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Sample records for cjd vcjd questions

  1. The transmission dynamics of BSE and vCJD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Azra C; Donnelly, Christl A; Ferguson, Neil M; Anderson, Roy M

    2002-01-01

    The bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic in cattle has had a huge economic impact on the agricultural industries across Europe. Furthermore, scientific evidence now strongly supporting a link between a new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and consumption of BSE-infected animals has further heightened the need both to understand the transmission of these new diseases and to improve control measures to protect public health. In this paper we review work undertaken by our group using epidemiological models to understand the transmission dynamics of BSE and vCJD. We present new estimates of the future number of cases of BSE and the number of infected animals slaughtered for consumption for Great Britain, and summarise similar analyses undertaken for Northern Ireland, Ireland, Portugal and France. We also consider the epidemiological determinants of the future course of the vCJD epidemic, including the age and genetic characteristics of the confirmed cases, and present predictions of future case numbers.

  2. vCJD risk in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harney, Michael S

    2003-11-26

    BACKGROUND: The Republic of Ireland has the second highest incidence of BSE worldwide. Only a single case of vCJD has been identified to date. METHODS: We estimate the total future number of clinical cases of vCJD using an established mathematical model, and based on infectivity of bovine tissue calculated from UK data and on the relative exposure to BSE contaminated meat. RESULTS: We estimate 1 future clinical case (95% CI 0-15) of vCJD in the Republic of Ireland. Irish exposure is from BSE infected indigenous beef products and from imported UK beef products. Additionally, 2.5% of the Irish population was exposed to UK beef through residing in the UK during the \\'at-risk\\' period. The relative proportion of risk attributable to each of these three exposures individually is 2:2:1 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The low numbers of future vCJD cases estimated in this study is reassuring for the Irish population and for other countries with a similar level of BSE exposure.

  3. No major change in vCJD agent strain after secondary transmission via blood transfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Bishop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD by blood transfusion has prompted investigation to establish whether there has been any alteration in the vCJD agent following this route of secondary transmission. Any increase in virulence or host adaptation would require a reassessment of the risk analyses relating to the possibility of a significant secondary outbreak of vCJD. Since there are likely to be carriers of the vCJD agent in the general population, there is a potential for further infection by routes such as blood transfusion or contaminated surgical instruments. METHODOLOGY: We inoculated both wild-type and transgenic mice with material from the first case of transfusion associated vCJD infection. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The strain transmission properties of blood transfusion associated vCJD infection show remarkable similarities to the strain of vCJD associated with transmission from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. CONCLUSIONS: Although it has been hypothesized that adaptation of the BSE agent through secondary passage in humans may result in a greater risk of onward transmission due to an increased virulence of the agent for humans, our data presented here in two murine models suggest no significant alterations to transmission efficiency of the agent following human-to-human transmission of vCJD.

  4. Epidemiological evidence of higher susceptibility to vCJD in the young

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    Valleron Alain-Jacques

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strikingly young age of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease (vCJD cases remains unexplained. Age dependent susceptibility to infection has been put forward, but differential dietary exposure to contaminated food products in the UK population according to age and sex during the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE epidemic may provide a simpler explanation. Methods Using recently published estimates of dietary exposure in mathematical models of the epidemiology of the new variant Creutzfeldt Jacob disease (vCJD, we examine whether the age characteristics of vCJD cases may be reproduced. Results The susceptibility/exposure risk function has likely peaked in adolescents and was followed by a sharp decrease with age, evocative of the profile of exposure to bovine material consumption according to age. However, assuming that the risk of contamination was proportional to exposure, with no age dependent susceptibility, the model failed to reproduce the observed age characteristics of the vCJD cases: The predicted cumulated proportion of cases over 40 years was 48%, in strong disagreement with the observed 10%. Incorporating age dependent susceptibility led to a cumulated proportion of cases over 40 years old of 12%. Conclusions This analysis provides evidence that differential dietary exposure alone fails to explain the pattern of age in vCJD cases. Decreasing age related susceptibility is required to reproduce the characteristics of the age distribution of vCJD cases.

  5. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

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    Vera Lúcia Gattás

    Full Text Available Abstract To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health workers. A detailed proposal for a simplified system of surveillance for prion diseases was developed and mandatory reporting introduced. Additional effort is necessary to increase vCJD case detection, thus making it necessary to establish a partnership with health care services for best identification of suspected cases and dissemination of information to all involved in the service dealing with vCJD investigation.

  6. All clinically-relevant blood components transmit prion disease following a single blood transfusion: a sheep model of vCJD.

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    Sandra McCutcheon

    Full Text Available Variant CJD (vCJD is an incurable, infectious human disease, likely arising from the consumption of BSE-contaminated meat products. Whilst the epidemic appears to be waning, there is much concern that vCJD infection may be perpetuated in humans by the transfusion of contaminated blood products. Since 2004, several cases of transfusion-associated vCJD transmission have been reported and linked to blood collected from pre-clinically affected donors. Using an animal model in which the disease manifested resembles that of humans affected with vCJD, we examined which blood components used in human medicine are likely to pose the greatest risk of transmitting vCJD via transfusion. We collected two full units of blood from BSE-infected donor animals during the pre-clinical phase of infection. Using methods employed by transfusion services we prepared red cell concentrates, plasma and platelets units (including leucoreduced equivalents. Following transfusion, we showed that all components contain sufficient levels of infectivity to cause disease following only a single transfusion and also that leucoreduction did not prevent disease transmission. These data suggest that all blood components are vectors for prion disease transmission, and highlight the importance of multiple control measures to minimise the risk of human to human transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion.

  7. Comparison of the neuropathological characteristics of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D A; Bruce, M E; Fraser, J R

    2003-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) belong to a group of diseases called the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Transmission studies in inbred mice (strain typing) provided overwhelming evidence that vCJD arose from BSE. In this study, we compare the patterns of neuropathology in a panel of three inbred mouse strains (RIII, C57BL and VM) and one cross (C57BL x VM) infected with either vCJD or BSE. For each mouse strain, patterns of abnormal prion protein (PrPres) deposition, astrocytosis and vacuolation were similar in the vCJD- and BSE-challenged mice. Prion protein (PrP)-positive plaques were prominent in the VM and C57BL x VM mice in addition to diffuse PrPres accumulation, whereas only diffuse PrPres labelling was observed in the RIII and C57BL mice. The hippocampus was targeted in all mouse strains, as was the cochlear nucleus in the medulla, both showing consistent severe vacuolation and heavy PrPres deposition. Although the targeting of PrPres was similar in the BSE- and vCJD-infected brains, the amount and intensity of PrPres observed in the brains treated with formic acid during fixation was reduced considerably. The distribution of astrocytosis was similar to the targeting of PrPres deposition in the brain, although some differences were observed in the hippocampi of mice challenged with vCJD. We conclude that there are no significant differences in the targeting of neuropathological changes observed in the BSE- and vCJD-infected mice, consistent with the previous evidence of a link between BSE and vCJD.

  8. Preclinical detection of variant CJD and BSE prions in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Comoy, Emmanuel; Moudjou, Mohammed; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Lugan, Séverine; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Jas-Duval, Christelle; Lantier, Isabelle; Béringue, Vincent; Groschup, Martin; Fichet, Guillaume; Costes, Pierrette; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Lantier, Frederic; Deslys, Jean Philippe; Vilette, Didier; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    The emergence of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (vCJD) is considered a likely consequence of human dietary exposure to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) agent. More recently, secondary vCJD cases were identified in patients transfused with blood products prepared from apparently healthy donors who later went on to develop the disease. As there is no validated assay for detection of vCJD/BSE infected individuals the prevalence of the disease in the population remains uncertain. In that context, the risk of vCJD blood borne transmission is considered as a serious concern by health authorities. In this study, appropriate conditions and substrates for highly efficient and specific in vitro amplification of vCJD/BSE agent using Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) were first identified. This showed that whatever the origin (species) of the vCJD/BSE agent, the ovine Q171 PrP substrates provided the best amplification performances. These results indicate that the homology of PrP amino-acid sequence between the seed and the substrate is not the crucial determinant of the vCJD agent propagation in vitro. The ability of this method to detect endogenous vCJD/BSE agent in the blood was then defined. In both sheep and primate models of the disease, the assay enabled the identification of infected individuals in the early preclinical stage of the incubation period. Finally, sample panels that included buffy coat from vCJD affected patients and healthy controls were tested blind. The assay identified three out of the four tested vCJD affected patients and no false positive was observed in 141 healthy controls. The negative results observed in one of the tested vCJD cases concurs with results reported by others using a different vCJD agent blood detection assay and raises the question of the potential absence of prionemia in certain patients.

  9. Preclinical detection of variant CJD and BSE prions in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (vCJD is considered a likely consequence of human dietary exposure to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE agent. More recently, secondary vCJD cases were identified in patients transfused with blood products prepared from apparently healthy donors who later went on to develop the disease. As there is no validated assay for detection of vCJD/BSE infected individuals the prevalence of the disease in the population remains uncertain. In that context, the risk of vCJD blood borne transmission is considered as a serious concern by health authorities. In this study, appropriate conditions and substrates for highly efficient and specific in vitro amplification of vCJD/BSE agent using Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA were first identified. This showed that whatever the origin (species of the vCJD/BSE agent, the ovine Q171 PrP substrates provided the best amplification performances. These results indicate that the homology of PrP amino-acid sequence between the seed and the substrate is not the crucial determinant of the vCJD agent propagation in vitro. The ability of this method to detect endogenous vCJD/BSE agent in the blood was then defined. In both sheep and primate models of the disease, the assay enabled the identification of infected individuals in the early preclinical stage of the incubation period. Finally, sample panels that included buffy coat from vCJD affected patients and healthy controls were tested blind. The assay identified three out of the four tested vCJD affected patients and no false positive was observed in 141 healthy controls. The negative results observed in one of the tested vCJD cases concurs with results reported by others using a different vCJD agent blood detection assay and raises the question of the potential absence of prionemia in certain patients.

  10. Brain in human nutrition and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease risk (vCJD): detection of brain in retail liver sausages using cholesterol and neuron specific enolase (NSE) as markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lücker, E; Horlacher, S; Eigenbrodt, E

    2001-08-01

    No information is available about the consumption of brain via meat products. With respect to the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the presumed food-borne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to humans, a preliminary survey for brain and/or spinal cord (tissues of the central nervous system, CNS) was conducted. We applied a previously developed integrated procedure using cholesterol and neuron specific enolase (NSE) as markers. Quantification of cholesterol had to be backed up by NSE immunochemistry in order to account for low specificity and relatively high variances. Out of 126 high-quality finely graded liver sausages, five samples (4 %) showed positive NSE immunoresponses. In four of these samples a transgression of the normal maximum cholesterol content was obtained. The identification of such a considerable number of CNS-positive sausages indicates that brain consumption is not as rare as previously assumed. Overall, the present integrated method could be successfully applied for the detection of CNS in heat-treated meat products. Its routine application in official food control would deter illegal practice and thus help to control transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

  11. Ethical considerations in presymptomatic testing for variant CJD

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, R.; Delatycki, M; S. Collins(NUI, Galway); Boyd, A; Masters, C.; Savulescu, J

    2005-01-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment. vCJD arose from the zoonotic spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. There is now compelling evidence for human to human transmission through blood transfusions from presymptomatic carriers and experts are warning that the real epidemic may be yet to come. Imperatives exist for the development of reliable, non-invasive presymptomatic diagnosti...

  12. Ethical considerations in presymptomatic testing for variant CJD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R E; Delatycki, M B; Collins, S J; Boyd, A; Masters, C L; Savulescu, J

    2005-11-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment. vCJD arose from the zoonotic spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. There is now compelling evidence for human to human transmission through blood transfusions from presymptomatic carriers and experts are warning that the real epidemic may be yet to come. Imperatives exist for the development of reliable, non-invasive presymptomatic diagnostic tests. Research into such tests is well advanced. In this article the ethical implications of the availability of these tests are elaborated and comparisons drawn with predictive genetic testing for Huntington's disease and screening for HIV. Paramount to considerations is the issue of whom to test, weighing up respect for personal autonomy against obligations to benefit and protect society. A paradigm is proposed similar to that used for HIV screening but with unique features: compulsory testing of all blood/organ donors and individuals undergoing surgery or invasive procedures who have a significant risk of disease transmission.

  13. Comparative peptidome analyses of the profiles of the peptides ranging from 1-10 KD in CSF samples pooled from probable sporadic CJD and non-CJD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao; Xiao, Di; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Chan; Shi, Qi; Tian, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Zhou, Chun-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The shotgun strategy applying tandem mass spectrometry has been widely used to identify the proteins that are differentially distributed among diseases for its high reliability and efficiency. To find out the potential difference of protein profiles in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) between Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and non-CJD patients, especially in the fraction ranging from 1-10 KD, the CSF samples of 40 probable sporadic CJD (sCJD) patients, 32 non-CJD cases with dementia and 17 non-CJD cases without dementia were separately pooled and enriched by the magnetic beads based weak cation exchange chromatography (MB-WCX). After trypsin digestion, each enriched CSF was separated and identified by RP-HPLC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS. In total, 42, 53 and 47 signals of proteins were identified in the pooled CSF fraction less than 10 KD of probable sCJD, non-CJD with dementia and non-CJD without dementia, respectively. Compared with that of probable sCJD, the similarity of CSF protein profiles of non-CJD with dementia (76.2%) were higher than that of non-CJD without dementia (57.1%). Nine CSF proteins were found to be specially observed in probable sCJD group. Those data may help to select the potential biomarkers for diagnosis of CJD. Additionally, further studies of the small segments of cellular proteins in CSF of CJD patients may also provide scientific clues for understanding the neuropathogenesis of TSEs.

  14. An unusual case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Qaiser; Alam, Faouzi; Krishna, Sowmya; Jaganathan, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    A 49-year-old healthy white British female, not previously known to psychiatric services, presented with an acute onset of florid psychotic symptoms. Her symptoms included visual, auditory and tactile hallucinations as well as persecutory delusions. She was started on antipsychotic medication; however, her psychotic symptoms did not improve significantly in the first 3 months. Her blood tests were normal. Lumbar puncture was performed which was positive for protein 14-3-3. A computed tomography scan of the brain showed generalised atrophic changes. The history of early visual hallucinations, rapid cognitive decline and positive 14-3-3 result was in keeping with the Heidenhain variant of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Despite a short life expectancy as reported in literature, our patient, who was diagnosed with sCJD more than two-and-a-half years ago, is still alive. We therefore believe this is an important finding to report.

  15. Numerical modeling of Jinlong CJD burner copper flash smelting furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fluid flow, heat transfer and combustion in Jinlong CJD concentrate burner flash smelting furnace have been investigated by numerical modeling and flow visualization. The modeling is based on the Eulerian approach for the gas flow equations and the Lagrangian approach for the particles. Interaction between the gas phase and particle phase, such as frictional forces, heat and mass transfer, are included by the addition of sources and sinks. The modeling results including the fluid flow field, temperature field, concentration field of gas phase and the trajectories of particles have been obtained. The predicted results are in good agreement with the data obtained from a series of experiments and tests in the Jinlong Copper Smelter and the temperature error is less than 20 K.

  16. High CJD infectivity remains after prion protein is destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Kohtaro; Emmerling, Kaitlin; Manuelidis, Laura

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis that host prion protein (PrP) converts into an infectious prion form rests on the observation that infectivity progressively decreases in direct proportion to the decrease of PrP with proteinase K (PK) treatment. PrP that resists limited PK digestion (PrP-res, PrP(sc)) has been assumed to be the infectious form, with speculative types of misfolding encoding the many unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent strains. Recently, a PK sensitive form of PrP has been proposed as the prion. Thus we re-evaluated total PrP (sensitive and resistant) and used a cell-based assay for titration of infectious particles. A keratinase (NAP) known to effectively digest PrP was compared to PK. Total PrP in FU-CJD infected brain was reduced to ≤0.3% in a 2 h PK digest, yet there was no reduction in titer. Remaining non-PrP proteins were easily visualized with colloidal gold in this highly infectious homogenate. In contrast to PK, NAP digestion left 0.8% residual PrP after 2 h, yet decreased titer by >2.5 log; few residual protein bands remained. FU-CJD infected cells with 10× the infectivity of brain by both animal and cell culture assays were also evaluated. NAP again significantly reduced cell infectivity (>3.5 log). Extreme PK digestions were needed to reduce cell PrP to report on maximal PrP destruction and titer. It is likely that one or more residual non-PrP proteins may protect agent nucleic acids in infectious particles.

  17. Application of quantitative DTI metrics in sporadic CJD

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    E. Caverzasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion Weighted Imaging is extremely important for the diagnosis of probable sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease, the most common human prion disease. Although visual assessment of DWI MRI is critical diagnostically, a more objective, quantifiable approach might more precisely identify the precise pattern of brain involvement. Furthermore, a quantitative, systematic tracking of MRI changes occurring over time might provide insights regarding the underlying histopathological mechanisms of human prion disease and provide information useful for clinical trials. The purposes of this study were: 1 to describe quantitatively the average cross-sectional pattern of reduced mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, atrophy and T1 relaxation in the gray matter (GM in sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease, 2 to study changes in mean diffusivity and atrophy over time and 3 to explore their relationship with clinical scales. Twenty-six sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease and nine control subjects had MRIs on the same scanner; seven sCJD subjects had a second scan after approximately two months. Cortical and subcortical gray matter regions were parcellated with Freesurfer. Average cortical thickness (or subcortical volume, T1-relaxiation and mean diffusivity from co-registered diffusion maps were calculated in each region for each subject. Quantitatively on cross-sectional analysis, certain brain regions were preferentially affected by reduced mean diffusivity (parietal, temporal lobes, posterior cingulate, thalamus and deep nuclei, but with relative sparing of the frontal and occipital lobes. Serial imaging, surprisingly showed that mean diffusivity did not have a linear or unidirectional reduction over time, but tended to decrease initially and then reverse and increase towards normalization. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between worsening of patient clinical function (based on modified Barthel score and increasing mean diffusivity.

  18. Application of quantitative DTI metrics in sporadic CJD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, E; Henry, R G; Vitali, P; Lobach, I V; Kornak, J; Bastianello, S; Dearmond, S J; Miller, B L; Rosen, H J; Mandelli, M L; Geschwind, M D

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion Weighted Imaging is extremely important for the diagnosis of probable sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, the most common human prion disease. Although visual assessment of DWI MRI is critical diagnostically, a more objective, quantifiable approach might more precisely identify the precise pattern of brain involvement. Furthermore, a quantitative, systematic tracking of MRI changes occurring over time might provide insights regarding the underlying histopathological mechanisms of human prion disease and provide information useful for clinical trials. The purposes of this study were: 1) to describe quantitatively the average cross-sectional pattern of reduced mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, atrophy and T1 relaxation in the gray matter (GM) in sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, 2) to study changes in mean diffusivity and atrophy over time and 3) to explore their relationship with clinical scales. Twenty-six sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease and nine control subjects had MRIs on the same scanner; seven sCJD subjects had a second scan after approximately two months. Cortical and subcortical gray matter regions were parcellated with Freesurfer. Average cortical thickness (or subcortical volume), T1-relaxiation and mean diffusivity from co-registered diffusion maps were calculated in each region for each subject. Quantitatively on cross-sectional analysis, certain brain regions were preferentially affected by reduced mean diffusivity (parietal, temporal lobes, posterior cingulate, thalamus and deep nuclei), but with relative sparing of the frontal and occipital lobes. Serial imaging, surprisingly showed that mean diffusivity did not have a linear or unidirectional reduction over time, but tended to decrease initially and then reverse and increase towards normalization. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between worsening of patient clinical function (based on modified Barthel score) and increasing mean diffusivity.

  19. RARB and STMN2 polymorphisms are not associated with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Hae-Jung; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the prion protein gene (PRNP) can affect the susceptibility of humans to prion diseases. Recently, aside from PRNP, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of two candidate genes for susceptibility to human prion diseases have been identified by human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the British population. One SNP of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB), which is correlated with prion disease incubation time in mice, was associated with human prion diseases such as variant and iatrogenic CJD in the British population. The other SNP of the gene that encodes SCG10 (STMN2), which is related to clinical onset of sporadic CJD, was also associated with variant CJD and kuru. In order to investigate whether two polymorphisms located in upstream of RARB and STMN2 are associated with sporadic CJD in the Korean population, we compared genotype and allele frequencies of these polymorphisms in 217 sporadic CJD patients and 216 healthy Koreans. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies in upstream of the RARB and STMN2 polymorphisms were not significantly different between healthy controls and Korean sporadic CJD patients. This finding indicates that the two SNPs are not correlated with genetic susceptibility to sporadic CJD in the Korean population. This is the first genetic association study of RARB and STMN2 with sporadic CJD in an Asian population.

  20. Novel mutation of the PRNP gene of a clinical CJD case

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    Collinge John

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs, a group of neurodegenerative diseases, are thought to be caused by an abnormal isoform of a naturally occurring protein known as cellular prion protein, PrPC. The abnormal form of prion protein, PrPSc accumulates in the brain of affected individuals. Both isoforms are encoded by the same prion protein gene (PRNP, and the structural changes occur post-translationally. Certain mutations in the PRNP gene result in genetic TSEs or increased susceptibility to TSEs. Case presentation A 70 year old woman was admitted to the hospital with severe confusion and inability to walk. Relatives recognized memory loss, gait and behavioral disturbances over a six month period prior to hospitalization. Neurological examination revealed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD related symptoms such as incontinence, Babinski sign and myoclonus. EEG showed periodic sharp waves typical of sporadic CJD and cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF was positive for the presence of the 14-3-3-protein. As the disease progressed the patient developed akinetic mutism and died in the tenth month after onset of the disease symptoms. Unfortunately, no autopsy material was available. PRNP sequencing showed the occurrence of a point mutation on one allele at codon 193, which is altered from ACC, coding for a threonine, to ATC, encoding an isoleucine (T193I. Conclusion Here we report a novel mutation of the PRNP gene found in an elderly female patient resulting in heterozygosity for isoleucine and threonine at codon 193, in which normally homozygosity for threonine is expected (T193. The patient presented typical clinical symptoms of CJD. EEG findings and the presence of the 14-3-3 protein in the CSF, contributed to CJD diagnosis, allowing the classification of this case as a probable CJD according to the World Health Organization (WHO accepted criteria.

  1. Factors that influence the age distribution of BSE cases: potentials for age targeting in surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de A.; Schreuder, B.; Bouma, A.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, due to consumers fears concerning BSE and vCJD, the need arose for methods to detect BSE, to estimate the present prevalence of BSE among cattle and to predict future BSE prevalence. As a part of that set of urgent questions, it has become important to indicate groups in which BSE risk is

  2. R3-R4 deletion in the PRNP gene is associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervenakova, L.; Brown, P.; Nagle, J. [and others

    1994-09-01

    There are conflicting reports on the association of deletions in the PRNP gene on chromosome 20 with CJD, a rapidly progressive fatal spongiform encephalopathy. We accumulated data suggesting that a deletion of R3-R4 type (parts of the third and fourth repeats are deleted from the area of four repeating 24 bp sequences in the 5{prime} region of the gene) is causing CJD. Screening of 129 unaffected control individuals demonstrated presence of a deletion of R2 type in four (1.55% of the studied chromosomes), but none of them had the R3-R4 type. Of 181 screened patients with spongiform encephalopathies, two had a deletion of R3-R4 type with no other mutations in the coding sequence. Both patients had a classical rapidly progressive dementing disease and diffuse spongiform degeneration, and both cases were apparently sporadic. The same R3-R4 type of deletion was detected in three additional neuropathologically confirmed spongiform encephalopathy patients, of which two had other known pathogenic mutations in the PRNP gene: at codon 178 on the methionine allele exhibiting the phenotype of fatal familial insomnia, and codon 200 causing CJD with severe dementia; the third was a patient with iatrogenic CJD who developed the disease after treatment with growth hormone extracted from cadaveric human pituitary glands. In all cases the deletion coincided with a variant sequence at position 129 coding for methionine.

  3. Mad Cows and CJD A Physicist's View of Prion Brain Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston

    1997-01-01

    The research of Carleton Gajdusek on a stone-age tribe in Papua New Guinea, who suffered from a mysterious disease, kuru, spread by cannibalism, is described and short extracts from his films will be shown. Some deaths from kuru are still occuring after 45 years. This disease is believed to be caused by an entirely new mechanism, not a virus or bacteria, but by a small molecule known as a prion that occurs naturally in many living forms. The Prion Only hypothesis of Stan Prusiner is discussed critically. It has been calculated that 900,000 cows in Britain had the Mad Cow disease, BSE, but most were slaughtered before symptoms were recognised. This epidemic started with 10 cases in the first year, and finally 160,000 were officially classified as having BSE; it is now slowly dying out. The human epidemic, caused by a new version of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, nvCJD, affects mainly young people, has just begun with 10 cases in the first year. The average incubation time may be about 14 years then death follows i...

  4. Bioassay studies support the potential for iatrogenic transmission of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease through dental procedures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Kirby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is required to quantify the potential risks of transmission of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob (vCJD through dental procedures. Studies, using animal models relevant to vCJD, were performed to address two questions. Firstly, whether oral tissues could become infectious following dietary exposure to BSE? Secondly, would a vCJD-contaminated dental instrument be able to transmit disease to another patient? METHODS: BSE-301V was used as a clinically relevant model for vCJD. VM-mice were challenged by injection of infected brain homogenate into the small intestine (Q1 or by five minute contact between a deliberately-contaminated dental file and the gingival margin (Q2. Ten tissues were collected from groups of challenged mice at three or four weekly intervals, respectively. Each tissue was pooled, homogenised and bioassayed in indicator mice. FINDINGS: Challenge via the small intestine gave a transmission rate of 100% (mean incubation 157±17 days. Infectivity was found in both dental pulp and the gingival margin within 3 weeks of challenge and was observed in all tissues tested within the oral cavity before the appearance of clinical symptoms. Following exposure to deliberately contaminated dental files, 97% of mice developed clinical disease (mean incubation 234±33 days. INTERPRETATION: Infectivity was higher than expected, in a wider range of oral tissues, than was allowed for in previous risk assessments. Disease was transmitted following transient exposure of the gingiva to a contaminated dental file. These observations provide evidence that dental procedures could be a route of cross-infection for vCJD and support the enforcement of single-use for certain dental instruments.

  5. Phase I/II safety study of transfusion of prion-filtered red cell concentrates in transfusion-dependent patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, M R

    2010-08-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) is a fatal transfusion transmissible prion infection. No test for vCJD in the donor population is currently available. Therefore, prion removal by filtration of red cell concentrate (RCC) is an attractive option for prevention.

  6. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A. Croes (Esther); C.M. van Duijn (Cock)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has had major impact in Europe during the last decade. In this article, we review the aetiology of vCJD and its relation with bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Further, treatment of the disease, the strategies focusing on prevention of t

  7. [Prions: where do we stand 20 years after the appearance of bovine spongiform encephalopathy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozet, Carole; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2007-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) identified twenty years ago in the British cattle herds. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a TSE that occurs in humans. In 1996, scientists found a possible link between BSE and a new variant of CJD (vCJD). The fact that the non conventional infectious agent of TSE, named prions, could cross the species barrier from cattle to human through meat consumption, raised a tremendous concern for public safety in Europe. This led to the development in the following two decades of substantial and expensive measures to contain BSE and prevent its transmission to humans. In parallel, scientific programs have been funded to progress through the comprehension of the physiopathology of these fatal disorders. In Europe, the BSE epidemics is now ending and the number of cases is decreasing thanks to the strict control of animal foodstuff that was the main source of prion contamination. Only a small number of vCJD have been detected, however, additional concerns have been raised recently for public safety as secondary transmission of CJD through medical procedure and blood transfusion is possible. In addition, the possibility that the BSE was transmitted to other animals including small ruminants is also worrisome. Research efforts are now focussing on decontamination and ante mortem diagnosis of TSE to prevent animal and human transmission. However, needs for fundamental research are still important as many questions remain to be addressed to understand the mechanism of prion transmission, as well as its pathogenesis.

  8. Questioning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle

    1999-01-01

    Questions are so much a part of the classroom routine and they should stimulate learning and thinking. Introduces the Questioning and Understanding to Improve Learning and Thinking (QUILT) method which incorporates Bloom's Taxonomy and wait time. (ASK)

  9. Curiosity Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  10. The first report of RPSA polymorphisms, also called 37/67 kDa LRP/LR gene, in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Byung-Hoon

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although polymorphisms of PRNP, the gene encoding prion protein, are known as a determinant affecting prion disease susceptibility, other genes also influence prion incubation time. This finding offers the opportunity to identify other genetic or environmental factor (s modulating susceptibility to prion disease. Ribosomal protein SA (RPSA, also called 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor (LRP/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR, acts as a receptor for laminin, viruses and prion proteins. The binding/internalization of prion protein is dependent for LRP/LR. Methods To identify other susceptibility genes involved in prion disease, we performed genetic analysis of RPSA. For this case-control study, we included 180 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD patients and 189 healthy Koreans. We investigated genotype and allele frequencies of polymorphism on RPSA by direct sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. Results We observed four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, including -8T>C (rs1803893 in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR of exon 2, 134-32C>T (rs3772138 in the intron, 519G>A (rs2269350 in the intron and 793+58C>T (rs2723 in the intron on the RPSA. The 519G>A (at codon 173 is located in the direct PrP binding site. The genotypes and allele frequencies of the RPSA polymorphisms showed no significant differences between the controls and sporadic CJD patients. Conclusion These results suggest that these RPSA polymorphisms have no direct influence on the susceptibility to sporadic CJD. This was the first genetic association study of the polymorphisms of RPSA gene with sporadic CJD.

  11. Atypical sporadic CJD-MM phenotype with white matter kuru plaques associated with intranuclear inclusion body and argyrophilic grain disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Anna S; Trummert, Anita; Unterberger, Ursula; Ströbel, Thomas; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2015-08-01

    We describe an atypical neuropathological phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a 76-year-old man. The clinical symptoms were characterized by progressive dementia, gait ataxia, rigidity and urinary incontinence. The disease duration was 6 weeks. MRI did not show prominent atrophy or hyperintensities in cortical areas, striatum or thalamus. Biomarker examination of the cerebrospinal fluid deviated from that seen in pure Alzheimer's disease. Triphasic waves in the EEG were detected only later in the disease course, while 14-3-3 assay was positive. PRNP genotyping revealed methionine homozygosity (MM) at codon 129. Neuropathology showed classical CJD changes corresponding to the MM type 1 cases. However, a striking feature was the presence of abundant kuru-type plaques in the white matter. This rare morphology was associated with neuropathological signs of intranuclear inclusion body disease and advanced stage of argyrophilic grain disease. These alterations did not show correlation with each other, thus seemed to develop independently. This case further highlights the complexity of neuropathological alterations in the ageing brain.

  12. Thousand Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie; Pritchard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions...... (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non...

  13. The human prion diseases. A review with special emphasis on new variant CJD and comments on surveillance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, C

    2012-02-03

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases represent a new group of diseases with unique clinical and neuropathological features, the transmission of which is both genetic and infectious. The responsible agent is unconventional and appears to be largely composed of a glycoprotein, the prion protein PrP. This is normally present on different cells. In prion diseases, it becomes converted to the pathogenic form PrPres which is resistant to proteinase and accumulates within the brain and this process is accompanied by the development of spongiform change, gliosis and neuronal loss. The human prion diseases include Kuru a progressive cerebellar degeneration with late dementia affecting Fore tribes in New-Guinea, now almost extinct, regarded as being related to cannibalism. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the more frequent human prion disease. Its incidence is approximately one case per million per year. Four variants are now recognized: sporadic, familial, iatrogenic and the new variant. The latter represents a distinct clinico-pathological entity. It is now widely accepted that it is due to the same agent responsible for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in cattle. Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease is a very rare inherited disorder due to a number of different mutations in the PRP gene, characterized by abundant deposits of plaque PrPres in the cerebral grey matter. Fatal familial insomnia is another inherited disorder due to a mutation at codon 178 of the PRP gene associated with methionine on codon 129 of the mutant allele. The main neuropathological change is neuronal loss in the thalamus with little or no spongiosis and usually no PrPres deposition. Following the emergence of new variant CJD in 1996, surveillance of all forms of prion diseases has been now been actively introduced in many European nations in order to determine the true incidence and geographic distribution of these rare disorders in humans.

  14. Critical Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.

    1998-01-01

    Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)

  15. Evidence for zoonotic potential of ovine scrapie prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassard, Hervé; Torres, Juan-Maria; Lacroux, Caroline; Douet, Jean-Yves; Benestad, Sylvie L; Lantier, Frédéric; Lugan, Séverine; Lantier, Isabelle; Costes, Pierrette; Aron, Naima; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Espinosa, Juan-Carlos; Beringue, Vincent; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2014-12-16

    Although Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is the cause of variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, the zoonotic potential of scrapie prions remains unknown. Mice genetically engineered to overexpress the human prion protein (tgHu) have emerged as highly relevant models for gauging the capacity of prions to transmit to humans. These models can propagate human prions without any apparent transmission barrier and have been used used to confirm the zoonotic ability of BSE. Here we show that a panel of sheep scrapie prions transmit to several tgHu mice models with an efficiency comparable to that of cattle BSE. The serial transmission of different scrapie isolates in these mice led to the propagation of prions that are phenotypically identical to those causing sporadic CJD (sCJD) in humans. These results demonstrate that scrapie prions have a zoonotic potential and raise new questions about the possible link between animal and human prions.

  16. MRI of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Imaging features and recommended MRI protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collie, D.A.; Sellar, R.J.; Zeidler, M.; Colchester, A.C.F.; Knight, R.; Will, R.G

    2001-09-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is a rare, progressive and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by specific histopathological features. Of the four subtypes of CJD described, the commonest is sporadic CJD (sCJD). More recently, a new clinically distinct form of the disease affecting younger patients, known as variant CJD (vCJD), has been identified, and this has been causally linked to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent in cattle. Characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been identified in several forms of CJD; sCJD may be associated with high signal changes in the putamen and caudate head and vCJD is usually associated with hyperintensity of the pulvinar (posterior nuclei) of the thalamus. These appearances and other imaging features are described in this article. Using appropriate clinical and radiological criteria and tailored imaging protocols, MRI plays an important part in the in vivodiagnosis of this disease. Collie, D.A. et al. (2001)

  17. My Questions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    I have many questions.I think hard and cannot find the answers.I wonder what the world is in reality.Is there any answer to the mystery of the world?I ask what it is like to be outside the earth.Are there any people on other planets1?How many planets are there in the universe?I wonder a lot about this and that.

  18. Analyses of the similarity and difference of global gene expression profiles in cortex regions of three neurodegenerative diseases: sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chan; Liu, Di; Xiang, Wei; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Sun, Qing-Lan; Gao, Chen; Xu, Yin; Wang, Hui; Fan, Xue-Yu; Meng, Ge; Li, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-10-01

    Neurodegenerative disease is a general designation for the disorders that are progressive loss of structure or function and final death of neurons, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, prion diseases, etc. In this study, we comparatively analyzed 21 individual microarray data sets of the cortex tissues from 11 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), 3 fatal familial insomnia (FFI), 3 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 4 normal controls. After normalization, a collection of 730 differently expressed sets (DESets) were obtained by comparison of the data of three diseases with their original controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a background-related distribution within the groups of FFI, AD, and normal control, but two apparently different subgroups within the group of sCJD were observed. Review of the clinical materials of 11 sCJD patients identified the difference in brain PrP(Sc) deposits between two subgroups. Hierarchical cluster analysis illustrated the relatively independent clusters of normal controls, FFIs, six sCJD cases (subgroup 1) with more PrP(Sc) deposits, respectively, while an overlapped cluster of five cases of sCJD2 (subgroup 2) with less PrP(Sc) deposits and AD patients. Despite of the presence of special gene expressions, many common features were found among those neurodegenerative diseases. The most commonly changed biological processes (BPs) were signal transduction, synaptic transmission, and neuropeptide signaling pathway. The most commonly changed pathways were MAPK signaling pathway, Parkinson's disease, and oxidative phosphorylation. Our data here provide the similarity and difference in global gene expressions among the patients with sCJD, FFI, and AD, which may help to understand the common mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Long term survival in a patient with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease treated with intraventricular pentosan polysulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A; Baker, I; Stacey, R; Wimalaratna, S

    2007-07-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a neurodegenerative disease that principally affects young people and has a median duration of illness of 13 (range 6-39) months. vCJD is incurable and there are currently no treatments that conclusively slow the rate of disease progression. However, recent animal studies and isolated case reports have suggested that treatment with intraventricular pentosan polysulphate (PPS) may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with vCJD. We report a case of a 22-year-old male with vCJD treated 19 months after the onset of clinical symptoms with continuous intraventricular PPS (32 microg/kg/day) over a period of 31 months. Treatment with PPS appeared to be safe and well tolerated and was associated with prolonged survival (51 months) when compared to natural history studies. However, PPS treatment did not appear to arrest the progression of the disease.

  20. Relationship with BSE (Mad Cow Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study involving inoculation of a panel of inbred mice with the agents causing BSE and vCJD substantially ... 498-501). In this study, groups of inbred mice and a group of cross-bred mice inoculated ...

  1. Characterization of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions in prion protein-humanized mice carrying distinct codon 129 genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Atsuko; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ironside, James W; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2013-07-26

    To date, all clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) patients are homozygous for methionine at polymorphic codon 129 (129M/M) of the prion protein (PrP) gene. However, the appearance of asymptomatic secondary vCJD infection in individuals with a PRNP codon 129 genotype other than M/M and transmission studies using animal models have raised the concern that all humans might be susceptible to vCJD prions, especially via secondary infection. To reevaluate this possibility and to analyze in detail the transmission properties of vCJD prions to transgenic animals carrying distinct codon 129 genotype, we performed intracerebral inoculation of vCJD prions to humanized knock-in mice carrying all possible codon 129 genotypes (129M/M, 129M/V, or 129V/V). All humanized knock-in mouse lines were susceptible to vCJD infection, although the attack rate gradually decreased from 129M/M to 129M/V and to 129V/V. The amount of PrP deposition including florid/amyloid plaques in the brain also gradually decreased from 129M/M to 129M/V and to 129V/V. The biochemical properties of protease-resistant abnormal PrP in the brain and transmissibility of these humanized mouse-passaged vCJD prions upon subpassage into knock-in mice expressing bovine PrP were not affected by the codon 129 genotype. These results indicate that individuals with the 129V/V genotype may be more susceptible to secondary vCJD infection than expected and may lack the neuropathological characteristics observed in vCJD patients with the 129M/M genotype. Besides the molecular typing of protease-resistant PrP in the brain, transmission studies using knock-in mice carrying bovine PrP may aid the differential diagnosis of secondary vCJD infection, especially in individuals with the 129V/V genotype.

  2. Detection of prions in blood from patients with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Marambio, Luis; Pritzkow, Sandra; Moda, Fabio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Ironside, James W; Schulz, Paul E; Soto, Claudio

    2016-12-21

    Human prion diseases are infectious and invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases. They include sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the most common form, and variant CJD (vCJD), which is caused by interspecies transmission of prions from cattle infected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Development of a biochemical assay for the sensitive, specific, early, and noninvasive detection of prions (PrP(Sc)) in the blood of patients affected by prion disease is a top medical priority to increase the safety of the blood supply. vCJD has already been transmitted from human to human by blood transfusion, and the number of asymptomatic carriers of vCJD in the U.K. alone is estimated to be 1 in 2000 people. We used the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique to analyze blood samples from 14 cases of vCJD and 153 controls, including patients affected by sCJD and other neurodegenerative or neurological disorders as well as healthy subjects. Our results showed that PrP(Sc) could be detected with 100% sensitivity and specificity in blood samples from vCJD patients. Detection was possible in any of the blood fractions analyzed and could be done with as little as a few microliters of sample volume. The PrP(Sc) concentration in blood was estimated to be ~0.5 pg/ml. Our findings suggest that PMCA may be useful for premortem noninvasive diagnosis of vCJD and to identify prion contamination of the blood supply. Further studies are needed to fully validate the technology.

  3. Revisiting Routine Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  4. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  5. The question of questions in Malaysian English

    OpenAIRE

    Asniah Alias; Radina Mohamad Deli

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the forms that interrogatives and tag questions can take when used by young Malaysian speakers of English language in oral communication. It offers a description of the features for both question forms as produced by the respondents compared to those of Singapore English (SE) and Standard British English (SBE). The influence of domains and the issue of mother tongue interference in relation to the subjects’ usage of such features will also be investigated. Data were obtain...

  6. Transmission of BSE by blood transfusion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, F; Foster, J D; Chong, A; Hunter, N; Bostock, C J

    2000-09-16

    We have shown that it is possible to transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to a sheep by transfusion with whole blood taken from another sheep during the symptom-free phase of an experimental BSE infection. BSE and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) In human beings are caused by the same infectious agent, and the sheep-BSE experimental model has a similar pathogenesis to that of human vCJD. Although UK blood transfusions are leucodepleted--a possible protective measure against any risk from blood transmission--this report suggests that blood donated by symptom-free vCJD-infected human beings may represent a risk of spread of vCJD infection among the human population of the UK.

  7. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  8. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  9. Classroom Questioning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小林

    2013-01-01

      Interaction has been playing a more and more important role in language research since the early 1970s,when the communicative teaching method was widely applied in language teaching. Questioning is the most common classroom interaction. This thesis analyzed the influence on students' immediate oral production by applying different teacher questioning strategies including teacher's question types,teacher question modification and teacher feedback.

  10. Improving Student Question Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  11. Interfacing with questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soon, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an artistic project entitled If I wrote you a love letter would you write back (and thousands of other questions): a piece of software that utilizes Twitter web API to query questions, drawing unpredictable questions in real-time from the distributed database of Twitter...

  12. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  13. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Ireland: epidemiological aspects 1980-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Gail

    2012-02-03

    Surveillance for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) has been carried out in the Republic of Ireland since 1980. Initial surveillance was passive and based on consented autopsy confirmation of CJD in patients in whom there was a high index of clinical suspicion. Since 1999, an active surveillance programme involving formal notification of all suspect CJD cases has been in place. The annual mortality rate has increased from 0.34 cases\\/million in 1980 to 1.27 cases\\/million in 2001. In all, 29 cases have been pathologically confirmed: 1 had variant CJD (vCJD), 1 had iatrogenic human growth hormone-induced CJD and 1 had fatal insomnia. Sporadic CJD (sCJD) accounted for the remainder. This paper details the change in incidence over 22 years as the surveillance programme in Ireland got under way; the increased incidence is attributed to better case ascertainment, as has occurred in other countries where active surveillance programmes have been established.

  14. Questions and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, Thomas W; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-01-01

    The design and functioning of an information system improve to the extent that the system can handle the questions people ask. Surprisingly, however, researchers in the cognitive, computer, and information sciences have not thoroughly examined the multitude of relationships between information systems and questions -- both question asking and answering. The purpose of this book is to explicitly examine these relationships. Chapter contributors believe that questions play a central role in the analysis, design, and use of different kinds of natural or artificial information systems such as huma

  15. Constant Transmission Properties of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in 5 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diack, Abigail B.; Ritchie, Diane; Bishop, Matthew; Pinion, Victoria; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Haik, Stephane; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Van Duijn, Cornelia; Belay, Ermias D.; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Piccardo, Pedro; Will, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has been reported in 12 countries. We hypothesized that a common strain of agent is responsible for all vCJD cases, regardless of geographic origin. To test this hypothesis, we inoculated strain-typing panels of wild-type mice with brain material from human vCJD case-patients from France, the Netherlands, Italy, and the United States. Mice were assessed for clinical disease, neuropathologic changes, and glycoform profile; results were compared with those for 2 reference vCJD cases from the United Kingdom. Transmission to mice occurred from each sample tested, and data were similar between non-UK and UK cases, with the exception of the ranking of mean clinical incubation times of mouse lines. These findings support the hypothesis that a single strain of infectious agent is responsible for all vCJD infections. However, differences in incubation times require further subpassage in mice to establish any true differences in strain properties between cases. PMID:23017202

  16. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease-Human Manifestation of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy%新型克-雅氏病是人的牛海绵状脑病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方元

    2001-01-01

    本文在概述人朊病毒的基础上,重点阐述新型克-雅氏病与早先已知的各种人朊病毒病的区别和它是由牛海绵状脑病朊病毒引起的证据,并对牛海绵状脑病并非源于痒病而是原于牛散发性朊病毒病、影响新型克-雅氏病流行规模的主要因素和该病的主要预防措施等问题进行了讨论。%Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a new disease firstly described in April, 1996 in the United Kingdom. On the basis of a brief account of human prion diseases, this paper elucidates the differences between vCJD and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and presents the evidence conforming that vCJD is caused by the BSE agent. In addition, the origin of BSE (it was not derived from scrapie), some important factors determining epidemic scale of vCJD and key preventive measures of vCJD are discussed.

  17. Cathepsin D SNP associated with increased risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Juan Pascual

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD originally resulted from the consumption of foodstuffs contaminated by bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE material, with 163 confirmed cases in the UK to date. Many thousands are likely to have been exposed to dietary infection and so it is important (for surveillance, epidemic modelling, public health and understanding pathogenesis to identify genetic factors that may affect individual susceptibility to infection. This study looked at a polymorphism in the cathepsin D gene (refSNP ID: rs17571 previously examined in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods Blood samples taken from 110 vCJD patients were tested for the C-T base change, and genotype data were compared with published frequencies for a control population using multiple logistic regression. Results There was a significant excess of the cathepsin D polymorphism TT genotype in the vCJD cohort compared to controls. The TT genotype was found to have a 9.75 fold increase in risk of vCJD compared to the CT genotype and a 10.92 fold increase compared to the CC genotype. Conclusion This mutation event has been observed to alter the protease activity of the cathepsin D protein and has been linked to an increase in amyloid beta plaque formation in AD. vCJD neuropathology is characterised by the presence of amyloid plaques, formed from the prion protein, and therefore alterations in the amyloid processing activity of cathepsin D may affect the neuropathogenesis of this disease.

  18. Does Poor Dental Health Have a Role in the Emergence of Variant Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease in the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Burnie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Variant creutzfeldt jakob disease (vCJD is the hu-man neurological disease known to be caused by the same proteinaceous infectious agent (“prion” that causes Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or "Mad Cow Disease". Two un-usual and unexplained characteristics of the vCJD epidemic are its geographical distribution within the UK (about twice as frequent in Scotland and Northern England and its median age of onset of 26 years that has remained unchanged over the fifteen years of the epidemic.The hypothesis: Infection via the dental route as a consequence of poor dental health, most probably the presence of untreated decay may account for the geographical distribution of vCJD in the UK and offer an explanation for the constant median age of onset of the dis-ease by representing a fixed stage in development.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Analysis of existing data indicates that vCJD incidence by region and an index of dental health by region are positively correlated (r=0.737, p= 0.015. The hypothesis that infection via the dental route may explain the constant median age of onset and geographical distribution of vCJD could be investigated further with a case control study based on individual dental records and by further animal experiments to confirm the biological plausibility of this route.

  19. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  20. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field......; the aim, scope, the future direction of epistemology and how their work fits in these respects...

  1. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  2. What is a Question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  3. ON REICH'S OPEN QUESTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张石生

    2003-01-01

    Under more general form and more general conditions an affirmative answer to Reich's open question is given. The results presented also extend and improve some recent results of Reich, Shioji, Takahashi and Wittmann.

  4. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  5. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...... the diversity of relevant populations “without obstacles related to their social and economic background”. In the 19th century the social question was raised in a context of industrialization of societies. It dealt with suggestions about disintegration of predominant social structures and the management...

  6. Game Theory: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Game Theory is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in game theory. We hear their views on game theory, its aim, scope, use, the future direction of game theory and how their work fits in these respects....

  7. Future Research Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walpoth, B.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Immersion hypothermia in humans is described in about 500 scientific papers during a Pubmed search in medical literature with keywords ‘Immersion’, ‘Hypothermia’ and ‘Human’ as of 2014. Many questions still remain, the most important of which are described in this chapter.

  8. A question of emphasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs ...

  9. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belondrade, Maxime; Nicot, Simon; Béringue, Vincent; Coste, Joliette; Lehmann, Sylvain; Bougard, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA). This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution) of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  10. Rapid and Highly Sensitive Detection of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Abnormal Prion Protein on Steel Surfaces by Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification: Application to Prion Decontamination Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Belondrade

    Full Text Available The prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD in the population remains uncertain, although it has been estimated that 1 in 2000 people in the United Kingdom are positive for abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE by a recent survey of archived appendix tissues. The prominent lymphotropism of vCJD prions raises the possibility that some surgical procedures may be at risk of iatrogenic vCJD transmission in healthcare facilities. It is therefore vital that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated. A current limitation is the lack of a rapid model permissive to human prions. Here, we developed a prion detection assay based on protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA technology combined with stainless-steel wire surfaces as carriers of prions (Surf-PMCA. This assay allowed the specific detection of minute quantities (10-8 brain dilution of either human vCJD or ovine scrapie PrPTSE adsorbed onto a single steel wire, within a two week timeframe. Using Surf-PMCA we evaluated the performance of several reference and commercially available prion-specific decontamination procedures. Surprisingly, we found the efficiency of several marketed reagents to remove human vCJD PrPTSE was lower than expected. Overall, our results demonstrate that Surf-PMCA can be used as a rapid and ultrasensitive assay for the detection of human vCJD PrPTSE adsorbed onto a metallic surface, therefore facilitating the development and validation of decontamination procedures against human prions.

  11. Consumption of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) contaminated beef and the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chu-Chih; Wang, Yin-Han; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2013-11-01

    To date, the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) risk assessments that have been performed have primarily focused on predicting future vCJD cases in the United Kingdom, which underwent a bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) epidemic between 1980 and 1996. Surveillance of potential BSE cases was also used to assess vCJD risk, especially in other BSE-prevalent EU countries. However, little is known about the vCJD risk for uninfected individuals who accidentally consume BSE-contaminated meat products in or imported from a country with prevalent BSE. In this article, taking into account the biological mechanism of abnormal prion PrP(res) aggregation in the brain, the probability of exposure, and the expected amount of ingested infectivity, we establish a stochastic mean exponential growth model of lifetime exposure through dietary intake. Given the findings that BSE agents behave similarly in humans and macaques, we obtained parameter estimates from experimental macaque data. We then estimated the accumulation of abnormal prions to assess lifetime risk of developing clinical signs of vCJD. Based on the observed number of vCJD cases and the estimated number of exposed individuals during the BSE epidemic period from 1980 to 1996 in the United Kingdom, an exposure threshold hypothesis is proposed. Given the age-specific risk of infection, the hypothesis explains the observations very well from an extreme-value distribution fitting of the estimated BSE infectivity exposure. The current BSE statistics in the United Kingdom are provided as an example.

  12. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  13. Quantum theory from questions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoehn, Philipp A

    2016-01-01

    We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's `catalogue of knowledge' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules we derive the state spaces for N qubits and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over N qubit Hilbert spaces; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group $\\rm{PSU}(2^N)$ according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) the binary questions by means of which O interrogates the systems corresponds to projective measurements on Pauli operators with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. Besides offering a novel conceptual perspective on qubit quantum theory, the reconstruction also unravels new structural insights. Namely, we show that, in a quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy informational complementarity inequalities...

  14. Eight Questions about Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  15. Questioning Many Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  16. The Art of Asking Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Rosetta A.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

  17. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  18. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  19. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasteen, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  20. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  1. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  2. Familial CJD associated PrP mutants within transmembrane region induced Ctm-PrP retention in ER and triggered apoptosis by ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic prion diseases are linked to point and inserted mutations in the prion protein (PrP gene that are presumed to favor conversion of the cellular isoform of PrP (PrP(C to the pathogenic one (PrP(Sc. The pathogenic mechanisms and the subcellular sites of the conversion are not completely understood. Here we introduce several PRNP gene mutations (such as, PrP-KDEL, PrP-3AV, PrP-A117V, PrP-G114V, PrP-P102L and PrP-E200K into the cultured cells in order to explore the pathogenic mechanism of familial prion disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the roles of aberrant retention of PrP in endoplasmic reticulum (ER, the recombinant plasmids expressing full-length human PrP tailed with an ER signal peptide at the COOH-terminal (PrP-KDEL and PrP with three amino acids exchange in transmembrane region (PrP-3AV were constructed. In the preparations of transient transfections, 18-kD COOH-terminal proteolytic resistant fragments (Ctm-PrP were detected in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV. Analyses of the cell viabilities in the presences of tunicamycin and brefeldin A revealed that expressions of PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV sensitized the transfected cells to ER stress stimuli. Western blots and RT-PCR identified the clear alternations of ER stress associated events in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV that induced ER mediated apoptosis by CHOP and caspase-12 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, several familial CJD related PrP mutants were transiently introduced into the cultured cells. Only the mutants within the transmembrane region (G114V and A117V induced the formation of Ctm-PrP and caused the ER stress, while the mutants outside the transmembrane region (P102L and E200K failed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that the retention of PrP in ER through formation of Ctm-PrP results in ER stress and cell apoptosis. The cytopathic activities caused by different familial CJD associated PrP mutants may vary, among them

  3. Radiological assessment of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschampa, Henriette J.; Urbach, Horst [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Zerr, Inga [University of Goettingen, National Reference Center for TSE Surveillance at the Department of Neurology, Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare fatal neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by rapidly progressive dementia and neurological signs. There is a need for early and accurate clinical diagnosis in order to exclude any treatable disorder. Additionally, it is of public interest to differentiate the sporadic form of the disease from the variant CJD type (vCJD), which is probably transmitted from cattle infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). High signal in the striatum on T2-weighted, FLAIR and diffusion weighted (DW) MRI as well as cortical high signal in FLAIR and DW MRI are the classical findings in sCJD. The ''pulvinar sign'', defined as high signal in the pulvinar thalami that is brighter than potential additional high signal in the basal ganglia, is considered pathognomonic for vCJD. (orig.)

  4. From Questions to Queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  5. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses the language and satirical cartoons that describe African Danes in the Danish media. Starting with a brief historical overview of the social fonction of satirical cartoons in Denmark since the Reformation, it is discussed whether satire and satirical cartoons actually have...... Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...... that the individual black child has to take up the fight by herself when meeting racist images og jokes in school material and elsewhere....

  6. The social question revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    of social and political unrest, poverty and lack of morality. In the name of European Union social integration is thus organized differently as compared to former times. There are, nevertheless similarities. In both cases educational systems become key arenas for integrating social groups......The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...... and raising the level of knowledge and competences in society. Higher education, in this case teacher education, is supposed to develop potentials of individuals and maximize “their contribution to a sustainable and democratic knowledge-based society.” Consequently; student cohorts should reflect...

  7. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigden, M L

    1995-11-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area.

  8. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    CERN Document Server

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  9. Questioning Strategies of English Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2014-01-01

    AMY.B.M.TSUI thinks that most of the interactive learning starts with the teachers ’questioning. Richard and Lock-art (1994) think that the proper questioning can help the students to acquire the second language. Jin Chuanbao ( 1997) even thinks that the questioning process of the teachers should become the core of the class. Though almost all of the teachers are ques-tioning, they know little about the questioning strategies. In this case, it is urgent to study this subject. The present study reveals some problems of four teachers’questioning strategies in Junior Middle School. I hope some helpful ideas can be found in the thesis.

  10. Atypical BSE (BASE transmitted from asymptomatic aging cattle to a primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel E Comoy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD results from foodborne transmission of prions from slaughtered cattle with classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (cBSE. Atypical forms of BSE, which remain mostly asymptomatic in aging cattle, were recently identified at slaughterhouses throughout Europe and North America, raising a question about human susceptibility to these new prion strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Brain homogenates from cattle with classical BSE and atypical (BASE infections were inoculated intracerebrally into cynomolgus monkeys (Macacca fascicularis, a non-human primate model previously demonstrated to be susceptible to the original strain of cBSE. The resulting diseases were compared in terms of clinical signs, histology and biochemistry of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres. The single monkey infected with BASE had a shorter survival, and a different clinical evolution, histopathology, and prion protein (PrPres pattern than was observed for either classical BSE or vCJD-inoculated animals. Also, the biochemical signature of PrPres in the BASE-inoculated animal was found to have a higher proteinase K sensitivity of the octa-repeat region. We found the same biochemical signature in three of four human patients with sporadic CJD and an MM type 2 PrP genotype who lived in the same country as the infected bovine. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results point to a possibly higher degree of pathogenicity of BASE than classical BSE in primates and also raise a question about a possible link to one uncommon subset of cases of apparently sporadic CJD. Thus, despite the waning epidemic of classical BSE, the occurrence of atypical strains should temper the urge to relax measures currently in place to protect public health from accidental contamination by BSE-contaminated products.

  11. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) ... a los antibióticos Questions about Bacteria, Viruses, and Antibiotics Q: What are bacteria and viruses? A: Bacteria ...

  12. The Questions of Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, Rene V.

    2007-01-01

    There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

  13. Does Anyone Have Any Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…

  14. Disjunctive questions, intonation, and highlighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Roelofsen; S. van Gool

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how intonation affects the interpretation of disjunctive questions. The semantic effect of a question is taken to be three-fold. First, it raises an issue. In the tradition of inquisitive semantics, we model this by assuming that a question proposes several possible updates of th

  15. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  16. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  17. Arts and Techniques of Questioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管楠

    2012-01-01

      Most learners learn English from teachers in classrooms, therefore, classroom instruction is very important. However, teachers’questioning plays a very significant part in classroom teaching. It is not only an important part of classroom interaction but also an effective way of learning second language as wel. On the one hand, it is through question and answer exchange that teachers interactwithstudents.Onthe other hand, it isalsothroughinteractionwiththeirteachersand peers that ESLlearners learn the target language. Teachers’ aims of questioning, question types, teachers’modification of questions, the wait-time, the feedback and the assessment providedby teacherswil affectclassroom interaction.

  18. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

  19. Instance-Based Question Answering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    included factoid questions grouped around a set of target entities. For example, for the target entity “ Franz Kafka ”, associated questions included: “Where...from Franz Schubert. A year later he did on Dec 5th.”). Depending on the task, an answer extractor may identify very small, factoid candidates which...IWP): Paraphrase Ac- quisition and Applications, 2003. [55] A. Ittycheriah, M. Franz , and S. Roukos. Ibm’s statistical question answering system - trec

  20. And the next question is powerful questions for sticky moments

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    A very practical and easy to use book of 3,000+ powerful questions, forming part of every coach''s / manager''s toolkit; it enables you to easily find key questions in some of the most distinctive areas of coaching, such as confidence, communications & leadership.

  1. Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Assael, Marc J

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever had a question that keeps persisting and for which you cannot find a clear answer? Is the question seemingly so "simple" that the problem is glossed over in most resources, or skipped entirely? CRC Press/Taylor and Francis is pleased to introduce Commonly Asked Questions in Thermodynamics, the first in a new series of books that address the questions that frequently arise in today's major scientific and technical disciplines. Designed for a wide audience, from students and researchers to practicing professionals in related areas, the books are organized in a user friend

  2. 76 FR 38667 - Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... deferral for time spent in Saudi Arabia to reduce the risk of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) by blood and blood products and human cells, tissues and cellular and tissue-based products. FDA intends to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies Advisory...

  3. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in France and the United Kingdom: Evidence for the Same Agent Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandel, J.P.; Heath, C.A.; Head, M.W.; Levavasseur, E.; Knight, R.; Laplanche, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Ironside, J.W.; Hauw, J.J.; Mackenzie, J.; Alperovitch, A.; Will, R.G.; Haik, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the United Kingdom in 1996. Since then, the majority of cases have been observed in the United Kingdom where there was a major epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. France was the second country affected. To address th

  4. Chronic wasting disease and atypical forms of BSE and scrapie are not transmissible to mice expressing wild-type levels of human PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle TSEs can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several new TSEs in shee...

  5. Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom and subsequently in other countries. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, but the origin of BSE has not been eluci...

  6. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  7. Answering Questions About Underage Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vea esta página en español Answering Questions About Underage Drinking This article is part of a series: We ... Teens’ Easy Access to Alcohol Answering Questions About Underage Drinking Alcohol Advertising Who Can Help Reduce Underage Drinking, ...

  8. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...

  9. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  10. Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2012-01-01

    Bidrag til festskrift til Jesper Hoffmeyer i anledning af hans 70 års dag i Don Favineau, Paul Cobley & Kalevi Kull (eds.): "A More Developed Sign. Interpreting the Work of Jesper Hoffmeyer". Antologien udg. som særnummer af Tartu Semiotics Library Nr. 10 og mit bidrag forefindes på p. 217-220....

  11. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Explaining errors in children's questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F

    2007-07-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations.

  14. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  15. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Specific Genetic Disorders Frequently Asked Questions About Pharmacogenomics Enlarge What is pharmacogenomics? What might pharmacogenomics mean ... page, you will need Adobe Reader. What is pharmacogenomics? Pharmacogenomics uses information about a person's genetic makeup, ...

  17. LGBT Caregiving: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your life, such as geographic location, family dynamics and relationships, medical necessities, the agencies in question ... National Center for Lesbian Rights ( www.NCLRights.org ) websites, both listed in Resources at the end of ...

  18. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  19. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  20. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  1. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...

  2. Key Questions in Thoracic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Subotic, Dragan R.

    2016-01-01

    This 1000-page textbook encompasses much more than the title suggests. In fact, the title “Key questions in thoracic surgery and pulmonology” would be more fitting. The specific format of the book, with precise questions and evidence-based, but equally clear answers covering all relevant fields of pulmonology and thoracic surgery, makes this 40-chapter book a “must read” not only for residents, but also for senior pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons.

  3. Development of Dose-Response Models of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Infection in Nonhuman Primates for Assessing the Risk of Transfusion-Transmitted Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Luisa; Anderson, Steven A.; Asher, David M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Estimates for the risk of transmitting variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) via blood transfusion have relied largely on data from rodent experiments, but the relationship between dose (amount of infected blood) and response (vCJD infection) has never been well quantified. The goal of this study was to develop a dose-response model based on nonhuman primate data to better estimate the likelihood of transfusion-transmitted vCJD (TTvCJD) in humans. Our model used dose-response data from nonhuman primates inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) with brain tissues of patients with sporadic and familial CJD. We analyzed the data statistically by using a beta-Poisson dose-response model. We further adjusted model parameters to account for the differences in infectivity between blood and brain tissue and in transmission efficiency between intravenous (i.v.) and i.c. routes to estimate dose-dependent TTvCJD infection. The model estimates a mean infection rate of 76% among recipients who receive one unit of whole blood collected from an infected donor near the end of the incubation period. The nonhuman primate model provides estimates that are more consistent with those derived from a risk analysis of transfused nonleukoreduced red blood cells in the United Kingdom than prior estimates based on rodent models. IMPORTANCE TTvCJD was recently identified as one of three emerging infectious diseases posing the greatest immediate threat to the safety of the blood supply. Cases of TTvCJD were reported in recipients of nonleukoreduced red blood cells and coagulation factor VIII manufactured from blood of United Kingdom donors. As the quantity of abnormal prions (the causative agent of TTvCJD) varies significantly in different blood components and products, it is necessary to quantify the dose-response relationship for a wide range of doses for the vCJD agent in transfused blood and plasma derivatives. In this paper, we suggest the first mechanistic dose-response model for

  4. Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Funding Treatments & Trials Standard Treatments for Metastatic Breast Cancer Drug Reference Card Bone METS Brain METS: Some Frequently Asked Questions Lung METS Liver Mets Management of Pain & Other Side Effects Clinical Trials Q & A Phases of Clinical Trials Clinical Trials Finder ...

  5. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  6. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque; Marcelo de Castro Callado

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  7. Arts and Techniques of Questioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu

    2011-01-01

    Most learners learn English from teachers in classroom. Therefore, classroom instruction plays a very important role. Teachers' questioning constitutes a very significant aspect of classroom teaching. It is not only an important part of classroom interaction but an effective way of learning second language as well.

  8. On a question of Gross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  9. Questions as a tool to design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aurisicchio, Marco; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes an interpretation of design activity through investigating design questions. From a number of previous studies two types of question have been identified: 1) reasoning questions; and 2) strategic questions. Strategic questions are part of an experienced designers approach to ...

  10. Soft Physics and Intermittency Open Question(s) in Krakow

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1993-01-01

    This contribution contains a summary of the Krakow meeting on Soft Physics and Fluctuations. It emphasizes both the experimental and the theoretical investigations on correlations/fluctuations and intermittency in multi-particle processes and discusses of the present status of this concept. A clarification of the main open questions in this field of research is now within reach, thanks to the studies presented at the meeting. Summary Talk of the Krakow Workshop on Multiparticle Physics, May, 4-7, 1993. E-mail contact: pesch@amoco.saclay.cea.fr

  11. A Reflection on Teacher Questioning Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasih Elisabeth Roostini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This small-scale research is expected to serve as a reflective means for teachers so that they can explore their questioning types in their own classroom. It analyzed questioning types used by three teachers of general English classes. The questioning types were classified based on three dimensions—purpose, form, and function. The purpose-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into two: referential and display. The form-based questioning types, based on the classification of question types by Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999 and Biber et al. (1999, were classified into four major types: yes/no-questions, wh-questions, tag questions, and alternative questions. The function-based questioning types, based on Long and Sato’s findings (1983, were classified into three sub-types: comprehension checks, confirmation checks, and clarification requests.           The data, obtained from three recorded class meetings, were transcribed and analyzed to see what questioning types each teacher employed and to obtain the number and percentage distribution of questioning types each teacher used. The results showed that referential questions were more frequently used than display questions at higher levels. There were a substantial number of incomplete questions, a form-based questioning type that did not belong to the classification of form-based questioning types employed in this study. The predominant use of incomplete questions in a communicative classroom should be reviewed as this questioning type required accuracy, rather than promoting language practice. The third type, the function-based questioning types, did not occur frequently at all the three stages. This study suggests that teachers use incomplete questions less frequently and try to use other form-based questioning types. It also encourages teachers to reflect on their own teaching and pursue their professional development.

  12. God in Question: Questioning as a Prerequisite for Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kočí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are questions that are so important that it is a pity to spoil them with answers. No doubt, the question of God is one of them. Contrary to many presuppositions, theology is not capable of providing us with the final answers in this respect. On the contrary, theology professed as fides quaerens intellectum is an ongoing struggle with questions. Modernity interrupted this paradigm of theological questioning. Theology was withdrawn from the realm of understanding and shifted to the realm of explanation. Modernity brought the univocalization of God. Nonetheless, the attempts to tackle the question of God lead to hegemonic narratives about God. Such narratives are rightly criticized in a postmodern context for their totalizing pretensions. The problem of postmodern criticism is its one-sided emphasis on the apophatic dimension of theological discourse. I propose that theology can go a step further beyond postmodernity. In order to do so, I deal with the Czech philosopher Jan Patočka, who provides an opportunity to rethink God from the perspective of questioning in a new way. Patočka’s insistence on problematicity is the main reading key of his work. In this line of though, I interpret Patočka’s student Tomáš Halík and his thesis about the necessity to take the metaphor of an unknown God into account. I argue that theology must avoid the temptation to remove God from the question and make a well-known God of him. The time has come for theologians to turn their answers back into questions and dwell with them. Bůh jako otázka: Tázání jako předpoklad teologie Některé otázky jsou tak důležité, že je škoda kazit je odpověďmi. Není pochyb, že otázka po Bohu je jednou z nich. Navzdory mnoha předpokladům, ani teologie není schopna poskytnout v tomto ohledu konečné odpovědi. Teologie pojatá jako fides quaerens intellectum je nepřetržitý nekončící zápas s otázkami. Moderna narušila toto paradigma teologick

  13. Questions concerning the nuclear wastes; Les dechets nucleaires en questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daures, Pierre [ed.] [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-07-01

    At present, 75% of the electricity in France is of nuclear origin. Most of French people approve this mode of energy production and agree upon the continuation of the electronuclear sector exploitation. However, as any industry, the nuclear industry produces wastes which constitute a keen preoccupation of the public opinion. The nuclear program, even at its very inception, has provided the appropriate mastering of radioactive wastes by reducing their volume, by conditioning, reprocessing and storing, expressing continually its carefulness for population protection as well as for environment defence against the radiological effects. Pursuing its policy of transparency the EDF demonstrated openness and understanding towards questions raised by anyone. This brochure gives answers to the following 17 questions: -what the nuclear wastes are, which is their origin? - what is their amount? - are the nuclear waste dangerous? - how to treat the nuclear wastes? - are the radioactive waste storage sure? - is the nuclear waste transportation sure? - are these solutions sure? - why searches for long-lived radioactive wastes? - what is transmutation? - shall we bequeath to the next generations our nuclear wastes? - are there particular problems in nuclear power plant decommissioning? - what the wastes issued from decommissioning become? - are the costs of reprocessing and decommissioning taken into account in the price of the kWh? - were the nuclear wastes taken into account since the nuclear program inception? - who manages the nuclear wastes? - why France accepted the reprocessing of nuclear wastes produced in foreign countries? - is there an international policy for nuclear wastes?.

  14. SIX QUESTIONS IN TEACHING LISTENING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangHui

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses problems common in the listening classes, namely, lack of motivation, orientation and sense of achievement and the presence of pressure, fear and frustration. The author examines different factors in the teaching of listening and poses 6 questions that might help teachers to reflect on their teaching. The conclusion is that the aim of listening class is to develop rather than test listening strategies and skills; that students need to be provided with communicative tasks before and while listening; that materials should be realistic, varied and graded ; that listening should be integrated with other skills development; and finally, that learner autonomy provides the ultimate solution to listening problems.

  15. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  16. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D Pollard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  17. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  18. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  19. Evaluative Conditioning: The "How" Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher R; Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2010-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the "how" question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains.

  20. Generalized cerebral atrophy seen on MRI in a naturally exposed animal model for creutzfeldt-jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasanu Constantin A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging has been used in the diagnosis of human prion diseases such as sCJD and vCJD, but patients are scanned only when clinical signs appear, often at the late stage of disease. This study attempts to answer the questions "Could MRI detect prion diseases before clinical symptoms appear?, and if so, with what confidence?" Methods Scrapie, the prion disease of sheep, was chosen for the study because sheep can fit into a human sized MRI scanner (and there were no large animal MRI scanners at the time of this study, and because the USDA had, at the time of the study, a sizeable sample of scrapie exposed sheep, which we were able to use for this purpose. 111 genetically susceptible sheep that were naturally exposed to scrapie were used in this study. Results Our MRI findings revealed no clear, consistent hyperintense or hypointense signal changes in the brain on either clinically affected or asymptomatic positive animals on any sequence. However, in all 37 PrPSc positive sheep (28 asymptomatic and 9 symptomatic, there was a greater ventricle to cerebrum area ratio on MRI compared to 74 PrPSc negative sheep from the scrapie exposed flock and 6 control sheep from certified scrapie free flocks as defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Conclusions Our findings indicate that MRI imaging can detect diffuse cerebral atrophy in asymptomatic and symptomatic sheep infected with scrapie. Nine of these 37 positive sheep, including 2 one-year old animals, were PrPSc positive only in lymph tissues but PrPSc negative in the brain. This suggests either 1 that the cerebral atrophy/neuronal loss is not directly related to the accumulation of PrPSc within the brain or 2 that the amount of PrPSc in the brain is below the detectable limits of the utilized immunohistochemistry assay. The significance of these findings remains to be confirmed in human subjects with CJD.

  1. Questions That Engage Students in Mathematical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilaria, Daniel R.

    Teacher questions are an important part of a student-inquiry classroom. This research examines two different student-centered settings to determine the teacher questions that engaged students in mathematical thinking. It reports on questions asked in both a research setting and a high school classroom. Discursive and retracing questions are…

  2. Appearance questions can be misleading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  3. Questions and Answers about BSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Skillicorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bulk Synchronous Parallelism (BSP is a parallel programming model that abstracts from low-level program structures in favour of supersteps. A superstep consists of a set of independent local computations, followed by a global communication phase and a barrier synchronisation. Structuring programs in this way enables their costs to be accurately determined from a few simple architectural parameters, namely the permeability of the communication network to uniformly-random traffic and the time to synchronise. Although permutation routing and barrier synch ronisations are widely regarded as inherently expensive, this is not the case. As a result, the structure imposed by BSP does not reduce performance, while bringing considerable benefits for application building. This paper answers the most common questions we are asked about BSP and justifies its claim to be a major step forward in parallel programming.

  4. Questioning Strategy in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺梅

    2015-01-01

    Learner autonomy has been a hot issue discussed by educators in recent years.Because it is believed that the ulti-mate goal of educating is to help students learn autonomously and actively not only in school but also,after graduation,for their whole life.Many people misunderstand the meaning of learner autonomy as learners learn something totally independent from teacher or learn after class.This is not the truth;teacher is indispensible to promote learner autonomy.Therefore,English teacher bears a great respon-sibility of fostering and promoting learner autonomy in the classroom.Questioning is the most frequently used and easiest method in the various teaching methods.

  5. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2004-07-01

    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  6. On Effective Questioning in English Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏慧芳

    2010-01-01

    Teachers' questioning has traditionally been viewed as an important constituent of teacher talk and the core of effective teaching in classroom context.Questioning is the basic means used by teachers to challenge students to think,appraise teaching results and help students to realize their desired goals,thus,playing a key role in the second language acquisition.This paper will first introduce the definition and types of teachers'questioning and the criteria for effective questioning.It will also give some practical suggestions for practice effective questioning,focusing on good questions,wait-time,feedback and allocation of questions.

  7. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  8. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  9. New Hybrid Algorithm for Question Answering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspreet Kaur

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With technical advancement, Question Answering has emerged as the main area for the researchers. User is provided with specific answers instead of large number of documents or passages in question answering. Question answering proposes the solution to acquire efficient and exact answers to user question asked in natural language rather than language query. The major goal of this paper is to develop a hybrid algorithm for question answering. For this task different question answering systems for different languages were studied. After deep study, we are able to develop an algorithm that comprises the best features from excellent systems. An algorithm developed by us performs well.

  10. Questions That This Monograph Raises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available What is the ideal combination of increased investment in biomedical research by sponsors with least conflict of interest in researchers?What should interested parties do to refurbish pharma's image?Is a voluntary moratorium on pharma spending practically possible?How to resolve the basic schism between profit driven industry and welfare driven profession of medicine?How can CPGs be salvaged from ulterior influence?Can guidelines on guidelines help?Is cost-effectiveness of CPGs a practical solution?Is it possible to grade therapies as Most, Moderate and Least Cost Effective?How can Disease specific Foundations be salvaged from sponsor's influence?How can Journals ensure scientific integrity of conflicted authors and nullify untoward influence of sponsors?Are reports like the Task Force on individual and institutional conflicts of interest of the AAMC followed more in their breach?Are the revised ICMJE guidelines adequate to stub conflicted research?Editorials make pious announcements. Do they really influence what researchers do?How do we protect the interests of human research subjects?Do Best Practice Guidelines and Good Publication Practices really help?Marketability is the name of the game, not usefulness. How do we ensure the latter, even as the former is forwarded?How can we ensure effective traditional therapies remain in use even as new ones are forwarded?How do we ensure non-pharmacological therapies are also forwarded?How can the legitimate thrust of biological psychiatry be encouraged while also forwarding non-pharmacological approaches in psychiatry?What can be done so pharma just cannot consider questionable means as an attractive alternative?How do we expedite scientific self-correction while causing least harm to patients and research subjects?

  11. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  13. Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, John T

    2010-01-01

    Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of "Yes," whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue, and prove that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1.

  14. Answering Wh- Questions About Sentences and Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)

  15. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification ab

  16. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  17. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  18. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  19. Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Met, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

  20. Automatic Question Answering from Web Documents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; HU Dawei; LI Huan; HAO Tianyong; CHEN Enhong; LIU Wenyin

    2007-01-01

    A passage retrieval strategy for web-based question answering (QA) systems is proposed in our QA system. It firstly analyzes the question based on semantic patterns to obtain its syntactic and semantic information and then form initial queries. The queries are used to retrieve documents from the World Wide Web (WWW) using the Google search engine. The queries are then rewritten to form queries for passage retrieval in order to improve the precision. The relations between keywords in the question are employed in our query rewrite method. The experimental result on the question set of the TREC-2003 passage task shows that our system performs well for factoid questions.

  1. Art of Question in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩雪

    2009-01-01

    A language is the tool of human communication. English teaching is really not a way to input or output information-it is not an one-way transmission of information. Students must personally think, speak and write what they are taught. That is the practical features of English teaching. Questioning is one of important methods which embody this feature completely. Teachers apply asking questions to enlighten and stimulate students in order to perfect this vital importance. Students who are in middle schools are asked questions but do not give answers. Except for learners' own quality and degree of difficulty of questions, it is connected with teachers' quality of asking questions.

  2. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nemecek

    Full Text Available Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrP(TSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrP(TSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA. Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV, a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrP(TSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrP(TSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrP(TSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrP(TSE was more permissive than human PrP(TSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrP(TSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrP(TSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10⁻¹² of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrP(TSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect Pr

  3. Red-backed vole brain promotes highly efficient in vitro amplification of abnormal prion protein from macaque and human brains infected with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Julie; Nag, Nabanita; Carlson, Christina M.; Schneider, Jay R.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Johnson, Christopher J.; Asher, David M.; Gregori, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Rapid antemortem tests to detect individuals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) would contribute to public health. We investigated a technique known as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) to amplify abnormal prion protein (PrPTSE) from highly diluted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD)-infected human and macaque brain homogenates, seeking to improve the rapid detection of PrPTSE in tissues and blood. Macaque vCJD PrPTSE did not amplify using normal macaque brain homogenate as substrate (intraspecies PMCA). Next, we tested interspecies PMCA with normal brain homogenate of the southern red-backed vole (RBV), a close relative of the bank vole, seeded with macaque vCJD PrPTSE. The RBV has a natural polymorphism at residue 170 of the PrP-encoding gene (N/N, S/S, and S/N). We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on amplification of human and macaque vCJD PrPTSE. Meadow vole brain (170N/N PrP genotype) was also included in the panel of substrates tested. Both humans and macaques have the same 170S/S PrP genotype. Macaque PrPTSE was best amplified with RBV 170S/S brain, although 170N/N and 170S/N were also competent substrates, while meadow vole brain was a poor substrate. In contrast, human PrPTSE demonstrated a striking narrow selectivity for PMCA substrate and was successfully amplified only with RBV 170S/S brain. These observations suggest that macaque PrPTSE was more permissive than human PrPTSE in selecting the competent RBV substrate. RBV 170S/S brain was used to assess the sensitivity of PMCA with PrPTSE from brains of humans and macaques with vCJD. PrPTSE signals were reproducibly detected by Western blot in dilutions through 10-12 of vCJD-infected 10% brain homogenates. This is the first report showing PrPTSE from vCJD-infected human and macaque brains efficiently amplified with RBV brain as the substrate. Based on our estimates, PMCA showed a sensitivity that might be sufficient to detect PrPTSE in vCJD

  4. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...... of CQA services, question retrieval in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical question-answer pairs that are relevant to a query question. This article presents several new approaches to exploiting the category information of questions for improving the performance of question retrieval......, and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly...

  5. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  6. Representations of mad cow disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the reporting of the story of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) and its human derivative variant Creutzfeld-Jacob Disease (vCJD) in the British newspapers. Three 'snapshots' of newspaper coverage are sampled and analysed between the period 1986 and 1996 focusing on how representations of the disease evolved over the 10-year period. Social representations theory is used to elucidate how this new disease threat was conceptualised in the newspaper reporting and how it was explained to the UK public. This paper examines who or what was said to be at risk from the new disease, and whether some individuals or groups held to blame for the diseases' putative origins, the appearance of vCJD in human beings, and its spread.

  7. [Prion diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz, J J

    2006-10-01

    Prion diseases are one of the paradigms of modern neurological nosology founded on molecular grounds. Their incidence is low, however the public health challenges derived from their transmissibility, especially due to the appearance of a variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) confers them a preferential place among health care authority concerns. The evolution of data from the European surveillance systems suggests a generalized underdiagnosis of prion diseases and casts doubts about their ability to detect a possible second wave of atypical vCJD, especially if their clinical-pathological characteristics change. Recent data also challenge the feasibility of a subclassification of prion diseases according to their genetic-molecular features

  8. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  9. On the intonation of German intonation questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrone, Caterina; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    German questions and statements are distinguished not only by lexical and syntactic but also by intonational means. This study revisits, for Northern Standard German, how questions are signalled intonationally in utterances that have neither lexical nor syntactic cues. Starting from natural...... productions of such 'intonation questions', two perception experiments were run. Experiment 1 is based on a gating paradigm, which was applied to naturally produced questions and statements. Experiment 11 includes two indirect-identification tasks. Resynthesized stimuli were judged in relation to two context...

  10. Sheep and goat BSE propagate more efficiently than cattle BSE in human PrP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Danielle; Béringue, Vincent; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Andreoletti, Olivier; Jaumain, Emilie; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Pintado, Belen; Laude, Hubert; Torres, Juan Maria

    2011-03-01

    A new variant of Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease (vCJD) was identified in humans and linked to the consumption of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)-infected meat products. Recycling of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM) has been proposed as origin of the BSE epidemic. During this epidemic, sheep and goats have been exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. It is well known that sheep can be experimentally infected with BSE and two field BSE-like cases have been reported in goats. In this work we evaluated the human susceptibility to small ruminants-passaged BSE prions by inoculating two different transgenic mouse lines expressing the methionine (Met) allele of human PrP at codon 129 (tg650 and tg340) with several sheep and goat BSE isolates and compared their transmission characteristics with those of cattle BSE. While the molecular and neuropathological transmission features were undistinguishable and similar to those obtained after transmission of vCJD in both transgenic mouse lines, sheep and goat BSE isolates showed higher transmission efficiency on serial passaging compared to cattle BSE. We found that this higher transmission efficiency was strongly influenced by the ovine PrP sequence, rather than by other host species-specific factors. Although extrapolation of results from prion transmission studies by using transgenic mice has to be done very carefully, especially when human susceptibility to prions is analyzed, our results clearly indicate that Met129 homozygous individuals might be susceptible to a sheep or goat BSE agent at a higher degree than to cattle BSE, and that these agents might transmit with molecular and neuropathological properties indistinguishable from those of vCJD. Our results suggest that the possibility of a small ruminant BSE prion as vCJD causal agent could not be ruled out, and that the risk for humans of a potential goat and/or sheep BSE agent should not be underestimated.

  11. Sheep and goat BSE propagate more efficiently than cattle BSE in human PrP transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Padilla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new variant of Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease (vCJD was identified in humans and linked to the consumption of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE-infected meat products. Recycling of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM has been proposed as origin of the BSE epidemic. During this epidemic, sheep and goats have been exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. It is well known that sheep can be experimentally infected with BSE and two field BSE-like cases have been reported in goats. In this work we evaluated the human susceptibility to small ruminants-passaged BSE prions by inoculating two different transgenic mouse lines expressing the methionine (Met allele of human PrP at codon 129 (tg650 and tg340 with several sheep and goat BSE isolates and compared their transmission characteristics with those of cattle BSE. While the molecular and neuropathological transmission features were undistinguishable and similar to those obtained after transmission of vCJD in both transgenic mouse lines, sheep and goat BSE isolates showed higher transmission efficiency on serial passaging compared to cattle BSE. We found that this higher transmission efficiency was strongly influenced by the ovine PrP sequence, rather than by other host species-specific factors. Although extrapolation of results from prion transmission studies by using transgenic mice has to be done very carefully, especially when human susceptibility to prions is analyzed, our results clearly indicate that Met129 homozygous individuals might be susceptible to a sheep or goat BSE agent at a higher degree than to cattle BSE, and that these agents might transmit with molecular and neuropathological properties indistinguishable from those of vCJD. Our results suggest that the possibility of a small ruminant BSE prion as vCJD causal agent could not be ruled out, and that the risk for humans of a potential goat and/or sheep BSE agent should not be underestimated.

  12. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This

  13. Question Answering with Joost at CLEF 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; Kloosterman, G.; Mur, J.; van Noord, G.J.M.; van der Plas, M.L.E.; Tiedemann, J.; Peters, C.; Jijkoun, V.; Mandl, T.; Müller, H.; Oard, D.W.; Penas, A.; Petras, V.; Santos, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our system for the monolingual Dutch and multilingual English to Dutch QA tasks. We describe the preprocessing of Wikipedia, inclusion of query expansion in IR, anaphora resolution in follow-up questions, and a question classification module for the multilingual task. Our best runs achie

  14. Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabury, Marcia Bundy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

  15. The Notion of Coercion in Courtroom Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulow-Moller, Anne Marie

    To account for coercive force in questions posed by counsel to defendants and witnesses, several levels of speech must be addressed. Forensic linguistics literature discusses the scale of coerciveness as reflected in the syntactic form of the questions. It is argued that this type of analysis fails to account for the inferences made by hearers…

  16. Semantic Question Generation Using Artificial Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim E. Fattoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes an automatic question generation model for evaluating the understanding of semantic attributes in a sentence. The Semantic Role Labeling and Named Entity Recognition are used as a preprocessing step to convert the input sentence into a semantic pattern. The Artificial Immune System is used to build a classifier that will be able to classify the patterns according to the question type in the training phase. The question types considered here are the set of WH-questions like who, when, where, why, and how. A pattern matching phase is applied for selecting the best matching question pattern for the test sentence. The proposed model is tested against a set of sentences obtained from many sources such as the TREC 2007 dataset for question answering, Wikipedia articles, and English book of grade II preparatory. The experimental results of the proposed model are promising in determining the question type with classification accuracy reaching 95%, and 87% in generating the new question patterns.

  17. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  18. Questioning Techniques: A Study of Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joan Buchanan

    2012-01-01

    This study took place in an independent all girls' school which serves over six hundred students in grades pre-kindergarten through twelve. This study seeks to answer the question: To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and fuller responses. Through a review of literature, observations, interviews and analysis,…

  19. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  20. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  1. Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) infected with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy develop tau pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardo, P; Cervenak, J; Yakovleva, O; Gregori, L; Pomeroy, K; Cook, A; Muhammad, F S; Seuberlich, T; Cervenakova, L; Asher, D M

    2012-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) were infected experimentally with the agent of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two to four years later, six of the monkeys developed alterations in interactive behaviour and cognition and other neurological signs typical of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). At necropsy examination, the brains from all of the monkeys showed pathological changes similar to those described in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) of man, except that the squirrel monkey brains contained no PrP-amyloid plaques typical of that disease. Constant neuropathological features included spongiform degeneration, gliosis, deposition of abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) and many deposits of abnormally phosphorylated tau protein (p-Tau) in several areas of the cerebrum and cerebellum. Western blots showed large amounts of proteinase K-resistant prion protein in the central nervous system. The striking absence of PrP plaques (prominent in brains of cynomolgus macaques [Macaca fascicularis] with experimentally-induced BSE and vCJD and in human patients with vCJD) reinforces the conclusion that the host plays a major role in determining the neuropathology of TSEs. Results of this study suggest that p-Tau, found in the brains of all BSE-infected monkeys, might play a role in the pathogenesis of TSEs. Whether p-Tau contributes to development of disease or appears as a secondary change late in the course of illness remains to be determined.

  2. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Specific Genetic Disorders Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Testing What is genetic testing? What can I learn ... find more information about genetic testing? What is genetic testing? Genetic testing uses laboratory methods to look at ...

  4. Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information (MQSA) Frequently Asked Questions About Digital Mammography Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... mammography exams, such as DBT? What is digital mammography? Full field digital mammography (FFDM, also known simply ...

  5. Current questions on space and time encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmo, Michael E; Stern, Chantal E

    2015-06-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 celebrated the groundbreaking findings on place cells and grid cells by John O'Keefe and May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser. These findings provided an essential foothold for understanding the cognitive encoding of space and time in episodic memory function. This foothold provides a closer view of a broad new world of important research questions raised by the phenomena of place cells and grid cells. These questions concern the mechanisms of generation of place and grid cell firing, including sensory influences, circuit dynamics and intrinsic properties. Similar questions concern the generation of time cells. In addition, questions concern the functional role of place cells, grid cells and time cells in mediating goal-directed behavior and episodic memory function.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bioterrorism and Drug Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Drug Administration (FDA) issued a final Guidance on Potassium Iodide as a Thyroid Blocking Agent in Radiation Emergencies) ( ...

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Counseling What are genetic professionals and what do they ... genetics nurses. Top of page What is genetic counseling and evaluation? Genetic professionals work as members of ...

  8. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  9. SALES STRATEGIES CENTERED ON ELABORATING QUESTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Nelu DORLE

    2016-01-01

    Making a good sales approach depends largely on the strategy established by a salesperson, depending on the type of customer, the circumstances, and his/her psycho-linguistic availability. The sales strategies based on the science of reasoning, on the oratory and persuasive ability include skills related to communication, on which one of the most important is the development and asking of questions. The science related to the salesperson’s ability to handles questions in a sales interview giv...

  10. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  11. ON THE INTERACTIVE FUNCTIONS OF TAG QUESTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Tag questions are a distinctive feature in spokenEnglish,but seldom used by the non-native speakers.Studies show that tags are employed by native speakersmainly to express their interactive and interpersonalmeaning.In this paper,the writer explores the natureof tag questions,mainly their interactive and inter-personal functions in daily coversation.Suggestionsare made with regard to the teaching of tags in theclassroom.

  12. Open-ended visual question answering

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda Mora, Issey

    2016-01-01

    Wearable cameras generate a large amount of photos which are, in many cases, useless or redundant. On the other hand, these devices are provide an excellent opportunity to create automatic questions and answers for reminiscence therapy. This is a follow up of the BSc thesis developed by Ricard Mestre during Fall 2014, and MSc thesis developed by Aniol Lidon. This thesis studies methods to solve Visual Question-Answering (VQA) tasks with a Deep Learning framework. As a preliminary step, we ...

  13. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  14. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  15. Continuing the Conversation: Questions about the Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Dempsey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of the Information Literacy Competency Standards in the library profession for the past 15 years, and the heated debate that took place regarding whether or not the Framework for Information Literacy and the Standards could harmoniously co-exist, the article raises questions about the future of information literacy in higher education. We do not necessarily have answers to these questions, but offer our own perspectives, some insight into how the Standards have served New Jersey academic librarians in the past, and how we envision using the Framework and the Standards together to further information literacy instruction at our institutions. Discussions of these questions have led us to the conclusion that the Framework and the Standards serve different purposes and have different intended audiences and are thus both valuable to the library profession.

  16. SALES STRATEGIES CENTERED ON ELABORATING QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu DORLE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Making a good sales approach depends largely on the strategy established by a salesperson, depending on the type of customer, the circumstances, and his/her psycho-linguistic availability. The sales strategies based on the science of reasoning, on the oratory and persuasive ability include skills related to communication, on which one of the most important is the development and asking of questions. The science related to the salesperson’s ability to handles questions in a sales interview gives the true measure of his/her professionalism. Elaborated based on the taxonomy of the sales steps and depending on customer objections, questions may constitute a basic premise in the development of sales strategies and techniques

  17. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Willem M; van’t Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans SS; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. Design and setting Literature review. Participants All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*, med* or patient* were found anywhere in the paper’s title, abstract or the journal’s name. Other papers were considered controls. As a verification, clinical journals were compared to non-clinical journals in two different approaches. Also, 50 highest impact journals were explored for publisher group dependent differences. Main outcome measure Total number of question marks in titles. Results A total of 368,362 papers were classified as clinical and 596,889 as controls. Clinical papers had question marks in 3.9% (95% confidence interval 3.8–4.0%) of titles and other papers in 2.3% (confidence interval 2.3–2.3%; p < 0.001). These findings could be verified for clinical journals compared to non-clinical journals. Different percentages between four publisher groups were found (p < 0.01). Conclusion We found more question marks in titles of clinical papers than in other papers. This could suggest that clinicians often have a question-driven approach to research and scientists in more fundamental research a hypothesis-driven approach. An alternative explanation is that clinicians like catchy titles. Publishing groups might have pro- and anti-question mark policies. PMID:26085937

  18. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts.

  19. Questioning the Universe concepts in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sadoff, Ahren

    2008-01-01

    UNITS AND POWERS OF TEN PHYSICS AND ITS METHODOLOGY  What Is Physics? Methodology The First Scientist Why Do You Believe? Back to the Questions How Do We Answer theQuestions? The Need to BeQuantitative Theories Models AestheticJudgments  MOTION Relating the Variables of Motion Graphs of One-Dimensional Motion Constant Speed Constant Acceleration Two-Dimensional Motion FORCES The Fundamental Forces A Specific Force Law: Newtonian Gravity Weight How Does Force Affect Motion? Newton's SecondLaw Newton, the Apple, and the Moon Combining Two Laws The Mass of the Earth Newton's Firs

  20. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology.

  1. Cerebroventricular infusion of pentosan polysulphate in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N V; Morrow, J; Doh-ura, K; Dealler, S; O'Hare, S; Farling, P; Duddy, M; Rainov, N G

    2005-06-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy believed to be caused by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent, an abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP(sc)). At present there is no specific or effective treatment available for any form of CJD. Pentosan polysulphate (PPS), a large polyglycoside molecule with weak heparin-like activity, has been shown to prolong the incubation period of the intracerebral infection when administered to the cerebral ventricles in a rodent scrapie model. PPS also prevents the production of further PrP(sc) in cell culture models. These properties of PPS prompted its cerebroventricular administration in a young man with vCJD. Long-term continuous infusion of PPS at a dose of 11 microg/kg/day for 18 months did not cause drug-related side effects. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated progressive brain atrophy during PPS administration. Further basic and clinical research is needed in order to address the issue of efficacy of PPS in vCJD and in other prion diseases.

  2. Preclinical deposition of pathological prion protein in muscle of experimentally infected primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Krasemann

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals. A central step in disease progression is the accumulation of a misfolded form (PrP(Sc of the host encoded prion protein (PrP(C in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. The involvement of peripheral tissues in preclinical states increases the risk of accidental transmission. On the other hand, detection of PrP(Sc in non-neuronal easy-accessible compartments such as muscle may offer a novel diagnostic tool. Primate models have proven invaluable to investigate prion diseases. We have studied the deposition of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys challenged with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, variant CJD (vCJD and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in preclinical and clinical stage using biochemical and morphological methods. Here, we show the preclinical presence of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with vCJD.

  3. Learning to Question: Categories of Questioning Used by Preservice Teachers During Diagnostic Mathematics Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia S. Moyer-Packenham; Milewicz, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Developing appropriate questioning techniques is an important part of mathematics teaching and assessment. This study examined the questioning strategies used by 48 preservice teachers during one-on-one diagnostic mathematics interviews with children. Each participant conducted an audiotaped interview with one child, followed by an analysis and reflection of the interview. Data were analyzed to develop general categories of questions used by the preservice teachers. These categories included:...

  4. Question Moments’: A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa de Jesus, MH; Leite, S.; Watts, DM

    2015-01-01

    This article has been made available through the Brunel Open Access Publishing Fund. This naturalistic study integrates specific 'question moments' into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of teaching tools has explored students' ideas through opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to discuss these questions a...

  5. Question moments’: a rolling programme of question-opportunities in classroom science

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, HM; Leite, S.; Watts, M.

    2016-01-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific ‘question moments’ into lesson plans to increase pupils’ classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students’ ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to explore these questions and address disparities. Flexible lesson planning over 14 lessons across a 4-week period of hig...

  6. Natural Language Question Answering in Open Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-growing volume of information on the web, the traditional search engines, returning hundreds or thousands of documents per query, become more and more demanding on the user patience in satisfying his/her information needs. Question Answering in Open Domains is a top research and development topic in current language technology. Unlike the standard search engines, based on the latest Information Retrieval (IR methods, open domain question-answering systems are expected to deliver not a list of documents that might be relevant for the user's query, but a sentence or a paragraph answering the question asked in natural language. This paper reports on the construction and testing of a Question Answering (QA system which builds on several web services developed at the Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (ICIA/RACAI. The evaluation of the system has been independently done by the organizers of the ResPubliQA 2009 exercise and has been rated the best performing system with the highest improvement due to the natural language processing technology over a baseline state-of-the-art IR system. The system was trained on a specific corpus, but its functionality is independent on the linguistic register of the training data.

  7. Brain Training Draws Questions about Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    While programs to improve students' working memory are among the hottest new education interventions, new studies are calling into question whether exercises to improve this foundational skill can actually translate into greater intelligence, problem-solving ability, or academic achievement. Working memory is the system the mind uses to hold…

  8. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  9. Managing cancer pain: frequently asked questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induru, Raghava R; Lagman, Ruth L

    2011-07-01

    For a variety of reasons, cancer pain is often undertreated, adversely affecting the quality of life for patients and caregivers. To manage cancer pain effectively, physicians need to understand its pathogenesis, how to assess it, how to treat it, and, in particular, how to optimize opioid treatment. We discuss common questions faced by physicians in everyday practice.

  10. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  11. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... WHO Language عربي 中文 English Français Русский Español Zika virus and complications: Questions and answers Online Q& ... mosquitoes are present that can transmit the virus. Zika virus How do people catch Zika virus? Zika ...

  12. Question Generation via Overgenerating Transformations and Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The generation of interrogative sentences by hu- mans has long been a major topic in linguistics, motivating various theoretical work (e.g., Ross...from a Simple English Wikipedia article on Thailand.). We therefore filtered all questions with personal pronouns , possessive pro- nouns, and noun

  13. Preposed Subjects in Questions: Some Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1977-01-01

    The preposing of subject pronouns in questions containing an interrogative word has become common in several Caribbean countries. Use of preposing with "tu,""usted" and "ustedes" is discussed, including its relation to final "s" aspirated or dropped, preservation of morphological oppositions, and increased use of subject pronouns. (CHK)

  14. The Syntax of Questions in Child English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Provides a contemporary Government-and-Binding reinterpretation and evaluation of Klima and Bellugi's 1966 work on the acquisition of interrogatives. It is argued that wh-questions in Child English involve a wh-pronoun positioned in the head complementizer position within the Complementizer Phrase (CP) and that children learn that wh-questions…

  15. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  16. Smart Questions To Ask Your Insurance Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Abby J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice on insurance coverage for child care centers. Suggests that before purchasing insurance you inquire about the agent's qualifications, company's financial stability, and corporate ratings; and obtain written answers to questions about specific coverage issues such as volunteers, legal defense costs, special events, and…

  17. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  18. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:Oct 4, ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  19. Common Questions about Sexual Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Provides research-based answers to questions commonly posed by educators, parents, and others about the philosophy, methods, and impact of school sexual health education, discussing such issues as: whether these school programs are needed, what values they teach, whether the programs should teach about sexual orientation and abstinence, and…

  20. Inequity in Mathematics Education: Questions for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglass, Julian

    2002-01-01

    Explores factors that affect student learning and the well-publicized achievement gap between students from different ethnic and socio-economic groups. Poses some questions and offers some thoughts on how beliefs, attitudes, values, and emotions about teaching and learning, nature of schools, culture, and language effect equity in mathematics…

  1. Fouled Anchors: The CONSTELLATION Question Answered

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1711804 87AU 73 89-1-3401 11. TITLE (kcn e S.cE) Caut,.cawn) Fouled Anchors: The Constellation Question Answered IL. PERSONA .. AUTHOPS) Wegner, Dana M...was familia , with the unaltered Constellation in Newport and, unknown to the Committee, had indeed visited the ship once in Baltimore (see p. 45). It is

  2. Gendering China studies: peripheral perspectives, central questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Kloet

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between the field of China studies and the field of gender and sexuality studies. It engages with three questions. First, why is it that theoretical, conceptual and methodological cross-fertilization between China studies and cultural studies remains quite scarc

  3. Question and Answer Guide to OCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Sidney S. C.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic factual information about the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), its data base, its operation, and its functions. It is intended for libraries which have not yet participated in OCLC, but would be useful as a reference guide in all libraries. Presented in question and answer form, the guide consists…

  4. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  5. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H; Funkhouser, Ellen;

    2012-01-01

    Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To the authors' knowledge, no one has quantified the prevalence of QOC, so this quantification was the authors' objective in conducting this study...

  6. Synthesis of Research on Teachers' Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Meredith

    1984-01-01

    Reseach on use of questioning in classroom teaching reveals that recitation is a poor method, but teachers use it anyway because it is effective in teaching curriculum that is largely textbook based. Teacher educators may be advised to help teachers learn to use recitation well. (MD)

  7. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Leo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  9. The Big Questions of Public Administration Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhardt, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    Identifies four questions related to public administration education: (1) do we seek to educate students with respect to theory or practice? (2) do we prepare students for first jobs or later jobs? (3) what are appropriate delivery systems? and (4) what personal commitments do we make as public administrators? (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  10. Questions About Venus after Venus Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The observations from Venus Express for nearly 13 Venus years or 26 solar days from April 2006 till 27 November 2014. Earlier, Venus has been explored by fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, descending probes, landers and floating balloons. These data have been supplemented by many ground based observations at reflected solar wavelengths, short and long wave infrared, millimeter to radio waves. Venus Express added significantly to the collection that will continue to be examined for understanding the planet's atmosphere and continuing analysis will inform us about new facets of the atmosphere and raise new questions. Inter-comparison of the measurements have been able to provide a general idea of the global atmosphere. However, re-visiting these observations also raises some questions about the atmosphere that have not received much attention lately but deserve to be explored and considered for future measurements. These questions are about the precise atmospheric composition in the deep atmosphere, the atmospheric state in the lower atmosphere, the static stability of the lower atmosphere, the clouds and hazes, the nature of the ultraviolet absorber(s) in the cloud layer, and wind speed and direction near the surface from equator to the pole, interaction between the atmosphere and the solid planet. The answers to these questions are important for a better understanding of Venus, its weather and climate and how the climate has evolved. The questions include: (i) What are the implications of the supercritical state of the two primary constituents of the Venus atmosphere - carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the lower atmosphere? (ii) Is the Venus (lower) atmosphere well mixed? (iii) What determines the observed alternating stable and unstable layers (static stability) in the lower atmosphere? (iv) What causes the contrasts seen in reflected sunlight which are largest at ultraviolet wavelengths and very muted at other visible wavelengths? (v) what causes the morning -afternoon

  11. The Importance of Questioning & Questions for Consideration in Programming for Intercultural Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The significance of questioning in intercultural language learning was highlighted during Phase 1 of the project as project team members worked with teachers preparing units of work and long-term programs. This paper explores the types of questions asked by team members to elicit teachers' thinking regarding students' learning and teachers' roles…

  12. "Question Moments": A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific "question moments" into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the…

  13. The ethics of physicists in questions

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Four CERN physicists, Peggie Rimmer, Ugo Amaldi, Alain Blondel, and Jean-Marie Le Goff, answered questions from 150 college students last Monday during a debate on the theme of the ethics of physics. Organized by CERN and the Department of public instruction of the Canton of Geneva, the meeting followed a reading by the students of the play Die Physiker, by Friedrich Dürrenmatt, which raises the problem of political exploitation of discoveries made during the second world war. The Minister of Education of the Canton de Genève, Mrs Martine Brunschwig-Graf, took part in the debate. The questions posed by students were not lacking in pertinence : Should a physicist reveal a discovery that is dangerous in his opinion ? Who are responsible, those who make the discoveries or those who use them ?

  14. Analysis of questioned documents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcerrada, Matías; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    During the last years (2000-2014), many publications concerning the forensic analysis of questioned documents have been published, and new techniques and methodologies are nowadays employed to overcome forensic caseworks. This article reviews a comprehensive collection of the works focused on this issue, including dating studies, the analysis of inks from pens and printers, the analysis of paper, the analysis of other samples related to questioned documents and studies on intersecting lines. These sections highlight the most relevant analytical studies by a wide range of analytical techniques. Separation and spectrometric techniques are critically discussed and compared, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Finally, concluding remarks on the research published are included.

  15. Searching for a question and an answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Le Roux

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on Eckart Otto’s theory of the Pentateuch, his contribution to Pro Pent (the “Project for the study of the Pentateuch” and his influence on our understanding of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible. There was something in his thinking that appealed to many South African scholars; an appeal that softened down the harsh criticism and blunted the sharp edges of Pentateuch study of the past two centuries. And this was accomplished by turning the focus to the theological and ethical issues, which were the driving forces behind the formation of the Pentateuch. Put differently: to show the Pentateuch as an answer to a question and Pentateuch criticism as a constant search for the questions to which the Pentateuch is answer.

  16. Basic Questions on Artin-Tits groups

    CERN Document Server

    Godelle, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a short survey on four basic questions on Artin-Tits groups: the torsion, the center, the word problem, and the cohomology ($K(\\pi,1)$ problem). It is also an opportunity to prove three new results concerning these questions: (1) if all free of infinity Artin-Tits groups are torsion free, then all Artin-Tits groups will be torsion free; (2) If all free of infinity irreducible non-spherical type Artin-Tits groups have a trivial center then all irreducible non-spherical type Artin-Tits groups will have a trivial center; (3) if all free of infinity Artin-Tits groups have solutions to the word problem, then all Artin-Tits groups will have solutions to the word problem. Recall that an Artin-Tits group is free of infinity if its Coxeter graph has no edge labeled by $\\infty$.

  17. Frequently asked questions about global modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A.; Freitas, U. S.

    2009-06-01

    When a global model is attempted from experimental data, some preprocessing might be required. Therefore it is only natural to wonder what kind of effects the preprocessing might have on the modeling procedure. This concern is manifested in the form of recurrent frequently asked questions, such as "how does the preprocessing affect the underlying dynamics?" This paper aims at providing answers to important questions related to (i) data interpolation, (ii) data smoothing, (iii) data-estimated derivatives, (iv) model structure selection, and (v) model validation. The answers provided will hopefully remove some of those doubts and one shall be more confident not only on global modeling but also on various data analyses which may be also dependent on data preprocessing.

  18. Empirical questions for collective-behaviour modelling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nicholas T Ouellette

    2015-03-01

    The collective behaviour of groups of social animals has been an active topic of study across many disciplines, and has a long history of modelling. Classical models have been successful in capturing the large-scale patterns formed by animal aggregations, but fare less well in accounting for details, particularly for groups that do not display net motion. Inspired by recent measurements of swarming insects, which are not well described by the classical modelling paradigm, I pose a set of questions that must be answered by any collective-behaviour model. By explicitly stating the choices made in response to each of these questions, models can be more easily categorized and compared, and their expected range of validity can be clarified.

  19. A derivational rephrasing experiment for question answering

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquemin, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    In Knowledge Management, variations in information expressions have proven a real challenge. In particular, classical semantic relations (e.g. synonymy) do not connect words with different parts-of-speech. The method proposed tries to address this issue. It consists in building a derivational resource from a morphological derivation tool together with derivational guidelines from a dictionary in order to store only correct derivatives. This resource, combined with a syntactic parser, a semantic disambiguator and some derivational patterns, helps to reformulate an original sentence while keeping the initial meaning in a convincing manner This approach has been evaluated in three different ways: the precision of the derivatives produced from a lemma; its ability to provide well-formed reformulations from an original sentence, preserving the initial meaning; its impact on the results coping with a real issue, ie a question answering task . The evaluation of this approach through a question answering system shows...

  20. Biology of cancer: some questions to answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapekar, T

    2001-10-01

    Though great advances in cancer biology have taken place through these years, some fundamental questions are still to be explained. Some observations in this regard are discussed in the present paper. In the course of experimental studies on hormonal stimulation of target cells, it was observed that goat granulosa cells showed differential proliferative response to sustained stimulation by oLH and hCG in culture. oLH caused cells to proliferate whereas hCG failed to stimulate the cells though both the gonadotropins have common receptors on the target cell. Further studies might throw some light on the mechanism of signal transduction in cell biology and neoplasia. A question is also posed as to how to interpret thermodynamically the sustained growth of cancer vis-a-vis the host.

  1. Are debatable scientific questions debatable? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2010-12-01

    Are debatable scientific questions debatable? In 2000, the physicist-philosopher John Ziman posed this pithy—and crucial—question. He noted that scientists were at a disadvantage in public debate, because the rules of engagement are different in scientific discourse than in public discourse in ways that make it difficult for scientists to ‘win’ public arguments, even when the facts are on their side. In this paper, I revisit Ziman’s arguments in light of the difficulties that climate scientists have had in communicating the reality and gravity of global warming. In addition to the problem posed by Ziman, I also address the role of organized disinformation in further increasing the challenges that climate scientists face.

  2. Some ethical questions in particle physics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Authors will discuss a few ethical questions in today's particle physics: high costs and purported dangers of Big Science projects, relevance of fundamental research for society and the way particle physicists fill their duty to communicate with the public. Examples will be given including the story of a possible mini-black hole creation at CERN and two outreach activities for high school students, International Particle Physics Masterclasses and Cascade competition.

  3. Questioning Two Myths in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Key Competencies for Educating ICT Professionals; International audience; This paper examines two statements regarding computer science as a discipline and its theoretical basis. We shall demonstrate how those statements are questionable and in addition they tend to hide the real root-causes of some significant educational issues. Those statements are very popular in the scientific community and have noteworthy negative effect on the researchers who frequently double their efforts and...

  4. Ankylosing Spondylitis: a Reflection and a Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Deysi Hernández Martín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the synovial membrane, joint entheses and para-articular structures of the spine, including the sacroiliac joints and limbs. We present a case of ankylosing spondylitis that had evolved for 12 years despite the relatively early diagnosis and treatment, showing flexion deformity and limitation of spinal movements. On radiological examination an early evolution to ankylosis was observed, which motivated us to make a reflection and a question.

  5. Questions that calls for a genius

    CERN Multimedia

    McKie, Robin

    2006-01-01

    "Last week an eccentric Russian was tipped to win a "Maths Nobel" for solving the fiendishly difficult Poincare Conjecture, one of seven major "millennium" mathematical mysteries that have been earmarked for urgent solution. But these problems are just the tip of a scientific iceberg. Other fields are also beset by frustrating theoretical failures. Here Robin McKie highlights the most baffing of those questions and suggests how science will one day provide those elusive answers." (1 page)

  6. Twenty-five questions for string theorists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binetruy, Pierre; /Orsay, LPT; Kane, G.L.; /Michigan U., MCTP; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab; Nelson, Brent D.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2005-09-01

    In an effort to promote communication between the formal and phenomenological branches of the high-energy theory community, we provide a description of some important issues in supersymmetric and string phenomenology. We describe each within the context of string constructions, illustrating them with specific examples where applicable. Each topic culminates in a set of questions that we believe are amenable to direct consideration by string theorists, and whose answers we think could help connect string theory and phenomenology.

  7. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  8. Open questions on bioequivalence: an updated reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    During the last thirteen years, the author has investigated a relevant number of bioequivalence trials, for the approval of generics, which in the Mediterranean area show an increasing business trend. In his activity the author has faced several problems, most of them not considered in operating guidelines, defined "open questions on bioequivalence". They deal with the most appropriate procedures to adopt in case of studies on drugs with long half-lives, of ethics problems, high data dispersion, endogenous substances, presence of active metabolite(s), prevalent metabolites and reversible metabolism, very low plasma concentrations, multiple peak phenomenon, titre differences, polymorphic metabolism, stereogenic atoms. The relevance of a pilot trial, mainly for modified-release formulations, and the problem of frauds are discussed as well. These open questions are discussed in the present review taking into account EU and US FDA guidelines, current literature and personal experience. In most cases suitable approaches are suggested. Appropriate procedures should be planned and defined in the study protocol and extensively discussed in the final report. An appropriate approach to the "open questions" is a requisite to achieve a clearly defined bioequivalence/bioinequi-valence conclusion.

  9. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  10. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Jesus Ribelles, Maria; Arbizu, Javier [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Riverol, Mario; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Rosario Luquin, Maria; Castro, Purificacion de [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Neurology Department, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  11. `Question Moments': A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-06-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific `question moments' into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to explore these questions and address disparities. Flexible lesson planning over 14 lessons across a 4-week period of high school chemistry accommodated students' contributions and increased student participation, promoted inquiring and individualised teaching, with each teaching strategy feeding forward into the next.

  12. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  13. Toward Question-Asking Machines: The Logic of Questions and the Inquiry Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth,Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    For over a century, the study of logic has focused on the algebra of logical statements. This work, first performed by George Boole, has led to the development of modern computers, and was shown by Richard T. Cox to be the foundation of Bayesian inference. Meanwhile the logic of questions has been much neglected. For our computing machines to be truly intelligent, they need to be able to ask relevant questions. In this paper I will show how the Boolean lattice of logical statements gives rise to the free distributive lattice of questions thus defining their algebra. Furthermore, there exists a quantity analogous to probability, called relevance, which quantifies the degree to which one question answers another. I will show that relevance is not only a natural generalization of information theory, but also forms its foundation.

  14. Question Processing and Clustering in INDOC: A Biomedical Question Answering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Mittal

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in the volume of publications in the biomedical domain has made it impossible for an individual to keep pace with the advances. Even though evidence-based medicine has gained wide acceptance, the physicians are unable to access the relevant information in the required time, leaving most of the questions unanswered. This accentuates the need for fast and accurate biomedical question answering systems. In this paper we introduce INDOC—a biomedical question answering system based on novel ideas of indexing and extracting the answer to the questions posed. INDOC displays the results in clusters to help the user arrive the most relevant set of documents quickly. Evaluation was done against the standard OHSUMED test collection. Our system achieves high accuracy and minimizes user effort.

  15. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (sCJD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-02-03

    In this podcast, Dr. Lynne Sehulster discusses Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a rare neurodegenerative disease. This disease is caused by a pathological accumulation in the brain of an abnormal protein known as prions.  Created: 2/3/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 2/3/2009.

  16. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 3. Question-by-question results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Tabulations are presented of responses to approximately 105 questions. Results are tabulated by 9 geographic regions: the four states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington; four climate zones in the region; and a weighted Pacific Northwest total. A description of the tabulated data is given in the Introduction. Tabulated data deal with questions on dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and swelling characteristics; and insulation.

  17. APLIKASI QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DENGAN METODE RULE-BASED QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM PADA ALKITAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Handojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bible as the holy book of Christians who are very close to the religious life and as a moral guide for Christians. So the Bible become a necessity when a christians want to search for for specific data or information. But sometimes to find the answer to a question people sometimes having a trouble, because people did not know how to find the answer that they are looking for at the verses in the Bible that’s relatively large of amount. Therefore an application that have an ability to provide answers from the Bible verses that have the possibility of answers to questions raised by the user is needed. Where users can enter questions using keyword when, where, why, whom and what. Question Answering System Application will operate on a digital Bible in Indonesian language by using Rule-Based Question Answering System and created using Visual Basic 6.0 and Microsoft Access 2003 database. Based on application testing that made, the aplication has been able to find answers to the questions that asked according to the keywords. Meanwhile, based on testing with the questionnaire, the application obtained an average percentage of 77.2% from the respondents.

  18. Study Questions Reliability of Fingerprint Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; Randerson; 陈易

    2007-01-01

    The reliability of fingerprint has been called into question by a study that tested whether forensic experts make consistent judgments on print matches.Despite the perceived infallibility of fingerprint evidence, the study found that experts do not always make the same judgment on whether a print matches a mark at a crime scene when presented with the same evidence twice.The findings come in the wake of two high profile cases in which fingerprint matches were subsequently shown to be wrong. The Scottish ...

  19. Prima Facie Questions in Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Isham, C J

    2009-01-01

    The long history of the study of quantum gravity has thrown up a complex web of ideas and approaches. The aim of this article is to unravel this web a little by analysing some of the {\\em prima facie\\/} questions that can be asked of almost any approach to quantum gravity and whose answers assist in classifying the different schemes. Particular emphasis is placed on (i) the role of background conceptual and technical structure; (ii) the role of spacetime diffeomorphisms; and (iii) the problem of time.

  20. Reconnection in Solar Flares: Outstanding Questions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hiroaki Isobe; Kazunari Shibata

    2009-06-01

    Space observations of solar flares such as those from Yohkoh, SOHO,TRACE, and RHESSI have revealed a lot of observational evidence of magnetic reconnection in solar flares: cusp-shaped arcades, reconnection inflows, plasmoids, etc. Thus it has been established, at least phenomenologically, that magnetic reconnection does occur in solar flares. However, a number of fundamental questions and puzzles still remain in the physics of reconnection in solar flares. In this paper, we discuss the recent progresses and future prospects in the study of magnetic reconnection in solar flares from both theoretical and observational points of view.

  1. Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnander, Björn

    2013-09-01

    It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying.

  2. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Research Group: research questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Román Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department’s Electromag- netic Compatibility Research Group (EMC-UNC activities during the last 30 years. The group was involved in developing experimental tools during the early 1980s, such as constructing high-voltage apparatus, developing high-voltage practical work for students and observing electrical discharges. These tools enabled the group to spend a decade focused on resolving one of the Colombian electrical sector’s main EMC problems: distribution transformer’s failures caused by lightning. For almost a decade this investigation was focused on understanding the causes of the extremely high failure index in Colombian rural areas, especially in the Rionegro basin. The main result of this investigation was a reduction by one order of magnitude in mean 10% distribution transformer failure rate. During this research work a noticeable pattern was observed of several electrically-isolated me- tallic bodies immersed in an electric field (i.e. floating electrodes. This was led to initiating floating electrode studies and for mulating a new scientific question, “How do corona electrical discharges interact with floating electrodes?” This new research question was dealt with during the second half of the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. This investigation was related to using electrostatically-accumulated charge on a floating electrode. This question opened up four research areas: gas discharge physics, generating fast current impulses, harvesting energy from the electric field and the possibility of high impedance current sources. This paper has summarised the most relevant work done by the EMC-UNC group on these topics. This floating electrode research work started by formulating four patents. Fresh research questions for the 2010s were related to measuring lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP, intentional electromagnetic

  3. Questioning Styles in Vocational College English Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒立志

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of TBLT reform in Higher Vocational Colleges from the perspective of questioning styles.It employs three methods to collect data:classroom observation,semi-structured interviews and focus group discussion with eight English teachers and their 384 non-English major students from three Higher Vocational Colleges in Guangdong.The results indicated that the teachers assigned students different tasks to perform in class.They seemed to be adopting the TBLT approach,but their English classes were not totally different from the teacher-centered grammar-focused lessons,the student-centered or communicative lessons.

  4. Guarino Guarini open questions, possible solutions

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Baroque architect and mathematician Guarino Guarini is the subject of this issue of the Nexus Network Journal. A group of international scholars were invited to contribute papers that shed light on the unanswered questions in several areas: Baroque architecture in general and Guarini’s architecture in particular; philosophy; history of structural mechanics; mathematics and history of mathematics, cosmology. As always, the NNJ takes an interdisciplinary approach to the broad range of subjects that Guarini concerned himself with, thus the final results will add significantly to our understanding of how Guarini’s actual practical and technical processes were informed by knowledge of his multifaceted scientific and philosophical interests.

  5. Why worship? Revisiting a fundamental liturgical question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Cilliers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the fundamental liturgical question as to the motive and intention of worship is addressed within the framework of four related liturgical tensions, namely between being and becoming, between time and space, between awe and expression, and between laughter and lament. In order to do this, some classical voices from the past are listened to, for instance, Schleiermacher, Kierkegaard, Moltmann, Tillich, Otto, Bakhtin and Buber, but more contemporary views are also considered. These four tensions are described in the light of the key terms: ‘already’ and ‘not yet’, and some implications for present-day liturgical practices are drawn.

  6. Karl Mannheim’s Jewish Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kettler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore Karl Mannheim’s puzzling failure (or refusal to address himself in any way to questions arising out of the position of Jews in Germany, either before or after the advent of Nazi rule—and this, notwithstanding the fact, first, that his own ethnic identification as a Jew was never in question and that he shared vivid experiences of anti-Semitism, and consequent exile from both Hungary and Germany, and, second, that his entire sociological method rested upon using one’s own most problematic social location—as woman, say, or youth, or intellectual—as the starting point for a reflexive investigation. It was precisely Mannheim’s convictions about the integral bond between thought grounded in reflexivity and a mission to engage in a transformative work of Bildung that made it effectively impossible for him to formulate his inquiries in terms of his way of being Jewish. It is through his explorations of the rise and fall of the intellectual as socio-cultural formation that Mannheim investigates his relations to his Jewish origins and confronts the disaster of 1933. The key to our puzzle is to be found in the theory of assimilation put forward in the dissertation of his student, Jacob Katz.

  7. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  8. Minors and social networks: legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The participation in a company increasingly technological does that numerous questions appear on the protection of the most vulnerable subjects, between them the minors. The influence of the social networks like instrument of communication is not exempt from risks for the quantity of information that is facilitated and is shared. The lack of a specific regulation that he contemplates from the point of view of the Law which is the protection that a minor must have, does that there take place situations of abandonment of the rights of the same ones.The opportunity of regulation has been left to escape in the future law of protection of the infancy, nowadays in phase of preliminary design, since it does not refer to the social networks since it had been desirable. The current procedure as for minors, as well as those of protection of information, between others, do not turn out to be sufficient to contemplate all the situations of risk that can be given in the above mentioned area. In the present work we propose to think on minors and social networks raising some legal questions, and trying to contribute some response to the problematics that appears in the juridical area.

  9. Supply chain design: Some critical questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Effective supply chain management (SCM requires organisations to work together in order to satisfy the needs of their end customers. Since organisations have to determine which processes and relationships will best achieve this aim, the design of their supply chains is important. Supply chain design thus forms an integral part of SCM and embodies the supply chain's structure. Unfortunately, too many organisations allow the design of their supply chain to evolve into its current form instead of planning their supply chain design (SCD efforts. The literature is vague on what SCD efforts constitute. This article consists of a comprehensive literature study in which an effort was made to bring more clarity on exactly what purposeful SCD efforts consist of, and some key questions were formulated that organisations could use as a guide in their SCD practices. From these critical questions a conceptual framework has been developed that can be used to determine whether organisations' SCD practices are aligned with organisational objectives. The conceptual framework was tested at two South African organisations to determine if it indeed can be be used to analyse the SCD practices of organisations.

  10. Two Questions about Data-Oriented Parsing

    CERN Document Server

    Bod, R

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I present ongoing work on the data-oriented parsing (DOP) model. In previous work, DOP was tested on a cleaned-up set of analyzed part-of-speech strings from the Penn Treebank, achieving excellent test results. This left, however, two important questions unanswered: (1) how does DOP perform if tested on unedited data, and (2) how can DOP be used for parsing word strings that contain unknown words? This paper addresses these questions. We show that parse results on unedited data are worse than on cleaned-up data, although very competitive if compared to other models. As to the parsing of word strings, we show that the hardness of the problem does not so much depend on unknown words, but on previously unseen lexical categories of known words. We give a novel method for parsing these words by estimating the probabilities of unknown subtrees. The method is of general interest since it shows that good performance can be obtained without the use of a part-of-speech tagger. To the best of our knowledge...

  11. [5ARI and PSA: open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaro, Andrea; Puccini, Federica; De Nunzio, Cosimo

    2014-09-23

    No consensus has ever been reached on the predictive value of serum prostate specific antigen(PSA) for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Limitations of PSA testing in clinical practice have beenoften discussed in the peer-reviewed literature following data derived from clinical trials such as theProstate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events(REDUCE) study that showed a linear rise in the risk of prostate cancer with increasing PSA levels.Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a known confounding factor for the use of PSA as a marker of prostatecancer. Increased prostate volume observed with ageing, urinary retention, acute and chronicinflammatory conditions of the prostate, sexual activity and digital rectal examination may all cause anincrease of PSA values. Both finasteride and dutasteride, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) used inthe treatment of BPH, are known to induce a significant decrease of serum PSA levels close to 50%.The observed change in PSA values following 5ARI treatment has raised questions about the accuracyof PSA testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients on finasteride/dutasteride treatment.Careful analysis of data from various clinical trials on pharmacological treatment of LUTS due toBPH suggested that the accuracy of PSA testing is not just maintained but rather increased following5ARI use. Then, the question of PSA accuracy during 5ARI treatment can be considered closed.

  12. Widening and Deepening Questions in Web-Based Investigative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Akihiro; Akiyama, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Web allows learners to investigate any question with a great variety of Web resources, in which they could construct a wider, and deeper knowledge. In such investigative learning process, it is important for them to deepen and widen the question, which involves decomposing the question into the sub-questions to be further investigated. This…

  13. Effects of Question-Generation Training on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Beth; McBride, Susan

    1986-01-01

    The study examined the effects of training in question generation on comprehension question performance, on quality and form of generated questions, and on accuracy of predicted comprehension. Sixth-grade students trained in question generation outperformed four comparison groups on several comprehension and metacomprehension measures. (Author/LMO)

  14. Sustainable Questions: Determining the Expiration Date of Answers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, B.; Schuth, A.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Community question answering platforms have large repositories of already answered questions. Reusing these answers for new questions is tempting. However, not all stored answers will still be relevant. In this study, we define a new and challenging problem concerning the sustainability of questions

  15. Unveiling Student understanding: The Role of Questioning in Instruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗新兵

    2004-01-01

    One of the most striking aspects of teaching is that the teacher' s speech consists of questions, These questions are central to the type of learning that takes place in the classroom. Naturally, questions are built around varying forms of thinking. Some questions are aimed at recall of information, whereas others provoke

  16. Questions of Modern Cosmology Galileo's Legacy

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Are we living in the "golden age" of cosmology? Are we close to understanding the nature of the unknown ingredients of the currently most accepted cosmological model and the physics of the early Universe? Or are we instead approaching a paradigm shift? What is dark matter and does it exist? How is it distributed around galaxies and clusters? Is the scientific community open to alternative ideas that may prompt a new scientific revolution - as the Copernican revolution did in Galileo's time? Do other types of supernovae exist that can be of interest for cosmology? Why have quasars never been effectively used as standard candles? Can you tell us about the scientific adventure of COBE? How does the extraction of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy depend on the subtraction of the various astrophysical foregrounds? These, among many others, are the astrophysical, philosophical and sociological questions surrounding modern cosmology and the scientific community that Mauro D'Onofrio and Carlo Burigana pose t...

  17. Who Knows? Question Format and Political Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political knowledge is one of the most influential variables in political science. However, scholars still grapple with its theoretical meaning and how to measure it best. I address the deeply contested issue of whether knowledge should be measured with either an open-ended or closed-choice measu......, the results reported here raise important questions about the validity of knowledge indices and also have implications for the general study of political attitudes and behavior.......Political knowledge is one of the most influential variables in political science. However, scholars still grapple with its theoretical meaning and how to measure it best. I address the deeply contested issue of whether knowledge should be measured with either an open-ended or closed-choice measure...

  18. Telephone operator change: your questions answered

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    CERN will be changing mobile telephone operators on 24 June. As the community prepares for the summer switchover, everyone has questions. What brought on the change? Why are we losing our old phone numbers? What kind of improvements will we see? "Just as with every contract at CERN, we issue calls for tenders every few years to ensure we are still receiving the best possible service," explains Tony Cass, from the Communication Systems group within the IT department. "As we came to the end of our contract with Sunrise, we put out a call for tenders, which was won by Swisscom. Not only is their pricing more competitive, they will also be providing better service conditions." The scope of these new service conditions is multifaceted: there will be improvements to the redundancy and reliability of the network as well as modern 4G network coverage in the LHC tunnel. "People will also see their mobile phone bills decrease," says Tony. "This will esp...

  19. Handmade Films: Questioning and Integrating Cinematic Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graca, Marina Estela

    2005-01-01

    technological scheme to contingency, thus opening the production process to new unpredictable expressive and communicative possibilities. I will attempt to explain how this corresponds to a renewed way of comprehending technology by, simultaneously, revealing the human reality it contains and physiologically...... (1976/1978), proclaiming the physiological development of a consciousness of movement. Thus neglecting what has always been considered up to now the main ontological foundations of film: the automatic recording of physical reality. At the same time he was questioning the epistemological model...... they integrate, i.e. the perception of order and the ways in which that order is imposed upon reality by films and the technology which holds them. In this paper I will try to demonstrate that, by overwhelming the cinematic technical workings with his gesture –literally with his body– Norman McLaren exposed its...

  20. What questions can a placebo answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Weijer, Charles

    2016-03-01

    The concept of clinical equipoise restricts the use of placebo controls in clinical trials when there already exists a proven effective treatment. Several critics of clinical equipoise have put forward alleged counter-examples to this restriction-describing instances of ethical placebo-controlled trials that apparently violate clinical equipoise. In this essay, we respond to these examples and show that clinical equipoise is not as restrictive of placebos as these authors assume. We argue that a subtler appreciation for clinical equipoise-in particular the distinction between de facto and de jure interpretations of the concept-allows the concept to explain when and why a placebo control may be necessary to answer a question of clinical importance.

  1. Organizational Learning: Some Basic Questions and Answers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Mihelčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “organizational learning” raises a broad range of questions, specifically with regard to its contents. Following the thoughts of eminent philosophers, such as Aristotle and Confucius, the contribution of scientists in any research field to the corpus of human knowledge should also be based on the proper governing of the use of language. Therefore it is, first, of serious importance to be aware that organizational learning is just one dimension or element of the learning organization and not vice versa; second, a good comprehension of basic categories related to the organizational side of (formal social units’ functioning is an imperative part of organizational learning process. In writing this paper, the author started from his experiences acquired in his role as a lecturer on the subject “Theory of Organization”, in which the goal of lecturing was explained to students as gaining knowledge about cooperation and competition of people in the entities of rational production of goods. To generalize the presented questions and answers regarding the use of term “organization” in the field of management, certain similarities and comparisons were sought and found in other fields of science and, more generally, in life itself. After more detailed explanations of other relevant categories for the organizational learning process, the process itself is defined by its goals and steps where the overlapping of the learning process with the organizational change process and the process of increasing organizational capital is shown. Finally, it is also emphasized that the idea of improving internal relationships – as the substance of organization – between employees in a formal social unit through organizational learning could and should be exploited in external relationships between formal social units.

  2. Questioning the Patient, Questioning Hippocrates: Rufus of Ephesus and the Pursuit of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Rufus of Ephesus' short treatise, Quaestiones Medicinales, the only ancient medical work that takes as its topic the dialogue between doctor and patient, has usually been seen as a procedural practical handbook serving an essentially operational purpose. In this paper I argue that the treatise, with its insistent message that doctors cannot properly understand and treat illnesses unless they supplement their own knowledge by questioning patients, and its remarkable appreciation of the singularity of each patient's experience, shows itself to be no mere handbook but a work addressing the place of questioning in the clinical encounter. I illustrate some of the differences between Rufus' conceptualisation of the relevance and use of questioning and that which can be seen in the theoretical and descriptive writings of Galen and in the Hippocratic corpus, and show how apparent resonances with some of the preoccupations of modern Western healthcare can be used judiciously to elucidate the significance of those differences.

  3. A Comparative Analysis Between TIMSS-R (1999 Questions and LGS (1999 Questions in Life Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem AFACAN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The association made international evaluation in education field (IEA, matches the countries wanted to be added in science and mathematics field with examination doing every four years. This examination applied third times in 1999 and Turkey attended to it first time.This research is a quality methods including survey models. The aim of this research is to compare between LGS and TIMSS-R questions about subject of life science and to interpret their questions’ content. These questions’ analysis was done with Bloom’s Taxonomy. The Bloom’s Taxonomy includes sub titles of information, comprehension, apply, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Every questions in both of LGS and TIMSS-R compared with their sub titles. In the results of study show that the questions’category is very important for them. It is suggested that questions analyzed with Bloom should have equilibrium context and distribution

  4. Student teachers' questioning behaviour which elicit conceptual explanation from students

    OpenAIRE

    Hähkiöniemi, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Getting students to explain their thinking is one of the big challenges in teachers’ work. Previous studies have analysed teacher questioning by focusing on amounts of different types of questions. In this study, I use questioning diagrams to see how questioning develops during the lessons. The data includes video recordings of student teachers’ mathematics lessons in secondary and upper secondary school. The data is analysed by constructing questioning diagram for each student...

  5. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  6. Some Criticisms against Exam Questions: To What Extent Can Mythic, Romantic and Philosophical Questions Be Used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, some of the pre-service teachers' criticisms against their exams were investigated. Moreover, as an alternative, to what extent philosophical, romantic and mythic questions could be used was also looked at. The study group consists of 117 pre-service teachers from the classroom teacher education. In the study, it was…

  7. Learning to Question: Categories of Questioning Used by Preservice Teachers during Diagnostic Mathematics Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Milewicz, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Examines the questioning strategies used by (n=48) preservice teachers during one-on-one diagnostic mathematics interviews with children. Conducts audiotaped interviews, following analyses, and reflection on the interview. Indicates that using the diagnostic interview format allows preservice teachers to recognize and reflect upon effective…

  8. Questioning to Scaffold: An Exploration of Questions in Pre-Service Teacher Training Feedback Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore trainer questioning strategies which aimed to scaffold development and learning in teacher training feedback sessions. Research was conducted with a group of Turkish pre-service English teacher trainees at an English-medium university in Turkey. Findings include a categorisation of different question…

  9. Questions answers renewable energies (02/08/99); Questions reponses energies renouvelables (02/08/99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document collected some questions about the use of renewable energies sources in the domain of the financial and technical assistance of the customer by EDF (photovoltaic cells or wind turbines for residential houses) and for electrification of independent sites which are not connected to EDF power grid. (A.L.B.)

  10. Effects of Comparison Question Type and Between Test Stimulation on the Validity of Comparison Question Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-08

    C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (1989). Psychopathy , threat, and polygraph test accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 347-355. Patrick, C. J... Psychopathy and detection of deception in a prison population. Psychophysiology, 15,121-136. Raskin, D. C, & Honts, C. R. (2002). The comparison question

  11. Plasminogen-based capture combined with amplification technology for the detection of PrP(TSE in the pre-clinical phase of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Segarra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD is a neurodegenerative infectious disorder, characterized by a prominent accumulation of pathological isoforms of the prion protein (PrP(TSE in the brain and lymphoid tissues. Since the publication in the United Kingdom of four apparent vCJD cases following transfusion of red blood cells and one apparent case following treatment with factor VIII, the presence of vCJD infectivity in the blood seems highly probable. For effective blood testing of vCJD individuals in the preclinical or clinical phase of infection, it is considered necessary that assays detect PrP(TSE concentrations in the femtomolar range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a three-step assay that firstly captures PrP(TSE from infected blood using a plasminogen-coated magnetic-nanobead method prior to its serial amplification via protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and specific PrP(TSE detection by western blot. We achieved a PrP(TSE capture yield of 95% from scrapie-infected material. We demonstrated the possibility of detecting PrP(TSE in white blood cells, in buffy coat and in plasma isolated from the blood of scrapie-infected sheep collected at the pre-clinical stage of the disease. The test also allowed the detection of PrP(TSE in human plasma spiked with a 10(-8 dilution of vCJD-infected brain homogenate corresponding to the level of sensitivity (femtogram required for the detection of the PrP(TSE in asymptomatic carriers. The 100% specificity of the test was revealed using a blinded panel comprising 96 human plasma samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have developed a sensitive and specific amplification assay allowing the detection of PrP(TSE in the plasma and buffy coat fractions of blood collected at the pre-clinical phase of the disease. This assay represents a good candidate as a confirmatory assay for the presence of PrP(TSE in blood of patients displaying positivity in large scale screening

  12. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  13. Discovery Mondays - Mass: a question of weight?

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Mass and weight: two rather commonplace phenomena on the surface of it, but would you be able to explain the difference between them? And do you know how gravity works? If you let go of a paperclip and an apple at the same time, which of the two will hit the floor first? At the next Discovery Monday scientists will introduce you to these concepts that are often rather difficult to get to grips with. Find out what kind of particles are thought to be responsible for mass and gravity. Get to know the graviton, a particle that has yet to be observed, has no mass or charge but is thought to be a messenger particle for gravity. You will also encounter the famous Higgs boson, which scientists believe could elucidate the mystery of mass and hope to discover with the LHC. An evening for tackling some very weighty questions... The event will be conducted in French. Join us at Microcosm (Reception, Building 33, Meyrin site), on Monday 6 March from 7.30 p.m. to 9.00 p.m. Entrance Free http://www.cern.ch/LundisDeco...

  14. Exhaustivity in questions with non-factives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rothschild

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the conditions under which a person can be said to have told someone or predicted (the answer to a question like 'who sang'. It is standardly claimed that while (i the true answer must be completely specified, it is not necessary that (ii it be specified *as being* the complete answer. Here the non-factive verbs 'tell' and 'predict' are said to differ from the factive verb 'know', which typically does impose the *strong exhaustivity* requirement in (ii. We argue for an intermediate reading of 'tell' and 'predict' that requires more than (i but less than (ii. To account for this reading we claim that the exhaustivity requirement (ii imposed by 'know' is due to an operator than can apply non-locally. Applying the operator above a non-factive verb derives the intermediate reading, whereas doing so is vacuous in the case of factives. Thus, we derive the intermediate reading, and differences in the exhaustivity requirements imposed by factives and non-factives, without lexical stipulation. doi:10.3765/sp.4.2 BibTeX info

  15. Open Educational Resources: American Ideals, Global Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Weiland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Educational relations between societies and cultures that begin with benevolent intentions can come to be seen as threats to national autonomy and local preferences. Indeed, side by side with the growth since the first years of this century of Open Educational Resources (OER there has been worry about their impact on global educational development. Evaluation and research have lagged behind the steady expansion of access to online resources, leaving estimates of the value of digital innovation to the enthusiasm of OER providers and technology minded educational reformers. The advent of the “Massive Open Online Course” (or MOOC has exacerbated the problem, with attention moving toward a form of OER reflecting the enthusiasm of leading institutions in industrialized nations. The American led movement on behalf of the MOOC requires new questions about the motives, impact, and future of OER. This essay accounts for the history of OER, culminating in the MOOC, including how the latter in particular is an expression of American pedagogical and institutional interests representing belief in the transformative educational powers of the latest communications technologies. Criticism of OER and MOOCs can reflect organizational, operational, and ideological considerations. But it should recognize what they offer when there are few other opportunities for formal learning, and as research demonstrates their uses and impact.

  16. The Question of Metropolitan Form: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Vernez Moudon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Posing the concept of ‘metropolitan form’ as a question, as in the call for papers for this issue of Footprint, is an absolute necessity at this stage of development of urbanised areas. Many of the papers in this issue begin with the straw-man notion of a formless agglomeration of activities and spaces, the – for lack of a better phrase – postmodern urban experience.[1] There is a persistent theme in the related literatures of architecture, urban design and urban and regional planning that the physical form of the contemporary metropolis is un-describable. Soja’s six metaphors (post-Fordist industrial, cosmopolis, expolis, fractal city, carceral archipelago, simcities are being indicative of the wide range of possible images.[2] The eight papers in this issue of Footprint take an opposite approach. They begin to trace the contours of the debate around how the noun ‘metropolitan form’ might be understood, how it might be studied, and how it might be possible to move from an empirical understanding of its structure to more intuitive design solutions.

  17. The Question of Metropolitan Form: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Prosperi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Posing the concept of ‘metropolitan form’ as a question, as in the call for papers for this issue of Footprint, is an absolute necessity at this stage of development of urbanised areas. Many of the papers in this issue begin with the straw-man notion of a formless agglomeration of activities and spaces, the – for lack of a better phrase – postmodern urban experience.[1] There is a persistent theme in the related literatures of architecture, urban design and urban and regional planning that the physical form of the contemporary metropolis is un-describable. Soja’s six metaphors (post-Fordist industrial, cosmopolis, expolis, fractal city, carceral archipelago, simcities are being indicative of the wide range of possible images.[2] The eight papers in this issue of Footprint take an opposite approach. They begin to trace the contours of the debate around how the noun ‘metropolitan form’ might be understood, how it might be studied, and how it might be possible to move from an empirical understanding of its structure to more intuitive design solutions.

  18. Some open questions concerning biological growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the properties of radially growing interfaces and their connection to biological growth. We focus on simplified models which result from the abstraction of only considering domain growth and not the interface curvature. Linear equations can be exactly solved and the phenomenology of growth can be inferred from the explicit solutions. Nonlinear equations pose interesting open questions that are summarized herein.

    En este trabajo revisamos brevemente las propiedades de las superficies que crecen de forma radial y su conexión con el crecimiento biológico. Nos vamos a concentrar en modelos simplificados que resultan de la abstracción de sólo considerar el crecimiento del dominio y no la curvatura de la interfaz. Las ecuaciones lineales se pueden resolver exactamente y la fenomenología del crecimiento puede ser inferida de las soluciones explítas. Las ecuaciones no lineales dan lugar a interesantes problemas abiertos que vamos a resumir aquí.

  19. The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

  20. Question Driven Instruction with Classroom Response Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerace, William; Beatty, Ian

    2007-10-01

    Essentially, a classroom response system is technology that: 1) allows an instructor to present a question or problem to the class; 2) allows students to enter their answers into some kind of device; and 3) instantly aggregates and summarizes students' answers for the instructor, usually as a histogram. Most response systems provide additional functionality. Some additional names for this class of system (or for subsets of the class) are classroom communication system (CCS), audience response system (ARS), voting machine system, audience feedback system, and--most ambitiously--CATAALYST system (for ``Classroom Aggregation Technology for Activating and Assessing Learning and Your Students' Thinking''). UMPERG has been teaching with and researching classroom response systems since 1993. We find that the technology has the potential to transform the way we teach science in large lecture settings. CRSs can serve as catalysts for creating a more interactive, student-centered classroom in the lecture hall, thereby allowing students to become more actively involved in constructing and using knowledge. CRSs not only make it easier to engage students in learning activities during lecture but also enhance the communication among students, and between the students and the instructor. This enhanced communication assists the students and the instructor in assessing understanding during class time, and affords the instructor the opportunity to devise instructional interventions that target students' needs as they arise.

  1. Long Period Variables: questioning the pulsation paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Berlioz-Arthaud, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Long period variables, among them Miras, are thought to be pulsating. Under this approach the whole star inflates and deflates along a period that can vary from 100 to 900 days; that pulsation is assumed to produce shock waves on the outer layers of the star that propagate into the atmosphere and could account for the increase in luminosity and the presence of emission lines in the spectra of these stars. However, this paradigm can seriously be questioned from a theoretical point of view. First, in order to maintain a radial pulsation, the spherical symmetry of the star must be preserved: how can it be reconciled with the large convective cells present in these stars? or when close companions are detected? Secondly, how different radial and non-radial pulsation modes of a sphere could be all damped except one radial mode? These problems have no solution and significantly weigh on the pulsation paradigm. Acknowledging this inconsistency, we show that a close companion around these stars could account for the s...

  2. Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.

    2012-04-01

    In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up

  3. Icelandic Journalists & the Question of Professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The question whether journalism constitutes a profession or not has been widely discussed in the literature in recent decades without a definite conclusion. Indeed some suggest that much of the contradictory views on professionalism and the professionalization of journalism may be traced to the unclear meaning of the very term “professionalism” or “professionalization” (Nolan 2008. Thus it is possible to put simultaneously forth plausible arguments suggesting de-professionalization of journalism on the one hand, and further professionalization of journalism on the other, based on different interpretations of the term “professionalism”. The terms “professional” and “professionalism” can refer to different social phenomena in different contexts. Thus an ongoing professionalization of journalism can be taking place in one sense at the same time as de-professionalization in a different sense, and of course, these different trends can also be taking place simultaneously in different parts of the media environment (Nolan, 2008; Hallin&Mancini, 2004; Witschge&Nygren, 2009; Schudson, 2001. In determining an approach to the concept of a profession it is helpful to establish some general criteria, against which journalistic practice may be measured. In finding these criteria, guidelines are given by the discussion of traditional professions - doctors, lawyers – and on that basis some characteristics can been said to signify a profession. To what extent is the work of Icelandic journalists characterised by professionalism, and to what extent do they, as an occupational group, exhibit the features normally associated with professions? The following analysis suggests that Icelandic journalists fulfil many of the key conditions associated with professions and their development in recent decades has been one of increased professionalism.

  4. Questioning Strategies of Literature Teachers among Grade 8 Filipino Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena M. Ocbian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Questioning is a useful and relevant tool to facilitate classroom discussion in a literature class. This study identified the levels of questions teachers use in their literature class, determined the different question strategies they utilized and proposed activities to enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Video analysis was the main instrument used. These videos were provided during the conduct of class observations by the researchers. There were eight respondents in the study selected through total enumeration. They are teachers from Gubat Cluster of secondary schools of Sorsogon Province. To identify the levels of questions and questioning strategies, question tally form and percentage were used. Results revealed that knowledge was the most used level of questions followed by comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The most used question technique is the participation, followed by proving, sequencing, wait time, balance and student questions. It was recommended that literature teachers vary their level of questions when discussing literary pieces. They may utilize different question techniques to develop critical thinking skills of their students. The use of the proposed activities may enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Likewise, school heads and program supervisors may utilize video analysis technique as a mode for classroom observation.

  5. Kids Have the Answers: Do You Have the Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hilarie Bryce; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Several teachers contribute games and teaching strategies for improving students' critical thinking skills through the use of higher-order questions. A short quiz for teachers on questioning is included. (SJL)

  6. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  7. Some questions on spectrum and arithmetic of locally symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, C S

    2010-01-01

    We consider the question that the spectrum and arithmetic of locally symmetric spaces defined by congruent arithmetical lattices should mutually determine each other. We frame these questions in the context of automorphic representations.

  8. Assessing the quality of a student-generated question repository

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Simon P; Homer, Danny; Riise, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students, in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over the past two years. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find that students produce questions of high quality. More than three-quarters of questions fall into categories beyond simple recall, in contrast to similar studies of student-authored content in different subject domains. Similarly, the quality of student-authored explanations for questions was also high, with approximately 60% of all explanations classified as being of high or outstanding quality. Overall, 75% of questions met combined quality criteria, which we hypothesize is due in part to the in-class scaffolding activities that we provided for students ahead of requiring them to author questions.

  9. Questioning the Question: How can a husband rape his wife? : A Discussion in an International Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Nicole Walquist

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I assume that upon reading this you already have some reaction or answer. I have one, too. The interesting part is that they can be very different. Some people think along the lines of “Yes, I can't imagine how a husband can rape his wife because that is so cruel.” Other people may think something like “Yes, how is this even possible, that a husband having sex with his wife could be considered rape.” These views are quite different, and it is this difference that interests me.In this essay, I will reflect upon the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I will discuss my personal background, and describe the situation and experience in which this question was brought up. Next, I will discuss various reflections I have had about this difference. I will then reflect on how this idea, or even the definitions of the terms, may be based on a person’s culture, gender, and/or opinions. After that, I will look at how this topic may affect social workers, service users and social work as a profession. Lastly, I will also explain how this has helped me gain a better understanding of this issue.

  10. Sex effects in mouse prion disease incubation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion disease incubation time in mice is determined by many factors including PrP expression level, Prnp alleles, genetic background, prion strain and route of inoculation. Sex differences have been described in age of onset for vCJD and in disease duration for both vCJD and sporadic CJD and have also been shown in experimental models. The sex effects reported for mouse incubation times are often contradictory and detail only one strain of mice or prions, resulting in broad generalisations and a confusing picture. To clarify the effect of sex on prion disease incubation time in mice we have compared male and female transmission data from twelve different inbred lines of mice inoculated with at least two prion strains, representing both mouse-adapted scrapie and BSE. Our data show that sex can have a highly significant difference on incubation time. However, this is limited to particular mouse and prion strain combinations. No sex differences were seen in endogenous PrP(C levels nor in the neuropathological markers of prion disease: PrP(Sc distribution, spongiosis, neuronal loss and gliosis. These data suggest that when comparing incubation times between experimental groups, such as testing the effects of modifier genes or therapeutics, single sex groups should be used.

  11. How to enhance students' questioning ability in English reading?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆学聃

    2006-01-01

    @@ A student's thinking usually starts from questions. In English teaching, it's an important part of the teacher's work to guide the students to question. When read a new article, the students may have questions about words, phrases, sentences, grammar, structure, motif, etc. To encourage students to raise questions in reading is a good way to help students enhance their interest in English and improve their ability of self-study.

  12. A New Definition and Classification of Echo Questions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾琼; 张岭

    2014-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of echo questions in people’s daily conversation has not arouse enough interest in linguists yet; meanwhile, different scholars hold different views when it comes to such questions as how far the boundary of echo ques-tions should extend, how they should be classified, etc. The following paper gives the echo question a new definition and classifi-cation. It hopes to provide a more persuasive reference of future researchers.

  13. RESTRUCTURING, RESCALING AND THE URBAN QUESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Brenner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tradução do texto "Restructuring, rescaling and the urban question", de Neil Brenner. No contexto dos debates recentes sobre escala e teoria socioespacial, esse texto explora alguns dos limites e possibilidades das interpretações escalares dos padrões de reestruturação urbana e regional relacionados ao pós-fordismo e ao período referente ao início do século XXI. Inicio assinalando algumas das premissas escalares que embasaram debates sobre a questão urbana nos anos 1970 e 1980. Eu então sugiro que, desde os anos 1990, a questão urbana tem sido repensada conceitualmente em termos reflexivamente escalares, no contexto de debates sobre a reestruturação urbana e regional mundial. A problemática da escala geográfica – sua organização espacial, sua produção social, sua contestação política e reconfiguração histórica – foi, portanto, inserida no âmago da questão urbana. As seções seguintes destacam a utilidade da perspectiva escalar para pensar as transformações urbanas contemporâneas, mas salientam a dificuldade persistente de definir seu conteúdo analítico distintivo. Confronto esse problema oferecendo uma série de proposições gerais com o propósito de especificar os parâmetros conceituais determinados das questões de escala e, por implicação, dos processos de reescalonamento. A teorização proposta envolve um estreitamento conceitual das questões de escala: os conceitos de escala não devem ser confundidos com aqueles de espaço, lugar, território ou redes. Consequentemente, as geografias cambiantes e polimórficas da reestruturação urbana não podem e não devem ser conceituadas inteiramente em termos escalares. Eu argumento, porém, que os conceitos escalares permanecem ferramentas essenciais para decifrar algumas das dimensões mais importantes das transformações urbanas contemporâneas.

  14. Circulations of Law: Colonial Precedents, Contemporary Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Hussin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While the project of law-making has seemed an obvious and inherent part of empire-building, and law-delivery has often been a justifying rationale for imperialism, this paper asks more detailed questions about the travels of law. How is a ‘universal’ law made ‘local’, and to what effect? How have past and contemporary legal delivery projects delineated between the categories of local and universal? Our analytic project, therefore, is not simply that law travels, but with whom; not just that it is carried, but alongside what other commodities and baggage; not just that it moves, but that it is transformed by its passage across borders and among localities. Further, whereas much of rule of law and imperial law scholarship sees legal travel as from metropole to colony, this paper argues that ports of call are equally important for the fate of law. Aunque el proyecto de legislación parecía una parte obvia e inherente al proceso de construcción del imperio, y la creación de leyes ha sido a menudo una justificación para el imperialismo, este artículo lanza preguntas más detalladas sobre los recorridos del derecho. ¿Cómo se convierte una ley “universal” en “local”, y qué efectos conlleva? ¿Cómo han diferenciado entre las categorías “local” y “universal” los proyectos de legislación pasados y contemporáneos? Así pues, nuestro proyecto analítico no concluye simplemente que la ley tiene un recorrido, sino con quién; no simplemente que es transportada, sino con qué otras comodidades y equipaje; no sólo que se mueve, sino que se transforma en su viaje a través de límites y localizaciones. Es más, mientras que gran parte de la comunidad científica del estado del derecho y el imperio del derecho ve que las leyes van de la metrópoli a la colonia, este artículo defiende que las escalas que realiza son igual de importantes para el destino del derecho. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http

  15. The Contextual Adaptation of English Teachers' Questioning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Hong-mei; Li, Wang-zi; Lei, Ping

    2010-01-01

    In order to guarantee an interactive classroom atmosphere, English teachers pay much attention to the questioning strategies when they use question-answer teaching method. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on English teachers' questioning strategies from the perspective of adaptation theory. It shows that the utilization of teachers'…

  16. Domain and Intelligence Based Multimedia Question Answering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Magesh; Valarmathie, P.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia question answering systems have become very popular over the past few years. It allows users to share their thoughts by answering a given question or obtain information from a set of answered questions. However, existing QA systems support only textual answer which is not so instructive for many users. The user's discussion can be…

  17. Finding Question-Answer Pairs from Online Forums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Gao; Wang, Long; Lin, Chin-Yew;

    2008-01-01

    Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user generated content. In this paper we address the problem of extracting question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications....

  18. Question intonation in non-scripted Danish dialogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnum, Nina; Tøndering, John

    2007-01-01

    Global intonation contour slopes in read speech have been found to vary systematically according to utterance type. Statements have the steepest gradients, wh-question contours are slightly less steep, questions with word order inversion less steeply falling again, and so-called declarative quest...... question intonation in non-scripted speech....

  19. Fostering Effective Studying and Study Planning with Study Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Pascal; Pieters, Jules M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the hypothesis that study question use would be…

  20. Improving the Questioning Strategies of Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Lisa Ann

    1988-01-01

    The effects of two instructional methods on the questioning strategies of 40 10- to 12-year-old learning disabled children were investigated. Results indicated that both the question formulation instruction and the cognitive modeling/self-verbalization instruction were effective in improving their questioning concerning novel problems. (Author/DB)

  1. A Support System for Error Correction Questions in Programming Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachisu, Yoshinari; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    For supporting the education of debugging skills, we propose a system for generating error correction questions of programs and checking the correctness. The system generates HTML files for answering questions and CGI programs for checking answers. Learners read and answer questions on Web browsers. For management of error injection, we have…

  2. Quora.com: Another Place for Users to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Quora (www.quora.com) is a contemporary, web-based take on reference. Users post questions within Quora and other users answer the questions. Users can vote for and against answers (or not vote at all). It is users asking questions of friends and strangers and then sorting through the results. If the model sounds familiar, it's because it is.…

  3. Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior: Common Questions and Practical Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Corso, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer preschool teachers strategies for preventing challenging behavior and supporting the development of social skills and emotional competencies. This article is framed in a question and answer format using questions from teachers who the authors have worked with in the past. These questions and strategies are…

  4. Assessing the Quality of a Student-Generated Question Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find…

  5. Children's Question Asking and Curiosity: A Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie; Klahr, David

    2011-01-01

    A primary instructional objective of most early science programs is to foster children's scientific curiosity and question-asking skills (Jirout & Klahr, 2011). However, little is known about the relationship between curiosity, question-asking behavior, and general inquiry skills. While curiosity and question asking are invariably mentioned in…

  6. Probability of climatic change. Identification of key questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransen, W. [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI, De Bilt (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Addressing the question what the probability is of an anthropogenically induced change in the climate, leads to a number of other, underlying questions. These questions, which deal with the characteristics of climate, of climatic change, and of probabilistic statements on climatic change, should be addressed first. The long-term objective of the underlying study, i.e. a quantitative assessment of the risks and opportunities of the predicted climatic change, sets the context against which of those questions should be answered. In addition, this context induces extra questions, i.e. about the characteristics of risk.

  7. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  8. Designing Effective Questions for Classroom Response System Teaching

    CERN Document Server

    Beatty, I D; Gerace, W J

    2005-01-01

    Classroom response systems (CRSs) can be potent tools for teaching physics. Their efficacy, however, depends strongly on the quality of the questions used. Creating effective questions is difficult, and differs from creating exam and homework problems. Every CRS question should have an explicit pedagogic purpose consisting of a content goal, a process goal, and a metacognitive goal. Questions can be engineered to fulfil their purpose through four complementary mechanisms: directing students' attention, stimulating specific cognitive processes, communicating information to instructor and students via CRS-tabulated answer counts, and facilitating the articulation and confrontation of ideas. We identify several tactics that help in the design of potent questions, and present four "makeovers" showing how these tactics can be used to convert traditional physics questions into more powerful CRS questions.

  9. Designing effective questions for classroom response system teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Ian D.; Gerace, William J.; Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom response systems can be powerful tools for teaching physics. Their efficacy depends strongly on the quality of the questions. Creating effective questions is difficult and differs from creating exam and homework problems. Each classroom response system question should have an explicit pedagogic purpose consisting of a content goal, a process goal, and a metacognitive goal. Questions can be designed to fulfill their purpose through four complementary mechanisms: directing students' attention, stimulating specific cognitive processes, communicating information to the instructor and students via classroom response system-tabulated answer counts, and facilitating the articulation and confrontation of ideas. We identify several tactics that are useful for designing potent questions and present four "makeovers" to show how these tactics can be used to convert traditional physics questions into more powerful questions for a classroom response system.

  10. Comparison of integrated testlet and constructed-response question formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.; Shiell, Ralph C.

    2014-12-01

    Constructed-response (CR) questions are a mainstay of introductory physics textbooks and exams. However, because of the time, cost, and scoring reliability constraints associated with this format, CR questions are being increasingly replaced by multiple-choice (MC) questions in formal exams. The integrated testlet (IT) is a recently developed question structure designed to provide a proxy of the pedagogical advantages of CR questions while procedurally functioning as set of MC questions. ITs utilize an answer-until-correct response format that provides immediate confirmatory or corrective feedback, and they thus allow not only for the granting of partial credit in cases of initially incorrect reasoning, but, furthermore, the ability to build cumulative question structures. Here, we report on a study that directly compares the functionality of ITs and CR questions in introductory physics exams. To do this, CR questions were converted to concept-equivalent ITs, and both sets of questions were deployed in midterm and final exams. We find that both question types provide adequate discrimination between stronger and weaker students, with CR questions discriminating slightly better than the ITs. There is some indication that any difference in discriminatory power may result from the baseline score for guessing that is inherent in MC testing. Meanwhile, an analysis of interrater scoring of the CR questions raises serious concerns about the reliability of the granting of partial credit when this traditional assessment technique is used in a realistic (but nonoptimized) setting. Furthermore, we show evidence that partial credit is granted in a valid manner in the ITs. Thus, together with consideration of the vastly reduced costs of administering IT-based examinations compared to CR-based examinations, our findings indicate that ITs are viable replacements for CR questions in formal examinations where it is desirable both to assess concept integration and to reward partial

  11. IMPROVISATION OF SEEKER SATISFACTION IN YAHOO! COMMUNITY QUESTION ANSWERING PORTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Latha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One popular Community question answering (CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, had attracted 120 million users worldwide, and had 400 million answers to questions available. A typical characteristic of such sites is that they allow anyone to post or answer any questions on any subject. Question Answering Community has emerged as popular, and often effective, means of information seeking on the web. By posting questions, for other participants to answer, information seekers can obtain specific answers to their questions. However, CQA is not always effective: in some cases, a user may obtain a perfect answer within minutes, and in others it may require hours and sometimes days until a satisfactory answer is contributed. We investigate the problem of predicting information seeker satisfaction in yahoo collaborative question answering communities, where we attempt to predict whether a question author will be satisfied with the answers submitted by the community participants. Our experimental results, obtained from a large scale evaluation over thousands of real questions and user ratings, demonstrate the feasibility of modeling and predicting asker satisfaction. We complement our results with a thorough investigation of the interactions and information seeking patterns in question answering communities that correlate with information seeker satisfaction. We also explore automatic ranking, creating abstract from retrieved answers, and history updation, which aims to provide users with what they want or need without explicitly ask them for user satisfaction. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications, such as answer selection, user feedback analysis, and ranking.

  12. Hypothetical constructs, hypothetical questions, and the expert witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Stanley L; Titcomb, Caroline; Sams, David M; Dickson, Kara; Benda, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Professor John Henry Wigmore in 1940 described the hypothetical question as an intolerable obstruction of truth. Since that time, the nature and application of the hypothetical question in the courtroom, as well as responses to this line of questioning during expert testimony, have been sources of controversy. Governed by legal philosophical foundations, the hypothetical construct addresses what there is, in a general sense, and what can or ought to be. Alexy (2004) has described the nature of legal philosophy as the epistemological question of what we can know. This article begins by examining the philosophical underpinnings, legal parameters, and teaching purposes of posing hypothetical queries. A social-psychological backdrop for the use of hypothetical questions is then discussed followed by a broader discussion of the hypothetical question's role in court procedures. This paper identifies hypothetical questions used in court as devices to elicit information, or as predictions that potentially change underlying factual interpretations of evidence. In particular, on cross examination hypothetical questions seek to make opposing experts assume facts that are incongruent with their conclusions or opinions. Sometimes in these situations, experts are led to re-evaluate opinions based on alternative understandings of events and behaviors. Thus, this paper's final aim is to explore a foundational understanding of hypothetical questions asked of expert witnesses with special reference to mental health issues. Options for responding to hypothetical questions on the stand are considered along the dimensions of assertiveness-passivity, compliance-resistance, and possible redefinitions of the hypothetical issues.

  13. Multi-Factor Duplicate Question Detection in Stack Overflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芸; David Lo; 夏鑫; 孙建伶

    2015-01-01

    Stack Overflow is a popular on-line question and answer site for software developers to share their experience and expertise. Among the numerous questions posted in Stack Overflow, two or more of them may express the same point and thus are duplicates of one another. Duplicate questions make Stack Overflow site maintenance harder, waste resources that could have been used to answer other questions, and cause developers to unnecessarily wait for answers that are already available. To reduce the problem of duplicate questions, Stack Overflow allows questions to be manually marked as duplicates of others. Since there are thousands of questions submitted to Stack Overflow every day, manually identifying duplicate questions is a di昋cult work. Thus, there is a need for an automated approach that can help in detecting these duplicate questions. To address the above-mentioned need, in this paper, we propose an automated approach named DUPPREDICTOR that takes a new question as input and detects potential duplicates of this question by considering multiple factors. DUPPREDICTOR extracts the title and description of a question and also tags that are attached to the question. These pieces of information (title, description, and a few tags) are mandatory information that a user needs to input when posting a question. DUPPREDICTOR then computes the latent topics of each question by using a topic model. Next, for each pair of questions, it computes four similarity scores by comparing their titles, descriptions, latent topics, and tags. These four similarity scores are finally combined together to result in a new similarity score that comprehensively considers the multiple factors. To examine the benefit of DUPPREDICTOR, we perform an experiment on a Stack Overflow dataset which contains a total of more than two million questions. The result shows that DUPPREDICTOR can achieve a recall-rate@20 score of 63.8%. We compare our approach with the standard search engine of Stack

  14. Setting generalization of question-asking by children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, L K; Camarata, S M; Valdez-Menchaca, M; Koegel, R L

    1998-01-01

    We examined whether motivational procedures incorporated into teaching question-asking to children with autism, who lack verbal initiations, would result in generalization without additional teaching, prompting, or reinforcement in other settings. Specifically, we assessed whether such children could learn to use questions and whether the spontaneous use of question-asking would generalize across stimuli, settings, and people. All children learned to use questions in relation to items they had previously been unable to label and demonstrated generalization of spontaneous question-asking to new items and to their home environments with their mothers, with concomitant gains in expressive vocabulary. Results were discussed in terms of teaching response strategies, such as question-asking, to promote spontaneous child-initiated social interactions and expressive language development.

  15. Three critical questions for future research on lesbian relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2017-01-02

    In this article I discuss three questions that should be priorities for future research on lesbian love and relationships. The first question concerns the very definition of "lesbian relationship," given how many women may be engaged in same-sex relationships without identifying as lesbian. The second question concerns the potential influence of childhood neglect and abuse on adult women's same-sex relationships, a topic that has important implications for both psychological well-being and relationship functioning. The third question concerns the potential downsides of legal marriage for women's same-sex relationships, a topic that is particularly important in light of the newfound legal recognition of same-sex marriage in all 50 states. Although there are many understudied questions in the domain of women's same-sex relationships, research on these three questions has particularly strong potential to advance our understanding of lesbian love and relationships in important ways.

  16. On the Analysis of Tag Questions in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱虹

    2013-01-01

    Tag question is often used in English conversation, but it is also a very complicated syntactic structure in English which becomes the difficulty of English learners. Tag question involves various grammatical factors. A full linguistic analysis of tag ques⁃tions includes the classification, construction and meanings of intonations of the tag questions in English. The study of tag ques⁃tion aims at providing substantial contribution to the teaching and learning of English syntax.

  17. [The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, C; Spinelli, H

    1994-12-01

    This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  18. Routing Questions to the Right Users in Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Yanhong; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin;

    2009-01-01

    address the problem of "pushing" the right questions to the right persons, the objective being to obtain quick, high-quality answers, thus improving user satisfaction. We propose a framework for the efficient and effective routing of a given question to the top-k potential experts (users) in a forum......, by utilizing both the content and structures of the forum system. First, we compute the expertise of users according to the content of the forum system--this is to estimate the probability of a user being an expert for a given question based on the previous question answering of the user. Specifically, we...

  19. Measuring Questions: Relevance and its Relation to Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H.

    2004-01-01

    The Boolean lattice of logical statements induces the free distributive lattice of questions. Inclusion on this lattice is based on whether one question answers another. Generalizing the zeta function of the question lattice leads to a valuation called relevance or bearing, which is a measure of the degree to which one question answers another. Richard Cox conjectured that this degree can be expressed as a generalized entropy. With the assistance of yet another important result from Janos Acz6l, I show that this is indeed the case; and that the resulting inquiry calculus is a natural generalization of information theory. This approach provides a new perspective of the Principle of Maximum Entropy.

  20. Sheep and Goat BSE Propagate More Efficiently than Cattle BSE in Human PrP Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A new variant of Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease (vCJD) was identified in humans and linked to the consumption of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)-infected meat products. Recycling of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM) has been proposed as origin of the BSE epidemic. During this epidemic, sheep and goats have been exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. It is well known that sheep can be experimentally infected with BSE and two field BSE-like cases have been reported in goats. In this work ...

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Elementary Mathematics Teachers’ Examination Questions And SBS Mathematics Questions According To Bloom’s Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study has been planned for the purpose of comparative analysis of examination questions of elementary mathematics teachers and mathematics questions of Placement Examination (SBS) for 6th, 7th and 8th grades in 2010 in terms of Bloom’s Taxonomy. Document analysis method was used in this study. Accordingly, 715 examination questions mathematics teachers working in 12 different primary schools asked in 2009-2010 academic year and 54 mathematics questions for 6th, 7th and 8th grades in SBS ...

  2. Teacher Questioning Behavior during Classroom Discussions of Short Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreal, Shirley Springer

    The questions asked by nine secondary school English teachers while teaching three short stories were recorded and analyzed using a modified version of the Purves and Rippere (1968) system. Response preferences were also gathered from each teacher and from each student, using special question-preference questionnaires. The major finding of the…

  3. Overview of the CLEF 2005 Multilingual Question Answering Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallin, A.; Magnini, B.; Giampiccolo, D.; Aunimo, L.; Ayache, C.; Osenova, P.; Penas, A.; de Rijke, M.; Sacaleanu, B.; Santos, D.; Sutcliffe, R.

    2005-01-01

    The general aim of the third CLEF Multilingual Question Answering Track was to set up a common and replicable evaluation framework to test both monolingual and cross-language Question Answering (QA) systems that process queries and documents in several European languages. Nine target languages and t

  4. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  5. Designing Essay Questions for Different Levels of Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Thomas R.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes that college teachers in most of the academic disciplines teach students to write essays in their given subject matter area. Bloom's "Taxonomy of Educational Objectives" is offered as a guide to organizing instruction and student learning around the demands of well-constructed essay questions. Sample questions and classroom…

  6. An Examination of Music Teacher Job Interview Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juchniewicz, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which interview questions principals consider most important when interviewing prospective music teachers. Additionally, data were examined to determine any differences between school grade level, school setting, or years of experience as a principal in preferences for specific interview questions.…

  7. Promoting Vicarious Learning of Physics Using Deep Questions with Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Gholson, Barry; Brittingham, Joshua K.; Williams, Joah L.; Shubeck, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments explored the role of vicarious "self" explanations in facilitating student learning gains during computer-presented instruction. In Exp. 1, college students with low or high knowledge on Newton's laws were tested in four conditions: (a) monologue (M), (b) questions (Q), (c) explanation (E), and (d) question + explanation (Q + E).…

  8. Agree or Disagree? Cognitive Processes in Answering Contrastive Survey Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Mak, Pim; Sanders, Ted; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2011-01-01

    Survey designers have long assumed that respondents who disagree with a negative question ("This policy is bad.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale) will agree with an equivalent positive question ("This policy is good.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale). However, experimental evidence has proven otherwise: Respondents are more likely to disagree with…

  9. New Responses to Enduring Questions in Religious and Theological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejk, Cate

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a response to two provocative questions about the relationship of theology to religious education posed by Norma Thompson in her Presidential address given at the annual meeting of APRRE in 1978. I offer contemporary answers to these questions from the perspective of a theological educator. First, I show how feminist theory and…

  10. Occurrence of Children's Echoic Responses According to Interlocutory Question Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Warren H.

    Dialogues with 22 echoic 3-year-old children were analyzed according to question type to determine whether some questions are more likely than others to trigger echoic responses. The children were asked to identify and manipulate toy objects such as a car, to identify a group of familiar objects such as a key or scissors, and to respond to…

  11. Improving passage retrieval in question answering using NLP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiedemann, J; Bento, C; Cardoso, A; Dias, G

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for the integration of linguistic information in passage retrieval in an open-source question answering system for Dutch. Annotation produced by the wide-coverage dependency parser Alpino is stored in multiple index layers to be matched with natural language question

  12. Intercultural Ethics: Questions of Methods in Language and Intercultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how questions of ethics and questions of method are intertwined and unavoidable in any serious study of language and intercultural communication. It argues that the focus on difference and solution orientations to intercultural conflict has been a fundamental driver for theory, data collection and methods in the field. These…

  13. Questioning and Feedback in Athletic Training Clinical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Mary G.; Guyer, M. Susan; Levy, Linda S.; Willeford, K. Sean; Sexton, Patrick; Gardner, Greg; Fincher, A. Louise

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide clinical instructors with information and ideas on how to utilize questioning and feedback during clinical experiences. Definitions, purpose, and examples of different questioning skills are provided. Corrective and directive feedback methods are defined with purposes and examples provided of each.…

  14. Automatic Generation and Ranking of Questions for Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Calvo, Rafael A.; Rus, Vasile

    2014-01-01

    Critical review skill is one important aspect of academic writing. Generic trigger questions have been widely used to support this activity. When students have a concrete topic in mind, trigger questions are less effective if they are too general. This article presents a learning-to-rank based system which automatically generates specific trigger…

  15. Can Consortial Reference Partners Answer Your Local Users' Library Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Bradley Wade

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore location-based questions as a weakness of virtual reference consortia and discuss how to mitigate related issues. Content analysis of how both local and non-local academic librarians responded to location-based questions provides insight into considerations academic libraries must make when participating…

  16. 10 CFR 830.203 - Unreviewed safety question process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreviewed safety question process. 830.203 Section 830... Unreviewed safety question process. (a) The contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE... a procedure for its USQ process on a schedule that allows DOE approval in a safety evaluation...

  17. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Native Americans (DHEW/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    The question and answer booklet highlights the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 which was designed to protect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families. The booklet attempts to answer 28 important questions concerning title I of the Act. Examples of questions…

  18. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2) "What…

  19. Multiple choice questions in electronics and electrical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    DAVIES, T J

    2013-01-01

    A unique compendium of over 2000 multiple choice questions for students of electronics and electrical engineering. This book is designed for the following City and Guilds courses: 2010, 2240, 2320, 2360. It can also be used as a resource for practice questions for any vocational course.

  20. The pragmatic interpretation of intonation in Greek wh-questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arvaniti, A.; Baltazani, M.; Gryllia, S.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigated the pragmatics of two melodies commonly used with Greek wh-questions, L*H L-!H%, described as the default, and LH* L-L% considered less frequent and polite. We tested two hypotheses: (a) the !H%-ending melody is associated with information seeking questions, while the

  1. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. E.; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Ekholm, O.;

    2013-01-01

    samples from 57 to 100 min/day. Question order was associated with the reported number of minutes spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and with prevalence of meeting the recommendation, whereas physical inactivity was associated with the differences in formulation of the question. Questionnaire...

  2. Open-ended questions in sensory testing practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Why use open-ended questions? This chapter provides an up-to-date overview on the use of open-ended questions in novel rapid sensory methodologies and the potential applications in which they could provide unique benefits. Next, the step-by-step process is described (from task performance to analysi

  3. Conceptual Question Response Times in Peer Instruction Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Lasry, Nathaniel; Lukoff, Brian; Schell, Julie; Mazur, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Classroom response systems are widely used in interactive teaching environments as a way to engage students by asking them questions. Previous research on the time taken by students to respond to conceptual questions has yielded insights on how students think and change conceptions. We measure the amount of time students take to respond to…

  4. Some Big Questions about Design in Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    This article asks five questions that lead us to the foundations of design practice in educational technology. Design processes structure time, space, place, activity, role, goal, and resource. For educational technology to advance in its understanding of design practice, it must question whether we have clear conceptions of how abstract…

  5. QTIPs: Questionable theoretical and interpretive practices in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Proulx, Travis

    2015-01-01

    One possible consequence of ideological homogeneity is the misinterpretation of data collected with otherwise solid methods. To help identify these issues outside of politically relevant research, we name and give broad descriptions to three questionable interpretive practices described by Duarte et al. and introduce three additional questionable theoretical practices that also reduce the theoretical power and paradigmatic scope of psychology.

  6. Negotiation of Meaning to Comprehend Hypertexts through Peer Questioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen; Hsieh, Pei-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Many college students who study English as a Foreign Language (EFL) are less-proficient readers as they have few opportunities to negotiate their perspectives for creating meaning through peer questioning in onsite instruction. This study reports on using online peer questioning to enhance less-proficient college students' negotiation of meaning…

  7. 49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... data do not appear reasonable, FTA will notify the reporting entity of this fact in writing, and request written justification from the reporting entity to either document the accuracy of the questioned data, or to revise the questioned data with a more accurate submission. Failure of a reporting...

  8. Questions related to Bitcoin and other Informational Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.

    2013-01-01

    A collection of questions about Bitcoin and its hypothetical relatives Bitguilder and Bitpenny is formulated. These questions concern technical issues about protocols, security issues, issues about the formalizations of informational monies in various contexts, and issues about forms of use and misu

  9. Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of…

  10. Script Concordance Testing: More Cases or More Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Lambert, Carole; Carriere, Benoit; Van der Vleuten, C.

    2009-01-01

    Script concordance test (SCT) is a case based assessment format of clinical reasoning in which questions are nested into several cases. Recent results using Q4 format suggest that nested questions contribute more to reliability of measure than cases. The present study aims at documenting variance components associated with SCT cases and nested…

  11. Questions about Brain Development = Preguntas sobre el desarrollo del cerebro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    Noting that new research shows that a baby's earliest years shape how he or she grows later in life, this brochure, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides brief answers to some important questions parents may have about their baby's brain. The questions answered are: (1) "Why is brain development a popular subject lately?; (2)…

  12. The Art of Questions: Inquiry, the CCSS, and School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadham, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the association among inquiry, the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and school librarians. It explains the significance of asking questions, and describes the characteristics of the questions that are central to inquiry learning. The role of school librarians in inquiry learning and the implementation of CCSS is also…

  13. Thinking Levels of Questions in Christian Reading Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    If Christian schools desire students to achieve higher-level thinking, then the textbooks that teachers use should reflect such thinking. Using Risner's (1987) methodology, raters classified questions from two Christian publishers' fifth grade reading textbooks based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy (Anderson et al., 2001). The questions in the A…

  14. Assessing the quality of a student-generated question repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find that students produce questions of high quality. More than three-quarters of questions fall into categories beyond simple recall, in contrast to similar studies of student-authored content in different subject domains. Similarly, the quality of student-authored explanations for questions was also high, with approximately 60% of all explanations classified as being of high or outstanding quality. Overall, 75% of questions met combined quality criteria, which we hypothesize is due in part to the in-class scaffolding activities that we provided for students ahead of requiring them to author questions. This work presents the first systematic investigation into the quality of student produced assessment material in an introductory physics context, and thus complements and extends related studies in other disciplines.

  15. How do 5-year-olds understand questions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauerland, Uli; Grohmann, Kleanthes; Teresa Guasti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    the question word was related to the sentential subject or object position of the verb. The findings show that there is considerable variation among languages, but the two factors mentioned consistently affect children’s performance. The cross-linguistic variation shows that three linguistic factors facilitate......The comprehension of constituent questions is an important topic for language acquisition research and for applications in the diagnosis of language impairment. This article presents the results of a study investigating the comprehension of different types of questions by 5-year-old, typically...... developing children across 19 European countries, 18 different languages, and 7 language (sub-)families. The study investigated the effects of two factors on question formation: (a) whether the question contains a simple interrogative word like ‘who’ or a complex one like ‘which princess’, and (b) whether...

  16. Atypical Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Evolution after Electroconvulsive Therapy for Catatonic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iria Grande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case report of an 80-year-old woman who presented with symptomatology compatible with an episode of major depression with catatonia. After psychiatric admission, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT was applied, but symptoms progressed with cognitive impairment, bradykinesia, widespread stiffness, postural tremor, and gait disturbance. After compatible magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, diffusion changes, and electroencephalogram (EEG findings the case was reoriented to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. The genetic study found a methionine/valine heterozygosity at codon 129 of the prion protein gene PrPSc. On followup, a significant clinical recovery turned out. For this reason, EEG and MRI were repeated and confirmed the findings. The patient subsequently demonstrated progressive clinical deterioration and died 21 months later. The diagnosis was verified postmortem by neuropathology. The vCJD subtype MV2 is indeed characterized by early and prominent psychiatric symptoms and a prolonged disease duration however no frank clinical recovery has before been reported.

  17. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoy, Emmanuel E; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A; Greenlee, Justin J; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-30

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

  18. Temporal Preparation for Speaking in Question-Answer Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Lilla; De Ruiter, Jan P.; Levinson, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    In every-day conversations, the gap between turns of conversational partners is most frequently between 0 and 200 ms. We were interested how speakers achieve such fast transitions. We designed an experiment in which participants listened to pre-recorded questions about images presented on a screen and were asked to answer these questions. We tested whether speakers already prepare their answers while they listen to questions and whether they can prepare for the time of articulation by anticipating when questions end. In the experiment, it was possible to guess the answer at the beginning of the questions in half of the experimental trials. We also manipulated whether it was possible to predict the length of the last word of the questions. The results suggest when listeners know the answer early they start speech production already during the questions. Speakers can also time when to speak by predicting the duration of turns. These temporal predictions can be based on the length of anticipated words and on the overall probability of turn durations. PMID:28270782

  19. [Building questions in forensic medicine and their logical basis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The authors characterize in brief the requirements to the correct formulation of the questions posed to forensic medical experts with special reference to the mistakes made in building the questions and the ways to avoid them. This article actually continues the series of publications of the authors concerned with the major logical errors encountered in expert conclusions. Further publications will be dedicated to the results of the in-depth analysis of the logical errors contained in the questions posed to forensic medical experts and encountered in the expert conclusions.

  20. Wh-interrogative formats used for questioning and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Vöge, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to a critical discussion of how ‘question' and ‘questioning' may be defined in terms of form and function by analyzing the interactional usage of two apparently synonymous ‘question' words, German warum (why) and wieso (why) and their common English translation why. Warum...... and why are employed for two different interactional achievements. Wieso marks the utterance as an information request. In this respect, it is affiliative. In contrast, warum points to something wrong and is thus complaint implicative. Recipients orient to warum as disaffiliative. A contrastive analysis...

  1. Reducing the number of questions in nonlocal games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, M.; Oikhberg, T.; Palazuelos, C.

    2016-10-01

    We show how a vector-valued version of Schechtman's empirical method can be used to reduce the number of questions in a nonlocal game G while preserving the quotient β∗(G)/β(G) of the quantum over the classical bias. We apply our method to the Khot-Vishnoi game, with exponentially many questions per player, to produce a family of games indexed in n with polynomially many (N ≈ n8) questions and n answers per player so that the ratio of the quantum over the classical bias is Ω(n/log2 n).

  2. Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groome, Meghan

    This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate

  3. Sets of Large Doubling and a Question of Rudin

    CERN Document Server

    Lewko, Allison

    2010-01-01

    We construct a $\\Lambda(4)$ set which is not a finite union of $B_2[G]$ sets, answering a question of Rudin. Our construction is an interesting combinatorial object in its own right, and provides a counterexample to a weaker characterization of $\\Lambda(4)$ sets than stated in Rudin's original question. It also serves as a counterexample to several natural conjectures in the pursuit of an "anti-Freiman" theory in additive combinatorics. In particular, we answer a question along these lines posed by O'Bryant.

  4. Phenomenology of the innovative question when based on wonderment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria; Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2015-01-01

    This paper questions, how we, from a phenomenological point of view, can describe and understand the phenomenology of innovative questions and processes of questioning when based in a wonderdriven approach to innovation and entrepreneurship. Approach: In our research we take on a phenomenological...... new products but also to get in a resonance with some kind of meaningfulness. Value/ originality: The study has originality because of the phenomenological research-approach to innovation and entrepreneurship and because of the philosophic-hermeneutic and wonder-driven approach to innovation...

  5. Ontologies and adaptivity in dialogue for question answering

    CERN Document Server

    Sonntag, D

    2010-01-01

    Question answering (QA) has become one of the fastest growing topics in computational linguistics and information access. To advance research in the area of dialogue-based question answering, we propose a combination of methods from different scientific fields (i.e., Information Retrieval, Dialogue Systems, Semantic Web, and Machine Learning). This book sheds light on adaptable dialogue-based question answering. We demonstrate the technical and computational feasibility of the proposed ideas, the introspective methods in particular, by beginning with an extensive introduction to the dialogical

  6. Questioning As a Pedagogical Tool for Eliciting Student Generated Questions During the Teaching of Acid-base Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, teachers simply taught problem-solving by explaining the worked-out examples taken from textbooks and students were expected to listen quietly, copy the solution to the problem, and then work independently at their desks. But a large body of research notes that guiding students to develop a solution pathway with questioning is more effective than simply explaining the sequence of steps to solve the problem. Students involved in question- and-answer sessions are more attentive than those who listen passively to teacher explanations and they are more likely to generate questions. The questions students ask during a lesson perform a number of important functions, including providing the teacher with valuable information about students’ understanding and misunderstanding, fostering self-regulation, inviting classroom discussions and aiding comprehension of contents presented. The skill of posing questions during classroom instruction is often under-valued and under taught in today’s classrooms. To encourage students to ask quality and thought provoking questions related to the contents taught, explicit instruction is required. This paper, therefore, qualitatively reports factors that foster student generated questions during the problem-solving instruction involving acid-base titration problem.

  7. Frequently Asked Questions about Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Frequently Asked Questions about Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is a Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP)? Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a lung ...

  8. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... average person can live if they smoke cigarettes? Ivan Montoya: The lifetime of a person depends on ... questions and answers is available on the NIDA Web site at Drug and Alcohol Chat Day . Fall ...

  9. Signs of Bullying: Important Questions for Parents to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Signs of Bullying: Important Questions for Parents to Ask Page Content ... messages to disappear after a period of time. Bullying Signs Kids who bully often learn the behavior ...

  10. Sleep board review questions: medications and their adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Question: Which of the following medications is not matched with a characteristic side effect? 1. Pramipexole -Pathological gambling 2. Eszopiclone - Unpleasant taste 3. Modafinil - Headache 4. Mirtazapine - Weight Loss

  11. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  12. Reviewing the regulatory barriers for nanomedicine: global questions and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Diana M; Gatof, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Nanomedicine will play an increasing role in prevention and treatment across the entire healthcare spectrum. However, their precise market size, economic value and areas of application remain unclear. This opacity, including the question of what constitutes nanomedicine matters, especially when considered alongside the key regulatory questions and concerns. This article begins by placing these key questions into context in relation to the current scientific state of the art, focusing particular attention on the human health and safety context. In exploring these central questions surrounding the regulation of nanomedicine, this perspective also explores existing and suggested frameworks that aim to deal with emerging technologies more generally. It then outlines priority areas for action and general conclusions specific to nanomedicine.

  13. Questions and Answers on Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autoimmune Coalition Your Privacy Get Involved Donate Grassroots Fundraising ? Advocate for Change Take our Survey Information List ... Common Thread Coping Tools InFocus Newsletter Questions & Answers Fundraising Grassroots Fundraising Workplace Giving Special Events AARDA on ...

  14. Review Raises Questions about Herbal Meds for Heart Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163808.html Review Raises Questions About Herbal Meds for Heart Problems ... popular among people with heart disease, a new review suggests. "Physicians should improve their knowledge of herbal ...

  15. Stopping and Questioning Suspected Shoplifters Without Creating Civil Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jack R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Legal problems concerned with shoplifting suspects are addressed, including common law, criminal penalties, and the merchant's liability. Tangential questions and answers are presented along with discussion of pertinent court cases. (LBH)

  16. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  17. Answers to Your Questions about Transgender Individuals and Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... References: American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2006). Answers to your questions about individuals with ...

  18. Souls in Jeopardy: Questions and Innovations for Bibliotherapy with Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrixhe, Jonathan J.

    2010-01-01

    How is bibliotherapy with fiction hypothesized to work, and what are the ideal conditions for treatment success? Patterns in the bibliotherapy literature are explored. Questions are posed and suggestions offered regarding the practice of bibliotherapy with fiction.

  19. The recent evolution of the question "What is life"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The question "What is life?" is absent from the writings of present-day biologists and scientists. However, an answer to this question, even if only partial, is needed for successful completion of projects in astrobiology and synthetic biology. The reasons for this absence are metaphysical, epistemological, and historical. No one has a full answer to this question, but there are many good reasons to keep posing it. Answers are no longer sought in the existence of strengths or mechanisms specific to life. The secret of life has been unveiled and it is nothing other than physical chemistry. What remains to be understood is the way the characteristics of organisms have emerged and been combined within one unique "object." The answer to the question "What is life?" is now looked for in the scenario that generated life.

  20. A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Bas; Taddeo, Antonio; Van der Vegt, Wim; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Giesbers, B., Taddeo, A., van der Vegt, W., van Bruggen, J., Koper, R. (2007). A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper. Paper presented at the Cooper workshop, September 18, Crete, Greece.

  1. Sociodemographic differences in dietary habits described by food frequency questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Haraldsdottír, Johanna; Holm, Lotte;

    2003-01-01

    be a valuable supplement to traditional quantitative dietary surveys in monitoring sociodemographic changes in eating patterns. The results also underline the influence of sociodemographic status on dietary habits. SPONSORSHIP: The Danish Nutrition Council funded the study.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether a modest number of food frequency questions are sufficient to describe sociodemographic differences in dietary habits, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics of subjects adhering to food-based dietary guidelines operationalised in a "healthy-diet index...... frequency questions, a question on type of fat spreads used on bread, questions on seven sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: The summary of the healthy-diet index showed that the subjects who adhered to food-based dietary guidelines (top quintile) compared to those who did not (bottom quintile) were most...

  2. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH What causes pulmonary hypertension in children? I’ve ... of what I read is about adults with PH. What are the primary differences between PH in ...

  3. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families Guide Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  4. Watching Charlotte Climb: Little Steps toward Big Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, W. Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about big questions of meaning and value that young people pose and how to respond to their concerns about big questions. He relates the story of his granddaughter, Charlotte, who, at the age of one, would climb up on the stairs not from choice or whim, but "because they're there." For her, it was not play, but…

  5. Questions Concerning Matrix Algebras and Invariance of Spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bruce A Barnes

    2003-02-01

    Let and be unital Banach algebras with a subalgebra of . Denote the algebra of all × matrices with entries from by $M_n(A)$. In this paper we prove some results concerning the open question: If is inverse closed in , then is $M_n(A)$ inverse closed in $M_n(B)$? We also study related questions in the setting where is a symmetric Banach ∗-algebra.

  6. How to make allocation decisions: a theory and test questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Hospital administrators are regularly faced with having to cut patient services. Such decisions are essentially questions of distributive justice, and administrators may welcome some guidance. We begin with a key idea from the most influential theory of justice of our times, that of John Rawls, and generate from it a series of test questions against which the ethical dimensions of allocation decisions can be judged.

  7. Interviewer Effects on a Network-Size Filter Question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josten Michael

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that survey interviewers may be tempted to manipulate answers to filter questions in a way that minimizes the number of follow-up questions. This becomes relevant when ego-centered network data are collected. The reported network size has a huge impact on interview duration if multiple questions on each alter are triggered. We analyze interviewer effects on a network-size question in the mixed-mode survey “Panel Study ‘Labour Market and Social Security’” (PASS, where interviewers could skip up to 15 follow-up questions by generating small networks. Applying multilevel models, we find almost no interviewer effects in CATI mode, where interviewers are paid by the hour and frequently supervised. In CAPI, however, where interviewers are paid by case and no close supervision is possible, we find strong interviewer effects on network size. As the area-specific network size is known from telephone mode, where allocation to interviewers is random, interviewer and area effects can be separated. Furthermore, a difference-in-difference analysis reveals the negative effect of introducing the follow-up questions in Wave 3 on CAPI network size. Attempting to explain interviewer effects we neither find significant main effects of experience within a wave, nor significantly different slopes between interviewers.

  8. Question asking by family caregivers in hospice interdisciplinary team meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Washington, Karla T; Regehr, Kelly; Wilder, Heidi M

    2010-04-01

    This article reports findings from a pilot study that enabled family caregivers to use videophone technology to participate in hospice interdisciplinary team meetings. The goal of the study was to ascertain which issues were important to caregivers and the hospice team. A qualitative content analysis of video-recorded team meetings between team members and caregivers was conducted. In a sample of 12 caregivers in 36 discussions, caregivers asked a total of 137 questions, with the majority being Yes/No questions (45.1%), primarily used to seek clarification (19.6%). Hospice staff asked 396 questions, with the majority consisting of Yes/No questions (66.5%), mainly used to ask about the overall condition of the patient (22.2%). Data from this study suggest that when given the opportunity to participate in hospice team meetings, caregivers will ask questions of hospice staff. In addition, in light of prior research, this study's findings suggest that caregivers may have questions that go unaddressed, specifically regarding pain and medication.

  9. Wh-questions: Moving beyond the first Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Jill G.; de Villiers, Peter A.; Roeper, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a feature-checking theory of wh-movement that attempts to accommodate both adult grammar and the path of acquisition by which children handle long distance movement, indirect questions and partial movement. Partial movement is not a grammatical option in English but it is adopted as an option in development. The account makes several predictions about the performance of children with Specific Language impairment (SLI), and also predicts a particular advantage for children who speak African American English (AAE) over those who speak Mainstream American English (MAE). The empirical data are taken from a study of 590 children, both typically-developing and language-impaired, and both AAE and MAE speaking, aged four to nine years. The tasks involved answering wh-questions after stories as part of the field-testing of a new language assessment instrument. The questions included multi-clause questions with or without medial wh-complementizers. The predictions are borne out that children with language impairment have prolonged difficulty with real long distance movement and medial questions, and that children who speak AAE are at an advantage in avoiding certain errors (partial movement) because of the dialect’s characteristic marking of indirect questions via inversion in the lower clause. PMID:21857747

  10. Children’s questions as a base of teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Branka S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers interrelationships between children’s questions and teaching and learning in the light of experimental studies on the role and aim of children’s questions in Nature and Society teaching in the third grade of primary school. The experiment comprising two parallel groups was carried out on the sample of 150 respondents from two primary schools in Šabac during the second term of the academic year 2002/2003. The present paper involves a portion of the results obtained for the type of questions children asked during teaching process as classified by independent observers; average distribution of some types of questions; qualitative analysis of discussions conducted with children after two classes where identical teaching content was presented in groups E and K; qualitative analysis of two interviews conducted with teachers after those classes in groups E and K; observers’ general impression of classes in groups E and K. The results showed that teaching based on children’s questions encourages children’s proactive attitude towards learning and leads to its higher cognitive efficiency and that children express a high degree of satisfaction by participating in thus organized work during classes and preference of atmosphere present in the classroom during such classes compared to the atmosphere during classes managed in a traditional way. Communication between children and between teacher and children is less formal, more relaxed and dynamic, which all produces motivational effects on children makes them more engaged in learning during teaching whose base is in their questions and not in teaching managed by teacher’s questions.

  11. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process.

  12. Intention-to-treat. What is the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has become commonplace for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs to be analyzed according to Intention-to-Treat (ITT principles in which data from all subjects are used regardless of the subjects' adherence to protocol. While ITT analyses can provide useful information in some cases, they do not answer the question that motivates many RCTs, namely, whether the treatments differ in efficacy. ITT tends to reduce information by combining two questions, whether the intervention is effective and whether, as implemented, it has good compliance. Because these questions may be separate there is a risk of misuse. Two examples are presented that demonstrate this potential for abuse: a study on the effectiveness of vitamin E in reducing cardiovascular risk and comparisons of low fat and low carbohydrate diets. In the first case, a treatment that is demonstrably effective is described as without merit. In the second, ITT describes as the same, two diets that actually have different outcomes. These misuses of ITT are not atypical and are not technical problems in statistics but have real consequences for scientific principles and health recommendations. ITT analyses may answer the question of what happens when treatments are recommended but are inappropriate where separate information on adherence and performance is available. It is proposed that results of RCTs, or any experimental study, be reported, not in terms of the analyses that were performed, but rather in terms of the questions that the analyses can answer properly.

  13. Molyneux's Question: A Window on Crossmodal Interplay in Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Occelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1688, the Irish scientist William Molyneux sent a letter to the philosopher John Locke in which he asked whether a man who had been born blind and whose experience of the world was based on senses other than vision, would be able to distinguish and name a globe and a cube by sight alone, once he had been enabled to see. This issue immediately raised considerable interest amongst philosophers, who, for centuries, have continued to speculate about how this issue might be resolved. More recently, the possibility of corrective surgery for people born with congenital cataracts, has offered a valuable opportunity to explore this topic experimentally. A discussion of how Molyneux’s question has been addressed over the centuries, allows us to investigate a number of intellectual challenges, involving a variety of fields, ranging from philosophy, psychology and the cognitive sciences, to neuroscience. For instance, Molyenux’s question raises the question of whether sensory experience is specific to each sensory modality, or rather supramodal, and if a transfer of knowledge across modalities can be established. Molyneux’s question is also relevant to the discussion of whether, how and to what extent a concept of space can be developed by blind people. More generally, it concerns the idea of how conceptual knowledge is acquired and processed when vision is lacking. The present paper aims to provide an overview of all the issues raised by Molyenux’s question.

  14. Intention-to-treat. What is the question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D

    2009-01-09

    It has become commonplace for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) to be analyzed according to Intention-to-Treat (ITT) principles in which data from all subjects are used regardless of the subjects' adherence to protocol. While ITT analyses can provide useful information in some cases, they do not answer the question that motivates many RCTs, namely, whether the treatments differ in efficacy. ITT tends to reduce information by combining two questions, whether the intervention is effective and whether, as implemented, it has good compliance. Because these questions may be separate there is a risk of misuse. Two examples are presented that demonstrate this potential for abuse: a study on the effectiveness of vitamin E in reducing cardiovascular risk and comparisons of low fat and low carbohydrate diets. In the first case, a treatment that is demonstrably effective is described as without merit. In the second, ITT describes as the same, two diets that actually have different outcomes. These misuses of ITT are not atypical and are not technical problems in statistics but have real consequences for scientific principles and health recommendations. ITT analyses may answer the question of what happens when treatments are recommended but are inappropriate where separate information on adherence and performance is available. It is proposed that results of RCTs, or any experimental study, be reported, not in terms of the analyses that were performed, but rather in terms of the questions that the analyses can answer properly.

  15. Quantum Gravity, May Not Be The Right Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Hontas

    2017-01-01

    To get sensible answers one must ask the right questions. ``How can we quantize gravity'' may not be the right question to ask if our goal is to unify quantum field theory (QFT) with general relativity (GR). The right question may be how can we relativize quantum field theory. The best and brighest physicist of the last 80 years have tried to answer the quantization question and gotten answers that while interesting, like loop quantum gravity and string/M theory, have not be accepted by all as being the answer. In this talk it will be proposed that the better question to ask is how can we realtivize quantum field theory. Relativization means to make a theory comply with Einsteins relativity. QFT is a result of the relativization of quantum theory. Quantum gravity would be the result of a sort of reverse relativization of General Relativity so we can quantize it. It may be that nature does not work that way. It may be that the unified theory of GR+QFT will be realtivized. In this talk I will briefly state the five axioms of realtivization, and show how to write the relativized standard model and use it to make predictions for particle physics and astrophysical observations.

  16. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  17. CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, T.T.

    1993-11-09

    This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

  18. [Quinze questions importantes à se poser en oncologie en 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Jean-Yves; Tredan, Olivier; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Rivoire, Michel; Mehlen, Patrick; Puisieux, Alain; Bachelot, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Cancers can now be classified by multidimensional criteria including tumour site, histology, primary - "driver" - molecular alterations, secondary molecular alterations, characteristics of the immune stroma, and genetic profile of the patient. The development of tools for the characterisation of the cancers, as well as novel molecular and immune therapeutics are evolving at an unprecedented pace. In 2012, a list of future challenges was identified at the occasion of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 50(th) anniversary. Three years after, it is interesting to look back at the questions addressed then and to assess the progress of these questions. We propose here a novel set questions which have emerged from the recent publications in this area.

  19. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  20. A system dynamic model for analyzing online question & answer markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Amani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there have been growing interests on developing websites to build a link between various groups of people to share their knowledge such as Google service. This kind of activity helps fast and reliable distribution of knowledge since someone disseminates a question and various people attempt to provide some responses. This paper presents a system dynamic method for investigating the relationships between various components of a benchmark site. The proposed study develops closed loop dynamic among various components of the survey and provides some necessary actions for development of such systems. The results of our survey have indicated that the new forum could end up having significant number of unanswered questions. Therefore, researchers who work for this forum are suggested to increase their skills and their response rates to reduce the rate of unanswered questions.

  1. Relativity and the question of discretization in astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Edelen, Dominic G B

    1970-01-01

    Theoretical researches in general relativity and observational data from galactic astronomy combine in this volume in contributions to one of the oldest questions of natural philosophy: Is the structure of the physical world more adequately described by a continuous or a discrete mode of representation? Since the days of the Pythagoreans, this question has surfaced from time to time in various guises in science as well as in philosophy. One of the most bitterly contested and illuminating controversies between the continuous and the discrete viewpoints is to be found in the wave versus corpuscular description of optical phenom­ enae. This controversy was not resolved to the satisfaction of most of its protaganists until the development of the quantum theory. However, several obscurities that still becloud the question suggest that some deeper formulation may be necessary before more satisfactory answers can be given 1. The firm establishment of the validity of quantized structure and discrete energy distribut...

  2. Towards the full information chain theory: question difficulty

    CERN Document Server

    Perevalov, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    A general problem of optimal information acquisition for its use in decision making problems is considered. This motivates the need for developing quantitative measures of information sources' capabilities for supplying accurate information depending on the particular content of the latter. In this article, the notion of a real valued difficulty functional for questions identified with partitions of problem parameter space is introduced and the overall form of this functional is derived that satisfies a particular system of reasonable postulates. It is found that, in an isotropic case, the resulting difficulty functional depends on a single scalar function on the parameter space that can be interpreted -- using parallels with classical thermodynamics -- as a temperature-like quantity, with the question difficulty itself playing the role of thermal energy. Quantitative relationships between difficulty functionals of different questions are also explored.

  3. On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold;

    2013-01-01

    In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...

  4. Development of Yes/No Arabic Question Answering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa N Bdour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing Question Answering systems has been one of the important research issues because it requires insights from a variety of disciplines, including, Artificial Intelligence, Information Retrieval, Information Extraction, Natural Language Processing, and Psychology. In this paper we realize a formal model for a lightweight semantic–based open domain yes/no Arabic question answering system based on paragraph retrieval (with variable length. We propose a constrained semantic representation. Using an explicit unification framework based on semantic similarities and query expansion (synonyms and antonyms. This frequently improves the precision of the system. Employing the passage retrieval system achieves a better precision by retrieving more paragraphs that contain relevant answers to the question; It significantly reduces the amount of text to be processed by the system.

  5. A survey on question answering systems with classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mishra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question answering systems (QASs generate answers of questions asked in natural languages. Early QASs were developed for restricted domains and have limited capabilities. Current QASs focus on types of questions generally asked by users, characteristics of data sources consulted, and forms of correct answers generated. Research in the area of QASs began in 1960s and since then, a large number of QASs have been developed. To identify the future scope of research in this area, the need of a comprehensive survey on QASs arises naturally. This paper surveys QASs and classifies them based on different criteria. We identify the current status of the research in the each category of QASs, and suggest future scope of the research.

  6. A question of ethics, not nationalism: author's response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Siddarth

    2017-01-27

    The aim of the comment "Use of pellet guns for crowd control in Kashmir: How lethal is 'non-lethal'?" was neither to disparage the armed forces, nor recommend counterinsurgency strategies, nor support any particular community or group. It sought to raise discussions around the question pointed out by the responder himself, namely, "the ethical point of view" on the use of pellet guns in controlling violent mobs. The author also feels that the question is not so much about "favouring" the protestors or the security forces, but whether an instrument that causes significant fatalities and morbidities among bystanders should continue to be used as a method of crowd control.

  7. Questioning in Distributed Product Development Teams: Supporting Shared Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Distributed teams are an increasingly common feature of New Product Development (NPD). Key to the success of these teams is the development of both short and longerterm shared understanding. Lack of shared understanding has been recognized as a significant challenge, particularly in the context...... globally distributed NPD activities. Poor shared understanding can ultimately result in delays and rework. One major antecedent of shared understanding development is question asking. This work uses a quasiexperimental study to test the impact of questioning support on different types of distributed teams...

  8. Dialogue in mathematics classrooms: Beyond question-and- answer methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Brodie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores different kinds of interaction observed in South African mathematics classrooms in order to unpack the notion of participation in mathematics learning. It argues that conventional question-and-answer methods do not promote the kind of interaction that the new South African curriculum calls for. It presents more appropriate kinds of interactions, where teachers maintain high task demands, respond to genuine learner questions and support conversations among learners. The paper argues that combinations of different kinds of interaction are  most likely to support learner participation and mathematical thinking in classrooms.

  9. Some open questions in the theory of generalized permutable subgroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A subgroup H of a group G is said to be weakly s-supplemented in G if H has a supplement T in G such that H ∩ T HsG, where HsG is the largest s-permutable subgroup of G contained in H. This paper constructs an example to show that the open questions 6.3 and 6.4 in J Algebra, 315: 192–209 (2007) have negative solutions, and shows that in many cases Question 6.4 is positive. A series of known results are unified and generalized.

  10. Multiple - Choice Questions And its Design In English Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹佳蕾

    2005-01-01

    Multiple- choice tests give students the opportunity to select responses to test questions from among a number of specific choice. This format is efficient and practical. Carefully designed multiple- choice questions can provide valid information about student's knowledge and their ability to reason logically and apply complex thinking processes to solve problems. In this paper, the author explore the advantages and disadvantages of MCQ tests and suggest some useful tips for writing MCQs , the aim is to give some suggestions for improvement and use them more efficiently in our teaching and testing.

  11. On some questions of Fisk and Br\\"and\\'en

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Rintaro

    2010-01-01

    P. Br\\"and\\'en recently proved a conjecture due to S. Fisk, R. P. Stanley, P. R. W. McNamara and B. E. Sagan. In addition, P. Br\\"and\\'en gave a partial answer to a question posed by S. Fisk regarding the distribution of zeros of polynomials under the action of certain non-linear operators. In this paper, we give an extension to a result of P. Br\\"and\\'en, and we also answer a question posed by S. Fisk.

  12. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.

  13. Questions Students Ask: The Red-Eye Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the question of why a dog's eyes appear red and glow when a flash photograph is taken. Conditions for the red-eye effect, light paths involved, structure of the eye, and typical cameras and lenses are discussed. Also notes differences between the eyes of nocturnal animals and humans. (JN)

  14. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  15. Overview of the CLEF 2004 Multilingual Question Answering Track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnini, B.; Vallin, A.; Ayache, C.; Erbach, G.; Penas, A.; de Rijke, M.; Rocha, P.; Simov, K.; Sutcliffe, R.; Peter, C.; Clough, P.D.; Jones, G.J.F.; Gonzalo, J.; Kluck, M.; Magnini, B.

    2005-01-01

    Following the pilot Question Answering Track at CLEF 2003, a new evaluation exercise for multilingual QA systems took place in 2004. This paper reports on the novelties introduced in the new campaign and on participants¿ results. Almost all the cross-language combinations between nine source languag

  16. Debating Digital Childhoods: Questions Concerning Technologies, Economies and Determinisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The learning child, the child that is the object of interest through modernity and into mutated modernity, in the knowledge economy, is a digital age identity of great interest. Talk about childhood and the digital age invokes a range of questions about what is happening at this time and with these technologies and that creates more or less of a…

  17. Questions of Ethics and Loyalty: An Assistant Principal's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by real-life events, this case describes the dilemma of a novice assistant principal who must balance her role as an administrator at her high school campus where a cousin's son, Eddie, recently enrolled and is proving to be disruptive the first month of school. Troubled by questions of ethics and loyalty, the issue is complicated after…

  18. Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

  19. Classification and Framing in the Case Method: Discussion Leaders' Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, James

    2010-01-01

    Basil Bernstein's classification and framing was adopted as a theoretical model to analyse the instruction of two university professors who incorporated case studies into their graduate business and education courses. Classification and framing allows for a meaningful analysis of the discussion leader's questions that facilitate students'…

  20. Stuttering and Language Ability in Children: Questioning the Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article explains why it is reasonable to question the view that stuttering and language ability in children are linked--the so-called "stuttering-language connection." Method: Studies that focused on syntactic, morphologic, and lexical development in children who stutter (CWS) are examined for evidence to support the following…

  1. The Answers to Questions That Teachers Most Frequently Ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie Wofford

    This book presents a teacher's responses to various real questions asked by student teachers and beginning teachers. The nine chapters are: (1) "It Don't Mean a Thing if It Ain't Got That Swing: Teacher Attitude"; (2) "Who, What, When, Where, and Why, Oh Why, Me?: Organization"; (3) "A Little Song, A Little Dance, A Little Quiz Tomorrow: Delivery…

  2. Addressing Parental Vaccination Questions in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E.; Burningham, Jana; Eden, Lacey M.; Macintosh, Janelle L. B.; Beckstrand, Renea L.

    2016-01-01

    School nurses work in a unique environment with key opportunities to address parental concerns and questions regarding their child's health. A common concern for parents during school enrollment is childhood vaccination safety and efficacy. As public health leaders, school nurses are well respected among parents, therefore school nurses are in a…

  3. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  4. Identification of Conflicting Questions in the PARES System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avgoustos Tsinakos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Student testing and knowledge assessment is a significant aspect of the learning process. In a number of cases, it is expedient not to present the exact same test to all learners all the time (Pritchett, 1999. This may be desired so that cheating in the exam is made harder to carry out or so that the learners can take several practice tests on the same subject as part of the course.This study presents an e-testing platform, namely PARES, which aims to provide assessment services to academic staff by facilitating the creation and management of question banks and powering the delivery of nondeterministically generated test suites. PARES uses a conflict detection algorithm based on the vector space model to compute the similarity between questions and exclude questions which are deemed to have an unacceptably large similarity from appearing in the same test suite. The conflict detection algorithm and a statistical evaluation of its accuracy are presented. Evaluation results show that PARES succeeds in detecting question types at about 90% and its efficiency can be further increased through continuing education and enrichment of the system’s correlation vocabulary.

  5. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    to extend the applicability of the RHC system are providing the continuous impetus for research on RHC systems. This paper summarizes the important issues involved in the research on RHC system, whereby ten questions and answers concerning the RHC system are discussed, which will help researchers to conduct...

  6. Time Advice and Learning Questions in Computer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Students (N = 101) used an introductory text and a computer simulation to learn fundamental concepts about statistical analyses (e.g., analysis of variance, regression analysis and General Linear Model). Each learner was randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (with or without time advice) x 3 (with learning questions and corrective feedback, with…

  7. Good Questions: Great Ways to Differentiate Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Using differentiated instruction in the classroom can be a challenge, especially when teaching mathematics. This book cuts through the difficulties with two powerful and universal strategies that teachers can use across all math content: Open Questions and Parallel Tasks. Specific strategies and examples for grades Kindergarten - 8 are organized…

  8. Student Engagement Research in Higher Education: Questioning an Academic Orthodoxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepke, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that student engagement research is not often investigated critically. It attempts to change this. After briefly outlining a conceptual framework for student engagement, it explores three critical questions about it. First, it asks whether in trying to be all things in teaching and learning, student engagement focuses too…

  9. Encouraging Citizenship in Science Education: Continuing Questions and Hopeful Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" invokes questions intended to further the discourse of citizenship in science and mathematics education, such as, How do we define "citizen" and "democracy"? Is our call for student action hypocritical? Does positioning…

  10. Self-Injury: Answers to Questions for Parents, Teachers, & Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Bruce L.

    This guide to preventing self-injurious behavior, in question-and-answer format, is intended for parents, teachers, and other caregivers of people with disabilities. It describes the more common types of self-injurious behavior, discusses methods for identifying causes of self injury, and outlines interventions. Specifically, the guide covers: (1)…

  11. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender and Questioning Youth Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This brief presents general trends in the social and emotional well-being of youth who identify as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (GLBTQ), followed by a guide of sexual orientation definitions. Additionally, readers learn a series of steps that schools must address in order to build inclusive, safe, and effective schools for…

  12. Disfluencies and gaze aversion in unreliable responses to survey questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schober, Michael F.; Conrad, Frederick G.; Dijkstra, Wil; Ongena, Yfke P.

    2012-01-01

    When survey respondents answer survey questions, they can also produce "paradata" (Couper 2000, 2008): behavioral evidence about their response process. The study reported here demonstrates that two kinds of respondent paradata - fluency of speech and gaze direction during answers - identify answers

  13. Good science, bad science: Questioning research practices in psychological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation we have questioned the current research practices in psychological science and thereby contributed to the current discussion about the credibility of psychological research. We specially focused on the problems with the reporting of statistical results and showed that reporting

  14. Iranian Students' Performance on the IELTS: A Question of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Farid; Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension has won much effort on the part of teachers, testers, and researchers in Iran due to the fact that the immediate need of Iranian students at different university levels is the ability to read in order to get new information on the topic they are studying. The question raised is how much reading practice can move learners…

  15. Classroom Environments of Respect for Questioning and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Yvette Powell; Maldonado, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Questioning and discussion techniques are effective instructional methods that develop critical thinking and problem solving skills. There is often inconsistent implementation of these techniques, which can result in a negative effect on student achievement. This case study explored elementary, middle, and high school teachers and evaluators'…

  16. Challenging Multiple-Choice Questions to Engage Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkman, Dennis D.; Johnson, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a technique for engaging critical thinking on multiple-choice exams. University students were encouraged to "challenge" the validity of any exam question they believed to be unfair (e.g., more than one equally correct answer, ambiguous wording, etc.). The number of valid challenges a student wrote was a better…

  17. Using Talk to Scaffold Referential Questions for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2012-01-01

    Research from interactionist second language acquisition and sociocultural theoretical perspectives shows that referential questions are important for learning, but also, that they can be difficult for English language learners (ELLs) to understand and produce answers to. By integrating analytical tools from both traditions, this study examined…

  18. Surveying Parental Mediation: Connections, Challenges and Questions for Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three strategies of parental mediation--coviewing, restrictive mediation, and active mediation--in order to make connections, challenge, and raise questions for media literacy. Coviewing, whether it is intentional practice, or whether it functions to promote media literacy, is explored. Restrictive mediation, how it connects to…

  19. Three Questions about the Internet of Things and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manches, Andrew; Duncan, Pauline; Plowman, Lydia; Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Children's interaction with technology is evolving; increasingly there are devices that can capture and respond seamlessly to their everyday activity. This raises pertinent questions such as: how these technologies shape children's activity; how the data from their activity is used, and to what extent children, and their parents, are…

  20. The Incoherence of Curriculum: Questions Concerning Early Childhood Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines curriculum debates, particularly those that influence an understanding of the nature and purpose of curriculum, in providing teacher education and in influencing teaching practice. The work of Martin Heidegger provides a framework for questioning the early childhood teacher education curriculum. Central to this analysis are…

  1. A Field Guide to Heidegger: Understanding "The Question Concerning Technology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, David I.

    2005-01-01

    This essay serves as a guide for scholars, especially those in education, who want to gain a better understanding of Heidegger's essay, "The Question Concerning Technology". The paper has three sections: an interpretive summary, a critical commentary, and some remarks on Heidegger scholarship in education. Since Heidegger's writing style is rather…

  2. Teaching Physics at Advanced Level: A Question of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Leonard; Rogers, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Questions whether didactic methods employed for teaching physics at the advanced level can adequately match the variety of needs of students in the contemporary context. Offers a framework for promoting a style of teaching that is responsive and versatile. Contains 14 references. (Author/JRH)

  3. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  4. The Answer Is Readiness--Now What Is the Question?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Although readiness is often posed as the answer in early childhood education, there is typically confusion about exactly what question this complex term responds to. In this article, I explore common uses of the term readiness, examine their theoretical and empirical problems, and suggest a more synthetic conception that merges attention to the…

  5. Questions, Calls, and Conversations for Researchers in Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Grant, Carl

    2002-01-01

    Highlights recent experiences editing an educational research journal, noting problems in teacher education research and lessons learned. The paper offers a new way of examining inquiry, locating it in the social realm as a cultural and political practice, and suggesting a situated look at questions about research that might inform the community…

  6. Questions Arising from the Assessment of EFL Narrative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article questions how narrative writing is assessed, seeking to understand what we test, what we value, and why. It uses a single anomalous case that arose in the course of my recent PhD thesis to highlight the issues, asking if sufficient attention is being given to the value of emotional content in a piece of writing in comparison to its…

  7. MATLAB based language for generating randomized multiple choice questions

    OpenAIRE

    Azamov, Nurulla

    2015-01-01

    In this work we describe a simple MATLAB based language which allows to create randomized multiple choice questions with minimal effort. This language has been successfully tested at Flinders University by the author in a number of mathematics topics including Numerical Analysis, Abstract Algebra and Partial Differential Equations.

  8. Uniqueness of Meromorphic Functions and Question of Gross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仪洪勋

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the problem of uniqueness of meromorphic functions. It is shown that there exist two finite sets Sj (j=1, 2) such that any two nonconstant meromorphic functions f and g satisfying Ef(Sj)=Eg(Sj) for j = 1,2 must be identical, which answers a question posed by Gross.

  9. Gender differences in the prosody of German questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Based on enacted dialogues of 60 native speakers, the present study shows that males and females differ in their prosodic realization of lexically and syntactically marked questions in German. Frequency counts of final rises and falls, as well as measurements of mean F0, speaking rate, and intens...

  10. Exploring Undergraduates' Understanding of Photosynthesis Using Diagnostic Question Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joyce M.; Anderson, Charles W.; Heidemann, Merle; Merrill, John; Merritt, Brett; Richmond, Gail; Urban-Lurain, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We present a diagnostic question cluster (DQC) that assesses undergraduates' thinking about photosynthesis. This assessment tool is not designed to identify individual misconceptions. Rather, it is focused on students' abilities to apply basic concepts about photosynthesis by reasoning with a coordinated set of practices based on a few scientific…

  11. Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Iain; Ekblom, Anneli; Szabó, Péter; Lane, Paul J.; McAlvay, Alex C.; Boles, Oliver J.; Walshaw, Sarah; Petek, Nik; Gibbons, Kevin S.; Quintana Morales, Erendira; Anderson, Eugene N.; Ibragimow, Aleksandra; Podruczny, Grzegorz; Vamosi, Jana C.; Marks-Block, Tony; LeCompte, Joyce K.; Awâsis, Sākihitowin; Nabess, Carly; Sinclair, Paul; Crumley, Carole L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural. PMID:28235093

  12. Questioning Practice in Oral Teaching for Higher Vocational Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾菁

    2009-01-01

    <正>In order to improve the students’ language competence,the author paid much attention to the students’ questioning practice.It,to some extent,turns out to be an effective method to train the students to use appropriate language grammatically and sociallinguistically.

  13. Question Answering for Collaborative Learning with Answer Quality Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing advances of Internet Technologies in all application domains have changed life styles and interactions. With the rapid development of E-Learning, collaborative learning is an important for teaching, learning methods and strategies. Studies over the years shown that students had actively and more interactively involved in a classroom discussion to gain their knowledge. Students can ask their questions to the classroom discussion when they want to collaborate with others, asking one another for information, evaluating one another’s ideas. Therein, the activity allowing one question has many answer or information that should be selected. Every answer has a weighting and its very subjective to select it. In this paper, we introduce question answering for collaborative learning with answer quality predictor. By using answer quality predictor the quality of the information could be determined. Through the process of collaborative learning, the knowledge base will be enriched for future question answering. Further, not only the student could get answers form others but also provided by the system.

  14. The Pedagogical Value of "Obvious" Questions in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Brian; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hutchison, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Each time students engage in a classroom activity, they make tacit interpretations (about the nature of those activities) that influence how they reason and ultimately what they learn. For example, a student answering a physics question on a worksheet might draw on her everyday thinking to help make sense of the physics, or she might not even…

  15. Guiding Questions for Technology Planning. Version 1.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Randy, Ed.; Hopey, Chris, Ed.

    This publication, intended for administrators and technology planning teams in a wide range of educational settings, presents a set of guiding questions for technology planning that is both supported by current research and found in exemplary technology plans. The guide will help technology planning teams to start and guide a technology planning…

  16. The Rhetorical Question of Human Rights--A Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxtader, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Does rhetoric have a place in the discourse of human rights? Without certain reply, as the dilemmas of defining, claiming, and promoting human rights appear both to include and exclude the rhetorical gesture, this question invites inquiry into the preface of the contemporary human rights regime, the moment of the aftermath that provokes a struggle…

  17. Scientific Aspects of Two Theological Questions in Thomas Aquinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattis, James M.

    1984-01-01

    An examination of how St. Thomas Aquinas makes use of science in his theological works provides an understanding of the relations of medieval science and the Christian theology of the Middle Ages. Two issues are examined: the problem of the nature and existence of God and the question of the eternity of the world. (RM)

  18. Classroom Questioning Tendencies from the Perspective of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wang; Rongxiao, Cai

    2016-01-01

    We are now living in an era of big data. From the perspective of data analysis of classroom questioning, the paper chooses three districts in City B that have significant differences. These are educationally developed District D, less developed District F, and developing District M. The study uses the stratified sampling method to choose from…

  19. When a Problem Is More than a Teacher's Question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jo Clay; Knott, Libby

    2013-01-01

    Not only are the problems teachers pose throughout their teaching of great importance but also the ways in which they use those problems make this a critical component of teaching. A problem-posing episode includes the problem setup, the statement of the problem, and the follow-up questions. Analysis of problem-posing episodes of precalculus…

  20. A Question of Evidence, or a Leap of Faith?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Did he or didn't he? The question is vexing Coleridge scholars. Did the author of "Christabel," "Kubla Khan," and "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" compose a blank-verse translation of Goethe's "Faust" that was published anonymously in London in 1821? Two prominent Romanticists, Frederick Burwick and James C. McKusick, both Americans, believe they…

  1. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  2. Re-Teaching Shakespeare (i): "Macbeth" and the "Witchcraft" Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom study of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" which concentrates on the Weird Sisters and the question of witchcraft. Advocates utilizing pupils' experience of powerful images from the general culture, introducing a selection of well-documented historical evidence to support textual study, and avoiding misguided conventional…

  3. Competence-Based Education and Training– about Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction

  4. Competitors' Perceptions of Questions in Individual Events Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Daniel; Pettus, Ann Burnett

    A study investigated student competitors' opinions of the practice of judges asking questions of competitors at the conclusion of speeches in the individual events competiton at forensic tournaments. Surveys were completed by 52 final round student competitors at a large midwestern university individual events invitational tournament. Results…

  5. Service Accessibility for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio David; Bell, Bailey; Gamache, Peter; Christian, Allison S.

    2013-01-01

    Although Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer and/or Questioning (LGBTQ) youth experience alarming rates of behavioral and social problems, service use among these youth is disproportionately low. It is likely that decreased service accessibility plays a causal role in service underutilization among LGBTQ youth. To expand the existing…

  6. A few questions related to information and symmetries in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvas, G.

    2017-01-01

    Information exchange between inanimate objects (like individual physical particles, or systems) involves special approaches, due to the peculiarity that conscious information emitters/recipients are excluded from the process. This paper aims at answering a part of some questions arising by such approaches. One can ask the question, whether is it possible to speak about physical information when there is no live recipient to accept, evaluate, and use it? Can one speak about "physical information" (e.g., signal exchange) between inanimate physical objects at all? (cf., Feynman diagrams.) If yes, what is the nature of that information? Is (physical) information a passive phenomenon, or its existence presumes activity? What does a signal represent if it is not observed and used at the other end, and where is that other end when one can say that the signal in question was lost without observation or use? I try to illustrate my personal answers with a few examples quoted from the history of 20th c. physics. My answers to the questions are not intended to be revelations and to provide final solutions, rather they serve as arguments and indicate that nothing is closed, the discussion is open.

  7. Living the Questions: Rilke's Challenge to Our Quest for Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, Mordechai Gordon explores the significance of Rilke's challenge to "live the questions" and embrace uncertainty with respect to the quest for certainty in education. The quest for certainty in education refers to our desire to gain a sense of psychological security and more control over a field that is fundamentally indeterminate.…

  8. Ask Marilyn in the Mathematics Classroom: Probability Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1986, Marilyn Vos Savant, who is listed in the "Guinness Book of World Records Hall of Fame" for the highest IQ, has had a weekly column that is published in "Parade Magazine." In this column, she answers readers' questions on a wide variety of subjects including mathematics and particularly probability. Many of the mathematically oriented…

  9. Re-Teaching Shakespeare (i): "Macbeth" and the "Witchcraft" Question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes a classroom study of Shakespeare's "Macbeth" which concentrates on the Weird Sisters and the question of witchcraft. Advocates utilizing pupils' experience of powerful images from the general culture, introducing a selection of well-documented historical evidence to support textual study, and avoiding misguided conventional wisdom…

  10. La CEQ et la Question Nationale et Linguistique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrale de L'Enseignement du Quebec (Canada).

    This report addresses the question of whether Canada is really a bilingual, multicultural nation, or a bilingual, monocultural nation, or a bilingual, bicultural nation. The history of Quebec is outlined and a comparison is made between the ethnic and linguistic composition of Quebec and the rest of Canada, showing that the percentage of people of…

  11. Education, Schooling, Derrida's Marx and Democracy: Some Fundamental Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peim, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with a reconsideration of what the school is and has been, this paper explores the idea of the school to come. Emphasizing the governmental role of education in modernity, I offer a line of thinking that calls into question the assumption of both the school and education as possible conduits for either democracy or social justice.…

  12. Big Questions Facing Vocational Psychology: A Cognitive Information Processing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert C.; Lenz, Janet G.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Peterson, Gary W.

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon the authors' experience in developing cognitive information processing theory in order to examine three important questions facing vocational psychology and assessment: (a) Where should new knowledge for vocational psychology come from? (b) How do career theories and research find their way into practice? and (c) What is…

  13. A token of individuality : Questiones libri Porphirii by Thomas Manlevelt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, Alfred Charles van der

    2012-01-01

    This is a critical edition with introduction and indices of the Questiones libri Porphirii, a commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge attributed to the fourteenth-century logician Thomas Manlevelt. Not much is known about Thomas Manlevelt, but his work is remarkable enough. Following in the footsteps of

  14. Questioning Needs Assessment: Some Limitations and Positive Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Wallace

    2013-01-01

    This article raises questions about the use of needs assessment by those seeking to improve the performance of organizations and individuals. While the discrepancy model of needs assessment has enjoyed a long history and is widely accepted, the author states that it has several undesirable consequences in terms of its impact. This article offers…

  15. Prion protein expression and processing in human mononuclear cells: the impact of the codon 129 prion gene polymorphism.

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    Christiane Segarra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: So far, all clinical cases of new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, thought to result from the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE prion agent, have shown Methionine-Methionine (M/M homozygosity at the M129V polymorphism of the PRNP gene. Although established, this relationship is still not understood. In both vCJD and experimental BSE models prion agents do reach the bloodstream, raising concerns regarding disease transmission through blood transfusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the impact of the M129V polymorphism on the expression and processing of the prion protein in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from three blood donor populations with Methionine-Methionine (M/M, Valine-Valine (V/V and M/V genotypes. Using real-time PCR, ELISA and immunoblot assays we were unable to find differences in prion protein expression and processing relating to the M129V polymorphism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that in PBMCs, the M129V PrP polymorphism has no significant impact on PrP expression, processing and the apparent glycoform distribution. Prion propagation should be investigated further in other cell types or tissues.

  16. Estimating the human health risk from possible BSE infection of the British sheep flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, N M; Ghani, A C; Donnelly, C A; Hagenaars, T J; Anderson, R M

    2002-01-24

    Following the controversial failure of a recent study and the small numbers of animals yet screened for infection, it remains uncertain whether bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was transmitted to sheep in the past via feed supplements and whether it is still present. Well grounded mathematical and statistical models are therefore essential to integrate the limited and disparate data, to explore uncertainty, and to define data-collection priorities. We analysed the implications of different scenarios of BSE spread in sheep for relative human exposure levels and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) incidence. Here we show that, if BSE entered the sheep population and a degree of transmission occurred, then ongoing public health risks from ovine BSE are likely to be greater than those from cattle, but that any such risk could be reduced by up to 90% through additional restrictions on sheep products entering the food supply. Extending the analysis to consider absolute risk, we estimate the 95% confidence interval for future vCJD mortality to be 50 to 50,000 human deaths considering exposure to bovine BSE alone, with the upper bound increasing to 150,000 once we include exposure from the worst-case ovine BSE scenario examined.

  17. Spontaneous obesity-linked type 2 diabetes in the absence of islet amyloid in a cynomolgus monkey infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, A; Yutzy, B; Kruip, C; Völker, I; Schloot, N C; Roden, M; Scott, F W; Löwer, J; Holznagel, E

    2013-09-01

    A 9-year-old cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) infected orally with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia 4 years post infection (p.i.). This macaque R984 was exposed to a BSE dose that causes a simian form of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) within 5 years p.i. in other macaques. All orally BSE-infected macaques developed a significant weight gain within the first 2 years p.i. compared with non-BSE-infected age- and sex-matched control animals, suggesting increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In contrast, macaque R984 developed rapid weight loss, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria and had to be euthanatized 4 years p.i. before clinical signs of vCJD. Pancreas histopathological evaluation revealed severe islet degeneration but, remarkably, no islet amyloid deposits were present. Immunostaining of pancreas sections for insulin and glucagon confirmed the loss of endocrine cells. In addition, prions were present in the adenohypophysis but not in other areas of the brain, indicating centripetal prion spread from the gut during the preclinical phase of BSE infection. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations of macaque R984 became abnormal with age and resembled T2D. This unusual case of spontaneous T2D in the absence of islet amyloid deposits could have been due to early prion spread from the periphery to the endocrine system or could have occurred spontaneously.

  18. The Deep-Level-Reasoning-Question Effect: The Role of Dialogue and Deep-Level-Reasoning Questions during Vicarious Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Scotty D.; Sullins, Jeremiah; Witherspoon, Amy; Gholson, Barry

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the impact of dialogue and deep-level-reasoning questions on vicarious learning in 2 studies with undergraduates. In Experiment 1, participants learned material by interacting with AutoTutor or by viewing 1 of 4 vicarious learning conditions: a noninteractive recorded version of the AutoTutor dialogues, a dialogue with a…

  19. Tag questions Tag questions

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    David Brazil

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects of linguistic organisation, aspects which in some recent work have been held to need distinctive kinds of descriptive category to handle. Traditional treatments have found it necessary to recognise different syntactic types (e.g. 'same polarity' and 'reversed polarity' tags and ifferent intonational treatments ("falling'and 'rising' tag; while the way the communicative significance of the various permutations is described normally requires reference to the expectations they signal regarding the immediately following behaviour of the other party (in the common phrase, 'What kind of answer they expect'. This last consideration places the matter squarely in the arena of recent work on the analysis of interactive discourse. The so-called 'tag' structures of English have received a lot of attention in language teaching programmes, attention that is not hard to justify when one considers the problems and anxiety they can occasion for many foreign learners. Most teachers one speaks to seem fairly willing to agree, however, that traditional treatments of the topic leave much to be desired. It happens, also, that, when considered collectively, the tags and some related phenomena have a special heoretical interest. For they constitute a field in which it seems essential to bring together insights that derive from the study of several aspects of linguistic organisation, aspects which in some recent work have been held to need distinctive kinds of descriptive category to handle. Traditional treatments have found it necessary to recognise different syntactic types (e.g. 'same polarity' and 'reversed polarity' tags and ifferent intonational treatments ("falling'and 'rising' tag; while the way the communicative significance of the various permutations is described normally requires reference to the expectations they signal regarding the immediately following behaviour of the other party (in the common phrase, 'What kind of answer they expect'. This last consideration places the matter squarely in the arena of recent work on the analysis of interactive discourse.

  20. Nursing Teaching Strategies by Encouraging Students’ Questioning, Argumentation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Neri de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students need to develop competences in the field of explanation, argumentation and questioning as they are pivotal to foster a relationship with their patients and achieve a greater humanisation of care. The objective of this paper is to analyse the perception of 1st-year nursing students with regard to the humanisation of care provided to patients by encouraging them to discuss real-life episodes. The study is qualitative and content analysis used the students’ questions, explanations and argumentation as core discourses. Among other conclusions, results point towards the importance of promoting activities that encourage the different nursing students’ discourses and the ability to understand the humanisation and dehumanisation patterns arising from the real-life episodes used as case study.