clock-perturbing peptide, we established a pivotal role for casein kinase (CK-2-mediated circadian BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation (BMAL1-P in regulating central and peripheral core clocks. Subsequent analysis of the underlying mechanism showed a novel role of CRY as a repressor for protein kinase. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and real-time monitoring of protein-protein interactions revealed that CRY-mediated periodic binding of CK2β to BMAL1 inhibits BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation by CK2α. The FAD binding domain of CRY1, two C-terminal BMAL1 domains, and particularly BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation/deacetylation by CLOCK/SIRT1, were shown to be critical for CRY-mediated BMAL1-CK2β binding. Reciprocally, BMAL1-Ser90 phosphorylation is prerequisite for BMAL1-Lys537 acetylation. We propose a dual negative-feedback model in which a CRY-dependent CK2-driven posttranslational BMAL1-P-BMAL1 loop is an integral part of the core clock oscillator.

  8. The Link between Protein Kinase CK2 and Atypical Kinase Rio1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Kubiński

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The atypical kinase Rio1 is widespread in many organisms, ranging from Archaebacteria to humans, and is an essential factor in ribosome biogenesis. Little is known about the protein substrates of the enzyme and small-molecule inhibitors of the kinase. Protein kinase CK2 was the first interaction partner of Rio1, identified in yeast cells. The enzyme from various sources undergoes CK2-mediated phosphorylation at several sites and this modification regulates the activity of Rio1. The aim of this review is to present studies of the relationship between the two different kinases, with respect to CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Rio1, regulation of Rio1 activity, and similar susceptibility of the kinases to benzimidazole inhibitors.

  9. Protein kinase CK2 structure-function relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1994-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 subunits alpha and beta were expressed either separately or together in a bacterial expression system (pT7-7/BL21(DE3)) and purified to homogeneity. After mixing the subunits, a CK2 holoenzyme (alpha 2 beta 2) was spontaneously reconstituted, which displays identical features...... subunit have been prepared and assayed for their ability to assemble with the catalytic alpha subunit to give a fully competent CK2 holoenzyme. The beta subunit contains an acidic stretch (amino acid 55-64), which is obviously responsible for a negative control of enzyme activity since mutations...

  10. Phosphorylation of the Fas associated factor FAF1 by protein kinase CK2 and identification of serines 289 and 291 as the in vitro phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H H; Hjerrild, M; Guerra, B

    2001-01-01

    We previously identified the human Fas associated factor (FAF1) as one of the interacting partners of protein kinase CK2 beta subunit. Since FAF1 is a phosphoprotein we investigated whether it is a substrate for CK2. Here, we report the full length human FAF1 cDNA sequence, expression of FAF1...

  11. CK2: a protein kinase in need of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Sarno, S

    1999-01-01

    that are responsible for the recognition of phosphoacceptor substrates and for down-regulation by the beta-subunit and by polyanionic inhibitors. The resolution of the crystal structure of Zea mays CK2 alpha-subunit has disclosed the structural features that are responsible for high basal activity and for unusual...

  12. Resorufin: a lead for a new protein kinase CK2 inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Iben Skjøth; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Guerra, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Screening a natural compound library led to the identification of resorufin as a highly selective and potent inhibitor of protein kinase CK2. Out of 52 kinases tested, only CK2 was inhibited, in contrast to emodin, a structurally related, known CK2 inhibitor that, in addition to CK2, inhibited te...

  13. Thermodynamic parameters for binding of some halogenated inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiewska, Maria; Makowska, Małgorzata; Maj, Piotr; Wielechowska, Monika; Bretner, Maria; Poznański, Jarosław; Shugar, David

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two new compounds being potential human CK2a inhibitors are studied. • Their IC50 values were determined in vitro. • The heats of binding and kbind were estimated using DSC. • The increased stability of protein–ligand complexes was followed by fluorescence. • Methylated TBBt derivative (MeBr3Br) is almost as active as TBBt. - Abstract: The interaction of human CK2α with a series of tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt) and tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) analogs, in which one of the bromine atoms proximal to the triazole/imidazole ring is replaced by a methyl group, was studied by biochemical (IC 50 ) and biophysical methods (thermal stability of protein–ligand complex monitored by DSC and fluorescence). Two newly synthesized tri-bromo derivatives display inhibitory activity comparable to that of the reference compounds, TBBt and TBBz, respectively. DSC analysis of the stability of protein–ligand complexes shows that the heat of ligand binding (H bind ) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions involving the triazole/imidazole ring, as indicated by a strong correlation between H bind and ligand pK a . Screening, based on fluorescence-monitored thermal unfolding of protein–ligand complexes, gave comparable results, clearly identifying ligands that most strongly bind to the protein. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly, relative to possible intermolecular halogen bonding, in binding of the ligands to the CK2α ATP-binding site

  14. Examination of transcript amounts and activity of protein kinase CK2 in muscle lysates of different types of human muscle pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuss, Dieter; Klascinski, Janine; Schubert, Steffen W; Moriabadi, Tehmur; Lochmüller, Hanns; Hashemolhosseini, Said

    2008-09-01

    Motoneurons release the heparansulfate proteoglycan agrin and thereby activate the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK), which is the main organizer of subsynaptic specializations at the neuromuscular junction. Recently, we showed that (1) the protein kinase CK2 interacts with the intracellular region of MuSK; (2) the CK2 protein is enriched and co-localized with MuSK at postsynaptic specializations; (3) CK2-mediated phosphorylation of serine residues within a specific MuSK epitope, named the kinase insert, regulates acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering; (4) muscle-specific CK2beta knockout mice develop a myasthenic phenotype due to impaired muscle endplate structure and function (see Genes Dev 20(13):1800-1816, 2006). Here, we investigated for the first time if CK2 is modulated in biopsies from human patients. To this end, we measured transcript amounts of the subunits CK2alpha and CK2beta and determined holoenzyme CK2 activity in 34 muscle biopsies of human patients with different muscle pathologies.

  15. CAPS Activity in Priming Vesicle Exocytosis Requires CK2 Phosphorylation*

    OpenAIRE

    Nojiri, Mari; Loyet, Kelly M.; Klenchin, Vadim A.; Kabachinski, Gregory; Martin, Thomas F. J.

    2009-01-01

    CAPS (Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion) functions in priming Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis, but the regulation of CAPS activity has not been characterized. Here we show that phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 is required for CAPS activity. Dephosphorylation eliminated CAPS activity in reconstituting Ca2+-dependent vesicle exocytosis in permeable and intact PC12 cells. Ser-5, -6, and -7 and Ser-1281 were identified by mass spectrometry as the major phosphorylation sites in...

  16. Biochemical characterization of CK2alpha and alpha' paralogues and their derived holoenzymes: evidence for the existence of a heterotrimeric CK2alpha'-holoenzyme forming trimeric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Tine; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Altogether 2 holoenzymes and 4 catalytic CK2 constructs were expressed and characterized i.e. CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2); CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme; CK2alpha(1-335); MBP-CK2alpha'; His-tagged CK2alpha and His-tagged CK2alpha'. The two His-tagged catalytic subunits were expressed in insect...... cells, all others in Escherichia coli. IC(50) studies involving the established CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBBt, TBBz, apigenin and emodin were carried out and the K(i) values calculated. Although the differences in the K(i) values found were modest, there was a general tendency showing that the CK2...... holoenzymes were more sensitive towards the inhibitors than the free catalytic subunits. Thermal inactivation experiments involving the individual catalytic subunits showed an almost complete loss of activity after only 2 min at 45 degrees C. In the case of the two holoenzymes, the CK2alpha...

  17. Unexpected Binding Mode of a Potent Indeno[1,2-b]indole-Type Inhibitor of Protein Kinase CK2 Revealed by Complex Structures with the Catalytic Subunit CK2α and Its Paralog CK2α′

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hochscherf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK2, a member of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily, is associated with cancer and other human pathologies and thus an attractive drug target. The indeno[1,2-b]indole scaffold is a novel lead structure to develop ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitors. Some indeno[1,2-b]indole-based CK2 inhibitors additionally obstruct ABCG2, an ABC half transporter overexpressed in breast cancer and co-responsible for drug efflux and resistance. Comprehensive derivatization studies revealed substitutions of the indeno[1,2-b]indole framework that boost either the CK2 or the ABCG2 selectivity or even support the dual inhibition potential. The best indeno[1,2-b]indole-based CK2 inhibitor described yet (IC50 = 25 nM is 5-isopropyl-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl-oxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-b]indole-9,10-dione (4p. Herein, we demonstrate the membrane permeability of 4p and describe co-crystal structures of 4p with CK2α and CK2α′, the paralogs of human CK2 catalytic subunit. As expected, 4p occupies the narrow, hydrophobic ATP site of CK2α/CK2α′, but surprisingly with a unique orientation: its hydrophobic substituents point towards the solvent while its two oxo groups are hydrogen-bonded to a hidden water molecule. An equivalent water molecule was found in many CK2α structures, but never as a critical mediator of ligand binding. This unexpected binding mode is independent of the interdomain hinge/helix αD region conformation and of the salt content in the crystallization medium.

  18. Protein kinase CK2 localizes to sites of DNA double-strand break regulating the cellular response to DNA damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Birgitte B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK is a nuclear complex composed of a large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs and a heterodimeric DNA-targeting subunit Ku. DNA-PK is a major component of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ repair mechanism, which is activated in the presence of DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation, reactive oxygen species and radiomimetic drugs. We have recently reported that down-regulation of protein kinase CK2 by siRNA interference results in enhanced cell death specifically in DNA-PKcs-proficient human glioblastoma cells, and this event is accompanied by decreased autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs at S2056 and delayed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Results In the present study, we show that CK2 co-localizes with phosphorylated histone H2AX to sites of DNA damage and while CK2 gene knockdown is associated with delayed DNA damage repair, its overexpression accelerates this process. We report for the first time evidence that lack of CK2 destabilizes the interaction of DNA-PKcs with DNA and with Ku80 at sites of genetic lesions. Furthermore, we show that CK2 regulates the phosphorylation levels of DNA-PKcs only in response to direct induction of DNA double-strand breaks. Conclusions Taken together, these results strongly indicate that CK2 plays a prominent role in NHEJ by facilitating and/or stabilizing the binding of DNA-PKcs and, possibly other repair proteins, to the DNA ends contributing to efficient DNA damage repair in mammalian cells.

  19. Developmental and growth defects in mice with combined deficiency of CK2 catalytic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesman-Bollag, Esther; Belkina, Anna; Hovey, Beth; Connors, Edward; Cox, Charles; Seldin, David C

    2011-10-01

    The CK2 α and α' catalytic gene products have overlapping biochemical activity, but in vivo, their functions are very different. Deletion of both alleles of CK2α leads to mid-gestational embryonic lethality, while deletion of both alleles of CK2α' does not interfere with viability or development of embryos; however, adult CK2α'-/-males are infertile. To further elucidate developmental roles of CK2, and analyze functional overlap between the two catalytic genes, mice with combined knockouts were bred. Mice bearing any two CK2 catalytic alleles were phenotypically normal. However, inheritance of a single CK2α allele, without either CK2α' allele, resulted in partial embryonic lethality. Such mice that survived through embryogenesis were smaller at birth than littermate controls, and weighed less throughout life. However, their cardiac function and lifespan were normal. Fibroblasts derived from CK2α+/-CK2α'-/- embryos grew poorly in culture. These experiments demonstrate that combined loss of one CK2α allele and both CK2α' alleles leads to unique abnormalities of growth and development.

  20. Asymmetric expression of protein kinase CK2 subunits in human kidney tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stalter, G; Siemer, S; Becht, E

    1994-01-01

    of protein kinase CK2 alpha in tumors/normal tissue (T/N) was 1.58 and that of the protein kinase CK2 beta (T/N) was 2.65. The data suggest that the generally described increase in protein kinase CK2 activity in tumor cells may to some extent result from a deregulation in subunit biosynthesis or degradation...

  1. Thermodynamic parameters for binding of some halogenated inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiewska, Maria; Makowska, Małgorzata [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Maj, Piotr [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Wielechowska, Monika; Bretner, Maria [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Warszawa (Poland); Poznański, Jarosław, E-mail: jarek@ibb.waw.pl [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland); Shugar, David [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics PAS, Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • Two new compounds being potential human CK2a inhibitors are studied. • Their IC50 values were determined in vitro. • The heats of binding and kbind were estimated using DSC. • The increased stability of protein–ligand complexes was followed by fluorescence. • Methylated TBBt derivative (MeBr3Br) is almost as active as TBBt. - Abstract: The interaction of human CK2α with a series of tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBBt) and tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz) analogs, in which one of the bromine atoms proximal to the triazole/imidazole ring is replaced by a methyl group, was studied by biochemical (IC{sub 50}) and biophysical methods (thermal stability of protein–ligand complex monitored by DSC and fluorescence). Two newly synthesized tri-bromo derivatives display inhibitory activity comparable to that of the reference compounds, TBBt and TBBz, respectively. DSC analysis of the stability of protein–ligand complexes shows that the heat of ligand binding (H{sub bind}) is driven by intermolecular electrostatic interactions involving the triazole/imidazole ring, as indicated by a strong correlation between H{sub bind} and ligand pK{sub a}. Screening, based on fluorescence-monitored thermal unfolding of protein–ligand complexes, gave comparable results, clearly identifying ligands that most strongly bind to the protein. Overall results, additionally supported by molecular modeling, confirm that a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions contribute predominantly, relative to possible intermolecular halogen bonding, in binding of the ligands to the CK2α ATP-binding site.

  2. Isomeric mono-, di-, and tri-bromobenzo-1H-triazoles as inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Wąsik

    Full Text Available To further clarify the role of the individual bromine atoms of 4,5,6,7-tetrabromotriazole (TBBt, a relatively selective inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, we have examined the inhibition (IC(50 of human CK2α by the two mono-, the four di-, and the two tri- bromobenzotriazoles relative to that of TBBt. Halogenation of the central vicinal C(5/C(6 atoms proved to be a key factor in enhancing inhibitory activity, in that 5,6-di-Br(2Bt and 4,5,6-Br(3Bt were almost as effective inhibitors as TBBt, notwithstanding their marked differences in pK(a for dissociation of the triazole proton. The decrease in pK(a on halogenation of the peripheral C(4/C(7 atoms virtually nullifies the gain due to hydrophobic interactions, and does not lead to a decrease in IC(50. Molecular modeling of structures of complexes of the ligands with the enzyme, as well as QSAR analysis, pointed to a balance of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions as a discriminator of inhibitory activity. The role of halogen bonding remains debatable, as originally noted for the crystal structure of TBBt with CK2α (pdb1j91. Finally we direct attention to the promising applicability of our series of well-defined halogenated benzotriazoles to studies on inhibition of kinases other than CK2.

  3. Linear motif atlas for phosphorylation-dependent signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Jensen, LJ; Diella, F

    2008-01-01

    bind to them remains a challenge. NetPhorest is an atlas of consensus sequence motifs that covers 179 kinases and 104 phosphorylation-dependent binding domains [Src homology 2 (SH2), phosphotyrosine binding (PTB), BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT), WW, and 14-3-3]. The atlas reveals new aspects of signaling...

  4. Phosphorylation by CK2 regulates MUS81/EME1 in mitosis and after replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Anita; Pugliese, Giusj Monia; Murfuni, Ivana; Marabitti, Veronica; Malacaria, Eva; Rinalducci, Sara; Minoprio, Anna; Sanchez, Massimo; Mazzei, Filomena; Zolla, Lello; Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

    2018-06-01

    The MUS81 complex is crucial for preserving genome stability through the resolution of branched DNA intermediates in mitosis. However, untimely activation of the MUS81 complex in S-phase is dangerous. Little is known about the regulation of the human MUS81 complex and how deregulated activation affects chromosome integrity. Here, we show that the CK2 kinase phosphorylates MUS81 at Serine 87 in late-G2/mitosis, and upon mild replication stress. Phosphorylated MUS81 interacts with SLX4, and this association promotes the function of the MUS81 complex. In line with a role in mitosis, phosphorylation at Serine 87 is suppressed in S-phase and is mainly detected in the MUS81 molecules associated with EME1. Loss of CK2-dependent MUS81 phosphorylation contributes modestly to chromosome integrity, however, expression of the phosphomimic form induces DSBs accumulation in S-phase, because of unscheduled targeting of HJ-like DNA intermediates, and generates a wide chromosome instability phenotype. Collectively, our findings describe a novel regulatory mechanism controlling the MUS81 complex function in human cells. Furthermore, they indicate that, genome stability depends mainly on the ability of cells to counteract targeting of branched intermediates by the MUS81/EME1 complex in S-phase, rather than on a correct MUS81 function in mitosis.

  5. CK2—An Emerging Target for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Castello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK2 has received a surge of attention in recent years due to the evidence of its overexpression in a variety of solid tumors and multiple myelomas as well as its participation in cell survival pathways. CK2 is also upregulated in the most prevalent and aggressive cancer of brain tissue, glioblastoma multiforme, and in preclinical models, pharmacological inhibition of the kinase has proven successful in reducing tumor size and animal mortality. CK2 is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and has many bona fide substrates that are crucial in neuronal or glial homeostasis and signaling processes across synapses. Full and conditional CK2 knockout mice have further elucidated the importance of CK2 in brain development, neuronal activity, and behavior. This review will discuss recent advances in the field that point to CK2 as a regulator of neuronal functions and as a potential novel target to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  6. The binding site for regulatory 14-3-3 protein in plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase: Involvement of a region promoting phosphorylation-independent interaction in addition to the phosphorylation-dependent C-terminal end

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja T; Borch, Jonas; Bych, Katrine

    2003-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins constitute a family of well conserved proteins interacting with a large number of phosphorylated binding partners in eukaryotic cells. The plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase is an unusual target in that a unique phosphothreonine motif (946YpTV, where pT represents phosphothreonine...... of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-ATPase isoform 2 (AHA2). Following site-directed mutagenesis within the 45 C-terminal residues of AHA2, we conclude that, in addition to the 946YpTV motif, a number of residues located further upstream are required for phosphorylation-independent binding of 14-3-3. Among these...

  7. CK2 activity is modulated by growth rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripodi, Farida; Cirulli, Claudia; Reghellin, Veronica; Marin, Oriano; Brambilla, Luca; Schiappelli, Maria Patrizia; Porro, Danilo; Vanoni, Marco; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → CK2 subunits are nuclear both in glucose and in ethanol growing yeast cells. → CK2 activity is modulated in S. cerevisiae. → CK2 activity is higher in conditions supporting higher growth rates. → V max is higher in faster growing cells, while K m is not affected. -- Abstract: CK2 is a highly conserved protein kinase controlling different cellular processes. It shows a higher activity in proliferating mammalian cells, in various types of cancer cell lines and tumors. The findings presented herein provide the first evidence of an in vivo modulation of CK2 activity, dependent on growth rate, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In fact, CK2 activity, assayed on nuclear extracts, is shown to increase in exponential growing batch cultures at faster growth rate, while localization of catalytic and regulatory subunits is not nutritionally modulated. Differences in intracellular CK2 activity of glucose- and ethanol-grown cells appear to depend on both increase in molecule number and k cat . Also in chemostat cultures nuclear CK2 activity is higher in faster growing cells providing the first unequivocal demonstration that growth rate itself can affect CK2 activity in a eukaryotic organism.

  8. Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays at 2.1 A resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Guerra, B; Pinna, L A

    1998-01-01

    CK2alpha is the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2, an acidophilic and constitutively active eukaryotic Ser/Thr kinase involved in cell proliferation. A crystal structure, at 2.1 A resolution, of recombinant maize CK2alpha (rmCK2alpha) in the presence of ATP and Mg2+, shows the enzyme in an ...

  9. Expression and characterization of a recombinant maize CK-2 alpha subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Dobrowolska, G

    1993-01-01

    to support the immunological data also by biochemical and biophysical experiments the availability of a recombinant CK-2 alpha from maize was a prerequisite. A maize cDNA clone of maize CK-2 alpha was expressed in the bacterial strain BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity; its......CKIIB, one of the CK-2 like enzymes which have been isolated from maize, has been shown to be a monomeric enzyme that cross-reacts with anti CK-2 alpha specific antibodies suggesting a possible relationship between the two proteins (Dobrowolska et al. (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 204, 299-303). In order...... molecular mass on one-dimensional SDS PAGE was estimated to be 36.5 kDa. The calculated molecular mass according to the amino acid composition is 39,228 Da (332 amino acids). The recombinant maize CK-2 alpha (rmCK-2 alpha) exhibited mostly the same properties as the recombinant human CK-2 alpha (rhCK-2...

  10. Regulation of taurine transport systems by protein kinase CK2 in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Hansen, Daniel Bloch

    2011-01-01

    regulate the cellular content of the major cellular organic osmolyte, taurine with emphasis on CK2 mediated regulation of active taurine uptake and volume-sensitive taurine release. Furthermore, we discuss how CK2-mediated regulation of taurine homeostasis is potentially involved in cellular functions...

  11. Expression, purification and crystallization of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Niefind, K; Pinna, L A

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic (alpha) subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) was originally cloned and overexpressed in the Escherichia coli strain pT7-7/BL21(DE3). The protein has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, they have unit-cell parameter...

  12. GTP plus water mimics ATP in the active site of protein kianse CK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Pütter, M; Guerra, B

    1999-01-01

    The structures of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays complexed with Mg2+ and with analogs of ATP or GTP were determined to 2.2 A resolution. Unlike most other protein kinases, CK2 from various sources shows 'dual-cosubstrate specificity', that is, the ability to efficiently...... use either ATP or GTP as a cosubstrate. The structures of these complexes demonstrate that water molecules are critical to switch the active site of CK2 from an ATP- to a GTP-compatible state. An understanding of the structural basis of dual-cosubstrate specificity may help in the design of drugs...

  13. Purification and characterization of recombinant protein kinase CK2 from Zea mays expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riera, Marta; Pages, Montserrat; Issinger, Olaf Georg

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant protein kinase subunits rmCK2alpha-1 and rmCK2beta-1 from Zea mays were expressed separately in Escherichia coli and assembled to a fully active tetrameric holoenzyme complex in vitro. The obtained maize holoenzyme was purified to homogeneity, biochemically characterized, and compared...... to CK2 from human. Kinetic measurements of the recombinant maize holoenzyme (rmCK2) revealed k(cat) values for ATP and GTP of 4 and 2s(-1), respectively; whereas the recombinant maize catalytic subunit showed almost equal values for ATP and GTP, i.e., ca. 0.8s(-1). A comparison of the k(cat)/K(m) ratio...

  14. Regulation of taurine homeostasis by protein kinase CK2 in mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Guerra, Barbara; Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland

    2011-01-01

    Increased expression of the ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase CK2 has been associated with increased proliferative capacity and increased resistance towards apoptosis. Taurine is the primary organic osmolyte involved in cell volume control in mammalian cells, and shift in cell volume...... is a critical step in cell proliferation, differentiation and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we use mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettré ascites tumour cells with different CK2 expression levels. Taurine uptake via the Na(+) dependent transporter TauT and taurine release are increased...... and reduced, respectively, following pharmacological CK2 inhibition. The effect of CK2 inhibition on TauT involves modulation of transport kinetics, whereas the effect on the taurine release pathway involves reduction in the open-probability of the efflux pathway. Stimulation of PLA(2) activity, exposure...

  15. Metastasis-associated protein Mts1 (S100A4) inhibits CK2-mediated phosphorylation and self-assembly of the heavy chain of nonmuscle myosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriajevska, M; Bronstein, I B; Scott, D J

    2000-01-01

    a regulatory role in the myosin assembly. In the presence of calcium, Mts1 binds at the C-terminal end of the myosin heavy chain close to the site of phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 (Ser1944). In the present study, we have shown that interaction of Mts1 with the human platelet myosin or C...

  16. Crystal structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermakova, Inessa; Boldyreff, Brigitte; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2003-01-01

    structure of a C-terminal deletion mutant of human CK2alpha was solved and refined to 2.5A resolution. In the crystal the CK2alpha mutant exists as a monomer in agreement with the organization of the subunits in the CK2 holoenzyme. The refined structure shows the helix alphaC and the activation segment, two...

  17. CK2 phospho-dependent binding of R2TP complex to TEL2 is essential for mTOR and SMG1 stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsí, Zuzana; Takai, Hiroyuki; Adelman, Carrie A; Collis, Spencer J; Flynn, Helen; Maslen, Sarah; Skehel, J Mark; de Lange, Titia; Boulton, Simon J

    2010-09-24

    TEL2 interacts with and is essential for the stability of all phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs), but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we show that TEL2 is constitutively phosphorylated on conserved serines 487 and 491 by casein kinase 2 (CK2). Proteomic analyses establish that the CK2 phosphosite of TEL2 confers binding to the R2TP/prefoldin-like complex, which possesses chaperon/prefoldin activities required during protein complex assembly. The PIH1D1 subunit of the R2TP complex binds directly to the CK2 phosphosite of TEL2 in vitro and is required for the TEL2-R2TP/prefoldin-like complex interaction in vivo. Although the CK2 phosphosite mutant of TEL2 retains association with the PIKKs and HSP90 in cells, failure to interact with the R2TP/prefoldin-like complex results in instability of the PIKKs, principally mTOR and SMG1. We propose that TEL2 acts as a scaffold to coordinate the activities of R2TP/prefoldin-like and HSP90 chaperone complexes during the assembly of the PIKKs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Protein kinase CK2 modulates IL-6 expression in inflammatory breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drygin, Denis, E-mail: ddrygin@cylenepharma.com; Ho, Caroline B.; Omori, Mayuko; Bliesath, Joshua; Proffitt, Chris; Rice, Rachel; Siddiqui-Jain, Adam; O' Brien, Sean; Padgett, Claire; Lim, John K.C.; Anderes, Kenna; Rice, William G.; Ryckman, David

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the potential cross-talk between CK2 and IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CK2 by siRNA or CX-4945 inhibits expression of IL-6 in models of IBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of IBC patient in the clinic with CX-4945 reduces her IL-6 plasma levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CK2 is a potential therapeutic target for IL-6 driven diseases. -- Abstract: Inflammatory breast cancer is driven by pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines. One of them Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival, and promotes angiogenesis, inflammation and metastasis. While IL-6 has been shown to be upregulated by several oncogenes, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is not well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the pleotropic Serine/Threonine kinase CK2 is implicated in the regulation of IL-6 expression in a model of inflammatory breast cancer. We used siRNAs targeted toward CK2 and a selective small molecule inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945, to inhibit the expression and thus suppress the secretion of IL-6 in in vitro as well as in vivo models. Moreover, we report that in a clinical trial, CX-4945 was able to dramatically reduce IL-6 levels in plasma of an inflammatory breast cancer patient. Our data shed a new light on the regulation of IL-6 expression and position CX-4945 and potentially other inhibitors of CK2, for the treatment of IL-6-driven cancers and possibly other diseases where IL-6 is instrumental, including rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Nuclear localization of the CK2α-subunit correlates with poor prognosis in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Maj; Guerra, Barbara; Oliván-Viguera, Aida

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2a, one of the two catalytic isoforms of the protein kinase CK2 has been shown to contribute to tumor development, tumor proliferation and suppression of apoptosis in various malignancies. We conducted this study to investigate CK2 expression in different subtypes of Renal Cell...... Carcinoma (RCC) and in the benign oncocytoma. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed that CK2a expression was significantly increased at the mRNA and protein levels in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Also the kinase activity of CK2 was significantly increased in ccRCC compared to normal...... renal cortex. Nuclear protein expression of CK2a correlated in univariate analysis with poor Progression Free Survival (HR = 8.11, p = 0.016). Functional analyses (cell proliferation assay) revealed an inhibitory effect of Caki-2 cell growth following CK2 inhibition with CX-4945. Our results suggest...

  20. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti CK-2 alpha subunit antibody of the IgG1 subclass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1992-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was produced against the recombinant human alpha subunit of CK-2. The antibody was of the IgG1 subclass and it was isolated from serum-free cell culture media and purified by affinity chromatography on Protein G Sepharose. The antibody can be used to detect specifically the CK......-2 alpha subunit in immunoblots from tissue extracts. An ELISA detection test was also established which also allows the identification of the CK-2 alpha subunit....

  1. Regulation of DNA Methylation Patterns by CK2-Mediated Phosphorylation of Dnmt3a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Deplus

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a central epigenetic modification that is established by de novo DNA methyltransferases. The mechanisms underlying the generation of genomic methylation patterns are still poorly understood. Using mass spectrometry and a phosphospecific Dnmt3a antibody, we demonstrate that CK2 phosphorylates endogenous Dnmt3a at two key residues located near its PWWP domain, thereby downregulating the ability of Dnmt3a to methylate DNA. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis shows that CK2 primarily modulates CpG methylation of several repeats, most notably of Alu SINEs. This modulation can be directly attributed to CK2-mediated phosphorylation of Dnmt3a. We also find that CK2-mediated phosphorylation is required for localization of Dnmt3a to heterochromatin. By revealing phosphorylation as a mode of regulation of de novo DNA methyltransferase function and by uncovering a mechanism for the regulation of methylation at repetitive elements, our results shed light on the origin of DNA methylation patterns.

  2. Downregulation of protein kinase CK2 activity facilitates tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated chondrocyte death through apoptosis and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous studies of protein kinase CK2, little progress has been made in understanding its function in chondrocyte death. Our previous study first demonstrated that CK2 is involved in apoptosis of rat articular chondrocytes. Recent studies have suggested that CK2 downregulation is associated with aging. Thus examining the involvement of CK2 downregulation in chondrocyte death is an urgently required task. We undertook this study to examine whether CK2 downregulation modulates chondrocyte death. We first measured CK2 activity in articular chondrocytes of 6-, 21- and 30-month-old rats. Noticeably, CK2 activity was downregulated in chondrocytes with advancing age. To build an in vitro experimental system for simulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-induced cell death in aged chondrocytes with decreased CK2 activity, chondrocytes were co-treated with CK2 inhibitors and TNF-α. Viability assay demonstrated that CK2 inhibitors facilitated TNF-α-mediated chondrocyte death. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, nuclear staining, flow cytometry, TUNEL staining, confocal microscopy, western blot and transmission electron microscopy were conducted to assess cell death modes. The results of multiple assays showed that this cell death was mediated by apoptosis. Importantly, autophagy was also involved in this process, as supported by the appearance of a punctuate LC3 pattern and autophagic vacuoles. The inhibition of autophagy by silencing of autophage-related genes 5 and 7 as well as by 3-methyladenine treatment protected chondrocytes against cell death and caspase activation, indicating that autophagy led to the induction of apoptosis. Autophagic cells were observed in cartilage obtained from osteoarthritis (OA model rats and human OA patients. Our findings indicate that CK2 down regulation facilitates TNF-α-mediated chondrocyte death through apoptosis and autophagy. It should be clarified in the future if autophagy observed is a consequence

  3. Identification of hematein as a novel inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 from a natural product library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Xu, Zhidong; Lin, Yu-Ching; Mao, Jian-Hua; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Chang, Pey-Jium; Jablons, David M; You, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is dysregulated in various human cancers and is a promising target for cancer therapy. To date, there is no small molecular CK2 inhibitor in clinical trial yet. With the aim to identify novel CK2 inhibitors, we screened a natural product library. We adopted cell-based proliferation and CK2 kinase assays to screen CK2 inhibitors from a natural compound library. Dose-dependent response of CK2 inhibitors in vitro was determined by a radioisotope kinase assay. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate down stream Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis. Apoptosis was also evaluated by annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) labeling method using flow cytometry. Inhibition effects of CK2 inhibitors on the growth of cancer and normal cells were evaluated by cell proliferation and viability assays. Hematein was identified as a novel CK2 inhibitor that is highly selective among a panel of kinases. It appears to be an ATP non-competitive and partially reversible CK2 inhibitor with an IC 50 value of 0.55 μM. In addition, hematein inhibited cancer cell growth partially through down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation and induced apoptosis in these cells. Furthermore, hematein exerted stronger inhibition effects on the growth of cancer cells than in normal cells. In this study, we showed that hematein is a novel selective and cell permeable small molecule CK2 inhibitor. Hematein showed stronger growth inhibition effects to cancer cells when compared to normal cells. This compound may represent a promising class of CK2 inhibitors

  4. A CK2 site is reversibly phosphorylated in the photosystem II subunit CP29

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Testi, Maria Grazia; Croce, Roberta; Polverino-De Laureto, Patrizia; Bassi, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism in the regulation of protein function. In chloroplast thylakoids several photosystem II subunits, including the major antenna light-harvesting complex II and several core complex components, are reversibly phosphorylated depending on the redox state of

  5. The carboxy terminus of p53 mimics the polylysine effect of protein kinase CK2-catalyzed MDM2 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Götz, C; Wagner, P

    1997-01-01

    The oncogene product MDM2 can be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 in vitro 0.5-1 mol of phosphate were incorporated per mol MDM2 protein. The catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (alpha-subunit) catalyzed the incorporation of twice as much phosphate into the MDM2 protein as it was obtained...

  6. CK2(beta)tes gene encodes a testis-specific isoform of the regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalmykova, Alla I; Shevelyov, Yuri Y; Polesskaya, Oksana O

    2002-01-01

    An earlier described CK2(beta)tes gene of Drosophila melanogaster is shown to encode a male germline specific isoform of regulatory beta subunit of casein kinase 2. Western-analysis using anti-CK2(beta)tes Ig revealed CK2(beta)tes protein in Drosophila testes extract. Expression of a CK2(beta...... and coimmunoprecipitation analysis of protein extract from Drosophila testes, we demonstrated an association between CK2(beta)tes and CK2alpha. Northern-analysis has shown that another regulatory (beta') subunit found recently in D. melanogaster genome is also testis-specific. Thus, we describe the first example of two...

  7. Protein Kinase CK2 Expression Predicts Relapse Survival in ERα Dependent Breast Cancer, and Modulates ERα Expression in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon D. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The heterotetrameric protein kinase CK2 has been associated with oncogenic transformation, and our previous studies have shown that it may affect estrogenic signaling. Here, we investigate the role of the protein kinase CK2 in regulating ERα (estrogen receptor α signaling in breast cancer. We determined the correlation of CK2α expression with relapse free breast cancer patient survival utilizing Kaplan Meier Plotter (kmplot.com/analysis/ to mine breast cancer microarrays repositories. Patients were stratified according to ERα status, histological grade, and hormonal therapy. Luciferase reporter assays and flow cytometry were implemented to determine the impact of CK2 inhibition on ERE-mediated gene expression and expression of ERα protein. CK2α expression is associated with shorter relapse free survival among ERα (+ patients with grade 1 or 2 tumors, as well as among those patients receiving hormonal therapy. Biochemical inhibition of CK2 activity results in increased ER-transactivation as well as increased expression among ERα (+ and ERα (− breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that CK2 may contribute to estrogen-independent cell proliferation and breast tumor progression, and may potentially serve as a biomarker and pharmacological target in breast cancer.

  8. Conformational plasticity of the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 and its consequences for regulation and drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2010-01-01

    well to the constitutive activity of the enzyme, meaning, its independence from phosphorylation or other characteristic control factors. Most CK2alpha structures are based on the enzyme from Zea mays, supplemented by an increasing number of human CK2alpha structures. In the latter a surprising...... plasticity of important ATP-binding elements - the interdomain hinge region and the glycine-rich loop - was discovered. In fully active CK2alpha the hinge region is open and does not anchor the ATP ribose, but alternatively it can adopt a closed conformation, form hydrogen bonds to the ribose moiety and thus...

  9. Mapping the residues of protein kinase CK2 implicated in substrate recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O

    1995-01-01

    , hampering the calculation of kinetic parameters. In contrast 3 mutants (K74-77A, K79R80K83A and R191,195K198A) phosphorylated the peptide with reduced efficiency accounted for by increased Km and decreased Vmax values. By using derivatives of the RRRADDSDDDDD peptide in which individual aspartyl residues......, respectively. These data support the conclusion that the basic residues present in the p+1 loop of CK2 alpha specifically recognize the acidic determinant adjacent to the C-terminal side of serine, while the specificity determinants located more down-stream are variably recognized by different residues...

  10. Twitchin can regulate the ATPase cycle of actomyosin in a phosphorylation-dependent manner in skinned mammalian skeletal muscle fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrova, Stanislava V; Rysev, Nikita A; Matusovsky, Oleg S; Shelud'ko, Nikolay S; Borovikov, Yurii S

    2012-05-01

    The effect of twitchin, a thick filament protein of molluscan muscles, on the actin-myosin interaction at several mimicked sequential steps of the ATPase cycle was investigated using the polarized fluorescence of 1.5-IAEDANS bound to myosin heads, FITC-phalloidin attached to actin and acrylodan bound to twitchin in the glycerol-skinned skeletal muscle fibres of mammalian. The phosphorylation-dependent multi-step changes in mobility and spatial arrangement of myosin SH1 helix, actin subunit and twitchin during the ATPase cycle have been revealed. It was shown that nonphosphorylated twitchin inhibited the movements of SH1 helix of the myosin heads and actin subunits and decreased the affinity of myosin to actin by freezing the position and mobility of twitchin in the muscle fibres. The phosphorylation of twitchin reverses this effect by changing the spatial arrangement and mobility of the actin-binding portions of twitchin. In this case, enhanced movements of SH1 helix of the myosin heads and actin subunits are observed. The data imply a novel property of twitchin incorporated into organized contractile system: its ability to regulate the ATPase cycle in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion by changing the affinity and spatial arrangement of the actin-binding portions of twitchin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-08-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21{sup waf1/Cip1}, and p16{sup INK4A}), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2{alpha} resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity.

  12. The catalytic subunit of human protein kinase CK2 structurally deviates from its maize homologue in complex with the nucleotide competitive inhibitor emodin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2008-01-01

    The Ser/Thr kinase CK2 (former name: casein kinase 2) is a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic chains (CK2alpha) attached to a dimer of noncatalytic subunits. Together with the cyclin-dependent kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinases, CK2alpha belongs to the CMGC family of...

  13. Protein kinase CK2 mutants defective in substrate recognition. Purification and kinetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Vaglio, P; Meggio, F

    1996-01-01

    Five mutants of protein kinase CK2 alpha subunit in which altogether 14 basic residues were singly to quadruply replaced by alanines (K74A,K75A,K76A,K77A; K79A, R80A,K83A; R191A,R195A,K198A; R228A; and R278A, K279A,R280A) have been purified to near homogeneity either as such or after addition...... of the recombinant beta subunit. By this latter procedure five mutated tetrameric holoenzymes were obtained as judged from their subunit composition, sedimentation coefficient on sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, and increased activity toward a specific peptide substrate as compared with the isolated alpha......191A,R195A, K198A; K79A,R80A,K83A; and K74A,K75A, K76A,K77A are assayed with the peptides RRRADDSADDDD, RRRADDSDDADD, and RRRADDSDDDAA, respectively. In contrast, the phosphorylation efficiencies of the other substituted peptides decrease more markedly with these mutants than with CK2 wild type...

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Calcium- and Phosphorylation-dependentCalmodulin Complexes in Mammalian Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Deok-Jin; Wang, Daojing

    2006-05-26

    Protein conformational changes due to cofactor binding (e.g. metal ions, heme) and/or posttranslational modifications (e.g. phosphorylation) modulate dynamic protein complexes. Calmodulin (CaM) plays an essential role in regulating calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) signaling and homeostasis. No systematic approach on the identification of phosphorylation-dependent Ca{sup 2+}/CaM binding proteins has been published. Herein, we report a proteome-wide study of phosphorylation-dependent CaM binding proteins from mammalian cells. This method, termed 'Dynamic Phosphoprotein Complex Trapping', 'DPPC Trapping' for short, utilizes a combination of in vivo and in vitro assays. The basic strategy is to drastically shift the equilibrium towards endogenous phosphorylation of Ser, Thr, and Tyr at the global scale by inhibiting corresponding phosphatases in vivo. The phosphorylation-dependent calmodulin-binding proteins are then trapped in vitro in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner by CaM-Sepharose chromatography. Finally, the isolated calmodulin-binding proteins are separated by SDS-PAGE and identified by LC/MS/MS. In parallel, the phosphorylation-dependent binding is visualized by silver staining and/or Western blotting. Using this method, we selectively identified over 120 CaM-associated proteins including many previously uncharacterized. We verified ubiquitin-protein ligase EDD1, inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor type 1 (IP{sub 3}R1), and ATP-dependent RNA helicase DEAD box protein 3 (DDX3), as phosphorylation-dependent CaM binding proteins. To demonstrate the utilities of our method in understanding biological pathways, we showed that pSer/Thr of IP{sub 3}R1 in vivo by staurosporine-sensitive kinase(s), but not by PKA/PKG/PKC, significantly reduced the affinity of its Ca{sup 2+}-dependent CaM binding. However, pSer/Thr of IP{sub 3}R1 did not substantially affect its Ca{sup 2+}-independent CaM binding. We further showed that phosphatase PP1, but not PP2A or PP2B

  15. Targeting Protein Kinase CK2: Evaluating CX-4945 Potential for GL261 Glioblastoma Therapy in Immunocompetent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferrer-Font

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM causes poor survival in patients even with aggressive treatment. Temozolomide (TMZ is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment but resistance always ensues. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2 contributes to tumour development and proliferation in cancer, and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Accordingly, targeting CK2 in GBM may benefit patients. Our goal has been to evaluate whether CK2 inhibitors (iCK2s could increase survival in an immunocompetent preclinical GBM model. Cultured GL261 cells were treated with different iCK2s including CX-4945, and target effects evaluated in vitro. CX-4945 was found to decrease CK2 activity and Akt(S129 phosphorylation in GL261 cells. Longitudinal in vivo studies with CX-4945 alone or in combination with TMZ were performed in tumour-bearing mice. Increase in survival (p < 0.05 was found with combined CX-4945 and TMZ metronomic treatment (54.7 ± 11.9 days, n = 6 when compared to individual metronomic treatments (CX-4945: 24.5 ± 2.0 and TMZ: 38.7 ± 2.7, n = 6 and controls (22.5 ± 1.2, n = 6. Despite this, CX-4945 did not improve mice outcome when administered on every/alternate days, either alone or in combination with 3-cycle TMZ. The highest survival rate was obtained with the metronomic combined TMZ+CX-4945 every 6 days, pointing to the participation of the immune system or other ancillary mechanism in therapy response.

  16. Targeting Protein Kinase CK2: Evaluating CX-4945 Potential for GL261 Glioblastoma Therapy in Immunocompetent Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Font, Laura; Villamañan, Lucia; Arias-Ramos, Nuria; Vilardell, Jordi; Plana, Maria; Ruzzene, Maria; Pinna, Lorenzo A.; Itarte, Emilio; Arús, Carles; Candiota, Ana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) causes poor survival in patients even with aggressive treatment. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard chemotherapeutic choice for GBM treatment but resistance always ensues. Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) contributes to tumour development and proliferation in cancer, and it is overexpressed in human GBM. Accordingly, targeting CK2 in GBM may benefit patients. Our goal has been to evaluate whether CK2 inhibitors (iCK2s) could increase survival in an immunocompetent preclinical GBM model. Cultured GL261 cells were treated with different iCK2s including CX-4945, and target effects evaluated in vitro. CX-4945 was found to decrease CK2 activity and Akt(S129) phosphorylation in GL261 cells. Longitudinal in vivo studies with CX-4945 alone or in combination with TMZ were performed in tumour-bearing mice. Increase in survival (p < 0.05) was found with combined CX-4945 and TMZ metronomic treatment (54.7 ± 11.9 days, n = 6) when compared to individual metronomic treatments (CX-4945: 24.5 ± 2.0 and TMZ: 38.7 ± 2.7, n = 6) and controls (22.5 ± 1.2, n = 6). Despite this, CX-4945 did not improve mice outcome when administered on every/alternate days, either alone or in combination with 3-cycle TMZ. The highest survival rate was obtained with the metronomic combined TMZ+CX-4945 every 6 days, pointing to the participation of the immune system or other ancillary mechanism in therapy response. PMID:28208677

  17. Protein kinase CK2 inhibition is associated with the destabilization of HIF-1α in human cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Barbara; Rasmussen, Tine D. L.; Schnitzler, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Screening for protein kinase CK2 inhibitors of the structural diversity compound library (DTP NCI/NIH) led to the discovery of 4-[(E)-(fluoren-9-ylidenehydrazinylidene)-methyl]benzoic acid (E9). E9 induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cell lines and upon hypoxia, the compound suppresses...... and maize CK2alpha in complex with E9 reveals unique binding properties of the inhibitor to the enzyme, accounting for its affinity and selectivity....... CK2-catalyzed HSP90/Cdc37 phosphorylation and induces HIF-1alpha degradation. Furthermore, E9 exerts a strong anti-tumour activity by inducing necrosis in murine xenograft models underlining its potential to be used for cancer treatment in future clinical studies. Crystal structure analysis of human...

  18. Annexin-1 Mediates Microglial Activation and Migration via the CK2 Pathway during Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Annexin-1 (ANXA1 has shown neuroprotective effects and microglia play significant roles during central nervous system injury, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study sought to determine whether ANXA1 regulates microglial response to oxygen–glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R treatment and to clarify the downstream molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, OGD/R treatment enhanced the ANXA1 expression in neuron, the formyl peptide receptor (FPRs expression in microglia, and the microglial activation in the CA1 region (cornu ammonis 1. These effects were reversed by the FPRs antagonist Boc1. The cell membrane currents amplitude of BV-2 microglia (the microglial like cell-line was increased when treated with Ac2-26, the N-terminal peptide of ANXA1. Ac2-26 treatment enhanced BV-2 microglial migration whereas Boc1 treatment inhibited the migration. In BV-2 microglia, both the expression of the CK2 target phosphorylated α-E-catenin and the binding of casein kinase II (CK2 with α-E-catenin were elevated by Ac2-26, these effects were counteracted by the CK2 inhibitor TBB and small interfering (si RNA directed against transcripts of CK2 and FPRs. Moreover, both TBB and siRNA-mediated inhibition of CK2 blocked Ac2-26-mediated BV-2 microglia migration. Our findings indicate that ANXA1 promotes microglial activation and migration during OGD/R via FPRs, and CK2 target α-E-catenin phosphorylation is involved in this process.

  19. MRE11 stability is regulated by CK2-dependent interaction with R2TP complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    von Morgen, Patrick; Burdová, Kamila; Flower, T.G.; O'Reilly, N.J.; Boulton, S.J.; Smerdon, S.J.; Macůrek, Libor; Hořejší, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 34 (2017), s. 4943-4950 ISSN 0950-9232 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-34264S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : strand break repair * telangiectasia-like disorder * rna-polymerase-ii * clinical presentation * dna adducts * phosphorylation * hsp90 * protein * cancer * cochaperone Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 7.519, year: 2016

  20. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein Function Is Regulated via a Flexible Pocket and Novel Phosphorylation-Dependent Mechanism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E.; Clark, Matthew C.; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics. PMID:19103740

  1. Raf kinase inhibitory protein function is regulated via a flexible pocket and novel phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E; Clark, Matthew C; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-03-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics.

  2. The regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 regulates cell-cycle progression at the onset of mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, C W; Olsen, B B; Meek, D

    2008-01-01

    25 dual-specificity phosphatase family members. In somatic cells, Wee1 is downregulated by phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated degradation to ensure rapid activation of CDK1 at the beginning of M phase. Here, we show that downregulation of the regulatory beta-subunit of protein kinase CK2 by RNA...

  3. Selectivity analysis of protein kinase CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBB and resorufin in cisplatin-induced stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz, Gerhard; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann

    2009-01-01

    Targeting protein kinases as a therapeutic approach to treat various diseases, especially cancer is currently a fast growing business. Although many inhibitors are available, exhibiting remarkable potency, the major challenge is their selectivity. Here we show that the protein kinase CK2 inhibito...

  4. The functional interplay between protein kinase CK2 and CCA1 transcriptional activity is essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Portolés

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are daily biological oscillations driven by an endogenous mechanism known as circadian clock. The protein kinase CK2 is one of the few clock components that is evolutionary conserved among different taxonomic groups. CK2 regulates the stability and nuclear localization of essential clock proteins in mammals, fungi, and insects. Two CK2 regulatory subunits, CKB3 and CKB4, have been also linked with the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian system. However, the biological relevance and the precise mechanisms of CK2 function within the plant clockwork are not known. By using ChIP and Double-ChIP experiments together with in vivo luminescence assays at different temperatures, we were able to identify a temperature-dependent function for CK2 modulating circadian period length. Our study uncovers a previously unpredicted mechanism for CK2 antagonizing the key clock regulator CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1. CK2 activity does not alter protein accumulation or subcellular localization but interferes with CCA1 binding affinity to the promoters of the oscillator genes. High temperatures enhance the CCA1 binding activity, which is precisely counterbalanced by the CK2 opposing function. Altering this balance by over-expression, mutation, or pharmacological inhibition affects the temperature compensation profile, providing a mechanism by which plants regulate circadian period at changing temperatures. Therefore, our study establishes a new model demonstrating that two opposing and temperature-dependent activities (CCA1-CK2 are essential for clock temperature compensation in Arabidopsis.

  5. CARACTERIZACION DE LA PROTEINA QUINASA CK2 EN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA Y SU PAPEL EN LA RESPUESTA DE DEFENSA A ESTRES OXIDATIVO.

    OpenAIRE

    SALINAS SALVO, PAULA ANDREA; SALINAS SALVO, PAULA ANDREA

    2006-01-01

    CK2 es una proteína quinasa heterotetramérica compuesta de dos subunidades catalíticas a y dos subunidades reguladoras P. CK2 es esencial, esta presente en todos los organismos eucariontes y regula una gran cantidad de procesos celulares como por ejemplo 180p.

  6. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean; Rayapuram, Naganand; Pflieger, Delphine; Hirt, Heribert

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  7. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bigeard, Jean

    2014-07-10

    In eukaryotes, most of the DNA is located in the nucleus where it is organized with histone proteins in a higher order structure as chromatin. Chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins contribute to DNA-related processes such as replication and transcription as well as epigenetic regulation. Protein functions are often regulated by PTMs among which phosphorylation is one of the most abundant PTM. Phosphorylation of proteins affects important properties, such as enzyme activity, protein stability, or subcellular localization. We here describe the main specificities of protein phosphorylation in plants and review the current knowledge on phosphorylation-dependent regulation of plant chromatin and chromatin-associated proteins. We also outline some future challenges to further elucidate protein phosphorylation and chromatin regulation.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta-subunit antibody of the IgG class for the direct detection of CK2 beta-subunit in tissue cultures of various mammalian species and human tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastainczyk, W; Schmidt-Spaniol, I; Boldyreff, B

    1995-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-protein kinase CK2 beta antibody was isolated and characterized. The antibody detects 1 pmol of purified recombinant CK2 beta-subunit after analysis on SDS-PAGE. Alternatively undenatured CK2 beta-subunit was detected by an ELISA assay either as recombinant CK2 beta......-subunit or in the CK2 holoenzyme (alpha 2 beta 2). Here, concentrations of the first antibody of 1 ng/ml still allowed the detection of the subunit. Immunoblotting of crude cellular extracts from various tissue cultures (man, mouse, and hamster), from human tumors, and the nonneoplastic tissue allowed the detection...... of the CK2 beta-subunit. The detected epitope of this antibody was, as determined by the epitope analysis technique, 123GLSDI127....

  9. Enhancing chemosensitivity to gemcitabine via RNA interference targeting the catalytic subunits of protein kinase CK2 in human pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreutzer, Jan N; Ruzzene, Maria; Guerra, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a complex genetic disorder that is characterized by rapid progression, invasiveness, resistance to treatment and high molecular heterogeneity. Various agents have been used in clinical trials showing only modest improvements with respect to gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, which continues to be the standard first-line treatment for this disease. However, owing to the overwhelming molecular alterations that have been reported in pancreatic cancer, there is increasing focus on targeting molecular pathways and networks, rather than individual genes or gene-products with a combination of novel chemotherapeutic agents. Cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the individual CK2 subunits. The CK2 protein expression levels were determined and the effect of its down-regulation on chemosensitization of pancreatic cancer cells was investigated. The present study examined the impact on cell death following depletion of the individual protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunits alone or in combination with gemcitabine and the molecular mechanisms by which this effect is achieved. Depletion of the CK2α or -α' subunits in combination with gemcitabine resulted in marked apoptotic and necrotic cell death in PANC-1 cells. We show that the mechanism of cell death is associated with deregulation of distinct survival signaling pathways. Cellular depletion of CK2α leads to phosphorylation and activation of MKK4/JNK while down-regulation of CK2α' exerts major effects on the PI3K/AKT pathway. Results reported here show that the two catalytic subunits of CK2 contribute differently to enhance gemcitabine-induced cell death, the reduced level of CK2α' being the most effective and that simultaneous reduction in the expression of CK2 and other survival factors might be an effective therapeutic strategy for enhancing the sensitivity of human pancreatic cancer towards chemotherapeutic agents

  10. The phosphorylation-dependent regulation of nuclear SREBP1 during mitosis links lipid metabolism and cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoechea-Alonso, Maria Teresa; Ericsson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The SREBP transcription factors are major regulators of lipid metabolism. Disturbances in lipid metabolism are at the core of several health issues facing modern society, including cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. In addition, the role of lipid metabolism in cancer cell growth is receiving increased attention. Transcriptionally active SREBP molecules are unstable and rapidly degraded in a phosphorylation-dependent manner by Fbw7, a ubiquitin ligase that targets several cell cycle regulatory proteins for degradation. We have previously demonstrated that active SREBP1 is stabilized during mitosis. We have now delineated the mechanisms involved in the stabilization of SREBP1 in mitotic cells. This process is initiated by the phosphorylation of a specific serine residue in nuclear SREBP1 by the mitotic kinase Cdk1. The phosphorylation of this residue creates a docking site for a separate mitotic kinase, Plk1. Plk1 interacts with nuclear SREBP1 in mitotic cells and phosphorylates a number of residues in the C-terminal domain of the protein, including a threonine residue in close proximity of the Fbw7 docking site in SREBP1. The phosphorylation of these residues by Plk1 blocks the interaction between SREBP1 and Fbw7 and attenuates the Fbw7-dependent degradation of nuclear SREBP1 during cell division. Inactivation of SREBP1 results in a mitotic defect, suggesting that SREBP1 could regulate cell division. We propose that the mitotic phosphorylation and stabilization of nuclear SREBP1 during cell division provides a link between lipid metabolism and cell proliferation. Thus, the current study provides additional support for the emerging hypothesis that SREBP-dependent lipid metabolism may be important for cell growth. PMID:27579997

  11. CK2 phosphorylation of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 protein regulates its cellular traffic and secretion but not its DNA transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu da Silva, Isabel Caetano; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; Maciel, Renata de Moraes; da Costa, Rodrigo Furtado Madeiro; Furtado, Daniel Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Francisco Meirelles Bastos; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado

    2011-01-01

    The helminth Schistosoma mansoni parasite resides in mesenteric veins where fecundated female worms lay hundred of eggs daily. Some of the egg antigens are trapped in the liver and induce a vigorous granulomatous response. High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear factor, can also be secreted and act as a cytokine. Schistosome HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) is secreted by the eggs and stimulate the production of key cytokines involved in the pathology of schistosomiasis. Thus, understanding the mechanism of SmHMGB1 release becomes mandatory. Here, we addressed the question of how the nuclear SmHMGB1 can reach the extracellular space. We showed in vitro and in vivo that CK2 phosphorylation was involved in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SmHMGB1. By site-directed mutagenesis we mapped the two serine residues of SmHMGB1 that were phosphorylated by CK2. By DNA bending and supercoiling assays we showed that CK2 phosphorylation of SmHMGB1 had no effect in the DNA binding activities of the protein. We showed by electron microscopy, as well as by cell transfection and fluorescence microscopy that SmHMGB1 was present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of adult schistosomes and mammalian cells. In addition, we showed that treatments of the cells with either a phosphatase or a CK2 inhibitor were able to enhance or block, respectively, the cellular traffic of SmHMGB1. Importantly, we showed by confocal microscopy and biochemically that SmHMGB1 is significantly secreted by S. mansoni eggs of infected animals and that SmHMGB1 that were localized in the periovular schistosomotic granuloma were phosphorylated. We showed that secretion of SmHMGB1 is regulated by phosphorylation. Moreover, our results suggest that egg-secreted SmHMGB1 may represent a new egg antigen. Therefore, the identification of drugs that specifically target phosphorylation of SmHMGB1 might block its secretion and interfere with the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis.

  12. CK2 phosphorylation of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 protein regulates its cellular traffic and secretion but not its DNA transactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caetano de Abreu da Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The helminth Schistosoma mansoni parasite resides in mesenteric veins where fecundated female worms lay hundred of eggs daily. Some of the egg antigens are trapped in the liver and induce a vigorous granulomatous response. High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1, a nuclear factor, can also be secreted and act as a cytokine. Schistosome HMGB1 (SmHMGB1 is secreted by the eggs and stimulate the production of key cytokines involved in the pathology of schistosomiasis. Thus, understanding the mechanism of SmHMGB1 release becomes mandatory. Here, we addressed the question of how the nuclear SmHMGB1 can reach the extracellular space. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We showed in vitro and in vivo that CK2 phosphorylation was involved in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SmHMGB1. By site-directed mutagenesis we mapped the two serine residues of SmHMGB1 that were phosphorylated by CK2. By DNA bending and supercoiling assays we showed that CK2 phosphorylation of SmHMGB1 had no effect in the DNA binding activities of the protein. We showed by electron microscopy, as well as by cell transfection and fluorescence microscopy that SmHMGB1 was present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of adult schistosomes and mammalian cells. In addition, we showed that treatments of the cells with either a phosphatase or a CK2 inhibitor were able to enhance or block, respectively, the cellular traffic of SmHMGB1. Importantly, we showed by confocal microscopy and biochemically that SmHMGB1 is significantly secreted by S. mansoni eggs of infected animals and that SmHMGB1 that were localized in the periovular schistosomotic granuloma were phosphorylated. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that secretion of SmHMGB1 is regulated by phosphorylation. Moreover, our results suggest that egg-secreted SmHMGB1 may represent a new egg antigen. Therefore, the identification of drugs that specifically target phosphorylation of SmHMGB1 might block its secretion and interfere with the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis.

  13. Acetaldehyde dissociates the PTP1B–E-cadherin–β-catenin complex in Caco-2 cell monolayers by a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Parimal; Seth, Ankur; Atkinson, Katherine J.; Gheyi, Tarun; Kale, Gautam; Giorgianni, Francesco; Desiderio, Dominic M.; Li, Chunying; Naren, Anjaparavanda; Rao, Radhakrishna

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between E-cadherin, β-catenin and PTP1B (protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B) are crucial for the organization of AJs (adherens junctions) and epithelial cell–cell adhesion. In the present study, the effect of acetaldehyde on the AJs and on the interactions between E-cadherin, β-catenin and PTP1B was determined in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Treatment of cell monolayers with acetaldehyde induced redistribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin from the intercellular junctions by a tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. The PTPase activity associated with E-cadherin and β-catenin was significantly reduced and the interaction of PTP1B with E-cadherin and β-catenin was attenuated by acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde treatment resulted in phosphorylation of β-catenin on tyrosine residues, and abolished the interaction of β-catenin with E-cadherin by a tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism. Protein binding studies showed that the treatment of cells with acetaldehyde reduced the binding of β-catenin to the C-terminal region of E-cadherin. Pairwise binding studies using purified proteins indicated that the direct interaction between E-cadherin and β-catenin was reduced by tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, but was unaffected by tyrosine phosphorylation of E-cadherin-C. Treatment of cells with acetaldehyde also reduced the binding of E-cadherin to GST (glutathione S-transferase)–PTP1B. The pairwise binding study showed that GST–E-cadherin-C binds to recombinant PTP1B, but this binding was significantly reduced by tyrosine phosphorylation of E-cadherin. Acetaldehyde increased the phosphorylation of β-catenin on Tyr-331, Tyr-333, Tyr-654 and Tyr-670. These results show that acetaldehyde induces disruption of interactions between E-cadherin, β-catenin and PTP1B by a phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. PMID:17087658

  14. Development of Pharmacophore Model for Indeno[1,2-b]indoles as Human Protein Kinase CK2 Inhibitors and Database Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Haidar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase CK2, initially designated as casein kinase 2, is an ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase. This enzyme, implicated in many cellular processes, is highly expressed and active in many tumor cells. A large number of compounds has been developed as inhibitors comprising different backbones. Beside others, structures with an indeno[1,2-b]indole scaffold turned out to be potent new leads. With the aim of developing new inhibitors of human protein kinase CK2, we report here on the generation of common feature pharmacophore model to further explain the binding requirements for human CK2 inhibitors. Nine common chemical features of indeno[1,2-b]indole-type CK2 inhibitors were determined using MOE software (Chemical Computing Group, Montreal, Canada. This pharmacophore model was used for database mining with the aim to identify novel scaffolds for developing new potent and selective CK2 inhibitors. Using this strategy several structures were selected by searching inside the ZINC compound database. One of the selected compounds was bikaverin (6,11-dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxy-1-methylbenzo[b]xanthene-7,10,12-trione, a natural compound which is produced by several kinds of fungi. This compound was tested on human recombinant CK2 and turned out to be an active inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1.24 µM.

  15. Characterization of protein kinase CK2 protein subunits and p53 in F9 teratocarcinoma cells in the absence and presence of cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küpper, M; Köster, M; Schmidt-Spaniol, I

    1994-01-01

    cell extracts treated with and without cisplatin were analyzed by ion exchange chromatography for protein kinase CK2 alpha/beta subunits and p53 distribution. The following results were obtained: (a) in crude extracts of cisplatin-treated cells, CK2 activity was sometimes reduced by as much as 50%; (b......The effect of cis-diaminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin) on the induction of p53 and protein kinase CK2 activity was studied in the mouse teratocarcinoma cell line F9. Treatment of the cells with the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin led to the detection of p53 3 h after addition of the drug. F9...... by immunostaining, we have detected, at a concentration of approximately 200 mM NaCl, a protein of approximately 46 kDa which reacted with the CK2 alpha-specific antibody. This fraction was devoid of CK2 activity; and (d) cisplatin-treated cells exhibited p53 protein, which was mostly eluting ahead but also partly...

  16. A fragment-based approach leading to the discovery of a novel binding site and the selective CK2 inhibitor CAM4066.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fusco, Claudia; Brear, Paul; Iegre, Jessica; Georgiou, Kathy Hadje; Sore, Hannah F; Hyvönen, Marko; Spring, David R

    2017-07-01

    Recently we reported the discovery of a potent and selective CK2α inhibitor CAM4066. This compound inhibits CK2 activity by exploiting a pocket located outside the ATP binding site (αD pocket). Here we describe in detail the journey that led to the discovery of CAM4066 using the challenging fragment linking strategy. Specifically, we aimed to develop inhibitors by linking a high-affinity fragment anchored in the αD site to a weakly binding warhead fragment occupying the ATP site. Moreover, we describe the remarkable impact that molecular modelling had on the development of this novel chemical tool. The work described herein shows potential for the development of a novel class of CK2 inhibitors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Ck2-Dependent Phosphorylation Is Required to Maintain Pax7 Protein Levels in Proliferating Muscle Progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia González

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle regeneration and long term maintenance is directly link to the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of resident adult stem cells known as satellite cells. In turn, satellite cell fate is influenced by a functional interaction between the transcription factor Pax7 and members of the MyoD family of muscle regulatory factors. Thus, changes in the Pax7-to-MyoD protein ratio may act as a molecular rheostat fine-tuning acquisition of lineage identity while preventing precocious terminal differentiation. Pax7 is expressed in quiescent and proliferating satellite cells, while its levels decrease sharply in differentiating progenitors Pax7 is maintained in cells (reacquiring quiescence. While the mechanisms regulating Pax7 levels based on differentiation status are not well understood, we have recently described that Pax7 levels are directly regulated by the ubiquitin-ligase Nedd4, thus promoting proteasome-dependent Pax7 degradation in differentiating satellite cells. Here we show that Pax7 levels are maintained in proliferating muscle progenitors by a mechanism involving casein kinase 2-dependent Pax7 phosphorylation at S201. Point mutations preventing S201 phosphorylation or casein kinase 2 inhibition result in decreased Pax7 protein in proliferating muscle progenitors. Accordingly, this correlates directly with increased Pax7 ubiquitination. Finally, Pax7 down regulation induced by casein kinase 2 inhibition results in precocious myogenic induction, indicating early commitment to terminal differentiation. These observations highlight the critical role of post translational regulation of Pax7 as a molecular switch controlling muscle progenitor fate.

  18. Protein kinase CK2 phosphorylates the Fas-associated factor FAF1 in vivo and influences its transport into the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Jessen, Vibeke; Højrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We previously identified the Fas-associated factor FAF1 as an in vitro substrate of protein kinase CK2 and determined Ser289 and Ser291 as phosphorylation sites. Here we demonstrate that these two serine residues are the only sites phosphorylated by CK2 in vitro, and that at least one site...... is phosphorylated in vivo. Furthermore, we analyzed putative physiological functions of FAF1 phosphorylation. The ability of FAF1 to potentiate Fas-induced apoptosis is not influenced by the FAF1 phosphorylation status; however, the nuclear import of a phosphorylation-deficient FAF1 mutant was delayed in comparison...

  19. Modified tetrahalogenated benzimidazoles with CK2 inhibitory activity are active against human prostate cancer cells LNCaP in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carolin C; Kartarius, Sabine; Montenarh, Mathias; Orzeszko, Andrzej; Kazimierczuk, Zygmunt

    2012-07-15

    A series of novel CK2 inhibitors, tetrahalogenated benzimidazoles carrying an aminoalkylamino group at position 2, has been prepared by nucleophilic substitution of the respective 2,4,5,6,7-pentabromobenzimidazoles and 2-bromo-4,5,6,7-tetraiodobenzimidazoles. The new derivatives as well as some previously obtained tetrahalogenobenzimidazoles, including 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBI) and 4,5,6,7-tetraiodobenzimidazole (TIBI), were evaluated for activity against the hormone-sensitive human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. The activity of 2-aminoalkylamino derivatives was notably higher (LD(50) 4.75-9.37 μM) than that of TBI and TIBI (LD(50) ≈ 20 μM). The determination of the LD(50) value identified the 2-aminoethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetraiodobenzimidazole with an additional methyl group at position 1 (6) as the most efficient compound (LD(50): 4.75 ± 1.02 μM). Interestingly, there was no clear correlation between cell viability and apoptosis induction indicating additional cell death mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disruption of the regulatory beta subunit of protein kinase CK2 in mice leads to a cell-autonomous defect and early embryonic lethality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchou, Thierry; Vernet, Muriel; Blond, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    in mice leads to postimplantation lethality. Mutant embryos were reduced in size at embryonic day 6.5 (E6.5). They did not exhibit signs of apoptosis but did show reduced cell proliferation. Mutant embryos were resorbed at E7.5. In vitro, CK2beta(-/-) morula development stopped after the blastocyst stage...

  1. Inhibition of nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity by in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2. Differential phosphorylation of NDP kinases in HeLa cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, R M; Engel, M; Sauane, M

    1996-01-01

    that in vitro protein kinase CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation of human NDPK A inhibits its enzymatic activity by inhibiting the first step of its ping-pong mechanism of catalysis: its autophosphorylation. Upon in vivo 32P labeling of HeLa cells, we observed that both human NDPKs, A and B, were autophosphorylated...

  2. Raf-1/CK2 and RhoA/ROCK signaling promote TNF-α-mediated endothelial apoptosis via regulating vimentin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lifeng; Tang, Lian; Dai, Fan; Meng, Guoliang; Yin, Runting; Xu, Xiaole; Yao, Wenjuan

    2017-08-15

    Both RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 pathway play essential roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and multiple other common cellular functions. We previously reported that vimentin is responsible for TNF-α-induced cell apoptosis. Herein, we investigated the regulation of RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 signaling on vimentin filaments and endothelial apoptosis mediated by TNF-α. Treatment with TNF-α significantly induced the activation of RhoA and ROCK, and the expression of ROCK1. RhoA deficiency could obviously inhibit ROCK activation and ROCK1 expression induced by TNF-α. Both RhoA deficiency and ROCK activity inhibition (Y-27632) greatly inhibited endothelial apoptosis and preserved cell viability in TNF-α-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Also vimentin phosphorylation and the remodeling of vimentin or phospho-vimentin induced by TNF-α were obviously attenuated by RhoA suppression and ROCK inhibition. TNF-α-mediated vimentin cleavage was significantly inhibited by RhoA suppression and ROCK inhibition through decreasing the activation of caspase3 and 8. Furthermore, TNF-α treatment greatly enhanced the activation of Raf-1. Suppression of Raf-1 or CK2 by its inhibitor (GW5074 or TBB) blocked vimentin phosphorylation, remodeling and endothelial apoptosis, and preserved cell viability in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. However, Raf-1 inhibition showed no significant effect on TNF-α-induced ROCK expression and activation, suggesting that the regulation of Raf-1/CK2 signaling on vimentin was independent of ROCK. Taken together, these results indicate that both RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 pathway are responsible for TNF-α-mediated endothelial cytotoxicity via regulating vimentin cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The crystal structure of the complex of Zea mays alpha subunit with a fragment of human beta subunit provides the clue to the architecture of protein kinase CK2 holoenzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battistutta, R; Sarno, S; De Moliner, E

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of a complex between the catalytic alpha subunit of Zea mays CK2 and a 23-mer peptide corresponding the C-terminal sequence 181-203 of the human CK2 regulatory beta subunit has been determined at 3.16-A resolution. The complex, composed of two alpha chains and two peptides, ...

  4. Inositol pyrophosphates mediate the DNA-PK/ATM-p53 cell death pathway by regulating CK2 phosphorylation of Tti1/Tel2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Feng; Cha, Jiyoung; Xu, Jing; Xu, Risheng; Vandiver, M. Scott; Tyagi, Richa; Tokhunts, Robert; Koldobskiy, Michael A.; Fu, Chenglai; Barrow, Roxanne; Wu, Mingxuan; Fiedler, Dorothea; Barrow, James C.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    2014-01-01

    The apoptotic actions of p53 require its phosphorylation by a family of phosphoinositide-3-kinase-related-kinases (PIKKs), which include DNA-PKcs and ATM. These kinases are stabilized by the TTT (Tel2, Tti1, Tti2) co-chaperone family, whose actions are mediated by CK2 phosphorylation. The inositol pyrophosphates, such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), are generated by a family of inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks) of which IP6K2 has been implicated in p53-associated cell death. In the present study we report a novel apoptotic signaling cascade linking CK2, TTT, the PIKKs, and p53. We demonstrate that IP7, formed by IP6K2, binds CK2 to enhance its phosphorylation of the TTT complex thereby stabilizing DNA-PKcs and ATM. This process stimulates p53 phosphorylation at serine-15 to activate the cell death program in human cancer cells and in murine B cells. PMID:24657168

  5. A Proteomic Approach to Identify Phosphorylation-Dependent Targets of BRCT Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Biochemistry, 46, 7706-12 (2007) 77. Dulic, A., P. A. Bates, X. Zhang, S. R. Martin, P. S. Freemont , T. Lindahl & D. E . Barnes: BRCT domain interactions in...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Zhou Songyang, Ph.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E -Mail: songyang@bcm.tmc.edu 5f. WORK...50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 MDC1 with BACH 1 peptide sTime RU R es po ns e .1µM MDC1 .2µM MDC1 .5µM MDC1 1µM MDC1 MDC1-BRCT

  6. Phosphorylation-dependent signaling controls degradation of DNA mismatch repair protein PMS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Weßbecher, Isabel M; Huhn, Meik; Passmann, Sandra; Zeuzem, Stefan; Plotz, Guido; Biondi, Ricardo M; Brieger, Angela

    2017-12-01

    MutLα, a heterodimer consisting of MLH1 and PMS2, plays an important role in DNA mismatch repair and has been shown to be additionally involved in several other important cellular mechanisms. Previous work indicated that AKT could modulate PMS2 stability by phosphorylation. Still, the mechanisms of regulation of MutLα remain unclear. The stability of MutLα subunits was investigated by transiently overexpression of wild type and mutant forms of MLH1 and PMS2 using immunoblotting for measuring the protein levels after treatment. We found that treatment with the cell-permeable serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, Calyculin, leads to degradation of PMS2 when MLH1 or its C-terminal domain is missing or if amino acids of MLH1 essential for PMS2 interaction are mutated. In addition, we discovered that the C-terminal tail of PMS2 is relevant for this Calyculin-dependent degradation. A direct involvement of AKT, which was previously described to be responsible for PMS2 degradation, could not be detected. The multi-kinase inhibitor Sorafenib, in contrast, was able to avoid the degradation of PMS2 which postulates that cellular phosphorylation is involved in this process. Together, we show that pharmacologically induced phosphorylation by Calyculin can induce the selective proteasome-dependent degradation of PMS2 but not of MLH1 and that the PMS2 degradation could be blocked by Sorafenib treatment. Curiously, the C-terminal Lynch Syndrome-variants MLH1 L749P and MLH1 Y750X make PMS2 prone to Calyculin induced degradation. Therefore, we conclude that the specific degradation of PMS2 may represent a new mechanism to regulate MutLα. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Unraveling 14-3-3 proteins in C4 panicoids with emphasis on model plant Setaria italica reveals phosphorylation-dependent subcellular localization of RS splicing factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunesh Kumar

    Full Text Available 14-3-3 proteins are a large multigenic family of regulatory proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins are reported to play significant role in both development and response to stress stimuli. Therefore, considering their importance, genome-wide analyses have been performed in many plants including Arabidopsis, rice and soybean. But, till date, no comprehensive investigation has been conducted in any C4 panicoid crops. In view of this, the present study was performed to identify 8, 5 and 26 potential 14-3-3 gene family members in foxtail millet (Si14-3-3, sorghum (Sb14-3-3 and maize (Zm14-3-3, respectively. In silico characterization revealed large variations in their gene structures; segmental and tandem duplications have played a major role in expansion of these genes in foxtail millet and maize. Gene ontology annotation showed the participation of 14-3-3 proteins in diverse biological processes and molecular functions, and in silico expression profiling indicated their higher expression in all the investigated tissues. Comparative mapping was performed to derive the orthologous relationships between 14-3-3 genes of foxtail millet and other Poaceae members, which showed a higher, as well as similar percentage of orthology among these crops. Expression profiling of Si14-3-3 genes during different time-points of abiotic stress and hormonal treatments showed a differential expression pattern of these genes, and sub-cellular localization studies revealed the site of action of Si14-3-3 proteins within the cells. Further downstream characterization indicated the interaction of Si14-3-3 with a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling phosphoprotein (SiRSZ21A in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, and this demonstrates that Si14-3-3 might regulate the splicing events by binding with phosphorylated SiRSZ21A. Taken together, the present study is a comprehensive analysis of 14-3-3 gene family members in foxtail millet, sorghum and maize

  8. Unraveling 14-3-3 proteins in C4 panicoids with emphasis on model plant Setaria italica reveals phosphorylation-dependent subcellular localization of RS splicing factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karunesh; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are a large multigenic family of regulatory proteins ubiquitously found in eukaryotes. In plants, 14-3-3 proteins are reported to play significant role in both development and response to stress stimuli. Therefore, considering their importance, genome-wide analyses have been performed in many plants including Arabidopsis, rice and soybean. But, till date, no comprehensive investigation has been conducted in any C4 panicoid crops. In view of this, the present study was performed to identify 8, 5 and 26 potential 14-3-3 gene family members in foxtail millet (Si14-3-3), sorghum (Sb14-3-3) and maize (Zm14-3-3), respectively. In silico characterization revealed large variations in their gene structures; segmental and tandem duplications have played a major role in expansion of these genes in foxtail millet and maize. Gene ontology annotation showed the participation of 14-3-3 proteins in diverse biological processes and molecular functions, and in silico expression profiling indicated their higher expression in all the investigated tissues. Comparative mapping was performed to derive the orthologous relationships between 14-3-3 genes of foxtail millet and other Poaceae members, which showed a higher, as well as similar percentage of orthology among these crops. Expression profiling of Si14-3-3 genes during different time-points of abiotic stress and hormonal treatments showed a differential expression pattern of these genes, and sub-cellular localization studies revealed the site of action of Si14-3-3 proteins within the cells. Further downstream characterization indicated the interaction of Si14-3-3 with a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling phosphoprotein (SiRSZ21A) in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, and this demonstrates that Si14-3-3 might regulate the splicing events by binding with phosphorylated SiRSZ21A. Taken together, the present study is a comprehensive analysis of 14-3-3 gene family members in foxtail millet, sorghum and maize, which provides

  9. Inhibition of protein kinase CK2 reduces CYP24A1 expression and enhances 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 anti-tumor activity in human prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Yu, Wei-Dong; Ma, Yingyu; Chernov, Mikhail; Trump, Donald L.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has broad range of physiological functions and anti-tumor effects. 24-hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP24A1 gene, is the key enzyme for degrading many forms of vitamin D including the most active form, 1,25D3. Inhibition of CYP24A1 enhances 1,25D3 anti-tumor activity. In order to isolate regulators of CYP24A1 expression in prostate cancer cells, we established a stable prostate cancer cell line PC3 with CYP24A1 promoter driving luciferase expression to screen a small molecular library for compounds that inhibit CYP24A1 promoter activity. From this screening, we identified, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzimidazole (TBBz), a protein kinase CK2 selective inhibitor as a disruptor of CYP24A1 promoter activity. We show that TBBz inhibits CYP24A1 promoter activity induced by 1,25D3 in prostate cancer cells. In addition, TBBz downregulates endogenous CYP24A1 mRNA level in TBBz treated PC3 cells. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated CK2 knockdown reduces 1,25D3 induced CYP24A1 mRNA expression in PC3 cells. These results suggest that CK2 contributes to 1,25D3 mediated target gene expression. Lastly, inhibition of CK2 by TBBz or CK2 siRNA significantly enhanced 1,25D3 mediated anti-proliferative effect in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft model. In summary, our findings reveal that protein kinase CK2 is involved in the regulation of CYP24A1 expression by 1,25D3 and CK2 inhibitor enhances 1,25D3 mediated anti-tumor effect. PMID:23358686

  10. [The CK2 inhibitor quninalizarin enhances the anti-proliferative effect of icotinib on EGFR-TKIs-resistant cell lines and its underlying mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Zhang, S; Li, K; Li, Q W; Zhou, F Z; Li, Z Y; Ma, H; Dong, X R; Liu, L; Wu, G; Meng, R

    2016-02-01

    To explore whether quninalizarin, an specific inhibitor of protein kinase CK2, could sensitize icotinib in EGFR-TKIs (epithelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor)-resistant cell lines and uncover the underlying mechanisms. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of quninalizarin, icotinib or the combination of both on cell proliferation in several lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Western blot assay was used to assess if combined inhibition of EGFR and protein kinase CK2 by icotinib and quninalizarin, exerts effect on the expression and phosphorylation of major proteins of EGFR signaling pathways. The IC50 of HCC827, H1650, H1975 and A549 cells for icotinib were (8.07±2.00)μmol/L, (66.01±6.64)μmol/L, (265.60±9.47)μmol/L and (87.88±6.8)μmol/L, respectively, indicating that HCC827 cells are sensitive to icotinib, and the H1650, H1975 and A549 cells are relatively resistant to icotinib. When treated with both quninalizarin and icotinib in the concentration of 50 μmol/L, the viability of H1650, H1975 and A549 cells was (40.64±3.73)%, (65.74±3.27)% and (44.96±0.48)%, respectively, significantly lower than that of H1650, H1975 and A549 cells treated with 50 μmol/L icotinib alone (55.05±1.22)%, (71.98±1.60)% and (61.74±6.18)%, respectively (Picotinib, the viability of H1650, H1975 and A549 ells were (23.35±0.81)%, (55.70±1.03)%, (33.42±1.33)%, respectively, significantly lower than the viability of H1650, H1975 and A549 cells treated with 100 μmol/L icotinib alone (40.57±2.65)%, (62.40±2.05)% and (44.97±8.20)%, respectively, (Picotinib alone, the viability of cells treated with icotinib and quinalizarin were significantly suppressed, and the differences were statistically significant (Picotinib together in the H1650 cells while the expression of Akt and ERK changed little. Quinalizarin, as a specific CK2 inhibitor, may overcome icotinib resistance by inhibiting proliferation mediated by Akt and ERK in human lung

  11. Apigenin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells through targeting the trinity of CK2, Cdc37 and Hsp90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yuan-Ji

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a B-cell malignancy that is largely incurable and is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Apigenin, a common flavonoid, has been reported to suppress proliferation in a wide variety of solid tumors and hematological cancers; however its mechanism is not well understood and its effect on MM cells has not been determined. Results In this study, we investigated the effects of apigenin on MM cell lines and on primary MM cells. Cell viability assays demonstrated that apigenin exhibited cytotoxicity against both MM cell lines and primary MM cells but not against normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together, kinase assays, immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis showed that apigenin inhibited CK2 kinase activity, decreased phosphorylation of Cdc37, disassociated the Hsp90/Cdc37/client complex and induced the degradation of multiple kinase clients, including RIP1, Src, Raf-1, Cdk4 and AKT. By depleting these kinases, apigenin suppressed both constitutive and inducible activation of STAT3, ERK, AKT and NF-κB. The treatment also downregulated the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and Survivin, which ultimately induced apoptosis in MM cells. In addition, apigenin had a greater effects in depleting Hsp90 clients when used in combination with the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin and the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat. Conclusions Our results suggest that the primary mechanisms by which apigenin kill MM cells is by targeting the trinity of CK2-Cdc37-Hsp90, and this observation reveals the therapeutic potential of apigenin in treating multiple myeloma.

  12. Safety and preliminary efficacy data of a novel Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) peptide inhibitor administered intralesionally at four dose levels in patients with cervical malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solares, Ana M; Alonso, Daniel F; Herrera, Luis; Sigman, Hugo; Perea, Silvio E; Acevedo, Boris E; López-Saura, Pedro; Santana, Agueda; Baladrón, Idania; Valenzuela, Carmen; González, Carlos A; Díaz, Alina; Castillo, Dagnelia; Ramos, Thelvia; Gómez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is now considered the second leading cause of death among women worldwide, and its incidence has reached alarming levels, especially in developing countries. Similarly, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), the precursor stage for cervical cancer, represents a growing health problem among younger women as the HSIL management regimes that have been developed are not fully effective. From the etiological point of view, the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been demonstrated to play a crucial role for developing cervical malignancies, and viral DNA has been detected in 99.7% of cervical tumors at the later stages. CIGB-300 is a novel cyclic synthetic peptide that induces apoptosis in malignant cells and elicits antitumor activity in cancer animal models. CIGB-300 impairs the Casein Kinase (CK2) phosphorylation, by targeting the substrate's phosphoaceptor domain. Based on the perspectives of CIGB-300 to treat cancer, this 'first-in-human' study investigated its safety and tolerability in patients with cervical malignancies. Thirty-one women with colposcopically and histologically diagnosed microinvasive or pre-invasive cervical cancer were enrolled in a dose escalating study. CIGB-300 was administered sequentially at 14, 70, 245 and 490 mg by intralesional injections during 5 consecutive days to groups of 7 – 10 patients. Toxicity was monitored daily until fifteen days after the end of treatment, when patients underwent conization. Digital colposcopy, histology, and HPV status were also evaluated. No maximum-tolerated dose or dose-limiting toxicity was achieved. The most frequent local events were pain, bleeding, hematoma and erythema at the injection site. The systemic adverse events were rash, facial edema, itching, hot flashes, and localized cramps. 75% of the patients experienced a significant lesion reduction at colposcopy and 19% exhibited full histological regression. HPV DNA was negative in 48% of the

  13. Synergistic activation of NF-κB by nontypeable H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae is mediated by CK2, IKKβ-IκBα, and p38 MAPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Soo-Mi; Wang, Beinan; Rixter, Davida; Lim, Jae Hyang; Koga, Tomoaki; Ishinaga, Hajime; Chen, L.-F.; Jono, Hirofumi; Xu Haidong; Li, J.-D.

    2006-01-01

    In review of the past studies on NF-κB regulation, most of them have focused on investigating how NF-κB is activated by a single inducer at a time. Given the fact that, in mixed bacterial infections in vivo, multiple inflammation inducers, including both nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are present simultaneously, a key issue that has yet to be addressed is whether NTHi and S. pneumoniae simultaneously activate NF-κB and the subsequent inflammatory response in a synergistic manner. Here, we show that NTHi and S. pneumoniae synergistically induce NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response via activation of multiple signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. The classical IKKβ-IκBα and p38 MAPK pathways are involved in synergistic activation of NF-κB via two distinct mechanisms, p65 nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Moreover, casein kinase 2 (CK2) is involved in synergistic induction of NF-κB via a mechanism dependent on phosphorylation of p65 at both Ser536 and Ser276 sites. These studies bring new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the NF-κB-dependent inflammatory response in polymicrobial infections and may lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies for modulating inflammation in mixed infections for patients with otitis media and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases

  14. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Ikaros Induced by Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Regulates Cell Cycle Progression of B Lymphoblast Through CK2 and AKT Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Jun; Kang, Hana; Kim, Min Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Sung Jin; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Sun; Pyo, Suhkneung; Yang, Kwang Hee

    2016-04-01

    To determine how low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) regulates B lympho-proliferation and its molecular mechanism related with Ikaros, transcription factor. Splenocytes and IM-9 cells were uniformly irradiated with various doses of a (137)Cs γ-source, and cell proliferation was analyzed. To determine the LDIR-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed. To investigate the physiologic function of LDIR-mediatied Ikaros phosphorylation, Ikaros mutants at phosphorylation sites were generated, and cell cycle analysis was performed. First, we found that LDIR enhances B lymphoblast proliferation in an Ikaros-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that LDIR elevates the phosphorylation level of Ikaros protein. Interestingly, we showed that CK2 and AKT are involved in LDIR-induced Ikaros phosphorylation and capable of regulating DNA binding activity of Ikaros via specific phosphorylation. Finally, we identified LDIR-specific Ikaros phosphorylation sites at S391/S393 and showed that the Ikaros phosphorylations at these sites control Ikaros's ability to regulate G1/S cell cycle progression. Low-dose ionizing radiation specifically phosphorylates Ikaros protein at Ser 391/393 residues to regulate cell cycle progression in B lymphoblast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Ikaros Induced by Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Regulates Cell Cycle Progression of B Lymphoblast Through CK2 and AKT Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seong-Jun; Kang, Hana; Kim, Min Young; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Sung Jin; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Sun; Pyo, Suhkneung; Yang, Kwang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) regulates B lympho-proliferation and its molecular mechanism related with Ikaros, transcription factor. Methods and Materials: Splenocytes and IM-9 cells were uniformly irradiated with various doses of a "1"3"7Cs γ-source, and cell proliferation was analyzed. To determine the LDIR-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed. To investigate the physiologic function of LDIR-mediatied Ikaros phosphorylation, Ikaros mutants at phosphorylation sites were generated, and cell cycle analysis was performed. Results: First, we found that LDIR enhances B lymphoblast proliferation in an Ikaros-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that LDIR elevates the phosphorylation level of Ikaros protein. Interestingly, we showed that CK2 and AKT are involved in LDIR-induced Ikaros phosphorylation and capable of regulating DNA binding activity of Ikaros via specific phosphorylation. Finally, we identified LDIR-specific Ikaros phosphorylation sites at S391/S393 and showed that the Ikaros phosphorylations at these sites control Ikaros's ability to regulate G1/S cell cycle progression. Conclusion: Low-dose ionizing radiation specifically phosphorylates Ikaros protein at Ser 391/393 residues to regulate cell cycle progression in B lymphoblast.

  16. Site-Specific Phosphorylation of Ikaros Induced by Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Regulates Cell Cycle Progression of B Lymphoblast Through CK2 and AKT Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seong-Jun; Kang, Hana [KHNP Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Young [Department of Molecular Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Sung Jin; Nam, Seon Young; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hee Sun [KHNP Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pyo, Suhkneung [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kwang Hee, E-mail: kwangheey@khnp.co.kr [KHNP Radiation Health Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    Purpose: To determine how low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) regulates B lympho-proliferation and its molecular mechanism related with Ikaros, transcription factor. Methods and Materials: Splenocytes and IM-9 cells were uniformly irradiated with various doses of a {sup 137}Cs γ-source, and cell proliferation was analyzed. To determine the LDIR-specific phosphorylation of Ikaros, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed. To investigate the physiologic function of LDIR-mediatied Ikaros phosphorylation, Ikaros mutants at phosphorylation sites were generated, and cell cycle analysis was performed. Results: First, we found that LDIR enhances B lymphoblast proliferation in an Ikaros-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that LDIR elevates the phosphorylation level of Ikaros protein. Interestingly, we showed that CK2 and AKT are involved in LDIR-induced Ikaros phosphorylation and capable of regulating DNA binding activity of Ikaros via specific phosphorylation. Finally, we identified LDIR-specific Ikaros phosphorylation sites at S391/S393 and showed that the Ikaros phosphorylations at these sites control Ikaros's ability to regulate G1/S cell cycle progression. Conclusion: Low-dose ionizing radiation specifically phosphorylates Ikaros protein at Ser 391/393 residues to regulate cell cycle progression in B lymphoblast.

  17. Phosphorylation-dependent and -independent functions of p130 cooperate to evoke a sustained G1 block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Farkas, T; Lukas, J

    2001-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (pRb)-related p130 pocket protein is a regulator of cell growth and differentiation, and a candidate tumour suppressor. Both pRb and p130 operate through interactions with cellular proteins, including the E2F transcription factors. While such interactions are controlled...

  18. Inactivation of the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species during protein kinase CK2 downregulation-mediated senescence in human colon cancer and breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong-Yeol; Bae, Young-Seuk, E-mail: ysbae@knu.ac.kr

    2016-09-09

    We previously showed that protein kinase CK2 downregulation mediates senescence through the reactive oxygen species (ROS)–p53–p21{sup Cip1/WAF1} pathway in various human cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with ROS production during CK2 downregulation-induced senescence in human colon cancer HCT116 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. FoxO3a overexpression suppressed ROS production and p53 stabilization induced by a CK2α knockdown. CK2α downregulation induced nuclear export of FoxO3a through stimulation of AKT-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO3a and decreased transcription of its target genes (Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, and catalase). In contrast, CK2α overexpression inhibited AKT-mediated FoxO3a phosphorylation. This resulted in nuclear accumulation of FoxO3a, and elevated expression of its target genes. Therefore, these data indicate for the first time that CK2 downregulation stimulates ROS generation by inhibiting FoxO3a during premature senescence in human colon and breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • FoxO3a overexpression inhibited ROS production mediated by CK2α knockdown. • CK2α downregulation induced nuclear export of FoxO3a via AKT activation. • CK2α downregulation reduced transcription of FoxO3a target genes including SOD. • CK2α upregulation elevated nuclear import and target gene expression of FoxO3a. • This study indicates that CK2 can modulate the intracellular ROS level via FoxO3a.

  19. 14-3-3 Proteins and a 13-lipoxygenase form associations in a phosphorylation-dependent manner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, W.L.; Roberts, M.R.; Wang, M.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated by two different methods that lipoxgenases (LOXs) and 14-3-3 proteins form interactions in barley embryos [Holtman, Roberts, Oppedijk, Testerink, van Zeijl and Wang (2000) FEBS Lett. 474, 48-52]. It was shown by both co-immunoprecipitations and surface-plasmon

  20. Argonaute Utilization for miRNA Silencing Is Determined by Phosphorylation-Dependent Recruitment of LIM-Domain-Containing Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S. Bridge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As core components of the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC, Argonaute (AGO proteins interact with TNRC6 proteins, recruiting other effectors of translational repression/mRNA destabilization. Here, we show that LIMD1 coordinates the assembly of an AGO-TNRC6 containing miRISC complex by binding both proteins simultaneously at distinct interfaces. Phosphorylation of AGO2 at Ser 387 by Akt3 induces LIMD1 binding, which in turn enables AGO2 to interact with TNRC6A and downstream effector DDX6. Conservation of this serine in AGO1 and 4 indicates this mechanism may be a fundamental requirement for AGO function and miRISC assembly. Upon CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of LIMD1, AGO2 miRNA-silencing function is lost and miRNA silencing becomes dependent on a complex formed by AGO3 and the LIMD1 family member WTIP. The switch to AGO3 utilization occurs due to the presence of a glutamic acid residue (E390 on the interaction interface, which allows AGO3 to bind to LIMD1, AJUBA, and WTIP irrespective of Akt signaling.

  1. Inactivation of the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species during protein kinase CK2 downregulation-mediated senescence in human colon cancer and breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Yeol; Bae, Young-Seuk

    2016-09-09

    We previously showed that protein kinase CK2 downregulation mediates senescence through the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-p53-p21(Cip1/WAF1) pathway in various human cells. In the present study, we investigated whether the FoxO3a transcription factor is associated with ROS production during CK2 downregulation-induced senescence in human colon cancer HCT116 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. FoxO3a overexpression suppressed ROS production and p53 stabilization induced by a CK2α knockdown. CK2α downregulation induced nuclear export of FoxO3a through stimulation of AKT-mediated phosphorylation of FoxO3a and decreased transcription of its target genes (Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, and catalase). In contrast, CK2α overexpression inhibited AKT-mediated FoxO3a phosphorylation. This resulted in nuclear accumulation of FoxO3a, and elevated expression of its target genes. Therefore, these data indicate for the first time that CK2 downregulation stimulates ROS generation by inhibiting FoxO3a during premature senescence in human colon and breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Basic residues in the 74-83 and 191-198 segments of protein kinase CK2 catalytic subunit are implicated in negative but not in positive regulation by the beta-subunit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Vaglio, P; Marin, O

    1997-01-01

    by the beta-subunit many fold more than that of alpha wild type, while extrastimulation by beta mutant D55L56E57A, observable with alpha wild type, is abolished with these mutants. These data support the conclusion that down regulation by the acidic residues clustered in the N-terminal moiety of beta...... is mediated by basic residues in the 74-83 and in the 191-198 sequences of the alpha-subunit. These are also implicated in substrate recognition consistent with the concept that the N-terminal acidic region of the beta subunit operates as a pseudosubstrate. In contrast, another CK2alpha mutant, V66A, is more...

  3. Characterization of CK2 holoenzyme variants with regard to crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Niefind, K; Ermakowa, I

    2001-01-01

    severely. One of the approaches chosen was the production of a chimeric holoenzyme made up from a human regulatory subunit and a catalytic subunit from Z. mays. The plant catalytic subunit, in contrast to the human counterpart is very stable and does not undergo this kind of degradation. The second...

  4. Ras-Induced and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 and 2 Phosphorylation-Dependent Isomerization of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase (PTP)-PEST by PIN1 Promotes FAK Dephosphorylation by PTP-PEST ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanhua; Yang, Weiwei; Xia, Yan; Hawke, David; Liu, David X.; Lu, Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST is a critical regulator of cell adhesion and migration. However, the mechanism by which PTP-PEST is regulated in response to oncogenic signaling to dephosphorylate its substrates remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that activated Ras induces extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2-dependent phosphorylation of PTP-PEST at S571, which recruits PIN1 to bind to PTP-PEST. Isomerization of the phosphorylated PTP-PEST by PIN1 increases the interaction between PTP-PEST and FAK, which leads to the dephosphorylation of FAK Y397 and the promotion of migration, invasion, and metastasis of v-H-Ras-transformed cells. These findings uncover an important mechanism for the regulation of PTP-PEST in activated Ras-induced tumor progression. PMID:21876001

  5. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  6. Interaction of Aluminum with PHFτ in Alzheimer’s Disease Neurofibrillary Degeneration Evidenced by Desferrioxamine-Assisted Chelating Autoclave Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Harunobu; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Higuchi, Jun; Shibuya, Satoshi; Muramoto, Tamaki; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate that aluminum III (Al) interacts with PHFτ in neurofibrillary degeneration (NFD) of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain, we developed a “chelating autoclave method” that allows Al chelation by using trivalent-cationic chelator desferrioxamine. Its application to AD brain sections before Morin histochemistry for Al attenuated the positive fluorescence of neurofibrillary tangles, indicating Al removal from them. This method, applied for immunostaining with phosphorylation-dependent anti-τ antibodies, significantly enhanced the PHFτ immunoreactivity of the NFD. These results suggest that each of the phosphorylated epitopes in PHFτ are partially masked by Al binding. Incubation of AD sections with AlCl3 before Morin staining revealed Al accumulation with association to neurofibrillary tangles. Such incubation before immunostaining with the phosphorylation-dependent anti-τ antibodies abolished the immunolabeling of the NFD and this abolition was reversed by the Al chelation. These findings indicate cumulative Al binding to and thereby antigenic masking of the phosphorylated epitopes of PHFτ. Al binding was further documented for electrophoretically-resolved PHFτ on immunoblots, indicating direct Al binding to PHFτ. In vitro aggregation by AlCl3 was observed for PHFτ but was lost on dephosphorylation of PHFτ. Taken together, phosphorylation-dependent and direct PHFτ-Al interaction occurs in the NFD of the AD brain. PMID:10487845

  7. Nuclear proteins interacting with the promoter region of the human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.F.; Gamble, J.R.; Vadas, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The gene for human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is expressed in a tissue-specific as well as an activation-dependent manner. The interaction of nuclear proteins with the promoter region of the GM-CSF gene that is likely to be responsible for this pattern of GM-CSF expression was investigated. The authors show that nuclear proteins interact with DNA fragments from the GM-CSF promoter in a cell-specific manner. A region spanning two cytokine-specific sequences, cytokine 1 (CK-1, 5', GAGATTCCAC 3') and cytokine 2 (CK-2, 5' TCAGGTA 3') bound two nuclear proteins from GM-CSF-expressing cells in gel retardation assays. NF-GMb was inducible with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and accompanied induction of GM-CSF message. NF-GMb was absent in cell lines not producing GM-CSF, some of which had other distinct binding proteins. NF-GMa and NF-GMb eluted from a heparin-Sepharose column at 0.3 and 0.6 M KCl, respectively. They hypothesize that the sequences CK-1 and CK-2 bind specific proteins and regulate GM-CSF transcription

  8. Protein kinase CK2 and its role in cellular proliferation, development and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Issinger, O G

    1999-01-01

    , signaling, proliferation and in various steps of development. The tetrameric holoenzyme (alpha2beta2) consists of two catalytic alpha-subunits and two regulatory beta-subunits. The structure of the catalytic subunit with the fixed positioning of the activation segment in the active conformation through its...

  9. Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation and Its Functional Impact on Protein-Protein Interactions via Text Mining of the Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; Ross, Karen E; Huang, Hongzhan; Ren, Jia; Li, Gang; Vijay-Shanker, K; Wu, Cathy H; Arighi, Cecilia N

    2017-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are one of the main contributors to the diversity of proteoforms in the proteomic landscape. In particular, protein phosphorylation represents an essential regulatory mechanism that plays a role in many biological processes. Protein kinases, the enzymes catalyzing this reaction, are key participants in metabolic and signaling pathways. Their activation or inactivation dictate downstream events: what substrates are modified and their subsequent impact (e.g., activation state, localization, protein-protein interactions (PPIs)). The biomedical literature continues to be the main source of evidence for experimental information about protein phosphorylation. Automatic methods to bring together phosphorylation events and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs can help to summarize the current knowledge and to expose hidden connections. In this chapter, we demonstrate two text mining tools, RLIMS-P and eFIP, for the retrieval and extraction of kinase-substrate-site data and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs from the literature. These tools offer several advantages over a literature search in PubMed as their results are specific for phosphorylation. RLIMS-P and eFIP results can be sorted, organized, and viewed in multiple ways to answer relevant biological questions, and the protein mentions are linked to UniProt identifiers.

  10. Oxidative phosphorylation-dependent regulation of cancer cell apoptosis in response to anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, N; Kumar, S; Marlowe, T; Chaudhary, A K; Kumar, R; Wang, J; O'Malley, J; Boland, P M; Jayanthi, S; Kumar, T K S; Yadava, N; Chandra, D

    2015-11-05

    Cancer cells tend to develop resistance to various types of anticancer agents, whether they adopt similar or distinct mechanisms to evade cell death in response to a broad spectrum of cancer therapeutics is not fully defined. Current study concludes that DNA-damaging agents (etoposide and doxorubicin), ER stressor (thapsigargin), and histone deacetylase inhibitor (apicidin) target oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) for apoptosis induction, whereas other anticancer agents including staurosporine, taxol, and sorafenib induce apoptosis in an OXPHOS-independent manner. DNA-damaging agents promoted mitochondrial biogenesis accompanied by increased accumulation of cellular and mitochondrial ROS, mitochondrial protein-folding machinery, and mitochondrial unfolded protein response. Induction of mitochondrial biogenesis occurred in a caspase activation-independent mechanism but was reduced by autophagy inhibition and p53-deficiency. Abrogation of complex-I blocked DNA-damage-induced caspase activation and apoptosis, whereas inhibition of complex-II or a combined deficiency of OXPHOS complexes I, III, IV, and V due to impaired mitochondrial protein synthesis did not modulate caspase activity. Mechanistic analysis revealed that inhibition of caspase activation in response to anticancer agents associates with decreased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c in complex-I-deficient cells compared with wild type (WT) cells. Gross OXPHOS deficiencies promoted increased release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria compared with WT or complex-I-deficient cells, suggesting that cells harboring defective OXPHOS trigger caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent apoptosis in response to anticancer agents. Interestingly, DNA-damaging agent doxorubicin showed strong binding to mitochondria, which was disrupted by complex-I-deficiency but not by complex-II-deficiency. Thapsigargin-induced caspase activation was reduced upon abrogation of complex-I or gross OXPHOS deficiency whereas a reverse trend was observed with apicidin. Together, these finding provide a new strategy for differential mitochondrial targeting in cancer therapy.

  11. A Proteomic Approach to Identify Phosphorylation-Dependent Targets of BRCT Domains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Songyang, Zhou

    2007-01-01

    .... In addition, BRCT domains are found in many proteins that regulate DNA damage repair, cell cycle, and genome stability, implying a more global role of BRCT domains in genome stability surveillance...

  12. Pregnenolone sulfate modulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors is phosphorylation dependent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovič, Miloš; Sedláček, Miloslav; Cais, Ondřej; Horák, Martin; Chodounská, Hana; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 3 (2009), s. 616-628 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/07/0271; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1498; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSHM-CT-2007-037765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : NMDA * patch-clamp * phosphorylation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.292, year: 2009

  13. Phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of plasma membrane proteins in animal and plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Remko; Huang, Fang

    2013-09-01

    In both unicellular and multicellular organisms, transmembrane (TM) proteins are sorted to and retained at specific membrane domains by endomembrane trafficking mechanisms that recognize sorting signals in the these proteins. The trafficking and distribution of plasma membrane (PM)-localized TM proteins (PM proteins), especially of those PM proteins that show an asymmetric distribution over the PM, has received much attention, as their proper PM localization is crucial for elementary signaling and transport processes, and defects in their localization often lead to severe disease symptoms or developmental defects. The subcellular localization of PM proteins is dynamically regulated by post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination. These modificaitons mostly occur on sorting signals that are located in the larger cytosolic domains of the cargo proteins. Here we review the effects of phosphorylation of PM proteins on their trafficking, and present the key examples from the animal field that have been subject to studies for already several decades, such as that of aquaporin 2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. Our knowledge on cargo trafficking in plants is largely based on studies of the family of PIN FORMED (PIN) carriers that mediate the efflux of the plant hormone auxin. We will review what is known on the subcellular distribution and trafficking of PIN proteins, with a focus on how this is modulated by phosphorylation, and identify and discuss analogies and differences in trafficking with the well-studied animal examples. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Phosphorylation-dependent translocation of glycogen synthase to a novel structure during glycogen resynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Clara; Cadefau, Joan A; Cussó, Roser

    2005-01-01

    Glycogen metabolism has been the subject of extensive research, but the mechanisms by which it is regulated are still not fully understood. It is well accepted that the rate-limiting enzymes in glycogenesis and glycogenolysis are glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GPh), respectively....... Both enzymes are regulated by reversible phosphorylation and by allosteric effectors. However, evidence in the literature indicates that changes in muscle GS and GPh intracellular distribution may constitute a new regulatory mechanism of glycogen metabolism. Already in the 1960s, it was proposed...... that glycogen was present in dynamic cellular organelles that were termed glycosomas but no such cellular entities have ever been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to characterize muscle GS and GPh intracellular distribution and to identify possible translocation processes of both enzymes. Using in situ...

  15. Phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of apolipoprotein A5 by insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Maxine; Helleboid-Chapman, Audrey; Jakel, Heidelinde; Rommens, Corinne; Martin, Genevieve; Duran-Sandoval, Daniel; Staels, Bart; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2004-02-15

    The apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) gene has been shown to be important in lowering plasma triglyceride levels. Since several studies have shown that hyperinsulinemia is associated with hypertriglyceridemia, we sought to determine whether APOA5 gene is regulated by insulin. We show here that cell and mouse treatments with insulin down-regulated APOA5 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that insulin decreases APOA5 promoter activity and subsequent deletion analyses revealed an E-box-containing fragment. We showed that Upstream Stimulatory Factors, USF1/USF2, bind to the identified E-box in the APOA5 promoter. Moreover, in cotransfection studies, USF1 stimulates APOA5 promoter activity. The treatment with insulin reduces the binding of USF1/USF2 to APOA5 promoter. The inhibition of PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the insulin s effect on APOA5 gene transcription. Using oligoprecipitation method of USF from nuclear extracts, we demonstrated that phosphorylated USF1 failed to bind to APOA5 promoter. This indicates that the APOA5 gene transrepression by insulin involves a phosphorylation of USF through PI3K, that modulate their binding to APOA5 promoter and results in APOA5 down-regulation. The effect of exogenous hyperinsulinemia in healthy men shows a decrease of the plasma ApoAV level. These data suggest a potential mechanism involving APOA5 gene in hypertriglyceridemia associated with hyperinsulinemia.

  16. The Rev1 interacting region (RIR) motif in the scaffold protein XRCC1 mediates a low-affinity interaction with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) during DNA single-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Claire; Mani, Rajam S; Fanta, Mesfin; Hoch, Nicolas; Weinfeld, Michael; Caldecott, Keith W

    2017-09-29

    The scaffold protein X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) interacts with multiple enzymes involved in DNA base excision repair and single-strand break repair (SSBR) and is important for genetic integrity and normal neurological function. One of the most important interactions of XRCC1 is that with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP), a dual-function DNA kinase/phosphatase that processes damaged DNA termini and that, if mutated, results in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 4 (AOA4) and microcephaly with early-onset seizures and developmental delay (MCSZ). XRCC1 and PNKP interact via a high-affinity phosphorylation-dependent interaction site in XRCC1 and a forkhead-associated domain in PNKP. Here, we identified using biochemical and biophysical approaches a second PNKP interaction site in XRCC1 that binds PNKP with lower affinity and independently of XRCC1 phosphorylation. However, this interaction nevertheless stimulated PNKP activity and promoted SSBR and cell survival. The low-affinity interaction site required the highly conserved Rev1-interacting region (RIR) motif in XRCC1 and included three critical and evolutionarily invariant phenylalanine residues. We propose a bipartite interaction model in which the previously identified high-affinity interaction acts as a molecular tether, holding XRCC1 and PNKP together and thereby promoting the low-affinity interaction identified here, which then stimulates PNKP directly. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Construction of phosphorylation interaction networks by text mining of full-length articles using the eFIP system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Catalina O; Ross, Karen E; Li, Gang; Vijay-Shanker, K; Wu, Cathy H; Arighi, Cecilia N

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a reversible post-translational modification where a protein kinase adds a phosphate group to a protein, potentially regulating its function, localization and/or activity. Phosphorylation can affect protein-protein interactions (PPIs), abolishing interaction with previous binding partners or enabling new interactions. Extracting phosphorylation information coupled with PPI information from the scientific literature will facilitate the creation of phosphorylation interaction networks of kinases, substrates and interacting partners, toward knowledge discovery of functional outcomes of protein phosphorylation. Increasingly, PPI databases are interested in capturing the phosphorylation state of interacting partners. We have previously developed the eFIP (Extracting Functional Impact of Phosphorylation) text mining system, which identifies phosphorylated proteins and phosphorylation-dependent PPIs. In this work, we present several enhancements for the eFIP system: (i) text mining for full-length articles from the PubMed Central open-access collection; (ii) the integration of the RLIMS-P 2.0 system for the extraction of phosphorylation events with kinase, substrate and site information; (iii) the extension of the PPI module with new trigger words/phrases describing interactions and (iv) the addition of the iSimp tool for sentence simplification to aid in the matching of syntactic patterns. We enhance the website functionality to: (i) support searches based on protein roles (kinases, substrates, interacting partners) or using keywords; (ii) link protein entities to their corresponding UniProt identifiers if mapped and (iii) support visual exploration of phosphorylation interaction networks using Cytoscape. The evaluation of eFIP on full-length articles achieved 92.4% precision, 76.5% recall and 83.7% F-measure on 100 article sections. To demonstrate eFIP for knowledge extraction and discovery, we constructed phosphorylation-dependent interaction

  18. CK2 Phosphorylation of Schistosoma mansoni HMGB1 Protein Regulates Its Cellular Traffic and Secretion but Not Its DNA Transactions

    OpenAIRE

    de Abreu da Silva, Isabel Caetano; Carneiro, Vitor Coutinho; Maciel, Renata de Moraes; da Costa, Rodrigo Furtado Madeiro; Furtado, Daniel Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Francisco Meirelles Bastos; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso; Rumjanek, Franklin David; Fantappié, Marcelo Rosado

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The helminth Schistosoma mansoni parasite resides in mesenteric veins where fecundated female worms lay hundred of eggs daily. Some of the egg antigens are trapped in the liver and induce a vigorous granulomatous response. High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear factor, can also be secreted and act as a cytokine. Schistosome HMGB1 (SmHMGB1) is secreted by the eggs and stimulate the production of key cytokines involved in the pathology of schistosomiasis. Thus, understanding t...

  19. A Novel Interaction of Ecdysoneless (ECD) Protein with R2TP Complex Component RUVBL1 Is Required for the Functional Role of ECD in Cell Cycle Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Riyaz A; Bele, Aditya; Mirza, Sameer; Srivastava, Shashank; Olou, Appolinaire A; Ammons, Shalis A; Kim, Jun Hyun; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Qiu, Fang; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2015-12-28

    Ecdysoneless (ECD) is an evolutionarily conserved protein whose germ line deletion is embryonic lethal. Deletion of Ecd in cells causes cell cycle arrest, which is rescued by exogenous ECD, demonstrating a requirement of ECD for normal mammalian cell cycle progression. However, the exact mechanism by which ECD regulates cell cycle is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ECD protein levels and subcellular localization are invariant during cell cycle progression, suggesting a potential role of posttranslational modifications or protein-protein interactions. Since phosphorylated ECD was recently shown to interact with the PIH1D1 adaptor component of the R2TP cochaperone complex, we examined the requirement of ECD phosphorylation in cell cycle progression. Notably, phosphorylation-deficient ECD mutants that failed to bind to PIH1D1 in vitro fully retained the ability to interact with the R2TP complex and yet exhibited a reduced ability to rescue Ecd-deficient cells from cell cycle arrest. Biochemical analyses demonstrated an additional phosphorylation-independent interaction of ECD with the RUVBL1 component of the R2TP complex, and this interaction is essential for ECD's cell cycle progression function. These studies demonstrate that interaction of ECD with RUVBL1, and its CK2-mediated phosphorylation, independent of its interaction with PIH1D1, are important for its cell cycle regulatory function. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Interactions between Casein kinase Iepsilon (CKIepsilon and two substrates from disparate signaling pathways reveal mechanisms for substrate-kinase specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lund Dahlberg

    Full Text Available Members of the Casein Kinase I (CKI family of serine/threonine kinases regulate diverse biological pathways. The seven mammalian CKI isoforms contain a highly conserved kinase domain and divergent amino- and carboxy-termini. Although they share a preferred target recognition sequence and have overlapping expression patterns, individual isoforms often have specific substrates. In an effort to determine how substrates recognize differences between CKI isoforms, we have examined the interaction between CKIepsilon and two substrates from different signaling pathways.CKIepsilon, but not CKIalpha, binds to and phosphorylates two proteins: Period, a transcriptional regulator of the circadian rhythms pathway, and Disheveled, an activator of the planar cell polarity pathway. We use GST-pull-down assays data to show that two key residues in CKIalpha's kinase domain prevent Disheveled and Period from binding. We also show that the unique C-terminus of CKIepsilon does not determine Dishevelled's and Period's preference for CKIepsilon nor is it essential for binding, but instead plays an auxillary role in stabilizing the interactions of CKIepsilon with its substrates. We demonstrate that autophosphorylation of CKIepsilon's C-terminal tail prevents substrate binding, and use mass spectrometry and chemical crosslinking to reveal how a phosphorylation-dependent interaction between the C-terminal tail and the kinase domain prevents substrate phosphorylation and binding.The biochemical interactions between CKIepsilon and Disheveled, Period, and its own C-terminus lead to models that explain CKIepsilon's specificity and regulation.

  1. Ketamine produces antidepressant-like effects through phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Miyeon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Wang, Sung Eun; Ko, Seung Yeon; Song, Mihee; Choi, June-Seek; Duman, Ronald S.; Son, Hyeon

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal assays for depression, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that ketamine rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons through calcium/calmodulin kinase II- and protein kinase D-dependent pathways. Consequently, ketamine enhanced the transcriptional activity of myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2), which leads to regulation of MEF2 target genes. Transfection of a HDAC5 phosphorylation-defective mutant (Ser259/Ser498 replaced by Ala259/Ala498, HDAC5-S/A), resulted in resistance to ketamine-induced nuclear export, suppression of ketamine-mediated MEF2 transcriptional activity, and decreased expression of MEF2 target genes. Behaviorally, viral-mediated hippocampal knockdown of HDAC5 blocked or occluded the antidepressant effects of ketamine both in unstressed and stressed animals. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role of HDAC5 in the actions of ketamine and suggest that HDAC5 could be a potential mechanism contributing to the therapeutic actions of ketamine. PMID:26647181

  2. Identification of a phosphorylation-dependent nuclear localization motif in interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen C T Teng

    Full Text Available Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2 (IRF2BP2 is a muscle-enriched transcription factor required to activate vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA expression in muscle. IRF2BP2 is found in the nucleus of cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. During the process of skeletal muscle differentiation, some IRF2BP2 becomes relocated to the cytoplasm, although the functional significance of this relocation and the mechanisms that control nucleocytoplasmic localization of IRF2BP2 are not yet known.Here, by fusing IRF2BP2 to green fluorescent protein and testing a series of deletion and site-directed mutagenesis constructs, we mapped the nuclear localization signal (NLS to an evolutionarily conserved sequence (354ARKRKPSP(361 in IRF2BP2. This sequence corresponds to a classical nuclear localization motif bearing positively charged arginine and lysine residues. Substitution of arginine and lysine with negatively charged aspartic acid residues blocked nuclear localization. However, these residues were not sufficient because nuclear targeting of IRF2BP2 also required phosphorylation of serine 360 (S360. Many large-scale phosphopeptide proteomic studies had reported previously that serine 360 of IRF2BP2 is phosphorylated in numerous human cell types. Alanine substitution at this site abolished IRF2BP2 nuclear localization in C(2C(12 myoblasts and CV1 cells. In contrast, substituting serine 360 with aspartic acid forced nuclear retention and prevented cytoplasmic redistribution in differentiated C(2C(12 muscle cells. As for the effects of these mutations on VEGFA promoter activity, the S360A mutation interfered with VEGFA activation, as expected. Surprisingly, the S360D mutation also interfered with VEGFA activation, suggesting that this mutation, while enforcing nuclear entry, may disrupt an essential activation function of IRF2BP2.Nuclear localization of IRF2BP2 depends on phosphorylation near a conserved NLS. Changes in phosphorylation status likely control nucleocytoplasmic localization of IRF2BP2 during muscle differentiation.

  3. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of T-cell activation by PAG/Cbp, a lipid raft-associated transmembrane adaptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davidson, D.; Bakinowski, M.; Thomas, M. L.; Hořejší, Václav; Veillette, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2003), s. 2017-2028 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : PAG * Csk * T cell activation Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 8.142, year: 2003

  4. ABA-Induced Stomatal Closure Involves ALMT4, a Phosphorylation-Dependent Vacuolar Anion Channel of Arabidopsis[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetz, Ulrike; Huck, Nicola V.; Zhang, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    Stomatal pores are formed between a pair of guard cells and allow plant uptake of CO2 and water evaporation. Their aperture depends on changes in osmolyte concentration of guard cell vacuoles, specifically of K+ and Mal2−. Efflux of Mal2− from the vacuole is required for stomatal closure; however, it is not clear how the anion is released. Here, we report the identification of ALMT4 (ALUMINUM ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER4) as an Arabidopsis thaliana ion channel that can mediate Mal2− release from the vacuole and is required for stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). Knockout mutants showed impaired stomatal closure in response to the drought stress hormone ABA and increased whole-plant wilting in response to drought and ABA. Electrophysiological data show that ALMT4 can mediate Mal2− efflux and that the channel activity is dependent on a phosphorylatable C-terminal serine. Dephosphomimetic mutants of ALMT4 S382 showed increased channel activity and Mal2− efflux. Reconstituting the active channel in almt4 mutants impaired growth and stomatal opening. Phosphomimetic mutants were electrically inactive and phenocopied the almt4 mutants. Surprisingly, S382 can be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinases in vitro. In brief, ALMT4 likely mediates Mal2− efflux during ABA-induced stomatal closure and its activity depends on phosphorylation. PMID:28874508

  5. Instrumental interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...

  6. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Intermolecular interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, I.G.; Rodimova, O.B.; AN SSSR, Tomsk. Inst. Optiki Atmosfery)

    1978-01-01

    The present state of the intermolecular interaction theory is described. The general physical picture of the molecular interactions is given, the relative contributions of interactions of different types are analyzed (electrostatic, resonance, induction, dispersion, relativistic, magnetostatic and exchange), and the main ones in each range of separations are picked out. The methods of the potential curve calculations are considered, specific for definite separations between the interacting systems. The special attention is paid to the analysis of approximations used in different theoretical calculation methods

  8. Effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter attempts to describe and compare some of the more important nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been used in nuclear structure calculations, and to relate them where possible to the real nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explains that different interactions have been used depending on whether one is fitting to total binding energies and densities with a Hartree Fock (HF) calculation or fitting to spectra and spectroscopic data in a shell model calculation. Examines both types of calculation after two preliminary sections concerned with notation and with the philosophy underlying the use of model spaces and effective interactions. Discusses Skyrme interactions, finite range interactions, small model space, large model space, and the Sussex potential matrix elements. Focuses on the more empirical approaches in which a simple form is chosen for the effective interaction in a given model space and the parameters are deduced from fitting many-body data

  9. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  10. Floor interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Within architecture, there is a long tradition of careful design of floors. The design has been concerned with both decorating floors and designing floors to carry information. Ubiquitous computing technology offers new opportunities for designing interactive floors. This paper presents three...... different interactive floor concepts. Through an urban perspective it draws upon the experiences of floors in architecture, and provides a set of design issues for designing interactive floors....

  11. Thermodynamics of the Interaction between Alzheimer's Disease Related Tau Protein and DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camero, Sergio; Benítez, María J.; Cuadros, Raquel; Hernández, Félix; Ávila, Jesús; Jiménez, Juan S.

    2014-01-01

    Tau hyperphosphorylation can be considered as one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease and other tauophaties. Besides its well-known role as a microtubule associated protein, Tau displays a key function as a protector of genomic integrity in stress situations. Phosphorylation has been proven to regulate multiple processes including nuclear translocation of Tau. In this contribution, we are addressing the physicochemical nature of DNA-Tau interaction including the plausible influence of phosphorylation. By means of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) we measured the equilibrium constant and the free energy, enthalpy and entropy changes associated to the Tau-DNA complex formation. Our results show that unphosphorylated Tau binding to DNA is reversible. This fact is in agreement with the protective role attributed to nuclear Tau, which stops binding to DNA once the insult is over. According to our thermodynamic data, oscillations in the concentration of dephosphorylated Tau available to DNA must be the variable determining the extent of Tau binding and DNA protection. In addition, thermodynamics of the interaction suggest that hydrophobicity must represent an important contribution to the stability of the Tau-DNA complex. SPR results together with those from Tau expression in HEK cells show that phosphorylation induces changes in Tau protein which prevent it from binding to DNA. The phosphorylation-dependent regulation of DNA binding is analogous to the Tau-microtubules binding inhibition induced by phosphorylation. Our results suggest that hydrophobicity may control Tau location and DNA interaction and that impairment of this Tau-DNA interaction, due to Tau hyperphosphorylation, could contribute to Alzheimer's pathogenesis. PMID:25126942

  12. Playful Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The video Playful Interaction describes a future architectural office, and envisions ideas and concepts for playful interactions between people, materials and appliances in a pervasive and augmented working environment. The video both describes existing developments, technologies and designs...... as well as ideas not yet implemented such as playful modes of interaction with an augmented ball. Playful Interaction has been used as a hybrid of a vision video and a video prototype (1). Externally the video has been used to visualising our new ideas, and internally the video has also worked to inspire...

  13. Aesthetic interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Krogh, Peter

    2004-01-01

    , as it promotes aesthetics of use, rather than aesthetics of appearance. We coin this approach in the perspective of aesthetic interaction. Finally we make the point that aesthetics is not re-defining everything known about interactive systems. We provide a framework placing this perspective among other...

  14. Interactive benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, Lartey; Nielsen, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    We discuss individual learning by interactive benchmarking using stochastic frontier models. The interactions allow the user to tailor the performance evaluation to preferences and explore alternative improvement strategies by selecting and searching the different frontiers using directional...... in the suggested benchmarking tool. The study investigates how different characteristics on dairy farms influences the technical efficiency....

  15. Explicit Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwgren, Jonas; Eriksen, Mette Agger; Linde, Per

    2006-01-01

    We report an ongoing study of palpable computing to support surgical rehabilitation, in the general field of interaction design for ubiquitous computing. Through explorative design, fieldwork and participatory design techniques, we explore the design principle of explicit interaction as an interp...

  16. Kinesthetic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Fritsch, Jonas; Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    Within the Human-Computer Interaction community there is a growing interest in designing for the whole body in interaction design. The attempts aimed at addressing the body have very different outcomes spanning from theoretical arguments for understanding the body in the design process, to more...... practical examples of designing for bodily potential. This paper presents Kinesthetic Interaction as a unifying concept for describing the body in motion as a foundation for designing interactive systems. Based on the theoretical foundation for Kinesthetic Interaction, a conceptual framework is introduced...... to reveal bodily potential in relation to three design themes – kinesthetic development, kinesthetic means and kinesthetic disorder; and seven design parameters – engagement, sociality, movability, explicit motivation, implicit motivation, expressive meaning and kinesthetic empathy. The framework is a tool...

  17. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Ready to create rich interactive experiences with your artwork, designs, or prototypes? This is the ideal place to start. With this hands-on guide, you'll explore several themes in interactive art and design-including 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, computer vision, and geolocation-and learn the basic programming and electronics concepts you need to implement them. No previous experience is necessary. You'll get a complete introduction to three free tools created specifically for artists and designers: the Processing programming language, the Arduino microcontroller, and the openFr

  18. Interaction graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Interaction graphs were introduced as a general, uniform, construction of dynamic models of linear logic, encompassing all Geometry of Interaction (GoI) constructions introduced so far. This series of work was inspired from Girard's hyperfinite GoI, and develops a quantitative approach that should...... be understood as a dynamic version of weighted relational models. Until now, the interaction graphs framework has been shown to deal with exponentials for the constrained system ELL (Elementary Linear Logic) while keeping its quantitative aspect. Adapting older constructions by Girard, one can clearly define...... "full" exponentials, but at the cost of these quantitative features. We show here that allowing interpretations of proofs to use continuous (yet finite in a measure-theoretic sense) sets of states, as opposed to earlier Interaction Graphs constructions were these sets of states were discrete (and finite...

  19. Embarrassing Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deterding, Sebastian; Lucero, Andrés; Holopainen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Wherever the rapid evolution of interactive technologies disrupts standing situational norms, creates new, often unclear situational audiences, or crosses cultural boundaries, embarrassment is likely. This makes embarrassment a fundamental adoption and engagement hurdle, but also a creative design...

  20. Diffractive interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.; Marage, P.

    1996-08-01

    The general framework of diffractive deep inelastic scattering is introduced and reports given in the session on diffractive interactions at the international workshop on deep-inelastic scattering and related phenomena, Rome, April 1996, are presented. (orig.)

  1. Interaction Widget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Mads

    2003-01-01

    This pattern describes the idea of making a user interface of discrete, reusable entities---here called interaction widgets. The idea behind widgets is described using two perspectives, that of the user and that of the developer. It is the forces from these two perspectives that are balanced...... in the pattern. The intended audience of the pattern is developers and researchers within the field of human computer interaction....

  2. Hair Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Cani , Marie-Paule; Bertails , Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Processing interactions is one of the main challenges in hair animation. Indeed, in addition to the collisions with the body, an extremely large number of contacts with high friction rates are permanently taking place between individual hair strands. Simulating the latter is essential: without hair self-interactions, strands would cross each other during motion or come to rest at the same location, yielding unrealistic behavior and a visible lack of hair volume. This c...

  3. Adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP is a central hub for phosphotyrosine-mediated interactions in T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sylvester

    Full Text Available TCR stimulation leads to an increase in cellular adhesion among other outcomes. The adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP is known to be rapidly phosphorylated after T cell stimulation and relays the TCR signal to adhesion molecules of the integrin family. While three tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been characterized biochemically, the binding capabilities and associated functions of several other potential phosphotyrosine motifs remain unclear. Here, we utilize in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry to map novel phosphotyrosine sites in the C-terminal part of human ADAP (486-783. Individual tyrosines were then mutated to phenylalanine and their relevance for cellular adhesion and migration was tested experimentally. Functionally important tyrosine residues include two sites within the folded hSH3 domains of ADAP and two at the C-terminus. Furthermore, using a peptide pulldown approach in combination with stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC we identified SLP-76, PLCgamma, PIK3R1, Nck, CRK, Gads, and RasGAP as phospho-dependent binding partners of a central YDDV motif of ADAP. The phosphorylation-dependent interaction between ADAP and Nck was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid analysis, immunoprecipitation and binary pulldown experiments, indicating that ADAP directly links integrins to modulators of the cytoskeleton independent of SLP-76.

  4. Interactive governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Torfing, Jacob; Peters, B. Guy

    Governance has become one of the most commonly used concepts in contemporary political science. It is, however, often used to mean a variety of different things. This book helps to clarify this conceptual muddle by concentrating on one variety of governance-interactive governance. The authors argue...... that although the state may remain important for many aspects of governing, interactions between state and society represent an important, and perhaps increasingly important, dimension of governance. These interactions may be with social actors such as networks, with market actors or with other governments......, but all these forms represent means of governing involving mixtures of state action with the actions of other entities.This book explores thoroughly this meaning of governance, and links it to broader questions of governance. In the process of explicating this dimension of governance the authors also...

  5. Multiquark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, V.K.

    1984-01-01

    To study multiquark interactions (MQI) the data of experiments confirming the presence of 3q, 6q, 12q states in interacting nuclear nucleons, in hadron- and lepton-nuclear processes at high energies and high momentum transfers are considered. Experimental data on cumulative processes pointing to the existence of MQI are analyzed. Two-channel model of a nucleus (the model of interacting nucleons) in the theory of coupled channels is discussed. The behaviour of form factor of deuteron and NQI (6q) contributions to ed scattering as well as deep inelastic scattering on nuclei are studied. The data known as EMC effect are discussed. It is pointed out that introduction of the notion MQI and consideration of a nucleus as a system of nucleons with a low MQI addition will help to explain such processes as cumulative reactions, form factors of a deuteron and light nuclei, deep inelastic scattering on nuclei

  6. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  7. Programming Interactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Make cool stuff. If you're a designer or artist without a lot of programming experience, this book will teach you to work with 2D and 3D graphics, sound, physical interaction, and electronic circuitry to create all sorts of interesting and compelling experiences -- online and off. Programming Interactivity explains programming and electrical engineering basics, and introduces three freely available tools created specifically for artists and designers: Processing, a Java-based programming language and environment for building projects on the desktop, Web, or mobile phonesArduino, a system t

  8. Interacting binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggleton, P.P.; Pringle, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains 15 review articles in the field of binary stars. The subjects reviewed span considerably, from the shortest period of interacting binaries to the longest, symbiotic stars. Also included are articles on Algols, X-ray binaries and Wolf-Rayet stars (single and binary). Contents: Preface. List of Participants. Activity of Contact Binary Systems. Wolf-Rayet Stars and Binarity. Symbiotic Stars. Massive X-ray Binaries. Stars that go Hump in the Night: The SU UMa Stars. Interacting Binaries - Summing Up

  9. Hadron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Kolar, P.; Kundrat, V.

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings contain invited lectures and papers presente at the symposium. Attention was devoted to hadron interactions a high energy in QCD, to the structure and decay of hadrons, the production of hadrons and supersymmetric particles in e + e - and ep collisions, to perturbation theory in quantum field theory, and new supersymmetric extensions of relativistic algebra. (Z.J

  10. Interactive Storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2015, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in November/December 2015. The 18 revised full papers and 13 short papers presented together with 9 posters, 9 workshop descriptions, an...

  11. Interactive cinema : engagement and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosmeer, M.; Schouten, B.; Mitchell, A.

    2014-01-01

    Technologies that were initially developed to be applied within the domain of video games are currently being used in experiments to explore their meaning and possibilities for cinema and cinema audiences. In this position paper we examine how narrativity, interactivity and engagement are mutually

  12. Interactive Macroeconomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guilmi, Corrado; Gallegati, Mauro; Landini, Simone

    2017-04-01

    Preface; List of tables; List of figures, 1. Introduction; Part I. Methodological Notes and Tools: 2. The state space notion; 3. The master equation; Part II. Applications to HIA Based Models: 4. Financial fragility and macroeconomic dynamics I: heterogeneity and interaction; 5. Financial fragility and macroeconomic Dynamics II: learning; Part III. Conclusions: 6. Conclusive remarks; Part IV. Appendices and Complements: Appendix A: Complements to Chapter 3; Appendix B: Solving the ME to solve the ABM; Appendix C: Specifying transition rates; Index.

  13. Phosphorylation of murine double minute clone 2 (MDM2) protein at serine-267 by protein kinase CK2 in vitro and in cultured cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerrild, M; Milne, D; Dumaz, N

    2001-01-01

    Murine double minute clone 2 oncoprotein (MDM2) is a key component in the regulation of the tumour suppressor p53. MDM2 mediates the ubiqutination of p53 in the capacity of an E3 ligase and targets p53 for rapid degradation by the proteasome. Stress signals which impinge on p53, leading to its...

  14. Human herpesvirus 6B induces phosphorylation of p53 in its regulatory domain by a CK2- and p38-independent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øster, Bodil; Bundgaard, B; Hupp, T R

    2008-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) infection upregulates the tumour suppressor p53 and induces phosphorylation of p53 at Ser392. Interestingly, phosphorylation at the equivalent site has previously been shown to correlate with p53 tumour suppression in murine models. Although...

  15. Neuroprotection by aripiprazole against β-amyloid-induced toxicity by P-CK2α activation via inhibition of GSK-3β

    OpenAIRE

    Park, So Youn; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Lee, Won Suk; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Koanhoi; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2017-01-01

    Psychosis is reported over 30% of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in clinics. Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic drug with partial agonist activity at the D2 dopamine and 5-HT1A receptors with low side-effect profile. We identified aripiprazole is able to overcome the amyloid-β (Aβ)-evoked neurotoxicity and then increase the cell viability. This study elucidated the mechanism(s) by which aripiprazole ameliorates Aβ1-42-induced decreased neurite outgrowth and viability in neurona...

  16. Semiempirical Quantum Mechanical Method PM6-DH2X Describes the Geometry and Energetics of CK2-Inhibitor Complexes Involving Halogen Bonds Well, While the Empirical Potential Fails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Petr; Řezáč, Jan; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Otyepka, M.; Hobza, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 26 (2011), s. 8581-8589 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GAP208/11/0295 Grant - others:European Social Fund(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : PM6-DH2X * halogen bonding * scoring Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  17. Interactive Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Governance analysis has exploded in recent years, and it has become nearly impossible to tell what difference the concept and practice of governance makes from those of government and state. In addition governance analysis has been placed more and more in the shadow of the new institutionalisms and...... and growth. However, interactive governance is not a property or effect of institutions; nor does it apply solely to those individuals who seek success above everything else. It is connective more than individualistic or collectivistic in nature; and it manifests a governability capacity which...

  18. Collocated Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Fischer, Joel; Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    interactions. Yet, new challenges abound as people wear and carry more devices than ever, creating fragmented device ecologies at work, and changing the ways we socialise with each other. In this workshop we seek to start a dialogue to look back as well as forward, review best practices, discuss and design......In the 25 years since Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein proposed the time-space taxonomy, research in the ‘same time, same place’ quadrant has diversified, perhaps even fragmented. This one-day workshop will bring together researchers with diverse, yet convergent interests in tabletop, surface, mobile...

  19. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  20. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  1. Interactive Workspaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst

    augmented reality, interactive building elements, and mobile devices to support new ways of working in a diversity of application domains with work situations ranging from individual work, through local collaboration, to distributed collaboration. The work situations may take place in offices/project rooms......Many application domains such as architecture, engineering, industrial design, city planning, environmental supervision, health care etc. share the properties of users working collaboratively with complex mixtures of physical and digital materials. Studies in such domains show that it is hard...... to maintain and integrate these heterogeneous materials in traditional desktop computing environments. Our thesis is that pervasive computing technologies can be developed to support a more natural user collaboration in a rich variety of application. This may be achieved by going beyond the traditional...

  2. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  3. Electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1980-10-01

    A point of view of the electroweak interaction is presented. It begins phenomenologically and moves in stages toward the conventional gauge theory formalism containing elementary scalar Higgs-fields and then beyond. The purpose in so doing is that the success of the standard SU(2) x U(1) theory in accounting for low energy phenomena need not automatically imply success at high energies. It is deemed unlikely by most theorists that the predicted W +- or Z 0 does not exist or does not have the mass and/or couplings anticipated in the standard model. However, the odds that the standard predictions will work are not 100%. Therefore there is some reason to look at the subject as one would were he forced by a wrong experimental outcome - to go back to fundamentals and ascertain what is the minimal amount of theory necessary to account for the data

  4. Designing "Interaction": How Do Interaction Design Students Address Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgren, Klas; Ramberg, Robert; Artman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Interaction design is usually described as being concerned with interactions with and through artifacts but independent of a specific implementation. Design work has been characterized as a conversation between the designer and the situation and this conversation poses a particular challenge for interaction design as interactions can be elusive…

  5. A casein-kinase-2-related protein kinase is tightly associated with the large T antigen of simian virus 40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götz, C; Koenig, M G; Issinger, O G

    1995-01-01

    by the addition of protein kinase CK2 suggest that at least one of the T-antigen-associated protein kinases is CK2 or a protein-kinase-CK2-related enzyme. The association of recombinant CK2 with T antigen was strongly confirmed by in vitro binding studies. Experiments with temperature-sensitive SV40-transformed......The simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is a multifunctional protein involved in SV40 cell transformation and lytic virus infection. Some of its activities are regulated by interaction with cellular proteins and/or by phosphorylation of T antigen by various protein kinases. In this study, we...... show that immuno-purified T antigen from SV40-transformed cells and from baculovirus-infected insect cells is tightly associated with a protein kinase that phosphorylates T antigen in vitro. In the presence of heparin or a peptide resembling a protein kinase CK2 recognition site, the phosphorylation...

  6. Pea DNA topoisomerase I is phosphorylated and stimulated by casein kinase 2 and protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2003-08-01

    DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg(2+)-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants.

  7. Valsartan regulates the interaction of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase via Src/PI3K/Akt signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Hui; Tsai, Jin-Yi; Kou, Yu Ru; Chiang, An-Na; Hsiao, Sheng-Huang; Wu, Yuh-Lin; Hou, Hsin-Han; Pan, Ching-Chian; Shyue, Song-Kun; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan

    2009-06-01

    Valsartan, a selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker, has beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system in part by its increase of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, yet the mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect in endothelial cells (ECs). NO production was examined by Griess reagent assay, DAF-2 DA fluorescence staining and cGMP ELISA kits. Protein interaction was determined by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Treating bovine or human aortic ECs with valsartan increased NO production, as evidenced by elevated level of stable NO metabolites and intracellular cGMP. Valsartan increased the phosphorylation but not the protein level of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt and Src pathways by specific inhibitors suppressed valsartan-induced NO release. In addition, valsartan increased the tyrosine residue phosphorylation of AT1R, which was attenuated by inhibition of Src but not PI3K activities. Valsartan also suppressed the interaction of eNOS and AT1R, which was blocked by Src or PI3K inhibition. Valsartan-induced NO production in ECs is mediated through Src/PI3K/Akt-dependent phosphorylation of eNOS. Valsartan-induced AT1R phosphorylation depends on Src but not PI3K, whereas valsartan-induced suppression of AT1R-eNOS interaction depends on Src/PI3K/Akt signalling. These results indicate a novel vasoprotective mechanism of valsartan in upregulating NO production in ECs.

  8. H3K27 methylation and H3S28 phosphorylation-dependent transcriptional regulation by INHAT subunit SET/TAF-Iβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Kee-Beom; Son, Hye-Ju; Chae, Yun-Cheol; Oh, Si-Taek; Kim, Dong-Wook; Pak, Jhang Ho; Seo, Sang-Beom

    2012-09-21

    Significant progress has been made in understanding the relationship between histone modifications and 'reader' molecules and their effects on transcriptional regulation. A previously identified INHAT complex subunit, SET/TAF-Iβ, binds to histones and inhibits histone acetylation. To investigate the binding specificities of SET/TAF-Iβ to various histone modifications, we employed modified histone tail peptide array analyses. SET/TAF-Iβ strongly recognized PRC2-mediated H3K27me1/2/3; however, the bindings were completely disrupted by H3S28 phosphorylation. We have demonstrated that SET/TAF-Iβ is sequentially recruited to the target gene promoter ATF3 after the PRC2 complex via H3K27me recognition and may offer additive effects in the repression of the target gene. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the Role of Akt1 in Prostate Cancer Development Through Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of Skp2 Stability and Oncogenic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    plausible that for large animals with a longer life span than mice, which requires more cell division events, an additional layer of cell cycle control...occurs partially through the increased tran- scriptional levels of SGK1 mRNA and partially through other layers of posttranslational regulation (Loffing et...markers ( urease !545 kDa, mouse monoclonal IgG !180 kDa, human serum albumin!68 kDa) and determining their retention times on Coomassie- stained SDS

  10. Aggregation of Ribosomal Protein S6 at Nucleolus Is Cell Cycle-Controlled and Its Function in Pre-rRNA Processing Is Phosphorylation Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Chen, Hui-Peng; Duan, Hai-Feng; Gao, Li-Hua; Shao, Yong; Chen, Ke-Yan; Wang, You-Liang; Lan, Feng-Hua; Hu, Xian-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) has long been regarded as one of the primary r-proteins that functions in the early stage of 40S subunit assembly, but its actual role is still obscure. The correct forming of 18S rRNA is a key step in the nuclear synthesis of 40S subunit. In this study, we demonstrate that rpS6 participates in the processing of 30S pre-rRNA to 18S rRNA only when its C-terminal five serines are phosphorylated, however, the process of entering the nucleus and then targeting the nucleolus does not dependent its phosphorylation. Remarkably, we also find that the aggregation of rpS6 at the nucleolus correlates to the phasing of cell cycle, beginning to concentrate in the nucleolus at later S phase and disaggregate at M phase. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1649-1657, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Drug Interaction API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Interaction API is a web service for accessing drug-drug interactions. No license is needed to use the Interaction API. Currently, the API uses DrugBank for its...

  12. Phosphorylation of human aquaporin 2 (AQP2) allosterically controls its interaction with the lysosomal trafficking protein LIP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jennifer Virginia; Survery, Sabeen; Kreida, Stefan; Nesverova, Veronika; Ampah-Korsah, Henry; Gourdon, Maria; Deen, Peter M T; Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    The interaction between the renal water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and the lysosomal trafficking regulator-interacting protein LIP5 targets AQP2 to multivesicular bodies and facilitates lysosomal degradation. This interaction is part of a process that controls AQP2 apical membrane abundance in a vasopressin-dependent manner, allowing for urine volume adjustment. Vasopressin regulates phosphorylation at four sites within the AQP2 C terminus (Ser 256 , Ser 261 , Ser 264 , and Thr 269 ), of which Ser 256 is crucial and sufficient for AQP2 translocation from storage vesicles to the apical membrane. However, whether AQP2 phosphorylation modulates AQP2-LIP5 complex affinity is unknown. Here we used far-Western blot analysis and microscale thermophoresis to show that the AQP2 binds LIP5 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We constructed five phospho-mimicking mutants (S256E, S261E, S264E, T269E, and S256E/T269E) and a C-terminal truncation mutant (ΔP242) that lacked all phosphorylation sites but retained a previously suggested LIP5-binding site. CD spectroscopy indicated that wild-type AQP2 and the phospho-mimicking mutants had similar overall structure but displayed differences in melting temperatures possibly arising from C-terminal conformational changes. Non-phosphorylated AQP2 bound LIP5 with the highest affinity, whereas AQP2-ΔP242 had 20-fold lower affinity as determined by microscale thermophoresis. AQP2-S256E, S261E, T269E, and S256E/T269E all had reduced affinity. This effect was most prominent for AQP2-S256E, which fits well with its role in apical membrane targeting. AQP2-S264E had affinity similar to non-phosphorylated AQP2, possibly indicating a role in exosome excretion. Our data suggest that AQP2 phosphorylation allosterically controls its interaction with LIP5, illustrating how altered affinities to interacting proteins form the basis for regulation of AQP2 trafficking by post-translational modifications. © 2017 by The American Society for

  13. Designing for mobile interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazzi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The theme of this PhD project is designing for mobile interaction with devices and services, for the accessing, making, and sharing of information, taking into account the dynamic physical and social settings that embrace this interaction. To narrow down this theme, the whole project focuses...... on the exploitation of social interaction --- in particular among senior citizens --- to enhance and support mobile interaction....

  14. Interaction for visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Tominski, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Visualization has become a valuable means for data exploration and analysis. Interactive visualization combines expressive graphical representations and effective user interaction. Although interaction is an important component of visualization approaches, much of the visualization literature tends to pay more attention to the graphical representation than to interaction.The goal of this work is to strengthen the interaction side of visualization. Based on a brief review of general aspects of interaction, we develop an interaction-oriented view on visualization. This view comprises five key as

  15. Designing for Interactional Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Ståhl, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis further defines how to reach Interactional Empowerment through design for users. Interactional Empowerment is an interaction design program within the general area of affective interaction, focusing on the users’ abil­ity to reflect, express themselves and engage in profound meaning-making. This has been explored through design of three systems eMoto, Affective Di­ary and Affective Health, which all mirror users’ emotions or bodily reactions in interaction in some way. From these ...

  16. Interactive pinball business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Gudiksen, Sune Klok

    2012-01-01

    Interaction design expands into new fields. Interaction design and business model innovation is a promising meeting of disciplines: Many businesses see the need to rethink their ways of doing business, and, as business models pose highly dynamic and interactive problems, interaction design has much...... with hypotheses and experiment with scenarios as a way of innovating their business models, and why this is so...... to offer. This paper compares 'tangible business models' in the form of pinball-like contraptions, designed by interaction design students with those developed by groups of professionals around concrete business issues. We will show how the interactive models encourage business people to play...

  17. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  18. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  19. The interactive microbial ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussaard, C.P.D.; Bidle, K.D.; Pedrós-Alió, C.; Legrand, C.

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms inhabit diverse environments and interact over different spatial and temporal scales. To fully understand how these interactions shape genome structures, cellular responses, lifestyles, community ecology and biogeochemical cycles, integration of diverse approaches and data is

  20. Health Data Interactive (HDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Health Data Interactive (HDI) presents a broad range of important public health indicators through an interactive web-based application that provides access to...

  1. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  2. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  3. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  4. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Bittleston, Leonora Sophia; Pierce, Naomi E.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Pringle, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent inter...

  5. Restricted Variance Interaction Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortina, Jose M.; Köhler, Tine; Keeler, Kathleen R.

    2018-01-01

    Although interaction hypotheses are increasingly common in our field, many recent articles point out that authors often have difficulty justifying them. The purpose of this article is to describe a particular type of interaction: the restricted variance (RV) interaction. The essence of the RV int...

  6. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  7. Media Facades beyond Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a the research project Digital Urban Living [www.digitalurbanliving.dk], we have taken part in the design of two large-scale installations that employ interactive technologies to facilitate participation and foster social interactions in public, urban settings. We present the two cases......, Aarhus by Light and Projected Poetry, and discuss the future trajectory of our work in this field, as well as some of our findings regarding the challenges of designing large-scale public interactive installations. In doing so, we specifically highlight the possibilities in relation to designing...... for affective experience and engaging interaction that advocate for a long-term interactive experience....

  8. Convergence in Multispecies Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, Leonora S; Pierce, Naomi E; Ellison, Aaron M; Pringle, Anne

    2016-04-01

    The concepts of convergent evolution and community convergence highlight how selective pressures can shape unrelated organisms or communities in similar ways. We propose a related concept, convergent interactions, to describe the independent evolution of multispecies interactions with similar physiological or ecological functions. A focus on convergent interactions clarifies how natural selection repeatedly favors particular kinds of associations among species. Characterizing convergent interactions in a comparative context is likely to facilitate prediction of the ecological roles of organisms (including microbes) in multispecies interactions and selective pressures acting in poorly understood or newly discovered multispecies systems. We illustrate the concept of convergent interactions with examples: vertebrates and their gut bacteria; ectomycorrhizae; insect-fungal-bacterial interactions; pitcher-plant food webs; and ants and ant-plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Food-drug interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between food and drugs may inadvertently reduce or increase the drug effect. The majority of clinically relevant food-drug interactions are caused by food-induced changes in the bioavailability of the drug. Since the bioavailability and clinical effect of most drugs are correlated......, the bioavailability is an important pharmacokinetic effect parameter. However, in order to evaluate the clinical relevance of a food-drug interaction, the impact of food intake on the clinical effect of the drug has to be quantified as well. As a result of quality review in healthcare systems, healthcare providers...... are increasingly required to develop methods for identifying and preventing adverse food-drug interactions. In this review of original literature, we have tried to provide both pharmacokinetic and clinical effect parameters of clinically relevant food-drug interactions. The most important interactions are those...

  10. Grasp interaction with tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents guidelines for a future device type: a tablet that allows ergonomic front- and back-of-device interaction. These guidelines help designers and developers of user interfaces to build ergonomic applications for tablet devices, in particular for devices that enable back-of-device interaction. In addition, manufacturers of tablet devices obtain arguments that back-of-device interaction is a promising extension of the interaction design space and results in increased input capabilities, enriched design possibilities, and proven usability. The guidelines are derived from empirical studies and developed to fit the users’ skills to the way the novel device type is held. Three particular research areas that are relevant to develop design guidelines for tablet interaction are investigated: ergonomic gestures, interaction areas, and pointing techniques.

  11. KinomeXplorer: an integrated platform for kinome biology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Heiko; Schoof, Erwin; Kim, Jinho

    2014-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented related to the KinomeXplorer, an integrated platform providing workflows to efficiently analyze phosphorylation dependent interaction networks or kinase signaling networks....

  12. Quantum interaction. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruza, Peter [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane (Australia). Faculty of Science and Technology; Sofge, Donald [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States). Naval Research Lab.; Lawless, William [Paine Coll., Augusta, GA (United States); Rijsbergen, Keith van [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Computing Science; Klusch, Matthias (eds.) [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2009, held in Saarbruecken, Germany, in March 2009. The 21 revised full papers presented together with the 3 position papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, decision theory, information retrieval, information systems, social interaction, computational linguistics and finance. (orig.)

  13. Food-Drug Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Yar Khan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drug on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction, food, beverages, dietary supplements the person is consuming (drug-nutrient/food interaction or another disease the person has (drug-disease interaction. A drug interaction is a situation in which a substance affects the activity of a drug, i.e. the effects are increased or decreased, or they produce a new effect that neither produces on its own. These interactions may occur out of accidental misuse or due to lack of knowledge about the active ingredients involved in the relevant substances. Regarding food-drug interactions physicians and pharmacists recognize that some foods and drugs, when taken simultaneously, can alter the body's ability to utilize a particular food or drug, or cause serious side effects. Clinically significant drug interactions, which pose potential harm to the patient, may result from changes in pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties. Some may be taken advantage of, to the benefit of patients, but more commonly drug interactions result in adverse drug events. Therefore it is advisable for patients to follow the physician and doctors instructions to obtain maximum benefits with least fooddrug interactions. The literature survey was conducted by extracting data from different review and original articles on general or specific drug interactions with food. This review gives information about various interactions between different foods and drugs and will help physicians and pharmacists prescribe drugs cautiously with only suitable food supplement to get maximum benefit for the patient.

  14. Quantum interaction. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruza, Peter; Rijsbergen, Keith van

    2009-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2009, held in Saarbruecken, Germany, in March 2009. The 21 revised full papers presented together with the 3 position papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, decision theory, information retrieval, information systems, social interaction, computational linguistics and finance. (orig.)

  15. Interactive Strategy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an interactive strategy-making model that combines central reasoning with ongoing learning from decentralised responses. The management literature often presents strategy as implementing an optimal plan identified through rational analysis and ascribes potential shortcomings...... to failed communication and execution of the planned actions. However, effective strategy-making comprises both central reasoning from forward-looking planning considerations and decentralised responses to emerging events as interacting elements in a dynamic adaptive system. The interaction between...

  16. Interactions in multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmølle, Mette; Ren, Dawei; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The recent focus on complex bacterial communities has led to the recognition of interactions across species boundaries. This is particularly pronounced in multispecies biofilms, where synergistic interactions impact the bacterial distribution and overall biomass produced. Importantly, in a number...... of settings, the interactions in a multispecies biofilm affect its overall function, physiology, or surroundings, by resulting in enhanced resistance, virulence, or degradation of pollutants, which is of significant importance to human health and activities. The underlying mechanisms causing these synergistic...

  17. Theory of particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokurov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.

    1986-01-01

    Development and modern state of the theory of elementary particle interactions is described. The main aim of the paper is to give a picture of quantum field theory development in the form easily available for physicists not occupied in this field of science. Besides the outline of chronological development of main representations, the description of renormalization and renorm-groups, gauge theories, models of electro-weak interactions and quantum chromodynamics, the latest investigations related to joining all interactions and supersymmetries is given

  18. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  19. Proxemic Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porcheron, Martin; Lucero, Andrés; Quigley, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    and their digital devices (i.e. the proxemic relationships). Building on the ideas of proxemic interactions, this workshop is motivated by the concept of ‘proxemic mobile collocated interactions’, to harness new or existing technologies to create engaging and interactionally relevant experiences. Such approaches......Recent research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices. However, existing practices fail to fully account for the culturally-dependent spatial relationships between people...... in exploring proxemics and mobile collocated interactions....

  20. Framing interactive methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2011-01-01

    Two paradigms of organization and leadership is outlined and compared. A theoretical model of interactive leadership is developed, combining learning, knowledge flow, leadership and organizational principles....

  1. Two interacting Hofstadter butterflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, A.; Bellissard, J.; Jacquod, P.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of two interacting particles in a quasiperiodic potential is addressed. Using analytical and numerical methods, we explore the spectral properties and eigenstates structure from the weak to the strong interaction case. More precisely, a semiclassical approach based on noncommutative geometry techniques is used to understand the intricate structure of such a spectrum. An interaction induced localization effect is furthermore emphasized. We discuss the application of our results on a two-dimensional model of two particles in a uniform magnetic field with on-site interaction. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. Philosophy of Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svanæs, Dag

    2011-01-01

    This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker.......This is an encyclopedia entry for the Interaction-Design.org free IxD encyclopedia. The topic of the entry is the application of the philosophy of Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty to a theory of interactivity. Comments by Don Norman and Eva Hornecker....

  3. Kinetics of depletion interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, G.A.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Depletion interactions between colloidal particles dispersed in a fluid medium are effective interactions induced by the presence of other types of colloid. They are not instantaneous but built up in time. We show by means of Brownian dynamics simulations that the static (mean-field) depletion force

  4. Curiosity and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieben, R.; Bekker, M.M.; Schouten, B.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the concepts of curiosity and interaction: how can we elicit curiosity in public spaces through interactive systems? We have developed a model consisting of five curiosity-evoking principles. In an iterative design research approach, we have explored the design implementations of these

  5. Storyboarding Multimedia Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda C.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding how to include interactivity when designing multimedia-based training (MBT) storyboards is a major key for a successful MBT. Discusses the basic formats of interactions and when to use each format. Describes how to storyboard and areas to address, including: the display area, prompts, branching, programming and graphics notes,…

  6. Designing for Interaction Proxemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil

    2018-01-01

    Design of interactive technology provides opportunities as well as constraints in how a group of users can organize in a shared space. The core argument of interaction proxemics is to consider this in designing for collaboration. In my thesis, I focus on conceptualizing design of ubicomp...

  7. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  8. Electroweak interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1984-06-01

    Topics include: introduction to electroweak theory; the Weinberg-Salam theory for leptons; the Weinberg-Salam theory for hadrons-the GIM mechanism; electron scattering as a probe of the electroweak interaction (observation of PV, the weak interaction for nucleons, and parity violation in atoms); and time reversed invariance and electric dipole moments of nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. 52 references

  9. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Ward, B.F.L.; Close, F.E.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses freon bubble chamber experiments exposed to μ + and neutrinos, photon-proton interactions; shower counter simulations; SLD detectors at the Stanford Linear Collider, and the detectors at the Superconducting Super Collider; elementary particle interactions; physical properties of dielectric materials used in High Energy Physics detectors; and Nuclear Physics

  10. Foreign language interactive didactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Moisés Gómez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Language Interactive Didactics is intended for foreign language teachers and would-be teachers since it is an interpretation of the foreign language teaching-learning process is conceived from a reflexive social interaction. This interpretation declares learning based on interactive tasks that provide learners with opportunities to interact meaningfully among them, as a way to develop interactional competence as objective in itself and as a means to obtain communicative competence. Foreign language interactive didactics claims for the unity of reflection and action while learning the language system and using it to communicate, by means of solving problems presented in interactive tasks. It proposes a kind of teaching that is interactive, developmental, collaborative, holist, cognitive, problematizing, reflexive, student centered, humanist, and with a strong affective component that empower the influencing psychological factors in learning. This conception appears in the book: DIDÁCTICA INTERACTIVA DE LENGUAS (2007 y 2010. The book is used as a textbook for the subject of Didactics that is part of the curriculum in language teachers’ formation of all the pedagogical sciences universities, in Spanish teachers’ formation who are not Spanish speaking people at Havana University, and also as a reference book for postgraduate courses, master’s and doctorate’ s degrees.

  11. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  12. Drug interactions with radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesslewood, S.; Leung, E.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable information on documented drug and radiopharmaceutical interactions has been assembled in a tabular form, classified by the type of nuclear medicine study. The aim is to provide a rapid reference for nuclear medicine staff to look for such interactions. The initiation of drug chart monitoring or drug history taking of nuclear medicine patients and the reporting of such events are encouraged. (orig.)

  13. Let Social Interaction Flourish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anny Fritzen

    2016-01-01

    The author describes lessons learned--through a high school project that grouped English language learners with native speakers to create a video--about ways to foster respectful, productive interaction among English learners and peers who are native speakers. The potential benefits of students who are just learning English interacting socially…

  14. Photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions

  15. Computations and interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baeten, J.C.M.; Luttik, S.P.; Tilburg, van P.J.A.; Natarajan, R.; Ojo, A.

    2011-01-01

    We enhance the notion of a computation of the classical theory of computing with the notion of interaction. In this way, we enhance a Turing machine as a model of computation to a Reactive Turing Machine that is an abstract model of a computer as it is used nowadays, always interacting with the user

  16. Antiproton-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Several facets of antinucleon-nucleus interactions are explored. The topics treated are: coherent interactions, production of unusual states and particles in the nuclear medium, and the creation of extreme states of matter by antimatter annihilation. It is found that temperatures of the magnitude necessary to achieve the predicted quark-gluon phase transition are obtained. 20 references

  17. Media Facades beyond Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    As part of a the research project Digital Urban Living [www.digitalurbanliving.dk], we have taken part in the design of two large-scale installations that employ interactive technologies to facilitate participation and foster social interactions in public, urban settings. We present the two cases...

  18. Interaction Analysis and Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Edmund

    This paper describes a model that uses interaction analysis as a tool to provide feedback to a teacher in a microteaching situation. The author explains how interaction analysis can be used for teacher improvement, describes the category system used in the model, the data collection methods used, and the feedback techniques found in the model. (JF)

  19. Interaction of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustueva, K A; Sanotsky, I V

    1975-01-01

    In evaluating the health effects of chemical and physical factors, it is of great importance to know the possible interactions between different pollutants. The biological effects of interactions, when present, may be synergistic, antagonistic or additive. Each type of interaction calls for a different evaluation and different practical measures. As yet the understanding of such effects is not clear, probably because of differing definitions of terminology. For example, the combined effect of sulfur dioxide and particulates is interpreted as a synergistic effect; in the author's opinion, this is an aggravating effect. The type of interaction depends on the levels of concentration observed, for example, the synergism shown at high levels of concentration is not always demonstrated for low levels of concentration. In fact there is little evidence of synergistic effects from ambient air pollutant; the more common type of interaction is additive in effect. 12 references.

  20. Diachronic Perspective and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Valente, Andrea

    . An ongoing participatory inquiry is being conducted, to explore deeper forms of learning and communication for historical museums. Our hypothesis is that the diachronic perspective on historical processes, defined as social interaction within the environment through time, is a key missing element....... Although this interaction style may appeal to teachers, as it reminds of school teaching, it has several disadvantages: a dialogue never occurs between adults and children, who listen in silence, hence it becomes hard to evaluate what has being learnt and how deeply, and finally it is not very engaging....... Explorations of more interactive representations of the diachronic perspective, through play and tangible interaction, may foster a dialogue with young visitors. Therefore, a new interactive installation is being designed, intended as a tool to enrich learning, allowing children to experience historical...

  1. Density dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1994-01-01

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on-and half-off-of-the-energy shell t-and g-matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as input. As such, it is seen to better reproduce the interaction on which it is based than other commonly used density dependent effective interactions. The new (medium modified) effective interaction when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton- 12 C and proton- 16 O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable. 23 refs., 8 figs

  2. Magnetic interactions between nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2010-01-01

    We present a short overview of the influence of inter-particle interactions on the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. Strong magnetic dipole interactions between ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles, that would be superparamagnetic if isolated, can result in a collective state...... of nanoparticles. This collective state has many similarities to spin-glasses. In samples of aggregated magnetic nanoparticles, exchange interactions are often important and this can also lead to a strong suppression of superparamagnetic relaxation. The temperature dependence of the order parameter in samples...... of strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles or goethite grains is well described by a simple mean field model. Exchange interactions between nanoparticles with different orientations of the easy axes can also result in a rotation of the sub-lattice magnetization directions....

  3. Drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, W.B.; Ponto, J.A.; Stathis, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    Patients seen in the nuclear medicine department have a wide variety of disorders and, consequently, may be receiving any number of therapeutic drugs. For this reason, nuclear medicine professionals should be aware of the potential effects that these pharmacologic agents may have on the bio-distribution of subsequently administered radiopharmaceuticals, commonly referred to as ''drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions.'' Compared with the quantity of literature written about interactions between various therapeutic drugs, the information available on drug-radiopharmaceutical interactions is scarce. However, there has been increasing interest in this subject, particularly during the past five years. Some of the reported interactions are used intentionally to add a new dimension to the nuclear medicine study and increase its diagnostic capabilities, i.e., pharmacologic intervention. These beneficial ''interactions'' are discussed in detail in several other chapters of this book. Other interactions, however, cause changes in the normal distribution of radiopharmaceuticals, which may interfere with the diagnostic utility of various nuclear medicine procedures. The latter group of interactions is the focus of this chapter

  4. Sketches in Embodied Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur; Dahl, Sofia; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    and provide a simple example as a design outcome. The variety and the qualities of the initial ideas indicate that this approach might provide a better foundation for our participants, compared to the approaches that focus only on technologies. The interactive sketches were demonstrated at the conference.......We present an approach for teaching and designing embodied interaction based on interactive sketches. We have combined the mover perspective and felt experiences of movement with advanced technologies (multi-agents, physical simulations) in a generative design session. We report our activities...

  5. Interaction university and school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gionara Tauchen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the interaction between universities and middle schools is fundamental for organization and the qualification of the education system, we conducted a qualitative study on twenty public municipal schools of Rio Grande, RS, designed to investigate and understand the effectiveness of university activities (teaching, research and extension in regard to the promotion and strengthening of the interactions between these institutions. We highlight the activities related to Pibid, the Education Observatory, extension, supervised internships, and to undergraduate and postgraduate research. From comprehensions about these activities, we discuss the interaction between school and university.

  6. Multiactivity in Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doing more than one thing at the same time – a phenomenon that is often called ‘multitasking’ – is characteristic to many situations in everyday and professional life. Although we all experience it, its real time features remain understudied. Multiactivity in Social Interaction: Beyond multitasking...... by using video recordings of real-life interactions from a range of different contexts, such as medical settings, office workplaces and car driving. With the companion collection Interacting with Objects: Language, materiality, and social activity, the book advances understanding of the complex...

  7. Plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, Rainer

    1978-01-01

    The plasma wall interactions for two extreme cases, the 'vacuum model' and the 'cold gas blanket' are outlined. As a first step for understanding the plasma wall interactions the elementary interaction processes at the first wall are identified. These are energetic ion and neutral particle trapping and release, ion and neutral backscattering, ion sputtering, desorption by ions, photons and electrons and evaporation. These processes have only recently been started to be investigated in the parameter range of interest for fusion research. The few measured data and their extrapolation into regions not yet investigated are reviewed

  8. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.)

  9. Intermediate energy electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, M.

    1994-11-01

    Polarization measurements in electromagnetic interactions are reviewed. Deep inelastic scattering of polarized electrons and muons an polarized targets, photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons on protons, photonuclear reactions, and the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron are discussed. (K.A.).

  10. Interaction as Negotiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Friis; Nielsen, Christina

    In this paper we discuss recent developments in interaction design principles for ubiquitous computing environments, specifically implications related to situated and mobile aspects of work. We present 'Interaction through Negotiation' as a general Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) paradigm, aimed...... at ubiquitous/pervasive technology and environments, with focus on facilitating negotiation in and between webs of different artifacts, humans and places. This approach is concerned with the way technology presents itself to us, both as physical entities and as conceptual entities, as well as the relations...... on several extensive empirical case studies, as well as co-operative design-sessions, we present a reflective analysis providing insights into results of the "Interaction through Negotiation" design approach in action. A very promising area of application is exception handling in pervasive computing...

  11. Atomic and Molecular Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atomic and Molecular Interactions was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field

  12. Elementary particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.M.; Condo, G.T.; Handler, T.; Hart, E.L.; Read, K.; Ward, B.F.L.

    1992-10-01

    Work continues on strange particle production in weak interactions using data from a high-energy neutrino exposure in a freon bubble chamber. Meson photoproduction has also consumed considerable effort. Detector research and development activities have been carried out

  13. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS SOCIAL INTERACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Lima, Patricia; Olsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore how entrepreneurs work with innovation; to explore and develop attention points in understanding entrepreneurship as social processes of interaction between people. Through interviews and engagement with entrepreneurs and key stakeholders, their actual social practices...... entrepreneurship as socially constructed through local interactions between players and identify key themes in these interactions within the organisation, such as leadership, becoming part of the initiative and trust/mistrust. By doing so, this paper contributes to an understanding of entrepreneurship as social...... and the influence on the progress as innovators are explored. It is focused on a new local activity in a Danish town, named the I-factory which has within a year gathered almost 40 entrepreneurs. As a part of the interaction, there were created activities to encourage even more collaboration. We see...

  14. Multiactivity in Social Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doing more than one thing at the same time – a phenomenon that is often called ‘multitasking’ – is characteristic to many situations in everyday and professional life. Although we all experience it, its real time features remain understudied. Multiactivity in Social Interaction: Beyond multitasking...... offers a fresh view to the phenomenon by presenting studies that explore how two or more activities can be related and made co-relevant as people interact with one another. The studies build on the basis that multiactivity is a social, verbal and embodied phenomenon. They investigate multiactivity...... by using video recordings of real-life interactions from a range of different contexts, such as medical settings, office workplaces and car driving. With the companion collection Interacting with Objects: Language, materiality, and social activity, the book advances understanding of the complex...

  15. Chasing Ecological Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordano, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species-naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities.

  16. Air-Sea Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanady, G. T.

    2001-03-01

    In recent years air-sea interaction has emerged as a subject in its own right, encompassing small-scale and large-scale processes in both air and sea. Air-Sea Interaction: Laws and Mechanisms is a comprehensive account of how the atmosphere and the ocean interact to control the global climate, what physical laws govern this interaction, and its prominent mechanisms. The topics covered range from evaporation in the oceans, to hurricanes, and on to poleward heat transport by the oceans. By developing the subject from basic physical (thermodynamic) principles, the book is accessible to graduate students and research scientists in meteorology, oceanography, and environmental engineering. It will also be of interest to the broader physics community involved in the treatment of transfer laws, and thermodynamics of the atmosphere and ocean.

  17. Interactive Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten

    Interactivity is the continuous interaction between the user and the application to solve a task. Topology optimization is the optimization of structures in order to improve stiffness or other objectives. The goal of the thesis is to explore how topology optimization can be used in applications...... on theory of from human-computer interaction which is described in Chapter 2. Followed by a description of the foundations of topology optimization in Chapter 3. Our applications for topology optimization in 2D and 3D are described in Chapter 4 and a game which trains the human intuition of topology...... optimization is presented in Chapter 5. Topology optimization can also be used as an interactive modeling tool with local control which is presented in Chapter 6. Finally, Chapter 7 contains a summary of the findings and concludes the dissertation. Most of the presented applications of the thesis are available...

  18. Mobile Collocated Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Clawson, James; Lyons, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets were originally conceived and have traditionally been utilized for individual use. Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus...... going from personal/individual toward shared/multiuser experiences and interactions. However, computers are getting smaller, more powerful, and closer to our bodies. Therefore, mobile collocated interactions research, which originally looked at smartphones and tablets, will inevitably include ever......-smaller computers, ones that can be worn on our wrists or other parts of the body. The focus of this workshop is to bring together a community of researchers, designers and practitioners to explore the potential of extending mobile collocated interactions to the use of wearable devices....

  19. Magnon Interactions in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Mackintosh, Allan

    1970-01-01

    Magnon energies and lifetimes have been studied in Tb and Tb-10% Ho single crystals by inelastic neutron scattering. The lifetimes of magnons propagating in the c-direction have been measured in the ferromagnetic phase of Tb, and are found to decrease with increasing temperature and wave......-vector, probably principally due to magnon-magnon interactions. The interaction of magnons with phonons has also been observed and the effect of Ho impurities on this interaction studied. In addition, excitations which are ascribed to local modes associated with the Ho ions have been observed. The dependence...... of the indirect exchange interaction on temperature in the alloy gives information on the mechanisms responsible for the transition from the helical to ferromagnetic structures. The dependence of the magnon energies on magnetic field at low temperatures gives detailed information on the role of magnetoelastic...

  20. Fibronectin-cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Austria, M R; Woods, A

    1990-01-01

    Fibronectins are widespread extracellular matrix and body fluid glycoproteins, capable of multiple interactions with cell surfaces and other matrix components. Their structure at a molecular level has been resolved, yet there are still many unanswered questions regarding their biologic activity...... in vivo. Much data suggests that fibronectins may promote extracellular matrix assembly, and cell adhesion to those matrices. However, one outstanding enigma is that fibronectins may, under different circumstances, promote both cell migration and anchorage. An analysis of the interaction of fibroblasts...... with proteolytically derived and purified domains of plasma fibronectin revealed that the type of adhesion and the correlated cytoskeletal organization depended on multiple interactions of fibronectin domains with the cell surface. Human dermal fibroblasts were capable of interacting with the integrin-binding domain...

  1. Host–Pathogen Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.A.; Schokker, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of an infection is determined by numerous interactions between hosts and pathogens occurring at many different biological levels, ranging from molecule to population. To develop new control strategies for infectious diseases in livestock species, appropriate methodologies are needed

  2. Quark-quark interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter discusses interactions only at the constituent level, as observed in hadron-hadron collisions. It defines quarks and gluons as constituents of the colliding hadrons, reviews some applications of perturbative OCD, discussing in turn lepton pair production, which in lowest order approximation corresponds to the Drell-Yan process. It investigates whether quark-quark interactions could not lead to some new color structure different from those prevalent for known baryons and mesons, which could be created in hadron interactions, and whether color objects (not specifically quarks or gluons) could not appear as free particles. Discussed is perturbative QCD in hadron collisions; the quark approach to soft processes; and new color structures. It points out that perturbative QCD has been at the origin of much progress in the understanding of hadron interactions at the constituent level

  3. Semi-leptonic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, J.M.

    In spite of the presence of poorly understood strong interaction effects, the theory of hadronic currents leads to a considerable predictive power. This is shown in the discussion of the semi-leptonic decays

  4. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0110 FUNDAMENTALS OF FILAMENT INTERACTION Martin Richardson UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION...of Filament Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA95501110001 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Richardson 5d. PROJECT...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Martin Richardson a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 407-823-6819 Standard Form

  5. Succeeding with interactive research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn; Nielsen, Morten Velsing

    2017-01-01

    the capacity for critique and ensuring that scientific standards are met. Based on our own experience and theories of interactive governance, network management and collaborative leadership, as well as on existing methodological literature, we provide guidance and suggest concrete tools and methods......Increasingly, social science research is carried out in collaboration with partners outside universities, yet research methodology is lacking on how to manoeuvre in a terrain where multiple actors set expectations for research. This article conceptualizes interactive research as research...

  6. Interaction quality: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ultes, Stefan; Minker, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Automatically deriving the quality of a Spoken Dialogue System is an important task for both assessing dialogue systems and improving them. Work on automatic quality estimation for each system-user-exchange further holds the opportunity of using this quality information for online-adaption of the dialogues. The Interaction Quality paradigm is the first metric holding those features. Hence, this contribution gives an overview over the Interaction Quality paradigm and reviews recent estimation ...

  7. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmanspacher, Harald [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Haven, Emmanuel [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Management; Kitto, Kirsty [Queensland Univ. of Technology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Raine, Derek (ed.) [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Interdisciplinary Science

    2014-07-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  8. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  9. Interaction and observation, categorically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Ciancia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to use dialgebras to specify the semantics of interactive systems in a natural way. Dialgebras are a conservative extension of coalgebras. In this categorical model, from the point of view that we provide, the notions of observation and interaction are separate features. This is useful, for example, in the specification of process equivalences, which are obtained as kernels of the homomorphisms of dialgebras. As an example we present the asynchronous semantics of the CCS.

  10. Soil-dithiocarbamate interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghu, K.

    1980-01-01

    Soil is the ultimate repository of the pesticides applied for the control of plant pests and diseases. A variety of interactions like leaching, adsorption, chemical and microbial degradation etc take place between soil and pesticide. Results on work on two dialkyldithiocarbamates viz. thiram (tetramethylthiuram disulfide) and ziram (zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate) with respect to above interactions in soil are discussed and summarised. 35 S-labelled thiram and ziram were used in the studies. (author)

  11. Grapefruit and drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, grapefruit juice has been known to affect the metabolism of certain drugs. Several serious adverse effects involving drug interactions with grapefruit juice have been published in detail. The components of grapefruit juice vary considerably depending on the variety, maturity and origin of the fruit, local climatic conditions, and the manufacturing process. No single component accounts for all observed interactions. Other grapefruit products are also occasionally implicated, including preserves, lyophylised grapefruit juice, powdered whole grapefruit, grapefruit seed extract, and zest. Clinical reports of drug interactions with grapefruit juice are supported by pharmacokinetic studies, each usually involving about 10 healthy volunteers, in which the probable clinical consequences were extrapolated from the observed plasma concentrations. Grapefruit juice inhibits CYP3A4, the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme most often involved in drug metabolism. This increases plasma concentrations of the drugs concerned, creating a risk of overdose and dose-dependent adverse effects. Grapefruit juice also inhibits several other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but they are less frequently implicated in interactions with clinical consequences. Drugs interacting with grapefruit and inducing serious clinical consequences (confirmed or very probable) include: immunosuppressants, some statins, benzodiazepines, most calcium channel blockers, indinavir and carbamazepine. There are large inter-individual differences in enzyme efficiency. Along with the variable composition of grapefruit juice, this makes it difficult to predict the magnitude and clinical consequences of drug interactions with grapefruit juice in a given patient. There is increasing evidence that transporter proteins such as organic anion transporters and P-glycoprotein are involved in interactions between drugs and grapefruit juice. In practice, numerous drugs interact with grapefruit juice. Although only a few

  12. Beam-Material Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high- intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target , and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and envir onment in challenging current and future application

  13. Succeeding with interactive research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn; Nielsen, Morten Velsing

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, social science research is carried out in collaboration with partners outside universities, yet research methodology is lacking on how to manoeuvre in a terrain where multiple actors set expectations for research. This article conceptualizes interactive research as research...... the capacity for critique and ensuring that scientific standards are met. Based on our own experience and theories of interactive governance, network management and collaborative leadership, as well as on existing methodological literature, we provide guidance and suggest concrete tools and methods...

  14. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  15. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  16. K+-nucleus interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The K + -nucleus system is reviewed and comparison with data is made. The principal conclusions are that the theoretical uncertainties in relating the K + -nucleus interaction to the K + -nucleon interaction are very small and hence the positive kaon makes an excellent probe of the nucleus. It is suggested that this particle may be more sensitive to non-nucleonic degrees of freedom (especially quarks) than classical probes

  17. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    OpenAIRE

    Burelli, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    A virtual camera represents the point-of-view of the player through which sheperceives the game world and gets feedback on her actions. Thus, the virtualcamera plays a vital role in 3D computer games and aects player experienceand enjoyability in games. Interactive virtual cinematography is the process ofvisualising the content of a virtual environment by positioning and animatingthe virtual camera in the context of interactive applications such as a computergame.Camera placement and animatio...

  18. Beam-Material Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Cerutti, F. [CERN

    2016-01-01

    Th is paper is motivated by the growing importance of better understanding of the phenomena and consequences of high-intensity energetic particle beam interactions with accelerator, generic target, and detector components. It reviews the principal physical processes of fast-particle interactions with matter, effects in materials under irradiation, materials response, related to component lifetime and performance, simulation techniques, and methods of mitigating the impact of radiation on the components and environment in challenging current and future applications.

  19. Interacting Agegraphic Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2007-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named "agegraphic dark energy", has been proposed recently, based on the so-called K\\'{a}rolyh\\'{a}zy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegrap...

  20. Quantum interaction. Selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmanspacher, Harald; Haven, Emmanuel; Raine, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Quantum Interaction, QI 2013, held in Leicester, UK, in July 2013. The 31 papers presented in this book were carefully selected from numerous submissions. The papers cover various topics on quantum interaction and revolve around four themes: information processing/retrieval/semantic representation and logic; cognition and decision making; finance/economics and social structures and biological systems.

  1. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, C.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. The authors have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits

  2. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  3. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  4. Electromagnetic processes and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheck, F.

    1983-01-01

    The electron and muon are important tools in testing the structure of the fundamental electromagnetic interactions. On the other hand, if these interactions are known, they serve as ideal probes for the internal structure of complex hadronic targets such as nucleons and nuclei. Purely electromagnetic interactions play a distinctive role, for obvious experimental reasons: At low and intermediate energies the effective electromagnetic coupling is larger by many orders of magnitude than the weak couplings, so that electromagnetic processes are measurable to much higher accuracy than purely weak processes. The present chapter deals primarily with applications of charged leptons to problems of nucleon and nuclear structure, and to selected precision tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) at low momentum transfers. In most of these applications the electromagnetic interactions effectively appear in the form of external fields in the leptonic particle's Dirac equation. This is the domain where the physics of (electromagnetically) interacting leptons can still be described in the framework of an effective, though relativistic, single particle theory. (orig.)

  5. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  6. Secondary interactions in HIJET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longacre, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This talk deals with the investigation of secondary interactions in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions using the Monte Carlo event generator HIJET. The HIJET generator considers p-A and A-A collisions to be a sum of independent N-N collisions, with the N-N cross section and scattering dynamics not dependent on whether the nucleon has previously participated in an interaction. It is very reasonable to assume that each collision should be well represented by an independent N-N collision, however the cross section for the forward going struck nucleon may be different. For each primary N-N interaction, a call is made to the MINBIAS routine of the program ISAJET - an event generator for high energy N-N interactions. MINBIAS computes the energy loss of the colliding nucleons and production of particles. MINBIAS is based on inclusive high energy N-N interactions forming multi-pomeron chains, with each chain fragmenting according to the Field-Feynman algorithm

  7. 5. Laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Bandulet, H.

    2002-01-01

    Imprint elimination, smoothing and preheat control are considerable problems in inertial fusion and their possible solution can be achieved by using low-density porous materials as a buffer in target design. The articles gathered in this document present various aspects of the laser-plasma interaction, among which we have noticed: -) numerical algorithmic improvements of the Vlasov solver toward the simulation of the laser-plasma interaction are proposed, -) the dependence of radiation temperatures and X-ray conversion efficiencies of hohlraum on the target structures and laser irradiation conditions are investigated, -) a study of laser interaction with ultra low-density (0,5 - 20 mg/cm 3 ) porous media analyzing backscattered light at incident laser frequency ω 0 and its harmonics 3*ω 0 /2 and 2*ω 0 is presented, -) investigations of laser interaction with solid targets and crater formation are carried out with the objective to determine the ablation loading efficiency, -) a self organization in an intense laser-driven plasma and the measure of the relative degree of order of the states in an open system based on the S-theorem are investigated, and -) the existence and stability of electromagnetic solitons generated in a relativistic interaction of an intense laser light with uniform under-dense cold plasma are studied

  8. Tidal interaction of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, N.N.; Syunyaev, R.A.; Ehneev, T.M.

    1974-01-01

    One of the hypotheses explaining the occurrence of anomalous details in interacting galaxies has been investigated. Pairs of galaxies with 'tails' oppositely directed or neighbouring galaxies with cofferdams 'bridges', as if connecting the galaxies, are called interacting galaxies. The hypothesis connects the origin of cofferdams and 'tails' of interacting galaxies with tidal effects ; the action of power gravitational forces in the intergalactic space. A source of such forces may be neighbouring stellar systems or invisible bodies, for instance, 'dead' quasars after a gravitational collapse. The effect of large masses of matter on the galaxy evolution has been investigated in the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSSR in 1971-1972 by numerical simulation of the process on a digital computer with the subsequent data transmission on a display. Different versions of a massive body flight relative to a galaxy disk are considered. Photographs of a display screen at different moments of time are presented. As a result of mathematical simulation of galaxies gravitational interactions effects are discovered which resemble real structures in photographs of galaxies. It seems to be premature to state that namely these mechanisms cause the formation of 'tails' and cofferdams between galaxies. However, even now it is clear that the gravitational interaction strongly affects the dynamics of the stellar system evolution. Further studies should ascertain a true scale of this effect and its genuine role in galaxy evolution

  9. Electromagnetic cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifra, Michal; Fields, Jeremy Z; Farhadi, Ashkan

    2011-05-01

    Chemical and electrical interaction within and between cells is well established. Just the opposite is true about cellular interactions via other physical fields. The most probable candidate for an other form of cellular interaction is the electromagnetic field. We review theories and experiments on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields generally, and if the cell-generated electromagnetic field can mediate cellular interactions. We do not limit here ourselves to specialized electro-excitable cells. Rather we describe physical processes that are of a more general nature and probably present in almost every type of living cell. The spectral range included is broad; from kHz to the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. We show that there is a rather large number of theories on how cells can generate and detect electromagnetic fields and discuss experimental evidence on electromagnetic cellular interactions in the modern scientific literature. Although small, it is continuously accumulating. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Making an Interactive Calculus Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a case study of the design and production of "Interactive Calculus," an interactive multimedia textbook. Discusses reasons for using multimedia textbooks; what an interactive textbook is; content, organization, graphic design, authoring and composition; and work flow. (AEF)

  11. New interactions for superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.; Klinkhamer, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    The supersymmetry relation {Q -A , Qsup(anti B}=2Hδsup(Aanti B) implies the existence of a new quartic vertex in the open superstring light-cone hamiltonian, if the supercharges are cubic in the string fields. Green and Schwarz have argued that this vertex almost vanishes, due to exact cancellations among fermionic operators, with perhaps a non-local interaction remaining. In this article we show that these exact cancellations do not occur for certain contributions to the anticommutator, and that new local, and possibly divergent, 4-string interactions are generated. On the basis of vacuum stability, we argue that 4-string interaction terms should also exist for closed superstring hamiltonians. (orig.)

  12. Dike/Drift Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  13. Sonic Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ) challenges these prevalent approaches by considering sound as an active medium that can enable novel sensory and social experiences through interactive technologies. This book offers an overview of the emerging SID research, discussing theories, methods, and practices, with a focus on the multisensory......Sound is an integral part of every user experience but a neglected medium in design disciplines. Design of an artifact’s sonic qualities is often limited to the shaping of functional, representational, and signaling roles of sound. The interdisciplinary field of sonic interaction design (SID...... aspects of sonic experience. Sonic Interaction Design gathers contributions from scholars, artists, and designers working at the intersections of fields ranging from electronic music to cognitive science. They offer both theoretical considerations of key themes and case studies of products and systems...

  14. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  15. Dike/Drift Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffiney, E.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1)

  16. Interactive Karyotyping Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kotwaliwale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide use of newer techniques in genetic diagnostics, there remains a need for technologists to learn human chromosome morphology, identify abnormal metaphases and report clinical abnormalities. Global short age of cytogenetic trainers and a time consuming training process makes Karyotyping training difficult. We have developed a web based interactive Karyotyping training tool, KaryoTutor©, that allows technologists to learn karyotyping in an interactive environment and aids the trainer in the training process. KaryoTutor©provides visual clues for identifying abnormal chromosomes, provides instant test scores and includes a reference library of ideograms,sample chromosome images and reference materials. Trainees are able to recursively work on a case till a satisfactory result is achieved,with KaryoTutor providing interactive inputs.Additionally, trainers can assign cases and monitor trainee progress using audit trail management and other administrative features.

  17. Interactive Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR) from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction...... and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented......: The MEDLARS test, the Book House fiction retrieval system, and the OKAPI project. On this basis the call for alternative IIR evaluation approaches motivated by the three revolutions (the cognitive, the relevance, and the interactive revolutions) put forward by Robertson & Hancock-Beaulieu (1992) is presented...

  18. Plasma-material interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    Plasma-interactive components must be resistant to erosion processes, efficient in heat removal, and effective in minimizing tritium inventory and permeation. As long as plasma edge temperatures are 50 eV, no one material can satisfy the diverse requirements imposed by these plasma materials interactions. The only solution is the design of duplex, or even more complicated, structures. The material that faces the plasma should be low atomic number, with acceptable erosion and evaporation characteristics. The substrate material must have high thermal conductivity for heat removal. Finally, materials must be selected judiciously for tritium compatibility. In conclusion, materials play a critical role in the achievement of safe and economical magnetic fusion energy. Improvements in materials have already led to many advances in present day device operation, but additional innovative materials solutions are required for the critical plasma materials interaction issues in future power reactors

  19. Interactive Sample Book (ISB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker; Guglielmi, Michel

    2009-01-01

    supervisor Torben A. Lenau. Inspiration to use smart materials Interactive textiles are still quite an unknown phenomenon to many. It is thus often difficult to communicate what kind of potentials lie within these materials. This is why the ISB project was started, as a practice based research project...... and senses in relation to integrated decoration and function primarily to indoor applications. The result of the project will be a number of interactive textiles, to be gathered in an interactive sample book (ISB), in a similar way as the sample books of wallpapers one can take home from the shop and choose...... from. In other words, it is a kind of display material, which in a simple manner can illustrate how different techniques and smart materials work. The sample book should display a number of possibilities where sensor technology, smart materials and textiles are mixed to such an extent that the textile...

  20. Interacting hot dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Davidson, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the viability of a light particle (∼30eV neutrino) with strong self-interactions as a dark matter candidate. The interaction prevents the neutrinos from free-streaming during the radiation-dominated regime so galaxy-sized density perturbations can survive. Smaller scale perturbations are damped due to neutrino diffusion. We calculate the power spectrum in the imperfect fluid approximation, and show that it is damped at the length scale one would estimate due to neutrino diffusion. The strength of the neutrino-neutrino coupling is only weakly constrained by observations, and could be chosen by fitting the power spectrum to the observed amplitude of matter density perturbations. The main shortcoming of our model is that interacting neutrinos cannot provide the dark matter in dwarf galaxies. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Magnetic interactions through fluoride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kasper Steen; Sigrist, Marc; Weihe, Høgni

    2014-01-01

    support the parameter values and resolve |E| ≈ 0.04 cm(-1). The exchange coupling constant (J) is 1 order of magnitude smaller than that found in comparable systems with linear oxide bridging but comparable to typical magnitudes through cyanide, thus underlining the potential of fluoride complexes......The nature of the magnetic interaction through fluoride in a simple, dinuclear manganese(III) complex (1), bridged by a single fluoride ion in a perfectly linear fashion, is established by experiment and density functional theory. The magnitude of the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction...

  2. Alkane dimers interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Madsen, Georg Kent Hellerup; Hammer, Bjørk

    2010-01-01

    The interaction energies of a series of n-alkane dimers, from methane to decane, have been investigated with Density Functional Theory (DFT), using the MGGA-M06-L density functional. The results are compared both to the available wavefunction-based values as well as to dispersion corrected DFT...... values. The MGGA-M06-L density functional is a semi-local functional designed and has proven to provide accurate estimates of dispersion interactions for several systems at moderate computational cost. In the present application, it reproduces the trends obtained by the more expensive wavefunction...

  3. Urban Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Bermúdez, Juan Carlos Carvajal; Fernández, Manu

    This book is an effort to explore the newly emerging field of urban interaction design that addresses these issues. In the first part of the book, 'Foundations', we look into its origins. Where do its practitioners come from? How are they working together? What methodologies do they bring...... to the table? What are the key concepts they are addressing in their work? In the second part of the book named 'Trends', we go into current developments in the networked city and how urban interaction design as a field addresses these. Taken together, these sections will not give the definite definition...

  4. Mixed Interaction Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke-Olesen, Andreas; Eriksson, E.; Hansen, T.R.

    In this paper, we describe a new interaction technique for mobile devices named Mixed Interaction Space that uses the camera of the mobile device to track the position, size and rotation of a fixed-point. In this demonstration we will present a system that uses a hand-drawn circle, colored object...... or a person’s face as a fixed-point to determine the location of the device. We use these features as a 4 dimensional input vector to a set of different applications....

  5. Interacting agegraphic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2009-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named ''agegraphic dark energy'', has been proposed recently, based on the so-called Karolyhazy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegraphic dark energy model and holographic dark energy model. The similarity and difference between agegraphic dark energy and holographic dark energy are also discussed. (orig.)

  6. Interacting binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Sahade, Jorge; Ter Haar, D

    1978-01-01

    Interacting Binary Stars deals with the development, ideas, and problems in the study of interacting binary stars. The book consolidates the information that is scattered over many publications and papers and gives an account of important discoveries with relevant historical background. Chapters are devoted to the presentation and discussion of the different facets of the field, such as historical account of the development in the field of study of binary stars; the Roche equipotential surfaces; methods and techniques in space astronomy; and enumeration of binary star systems that are studied

  7. A specific A/T polymorphism in Western tyrosine phosphorylation B-motifs regulates Helicobacter pylori CagA epithelial cell interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Song Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori persistently colonizes the human stomach, with mixed roles in human health. The CagA protein, a key host-interaction factor, is translocated by a type IV secretion system into host epithelial cells, where its EPIYA tyrosine phosphorylation motifs (TPMs are recognized by host cell kinases, leading to multiple host cell signaling cascades. The CagA TPMs have been described as type A, B, C or D, each with a specific conserved amino acid sequence surrounding EPIYA. Database searching revealed strong non-random distribution of the B-motifs (including EPIYA and EPIYT in Western H. pylori isolates. In silico analysis of Western H. pylori CagA sequences provided evidence that the EPIYT B-TPMs are significantly less associated with gastric cancer than the EPIYA B-TPMs. By generating and using a phosphorylated CagA B-TPM-specific antibody, we demonstrated the phosphorylated state of the CagA B-TPM EPIYT during H. pylori co-culture with host cells. We also showed that within host cells, CagA interaction with phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase was B-TPM tyrosine-phosphorylation-dependent, and the recombinant CagA with EPIYT B-TPM had higher affinity to PI3-kinase and enhanced induction of AKT than the isogenic CagA with EPIYA B-TPM. Structural modeling of the CagA B-TPM motif bound to PI3-kinase indicated that the threonine residue at the pY+1 position forms a side-chain hydrogen bond to N-417 of PI3-kinase, which cannot be formed by alanine. During co-culture with AGS cells, an H. pylori strain with a CagA EPIYT B-TPM had significantly attenuated induction of interleukin-8 and hummingbird phenotype, compared to the isogenic strain with B-TPM EPIYA. These results suggest that the A/T polymorphisms could regulate CagA activity through interfering with host signaling pathways related to carcinogenesis, thus influencing cancer risk.

  8. Adhesive interactions with wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2004-01-01

    While the chemistry for the polymerization of wood adhesives has been studied systematically and extensively, the critical aspects of the interaction of adhesives with wood are less clearly understood. General theories of bond formation need to be modified to take into account the porosity of wood and the ability of chemicals to be absorbed into the cell wall....

  9. Interactive Foresight Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sanne; Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Jacobsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Combined Simulation Approach (CSA) is a way to evaluate risks and address potential unforeseen problems in a more interactive way than what is often observed in practice in companies or sectors. The approach is based on a combination of scenario analysis and discrete-event computer simulation...

  10. Interaction Before Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; Garrard, Andrew; Allcock, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses social interaction in the Epipalaeolithic of southwest Asia. Discussions of contact, social relationships and social organization have primarily focused on the Pre-Pottery Neolithic and are often considered to represent typical hallmarks of emergent farming societies. The h...

  11. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  12. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos

    a mixture of facilitated creative thinking and a world café approach to bring the community together to tackle these two key challenges. The CCI SIG will be the natural meeting place for members of this community at CHI and will disseminate its discussion to the CCI and CHI communities through...... the production of visual and interactive materials at the CHI conference....

  13. Data Interactive Publications Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, W. J.

    2011-12-01

    A few years back, the authors presented examples of online documents that allowed the reader to interact directly with datasets, but there were limitations that restricted the interaction to specific desktop analysis and display tools that were not generally available to all readers of the documents. Recent advances in web service technology and related standards are making it possible to develop systems for publishing online documents that enable readers to access, analyze, and display the data discussed in the publication from the perspective and in the manner from which the author wants it to be represented. By clicking on embedded links, the reader accesses not only the usual textual information in a publication, but also data residing on a local or remote web server as well as a set of processing tools for analyzing and displaying the data. With the option of having the analysis and display processing provided on the server, there are now a broader set of possibilities on the client side where the reader can interact with the data via a thin web client, a rich desktop application, or a mobile platform "app." The presentation will outline the architecture of data interactive publications along with illustrative examples.

  14. Data Interactive Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenico, B.; Weber, J.

    2012-04-01

    For some years now, the authors have developed examples of online documents that allowed the reader to interact directly with datasets, but there were limitations that restricted the interaction to specific desktop analysis and display tools that were not generally available to all readers of the documents. Recent advances in web service technology and related standards are making it possible to develop systems for publishing online documents that enable readers to access, analyze, and display the data discussed in the publication from the perspective and in the manner from which the author wants it to be represented. By clicking on embedded links, the reader accesses not only the usual textual information in a publication, but also data residing on a local or remote web server as well as a set of processing tools for analyzing and displaying the data. With the option of having the analysis and display processing provided on the server (or in the cloud), there are now a broader set of possibilities on the client side where the reader can interact with the data via a thin web client, a rich desktop application, or a mobile platform "app." The presentation will outline the architecture of data interactive publications along with illustrative examples.

  15. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  16. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  17. Gaze interaction from bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; San Agustin, Javier; Jensen, Henrik Tomra Skovsgaard Hegner

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost gaze tracking solution for bedbound people composed of free-ware tracking software and commodity hardware. Gaze interaction is done on a large wall-projected image, visible to all people present in the room. The hardware equipment leaves physical space free to assis...

  18. ROILA : RObot Interaction LAnguage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mubin, O.

    2011-01-01

    The number of robots in our society is increasing rapidly. The number of service robots that interact with everyday people already outnumbers industrial robots. The easiest way to communicate with these service robots, such as Roomba or Nao, would be natural speech. However, the limitations

  19. Empowered interaction through creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselblad, Stefan; Petersson, Eva; Brooks, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother and the spe...

  20. Virtual Interactive Space (VIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2015-01-01

    This paper shares code that enables the making of a Virtual Interactive Space (VIS) where the skin of the invisible active sensor area is dynamically responsive to the velocity of a limb e.g. hand. Used in proprioception training of movement the patch is at the core of the author’s Reafferentation...

  1. Dilations and interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Fredenhagen, K.

    1976-07-01

    As a consequence of the geometrical features of dilations massless particles do not interact in a local, dilationally invariant quantum theory. This result also holds in models in which dilations are only an asymptotically visible symmetry of the S-matrix. (orig.) [de

  2. Interaction with William Carnall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    A personal account is given of interaction with William T. Carnall during the period 1977-1988, when I made regular visits to the Argonne National Laboratory to discuss the theoretical background to the spectroscopic work he was carrying out on the lanthanides and actinides

  3. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  4. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  5. Space for Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mariane Ellen; Folmer, Mette Blicher; Mullins, Michael

    SPACE FOR INTERACTION QUALIFYING GROUP TREATMENT FOR PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN THROUGH OPTIMIZATION(?) OF SPACE. A RANDOMIZED PILOT STUDY. In a Ph-D. Mariane Ellen Jørgensen / Nurse + psykoterapist / maej@rn.dk / Pain Center / Aalborg University Hospital / Denmark / Mette Blicher Folmer / Archit...

  6. Interactive Mold House Tour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Get a quick glimpse of some of the most important ways to protect your home from mold by this interactive tour of the Mold House. Room-by-room, you'll learn about common mold issues and how to address them.

  7. Teaching with Interactive Multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tim

    Based on the idea that anyone who is interested in making entertaining and informative presentations in educational settings is interested in multimedia, this practical guide offers tips for communication (and other) teachers who want to integrate and program interactive multimedia into their courses. The guide suggests that teachers on limited…

  8. Aesthetics of Mundane Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Hassenzahl, M.

    2008-01-01

    John Dewey’s pragmatist aesthetics is used as a conceptual basis for designing new technologies that support staff-members’ mundane social interactions in an academic department. From this perspective, aesthetics is seen as a broader phenomenon that encompasses experiential aspects of staff-members’

  9. Aesthetics of Mundane Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Dhaval; Hassenzahl, M.

    2008-01-01

    John Dewey’s pragmatist aesthetics is used as a conceptual basis for designing new technologies that support staff-members’ mundane social interactions in an academic department. From this perspective, aesthetics is seen as a broader phenomenon that encompasses experiential aspects of staff-members’ everyday lives and not only a look-&-feel aspect.

  10. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then ...

  11. Interactive Playgrounds for Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter; van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Moreno Celleri, Alejandro Manuel; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    Play is an important factor in the life of children. It plays a role in their cognitive, social, and physical development, and provides entertaining and fulfilling activities in itself. As with any field of human endeavor, interactive technology has a huge potential for transforming and enhancing

  12. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...

  13. Exploring governmentality as interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian

    from an interactionistic perspective, based on Goffman’s dramaturgy. The focal point is how Goffman's concepts of interaction order, rituals, role and role performance might be an point of entry for studying the techniques the self and the techniques of domination through which governmentality operates...

  14. Interactive Purchasing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote Schaarsberg, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Reijnierse, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper introduces a new class of interactive cooperative purchasing situations and provides an explicit alternative characterization of the nucleolus of cooperative games, which offers an alternative to Kohlberg (1971). In our cooperative purchasing situation, the unit price of a

  15. Interactive shape metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David T.; State, Andrei; Banks, David

    1994-01-01

    A technique for controlled metamorphosis between surfaces in 3-space is described. Well-understood techniques to produce shape metamorphosis between models in a 2D parametric space is applied. The user selects morphable features interactively, and the morphing process executes in real time on a high-performance graphics multicomputer.

  16. Tritium-surface interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkaldy, J.S.

    1983-06-01

    The report deals broadly with tritium-surface interactions as they relate to a fusion power reactor enterprise, viz., the vacuum chamber, first wall, peripherals, pumping, fuel recycling, isotope separation, repair and maintenance, decontamination and safety. The main emphasis is on plasma-surface interactions and the selection of materials for fusion chamber duty. A comprehensive review of the international (particularly U.S.) research and development is presented based upon a literature review (about 1 000 reports and papers) and upon visits to key laboratories, Sandia, Albuquerque, Sandia, Livermore and EGβG Idaho. An inventory of Canadian expertise and facilities for RβD on tritium-surface interactions is also presented. A number of proposals are made for the direction of an optimal Canadian RβD program, emphasizing the importance of building on strength in both the technological and fundamental areas. A compendium of specific projects and project areas is presented dealing primarily with plasma-wall interactions and permeation, anti-permeation materials and surfaces and health, safety and environmental considerations. Potential areas of industrial spinoff are identified

  17. A tabletop interactive storytelling system: designing for social interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alofs, Thijs; Theune, Mariet; Swartjes, I.M.T.

    This paper presents the Interactive Storyteller, a multi-user interface for AI-based interactive storytelling, where stories emerge from the interaction of human players with intelligent characters in a simulated story world. To support face-to-face contact and social interaction, we position users

  18. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons: Structure and interaction of bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, C.H.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. We have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson-proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits. A connection is made between these coefficients and the parameters of the interaction boson model Hamiltonian. A link between the latter parameters and the single boson energies is suggested

  19. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons: Structure and interaction of bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, C.H.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. We have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson-proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits. A connection is made between these coefficients and the parameters of the interaction boson model Hamiltonian. A link between the latter parameters and the single boson energies is suggested.

  20. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions

  1. Interaction Design for Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne

    2008-01-01

    In this abstract I describe the doctorial research project "Interaction Design for Public Spaces". The objective of the project is to explore and design interaction contexts in culture related public spaces such as museums, experience centres and festivals. As a perspective on this domain, I...... will focus on the usage of the body as an interaction device. Furthermore, the project will involve a dramaturgic take on communication and design of interactive systems in the pursuit of new ways to stage the interactive contexts. The outcome of the project will be guidelines and conceptual frameworks which...... will help interaction designers when designing for bodily movement, and communicating and staging interactive content in public spaces....

  2. Electron-positron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiik, B.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    This book is an introduction into the physics of electron-positron interactions. After a description of electron-positron storage rings pure electromagnetic e + e - interactions, and the total cross section are considered. Then low energy processes, the production of the J/psi and psi' particles including their radiative decay as well as the search for other narrow vector states are described. Then after the quark model interpretation of J/psi and psi' charmed mesons, the heavy lepton t, and the upsilon resonances are described. Thereafter inclusive hadron production and jet formation is discussed. Finally the next generation of e + e - colliding rings is described, and the first results from PETRA are presented. This book is suited for all physicists, who want to get a general review about e + e - physics. (HSI) 891 HSI/HSI 892 RKD

  3. Intelligent Interactive Multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, Toyohide; Takahashi, Naohisa; 5th International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Interactive Multimedia Systems and Services (KES-IIMSS-12).  The Conference was jointly organised by Nagoya University in Japan and the KES International organisation, and held in the attractive city of Gifu.   The KES-IIMSS conference series, (series chairs Prof. Maria Virvou and Prof. George Tsihrintzis), presents novel research in various areas of intelligent multimedia system relevant to the development of a new generation of interactive, user-centric devices and systems.  The aim of the conference is to provide an internationally respected forum for scientific research in the technologies and applications of this new and dynamic research area.

  4. Interacting adiabatic quantum motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruch, Anton; Kusminskiy, Silvia Viola; Refael, Gil; von Oppen, Felix

    2018-05-01

    We present a field-theoretic treatment of an adiabatic quantum motor. We explicitly discuss a motor called the Thouless motor which is based on a Thouless pump operating in reverse. When a sliding periodic potential is considered to be the motor degree of freedom, a bias voltage applied to the electron channel sets the motor in motion. We investigate a Thouless motor whose electron channel is modeled as a Luttinger liquid. Interactions increase the gap opened by the periodic potential. For an infinite Luttinger liquid the coupling-induced friction is enhanced by electron-electron interactions. When the Luttinger liquid is ultimately coupled to Fermi liquid reservoirs, the dissipation reduces to its value for a noninteracting electron system for a constant motor velocity. Our results can also be applied to a motor based on a nanomagnet coupled to a quantum spin Hall edge.

  5. Theory of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  6. Interactive design center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomplun, Alan R. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-07-01

    Sandia's advanced computing resources provide researchers, engineers and analysts with the ability to develop and render highly detailed large-scale models and simulations. To take full advantage of these multi-million data point visualizations, display systems with comparable pixel counts are needed. The Interactive Design Center (IDC) is a second generation visualization theater designed to meet this need. The main display integrates twenty-seven projectors in a 9-wide by 3-high array with a total display resolution of more than 35 million pixels. Six individual SmartBoard displays offer interactive capabilities that include on-screen annotation and touch panel control of the facility's display systems. This report details the design, implementation and operation of this innovative facility.

  7. Theory of gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This is the second edition of a well-received book that is a modern, self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The new edition includes more details on gravitational waves of cosmological origin, the so-called brane world scenario, and gravitational time-delay effects. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field, while the second, more advanced part discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the “gauge” theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap within the traditional approach to general relativity which usually leaves students puzzled about the role of gravity. The required notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, allowing room for aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational inter...

  8. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    is the process of visualising the content of a virtual environment by positioning and animating the virtual camera in the context of interactive applications such as a computer game. Camera placement and animation in games are usually directly controlled by the player or statically predened by designers. Direct...... control of the camera by the player increases the complexity of the interaction and reduces the designer's control on game storytelling. A completely designer-driven camera releases the player from the burden of controlling the point of view, but might generate undesired camera behaviours. Furthermore......, if the content of the game is procedurally generated, the designer might not have the necessary information to dene a priori the camera positions and movements. Automatic camera control aims to dene an abstraction layer that permits to control the camera using high-level and environment-independent rules...

  9. Student interaction in workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Winie

    2014-01-01

    A kind of teaching for active learning has been experimented with at SDU Sønderborg as part of the course Supply Chain Dynamics. In this course the students learn about complex systems, system dynamics as well as supply chain instability and oscillation, the course lecturer invited the author...... to experiment with novel workshop methods and techniques, where objects are used to illustrate and model business issues (Heinemann et al, 2011, Buur et al, 2013). The idea was to see how students could be engaged in a different and more interactive way to learn about these topics, by assigning the students...... teaching should reflect this diversity by embracing and experimenting with multiple forms, including activation of students by students’ interaction and manipulation with objects....

  10. Embodying multilingual interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Mortensen, Janus

    this linguistic diversity is managed in situ by participants engaged in dialogue with one another, and what it is used for in these transient multilingual communities. This paper presents CA-based micro-ethnographic analyses of language choice in an informal social setting – a kitchen – of an international study...... literature on language choice in interaction, our findings emphasize that analyses of language choice in multilingual settings need to take into account social actions beyond the words that are spoken. We show that facial, spatial and postural configurations, gaze orientation and gestures as well as prosodic...... in the particular community of practice that we are investigating. Reference Hazel, Spencer, and Janus Mortensen. forthcoming. Kitchen talk: Exploring linguistic practices in liminal institutional interactions in a multilingual university setting. in Language Alternation, Language Choice, and Language Encounter...

  11. Interaction and Mindreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of theorists have developed approaches to social cognition that highlight the centrality of social interaction as opposed to mindreading (e.g. Gallagher and Zahavi 2008; Gallagher 2001, 2007, 2008; Hobson 2002; Reddy 2008; Hutto 2004; De Jaegher 2009; De Jaegher and Di...... Paolo 2007; Fuchs and De Jaegher 2009; De Jaegher, Di Paolo and Gallagher 2010). There are important differences among these approaches, as I will discuss, but they are united by their commitment to the claim that various embodied and extended processes sustain social understanding and interaction...... will give reasons for being skeptical about. I will then present an alternative and moderate version of interactionism, according to which the embodied and extended processes that interactionists emphasize actually complement mindreading and may even contribute as an input to mindreading....

  12. Interactive Information Retrieval:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    IIR from the perspective of search dedication and task load in order to also include everyday life information seeking? With this presentation, the IIR community is invited to an exchange of ideas and is encouraged to engage in collaborations with the solving of these (and other) issues to our joint......This presentation addresses methodological issues of interactive information retrieval (IIR) evaluation in terms of what it entails to study users' use and interaction with IR systems, as well as their satisfaction with retrieved information. In particular, the presentation focuses on test design...... of the users to ensure a complete and realistic picture to enhance our understanding of IIR. The presentation also reflects on whether a re-thinking of the concept on an information need is necessary. One may ask whether it still makes sense to talk about types of information needs. Or should we rather study...

  13. Introduction to weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    An account is first given of the electromagnetic interactions of complex, scalar, vector and spinor fields. It is shown that the electromagnetic field may be considered as a gauge field. Yang-Mills fields and the field theory invariant with respect to the non-Abelian gauge transformation group are then described. The construction, owing to this invariance principle, of conserved isospin currents associated with gauge fields is also demonstrated. This is followed by a historical survey of the development of the weak interaction theory, established at first to describe beta disintegration processes by analogy with electrodynamics. The various stages are mentioned from the discovery of principles and rules and violation of principles, such as those of invariance with respect to spatial reflection and charge conjugation to the formulation of the effective current-current Lagrangian and research on the structure of weak currents [fr

  14. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  15. Strongly interacting Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Bernard, C.

    1980-01-01

    The sensitivity of present-energy weak interactions to a strongly interacting heavy-Higgs-boson sector is discussed. The gauged nonlinear sigma model, which is the limit of the linear model as the Higgs-boson mass goes to infinity, is used to organize and catalogue all possible heavy-Higgs-boson effects. As long as the SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ symmetry of the Higgs sector is preserved, these effects are found to be small, of the order of the square of the gauge coupling times logarithms (but not powers) of the Higgs-boson mass divided by the W mass. We work in the context of a simplified model with gauge group SU(2)/sub L/; the extension to SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) is briefly discussed

  16. Wood–water interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2011-01-01

    Predicting the performance of wood for decades ahead is important when using the material for structural purposes. The performance is closely related to the hierarchical material structure of wood and the dependent interaction with water in the structure. Accurately predicting wood performance...... therefore requires an understanding of material structure from molecular to macroscopic level as well as of the impact of water molecules. The objective of this work is to investigate the performance of wood in terms of mechanical response of the material and effect of water. To understand the latter, one...... must first know in which parts of the wood structure, water is located. If parts of the water in wood are held in capillaries in the wood structure, these water molecules interact with the material differently than those held within wood cell walls. In this study, the occurrence of capillary water...

  17. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  18. Electron: Cluster interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidemann, A.A.; Knight, W.D.

    1994-02-01

    Beam depletion spectroscopy has been used to measure absolute total inelastic electron-sodium cluster collision cross sections in the energy range from E ∼ 0.1 to E ∼ 6 eV. The investigation focused on the closed shell clusters Na 8 , Na 20 , Na 40 . The measured cross sections show an increase for the lowest collision energies where electron attachment is the primary scattering channel. The electron attachment cross section can be understood in terms of Langevin scattering, connecting this measurement with the polarizability of the cluster. For energies above the dissociation energy the measured electron-cluster cross section is energy independent, thus defining an electron-cluster interaction range. This interaction range increases with the cluster size

  19. Investigating Molecular Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik Fanø

    2010-01-01

    ···π interactions are accommodated by electrostatic complementarity. The crystal structure of both the α- and the β-polymorph of hydroquinone is presented in Chapter 6 with focus on close intermolecular contacts between the molecules via Hirshfeld surface analysis. The charge density distribution of the empty β....... The last chapter of this dissertation presents the analysis of intermolecular interaction using both the Hirshfeld surface and charge density distribution of the acetonitrile β-hydroquinone clathrate. The local packing and related close contacts are examined by breakdown of the fingerprint plots revealing......, are also introduced, as a goal of the analysis of charge density distributions is to obtain further understanding of these macroscopic properties. Neutron diffraction will be used as a complementary tool to the X-ray diffraction experiment, as positional and thermal parameters of hydrogen atoms can...

  20. INTERACTIVE LEARNING: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kustovska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the use of interactive technologies in the educational process of the university, allowing students to develop innovative thinking, away from stereotypes, develop imagination, communication skills and expertise, intellectual, emotional, motivational and other areas of personality. Implementing the principles of technological learning, interactive educational technology and provides interactive computer learning tools, and interactivity of educational process when the basic conceptual provisions defined training based on interactive communication.

  1. Interactions of light gravitinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Lee, T.; Love, S.T.; Wu, G.

    1998-01-01

    In models of spontaneously broken supersymmetry, certain light gravitino processes are governed by the coupling of their Goldstino components. The rules for constructing SUSY and gauge invariant actions involving the Goldstino couplings to matter and gauge fields are presented. The explicit operator construction is found to be at variance with some previously reported claims. A phenomenological consequence arising from light gravitino interactions in supernova is reexamined and scrutinized. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Noncovalent interactions in biochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riley, Kevin Eugene; Hobza, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2011), s. 3-17 ISSN 1759-0876 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:NSF EPSCORE(US) EPS-0701525; Korea Science and Engineering Foundation(KR) R32-2008-000-10180-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : noncovalent interactions * WFT calculations * DFT calculations * applications Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. Model Checking Feature Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Olsen, Petur; Pedersen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an offline approach to analyzing feature interactions in embedded systems. The approach consists of a systematic process to gather the necessary information about system components and their models. The model is first specified in terms of predicates, before being refined to t...... to timed automata. The consistency of the model is verified at different development stages, and the correct linkage between the predicates and their semantic model is checked. The approach is illustrated on a use case from home automation....

  4. Interactive videodisc in maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.; Nguyen Van Nghi, B.

    1986-01-01

    After a recall of the videodisc characteristics, this paper presents its utilization by Electricite de France in the framework of training and maintenance. The SICMA (Interactive Communication System in Maintenance) developed and tested by Electricte de France is presented as also its utilization. It has been tested on the sites of Dampierre and Paluel in the cases of training and maintenance (deconnexion of drive rods of control elements); the conclusions of this experimentation are finally given. 4 refs [fr

  5. Interactive Mathematics Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We claim that important considerations have been overlooked in designinginteractive mathematics educational software in the past.In particular,most previous work has concentrated on how to make use ofpre-existing software in mathematics education, rather than firstasking the more...... fundamentalquestion of which requirements mathematics education puts on software, and thendesigning software to fulfil these requirements.We present a working prototype system which takes a script defining an interactivemathematicaldocument and then provides a reader with an interactive realization of thatdocument....

  6. Between autonomy and interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verwohlt, Betina

    In 2007, a smoking law was implemented in Denmark, banning indoor tobacco smoke in public places such as pubs, restaurants, workplaces, public offices, hospitals and shopping malls. The law marks a paradigm shift in Danish tobacco policy manifesting a stronger structural focus than has been the c...... attitudes towards structural initiatives before and after the implementation and discusses what causes changes in the population’s attitudes and whether the attitudes are best described as autonomous or as interactive with societal changes....

  7. SEEPAGE/INVERT INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.S. Domski

    2000-01-01

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a), a conceptual model for water entering the drift and reacting with the invert materials is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction, and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This AMR also seeks to: (1) Develop a logical conceptual model for physical/chemical interactions between seepage and the invert materials; (2) screen potential processes and reactions that may occur between seepage and invert to evaluate the potential consequences of the interactions; and (3) outline how seepage/invert processes may be quantified. This document provides the conceptual framework for screening out insignificant processes and for identifying and evaluating those seepage/invert interactions that have the potential to be important to subsequent PAO analyses including the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. Additionally, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to certain near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts. The seepage/invert interactions will not directly affect any principal factors

  8. Rhythmic interaction in VR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkut, Cumhur

    2017-01-01

    Cinematic virtual reality is a new and relatively unexplored area in academia. While research in guiding the spectator's attention in this new medium has been conducted for some time, a focus on editing in conjunction with spectator orientation is only currently emerging. In this paper, we consid...... in rhythm perception, and complement it with applications in traditional editing. Through the notion of multimodal listening we provide guidelines that can be used in rhythmic and sonic interaction design in VR....

  9. Interactions faibles en harmonie

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Des résultats de haute précision obtenus à Stanford ouvrent la voie vers une unification des interactions faible et électromagnétique ; Présentation à la Conférence neutrino d'Oxford de nouveaux résultats en accord avec la théorie de la synthèse des forces faible et électro- magnétique

  10. Budgeted Interactive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-15

    2, and 3). The selection scheme is implemented and released as an open-source active learning package. They have studied theories for designing...We have studied theories for designing algorithms for interactive learning with batch-like feedback (for 1) and algorithms for online digestion of... necessity on pre-training. The new idea provides layer-wise cost estimation with auxiliary nodes, and is applicable to a wider range of deep learning

  11. Strong interaction phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giffon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of high energy hadronic data (Part I)is followed by an introduction to the standard (Weinberg Salam Glashow) model of electroweak interactions and its extension to the hadrons (Part II). Rudiments of QCD and of the parton model area given in Part III together with a quick review of the spectroscopy of heavy flavours whereas Part IV is devoted to the introduction to deep inelastic scattering and to the so-called EMC effects. (author)

  12. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  13. Interactive tabletops in education

    OpenAIRE

    Dillenbourg, Pierre; Evans, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Interactive tabletops are gaining increased attention from CSCL researchers. This paper analyses the relation between this technology and teaching and learning processes. At a global level, one could argue that tabletops convey a socio-constructivist flavor: they support small teams that solve problems by exploring multiple solutions. The development of tabletop applications also witnesses the growing importance of face-to-face collaboration in CSCL and acknowledges the physicality of learnin...

  14. Bacteria-surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuson, Hannah H; Weibel, Douglas B

    2013-05-14

    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field.

  15. Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient.

  16. DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH DIAZEPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bojanić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative with anxyolitic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant, antitremor, and amnestic activity. It is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P (CYP 450 enzyme system. Diazepam is N-demethylated by CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 to the active metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam, and is hydroxylated by CYP3A4 to the active metabolite temazepam. N-desmethyl-diazepam and temazepam are both further metabolized to oxazepam. Concomitant intake of inhibitors or inducers of the CYP isozymes involved in the biotransformation of diazepam may alter plasma concentrations of this drug, although this effect is unlikely to be associated with clinically relevant interactions.The goal of this article was to review the current literature on clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with diazepam.A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for original research and review articles published in English between January 1971. and May 2011. Among the search terms were drug interactions, diazepam, pharmacokinetics, drug metabolism, and cytochrome P450. Only articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included, and meeting abstracts were excluded. The reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched for additional publications.Diazepam is substantially sorbed by the plastics in flexible containers, volume control set chambers, and tubings of intravenous administration sets. Manufacturers recommend not mixing with any other drug or solution in syringe or solution, although diazepam is compatible in syringe with cimetidine and ranitidine, and in Y-site with cisatracurium, dobutamine, fentanyl, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, nafcillin, quinidine gluconate, remifentanil, and sufentanil. Diazepam is compatible with: dextrose 5% in water, Ringers injection, Ringers injection lactated and sodium chloride 0.9%. Emulsified diazepam is compatible with Intralipid and Nutralipid.Diazepam has low potential

  17. Intelligently interactive combat simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Lawrence J.; Porto, Vincent W.; Alexander, Steven M.

    2001-09-01

    To be fully effective, combat simulation must include an intelligently interactive enemy... one that can be calibrated. But human operated combat simulations are uncalibratable, for we learn during the engagement, there's no average enemy, and we cannot replicate their culture/personality. Rule-based combat simulations (expert systems) are not interactive. They do not take advantage of unexpected mistakes, learn, innovate, and reflect the changing mission/situation. And it is presumed that the enemy does not have a copy of the rules, that the available experts are good enough, that they know why they did what they did, that their combat experience provides a sufficient sample and that we know how to combine the rules offered by differing experts. Indeed, expert systems become increasingly complex, costly to develop, and brittle. They have face validity but may be misleading. In contrast, intelligently interactive combat simulation is purpose- driven. Each player is given a well-defined mission, reference to the available weapons/platforms, their dynamics, and the sensed environment. Optimal tactics are discovered online and in real-time by simulating phenotypic evolution in fast time. The initial behaviors are generated randomly or include hints. The process then learns without instruction. The Valuated State Space Approach provides a convenient way to represent any purpose/mission. Evolutionary programming searches the domain of possible tactics in a highly efficient manner. Coupled together, these provide a basis for cruise missile mission planning, and for driving tank warfare simulation. This approach is now being explored to benefit Air Force simulations by a shell that can enhance the original simulation.

  18. Interactive Learning and "Clickers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander

    2006-12-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that student understanding and retention of key concepts in science can be dramatically improved by using “Interactive Learning” techniques. Interactive learning is a way to get students more actively involved in their own learning than by simple lecture alone. I will focus on one type of interactive learning activity, known as “Think-Pair-Share”. After a brief (10-20 minute) lecture on a topic, students are asked a conceptually challenging multiple-choice question. After they answer, if there is sufficient disagreement, the students discuss the question in small groups after which they answer the same question again. Frequently, the percentage of correct answers goes up, indicating that the active role of speaking and listening, together with peer instruction, has helped students better grasp the concept being tested. If disagreement persists, or if students continue to have questions, a short, class-wide discussion can be held. Clickers provide an excellent means to collect students’ answers to “Think-Pair-Share” questions in real time. Although clickers are not essential, they do provide some advantages over alternatives such as flash cards: answers are completely anonymous (though you as instructor can record individual responses); you can display a histogram of results immediately, either before or after group discussion, providing immediate feedback; by recording the results, you can give students credit for their participation in class. In this talk, I will model “Think-Pair-Share” with the audience using clickers, show results from my classes before and after group discussions, share results of a student survey on “Think-Pair-Share” and clickers, describe other uses of clickers (e.g., taking attendance, surveys, test administration) and highlight some of the pros and cons of clickers v. flashcards.

  19. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jang S. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flavivirus genus is in the family Flaviviridae and is comprised of more than 70 viruses. These viruses have a broad geographic range, circulating on every continent except Antarctica. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, such as yellow fever virus, dengue virus serotypes 1–4, Japanese encephalitis virus, and West Nile virus are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in affected regions. This review focuses on what is known about flavivirus-mosquito interactions and presents key data collected from the field and laboratory-based molecular and ultrastructural evaluations.

  20. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McElroy Horne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family.

  1. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  2. The interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.; Arima, A.

    1987-01-01

    The book gives an account of some of the properties of the interacting boson model. The model was introduced in 1974 to describe in a unified way the collective properties of nuclei. The book presents the mathematical techniques used to analyse the structure of the model. The mathematical framework of the model is discussed in detail. The book also contains all the formulae that have been developed throughout the years to account for collective properties of nuclei. These formulae can be used by experimentalists to compare their data with the predictions of the model. (U.K.)

  3. Interactive virtual optical laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan; Yang, Yi

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory experiences are essential for optics education. However, college students have limited access to advanced optical equipment that is generally expensive and complicated. Hence there is a need for innovative solutions to expose students to advanced optics laboratories. Here we describe a novel approach, interactive virtual optical laboratory (IVOL) that allows unlimited number of students to participate the lab session remotely through internet, to improve laboratory education in photonics. Although students are not physically conducting the experiment, IVOL is designed to engage students, by actively involving students in the decision making process throughout the experiment.

  4. Alecto 2 - interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunet, J.P.; Clouet d'Orval, Ch.; Mougniot, J.C.; Penet, F.

    1965-01-01

    Weak interactions were experimentally studies with the tank of the critical assembly Alecto II and one, two or three bottles containing solutions of various concentrations. In particular, was studied the validity of certain classical assumptions, shielding effects, screening and semi-reflexion effects, importance of thermal coupling. The method of the 'k eff , solid angle' is shown to apply to such a system. The determination by divergence and pulsed neutron technique of the reactivity related to a millimeter of solution level affords the obtention of critical heights in terms of reactivity. (authors) [fr

  5. Weak interaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarbaker, E.

    1995-01-01

    I review available techniques for extraction of weak interaction rates in nuclei. The case for using hadron charge exchange reactions to estimate such rates is presented and contrasted with alternate methods. Limitations of the (p,n) reaction as a probe of Gamow-Teller strength are considered. Review of recent comparisons between beta-decay studies and (p,n) is made, leading to cautious optimism regarding the final usefulness of (p,n)- derived GT strengths to the field of astrophysics. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Visuo-Vestibular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA3 includes short reports covering: (1) Vestibulo-Oculomotor Interaction in Long-Term Microgravity; (2) Effects of Weightlessness on the Spatial Orientation of Visually Induced Eye Movements; (3) Adaptive Modification of the Three-Dimensional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex during Prolonged Microgravity; (4) The Dynamic Change of Brain Potential Related to Selective Attention to Visual Signals from Left and Right Visual Fields; (5) Locomotor Errors Caused by Vestibular Suppression; and (6) A Novel, Image-Based Technique for Three-Dimensional Eye Measurement.

  7. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba M

    2014-12-01

    administration twice daily for 22 days to parkinsonian rats shortened the rotational duration and increased the peak turning responses. The altered rotational responses were attenuated by PSD-95 ASO pretreatment. Meanwhile, PSD-95 ASO pretreatment decreased the level of PSD-95 protein expression and reduced both the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B triggered during the levodopa administration in the lesioned striatum of PD rats. However, the protein levels of Fyn and NR2B showed no difference under the above conditions. Conclusion: The data demonstrate that the inhibition of PSD-95 protein expression suppressed the interactions of Fyn with NR2B and NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequently downregulated NMDA receptor overactivation, thus providing benefit for the therapy of LID. Therefore, PSD-95 is important for overactivity of NMDA receptor function due to facilitating NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation dependent on Fyn kinase by regulating interactions of Fyn with NR2B under the pathological conditions of LID. Keywords: PSD-95 ASO, NMDA, rotational response

  8. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  9. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  10. Electromagnetic Interactions of Muons

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment was the first in a programme of physics experiments with high-energy muons using a large spectrometer facility. The aim of this experiment is to study the inelastic scattering of muons with various targets to try to understand better the physics of virtual photon interactions over a wide range of four-momentum transfer (q$^{2}$).\\\\ \\\\ The spectrometer includes a large aperture dipole magnet (2m x 1m) of bending power $\\simeq$5 T.m and a magnetized iron filter to distinguish the scattered muons from hadrons. Drift chambers and MWPC are used before and after the magnet to detect charged products of the interaction and to allow a momentum determination of the scattered muon to an accuracy of $\\simeq$at 100 GeV/c, and an angular definition of $\\pm$ 0.1 mrad. The triggering on scattered muons relies on three planes of scintillation counter hodoscopes before and after the magnetized iron, whose magnetic field serves to eliminate triggers from low momentum muons which are produced copiously by pion d...

  11. State of electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, K.

    1984-01-01

    I assess what we know and what we do not know about the electroweak interactions. In particular, I argue that existing data on the electroweak parameters rho, sin 2 theta/sub w/ and G/sub F/ and on the recently discovered W +- and Z 0 allow us reasonably to conclude that: (1) the W +- and Z 0 truly are the elementary massive gauge bosons of SU(2) x U(1) and not the composite bosons of a new strong interaction, and (2) the electroweak scalar sector consists of weak doublets only. The most important thing we do not know is everything else about the electroweak scalar sector. In the hope of soon shedding light on this issue, a new method of searching for electroweak scalars in existing p-barp colliders is proposed. The basis of this method is that the branching ratio of W +- to decay to a charged plus a neutral scalar (expected in non-minimal SU(2) x U(1) models) can be as large as 1-2%, with detectable rates up to scalar masses of approx.35 GeV

  12. Interactive fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    THE REAL STUFF is an Expanded Media Physics Course aimed at students still in the formative early years of secondary school. Its consists of a working script for an interactive multimedia study unit in basic concepts of physics. The unit begins with a prologue on the Big Bang that sets the stage, and concludes with a lesson on Newton's first law of motion. The format is interactive, placing the individual student in control of a layered ''hypermedia'' structure that enables him or her to find a level of detail and difficulty that is comfortable and meaningful. The intent is to make physics relevant, intellectually accessible and fun. On-screen presenters and demonstrators will be females and males of various ages, ethnicities and backgrounds, and will include celebrities and physicists of note. A lean, layered design encourages repeated, cumulative study and makes the material useful for self-directed Teaming even by college students. THE REAL STUFF introduces a new science teaching paradigm, a way to teach science that will engage even students who have ''declined'' to be interested in science in the past. Increased participation in science by women, African-Americans and Spanish-speaking students is a particular goal

  13. Hydrogen-antihydrogen interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Carr, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A small number of antihydrogen (AH) atoms have recently been prepared at CERN and at Fermilab. However, these atoms were travelling at speeds close to that of light. It is intended to carry out experiments on AH by trapping it at very low temperature ( 2 and He with energies up to room temperature. However, these reactions are not easy to treat theoretically. In this paper we consider the interaction between AH and H. This has already received some attention. Initially, in a collision between AH and H the electron is bound to the proton and the positron is bound to the antiproton. Clearly, if the proton and antiproton coincide they cannot bind the two light particles. There exists a critical value, R c , of the internuclear distance, probably not very much below a 0 , below which the electron and the positron can attain a lower energy by separating from the nuclei and forming positronium. As a first stage in our work on the H-AH interaction, we are carrying out variational calculations of the energy of the H-AH system for internuclear separations a short distance above R c . The aim is to determine R c as accurately as possible. The basis set used is similar to that of a previous calculation by W. Kolos, D.L. Morgan, D.M. Schrader, L. Wolniewiez (1975). However, it also contains a function to represent weakly bound positronium. Initial results suggest that R c 0 . (orig.)

  14. New particles and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.; Grannis, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The Working Group on New Particles and Interactions met as a whole at the beginning and at the end of the Workshop. However, much of what was accomplished was done in five subgroups. These were devoted to: (1) new quarks and leptons; (2) technicolor; (3) supersymmetry; (4) rare decays and CP; and (5) substructure of quarks and leptons. Other aspects of new particles, e.g., Higgs, W', Z', fell to the Electroweak Working Group to consider. The central question of this Workshop of comparing anti pp (with L = 10 32 /cm 2 -sec) with pp (with L = 10 33 /cm 2 -sec) colliders carried through to all these subgroups. In addition there were several other aspects of hadron colliders which were considered: what does an increase in √s gain in cross section and resultant sensitivity to new physics versus an increase in luminosity; will polarized beams or the use of asymmetries be essential in finding new interactions; where and at what level do rate limitations due to triggering or detection systems play a role; and how and where will the detection of particles with short, but detectable, lifetimes be important. 25 references

  15. Genetic and environmental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    Cancer may result from a multistage process occurring over a long period of time. Presumably, initial and progressive stages of carcinogenesis may be modified by both genetic and environmental factors. Theoretically, genetic factors may alter susceptibility to the carcinogenic effects of an environmental agent at the initial exposure due to variation in metabolism of the carcinogen or variation in specific target cell response to the active carcinogen, or during the latent phase due to numerous factors that might increase the probability of tumor expression, including growth-promoting factors or immunodeficiency states. Observed genetic and environmental interactions in carcinogenesis include an association between genetically determined inducibility of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and smoking-related cancers, familial susceptibility to certain environmental carcinogens, an association between hereditary disorders of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, and enhancement of tissue-specific, dominantly inherited tumor predisposition by radiation. Multiple primary tumors occur frequently in genetically predisposed individuals. Specific markers for susceptibility must be sought in order that high-risk individuals be identified and appropriate measures taken for early cancer detection or prevention. Study of the nature of the genetically determined susceptibility and interactions with environmental agents may be revealing in the understanding of carcinogenesis in general

  16. Laser-induced interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    This dissertation discusses some of the new ways that lasers can be used to control the energy flow in a medium. Experimental and theoretical considerations of the laser-induced collision are discussed. The laser-induced collision is a process in which a laser is used to selectively transfer energy from a state in one atomic or molecular species to another state in a different species. The first experimental demonstration of this process is described, along with later experiments in which lasers were used to create collisional cross sections as large as 10 - 13 cm 2 . Laser-induced collisions utilizing both a dipole-dipole interaction and dipole-quadrupole interaction have been experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical aspects of other related processes such as laser-induced spin-exchange, collision induced Raman emission, and laser-induced charge transfer are discussed. Experimental systems that could be used to demonstrate these various processes are presented. An experiment which produced an inversion of the resonance line of an ion by optical pumping of the neutral atom is described. This type of scheme has been proposed as a possible method for constructing VUV and x-ray lasers

  17. Interactive Terascale Particle Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Moran, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used to produce an interactive visualization of a 2 TB computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data set using particle tracing (streaklines). We use the method introduced by Bruckschen et al. [2001] that pre-computes a large number of particles, stores them on disk using a space-filling curve ordering that minimizes seeks, and then retrieves and displays the particles according to the user's command. We describe how the particle computation can be performed using a PC cluster, how the algorithm can be adapted to work with a multi-block curvilinear mesh, and how the out-of-core visualization can be scaled to 296 billion particles while still achieving interactive performance on PG hardware. Compared to the earlier work, our data set size and total number of particles are an order of magnitude larger. We also describe a new compression technique that allows the lossless compression of the particles by 41% and speeds the particle retrieval by about 30%.

  18. Nucleon-antinucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of our understanding of the low energy nucleon-antinucleon (N anti N) interaction is reviewed. We compare several phenomenological models which fit the available N anti N cross section data. The more realistic of these models employ an annihilation potential W(r) which is spin, isospin and energy dependent. The microscopic origins for these dependences are discussed in terms of quark rearrangement and annihilation processes. It is argued that the study of N anti N annihilation offers a powerful means of studying quark dynamics at short distances. We also discuss how one may try to isolate coherent meson exchange contributions to the medium and long range part of the N anti N potential. These pieces of the N anti N interaction are calculable via the G-parity transformation from a model for the NN potential; their effects are predicted to be seen in N anti N spin observables, to be measured at LEAR. The possible existence of quasi-stable bound states or resonances of the anti N plus one or more nucleons is discussed, with emphasis on few-body systems. 42 references

  19. Interactive Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenwright, David

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace data analysis tools that significantly reduce the time and effort needed to analyze large-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations have emerged this year. The current approach for most postprocessing and visualization work is to explore the 3D flow simulations with one of a dozen or so interactive tools. While effective for analyzing small data sets, this approach becomes extremely time consuming when working with data sets larger than one gigabyte. An active area of research this year has been the development of data mining tools that automatically search through gigabyte data sets and extract the salient features with little or no human intervention. With these so-called feature extraction tools, engineers are spared the tedious task of manually exploring huge amounts of data to find the important flow phenomena. The software tools identify features such as vortex cores, shocks, separation and attachment lines, recirculation bubbles, and boundary layers. Some of these features can be extracted in a few seconds; others take minutes to hours on extremely large data sets. The analysis can be performed off-line in a batch process, either during or following the supercomputer simulations. These computations have to be performed only once, because the feature extraction programs search the entire data set and find every occurrence of the phenomena being sought. Because the important questions about the data are being answered automatically, interactivity is less critical than it is with traditional approaches.

  20. Interacting composite fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    nrc762, nrc762

    2016-01-01

    Numerical studies by Wójs, Yi, and Quinn have suggested that an unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect is plausible at filling factors ν=1/3 and 1/5, provided the interparticle interaction has an unusual form for which the energy of two fermions in the relative angular momentum three channel...... as fractional quantum Hall effect of electrons at ν=4/11, 4/13, 5/13, and 5/17. I investigate in this article the nature of the fractional quantum Hall states at ν=4/5, 5/7, 6/17, and 6/7, which correspond to composite fermions at ν∗=4/3, 5/3, and 6/5, and find that all these fractional quantum Hall states...... are conventional. The underlying reason is that the interaction between composite fermions depends substantially on both the number and the direction of the vortices attached to the electrons. I also study in detail the states with different spin polarizations at 6/17 and 6/7 and predict the critical Zeeman...

  1. Vehicle track interaction safety standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Vehicle/Track Interaction (VTI) Safety Standards aim to : reduce the risk of derailments and other accidents attributable : to the dynamic interaction between moving vehicles and the : track over which they operate. On March 13, 2013, the Federal : R...

  2. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  3. Multimodal Embodied Mimicry in Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Esposito, Anna; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Vicsi, Klára; Pelachaud, Catherine; Nijholt, Antinus

    2011-01-01

    Nonverbal behaviors play an important role in communicating with others. One particular kind of nonverbal interaction behavior is mimicry. It has been argued that behavioral mimicry supports harmonious relationships in social interaction through creating affiliation, rapport, and liking between

  4. Design Principles for Interactive Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book addresses the crucial intersection of human-computer interaction (HCI) and software engineering by asking both what users require from interactive systems and what developers need to produce well-engineered software. Needs are expressed as...

  5. Nuclear physics and fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmpotic, K.

    1980-01-01

    In this work, it is discussed strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions. By means of experiments and theoretical interpretation of these interactions it was possible to interpret important properties, which will be discussed here. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  6. Interactive lectures in engineering education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, L.A.; van den Berg, G.C.; van Keulen, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses an alternative approach to lecturing: the interactive lecture. In the literature, interactive teaching is forwarded as a means to increase the effectiveness of lectures. Members of lecturing staff still seem, however, reluctant to incorporate interactive teaching in their

  7. SNP interaction pattern identifier (SIPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hui Yi; Chen, Dung Tsa; Huang, Po Yu

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Testing SNP-SNP interactions is considered as a key for overcoming bottlenecks of genetic association studies. However, related statistical methods for testing SNP-SNP interactions are underdeveloped. Results: We propose the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI), which tests 45...

  8. Interaction with Soft Robotic Tentacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Soft robotics technology has been proposed for a number of applications that involve human-robot interaction. In this tabletop demonstration it is possible to interact with two soft robotic platforms that have been used in human-robot interaction experiments (also accepted to HRI'18 as a Late...

  9. Species interactions and plant polyploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Kari A; Anneberg, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation that can have far-reaching consequences for plant ecology and evolution. Because polyploidy can induce an array of phenotypic changes, there can be cascading effects on interactions with other species. These interactions, in turn, can have reciprocal effects on polyploid plants, potentially impacting their establishment and persistence. Although there is a wealth of information on the genetic and phenotypic effects of polyploidy, the study of species interactions in polyploid plants remains a comparatively young field. Here we reviewed the available evidence for how polyploidy may impact many types of species interactions that range from mutualism to antagonism. Specifically, we focused on three main questions: (1) Does polyploidy directly cause the formation of novel interactions not experienced by diploids, or does it create an opportunity for natural selection to then form novel interactions? (2) Does polyploidy cause consistent, predictable changes in species interactions vs. the evolution of idiosyncratic differences? (3) Does polyploidy lead to greater evolvability in species interactions? From the scarce evidence available, we found that novel interactions are rare but that polyploidy can induce changes in pollinator, herbivore, and pathogen interactions. Although further tests are needed, it is likely that selection following whole-genome duplication is important in all types of species interaction and that there are circumstances in which polyploidy can enhance the evolvability of interactions with other species. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Online Learners' Preferences for Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Pamela T.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated types of interaction that graduate students perceived to be important for elearning (electronic learning). Discusses content interaction, conversation and collaboration, interpersonal and metacognitive skills, and need for support; explains the Online Learning Interaction Inventory; and reports that flexibility…

  11. Galaxy interactions : The HI signature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancisi, R; Barnes, JE; Sanders, DB

    1999-01-01

    HI observations are an excellent tool for investigating tidal interactions. Ongoing major and minor interactions which can lead to traumatic mergers or to accretion and the triggering of star formation, show distinct HI signatures. Interactions and mergers in the recent past can also be recognized

  12. Quadratic spatial soliton interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Ladislav

    Quadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multi-soliton generation and soliton self-reflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO 3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals. These particular crystals were desirable for these experiments because of their large nonlinear coefficients and, more importantly, because the experiments could be performed under non-critical-phase-matching (NCPM) conditions. The single soliton generation measurements, performed on KNBO3 by launching the fundamental component only, showed a broad angular acceptance bandwidth which was important for the soliton collisions performed later. Furthermore, at high input intensities multi-soliton generation was observed for the first time. The influence on the multi-soliton patterns generated of the input intensity and beam symmetry was investigated. The combined experimental and theoretical efforts indicated that spatial and temporal noise on the input laser beam induced multi-soliton patterns. Another research direction pursued was intensity dependent soliton routing by using of a specially engineered quadratically nonlinear interface within a periodically poled KTP sample. This was the first time demonstration of the self-reflection phenomenon in a system with a quadratic nonlinearity. The feature investigated is believed to have a great potential for soliton routing and manipulation by engineered structures. A detailed investigation was conducted on two soliton interaction and collision processes. Birth of an additional soliton resulting from a two soliton collision was observed and characterized for the special case of a non-planar geometry. A small amount of spiraling, up to 30

  13. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  14. Interacting neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.; Kinzel, W.; Kanter, I.

    2000-08-01

    Several scenarios of interacting neural networks which are trained either in an identical or in a competitive way are solved analytically. In the case of identical training each perceptron receives the output of its neighbor. The symmetry of the stationary state as well as the sensitivity to the used training algorithm are investigated. Two competitive perceptrons trained on mutually exclusive learning aims and a perceptron which is trained on the opposite of its own output are examined analytically. An ensemble of competitive perceptrons is used as decision-making algorithms in a model of a closed market (El Farol Bar problem or the Minority Game. In this game, a set of agents who have to make a binary decision is considered.); each network is trained on the history of minority decisions. This ensemble of perceptrons relaxes to a stationary state whose performance can be better than random.

  15. Electroweak interactions at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgia, B.

    1991-01-01

    Electroweak interaction at LEP are a subject based on a wealth of data, given the success of the CERN e + e - storage ring. The author will report on the results from the four experiments, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL after the analysis of about 1/2 of the data collected in 1989 and 1990. The review will cover the electroweak aspects of the process e + e - → Z* → f bar f where the fermions can be either quarks or leptons. The analysis of experimental data is based on the determination of the cross section integrated on the solid angle and on the asymmetry of forward-backward leptons in the final state. In this game the knowledge of the center mass energy is fundamental as the determination of the luminosity by which the event rate is normalized to compute the absolute cross section. Therefore a specific attention is given to these subjects

  16. Plasma-surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaev, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    The latest experimental results characterizing plasma interaction with walls in thermonuclear facilities are presented. The main attention is paid to the mode of plasma ejection from the tokamak divertor receiving elements to study the properties of the so-called gas divertor. A sharp reduction of load on the receiving plates is provided in the mode at the expense of over-radiation of a substantial share of power in a layer of peripheral removed plasma. However, the sharp reduction of load on the current-receiving plates is accompanied by an increase of the main plasma charge up to an unacceptably high level. An alternative variant of solving the problem of heat and impurity removal in the form of a concept of capillary lithium divertor is described. Besides, the latest results of experiments in simulator devices are presented. 46 refs., 15 figs

  17. Molecular Interactions at Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagalski, Vivien

    . Today, we know more than ever before about the properties of biological membranes. Advanced biophysical techniques and sophisticated membrane models allow us to answer specific questions about the structure of the components within membranes and their interactions. However, many detailed structural...... the surface-immobilization of LeuT by exchanging the detergent with natural phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids. Various surface sensitive techniques, including neutron reflectometry (NR), are employed and finally enabled us to confirm the gross structure of LeuT in a lipid environment as predicted by molecular...... dynamic simulations. In a second study, the co-localization of three toxic plant-derived diterpene resin acids (RAs) within DPPC membranes was investigated. These compounds are reported to disrupt the membrane and increase its fluidity. The RAs used in this study vary in their toxicity while...

  18. The interactive design collaboratorium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter Gall

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental process in which a prototype was developed of an interactive design collaboatorium, in cooperation with a group of usability designers. In a longterm research cooperation, this usability group has changed its work practice in order to work in the design...... collaboratorium. The design collaboratorium was developed to move usability design away from a lab towards an open physical and organizational space where designer, users and engineers meet and collaborate, or work alongside each other. The cooperation between researchers and the usability gruop has resulted...... in practical experimentation in projects and in design of an experimental design collaboratorium emploing electronic whiteboards, 3D design documentation, etc. This experimental prototype has been evaluated in cooperative workshops. We report on the results of this evaluation....

  19. Antigen antibody interactions

    CERN Document Server

    DeLisi, Charles

    1976-01-01

    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  20. Metal-ligand interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Kent M.

    Experimental studies of the interactions of small transition-metal cluster anions with carbonyl ligands are reviewed and compared with neutral and cationic clusters. Under thermal conditions, the reaction rates of transition-metal clusters with carbon monoxide are measured as a function of cluster size. Saturation limits for carbon monoxide addition can be related to the geometric structures of the clusters. Both energy-resolved threshold collision-induced dissociation experiments and time-resolved photodissociation experiments are used to measure metal-carbonyl binding energies. For platinum and palladium trimer anions, the carbonyl binding energies are assigned to different geometric binding sites. Platinum and palladium cluster anions catalyse the oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide in a full catalytic cycle at thermal energies.

  1. Sustainable Buildings in Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    2007-01-01

    The first attempts to build sustainable buildings in Denmark were typically located on the countryside. The basic idea was to create buildings that were independent of the technical infrastructure. District heating has, however, been the dominating solution to heating in buildings in Denmark......, and the focus on sustainable building have gradually turned from special houses on the countryside to normally looking houses in the urban fabric, integrated in the technical infrastructure. Some new built urban areas in Denmark will, however, not have to be supplied with district heating – these developments...... are going to consist of passive houses. The first sustainable buildings were built by their users, and the user – building interaction still play a decisive role for the performance of the present sustainable buildings. The users have to understand how the building functions. Urban design is essential...

  2. Metal-microorganism interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, Y.; Thouand, G.; Redercher, S.; Boualam, M.; Texier, A.Cl.; Hoeffer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The physico-chemical procedures of treating the metalliferous effluents are not always adapted to de polluting the slightly concentrated industrial wastes. An alternative idea was advanced, implying the ability of some microorganisms to fix in considerable amounts the metal ions present in aqueous solutions, possibly in a selective way. This approach has been investigated thoroughly during the last 30 years, particularly from a mechanistic point of view. The advantage of the microorganisms lies mainly in the large diversity of bacteria and in their chemical state dependent interaction with metals, as well as, in the possibilities of developing their selective and quantitative separation properties. A biomass from Mycobacterium smegmatis, an acidic alcoholic resistant bacteria, has been used to prepare a bio-sorption support allowing the preferential sorption of thorium as compared to uranium and lanthanum. These studies have been extended to biological polymers such as chitosan and to studies related to bioaccumulation mechanisms and/or to the microbial resistances towards metals

  3. Causal electromagnetic interaction equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2011-01-01

    For the electromagnetic interaction of two particles the relativistic causal quantum mechanics equations are proposed. These equations are solved for the case when the second particle moves freely. The initial wave functions are supposed to be smooth and rapidly decreasing at the infinity. This condition is important for the convergence of the integrals similar to the integrals of quantum electrodynamics. We also consider the singular initial wave functions in the particular case when the second particle mass is equal to zero. The discrete energy spectrum of the first particle wave function is defined by the initial wave function of the free-moving second particle. Choosing the initial wave functions of the free-moving second particle it is possible to obtain a practically arbitrary discrete energy spectrum.

  4. Solvent - solute interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczyk, A.; Kalinowski, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The electronic absorption spectrum of vanadyl acetylacetonate has been studied in 15 organic solvents. It has been found that wavenumbers and molar absorptivities of the long-wavelength bands (d-d transitions) can be well described by a complementary Lewis acid-base model including Gutmann's donor number [Gutmann V., Wychera E., Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Letters 2, 257 (1966)] and acceptor number [Mayer U., Gutmann V., Gerger W., Monatsh. Chem. 106, 1235 (1975)] of a solvent. This model describes also the solvent effect of the hyperfine splitting constant, Asub(iso)( 51 V), from e.s.r. spectra of VOacac 2 . These observations are discussed in terms of the donor-acceptor concept for solvent-solute interactions. (Author)

  5. Doing, using, interacting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordin, Sara; Hjalager, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    of innovation processes: science, technology, and innovation (STI) and doing, using, and interacting (DUI). DUI appears to capture the essence of innovation in tourism enterprises better than STI because it acknowledges the intrinsic nature of services and the typical size and working modes of touristic actors......Innovation is a critical factor for long-term economic development, including in tourism. This chapter examines the processes that lead to new products and services in a tourism context. It does so based on two commonly referred to modes of innovation (Jensen et al., 2007); that is, two types....... The case study of Icehotel illustrates how working in partnerships and in close cooperation with customers enhances the advantages of the DUI model. The handling of externally induced events and difficulties and the critical partnerships are better understood through the DUI than through the STI lens...

  6. Dark patterns in proxemic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, Saul; Boring, Sebastian; Vermeulen, Jo

    2014-01-01

    to better facilitate seamless and natural interactions. To do so, both people and devices are tracked to determine their spatial relationships. While interest in proxemic interactions has increased over the last few years, it also has a dark side: knowledge of proxemics may (and likely will) be easily...... exploited to the detriment of the user. In this paper, we offer a critical perspective on proxemic interactions in the form of dark patterns: ways proxemic interactions can be misused. We discuss a series of these patterns and describe how they apply to these types of interactions. In addition, we identify...

  7. Probing kink interactions with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.; Chakrabarti, R.

    1985-01-01

    A dilute gas of kinks exhibits strong but short-ranged intrinsic interactions. When these intrinsic interactions are supplemented by other ''extrinsic'' interactions, a phase transition can occur in which kinks and antikinks bind to form a gas of bounces. The extrinsic interactions arise from the coupling of kinks to an additional degree of freedom, which we take to be a fermion field. The class of quantum-mechanical models which we study includes examples of supersymmetry. The way in which kinks and antikinks bind depends in detail on aspects of the intrinsic interactions. This structure is probably shared by field-theoretic models

  8. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. The presented article describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....... the Interaction Themes are characterised by a relatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essential function because they contain the child’s and music therapist’s joint interaction history. They make up the context within which it is possible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  9. The 'Interactive' of Interactive Storytelling: Customizing the Gaming Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bostan , Barbaros; Marsh , Tim

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this article, we define interactive storytelling as a gaming experience where the form and content of the game is customized in real time and tailored to the preferences and needs of the player to maximixe enjoyment. The primary focus of interactive storytelling should not be on the attributes of the technology or characteristics of the medium, such as the AI techniques, planning formalisms, story representations, etc. but on different interaction levels provided by...

  10. Interacting With Robots to Investigate the Bases of Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Sandini, Giulio

    2017-12-01

    Humans show a great natural ability at interacting with each other. Such efficiency in joint actions depends on a synergy between planned collaboration and emergent coordination, a subconscious mechanism based on a tight link between action execution and perception. This link supports phenomena as mutual adaptation, synchronization, and anticipation, which cut drastically the delays in the interaction and the need of complex verbal instructions and result in the establishment of joint intentions, the backbone of social interaction. From a neurophysiological perspective, this is possible, because the same neural system supporting action execution is responsible of the understanding and the anticipation of the observed action of others. Defining which human motion features allow for such emergent coordination with another agent would be crucial to establish more natural and efficient interaction paradigms with artificial devices, ranging from assistive and rehabilitative technology to companion robots. However, investigating the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting natural interaction poses substantial problems. In particular, the unconscious processes at the basis of emergent coordination (e.g., unintentional movements or gazing) are very difficult-if not impossible-to restrain or control in a quantitative way for a human agent. Moreover, during an interaction, participants influence each other continuously in a complex way, resulting in behaviors that go beyond experimental control. In this paper, we propose robotics technology as a potential solution to this methodological problem. Robots indeed can establish an interaction with a human partner, contingently reacting to his actions without losing the controllability of the experiment or the naturalness of the interactive scenario. A robot could represent an "interactive probe" to assess the sensory and motor mechanisms underlying human-human interaction. We discuss this proposal with examples from our

  11. Dike/Drift Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.S. Gaffney

    2003-10-08

    This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report.

  12. SEEPAGE/BACKFILL INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariner, P.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by written development plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a), a sub-model of seepage/backfill interactions is developed and presented in this document to support the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Physical and Chemical Environment Model. The purpose of this analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and the Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift. In this analysis, a conceptual model is developed to provide PAO a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). The development plan calls for a sub-model that evaluates the effect on water chemistry of chemical reactions between water that enters the drift and backfill materials in the drift. The development plan specifically requests an evaluation of the following important chemical reaction processes: dissolution-precipitation, aqueous complexation, and oxidation-reduction. The development plan also requests the evaluation of the effects of varying seepage and drainage fluxes, varying temperature, and varying evaporation and condensation fluxes. Many of these effects are evaluated in a separate Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Precipitates Salts Analysis AMR'' (CRWMS M andO 2000), so the results of that AMR are referenced throughout this AMR

  13. Dike/Drift Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.S. Gaffney

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the model of events associated with a potential intrusion of magma from a volcanic dike into a drift or drifts in the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. The following topics are included in this report: (1) A discussion of dike propagation, which provides the basis for describing the path that a representative dike, or swarm of dikes, would follow during an event. (2) A discussion of magma flow, which evaluates the interaction at the junction of the propagating dike with the drift and the movement of magmatic products into and down drifts and, potentially, through a drift to the surface by way of access drift or a secondary dike opened up along the drift. (3) A discussion of gas flow and conductive cooling of a magma-filled drift, describing how an adjacent drift that has not been intersected by a dike could be affected by post-intrusion phenomena. Note that a gas flow analysis is also addressed in ''Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Form and Waste Packages'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 161810]), and those results are consistent with the results presented in this report

  14. SEEPAGE/BACKFILL INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mariner

    2000-04-14

    As directed by written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a sub-model of seepage/backfill interactions is developed and presented in this document to support the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Physical and Chemical Environment Model. The purpose of this analysis is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and the Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift. In this analysis, a conceptual model is developed to provide PAO a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). The development plan calls for a sub-model that evaluates the effect on water chemistry of chemical reactions between water that enters the drift and backfill materials in the drift. The development plan specifically requests an evaluation of the following important chemical reaction processes: dissolution-precipitation, aqueous complexation, and oxidation-reduction. The development plan also requests the evaluation of the effects of varying seepage and drainage fluxes, varying temperature, and varying evaporation and condensation fluxes. Many of these effects are evaluated in a separate Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''Precipitates Salts Analysis AMR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000), so the results of that AMR are referenced throughout this AMR.

  15. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  16. Interaction of the radiation with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This third chapter presents the ionization, excitation, activation and radiation breaking; radiation directly and indirectly ionizing; interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with matter; interaction of neutrons with matter; interaction of radiation directly ionizing with matter; interaction of electrons with matter, interaction of alpha particle with matter; interaction of fission fragments with matter; travel time and integrated processes of interaction: energy dissipation

  17. RJSplot: Interactive Graphs with R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, David; Prieto, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    Data visualization techniques provide new methods for the generation of interactive graphs. These graphs allow a better exploration and interpretation of data but their creation requires advanced knowledge of graphical libraries. Recent packages have enabled the integration of interactive graphs in R. However, R provides limited graphical packages that allow the generation of interactive graphs for computational biology applications. The present project has joined the analytical power of R with the interactive graphical features of JavaScript in a new R package (RJSplot). It enables the easy generation of interactive graphs in R, provides new visualization capabilities, and contributes to the advance of computational biology analytical methods. At present, 16 interactive graphics are available in RJSplot, such as the genome viewer, Manhattan plots, 3D plots, heatmaps, dendrograms, networks, and so on. The RJSplot package is freely available online at http://rjsplot.net. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, T.

    2015-06-22

    We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models.

  19. Gaussian interaction profile kernels for predicting drug-target interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Twan; Nabuurs, Sander B; Marchiori, Elena

    2011-11-01

    The in silico prediction of potential interactions between drugs and target proteins is of core importance for the identification of new drugs or novel targets for existing drugs. However, only a tiny portion of all drug-target pairs in current datasets are experimentally validated interactions. This motivates the need for developing computational methods that predict true interaction pairs with high accuracy. We show that a simple machine learning method that uses the drug-target network as the only source of information is capable of predicting true interaction pairs with high accuracy. Specifically, we introduce interaction profiles of drugs (and of targets) in a network, which are binary vectors specifying the presence or absence of interaction with every target (drug) in that network. We define a kernel on these profiles, called the Gaussian Interaction Profile (GIP) kernel, and use a simple classifier, (kernel) Regularized Least Squares (RLS), for prediction drug-target interactions. We test comparatively the effectiveness of RLS with the GIP kernel on four drug-target interaction networks used in previous studies. The proposed algorithm achieves area under the precision-recall curve (AUPR) up to 92.7, significantly improving over results of state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we show that using also kernels based on chemical and genomic information further increases accuracy, with a neat improvement on small datasets. These results substantiate the relevance of the network topology (in the form of interaction profiles) as source of information for predicting drug-target interactions. Software and Supplementary Material are available at http://cs.ru.nl/~tvanlaarhoven/drugtarget2011/. tvanlaarhoven@cs.ru.nl; elenam@cs.ru.nl. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Intergenerational Analysis of Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; McHardy, Jolian; Taylor, Karl

    2011-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the social interaction of parents and their offspring from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. Our theoretical framework establishes possible explanations for the intergenerational transfer of social interaction whereby the social interaction of the parent may influence that of their offspring and vice versa. The empirical evidence, based on four data sets covering Great Britain and the U.S., is supportive of our theoretical priors. We find robust e...

  1. Conversation Analysis and Classroom Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING A-ning; LI Fan; CUI Jing

    2015-01-01

    Conversation Analysis shows the evidence of the social nature of people’s action including talk-in-interaction from a micro-level perspective. The method for basing its analysis on the authentic data rather than the retrospective interviews for gain⁃ing the participants’perception makes it unique in discovering the emic perspective of the social interaction. CA, often called as a“micro”methodology, provides theoretical insights and useful analytical tool for exploring the interaction in classrooms.

  2. Emotional responses to interactive fictions

    OpenAIRE

    Hagger, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    We commonly feel a variety of emotional responses to works of fiction. In this thesis I propose to examine what we understand by the terms fictional and narrative, and to describe what sorts of narrator might be required within a narrative work. Of particular interest are interactive works of art, both narrative and non-narrative, and I provide a definition of what features a work should possess if it should properly be considered interactive. I discuss the notions of interactive narrative...

  3. INCA- INTERACTIVE CONTROLS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA) program was developed to provide a user friendly environment for the design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control systems. INCA is designed for use with both small and large order systems. Using the interactive graphics capability, the INCA user can quickly plot a root locus, frequency response, or time response of either a continuous time system or a sampled data system. The system configuration and parameters can be easily changed, allowing the INCA user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in a very convenient manner. A journal file capability is included. This stores an entire sequence of commands, generated during an INCA session into a file which can be accessed later. Also included in INCA are a context-sensitive help library, a screen editor, and plot windows. INCA is robust to VAX-specific overflow problems. The transfer function is the basic unit of INCA. Transfer functions are automatically saved and are available to the INCA user at any time. A powerful, user friendly transfer function manipulation and editing capability is built into the INCA program. The user can do all transfer function manipulations and plotting without leaving INCA, although provisions are made to input transfer functions from data files. By using a small set of commands, the user may compute and edit transfer functions, and then examine these functions by using the ROOT_LOCUS, FREQUENCY_RESPONSE, and TIME_RESPONSE capabilities. Basic input data, including gains, are handled as single-input single-output transfer functions. These functions can be developed using the function editor or by using FORTRAN- like arithmetic expressions. In addition to the arithmetic functions, special functions are available to 1) compute step, ramp, and sinusoid functions, 2) compute closed loop transfer functions, 3) convert from S plane to Z plane with optional advanced Z transform, and 4) convert from Z

  4. Seepage/Cement Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) pertaining to this task defines the work scopes and objectives for development of various submodels for the Physical and Chemical Environment Abstraction Model for TSPA-LA. The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) for this specific task establishes that an evaluation be performed of the chemical reactions between seepage that has entered the drift and concrete which might be used in the repository emplacement drifts. The Development Plan (CRWMS M andO 1999a) then states that the potential effects of these water/grout reactions on chemical conditions in the drift be assessed factoring in the influence of carbonation and the relatively small amount of grout. This task is also directed at: (1) developing a conceptualization of important cement/seepage interactions and potential impacts on EBS performance, (2) performing a screening analysis to assess the importance of cement/seepage interactions. As the work progresses and evolves on other studies, specifically the Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment (P andCE) Model (in progress), many of the issues associated with items 1 and 2, above, will be assessed. Such issues include: (1) Describing the mineralogy of the specified cementitious grout and its evolution over time. (2) Describing the composition of the water before contacting the grout. (3) Developing reasonable upper-bound estimates for the composition of water contacting grout, emphasizing pH and concentrations for anions such as sulfate. (4) Evaluating the equilibration of cement-influenced water with backfill and gas-phase CO 2 . (5) Developing reasonable-bound estimates for flow rate of affected water into the drift. The concept of estimating an ''upper-bound'' range for reaction between the grout and the seepage, particularly in terms of pH is based on equilibrium being established between the seepage and the grout. For example, this analysis can be based on equilibrium being established as

  5. Regulation of the Water Channel Aquaporin-2 via 14-3-3θ and -ζ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Hanne B; Slengerik-Hansen, Joachim; Aroankins, Takwa

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family of proteins are multifunctional proteins that interact with many of their cellular targets in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Here, we determined that 14-3-3 proteins interact with phosphorylated forms of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) and modulate its function. With t...... levels. In conclusion, this study demonstrates phosphorylation-dependent interactions of AQP2 with 14-3-3 θ and ζ. These interactions play divergent roles in modulating AQP2 trafficking, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and degradation....

  6. On topological RNA interaction structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Reidys, Christian M

    2013-07-01

    Recently a folding algorithm of topological RNA pseudoknot structures was presented in Reidys et al. (2011). This algorithm folds single-stranded γ-structures, that is, RNA structures composed by distinct motifs of bounded topological genus. In this article, we set the theoretical foundations for the folding of the two backbone analogues of γ structures: the RNA γ-interaction structures. These are RNA-RNA interaction structures that are constructed by a finite number of building blocks over two backbones having genus at most γ. Combinatorial properties of γ-interaction structures are of practical interest since they have direct implications for the folding of topological interaction structures. We compute the generating function of γ-interaction structures and show that it is algebraic, which implies that the numbers of interaction structures can be computed recursively. We obtain simple asymptotic formulas for 0- and 1-interaction structures. The simplest class of interaction structures are the 0-interaction structures, which represent the two backbone analogues of secondary structures.

  7. Quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggioli, R.S.; Jackson, A.D.

    1975-07-01

    A microscopic calculation of the quasiparticle interaction in nuclear matter is detailed. In order to take especial care of the contributions from the low momentum states, a model space is introduced. Excluded from the model space, the high momentum states are absorbed into the model interaction. Brueckner theory suggests the choice of a truncated G-matrix as a good approximation for this model interaction. A simple perturbative approach is attempted within the model space. The calculated quasiparticle interaction is consistent with experimental results. (11 tables, 14 figures)

  8. Theoretical studies of molecular interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, W.A. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research program is directed at extending fundamental knowledge of atoms and molecules including their electronic structure, mutual interaction, collision dynamics, and interaction with radiation. The approach combines the use of ab initio methods--Hartree-Fock (HF) multiconfiguration HF, configuration interaction, and the recently developed quantum Monte Carlo (MC)--to describe electronic structure, intermolecular interactions, and other properties, with various methods of characterizing inelastic and reaction collision processes, and photodissociation dynamics. Present activity is focused on the development and application of the QMC method, surface catalyzed reactions, and reorientation cross sections.

  9. Evaluation of drug interaction microcomputer software: Dambro's Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, T I; Giudici, R A

    1990-01-01

    Dambro's Drug Interactions was evaluated using general and specific criteria. The installation process, ease of learning and use were rated excellent. The user documentation and quality of the technical support were good. The scope of coverage, clinical documentation, frequency of updates, and overall clinical performance were fair. The primary advantages of the program are the quick searching and detection of drug interactions, and the attempt to provide useful interaction data, i.e., significance and reference. The disadvantages are the lack of current drug interaction information, outdated references, lack of evaluative drug interaction information, and the inability to save or print patient profiles. The program is not a good value for the pharmacist but has limited use as a quick screening tool.

  10. The n→π* Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Robert W; Raines, Ronald T

    2017-08-15

    The carbonyl group holds a prominent position in chemistry and biology not only because it allows diverse transformations but also because it supports key intermolecular interactions, including hydrogen bonding. More recently, carbonyl groups have been found to interact with a variety of nucleophiles, including other carbonyl groups, in what we have termed an n→π* interaction. In an n→π* interaction, a nucleophile donates lone-pair (n) electron density into the empty π* orbital of a nearby carbonyl group. Mixing of these orbitals releases energy, resulting in an attractive interaction. Hints of such interactions were evident in small-molecule crystal structures as early as the 1970s, but not until 2001 was the role of such interactions articulated clearly. These non-covalent interactions were first discovered during investigations into the thermostability of the proline-rich protein collagen, which achieves a robust structure despite a relatively low potential for hydrogen bonding. It was found that by modulating the distance between two carbonyl groups in the peptide backbone, one could alter the conformational preferences of a peptide bond to proline. Specifically, only the trans conformation of a peptide bond to proline allows for an attractive interaction with an adjacent carbonyl group, so when one increases the proximity of the two carbonyl groups, one enhances their interaction and promotes the trans conformation of the peptide bond, which increases the thermostability of collagen. More recently, attention has been paid to the nature of these interactions. Some have argued that rather than resulting from electron donation, carbonyl interactions are a particular example of dipolar interactions that are well-approximated by classical mechanics. However, experimental evidence has demonstrated otherwise. Numerous examples now exist where an increase in the dipole moment of a carbonyl group decreases the strength of its interactions with other carbonyl

  11. The cation-π interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Dennis A

    2013-04-16

    The chemistry community now recognizes the cation-π interaction as a major force for molecular recognition, joining the hydrophobic effect, the hydrogen bond, and the ion pair in determining macromolecular structure and drug-receptor interactions. This Account provides the author's perspective on the intellectual origins and fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. Early studies on cyclophanes established that water-soluble, cationic molecules would forego aqueous solvation to enter a hydrophobic cavity if that cavity was lined with π systems. Important gas phase studies established the fundamental nature of the cation-π interaction. The strength of the cation-π interaction (Li(+) binds to benzene with 38 kcal/mol of binding energy; NH4(+) with 19 kcal/mol) distinguishes it from the weaker polar-π interactions observed in the benzene dimer or water-benzene complexes. In addition to the substantial intrinsic strength of the cation-π interaction in gas phase studies, the cation-π interaction remains energetically significant in aqueous media and under biological conditions. Many studies have shown that cation-π interactions can enhance binding energies by 2-5 kcal/mol, making them competitive with hydrogen bonds and ion pairs in drug-receptor and protein-protein interactions. As with other noncovalent interactions involving aromatic systems, the cation-π interaction includes a substantial electrostatic component. The six (four) C(δ-)-H(δ+) bond dipoles of a molecule like benzene (ethylene) combine to produce a region of negative electrostatic potential on the face of the π system. Simple electrostatics facilitate a natural attraction of cations to the surface. The trend for (gas phase) binding energies is Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+) > Rb(+): as the ion gets larger the charge is dispersed over a larger sphere and binding interactions weaken, a classical electrostatic effect. On other hand, polarizability does not define these interactions. Cyclohexane is

  12. Strategic interaction and conventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinosa, María Paz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the paper is to review the literature that employs coordination games to study social norms and conventions from the viewpoint of game theory and cognitive psychology. We claim that those two alternative approaches are in fact complementary, as they provide different insights to explain how people converge to a unique system of self-fulfilling expectations in presence of multiple, equally viable, conventions. While game theory explains the emergence of conventions relying on efficiency and risk considerations, the psychological view is more concerned with frame and labeling effects. The interaction between these alternative (and, sometimes, competing effects leads to the result that coordination failures may well occur and, even when coordination takes place, there is no guarantee that the convention eventually established will be the most efficient.

    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar la literatura que emplea los juegos de coordinación para el estudio de normas y convenciones sociales, que se han analizado tanto desde el punto de vista de la teoría de juegos como de la psicología cognitiva. Argumentamos en este trabajo que estos dos enfoques alternativos son en realidad complementarios, dado que ambos contribuyen al entendimiento de los procesos mediante los cuales las personas llegan a coordinarse en un único sistema de expectativas autorrealizadas, en presencia de múltiples convenciones todas ellas igualmente viables. Mientras que la teoría de juegos explica la aparición de convenciones basándose en argumentos de eficiencia y comportamientos frente al riesgo, el enfoque de la psicología cognitiva utiliza en mayor medida consideraciones referidas al entorno y naturaleza de las decisiones. La interacción entre estos efectos diferentes (y en ocasiones, rivales desemboca con frecuencia en fallos de coordinación y, aun cuando la coordinación se produce, no hay garantía de que la convención en vigor sea la m

  13. Macrolide drug interactions: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, M P; Graci, D M; Amsden, G W

    2000-04-01

    To describe the current drug interaction profiles for the commonly used macrolides in the US and Europe, and to comment on the clinical impact of these interactions. A MEDLINE search (1975-1998) was performed to identify all pertinent studies, review articles, and case reports. When appropriate information was not available in the literature, data were obtained from the product manufacturers. All available data were reviewed to provide an unbiased account of possible drug interactions. Data for some of the interactions were not available from the literature, but were available from abstracts or company-supplied materials. Although the data were not always explicit, the best attempt was made to deliver pertinent information that clinical practitioners would need to formulate practice opinions. When more in-depth information was supplied in the form of a review or study report, a thorough explanation of pertinent methodology was supplied. Several clinically significant drug interactions have been identified since the approval of erythromycin. These interactions usually were related to the inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzyme systems, which are responsible for the metabolism of many drugs. The decreased metabolism by the macrolides has in some instances resulted in potentially severe adverse events. The development and marketing of newer macrolides are hoped to improve the drug interaction profile associated with this class. However, this has produced variable success. Some of the newer macrolides demonstrated an interaction profile similar to that of erythromycin; others have improved profiles. The most success in avoiding drug interactions related to the inhibition of cytochrome P450 has been through the development of the azalide subclass, of which azithromycin is the first and only to be marketed. Azithromycin has not been demonstrated to inhibit the cytochrome P450 system in studies using a human liver microsome model, and to date has produced none of the

  14. Educational interactive multimedia software: The impact of interactivity on learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamon, Derek Trent

    This dissertation discusses the design, development, deployment and testing of two versions of educational interactive multimedia software. Both versions of the software are focused on teaching mechanical engineering undergraduates about the fundamentals of direct-current (DC) motor physics and selection. The two versions of Motor Workshop software cover the same basic materials on motors, but differ in the level of interactivity between the students and the software. Here, the level of interactivity refers to the particular role of the computer in the interaction between the user and the software. In one version, the students navigate through information that is organized by topic, reading text, and viewing embedded video clips; this is referred to as "low-level interactivity" software because the computer simply presents the content. In the other version, the students are given a task to accomplish---they must design a small motor-driven 'virtual' vehicle that competes against computer-generated opponents. The interaction is guided by the software which offers advice from 'experts' and provides contextual information; we refer to this as "high-level interactivity" software because the computer is actively participating in the interaction. The software was used in two sets of experiments, where students using the low-level interactivity software served as the 'control group,' and students using the highly interactive software were the 'treatment group.' Data, including pre- and post-performance tests, questionnaire responses, learning style characterizations, activity tracking logs and videotapes were collected for analysis. Statistical and observational research methods were applied to the various data to test the hypothesis that the level of interactivity effects the learning situation, with higher levels of interactivity being more effective for learning. The results show that both the low-level and high-level interactive versions of the software were effective

  15. Our interests in protein-protein interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protein interactions. Evolution of P-P partnerships. Evolution of P-P structures. Evolutionary dynamics of P-P interactions. Dynamics of P-P interaction network. Host-pathogen interactions. CryoEM mapping of gigantic protein assemblies.

  16. Parallel inter channel interaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovic, V.; Afgan, N.; Jovic, L.

    1995-01-01

    Parallel channels interactions are examined. For experimental researches of nonstationary regimes flow in three parallel vertical channels results of phenomenon analysis and mechanisms of parallel channel interaction for adiabatic condition of one-phase fluid and two-phase mixture flow are shown. (author)

  17. Depletion interactions in lyotropic nematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical study of depletion interactions between pairs of small, globular colloids dispersed in a lyotropic nematic of hard, rodlike particles is presented. We find that both the strength and range of the interaction crucially depends on the configuration of the spheres relative to the nematic

  18. Moderating influences on interactivity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorveld, H.; van Noort, G.

    2012-01-01

    Research on website interactivity is widespread and there are two important reasons for this popularity. The first is that interactivity is assumed to be the key characteristic that distinguishes communication in traditional media from communication in new media such as websites (Chung and Zhao,

  19. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  20. Direction: unified theory of interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valko, P.

    1987-01-01

    Briefly characterized are the individual theories, namely, the general relativity theory, the Kaluza-Klein theory, the Weyl theory, the unified theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions, the supergravity theory, and the superstring theory. The history is recalled of efforts aimed at creating a unified theory of interactions, and future prospects are outlined. (M.D.). 2 figs

  1. Experimental Aspects of Nuclear Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaus, I. [Institute ' ' Rudjer Boskovic' ' , Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1970-07-15

    1. Introduction; 2. Basic features of nuclear interaction; 3. How accurate is our present knowledge of phase parameters? 4. Experimental problems in N-N scattering studies; 5. N-N potential models; 6. Some open problems in nuclear interaction studies. (author)

  2. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  3. Reggeon interactions in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1994-08-01

    We study the pairwise interaction of reggeized gluons and quarks in the Regge limit of perturbative QCD. The interactions are represented as integral kernels in the transverse momentum space and as operators in the impact parameter space. We observe conformal symmetry and holomorphic factorization in all cases. (orig.)

  4. Mobile Collocated Interactions With Wearables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Wilde, Danielle; Robinson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus going from personal/individual toward shared/multiuser experiences and interactions. However, computers are getting smaller, more...

  5. Child-Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Revelle, Glenda; Zeising, Anja

    2016-01-01

    This SIG will provide child-computer interaction researchers and practitioners an opportunity to discuss four topics that represent new challenges and opportunities for the community. The four areas are: interactive technologies for children under the age of five, technology for inclusion, privacy...... and information security in the age of the quantified self, and the maker movement....

  6. Interaction Sheaves on Continuous Domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdou, J.; Keiding, Hans

    We introduce a description of the power structure which is inherent in a strategic game form using the concept of an interaction sheaf. The latter assigns to each open set of outcomes a set of interaction arrays, specifying the changes that coalitions can make if outcome belongs to this open set....

  7. Interaction sheaves on continuous domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdou, Joseph; Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a description of the power structure which is inherent in a strategic game form using the concept of an interaction sheaf. The latter assigns to each open set of outcomes a set of interaction arrays, specifying the changes that coalitions can make if outcome belongs to this open set....

  8. Hypervideos and interactive multimedia presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Meixner (Britta)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHypervideos and interactive multimedia presentations allow the creation of fully interactive and enriched video. It is possible to organize video scenes in a nonlinear way. Additional information can be added to the video ranging from short descriptions to images and more videos.

  9. Transformations: Mobile Interaction & Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Fiona; Kop, Rita; Thomas, Nathan; Dunning, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Mobile devices and the interactions that these technologies afford have the potential to change the face and nature of education in our schools. Indeed, mobile technological advances are seen to offer better access to educational material and new interactive ways to learn. However, the question arises, as to whether these new technologies are…

  10. Narrative Cognition in Interactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune; Arief, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore some of the methodological problems related to characterizing cognitive aspects of involvement with interactive narratives using well known EEG/ERP techniques. To exemplify this, we construct an experimental EEG-ERP set-up with an interactive narrative that considers th...

  11. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...

  12. Quark confinement and hadronic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, F.

    1985-01-01

    With the possibility for 'exact' calculations within the framework of a fundamental theory, QCD, the role of models in strong interaction physics is changing radically. The relevance of detailed numerical model studies is diminishing with the development of those exact, numerical approaches to QCD. On the other hand, the insight gained from such purely numerical studies is necessarily limited and must be complemented by the more qualitative but also more intuitive insight gained from model studies. In particular, the subject of hadron-hadron interactions requires model studies to relate the wide variety of strong interaction physics to the fundamental properties of strong interaction physics. The author reports on such model studies of the hadron-hadron interaction

  13. Emotional intelligence and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo N; Brackett, Marc A; Nezlek, John B; Schütz, Astrid; Sellin, Ina; Salovey, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Two studies found positive relationships between the ability to manage emotions and the quality of social interactions, supporting the predictive and incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). In a sample of 118 American college students (Study 1), higher scores on the managing emotions subscale of the MSCEIT were positively related to the quality of interactions with friends, evaluated separately by participants and two friends. In a diary study of social interaction with 103 German college students (Study 2), managing emotions scores were positively related to the perceived quality of interactions with opposite sex individuals. Scores on this subscale were also positively related to perceived success in impression management in social interactions with individuals of the opposite sex. In both studies, the main findings remained statistically significant after controlling for Big Five personality traits.

  14. Drug Interactions in Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Cyrine; Jeha, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Children with cancer are increasingly benefiting from novel therapeutic strategies and advances in supportive care, as reflected in improvements in both their survival and quality of life. However, the continuous emergence of new oncology drugs and supportive care agents has also increased the possibility of deleterious drug interactions and healthcare providers need to practice extreme caution when combining medications. In this review, we discuss the most common interactions of chemotherapeutic agents with supportive care drugs such as anticonvulsants, antiemetics, uric acid–lowering agents, acid suppressants, antimicrobials, and pain management medications in pediatric oncology patients. As chemotherapy agents interact not only with medications but also with foods and herbal supplements that patients receive during the course of their treatment, we also briefly review such interactions and provide recommendations to avoid unwanted and potentially fatal interactions in children with cancer. PMID:20869315

  15. Novicidin interactions with phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balakrishnan, Vijay Shankar

    Antimicrobial peptides target bacterial cell membranes and are considered as potential antibiotics. Their interactions with cell membranes are studied using different approaches. This thesis comprises of the biophysical investigations on the antimicrobial peptide Novicidin, interacting with lipos......Antimicrobial peptides target bacterial cell membranes and are considered as potential antibiotics. Their interactions with cell membranes are studied using different approaches. This thesis comprises of the biophysical investigations on the antimicrobial peptide Novicidin, interacting...... with liposomes. The lipid-induced changes in the peptide due to membrane binding, and the peptide-induced changes in the membrane properties were investigated using various spectroscopic and calorimetric methods, and the structural and thermodynamic aspects of peptide-lipid interactions are discussed. This helps...

  16. Interaction themes in music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapyinteraction called ?Interaction Themes.? These are developed fromsession to session and often appear in music therapy interventions withchildren with severe functional limitations, especially children withautism. Although...... whoseexpressions are often difficult to understand. The article describes thecharacteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares thephenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regardto other types of music therapy interaction with this client group. Theresults are described through...... the Interaction Themes are characterised by arelatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essentialfunction because they contain the child?s and music therapist?s jointinteraction history. They make up the context within which it ispossible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  17. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  18. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  19. Calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Sebastian; Büchler, Hans Peter; Tresp, Christoph; Urvoy, Alban; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Menke, Henri; Firstenberg, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The strong interaction between individual Rydberg atoms provides a powerful tool exploited in an ever-growing range of applications in quantum information science, quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry. One hallmark of the Rydberg interaction is that both its strength and angular dependence can be fine-tuned with great flexibility by choosing appropriate Rydberg states and applying external electric and magnetic fields. More and more experiments are probing this interaction at short atomic distances or with such high precision that perturbative calculations as well as restrictions to the leading dipole–dipole interaction term are no longer sufficient. In this tutorial, we review all relevant aspects of the full calculation of Rydberg interaction potentials. We discuss the derivation of the interaction Hamiltonian from the electrostatic multipole expansion, numerical and analytical methods for calculating the required electric multipole moments and the inclusion of electromagnetic fields with arbitrary direction. We focus specifically on symmetry arguments and selection rules, which greatly reduce the size of the Hamiltonian matrix, enabling the direct diagonalization of the Hamiltonian up to higher multipole orders on a desktop computer. Finally, we present example calculations showing the relevance of the full interaction calculation to current experiments. Our software for calculating Rydberg potentials including all features discussed in this tutorial is available as open source. (tutorial)

  20. Evolutionary dynamics under interactive diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qi; Li, Aming; Wang, Long

    2017-10-01

    As evidenced by many cases in human societies, individuals often make different behavior decisions in different interactions, and adaptively adjust their behavior in changeable interactive scenarios. However, up to now, how such diverse interactive behavior affects cooperation dynamics has still remained unknown. Here we develop a general framework of interactive diversity, which models individuals’ separated behavior against distinct opponents and their adaptive adjustment in response to opponents’ strategies, to explore the evolution of cooperation. We find that interactive diversity enables individuals to reciprocate every single opponent, and thus sustains large-scale reciprocal interactions. Our work witnesses an impressive boost of cooperation for a notably extensive range of parameters and for all pairwise games. These results are robust against well-mixed and various networked populations, and against degree-normalized and cumulative payoff patterns. From the perspective of network dynamics, distinguished from individuals competing for nodes in most previous work, in this paper, the system evolves in the form of behavior disseminating along edges. We propose a theoretical method based on evolution of edges, which predicts well both the frequency of cooperation and the compact cooperation clusters. Our thorough investigation clarifies the positive role of interactive diversity in resolving social dilemmas and highlights the significance of understanding evolutionary dynamics from the viewpoint of edge dynamics.

  1. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  2. Interactions, Starbursts, and Star Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Knapen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We study how interactions between galaxies affect star formation within them by considering a sample of almost 1500 of the nearest galaxies, all within a distance of ∼45 Mpc. We use the far-IR emission to define the massive star formation rate (SFR, and then normalise the SFR by the stellar mass of the galaxy to obtain the specific star formation rate (SSFR. We explore the distribution of (SSFR with morphological type and with stellar mass. We calculate the relative enhancement of SFR and SSFR for each galaxy by normalising them by the median SFR and SSFR values of individual control samples of similar non-interacting galaxies. We find that both the median SFR and SSFR are enhanced in interacting galaxies, and more so as the degree of interaction is higher. The increase is moderate, reaching a maximum of a factor of 1.9 for the highest degree of interaction (mergers. While the SFR and SSFR are enhanced statistically by interactions, in many individual interacting galaxies they are not enhanced at all. Our study is based on a representative sample of nearby galaxies and should be used to place constraints on studies based on samples of galaxies at larger distances.

  3. Calculations on Noncovalent Interactions and Databases of Benchmark Interaction Energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2012), s. 663-672 ISSN 0001-4842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:European Social Fund(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : non-covalent interactions * covalent interactions * quantum chemical approach Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 20.833, year: 2012

  4. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    KAUST Repository

    Sá nchez Claros, Carmen; Tramontano, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average) belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  5. Detecting mutually exclusive interactions in protein-protein interaction maps.

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez Claros, Carmen

    2012-06-08

    Comprehensive protein interaction maps can complement genetic and biochemical experiments and allow the formulation of new hypotheses to be tested in the system of interest. The computational analysis of the maps may help to focus on interesting cases and thereby to appropriately prioritize the validation experiments. We show here that, by automatically comparing and analyzing structurally similar regions of proteins of known structure interacting with a common partner, it is possible to identify mutually exclusive interactions present in the maps with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity higher than 85% and that, in about three fourth of the correctly identified complexes, we also correctly recognize at least one residue (five on average) belonging to the interaction interface. Given the present and continuously increasing number of proteins of known structure, the requirement of the knowledge of the structure of the interacting proteins does not substantially impact on the coverage of our strategy that can be estimated to be around 25%. We also introduce here the Estrella server that embodies this strategy, is designed for users interested in validating specific hypotheses about the functional role of a protein-protein interaction and it also allows access to pre-computed data for seven organisms.

  6. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing; Melucci, Massimo [Padua Univ., Padova (Italy). Dept. of Information Engineering; Frommholz, Ingo [Bedfordshire Univ. (United Kingdom); Arafat, Sachi (eds.) [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Computing Science

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  7. Quantum interaction. Revised selected papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dawei; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Arafat, Sachi

    2011-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Quantum Interaction, QI 2011, held in Aberdeen, UK, in June 2011. The 26 revised full papers and 6 revised poster papers, presented together with 1 tutorial and 1 invited talk were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions during two rounds of reviewing and improvement. The papers show the cross-disciplinary nature of quantum interaction covering topics such as computation, cognition, mechanics, social interaction, semantic space and information representation and retrieval. (orig.)

  8. Diatomic interaction potential theory applications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodisman, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Diatomic Interaction Potential Theory, Volume 2: Applications discusses the variety of applicable theoretical material and approaches in the calculations for diatomic systems in their ground states. The volume covers the descriptions and illustrations of modern calculations. Chapter I discusses the calculation of the interaction potential for large and small values of the internuclear distance R (separated and united atom limits). Chapter II covers the methods used for intermediate values of R, which in principle means any values of R. The Hartree-Fock and configuration interaction schemes des

  9. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  10. The Ontology of Interactive Kinds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauswald Rico

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper defends the notions of an interactive kind and a looping effect as features of social and human scientific classifications and aims to give a realist interpretation of them. I argue that interactive kinds can best be modeled as a special case of changing causal property cluster kinds. In order to do so, I develop a typology of looping effects according to the sort of entities that are affected, the main types of which are individual-looping, category-looping, and kind-looping. Based on this distinction, I identify interactive kinds as those causal property cluster kinds that are subjected to kind-looping.

  11. Walking around to grasp interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents experiences from a study using walk-alongs to provide insight into museum visitors’ experience with interactive features of sound art installations. The overall goal of the study was to learn about the participants’ opinions and feelings about the possibility of interaction...... with the sound installations. The aim was to gain an understanding of the role of the in-teraction, if interaction makes a difference for the understanding of the sound art. 30 walking interviews were carried out at ZKM, Karlsruhe with a total of 57 museum guests, individuals or groups. During the walk......-alongs the research-ers acted as facilitators and partners in the engagement with the sound installa-tions. The study provided good insight into advantages and challenges with the walk-along method, for instance the importance of shared, embodied sensing of space for the understanding of the experience. The common...

  12. Ultracold fermions with repulsive interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketterle W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An ultracold Fermi gas with repulsive interaction has been studied. For weak interactions, the atomic gas is metastable, and the interactions were characterized by obtaining the isothermal compressibility from atomic density profiles. For stronger interactions (kFa ≈ 1, rapid conversion into Feshbach molecules is observed. When the conversion rate becomes comparable to the Fermi energy divided by η, the atomic gas cannot reach equilibrium without forming pairs. This precludes the predicted transition to a ferromagnetic state (Stoner transition. The absence of spin fluctuations proves that the gas stays paramagnetic. In free space, a Fermi gas with strong short-range repulsion does not exist because of the rapid coupling to molecular states.

  13. Developer's handbook of interactive multimedia

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Robin

    2014-01-01

    New technology is being used more and more in education and providers have to be aware of what is on offer and how it can be used. This practical handbook demonstrates how interactive multimedia can be developed for educational application.

  14. Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DIP database catalogs experimentally determined interactions between proteins. It combines information from a variety of sources to create a single, consistent...

  15. Urban Interaction and Affective Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Brynskov, Martin

    2008-01-01

    As interactive digital technologies become a still more integrated and complex part of the everyday physical, social and cultural spaces we inhabit, research into these spaces’ dynamics and struc-tures needs to formulate adequate methods of analysis and dis-course. In this position paper we argue...... in favor of three points in that direction: First we argue that interaction – and the definition of interaction – is central to unfold the potential of digital urban media, from big, shared screens and media facades to small pri-vate, networked mobile and embedded platforms. Then we argue that an affective...... approach holds potential to address important aspects of the design of such blended digital spaces, extending beyond traditional interaction design. And finally we argue for the importance of construction, i.e. actual interventions of consider-able scale....

  16. Learning Axure RP interactive prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Krahenbuhl, John Henry

    2015-01-01

    If you are a user experience professional, designer, information architect, or business analyst who wants to gain interactive prototyping skills with Axure, then this book is ideal for you. Some familiarity with Axure is preferred but not essential.

  17. Chiral interaction and biomolecular evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in the concept of chiral interaction open now new options and dynamical possibilities for biomolecules which have so far been overlooked. A few of these possibilities are mentioned, such as the control mechanism of enzymatic activity and the role played by non-ergodicity in evolutionary processes. It is shown that chiral interaction, being a surface phenomenon, does not obey Barron's symmetry constraints, which are suitable for force fields present in bulk interactions. In particular, the situation at the ocean-air surface in the prebiotic era is described, as well as the possible role played by chiral interaction in conjunction with the terrestrial magnetic field normal to the ocean surface, which could have lead to a process of deracernization at the ocean-air interface. (author)

  18. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  19. Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, T.; Wonka, Peter; Mueller, P.

    2015-01-01

    that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify

  20. Social Interaction in Learning Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The original publication is available from www.springerlink.com. Sloep, P. (2009). Social Interaction in Learning Networks. In R. Koper (Ed.), Learning Network Services for Professional Development (pp 13-15). Berlin, Germany: Springer Verlag.