WorldWideScience

Sample records for civilian nuclear ships

  1. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  2. The French civilian nuclear: connections and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document (18 power point slides) gives an overview of the French civilian nuclear industry and research and development: importance of the nuclear power generation in France, excellence of the education in nuclear sciences, organization of the nuclear connection (CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN), the role of the French International Nuclear Agency (AFNI), the requirements for a renewal of human resources (French and foreign engineers) in the field of nuclear energy, the degree course for a diploma, examples of engineer and university diplomas, the educational networks in various regions of France, presentation of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Nuclear Sciences and Techniques National Institute) and its master degrees, organization of the French education system in nuclear sciences with strong relations with the research and development programs

  3. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  4. Nuclear powered ships. Findings from a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear shipping is attractive for several reasons, one of which is its positive effect on emissions (CO2, NOx and SOx). The benefits, however, do not come without risks of possible harmful effects on humans and wildlife. Nuclear ships set themselves apart from conventional ships, as well as from on-shore nuclear power-plants, on several counts. 1) The reactor-unit are non-stationary, and the reactor is subject to the ship motions. 2) Ship reactors must be compact due to space constraints. 3) Special design considerations are required to ensure reactor safety and security, as well as to enable refuelling. 4) A naval nuclear fuel cycle infrastructure for fuel fabrication, handling, and disposal is needed. Technological feasibility of nuclear shipping is by itself inconclusive to a expansion into civilian applications and use. Civilian nuclear propulsion needs to be commercially viable and politically acceptable. Appropriate legislation must be in place, and nuclear shipping concepts with proven safety records and highest possible nuclear proliferation-resistance must be established. Possible 'showstoppers' to a viable nuclear civilian shipping industry are outlined in the paper in view of Political, Technical, Regulatory, Commercial, Safety and Security aspects. Further, different types of ships with different propulsion system are compared in lights of life cycle cost and air emission. (author)

  5. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)]|[Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  6. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10-3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  7. The experience of construction and operation of the civilian ship reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main stages in developing several generation of reactor plants for the civilian nuclear ships in the USSR, beginning from the Lenin icebreaker reactor are considered. The brief data on characteristics of the OK-150, OK-900 and KLT-40 reactor plants, as well as those concerning the results of their operation for the time period of 1959-2000 are given. The problems connected with further application of nuclear ships in Arctic regions including the main equipment service lifetime increase are discussed. The total operational time for the reactors under extreme conditions of pitching and rolling, shock loads, repeated power alternation exceeds 160 reactor-years. The Arktika icebreaker reactor main equipment service lifetime reaches 142000 hours. At that not a single incident connected with violations in fission reaction control or uncontrollable radioactivity release is marked. It is shown that failures connected with leaks in the reactor cooling system primary circuit, which as a rule take place after equipment nominal service life finish, are the most dangerous ones. Basing on the analysis of the data gained in the process of the nuclear icebreaker operations the conclusion on favourable applicability of the KLT-40S reactor plants when designing floating thermal power plants and desalination complexes for remote areas in Russia and other countries is made

  8. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  9. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment] [and others

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship `MUTSU` was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  10. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment) (and others)

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author).

  11. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  12. Decommission of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, Takeshi [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `MUTSU` was decommissioned by removing the reactor room in June 1995, which was hoisted and transported by a floating crane to a shore storage room at Sekinehama, Aomori Prefecture. This work was carried out in three stages: extraction of the spent fuel assemblies and neutron sources, dismantling of the machinery in the reactor auxiliary room, and separation and transportation of the reactor together with the secondary shielding structure and surrounding hull. IHI mainly conducted the third stage work. The separation work of the reactor room structure using a semisubmersible barge is outlined. Stress analysis and design of the reactor room for lifting work is also described. (author)

  13. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  14. Guarding the guardians: Civilian control of nuclear weapons in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book has three separate complementary goals. First, it develops a model to explain how the command and control of nuclear weapons evolves over time. Second, it tells the story of the evolution of one critical aspect of the nuclear command system, the custody of nuclear weapons. Finally, it assesses the general problem of ensuring civilian control over nuclear operations. The focus is on the formation of operational policy. Where to deploy a weapon and at what state of alertness is an operational decision. Part I, The Theory of Civilian Control is divided into three chapters: Civilian control: Principles and problems; Civilian Control: From alerts to war termination; and Explaining changes in civilian control. Part II, The Evolution of Custody Policy has seven chapters: The Atomic Energy Act and the origin of assertive control, 1945-1947; The first test of assertive civilian control, 1948-1949; The breach in assertive control, 1950-1952; Assertive control becomes delegative control, 1953-1958; The resurgence of assertive control, 1959-1962; The cycle continues, 1963-1990; and Conclusion: The future of civilian control

  15. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  16. Report of Nuclear Powered Ship Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the forecast of energy balance in the world to 21st century, the diversification of energy supply and the technical development enabling it are necessary in Japan. The stable supply of marine fuel is important to maintain and develop the national life. At present, as the marine fuel substituting for petroleum, atomic energy is at the position nearest to practical use. In advanced countries, the basic technology required for the practical use of nuclear-powered merchant ships seems to have been established, but Japan is about 10 years behind them due to the delay of the Mutsu project. In order to maintain and improve the technical level of shipbuilders, the independent technology related to nuclear-powered ships must be established in Japan. In the economical examination of nuclear-powered ships, ice breakers and ice breaking tankers are advantageous, but in other types of ships, a number of conditions must be satisfied to be economical. The Mutsu must be operated to collect the data and experience, and the project of an improved marine prototype reactor must be decided. Also a demonstration ship must be built. The standards for the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered ships and the public acceptance are necessary. (Kako, I.)

  17. Operational data of nuclear ship `MUTSU`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahasi, Hiroki; Kyouya, Masahiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Watahiki, Masayuki

    1999-03-01

    The first nuclear ship of Japan, `MUTSU`, experienced voyage of about 82,000 km. Many data on the ship`s motion and the power plant behavior were obtained under various meteorological conditions during the voyage. These data were recorded on more than 500 rolls of magnetic tape (MT). These data were transferred to these in digital audio tapes (DATs). The computer program was developed to transfer the data on DATs into the text form. As the result, we came to be able to utilize these data easily through the nuclear ship database system and a personal computer. This report describes a conversion program, data structure, list of saved data and utilization for the experimental data. Reduction of the storage space was achieved by the data transfer work from the MTs to the DATs. (author)

  18. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor

  19. Feasibility Study on Nuclear Propulsion Ship according to Economic Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The use of nuclear ships has been extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, the relevant regulations need to be considered. In this study, we reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations. In addition, economic value is one of the most important factors which should be considered in the pre-design phase. To evaluate the economics of the nuclear ship, we calculated Capital Expenditure (abbreviated as CAPEX) and Operation Expenditure (abbreviated as OPEX) for various types of ships. We reviewed the nuclear ship-related regulations and evaluated the economics of the nuclear ship compared to the diesel ship. The calculation result shows that economic feasibility of the nuclear ship depends on the oil price as well as the cost of the nuclear reactor.

  20. Safety supervision and control on units engaged in activities of civilian nuclear pressure retaining components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA organized to review and approved the granting of qualification licenses in manufactures ad installation of nuclear pressure retaining components with 5 organizations such as the Wuhan Boiler Corporation, No.1 installation company of Gansu Province etc, according to the Code on the Safety Regulation for Civilian Nuclear Pressure Retaining Components (HAF 0900) and its implementing rules

  1. Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

  2. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships; Reacteurs. Navires a propulsion nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fribourg, Ch. [Technicatome, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2001-07-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  3. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  4. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  5. Constraining potential nuclear-weapons proliferation from civilian reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cessation of the Cold War and renewed international attention to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are leading to national policies aimed at restraining nuclear-weapons proliferation that could occur through the nuclear-fuel cycle. Argonne, which has unique experience, technology, and capabilities, is one of the US national laboratories contributing to this nonproliferation effort

  6. Potential nuclear material safeguards applied to the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the U.S. Department of Energy is charged with the responsibility of safe and efficient disposal of this Nation's civilian high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. Part of this responsibility includes providing for the application of both domestic and international safeguards on nuclear material at facilities of the Civilian Waste Management System. While detailed safeguards requirements for these disposal facilities have yet to be established, once established, they could impact facility design. Accordingly, OCRWM has participated in efforts to develop safeguards approaches for geologic repositories and will continue to participate actively with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) Offices in efforts to resolve safeguards issues related to spent fuel disposal, to minimize any potential design impacts and to support effective nuclear material safeguards. The following paper discusses current plants and issues related to the application of safeguards to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS)

  7. Licensing and safety regulation on units engaged in civilian nuclear pressure retaining component's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA convened a meeting for granting the first batch of 25 units engaged in the activities of civilian nuclear pressure retaining components with 45 qualificatory licenses in 1995, and will conduct surveillance and inspection pursuant to requirements of regulations on the associated implementing activities by units that had obtained a qualificatory license. At present, the NNSA has prepared part of inspection procedures of nuclear pressure retaining components

  8. Safety supervision and control on units engaged in civilian nuclear pressure retaining component's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA organized the SNSC, Safety and Reliability Center of the Mechanical Institute, NSC-SSTC and its regional office's staff to verify the qualification of 55 items in 33 units for the activities in civilian nuclear pressure retaining components. That was conducted by bringing questions to the site and going to the site in company with staff from the competent department, so, the check time was shortened and pace was quickened. After documents checking, on site checking and discussed by the SC meeting on mechanical equipment of NSAC, the NNSA granted the second batch of 27 items qualification licenses in 14 units engaging in the activities of civilian nuclear pressure retaining components on May 27, 1996. So far, there are 39 units that have obtained an associate qualification license for the activities of nuclear pressure retaining components

  9. The French civilian nuclear: connections and stakes; Le nucleaire civil francais: filieres et enjeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This document (18 power point slides) gives an overview of the French civilian nuclear industry and research and development: importance of the nuclear power generation in France, excellence of the education in nuclear sciences, organization of the nuclear connection (CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN), the role of the French International Nuclear Agency (AFNI), the requirements for a renewal of human resources (French and foreign engineers) in the field of nuclear energy, the degree course for a diploma, examples of engineer and university diplomas, the educational networks in various regions of France, presentation of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Nuclear Sciences and Techniques National Institute) and its master degrees, organization of the French education system in nuclear sciences with strong relations with the research and development programs

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Volume II assesses proliferation resistance. Chapters are devoted to: assessment of civilian nuclear systems (once-through fuel-cycle systems, closed fuel cycle systems, research reactors and critical facilities); assessment of associated sensitive materials and facilities (enrichment, problems with storage of spent fuel and plutonium content, and reprocessing and refabrication facilities); and safeguards for alternative fuel cycles.

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II assesses proliferation resistance. Chapters are devoted to: assessment of civilian nuclear systems (once-through fuel-cycle systems, closed fuel cycle systems, research reactors and critical facilities); assessment of associated sensitive materials and facilities (enrichment, problems with storage of spent fuel and plutonium content, and reprocessing and refabrication facilities); and safeguards for alternative fuel cycles

  12. Propulsion of space ships by nuclear explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, J. G.; Kravárik, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in the research on deuterium-tritium (D-T) inertially confined microexplosions encourages one to reconsider the nuclear propulsion of spaceships based on the concept originally proposed in the Orion project. We discuss first the acceleration of medium-sized spaceships by D-T explosions whose output is in the range of 0.1 10 t of TNT. The launching of such a ship into an Earth orbit or beyond by a large nuclear explosion in an underground cavity is sketched out in the second section of the paper, and finally we consider a hypothetical Mars mission based on these concepts. In the conclusion it is argued that propulsion based on the Orion concept only is not the best method for interplanetary travel owing to the very large number of nuclear explosion required. A combination of a super gun and subsequent rocket propulsion using advanced chemical fuels appears to be the best solution for space flights of the near future.

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities

  15. Energy Research Advisory Board, Civilian Nuclear Power Panel: Subpanel 3 report, Institutional challenges: Volume IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institutional Challenges Subpanel of the Energy Research Advisory Board's Civilian Nuclear Power Panel was charged with the task of addressing the institutional issues that affect the future of nuclear power in the United States. Barriers created by non-technical issues are generally considered to be primary obstacles to revitalizing the nuclear fission option as part of a robust supply for future electrical generation. The Subpanel examined the following categories of institutional issues: (1) Administration Policy and Leadership, (2) Licensing Reform, (3) Standardized Designs, (4) Shared Financial Risk, (5) State and Economic Regulation, (6) Waste Disposal, and (7) Public Perception. The Subpanel concluded that the Administration and Congress have the opportunity and responsibility to provide leadership in resolving these difficulties. The main report provides information on the background and current situation for each institutional issue and concludes with the set of recommendations for action

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations

  17. Nuclear science. U.S. electricity needs and DOE's civilian reactor development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity projections developed by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) appear to be the best available estimates of future U.S. electricity needs. NERC, which represents all segments of the utility industry, forecasts that before 1998 certain regions of the country, particularly in the more heavily populated eastern half of the United States, may experience shortfalls during summer peak demand periods. These forecasts considered the utility companies' plans, as of 1989, to meet electricity needs during the period; these plans include such measures as constructing additional generators and conducting demand management programs. Working closely with the nuclear industry, DOE is supporting the development of several reactor technologies to ensure that nuclear power remains a viable electricity supply option. In fiscal year 1990, DOE's Civilian Reactor Development Program was funded at $253 million. DOE is using these funds to support industry-led efforts to develop light water reactors (LWR), advanced liquid-metal reactors (LMR), and modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGR) that are safe, environmentally acceptable, and economically competitive. The utility company officials we spoke with, all of whom were in the Southeast, generally supported DOE's efforts in developing these technologies. However, most of the officials do not plan to purchase nuclear reactors until after 2000 because of the high costs of constructing nuclear reactors and current public opposition to nuclear power

  18. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program has been to provide recommendations for the development and deployment of more proliferation-resistant civilian nuclear-power systems without jeopardizing the development of nuclear energy. In principle, new concepts for nuclear-power systems could be designed so that materials and facilities would be inherently more proliferation-resistant. Such advanced, i.e., less-developed systems, are the subject of this volume. Accordingly, from a number of advanced concepts that were proposed for evaluation, six representative concepts were selected: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor

  19. Dismantling of civilian nuclear powered fleet technical support vessels. engineering solutions - 59386

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time six nuclear technical support vessels are operated and maintained by Atomflot. Two of them (Volodarsky FTB (floating technical base) and Lepse FTB) were taken out of service for decommissioning and are stored afloat. One more vessel Lotta FTB should be decommissioned during next two years. The nuclear technological support ships carrying spent nuclear fuel (SNF), liquid and solid radioactive wastes (LRW and SRW) appear to be a possible radiation contamination of Murmansk region and Kola Bay because the Ship long-term storage afloat has the negative effect on hull's structures technical condition. As a result of this in the context of the Federal Program 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety' (2008-2015) NIPTB Onega OAO was engaged by state corporation Rosatom to develop the dismantling procedure for Volodarsky FTB and Lotta FTB. Before developing of nuclear technological support ships decommissioning projects the technical and economic assessment of decommissioning/dismantling was carried out. The following options were examined: - formation of module as one-piece Ship's hull for long-term storage at Saida Bay; - formation of separated modules for long-term storage at Saida Bay; - complete dismantling of hull's structures, systems and equipment with packing all generated SRW into certified long-term storage containers. This paper contains description of options, research procedure, comparative analysis of options of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) of nuclear technological support ships and its difference with dismantling of nuclear submarine. On the basis of the technical and economic assessment of FTB D and D options the least expensive on the first D and D stage and the least duration option is the option 1 (Formation of module as one-piece Ship's hull for long-term storage at Saida Bay). By the implementation of the given option there will be the need of large areas for modules storage at Saida Bay. It was not considered while working out

  20. Separator assembly for use in spent nuclear fuel shipping cask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, James A.

    1983-01-01

    A separator assembly for use in a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask has a honeycomb-type wall structure defining parallel cavities for holding nuclear fuel assemblies. Tubes formed of an effective neutron-absorbing material are embedded in the wall structure around each of the cavities and provide neutron flux traps when filled with water.

  1. Prospects for applications of ship-propulsion nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkov, F.M.

    1994-10-01

    The use of ship-propulsion nuclear power reactors in remote areas of Russia is examined. Two ship reactors were analyzed: the KLT-40, a 170 MW-thermal reactor; and the KN-3, a 300 MW-thermal reactor. The applications considered were electricity generation, desalination, and drinking water production. Analyses showed that the applications are technically justified and could be economically advantageous. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Safety supervision and control on units engaged in the activities in relating to civilian nuclear pressure retaining components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Code on the Safety Regulation for Civilian Nuclear Pressure Retaining Components (HAF 0900) and its implementation rules, the NNSA verified and issued 26 qualification licenses to 19 organizations, and 11 qualification licenses out of 26 were just for the extension activities of 8 organizations, and permitted 3 organizations to extend the activities under the same license requirements in 1998

  3. On the future of civilian plutonium: An assessment of technological impediments to nuclear terrorism and proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avedon, Roger Edmond

    This dissertation addresses the value of developing diversion- and theft-resistant nuclear power technology, given uncertain future demand for nuclear power, and uncertain risks of nuclear terrorism and of proliferation from the reprocessing of civilian plutonium. The methodology comprises four elements: Economics. An economic growth model coupled with market penetration effects for plutonium and for the hypothetical new technology provides a range of estimates for future nuclear demand. A flow model accounts for the longevity of capital assets (nuclear plants) over time. Terrorism. The commercial nuclear fuel cycle may provide a source of fissile material for terrorists seeking to construct a crude nuclear device. An option value model is used to estimate the effects of the hypothetical new technology on reducing the probability of theft. A game theoretic model is used to explore the deterrence value of physical security and then to draw conclusions about how learning on the part of terrorists or security forces might affect the theft estimate. The principal uncertainties in the theft model can be updated using Bayesian techniques as new data emerge. Proliferation. Access to fissile material is the principal technical impediment to a state's acquisition of nuclear weapons. A game theoretic model is used to determine the circumstances under which a state may proliferate via diversion. The model shows that the hypothetical new technology will have little value for counter-proliferation if diversion is not a preferred proliferation method. A technology policy analysis of the choice of proliferation method establishes that diversion is unlikely to be used because it has no constituency among the important parties to the decision, namely the political leadership, the scientific establishment, and the military. Value. The decision whether to develop a diversion- and theft-resistant fuel cycle depends on the perceived value of avoiding nuclear terrorism and proliferation

  4. Fission ships[Nuclear space propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiner, Kurt

    2000-12-02

    This article focuses on the paper project on the development of nuclear propulsion for space craft and considers the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear-powered rockets over conventional designs. Details are given of the miniature reactor engine, MITEE, its fuel elements fabricated from rolled metal sheets impregnated with uranium oxide fuel particles, its operation which is similar to that of a jet engine, and its anticipated use to travel through the atmosphere of Jupiter and to cut the travel time to planets. Public concern regarding nuclear energy is given as one of the reasons why NASA is unlikely to launch a nuclear-powered space craft in the near future.

  5. Development of Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (NESSY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Takahashi, Teruo; Kobayashi, Hideo; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1993-11-01

    NESSY has been developed for design studies of advanced marine reactors as a part of nuclear ship research and development since 1987. Engineering simulation model of the Mutsu, which is the first nuclear ship in Japan, was completed in March of 1993. In this report we concentration on detail description of softwares for Mutsu modeling. The aims of development of NESSY are as follows; (1) Assessment and confirmation on plant performance of an advanced marine reactor in each step of nuclear ship design (2) Development of abnormality diagnosis system and operator support system as a part of enhanced automization study, and study of human interface with hardware The characteristics of NESSY are the followings. (1) Total engineering simulation system simulate simultaneously ship motions, propulsion system behavior, and nuclear plant behavior under given weather and sea conditions. (2) Models based on physical theory as far as possible. (3) The simulator has high extensibility and flexibility. It is able to apply to other reactors, as the simulation model consists of the part of basic model and the part of plant data which are easy to change. After completion of Mutsu modeling, we are planning to utilize this system as one of design tools for an advanced marine reactor. (author).

  6. The decommissioning plan of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, M.; Matsuo, R.; Fujikawa, S.; Nomura, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Mutsu, Aomori (Japan). Mutsu Establishment

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the review about the decommissioning plan and present state of the Nuclear Ship Mutsu. The decommissioning of the Mutsu is carried out by Removal and Isolation method. The procedure of the decommissioning works is presented in this paper. The decommissioning works started in April, 1992 and it takes about four years after her last experimental voyage. (author).

  7. The applications of the expanders on nuclear-powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear heating reactor has inherent safety with very simple structures, so it can be used as minitype nuclear-powered equipment. Due to the limits of dimensions and the requirements of mobility of the ship, it is need to simplify the total system. If the conventional steam-generators are replaced with expanders, the system is not only be simplified greatly, but the safety and reliability are improved extremely

  8. Training of operating personnel for nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training for Nuclear Power Plant Operators is provided by the Royal Navy in support of the Nuclear Submarine Programme which is based on the Pressurised Water Reactor. The Royal naval college has 21 years of experience in this training field in which the core is the preparation of graduate electro-mechanical engineers to assume the duties of marine engineer in command of a team of supporting Engineer Officers of the Watch and Fleet Chief Petty Officers. The paper describes the training programme and shows how it is monitored by academic, professional and naval authorities and indicates the use of feedback from the user. The lynch pin of the programme is a post-graduate diploma course in Nuclear Reactor Technology attended by graduates after gaining some practical experience at sea. The course which is described in detail makes use of simplified simulators and models to develop the principles, these are applied on the JASON Training Reactor with the emphasis on in-core experiments demonstrating reactivity effects and instrumentation interpretation. The training programme provides for interaction between academic education, practical experience, applied education, full plant simulation training and on-the-job training in which boards or examinations have to be successfully passed at each stage. (author)

  9. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A

    2001-08-01

    The primary goal of this study is to frame the problem of nuclear proliferation in the context of protection and risks associated with nuclear materials flowing in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The perspective adopted for this study is that of a nuclear utility and the flow of fresh and spent nuclear fuel with which that utility must deal in the course of providing economic, safe, and ecologically acceptable electrical power to the public. Within this framework quantitative approaches to a material-dependent, simplified proliferation-risk metric are identified and explored. The driving force behind this search for such a proliferation metric derives from the need to quantify the proliferation risk in the context of evaluating various commercial nuclear fuel cycle options (e.g., plutonium recycle versus once-through). While the formulation of the algebra needed to describe the desired, simplified metric(s) should be straight forward once a modus operandi is defined, considerable interaction with the user of any final product that results is essential. Additionally, a broad contextual review of the proliferation problem and past efforts in the quantification of associated risks was developed as part of this study. This extensive review was essential to setting perspectives and establishing (feasibility) limits to the search for a proliferation metric(s) that meets the goals of this study. Past analyses of proliferation risks associated with the commercial nuclear fuel cycle have generally been based on a range of decision-analysis, operations-research tools. Within the time and budget constraints, as well as the self-enforced (utility) customer focus, the more subjective and data-intensive decision-analysis methodologies where not pursued. Three simplified, less-subjective approaches were investigated instead: a) a simplified 'four-factor' formula expressing as a normalized product political, material-quantity, material-quality, and material

  10. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of this study is to frame the problem of nuclear proliferation in the context of protection and risks associated with nuclear materials flowing in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The perspective adopted for this study is that of a nuclear utility and the flow of fresh and spent nuclear fuel with which that utility must deal in the course of providing economic, safe, and ecologically acceptable electrical power to the public. Within this framework quantitative approaches to a material-dependent, simplified proliferation-risk metric are identified and explored. The driving force behind this search for such a proliferation metric derives from the need to quantify the proliferation risk in the context of evaluating various commercial nuclear fuel cycle options (e.g., plutonium recycle versus once-through). While the formulation of the algebra needed to describe the desired, simplified metric(s) should be straight forward once a modus operandi is defined, considerable interaction with the user of any final product that results is essential. Additionally, a broad contextual review of the proliferation problem and past efforts in the quantification of associated risks was developed as part of this study. This extensive review was essential to setting perspectives and establishing (feasibility) limits to the search for a proliferation metric(s) that meets the goals of this study. Past analyses of proliferation risks associated with the commercial nuclear fuel cycle have generally been based on a range of decision-analysis, operations-research tools. Within the time and budget constraints, as well as the self-enforced (utility) customer focus, the more subjective and data-intensive decision-analysis methodologies where not pursued. Three simplified, less-subjective approaches were investigated instead: a) a simplified 'four-factor' formula expressing as a normalized product political, material-quantity, material-quality, and material-protection metrics; b

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) assessed alternative nuclear systems to find those with the lowest proliferation risk. The findings of the NASAP studies are: current and future nuclear-power systems can be made more proliferation-resistant. As long as doubts about security and fuel supply remain, more resource-efficient (and potentially less proliferation-resistant) systems will be attractive to some nations. Under some scenarios, domestic uranium supply/demand imbalances are possible beyond the year 2010. The worldwide uranium supply/demand balance is even less certain than the domestic picture. Other nuclear resources are less of a problem than uranium. Doubts about fuel supply can be alleviated in several ways. The approaches available to provide security of supply fall into three categories: resource extenders; supply improvements; and institutional and technical measures. Resource extension options include improvements to once-through cycles, advanced converters, recycle, and breeder reactors. The most promising resource extension options are light water reactor improvements (including reduced enrichment tails assay) and continued development of the plutonium-fueled breeder reactors. Uranium-supply initiatives include measures to reduce uncertainty in the estimated size of the resource base, to exploit it efficiently, and to ensure equitable access. An international nonproliferation regime will require institutional measures and technical approaches

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations. While any final assessment of such measures and alternatives would have to examine the circumstances particular to each nation, it is hoped that the more generic assessments conducted here will be useful in suggesting guidelines for developing an improved nonproliferation regime which also helps to meet nuclear-energy needs. One chapter outlines the existing nonproliferation regime, including the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, bilateral and multilateral requirements for agreements of cooperation and transfers of technology, and existing provisons for sanctions for violation of nonproliferation commitments. The chapter then proceeds to an assessment of various alternatives for providing assurance of fuel supply in light of this current regime. Another chapter examines a set of technical and institutional measures and alternatives for various components of once-through and closed fuel cycles. The components of the once-through fuel cycle assessed are enrichment services and spent-fuel management; the components of closed fuel cycles assessed are reprocessing and plutonium management and fast-breeder reactor (FBR) deployment

  13. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  14. Recent development in nuclear ship reactor in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI is conducting a design study on advanced nuclear ship reactors. Concepts of two types of reactor have been formulated so far. One is the 100 MWt-power MRX for the use of a bigger merchant ship or an ice breaker, and the other is the 750 KWt-power DRX for the use of a deep sea research submersible. They are adopted new technologies such as the integral type reactor with in-vessel steam generators and control rod drive systems, the water-filled containment, and the passive decay heat removal system. These new systems enable to satisfy the essential requirements for the next generation ship reactors, i.e. compact, light, highly safe and easy operation. JAERI is also performing research and development works on the peculiar components to be used, the advanced automatic operation systems, the study of the thermal hydraulic phenomena for the safety analysis of new system, etc.. This paper summarizes the design study of the MRX and the DRX and the research and development activities being carried out in the JAERI

  15. Ship nuclear power device of cable aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable for marine nuclear power plant continuous delivery of electrical energy. Cable is mostly in the high temperature and strong radiation and harsh working environment, and can not be replaced in the lifetime This should be the cable aging management methods through research, maintenance and repair program to provide a scientific basis. Cable aging management approach for a number of different levels of cable management at different levels, relying on computers and other modern tools, the use of information management database software maintenance of the cable through the science of aging control. Cable Aging Management including the scope of cable aging management, classification management basis and used for different levels of management supervision and implementation of means testing approach. Application of the ship that has the operational management science, both planned maintenance to improve the science, but also improves the efficiency of aging management. This management method can be extended to nuclear power plants of cable aging management. (authors)

  16. Performance evaluation of nuclear ship engineering simulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Teruo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Uematsu, Haruki

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) has been developed for an efficient design study of an advanced marine reactor, Marine Reactor X (MRX). This time, the performance evaluation of NESSY was carried out by comparing predictions which were computed on NESSY with measurements which were got from experimental voyage of the nuclear ship `Mutsu`. This report writes the way of evaluation and the results. The aims of the performance evaluation is to find out differences between predictions and measurements, to make their causes on the side of simulator clear and to verify the applicable range of NESSY. As a result, it shows that NESSY has a sufficient performance to simulate the `Mutsu` and further is applicable to MRX except for the part of a helical-type once-through steam generator and a water-filled containment vessel which are introduced into it. After this, we are planning to utilize this system effectively as one of design tools for design study of MRX by adding functions of MRX. (author).

  17. Inspection by docking of nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute carried out the docking and inspection of the nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' at Sekinehama Port, Mutsu City, Aomori Prefecture, from the middle of June to late in July, 1989. In this inspection, the Mutsu was mounted on a floating dock off the coast, the dock was towed by tugboats into the port and moored at the pier, and after completing the works in the dock, the dock was towed to the outside of the port, and the Mutsu was launched. The Mutsu was built as a nuclear power experiment ship, and length 130 m, breadth 19 m, depth 13.2 m, design draft at full load 6.9 m, 8242 GT. One PWR of 36 MWt and one steam turbine of 10000 ps are installed, and velocity is 16.5 knots. In September, 1974, after the first criticality, the leak of radioactivity occurred. The repair of shield and general inspection on safety were carried out in Sasebo Shipyard from August, 1980 to August, 1982. Thereafter, the Mutsu stayed in Ominato, but in January, 1988, after the completion of Sekinehama Port, the Mutsu was brought there. The Sekinehama Port, the test and inspection of the Mutsu carried out so far and the plan of hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  18. United States nuclear merchant ship program: financial protection issues in the operations of nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial protection embraces three principal areas: insurance, government indemnity, and limitations of liability. This protection must extend throughout the world following the trades of the nuclear powered merchant marine. Legislation to provide for government indemnity in the United States is in its draft stage. This legislation contains a limitation of liability. 19 refs

  19. Effects of ship`s vibration and motion on plant parameters. Report on sea trials of nuclear ship MUTSU made first in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kamiya, Eisei; Kudou, Takahiro; Naitoh, Akira; Tominaga, Mineo

    1992-03-01

    Present report was written about the study of the effects of ship`s vibration and motion on reactor plant performances measured and analyzed to confirm the total balance for control systems of reactor to propulsion. On July 10, 1990, or on the first day of the first voyage for the power up test, the sea trials of MUTSU, nuclear ship made first in Japan, started from the anchoring test. The trial tests had finished through the third voyage between October 30 and November 9 to the fourth voyage between 7 and 14 of December. The trial tests had been conducted over ten items or so containing in-house tests of the measurements of ship`s vibration and motion in order to research the effects on reactor performance. We here call the in-house tests the plant correlation tests. In regard to the correlation with ship`s vibration, we confirmed that the inherent vibrations of hull and reactor containment arisen from ship structure had precisely been measured and that the plant correlations due to the hull and local vibrations arising from propeller revolutions are very small. Concerning the correlation with ship`s motion, it was shown that her rolling motion strongly had affected on the propulsion system such as shaft power and shaft revolutions. About the correlation with reactor systems it was found that her pitching motion had given effect on the water level in pressurizer, primary coolant average temperature, {epsilon}-signal of the auto-control of reactor power and primary coolant pressure etc, particularly, most-strongly on the water level in pressurizer; her rolling and pitching motions had given effect on nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and startup rate; in addition the fluctuation of 0.06 Hz, we think the response inherent in (MUTSU) reactor systems, had been observed on her reactor parameters like reactivity and startup rate, and her propulsion systems like shaft horse power. (author).

  20. Safety regulation on emergency response and radiation protection in civilian nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA organized the review of emergency plan for the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. The China Institute of Atomic Energy, the Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University and the Nuclear Power Institute of China in 1995, and organized a surveillance and inspection at site on the preparedness of emergency response and control of radiation protection for nuclear power plants and research reactors

  1. Evaluation of radioactive inventory of nuclear ship MUTSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ezure, H. [Nuclear Safety Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The operation of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU was terminated in January 1992. Radioactivities and dose rates on the surfaces of reactor components were measured in order to estimate the residual radioactive inventory in the MUTSU. The predicted radioactive inventory due to neutron activation was calculated by using a computer code systems. The results show good correlation between predicted and measured values radioactivities in the core baffle plate. The radioactive inventory was estimated to be 8.4 x 10{sup 14} Bq as of 1.5 years from the final shutdown of reactor operation. The contamination in reactor components was estimated from the contamination level measured in the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR), from which the dose rates in the reactor room were calculated. The radioactive inventory due to contamination was estimated at 3.4 x 10{sup 10} Bq. Some difference was found between these calculations and measurements. (Author).

  2. The analysis of the program to develop the Nuclear Waste Management System: Allocated requirements for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is volume 3, part B, of the program to satisfy the allocated requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, in the development of the nuclear waste management system. The report is divided into the following sections: regulatory compliance; external relations; international programs; strategic and contingency planning; contract business management; and administrative services. (CS)

  3. Quantitative Analysis of the Civilian Bilateral Cooperation in Front-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Viet Phuong; Yim, Man-Sung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A substantial part of such cooperation is related to the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which encompasses the processes that help manufacturing nuclear fuel, including mining and milling of natural uranium, refining and chemical conversion, enrichment (in case of fuels for Pressurized Water Reactor PWR), and fuel fabrication. Traditionally, the supply of natural uranium was dominated by Canada and Australia, whereas enrichment services have been mostly provided by companies from Western states or Russia, which are also the main customers of such services. However, Kazakhstan and African countries like Niger, Namibia, and Malawi have emerged as important suppliers in the international uranium market and recent forecasts show that China will soon become a major player in the front-end market as both consumer and service provider. In this paper, the correlation between bilateral civil nuclear cooperation in front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and the political and economic relationship among countries was examined through a dataset of bilateral nuclear cooperation in the post-Cold War era, from 1990 to 2011. Such finding has implication on not only the nonproliferation research but also the necessary reinforcement of export control regimes like such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Further improvement of this dataset and the regression method are also needed in order to increase the robustness of the findings as well as to cover the whole scope of the nuclear fuel cycle, including both front-end and back-end activities.

  4. Quantitative Analysis of the Civilian Bilateral Cooperation in Front-End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A substantial part of such cooperation is related to the front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle, which encompasses the processes that help manufacturing nuclear fuel, including mining and milling of natural uranium, refining and chemical conversion, enrichment (in case of fuels for Pressurized Water Reactor PWR), and fuel fabrication. Traditionally, the supply of natural uranium was dominated by Canada and Australia, whereas enrichment services have been mostly provided by companies from Western states or Russia, which are also the main customers of such services. However, Kazakhstan and African countries like Niger, Namibia, and Malawi have emerged as important suppliers in the international uranium market and recent forecasts show that China will soon become a major player in the front-end market as both consumer and service provider. In this paper, the correlation between bilateral civil nuclear cooperation in front-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and the political and economic relationship among countries was examined through a dataset of bilateral nuclear cooperation in the post-Cold War era, from 1990 to 2011. Such finding has implication on not only the nonproliferation research but also the necessary reinforcement of export control regimes like such as the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Further improvement of this dataset and the regression method are also needed in order to increase the robustness of the findings as well as to cover the whole scope of the nuclear fuel cycle, including both front-end and back-end activities

  5. Areas for US-India civilian nuclear cooperation to prevent/mitigate radiological events.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, Gopalan; Forden, Geoffrey Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Over the decades, India and the United States have had very little formal collaboration on nuclear issues. Partly this was because neither country needed collaboration to make progress in the nuclear field. But it was also due, in part, to the concerns both countries had about the other's intentions. Now that the U.S.-India Deal on nuclear collaboration has been signed and the Hyde Act passed in the United States, it is possible to recognize that both countries can benefit from such nuclear collaboration, especially if it starts with issues important to both countries that do not touch on strategic systems. Fortunately, there are many noncontroversial areas for collaboration. This study, funded by the U.S. State Department, has identified a number of areas in the prevention of and response to radiological incidents where such collaboration could take place.

  6. Areas for US-India civilian nuclear cooperation to prevent/mitigate radiological events.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, Gopalan; Forden, Geoffrey Ethan

    2013-01-01

    Over the decades, India and the United States have had very little formal collaboration on nuclear issues. Partly this was because neither country needed collaboration to make progress in the nuclear field. But it was also due, in part, to the concerns both countries had about the others intentions. Now that the U.S.-India Deal on nuclear collaboration has been signed and the Hyde Act passed in the United States, it is possible to recognize that both countries can benefit from such nuclear collaboration, especially if it starts with issues important to both countries that do not touch on strategic systems. Fortunately, there are many noncontroversial areas for collaboration. This study, funded by the U.S. State Department, has identified a number of areas in the prevention of and response to radiological incidents where such collaboration could take place.

  7. ENGAGEMENT OF THE SERBIAN ARMY IN HELPING CIVILIANS IN THE EVENT OF NUCLEAR AND CHEMICAL ACCIDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    INDJIC DEJAN R.; TERZIC MIROSLAV R.; ZIGIC STEVAN V.; RUTIC SRDJAN Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear and chemical accidents in modern society often cause devastating consequences to people, material resources and the environment. This kind of accident requires special procedures and activities during the elimination of the consequences, because of the specific characteristics of highly toxic substances used in nuclear and chemical plants. The Serbian Army with its units and organizations can contribute significantly to the implementation of tasks of eliminating the consequences of su...

  8. Safety regulation on emergency response and radiation protection in civilian nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA organized continuously a review on the emergency planning of the nuclear installations for the operating organizations GNPS, INET/TU and NPIC, and the regulatory inspection on site emergency response and radiation protection for YNFP, INET/TU: Especially a site inspection on site emergency preparedness including an exercise for the Mingjiang Experimental Reactor of NPIC were implemented in 1996

  9. Safety regulation on emergency response and radiation protection in civilian nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enhance the outer coordination on emergency response for nuclear accidents, the NNSA laid stress in 1999 on the control of radiation environment and re-evaluate the monitoring ability for Chinese radioactive environment, to establish a technical supporting organization, i.e., the Monitoring Center on Radioactive Environment, SEPA

  10. Safety regulation on emergency response and radiation protection in civilian nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1998, the NNSA promulgated the >, and organized to compile and translate the Draw-up Methods on NPP Emergency Action Level, the Evaluation Program on Health Physics, the Dose Control at NPP and related technical documents in order to strengthen the basis work about the nuclear accident emergency inspection

  11. Public relations campaign for shipping spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An example of positive outcome of proper attitude of the media and public on the occasion of shipping of nuclear fuel is described. Nothing new was invented in the way of public relations issue management. But a combination of a number of proven techniques were put together and the public relations plan that was highly successful. early planning was of great help. Public officials were well informd by means of ANS organized seminars. ANS had experts from Sandia Labs (a major government research facility), General Electric (the cask supplier), the railroad we planned to use and Northern States Power Company on the program to describe what was going to happen and why it was safe. These sessions are believed to head off a major portion of the local opposition. A cooperation was established with the states of Wisconsin and Minnesota in providing shipment-specific training for emergency response personnel along the route. Safety, obviously, was the number one concern expressed by public officials. Knowing that would be the case, it was decided to provide some optional extras to go with the shipments. There was a consultant yo do a safety analysis of all the possible rail routes between the plant and storage facility. Though none was required by law, a shipment-specific emergency response plan which was prepared. Another important effort which was maintained from the beginning was sharing information among the participants. In dealing with the news media, an attemp was made to stick to a single source of information as much as possible. When dealing with the news media, one should refuse to apologize for modern technology. One should attack, at every opportunity, the idea that a risk-freesociety is worth the price of returning to the Dark Ages. The contributions of nuclear technology are numerous and far-reaching. Its negative impacts on health and safety have been minor compared with most other major industrial technologies. Certainly there is risk in stepping out of

  12. Progress in investigations on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors under ocean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors are very important to the safety and reliability of ship voyage under the ocean conditions. Therefore, many countries have carried out plentiful investigations. This paper is based on some Asia open literature of investigations on thermo-hydraulic characteristics of ship nuclear reactors under the ocean conditions, reviews and sums up those main progresses such as the method, contents and typical results in this field, analyzes their insufficiency, and puts forward advices on the future investigation based on the known research findings. (authors)

  13. Communication received from the Governor of Norway to the Agency concerning the International Symposium of Minimisation of Highly Enriched Uranium in the Civilian Nuclear Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received a communication from the Governor of Norway, attaching the Chair's Summary of the discussions held during the International Symposium of Minimisation of Highly Enriched Uranium in the Civilian Nuclear Sector which was held in Oslo from 17 to 20 June 2006 as well as the summary from the technical workshop of the Symposium. The communication and, as requested therein, the attached two summaries, are herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness.

  16. Thermal analysis of spent nuclear fuel shipping cas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) thermal analysis was performed for the TN-24P cask. For the analysis, ANSYS Fluent as a CFD tool was selected since it has the proper finite volume methods to realistically simulate the thermal behavior of shipping casks. For the analysis, spent fuels discharged from pressurized water reactors (PWRs) were modeled. In the model, there are 24 PWR spent fuel assemblies loaded in the TN-24P cask. The fuel design is assumed to be similar to standard Westinghouse 15x15 rod design. Total heat (decay) generated in the cask was estimated to be 20.6 kW. To input the axial power profile required to calculate the heat flux, a User Defined Function was generated. Fuel storage space (canister) is filled with Helium gas to cool spent nuclear fuel. In the cask, heat transfer occurs through the heat conduction by helium and basket, natural circulation driven by gravity, and thermal radiation in the complex geometry. In the canister region, laminar flow model with Boussinesq approximation is used to simulate the natural circulation. The helium domain was assumed symmetric in the model. For thermal radiation, the Discrete Ordinates (DO) model was chosen in the presented study due to its accuracy and capability of parallel processing. In typical vertical TN-24P dry storage cask system consist of two nested cask. Between inner and outer cask is in the air. Air inlet section is at the bottom side of cask and outlet ventilation is at top of cask. At this region, turbulence regime occurs and turbulence is modeled by using k-epsilon model. The analysis include small scaled and full scaled model. In small scale model, geometry is defined rectangular to make mesh generation easy and to validate the analysis tools using the experimental data. In the full-scale simulation, the results of analysis and experimental data for peak clad temperature (PCT) were compared. Key Words: TN-24P dry storage cask, CFD, thermal analysis, PCT, air blockage

  17. Introduction to the 'CAS' nuclear propulsion plant for ships: specific safety options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief review of the development of nuclear propulsion in FRANCE (Land Based Prototype PAT 1964 - Navy nuclear ships - Advanced Nuclear Boiler Prototype CAP 1975 and now the CAS nuclear plant), the specific safety options of CAS are presented: cold, compartmented fuel (plates); reduced flow during LOCA; permanent cooling of fuel during LOCA; pressurized, entirely passive containment; no control rod ejection and possibility of temporary storage of spent fuel on board

  18. Experience and activities in the field of plutonium recycling in civilian nuclear power plants in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Union industry has established a world-wide leadership position in manufacturing and exploiting plutonium bearing fuel (MOX). About 15 to 20 tons of plutonium have been manufactured in the MOX fuel fabrication plants of E.U. companies. The current capacity of about 60 tons of MOX fuel per year is being upgraded to reach 400 tons/year by the year 2000. As a result, the excess amounts of separated plutonium, presently stored in the European Union, should no longer raise but should steadily decrease to converge to zero. Studies by the European Commission have indicated that the best use at present of weapons-grade and reactor-grade plutonium is to burn it in operating and future planned nuclear reactors. Disposing of plutonium by blending it with fission products or immobilising it into synthetic matrices appears to be far from being an industrially viable option. Following this path would mean to continue storing the excess plutonium of both military and civilian origin for an unknown, but very long period of time. For these and other reasons, the European Commission is striving to foster international cooperation between the European Union companies, having a long industrial experience accumulated in the field of recycling plutonium, and, so far, the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. This cooperation is aiming at supporting projects that could be mutually beneficial to all parties involved. To meet this objective, several programmes have been established either bilaterally or multilaterally, in particular within the framework of the International Science and Technology Centre (I.S.T.C.) in Moscow. Some examples of such collaborations will be described. (author)

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume IV provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  1. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Volume IV provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  2. Truck and rail charges for shipping spent fuel and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed techniques for calculating estimates of nuclear-waste shipping costs and compiled a listing of representative data that facilitate incorporation of reference shipping costs into varius logistics analyses. The formulas that were developed can be used to estimate costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel or nuclear waste by either legal-weight truck or general-freight rail. The basic data for this study were obtained from tariffs of a truck carrier licensed to serve the 48 contiguous states and from various rail freight tariff guides. Also, current transportation regulations as issued by the US Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were investigated. The costs that will be incurred for shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear waste, as addressed by the tariff guides, are based on a complex set of conditions involving the shipment origin, route, destination, weight, size, and volume and the frequency of shipments, existing competition, and the length of contracts. While the complexity of these conditions is an important factor in arriving at a ''correct'' cost, deregulation of the transportation industry means that costs are much more subject to negotiation and, thus, the actual fee that will be charged will not be determined until a shipping contract is actually signed. This study is designed to provide the baseline data necessary for making comparisons of the estimated costs of shipping spent fuel and/or nuclear wastes by truck and rail transportation modes. The scope of the work presented in this document is limited to the costs incurred for shipping, and does not include packaging, cask purchase/lease costs, or local fees placed on shipments of radioactive materials

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  4. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.

  5. Energies and media nr 25. Conditions for the nuclear sector. The Grenelle de l'Environnement. As well as: The civilian nuclear. Nuclear reactors and earthquakes. The Professor Pellerin's scientific rigour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue comments the conditions of the nuclear sector in a context of high oil prices and of high increase of CO2 content in the atmosphere, of oil reserve shortage, and of China's demand on electricity. Thus, it comments the opportunities of development for AREVA and EDF in China and also in the United States, as well as the development of an international cooperation within the frame of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Then, it comments the content of the Grenelle de l'Environnement and of some interventions of the French president regarding the nuclear energy, alternative energies and energy savings. Other topics are briefly addressed: the civilian nuclear and its relationship with the Non proliferation Treaty (NPT), the consequences of an earthquake in Japan in July 2007 and some observations made on a Japanese nuclear power plant (incidents, earthquake amplitude greater than that used for the plant design, dangerous location), and the rigorous attitude of Professor Pellerin

  6. Possible power train concepts for nuclear powered merchant ships

    OpenAIRE

    Dedes, E; Turnock, S.R.; Hudson, D.A.; Hirdaris, S.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear propulsion has many potential advantages in terms of reduced emissions, as nuclear fission itself has zero CO2, NOx, SOx and PM emissions, although the whole nuclear fuel cycle has an amount of emission associated with it. An overview of current and future reactor technologies suitable for marine propulsion is presented. A comparison in terms of efficiency and technology used is performed and technical and constructional aspects for surface non - military applications are discussed. ...

  7. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  8. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume I. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume I. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  11. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six advanced concepts for nuclear power systems that were selected for evaluation are: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The design assessment was performed by identifying needs in six specific areas: conceptual plant design; reactor-physics considerations; fuel cycle alternatives; mechanical and thermal-hydraulic considerations; selection, development, and availability of materials; and engineering and operability. While none of the six concepts appears to be a credible commercial alternative to the liquid-metal fast-breeder within the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program horizon of 2025, there are a number of reasons for continued interest in the fast mixed-spectrum reactor: it is a once-through cycle fast reactor with proliferation risk characteristics similar to those of the light-water reactor; only about one-third as much uranium is required as for the once-through light-water reactor; the system will benefit directly from fast-breeder development programs; and, finally, the research and development required to develop the high-burnup metal fuel could benefit the on-going liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor program. Accordingly, a limited research and development effort on the high-burnup fuel seems justified, at present

  12. Heavy metal coolant for safe storage of the core in a ship nuclear power unit (NPU), extraction, transportation and storage of the ship reactor vessel with core outside the NPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological and organization-technological solutions of the following problems are proposed: 1) increase in the safety of the spent nuclear fuel storage in the ship nuclear power unit (NPU) on the nuclear submarine (NSM); 2) increase in the nuclear and radiation safety of the ship nuclear power unit of the NSM with nonunloaded cores; 3) extraction and removal of the reactor vessel with the core from the ship NPU of the NSM

  13. Static and dynamic performance tests of nuclear powered ship Mutsu reactor (report on nuclear ship Mutsu power-up tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tanaka, Yoshimi; Inoue, Kimio; Yao, Toshiaki; Kamai, Satoshi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu

    1992-08-01

    The power-up tests of the Mutsu reactor were performed from March 29th 1990 to December 14th. The tests were divided into six phases: The tests Phase 0 and Phase 1 were done in the state that the ship was moored at the quay of Sekinehama port in March and April; The tests Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4, and Phase 5 were done on the Pacific Ocean from July to December. Present report describes the test results on the static and dynamic plant performance. On static plant performance tests, there are 13 test items including measurements of primary system heat balance at low and high power levels, a virgin run of feed water pump with SG steam, a change-over test of steam supply of auxiliary boiler to SG. On the dynamic plant performance, there are 11 test items including a test of reactor power auto-control system, a test of main feed water auto-control system, a test of small load variation, a load increasing test, a turbine trip test, tests of ahead and astern maneuvering, a test of single loop operation, and a reactor scram test. The reactor power for each item`s test was increased step by step from zero power to the goal of rated power of 100 %, 36 MWt. In order to confirm proper reactor system performance, criteria were laid down for the static and dynamic tests: for example, (1) reactor scram shall not occur, (2) pressurizer relief valve and steam generator safety valve shall not work, and (3) after the transients reactor systems shall become the steady state without manual adjustment of the reactor control system. The test results satisfied these criteria and some of test data showed that reactor had much more margin in any performance for design. It is verified, therefore, that the Mutsu reactor systems have adequate performances as a marine reactor and that one is capable to respond smoothly and safely to the load of ship`s demand. (author).

  14. The development of natural circulation operation support program for ship nuclear power machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The natural circulation under various ocean and ship motion conditions is studied. ► A natural circulation operation support computer program (NCOSP) is developed with Simulink. ► The NCOSP program has the merit of easy input preparation, fast and accurate simulation. ► The NCOSP is suitable for the fast parameter simulation of ship nuclear power machinery. -- Abstract: The existing simulation program of ship nuclear power machinery (SNPM) cannot adequately deal with the natural circulation (NC) operation and the effects of various ocean conditions and ship motion. Aiming at the problem, the natural circulation operation support computer program for SNPM is developed, in which the momentum conservation equation of the primary loop, some heat transfer and flow resistance models and equations are modified for the various ocean conditions and ship motion. The additional pressure loss model and effective height model for the control volume in the gyration movement, simple harmonic rolling and pitching movements are also discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the transient response to load change under NC conditions is analyzed by the developed program. The results are compared with those predicted by the modified RELAP5/mod3.2 code. It is shown that the natural circulation operation support program (NCOSP) is simple in the input preparation, runs fast and has a satisfactory precision, and is therefore very suitable for the operating field support of SNPM under the conditions of NC.

  15. The potential risks from Russian nuclear ships. NKS-SBA-1 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P.L. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-11-01

    A review is given of the information available on the Russian nuclear ships including submarines, cruisers and ice-breaking ships with special emphasis on the vessels of the Northern Fleet and the Russian icebreakers. A significant part of these ships has today been taken out of active service, and they are in various stages of decommissioning. Information on the decommissioned vessels, their storage sites and the procedures planned for the further decommissioning works is discussed. The handling of spent nuclear fuel is also considered. The various types of accidents, which might occur with these ships, operational as well as decommissioned, are considered, and examples of actual accidents with operational vessels are presented. The types of accidents considered include criticality accidents, loss-of-coolant accidents, fires/explosions and sinking. Some measures taken by the Russians to avoid such accidents are discussed. The special problems connected to the two decommissioned submarines of the Northern Fleet, which have damaged cores, are mentioned. In appendices data on the Russian nuclear vessels are presented. (au)

  16. The potential risks from Russian nuclear ships. NKS-SBA-1 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the information available on the Russian nuclear ships including submarines, cruisers and ice-breaking ships with special emphasis on the vessels of the Northern Fleet and the Russian icebreakers. A significant part of these ships has today been taken out of active service, and they are in various stages of decommissioning. Information on the decommissioned vessels, their storage sites and the procedures planned for the further decommissioning works is discussed. The handling of spent nuclear fuel is also considered. The various types of accidents, which might occur with these ships, operational as well as decommissioned, are considered, and examples of actual accidents with operational vessels are presented. The types of accidents considered include criticality accidents, loss-of-coolant accidents, fires/explosions and sinking. Some measures taken by the Russians to avoid such accidents are discussed. The special problems connected to the two decommissioned submarines of the Northern Fleet, which have damaged cores, are mentioned. In appendices data on the Russian nuclear vessels are presented. (au)

  17. Reassembling Procedure of the Fuel Assemblies for the Nuclear Power Ship ''Mutsu''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan's first voyage utilized by nuclear power was made by the nuclear powered ship ''Mutsu'' in 1990. After a research voyage in 1992, decommissioning work of the nuclear reactor for ''Mutsu'' was started to change it from the nuclear power ship to an ordinary power ship. Thirty-four irradiated fuel assemblies of ''Mutsu'' were removed from the reactor and transported to the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) in Nuclear Science Research Institute (NSRI) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). ''Mutsu'' fuel assemblies were loaded into a hot cell of RFEF using the roof gate as the top loading procedure. After the reliability confirmation tests, fuel assemblies were reassembled for reprocessing. To perform the reliability confirmation tests and reassembling, new devices were developed and installed in the hot cells, ''Fuel assembly transportation device'' for transporting the fuel assemblies between the hot cells, ''Upper nozzle cutting device'' for removing the upper nozzle from the fuel assembly, ''Fuel rod drawing device'' for drawing a fuel rod from the fuel assembly and so on. Thirty-four fuel assemblies were reassembled as six PWR type fuel assemblies in order to adjust the acceptable specifications of the reprocessing plant in JAEA: the shape of fuel assembly is the same as the PWR type commercial reactor fuel and the average enrichment of uranium in the assembly is under 4.0%. This paper reports the reassembling techniques of the ''Mutsu'' irradiated fuel assemblies for reprocessing. (author)

  18. Static and dynamic performance tests of nuclear powered ship Mutsu reactor (report on nuclear ship Mutsu power-up tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Masa-aki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Tanaka, Yoshimi; Inoue, Kimio; Yao, Toshiaki; Kamai, Satoshi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu.

    1992-08-01

    The power-up tests of the Mutsu reactor were performed from March 29th 1990 to December 14th. The tests were divided into six phases: The tests Phase 0 and Phase 1 were done in the state that the ship was moored at the quay of Sekinehama port in March and April; The tests Phase 2, Phase 3, Phase 4, and Phase 5 were done on the Pacific Ocean from July to December. Present report describes the test results on the static and dynamic plant performance. On static plant performance tests, there are 13 test items including measurements of primary system heat balance at low and high power levels, a virgin run of feed water pump with SG steam, a change-over test of steam supply of auxiliary boiler to SG. On the dynamic plant performance, there are 11 test items including a test of reactor power auto-control system, a test of main feed water auto-control system, a test of small load variation, a load increasing test, a turbine trip test, tests of ahead and astern maneuvering, a test of single loop operation, and a reactor scram test. The reactor power for each item's test was increased step by step from zero power to the goal of rated power of 100 %, 36 MWt. In order to confirm proper reactor system performance, criteria were laid down for the static and dynamic tests: for example, (1) reactor scram shall not occur, (2) pressurizer relief valve and steam generator safety valve shall not work, and (3) after the transients reactor systems shall become the steady state without manual adjustment of the reactor control system. The test results satisfied these criteria and some of test data showed that reactor had much more margin in any performance for design. It is verified, therefore, that the Mutsu reactor systems have adequate performances as a marine reactor and that one is capable to respond smoothly and safely to the load of ship's demand. (author).

  19. Nuclear powerplants for mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  20. Development of advanced automatic operation system for nuclear ship. 1. Perfect automatic normal operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, Toshio; Yabuuti, Noriaki; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-02-01

    Development of operation support system such as automatic operating system and anomaly diagnosis systems of nuclear reactor is very important in practical nuclear ship because of a limited number of operators and severe conditions in which receiving support from others in a case of accident is very difficult. The goal of development of the operation support systems is to realize the perfect automatic control system in a series of normal operation from the reactor start-up to the shutdown. The automatic control system for the normal operation has been developed based on operating experiences of the first Japanese nuclear ship `Mutsu`. Automation technique was verified by `Mutsu` plant data at manual operation. Fully automatic control of start-up and shutdown operations was achieved by setting the desired value of operation and the limiting value of parameter fluctuation, and by making the operation program of the principal equipment such as the main coolant pump and the heaters. This report presents the automatic operation system developed for the start-up and the shutdown of reactor and the verification of the system using the Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulator System. (author)

  1. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  2. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimazaki, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Yabuuchi, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  3. Building of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System development of the simulator for the integral type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAERI had carried out the design study of a light-weight and compact integral type reactor of power 100 MWth with passive safety as a power source for the future nuclear ships, and completed an engineering design. To confirm the design and operation performance and to utilize the study of automation of the operations of reactor, we developed a real-time simulator for the integral type reactor. This simulator is a part of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and on the same hardware as 'Mutsu' simulator which was developed to simulate the first Japanese nuclear ship Mutsu'. Simulation accuracy of 'Mutsu' simulator was verified by comparing the simulation results With data got in the experimental voyage of 'Mutsu'. The simulator for the integral type reactor uses the same programs which were used in 'Mutsu' simulator for the separate type PWR, and the simulated results are approximately consistent with the calculated values using RELAP5/MOD2 (The later points are reported separately). Therefore simulation accuracy of the simulator for the integral type reactor is also expected to be reasonable, though it is necessary to verify by comparing with the real plant data or experimental data in future. We can get the perspectives to use as a real-time engineering simulator and to achieve the above-mentioned aims. This is a report on development of the simulator for the integral type reactor mainly focused on the contents of the analytical programs expressed the structural features of reactor. (author)

  4. Analysis of Possible Application of High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors to Contemporary Large-Output Steam Power Plants on Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk T.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at analysis of possible application of helium to cooling high-temperature nuclear reactor to be used for generating steam in contemporary ship steam-turbine power plants of a large output with taking into account in particular variable operational parameters. In the first part of the paper types of contemporary ship power plants are presented. Features of today applied PWR reactors and proposed HTR reactors are discussed. Next, issues of load variability of the ship nuclear power plants, features of the proposed thermal cycles and results of their thermodynamic calculations in variable operational conditions, are presented.

  5. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal. 2. The second experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the second reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on August 30, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 50% of reactor power and under a quiet sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author).

  6. Reactor dynamics experiment of nuclear ship Mutsu using pseudo random signal (III). The third experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Koji; Shimazaki, Junya; Nabeshima, Kunihiko; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Inoue, Kimihiko

    1995-03-01

    In order to investigate dynamics of the reactor plant of the nuclear ship Mutsu, the third reactor noise experiment using pseudo random binary sequences (PRBS) was performed on September 16, 1991 in the third experimental navigation. The experiments using both reactivity and load disturbances were performed at 70% of reactor power and under a normal sea condition. Each PRBS was applied by manual operation of the control rod or the main steam valve. Various signals of the plant responses and of the acceleration of ship motion were measured. Furthermore, natural reactor noise signals were measured after each PRBS experiment in order to evaluate the effects of the PRBS disturbances. This paper summarizes the planning of the experiment, the instruction for the experiment and logs, the data recording conditions, recorded signal wave forms and the results of power spectral analysis. (author).

  7. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Technological, economic, and policy aspects of supplying energy to newly industrializing and developing countries using ship-deployed nuclear energy systems are described. The approach analyzed comprises nuclear installations of up to gigawatt scale deployed within currently mass-produced large ship hulls which are capable of flexibly supplying energy for electricity, water desalination and district heating-&-cooling with low latencies and minimized shoreside capital expenditures. Nuclear energy is uniquely suited for mobile deployment due to its combination of extraordinary energy density and high power density, which enable enormous supplies of energy to be deployed at extremely low marginal costs. Nuclear installations on ships also confer technological advantages by essentially eliminating risk from earthquakes, tsunamis, and floods; taking advantage of assured access to an effectively unlimited amount of cooling water, and involving minimal onshore preparations and commitments. Instances of floating nuclear power stations that have been proposed in the past, some of which are currently being pursued, have generally been based on conventional LWR technology, moreover without flexibility or completeness of power output options. We consider nuclear technology options for their applicability to the unique opportunities and challenges of a marine environment, with special attention given to low-pressure, high thermal margin systems with continuous and assured afterheat dissipation into the ambient seawater. Such systems appear promising for offering an exceptionally high degree of safety while using a maximally simple set of components. We furthermore consider systems tailored to Developing World contexts, which satisfy societal requirements beyond electrification, e.g., flexible sourcing of potable water and HVAC services, servicing time-varying user requirements, and compatibility with the full spectrum of local renewable energy supplies, specifically including

  8. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified

  9. Enhanced safe reactor plant KLT-40 for nuclear ships and power - Desalination complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OKB Mechanical Engineering (OKBM) is a designer of the reactor plant. OKBM has a long-term experience in development and High qualifications of OKBM research and personnel, advanced engineering equipment, vast experience of reactor plant development and operation ensure high quality of the design. Central Design Bureau (CDB) 'Airbags' is the author of the ship's design that houses the reactor plant and desalination unit. CDB 'Airbags' is the general designer of all soviet nuclear-powered icebreakers. EKATERINBIRG Research And Development Institute Of Chemical Machine Engineering is the chief designer of distillation desalination plant. The Institute has acquired a vast experience of research, development and technical supervision of virtually all operated including the desalination plant in the city of Actau (Kazakstan) currently operated in combination with the reactor plant BN-350. Production Association 'Baltic Works' is the builder of the plant. This enterprise's engaged in building nuclear ships. All currently operated nuclear-powered icebreakers: 'Sibir', 'Rossiya', 'soviet Union', 'Temary' and 'Vaigach' have been built there

  10. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-12-31

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified.

  11. Building of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System development of the simulator for the integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Teruo; Shimazaki, Junya; Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Fukuhara, Yosifumi; Kusunoki, Takeshi; Ochiai, Masaaki [Department of Nuclear Energy Systems, Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Nakazawa, Toshio [Department of HTTR Project, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    JAERI had carried out the design study of a light-weight and compact integral type reactor of power 100 MW{sub th} with passive safety as a power source for the future nuclear ships, and completed an engineering design. To confirm the design and operation performance and to utilize the study of automation of the operations of reactor, we developed a real-time simulator for the integral type reactor. This simulator is a part of Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and on the same hardware as 'Mutsu' simulator which was developed to simulate the first Japanese nuclear ship Mutsu'. Simulation accuracy of 'Mutsu' simulator was verified by comparing the simulation results With data got in the experimental voyage of 'Mutsu'. The simulator for the integral type reactor uses the same programs which were used in 'Mutsu' simulator for the separate type PWR, and the simulated results are approximately consistent with the calculated values using RELAP5/MOD2 (The later points are reported separately). Therefore simulation accuracy of the simulator for the integral type reactor is also expected to be reasonable, though it is necessary to verify by comparing with the real plant data or experimental data in future. We can get the perspectives to use as a real-time engineering simulator and to achieve the above-mentioned aims. This is a report on development of the simulator for the integral type reactor mainly focused on the contents of the analytical programs expressed the structural features of reactor. (author)

  12. Nuclear Structure of the Heaviest Elements – Investigated at SHIP-GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heßberger Fritz Peter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The quest for the heaviest nuclei that can exist is a basic topic in natural science as their stability is characterized by a delicate interplay of short range nuclear forces acting between the nucleons (protons and neutrons and long-range Coulomb forces acting solely between charged particles, i.e. the protons. As the stability of a nucleus is strongly correlated to its structure, understanding the nuclear structure of heaviest nuclei is presently a main challenge of experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the field of Superheavy Elements. At the velocity filter SHIP at GSI Darmstadt an extensive program on nuclear structure investigations has been started about a decade ago. The project covered both as well systematic investigations of single particle levels in odd-mass isotopes populated by α-decay as investigation of two- or fourquasi-particle states forming K isomers and was supplemented by direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and investigation of spontaneous fission properties. Recent experimental studies allowed to extend the systematics of low lying levels in N = 151 and N = 153 up to 255Rf and 259Sg, investigation of possible relations between nuclear structure and fission properties of odd-mass nuclei and investigation of shell strengths at N = 152 and towards N = 162.

  13. Nuclear structure of the heaviest elements - investigated at SHIP-GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for the heaviest nuclei that can exist is a basic topic in natural science as their stability is characterized by a delicate interplay of short range nuclear forces acting between the nucleons (protons and neutrons) and long-range Coulomb forces acting solely between charged particles, i.e. the protons. As the stability of a nucleus is strongly correlated to its structure, understanding the nuclear structure of heaviest nuclei is presently a main challenge of experimental and theoretical investigations concerning the field of Superheavy Elements. At the velocity filter SHIP at GSI Darmstadt, an extensive program on nuclear structure investigations started about a decade ago. The project covered both as well systematic investigations of single particle levels in odd-mass isotopes populated by a-decay as investigation of two- or four-quasi-particle states forming K isomers and was supplemented by direct mass measurements at SHIPTRAP and investigation of spontaneous fission properties. Recent experimental studies allowed us to extend the systematics of low lying levels in N = 151 and N = 153 up to 255Rf and 259Sg, investigation of possible relations between nuclear structure and fission properties of odd-mass nuclei and investigation of shell strengths at N = 152 and towards N = 162. (authors)

  14. Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation of the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 Shipping Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) has been performed for the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 SRS-designed shipping casks. This was done in support of the recertification effort for the 9965 and 9968, and the certification of the newly designed 9972-9975 series. The analysis supports the use of these packages as Fissile Class I for shipment of fissionable material from the SRS FB-Line, HB-Line, and from Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory. six different types of material were analyzed with varying Isotopic composition, of both oxide and metallic form. The mass limits required to support the fissile Class I rating for each of the envelopes are given in the Table below. These mass limits apply if DOE approves an exception as described in 10 CFR 71.55(c), such that water leakage into the primary containment vessel does not need to be considered in the criticality analysis. If this exception is not granted, the mass limits are lower than those shown below. this issue is discussed in detail in sections 5 and 6 of the report.One finding from this work is important enough to highlight in the abstract. The fire tests performed for this family of shipping casks indicates only minimal charring of the Celotex thermal insulation. Analysis of the casks with no Celotex insulation (assuming it has all burned away), results in values of k-eff that exceed 1.0. Therefore, the Celotex insulation must remain intact in order to guarantee sub criticality of the 9972-9975 family of shipping casks

  15. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  16. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audin, L.

    1990-12-01

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs.

  17. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs

  18. Measurement of xenon reactivity in the reactor of the nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru

    1993-07-01

    This report deals with the measurement of reactivity changes caused by the increase and decrease of xenon concentration in the reactor core of the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' after a change from long-term operation at 70 % to zero power. The change in xenon reactivity was compensated by control-rod movements and the compensated reactivity was measured using a digital reactivity meter. The xenon override peak was recognized five and half hours after the start of power reduction. The equilibrium and peak reactivities of xenon were estimated by reading the initial and peak values of a theoretical curve which was fitted to the measured variation in xenon reactivity. The xenon reactivity results obtained by the present method can be considered to be accurate since no control-rod worth data were used and the measured quantity was the reactivity itself. (author).

  19. Scientific and technical aspects of creating spent nuclear fuel shipping and storage equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of advanced capacity shipping packaging set development which allows shipping and storage of heat-producing spent fuel assemblies for pressurized water reactor VVER-1000 type are considered. Analogs and achieved advantages of TUK-146 construction are mentioned

  20. substantiation of nuclear safety ensuring for storing LWR cores, including damaged ones, in NPP of Russian out of service nuclear powered submarines, surface ships and vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of Russian nuclear ships and vessels, first nuclear powered submarines (NPS) with light water coolant are out of service and non-defueled. The critical economic situation in Russia doesn't allow solving this problem for the tolerable run. The nuclear and radiation safety of such cores long-term storage in the ships and vessels afloat must be ensured. The other serious problem to be tackled by nuclear experts and organizations is the mooring of NPS with accident nuclear powered plants (NPP). The damaged cores should be explored, and their nuclear safety must be ultimately enhanced. The protection of the nearest and distant population and regions from the nuclear man-made hazards caused by the retired non-defueled floating NPS could be ensured by the draining of the core in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and the filling of the core by heavy melt or pure liquid metal. A metal must possess the necessary nuclear and chemical properties, and thermal hydraulics conditions as well as the properties of the self-solidified in RPV the inert metal. The principal findings, especially the ship's reactor criticality reduction and the fixation of fuel elements in the RPV structure, are of great importance for the prevention of any emergency and the non-proliferation of high-enriched SNF from the naval reactors at the all stages of the handling with the in-RPV core. (author)

  1. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without

  2. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without.

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume III. Resources and fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of uranium supply and the rest of the nuclear fuel cycle to meet the demand for nuclear power is an important consideration in future domestic and international planning. Accordingly, the purpose of this assessment is to evaluate the adequacy of potential supply for various nuclear resources and fuel cycle facilities in the United States and in the world outside centrally planned economy areas (WOCA). Although major emphasis was placed on uranium supply and demand, material resources (thorium and heavy water) and facility resources (separative work, spent fuel storage, and reprocessing) were also considered

  4. Assessment of radiation consequences of cabins in a nuclear accident of the nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discussed about the spread routes of radioactive nuclides from reactor cabin to other cabins and their distributions in these cabins. Methods and formulas to estimate radioactivities of nuclides and doses received by crews in cabins were established. The radiation consequences of cabins in a nuclear accident was quantified and evaluated. The assessments indicates that the consequences of cabins is light and the doses to the staff will not exceed the dose limits prescribed in standards in a design basis accident, and the consequences of cabins is serious and the doses to the staff will exceed the dose limits prescribed in standards in serious accident. Some suggestions on emergency management and radiation protection were given

  5. Civilian PTSD Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapinsky, Alicia C.; Rapport, Lisa J.; Henderson, Melinda J.; Axelrod, Bradley N.

    2005-01-01

    Strong associations between civilian posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scales and measures of general psychological distress suggest that the scales are nonspecific to PTSD. Three common PTSD scales were administered to 122 undergraduates who had experienced an emotionally salient, nontraumatic event: a college examination. Results indicated…

  6. FATE Unified Modeling Method for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Sludge Processing, Shipping and Storage - 13405

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified modeling method applicable to the processing, shipping, and storage of spent nuclear fuel and sludge has been incrementally developed, validated, and applied over a period of about 15 years at the US DOE Hanford site. The software, FATETM, provides a consistent framework for a wide dynamic range of common DOE and commercial fuel and waste applications. It has been used during the design phase, for safety and licensing calculations, and offers a graded approach to complex modeling problems encountered at DOE facilities and abroad (e.g., Sellafield). FATE has also been used for commercial power plant evaluations including reactor building fire modeling for fire PRA, evaluation of hydrogen release, transport, and flammability for post-Fukushima vulnerability assessment, and drying of commercial oxide fuel. FATE comprises an integrated set of models for fluid flow, aerosol and contamination release, transport, and deposition, thermal response including chemical reactions, and evaluation of fire and explosion hazards. It is one of few software tools that combine both source term and thermal-hydraulic capability. Practical examples are described below, with consideration of appropriate model complexity and validation. (authors)

  7. Development of advanced automatic control system for nuclear ship. 2. Perfect automatic operation after reactor scram events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Noriaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Takahashi, Hiroki; Shimazaki, Junya; Hoshi, Tsutao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    An automatic operation system has been developed for the purpose of realizing a perfect automatic plant operation after reactor scram events. The goal of the automatic operation after a reactor scram event is to bring the reactor hot stand-by condition automatically. The basic functions of this system are as follows; to monitor actions of the equipments of safety actions after a reactor scram, to control necessary control equipments to bring a reactor to a hot stand-by condition automatically, and to energize a decay heat removal system. The performance evaluation on this system was carried out by comparing the results using to Nuclear Ship Engineering Simulation System (NESSY) and the those measured in the scram test of the nuclear ship `Mutsu`. As the result, it was showed that this system had the sufficient performance to bring a reactor to a hot syand-by condition quickly and safety. (author)

  8. Using the technology of ship reactors with a liquid-metal coolant in the civil nuclear power engineering of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One analyzes possibility to apply ship reactors with Pb-Bi coolant in civil nuclear power plants of Russia. Renovation of NPP units with Pb-Bi coolant reactor modulus is shown to be one of the most economically efficient ways to replace decommissioned capacities. The elaborated renovation of the Novo-Voronezh NPP old power units demonstrates that this option rules out most severe accidents

  9. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  11. Licensing procedures for a dedicated ship for carrying spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Report from workshop held at GOSAOMNADZOR, Moscow 2 -3 July 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes information exchange and discussion about the licensing principles and procedures for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste transportation at sea. Russian health, environment and safety requirements for transportation of waste by ships. (Author)

  12. Licensing procedures for a dedicated ship for carrying spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Report from workshop held at GOSAOMNADZOR, Moscow 2 -3 July 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, Margorzata K.; Bergman, Curt; Markarov, Valentin

    2001-07-01

    The report describes information exchange and discussion about the licensing principles and procedures for spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste transportation at sea. Russian health, environment and safety requirements for transportation of waste by ships. (Author)

  13. Spent nuclear fuel shipping cask handling capabilities of commercial light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes an evaluation of the cask handling capabilities of those reactors which are operating or under construction. A computerized data base that includes cask handling information was developed with information from the literature and utility-supplied data. The capability of each plant to receive and handle existing spent fuel shipping casks was then evaluated. Modal fractions were then calculated based on the results of these evaluations and the quantities of spent fuel projected to be generated by commercial nuclear power plants through 1998. The results indicated that all plants are capable of receiving and handling truck casks. Up to 118 out of 130 reactors (91%) could potentially handle the larger and heavier rail casks if the maximum capability of each facility is utilized. Design and analysis efforts and physical modifications to some plants would be needed to achieve this high rail percentage. These modifications would be needed to satisfy regulatory requirements, increase lifting capabilities, develop rail access, or improve other deficiencies. The remaining 12 reactors were determined to be capable of handling only the smaller truck casks. The percentage of plants that could receive and handle rail casks in the near-term would be reduced to 64%. The primary reason for a plant to be judged incapable of handling rail casks in the near-term was a lack of rail access. The remaining 36% of the plants would be limited to truck shipments. The modal fraction calculations indicated that up to 93% of the spent fuel accumulated by 1998 could be received at federal storage or disposal facilities via rail (based on each plant's maximum capabilities). If the near-term cask handling capabilities are considered, the rail percentage is reduced to 62%

  14. Seismic tipping analysis of a spent nuclear fuel shipping cask sitting on a crush pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crush pad has been designed and analyzed to absorb the kinetic energy of an accidentally dropped spent nuclear fuel shipping cask into a 44 ft. deep cask unloading pool. Conventional analysis techniques available for evaluating a cask for tipping due to lateral seismic forces assume that the cask rests on a rigid surface. In this analysis, the cask (110 tons) sits on a stainless steel encased (0.25 in. top plate), polyurethane foam (4 ft. thick) crush pad. As the cask tends to rock due to horizontal seismic forces, the contact area between the cask and the crush pad is reduced, increasing the bearing stress, and causing the pivoting corner of the cask to depress into the crush pad. As the crush pad depresses under the cask corner, the pivot point shifts from the corner toward the cask center, which facilitates rocking and potential tipping of the cask. Subsequent rocking of the cask may deepen the depression, further contributing to the likelihood of cask tip over. However, as the depression is created, the crush pad is absorbing energy from the rocking cask. Potential tip over of the cask was evaluated by performing a non-linear, dynamic, finite element analysis with acceleration time history input. This time history analysis captured the effect of a deforming crush pad, and also eliminated conservatisms of the conventional approaches. For comparison purposes, this analysis was also performed with the cask sitting on a solid stainless steel crush pad. Results indicate that the conventional methods are quite conservative relative to the more exacting time history analysis. They also indicate that the rocking motion is less on the foam crush pad than on the solid stainless steel pad

  15. Response to severe changes of load on the reactor system of nuclear ship Mutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ochiai, Masa-aki (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Tanaka, Yoshimi; Yao, Toshiaki; Inoue, Kimio

    1993-02-01

    The response of the nuclear power system of N.S. Mutsu to severe changes of load have been studied from records taken during the power-raising tests performed on the ship in 1990. The records examined were those involving the most severe load changes foreseen for marine reactors: (a) sharp load increase with total steam flow raised from 25 to 70 % rated full flow in 13s, (b) crash astern maneuver with the position of propulsion turbine command handle changed-taking several seconds-from cruising ahead to STOP, and after about 50s, further changed-taking 30s-to bring the astern propulsion turbine to full speed-to consume approximately 60 % rated total steam flow and (c) turbine trip with the ahead turbine intentionally tripped when operating at roughly 100 % rated total steam flow. The foregoing records from load changes-of severity beyond what is foreseen for land-based reactors-proved that the Mutsu reactor is capable of responding smoothly and securely to such severe load changes. These load changes occasioned relatively large mismatches between reactor power supply and steam flow demand, but with notable freedom from any conspicuous overshooting or hunting of the reactor power. This performance can be attributed to (a) correct functioning of the automatic power control system, (b) effective contribution of the self-regulating reactor control property deriving from the large negative feedback between moderator temperature and reactivity, and (c) the ample inventories of coolant in the primary and secondary loops. The responses to load change are discussed covering those relevant to (a) reactor power, (b) primary loop pressure, and (c) steam generator pressure, with particular reference to the differences seen in response to mild and to severe load changes. (author).

  16. Research on the Export Trade of Civilian Ships in Yangtze River Delta Region%长三角地区民用船舶出口贸易研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施春华; 冯俊文

    2014-01-01

    With the development of economic globalization, the rapid rise of Marine economy and the international shipping industry, the rapid spread of the trade competition between countries is gradually shifting from land to sea. China's civil ship manufacturing industry is facing unprecedented opportunities and challenges. To this, the author use civil ship in Yangtze river delta export trade in all kinds of statistical data in recent years, according to the type of ship classification on the specific research and analysis, found all kinds of ships in the export trade in the region, the most typical and the most outstanding problems and to solve these problems from the supporting equipment, green production and marketing chain, key customer management, after-sales service as well as the advantages brought by the Shanghai free trade zone was established for the countermeasure research, for the better development in Yangtze river delta civil ship export trade and puts forward countermeasures and Suggestions of good, not only conducive to the healthy development of the region of ship export trade, also for the sustainable development of Marine economy in Yangtze river delta provides a good reference material.%随着世界经济全球化的不断发展,海洋经济的快速兴起,国际航运业的迅速扩散,国家间的贸易竞争正逐渐由陆地向海洋转移,中国的民用船舶制造工业正面临着前所未有的机遇及挑战。对此,笔者利用长三角地区民用船舶出口贸易近些年的各项统计数据,按船舶类型分类对其进行了专项研究分析,发现了该地区各类船舶出口贸易中所存在的最典型、最突出的问题,并针对这些问题从配套设备、绿色产销链、大客户管理、售后服务以及上海自贸区成立所带来的有利条件等方面进行了对策研究,为长三角地区更好地发展民用船舶出口贸易提出了良好的对策与建议,不仅有利于该地区船

  17. Changing Into Civilian Clothes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two thirds of China’s military industrial research and production capacity has been transferred to civilian use Without a transformation 42 years ago,would there be a brand named"Changhong"in the world? It might be impossible to answer this question. When people use Changhong electric appliances,they might only be aware that these products are from a large internation- al company located in Sichuan Province, southwest China.Many people,including young Changhong employees,know noth- ing about the transformation of the compa- ny four decades ago.

  18. The development of an operations system for the transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to support the development of a Transportation Operations System for the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, the United States Department of Energy formed the Transportation Project Office at its field office in Chicago. Planning and development activities are being performed in a number of areas including a major effort in operations support, providing the planning and assessment necessary for developing the future transportation operations capability needed by the FWMS. The purpose of this paper is to review significant planning and development accomplishments, and outline expected future efforts for the continued development, acquisition, test, and startup of the transportation operations component of the FWMS. 2 refs

  19. Agreement Between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities. Addition to the List of Facilities Subject to Safeguards Under the Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement between the Government of India and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards to Civilian Nuclear Facilities (hereinafter “the Agreement”), India shall notify the Agency in writing of its decision to offer any facility identified by India for Agency safeguards under the Agreement. Any facility so notified by India becomes subject to the Agreement as of the date of receipt by the Agency of such written notification from India, and is to be included in the Annex to the Agreement. On 11 March 2014, the Agency received from India written notification, pursuant to Paragraph 14(a) of the Agreement, of its decision to bring one additional facility under safeguards in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. Pursuant to Paragraph 14 4(a) of the Agreement, the Annex to the Agreement has been updated and is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  20. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale test of a railcar and spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask in a high-velocity impact against a rigid barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, M.

    1981-06-01

    This report describes the mathematical analysis, the physical scale modeling, and a full-scale crash test of a railcar spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system. The mathematical analysis utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the structural response of the railcar and the shipping cask. The physical scale modeling analysis consisted of two crash tests that used 1/8-scale models to assess railcar and shipping cask damage. The full-scale crash test, conducted with retired railcar equipment, was carefully monitored with onboard instrumentation and high-speed photography. Results of the mathematical and scale modeling analyses are compared with the full-scale test. 29 figures.

  1. Analysis, scale modeling, and full-scale test of a railcar and spent-nuclear-fuel shipping cask in a high-velocity impact against a rigid barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the mathematical analysis, the physical scale modeling, and a full-scale crash test of a railcar spent-nuclear-fuel shipping system. The mathematical analysis utilized a lumped-parameter model to predict the structural response of the railcar and the shipping cask. The physical scale modeling analysis consisted of two crash tests that used 1/8-scale models to assess railcar and shipping cask damage. The full-scale crash test, conducted with retired railcar equipment, was carefully monitored with onboard instrumentation and high-speed photography. Results of the mathematical and scale modeling analyses are compared with the full-scale test. 29 figures

  2. 核动力集装箱船经济性分析%Economic analysis of nuclear-powered container ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周盛; 刘六井; 洪金华

    2012-01-01

    以大型集装箱船为研究目标,通过对普通燃油集装箱船与核动力集装箱船的运行费用进行分析,并对2种船舶全寿期内的运行费用进行比较.结果表明,在全寿期内,核动力集装箱船相比普通燃油集装箱船在油价高于367美元/t时,具有较好的经济性.%The author takes the large container ship as a research model, analysis the fuel ship and nuclear-powered container ship operating costs, and compares the whole life costs of fuel and nuclear-powered container ship. The results show that. In the whole life cycle, nuclear-powered container ship compared the fuel container ship have a better economy with the oil price above $ 367/ ton.

  3. CYBER HOSTILITIES: CIVILIAN DIRECT PARTICIPATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Iulian VOITAȘEC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which hostilities are being conducted has changed in recent years. The battle field has transpired beyond the physical realm and now has a virtual component. Because of this, it is now easier than ever for civilians to get involved in hostilities. International Humanitarian Law applies to all situations of armed conflict and according to the principle of distinction, the parties to the conflict must, at all times, distinguish between civilians and combatants. The problem arises when the line between combatants and civilians starts to get blurry. Direct civilian participation in hostilities has been addressed in both Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and in 2009 the International Committee of the Red Cross published the Interpretive guidance on the notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities under international humanitarian law. Another document that addresses the problem of civilian direct participation is the Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare prepared by an international group of experts at the invitation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in 2013. The guide prepared by the ICRC addresses the problem of civilian direct participation during conventional situations of armed conflict, while the Tallinn Manual addresses direct participation in situations of cyber warfare. The purpose of this paper is to study the application of civilian direct participation to situations of cyber warfare.

  4. Introduction to nuclear propulsion safety analysis of military ships; Introducao a seguranca da propulsao nuclear de navios militares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to naval vessels nuclear propulsion plants safety analysis, including differences regarding nuclear power plants safety objectives, operational conditions analysis and general safety requirements for design, construction and operation. (author)

  5. Project on standards on good behaviour for the civilian nuclear industry; Projet de normes de bonne counduite pour l`industrie nculeaire civile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohl, Pierre; Derche, Bernard [Association Internationale du Droit Nucleaire, Paris (France). Section Francaise

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear energy has provoked complex and sometimes heated debates involving politic, economic, scientific and moral issues, objective data alongside irrational feelings, short-term calculations as well as concerns touching on the far-reaching of humanity and the earth. These debates go beyond national borders as it is obvious that even though each country may hold divergent positions regarding the development of nuclear energy, their effects have an international scope, and, therefore, must be taken into account by all nations, even those who do not operate nuclear installations. Whatever conclusion may be drawn from these debates, decisions on nuclear energy are always taken by the political authorities, almost always at the highest level, be it national or international. These political decisions then become the body of legal standards, particularly the regulations which govern how nuclear energy is used. The main standards are for technical and scientific quality, applying to energy resource needs, to the reasons why the nuclear industry should be developed, to radioprotection and nuclear security, to protection of the environment, to radioactive waste management, to information and consulting to the public, to international cooperation, to non-proliferation of atomic weapons and to physical protection of nuclear materials. (author).

  6. Outline of reactor physics tests conducted during the power-up tests in the nuclear ship MUTSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru

    1992-11-01

    The present report describes the outline of a series of reactor physics tests conducted during the power-up tests in the nuclear ship MUTSU, which started on March 29, 1990. The basic physics design parameters have been confirmed from these test results. In spite of a 16 year reactor stop and refabrications of fuel assemblies and control rods in 1989, no change in reactor physics performance through the long period has been also demonstrated by comparing the present measured results with the data received in 1974. The digital reactivity meter used in the physics tests enabled us to perform more efficient and accurate measurements of reactivity than the conventional period method. Most of the physics test results show the three-dimensional (3-D) core characteristics peculiar to ship reactors which are caused by partial insertion of control rods even under full power conditions. A 3-D reactor physics code developed for the MUTSU reactor has given excellent calculation results which agree quite well with these measured characteristics. (author).

  7. Energy-supply-independent after-heat removal in nuclear propulsion plants for ships in combination with sinking and cuntering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy-supply-independent after-heat-removal in nuclear propulsion plants for ships in combination with sinking and cantering are analysed with a numeric simulation model. Inclination on the seaground are 0 to the vertical. Different heat-transfer-mechanism in and out of the reactor vessel and at the structures of the containment are analysed. The computer calculation shows that in the course of the accident melting of the core at each inclination occurs. Nevertheless no melting of the reactor vessel occurs due to good cooling of the outer wall of the vessel with seawater. The accident sequenz has at inclinations of 500 to 600 to the vertical a maximum in time. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear criticality safety analysis for the traveller PWR fuel shipping package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vescovi, P.J.; Kent, N.A.; Casado, C.A. [Westinghouse Electric Co., LLC, Columbia, SC (United States)]|[ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas SA, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The Traveller PWR fresh fuel shipping package represents a radical departure from conventional PWR fuel package designs. Two immediately noticeable features of the Traveller are that it carries a single fuel assembly instead of two as do other package designs, and that it has built-in moderator, which forms part of the flux-trap system. The criticality safety case shows that the Traveller satisfies both U.S. and IAEA licensing requirements, and demonstrates that the package remains acceptably subcritical under normal conditions and hypothetical accident conditions of transport. This paper looks at the modeling techniques that were used to analyze the several accident scenarios that were considered, including: Lattice pitch expansion; Lattice pitch expansion along the fuel assembly length; Preferential flooding (selective flooding of different cavities); Differential flooding (varying water levels inside different cavities); Partial flooding (varying water density); Axial rod displacement; o Sensitivity studies of variable foam densities and boron content in packaging; Analysis for carrying loose rods in a rodbox; The criticality safety case for the Traveller proved to be a successful cooperative effort between ENUSA and Westinghouse.

  9. Nuclear criticality safety analysis for the traveller PWR fuel shipping package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Traveller PWR fresh fuel shipping package represents a radical departure from conventional PWR fuel package designs. Two immediately noticeable features of the Traveller are that it carries a single fuel assembly instead of two as do other package designs, and that it has built-in moderator, which forms part of the flux-trap system. The criticality safety case shows that the Traveller satisfies both U.S. and IAEA licensing requirements, and demonstrates that the package remains acceptably subcritical under normal conditions and hypothetical accident conditions of transport. This paper looks at the modeling techniques that were used to analyze the several accident scenarios that were considered, including: Lattice pitch expansion; Lattice pitch expansion along the fuel assembly length; Preferential flooding (selective flooding of different cavities); Differential flooding (varying water levels inside different cavities); Partial flooding (varying water density); Axial rod displacement; o Sensitivity studies of variable foam densities and boron content in packaging; Analysis for carrying loose rods in a rodbox; The criticality safety case for the Traveller proved to be a successful cooperative effort between ENUSA and Westinghouse

  10. Validation of elastic-plastic computer analyses for use in nuclear waste shipping cask design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GA Technologies designed the Defense High Level Waste (DHLW) Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The DHLW cask has a thick-walled stainless steel body and incorporates integral stainless steel impact limiters that protect the two ends of the cask during the hypothetical accident condition 30-ft free drop. These integral impact limiters absorb the drop energy through gross plastic deformations. GA used elastic-plastic computer codes developed at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, HONDOII and DYNA3D, to analyze for this non-linear behavior. In order to evaluate the analyses, GA developed elastic-plastic stress criteria that were adapted from the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Division I, Section III. This innovative design and analytical approach required test verification. Therefore, SNL performed 30-ft drop and puncture tests on a half-scale model of the DHLW cask. The testing confirmed that the analytical approach works and results in a safe, conservative design

  11. Re-evaluation of the criticality experiments of the ''Otto Hahn Nuclear Ship'' reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lengar, I.; Snoj, L.; Rogan, P.; Ravnik, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    Several series of experiments with a FDR reactor (advanced pressurized light water reactor) were performed in 1972 in the Geesthacht critical facility ANEX. The experiments were performed to test the core prior to its usage for the propulsion of the first German nuclear merchant ship ''Otto-Hahn''. In the present paper a calculational re-evaluation of the experiments is described with the use of the up-to date computer codes (Monte-Carlo code MCNP5) and nuclear data (ENDF/B-VI release 6). It is focused on the determination of uncertainties in the benchmark model of the experimental set-up, originating mainly from the limited set of information still available about the experiments. Effects of the identified uncertainties on the multiplication factor were studied. The sensitivity studies include parametric variation of material composition and geometry. The combined total uncertainty being found 0.0050 in k{sub eff}, the experiments are qualified as criticality safety benchmark experiments. (orig.)

  12. Underground NPP of mean and low power on the basis of ship nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of creating underground NPPs, melting higher requirements of nuclear and radiation safety, are described. The proposed NPP with the Pb-Bi-cooled fast neutron reactor is characterized by inherent self-protection, excluding origination of radiation-hazardous incidents. The experience of creation and operation of the reactors with the Pb-Bi coolant, accumulated by their application on submarines, may be used by developing such a NPP

  13. Collision proof properties associated with the ships operated by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. and damage survivability in the event of a collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date there have been many reports and papers presented considering the effects of ship fires and collisions on the transport packages (casks). The study presented is to explain the collision proof properties associated with the ships operated by Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd. And to provide an explanation of their damage survivability in the event of a collision. This paper discounts the possible effects on the individual package but considers purely, the survivability of the vessel after a severe collision with another vessel. (author)

  14. The concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety, developed on the basis of ship-building technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A concept of underground nuclear heat and power plants (UNHPP) of upgraded safety on the basis of ship-building technologies is considered, in which the priority is set to population security and environmental protection. Ways of realization of ziro radiation risk for the population residing in a close vicinity of UNHPP are substantiated. basic principles of the concept are formulated which envisage the use of ship propulsion reactor facilities that have been multiply tested in operation. The sources of economic competitiveness of UNHPPs, as compared with the existing NPPs, are shown

  15. Modification of Japanese first nuclear ship reactor for a regional energy supply system using gadolinia as a burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our laboratory, a small regional energy supply system which uses a small nuclear reactor has been studied for a long time. This system could supply not only heat but also electricity. Heat could be used for hot-water supply, a heating system of a house, melting snow and so on. In this point, this system seems to be useful for the places like northern part of Japan where it snows in winter. This reactor is based on Nuclear Ship Mutsu which was developed as the first nuclear ship of Japan about 40 years ago. It has several advantages for a small reactor. For example, its moderator temperature coefficient is always to be deeply negative because boric acid solution is not used in moderator and coolant. This can lead to a self-controlled operation without control rod maneuvering for load change. But some modifications have been performed in order to satisfy requirements such as (1) longer core life without refueling and reshuffling, (2) reactivity adjustment for load change without control rods or soluble boron, (3) simpler operations for load changes and (4) ultimate safety with sufficient passive capability. In our previous study, we confirmed the core based on Mutsu core had longer core life (about 10 years) using high uranium enrichment fuel (more than 5wt%) and current 17x17 fuel assemblies. We also confirmed excess reactivity during the cycle could be suppressed using combination of erbium oxide (Er2O3) and gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) as burnable poisons. Er2O3 has advantages such that criticality safety can be kept even if uranium enrichment is more than 5wt% and burnup characteristics of the core can be gradual. But at this time there are 2 problems to apply for the core using Er2O3 in Japan. First problem is that more than 5wt% enrichment fuel is not yet accepted in Japan. Second problem is that there are no experiences of using Er2O3 in commercial reactors in Japan. Considering these problems, we have to modify the design of the core, using only Gd2O3 as a

  16. Control-rod interference effects observed during reactor physics experiments with nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment); Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru; Sakai, Tomohiro

    1993-05-01

    The control rods in the reactor of the nuclear ship MUTSU are classified into four groups: groups G1 and G2 are located in the central part of the core, while groups G3 and G4 are in the peripheral zone of the core. Several types of mutual interference effects among these control-rod groups were observed during reactor physics experiments with this reactor. During normal hot operations, positive shadowing was dominant between the G1 and G2 groups; the degree of the shadowing effect of one rod group depended on the position of the other rod group. Both positive and negative shadowing effects occurred between an inner rod group (G1 or G2) and an outer group (G3 or G4) depending on the three-dimensional arrangement of the control rods. The rod worths of G1 and G2 increased as a result of slight core burnup, about 1,400 MWd/t, mainly due to the decrease in shadowing effects resulting from a change in control-rod pattern. A three-dimensional diffusion calculation with internal control-rod boundary conditions has proved to be useful for analyzing these various interaction effects. (author).

  17. Development of the INF Code and its relationship to the ships of the Pacific Nuclear Transport Fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until the adoption of the INF Code as a voluntary instrument in 1993, there were no special construction or equipment requirements, of an advisory or mandatory nature, for ships carrying radioactive materials. Any cargo ship could be used for transporting virtually unlimited quantities of these materials. This paper gives a brief insight in to the development of the PNTL Fleet and the correlation to the INF Code. (author)

  18. Civilian Aeronautical Futures - The Responsibly Imaginable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2006-01-01

    Since 1940 Aeronautics has had an immense impact upon Global Human lifestyles and affairs - in both the Civilian and Military arenas. During this period Long distance Train and Ship passenger transport were largely supplanted by Air Travel and Aviation assumed a dominant role in warfare. The early 1940 s to the mid 1970 s was a particularly productive period in terms of Aeronautical Technology. What is interesting is that, since the mid 1970 s, the rate of Aeronautical Technological Progress has been far slower, the basic technology in nearly all of our current Aero Systems dates from the mid 70 s or earlier. This is especially true in terms of Configuration Aerodynamics, Aeronautics appears to have "settled" on the 707, double delta and rotary wing as the approach of choice for Subsonic long haul, supersonic cruise and VTOL respectively. Obviously there have been variants and some niche digression from this/these but in the main Aeronautics, particularly civilian Aeronautics, has become a self-professed "mature", Increasingly "Commodity", Industry. The Industry is far along an existing/deployed technology curve and focused, now for decades, on incremental/evolutionary change - largely Appliers vs. developers of technology. This is, of course, in sharp contrast to the situation in the early-to-later 20th century where Aeronautics was viewed as A Major Technological Engine, much the way IT/Bio/Nano/Energetics/Quantum Technologies are viewed today. A search for Visionary Aeronautical "Futures" papers/projections indicates a decided dearth thereof over the last 20 plus years compared to the previous quarter Century. Aeronautics is part of Aerospace and Aerospace [including Aeronautics] has seen major cutbacks over the last decades. Some numbers for the U.S. Aerospace Industry serve as examples. Order of 600,000 jobs lost, with some 180,000 more on the block over the next 10 years. Approximately 25% of the Aerospace workforce is eligible to retire and the average

  19. Preventing heat injury: military versus civilian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J K

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines for preventing heat injury (HI) among military personnel are not directly applicable to civilian personnel. Military guidelines call for relatively large volumes of prophylactic water consumption and physical activity limitations depending on the wet bulb globe temperature. However, in civilian populations, there is an increased prevalence of HI risk factors: older age, medication use, especially anticholinergic and psychotropic medications, obesity, previous HI, and skin disorders. Although dehydration is a major contributor to HI in military situations, it is unlikely in classical heat stroke among civilians. Civilian guidelines are based on the heat index. Activity levels must be restricted more for civilians, and prophylactic water consumption (beyond replacing loss from sweat) is not necessary. This review discusses the pathophysiology of heat injury, contrasts the military and civilian approach to prevention of HI, and describes appropriate field intervention for HI. PMID:9002705

  20. Shipping Fairways

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  1. Study and full-scale test of a high-velocity grade-crossing simulated accident of a locomotive and a nuclear-spent-fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report described structural analyses of a high-speed impact between a locomotive and a tractor-trailer system carrying a nuclear-spent-fuel shipping cask. The analyses included both mathematical and physical scale-modeling of the system. The report then describes the full-scale test conducted as part of the program. The system response is described in detail, and a comparison is made between the analyses and the actual hardware response as observed in the full-scale test. 34 figures

  2. Proceedings of the 1983 civilian radioactive waste management information meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceedings document from the 1983 Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Information Meeting serves to highlight developments since the passage of the Nuclear Policy Act of 1982 and reviews program activities necessary to provide for the permanent disposal and storage of commercially generated high-level radioactive waste. Presentations included in this program cover topics concerning interim spent fuel, monitored retrievable storage, geologic repository deployment as well as management of the Nuclear Waste Fund. Individual papers were abstracted for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  3. Ship Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrance, Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Explores in a non-mathematical treatment some of the hydrodynamical phenomena and forces that affect the operation of ships, especially at high speeds. Discusses the major components of ship resistance such as the different types of drags and ways to reduce them and how to apply those principles for the hovercraft. (GA)

  4. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  5. Evaluation of mechanical properties and low velocity impact characteristics of balsa wood and urethane foam applied to impact limiter of nuclear spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper aims to evaluate the low velocity impact responses and mechanical properties of balsa wood and urethane foam core materials and their sandwich panels, which are applied as the impact limiter of a nuclear spent fuel shipping cask. For the urethane foam core, which is isotropic, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical tests were conducted. For the balsa wood core, which is orthotropic and shows different material properties in different orthogonal directions, nine mechanical properties were determined. The impact test specimens for the core material and their sandwich panel were subjected to low velocity impact loads using an instrumented testing machine at impact energy levels of 1, 3, and 5J. The experimental results showed that both the urethane foam and the balsa wood core except in the growth direction (z-direction) had a similar impact response for the energy absorbing capacity, contact force, and indentation. Furthermore, it was found that the urethane foam core was suitable as an impact limiter material owing to its resistance to fire and low cost, and the balsa wood core could also be strongly considered as an impact limiter material for a lightweight nuclear spent fuel shipping cask

  6. Iraq: Learning Civilian Protection the Hard Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahr Muhammedally

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article—based on the author’s interviews with civilians and security forces in areas retaken from the Islamic State (also known as ISIS in Northern Iraq in 2015—examines challenges in civilian protection when pro-government forces take control of areas formerly under control of anti-government forces.1 It recommends to the Iraqi and Kurdish leadership specific harm mitigation training for their forces, a protection-based approach to shield civilians from harm from all sides, and provision of security to returnees, including protection both from crime and revenge attacks. Such preventative measures, if enacted before major military operations to retake populated areas under ISIS control begin, would better protect civilians, strengthen the government’s mission against ISIS and provide building blocks for a stable Iraq.

  7. Office of Civilian Response Deployment Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.

  8. Designing for High-Speed Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Røed, Bjarte Knappen

    2007-01-01

    Fast patrol boats are high-speed vessels operated by the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN). These ships are 36,5 meters long, have a beam of 6,2 meters and operate at high speed (32 knots – 16,5 meters per second) in very restricted waters. The fast patrol boats are war ships and navigation tasks performed by the crews are different from those in civilian high-speed craft. A team of five persons navigate the fast patrol boats, and navigation is based on traditional means such as visual observations...

  9. The international code for the safe carriage of packaged irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high-level radioactive waste on board ships (INF Code) - An industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INF Code has been developed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) since 1985 when requirements for ships carrying radioactive materials was first raised at its Maritime Safety Committee. It was introduced as a voluntary code in 1993 and became mandatory on 1 January 2001. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the UN agency responsible for regulations and standards to ensure safety within the civil nuclear industry. The IMO adopts IAEA standards in class 7 of the IMDG Code. The IAEA took the view that, during transport, the safety of radioactive materials should be ensured by the package regardless of the mode of transport. Packages containing INF materials are designed to IAEA standards and are capable of protecting people and the environment in very severe accident conditions without additional protection from the vehicle, in this case the ship. The IAEA formed a joining working group with the IMO to study what risks were posed by sea transport of INF materials and what modifications, if any, were required to existing IAEA regulations. The result was that member states agreed that no information or data submitted cast doubt on the adequacy of the IAEA regulations and the working group agreed, by consensus, on the draft INF Code. The INF Code, adopted as a voluntary code at the IMO 18th Assembly in November 1993, designated ships into three classes INF1, INF2 and INF3 which are determined by the maximum level of aggregate radioactivity that can be carried, with INF3 the highest, allowing unlimited levels. The code contains requirements for damage stability, fire protection, temperature control of cargo spaces, structural considerations, cargo securing arrangements, electrical supplies, radiological protection equipment, management, training and shipboard emergency plans. Since 1993 further work has been done to study the integrity of INF code material packages and hypothetical exposure of the material to the marine environment and these

  10. Operationalizing Civilian Protection in Mali: The Case for a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Keenan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This practice note details an emerging best practice of civilian harm mitigation in armed conflict: namely, the creation of civilian casualty tracking, analysis and response processes by a warring party or peace operation force. It asserts that in Iraq, Afghanistan and soon Somalia, these processes to better understand civilian harm and address consequences have positively shaped mission tactics, training, and overall operations. In both Iraq and Afghanistan, tracking and analysis has lead to a marked decrease in civilian casualties and facilitated the making of amends for any civilian losses. The paper argues that for warring parties to achieve their mission—particularly one with a protection of civilians mandate as with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA—they must fully understand the impact of their actions on the civilian population, positive or negative. For this reason, a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell should be created for MINUSMA to improve its ability mitigate risk to civilians as required by its Security Council mandate.

  11. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical

  12. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the second Annual Report on the activities and expenditures of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and covers the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984. Research over the past 30 years has shown that high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel can be safely disposed of in geologic repositories. This report provides an overview of the OCRWM organization. The specific accomplishments of the Office are presented. The Office's financial statements for fiscal years 1983 and 1984 are included, and a concluding chapter updates the report with a brief summary of key accomplishments since the end of fiscal year 1984. 9 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Integration of defense waste into the Civilian Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this audit was to determine whether the fee calculation method proposed by Waste Management would result in an accurate and fair allocation of costs to both civilian and defense owners of nuclear waste. We reviewed Waste Management's proposed cost allocation plans to be used in calculating fees for defense waste disposal. We also evaluated Waste Management's actions toward developing a defense waste fee payment schedule. Our examination was made in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards which included tests of internal controls and compliance with laws and regulations to the extent necessary to satisfy the scope of the audit

  14. Avoiding dual regulation of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has successfully negotiated the issuance of a Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Order that provides for exemption of RW from certain DOE directives. This exemption assures precedence of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in radiation protection, nuclear safety (including quality assurance), and safeguards and security of nuclear materials. This Order is necessary to avoid the unwarranted cost and potential confusion resulting from dual regulation of RW facilities and activities by DOE and NRC. Development of this Order involved a systematic review of applicable DOE directives and NRC requirements to identify potential overlaps and duplication when applied to the RW program. Following this review and extensive negotiations with appropriate DOE organizations responsible for directives development, this Order was issued as HQ 1321.1 on December 22, 1993

  15. Act N0 68-1045 of 29 November 1968 amending Act N0 65-956 of 12 November 1965 on the third party liability of operators of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Act amends the 1965 Act, in particular by specifying that the maximum amount of liability of the operator of a foreign nuclear ship is that fixed by the legislation of the State concerned, unless otherwise agreed with that State, but may in no case be lower than that set out in the 1965 Act, namely 500 million French francs. (NEA)

  16. Arctic Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Ørts; Grønsedt, Peter; Lindstrøm Graversen, Christian;

    maritime industries (including shipping, offshore energy, ports, and maritime service and equipment suppliers) as well as addresses topics that cut across maritime industries (regulation and competitiveness). The topics and narrower research questions addressed in the initiative were developed in close......, the latter aiming at developing key concepts and building up a basic industry knowledge base for further development of CBS Maritime research and teaching. This report attempts to map the opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry in an increasingly accessible Arctic Ocean...

  17. Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Guided missile cruiser equipped with advanced Aegis fleet defense system which automatically tracks hundreds of attacking aircraft or missiles, then fires and guides the ship's own weapons in response. Designed by Ingalls Shipbuilding for the US Navy, the U.S.S. Ticonderoga is the first of four CG-47 cruisers to be constructed. NASTRAN program was used previously in another Navy/Ingalls project involving design and construction of four DDG-993 Kidd Class guided missile destroyers.

  18. Compliance of Royal Naval ships with nitrogen oxide emissions legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatcher, D J; Eames, I

    2013-09-15

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from marine diesel engines pose a hazard to human health and the environment. From 2021, demanding emissions limits are expected to be applied to sea areas that the Royal Navy (RN) accesses. We analyze how these future constraints affect the choice of NOx abatement systems for RN ships, which are subject to more design constraints than civilian ships. A weighted matrix approach is used to facilitate a quantitative assessment. For most warships to be built soon after 2021 Lean Nitrogen Traps (LNT) in conjunction with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) represents a relatively achievable option with fewer drawbacks than other system types. Urea-selective catalytic reduction is likely to be most appropriate for ships that are built to civilian standards. The future technologies that are at an early stage of development are discussed. PMID:23906471

  19. Creation of the reactor plant with lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear ships, Brief history. Generalized results of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is historical in nature and follows the efforts to design a reactor with lead-bismuth coolant for nuclear-powered submarines (NPS). One discusses both the advantages and the disadvantages of a Pb-Bi reactor and analyzes in detail problems faced in the course of ground-base try-out of reactors and in the course of reactor operation at NPS. The accumulated experience enables to make conclusion that the mentioned experience may serve as a basis to ensure safe and reliable NPP operation

  20. 5 CFR 842.304 - Civilian service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1980 (Foreign Service Pension System), provided— (i) The employee or Member waives credit for the service under the Foreign Service Pension System; and (ii) The employee or Member makes the deposit... EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Credit for Service § 842.304 Civilian service. (a) Except...

  1. 32 CFR 728.81 - Other civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized care as set forth. (b) Beneficiaries and extent of care. (1) Provide all occupational health... ROTC/NDCC (National Defense Cadet Corps) cadets. (iii) Civilian athletes training or competing as part... and surgical conditions exclusive of nervous, mental, or contagious diseases, or those...

  2. Shipping Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Through a SBIR contract between Kennedy Space Center and Silicon Designs, came the tri-axial data acquisition system, known commercially as the G-Logger. It is a portable, self-contained device that stores and analyzes shock, vibration, and temperature data during payload transport. It is sealed for protection from the weather and can be left unattended for up to three weeks as it collects data. It can easily be linked with any desktop or laptop computer in order to download the collected data. It serves uses in the automotive, shipping, aerospace, and machining industries.

  3. Ex-core detector response caused by control rod misalignment observed during operation of the reactor on the nuclear ship Mutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)); Gakuhari, Kazuhiko; Okada, Noboru (Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Sakai, Tomohiro (Japan Research Inst., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    Unexpected deviations of ex-core neutron detector signals were observed during a voyage of the Japanese nuclear ship, Mutsu. From detailed three-dimensional analyses, this phenomenon was determined to be caused by an asymmetrical neutron source distribution in the core due to a small misalignment between the two control rods of a control rod group. A systematic ex-core detector response experiment was performed during the Mutsu's third experimental voyage to gain some understanding of the relationship between the control rod pattern and the detector response characteristics. Results obtained from analyses of the experiment indicate that the Crump-Lee technique, using calculated three-dimensional source distributions for various control rod patterns, provides good agreement between the calculated and measured detector responses. Xenon transient analyses were carried out to generate accurate three-dimensional source distributions for predicting the time-dependent detector response characteristics. Two types of ex-core detector responses are caused by changes in the control rod pattern in the Mutsu reactor: the detector response ratio tends to decrease with the withdrawal of a group of control rods as a pair, and a difference in the positions of the control rods in a group causes signal deviations among the four ex-core detectors. Control rod misalignment does not greatly affect the mean value of the four detector signals, and the deviation can be minimized if the two rods within a group are set at the same elevation at the time of detector calibration.

  4. CASTOR registered 1000/19. Shipping and storage cask for dry intermediate storage of spent fuel elements from the Temelin nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CASTOR registered 1000/19-type cask newly developed by GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH has been designed for shipment and dry storage of 19 spent fuel elements from the two VVER-1000 pressurized water reactors of the Temelin nuclear power station. The design and expert approval followed the internationally recognized shipping regulations of IAEA and the Czech rules and regulations for dry intermediate storage. One June 21, 2010, the Czech regulatory authority issued a type approval (integral transport and storage permit) valid for a period of 5 years for the casks of the new CASTOR registered 1000/19 line. As early as on September 9, 2010, which is less than 4 years after the delivery contract had been signed by CEZ and GNS in November 2006, the first cask of the CASTOR registered 1000/19 line was loaded with 19 spent fuel elements in only 5 days and emplaced in the newly built intermediate cask store. Loading, handling, in-plant transport, and emplacement of the cask made successful use of the extensive handling and management equipment furnished by GNS. After successful commissioning of the equipment and cold handling in both power plant units and in the intermediate cask store, successful loading and emplacement represents one of the most important milestones in the project. (orig.)

  5. Shipping Industry Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first part of a book on shipping management; the second part should discuss the different management domains in shipping, such as strategy, finance, investment and risk, marketing, operations, organisation ...

  6. Reactions to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami: a preliminary matching study comparing nurses and civilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Palgi, Yuval; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Soffer, Yechiel; Shrira, Amit

    2013-06-01

    The research of reactions to disasters is uncommon. Moreover, most studies target a specific population, whether civilians or professionals. The aim of this study was to compare the reactions of hospital personnel and civilians after exposure to a unique disaster that combines natural and nuclear disaster. A matching sample of nurses and civilians was compared using a brief questionnaire tapping into posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, subjective health, perceived coping, life satisfaction, and meaning in life. The results revealed that the nurses had a lower level of PTSD symptoms and higher self-rated health, life satisfaction, and perceived coping in comparison with the civilians. These results are discussed in light of work characteristics that include exposure to traumatic events as part of their work and coping that is partially based on training.

  7. 76 FR 50926 - Civilian Board of Contract Appeals; Rules of Procedure of the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... Number 2011-001, Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ16 Civilian Board of Contract Appeals; Rules of Procedure of the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals--Electronic Filing of Documents AGENCY: Civilian Board of Contract... Contract Appeals began accepting filings submitted by electronic mail (e-mail) under Section...

  8. Discriminating military and civilian traumatic brain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew W; Velez, Carmen S

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurs at higher rates among service members than civilians. Explosions from improvised explosive devices and mines are the leading cause of TBI in the military. As such, TBI is frequently accompanied by other injuries, which makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. In addition to postconcussion symptoms, those who sustain a TBI commonly report chronic pain and posttraumatic stress symptoms. This combination of symptoms is so typical they have been referred to as the "polytrauma clinical triad" among injured service members. We explore whether these symptoms discriminate civilian occurrences of TBI from those of service members, as well as the possibility that repeated blast exposure contributes to the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Traumatic Brain Injury'.

  9. Shipping Industry Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Waals, F.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding Shipping Management requires a thorough understanding of the Shipping Industry Structure. This book provides this knowledge base and should be seen in conjunction with two other books: Shipping and Design Innovation in Shipping. Shipping Industry Structure was intended as the first par

  10. Encoding the Shipping Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Lina; Lin Lin; Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ According to the statistics from Frech shipping advisory bod-ies,till December 21,2008,165 container ships were idle,leav-ing the fees,such as anchorage fees,ship maintaining fee,crev resettlement fee and repaying loans for ship-buying,an-noying the ship-owners.

  11. The Protection of Civilians: An Evolving Paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Gordon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the protection of civilians (POC in conflict has been a recurring feature of the humanitarian discourse the same has not been true in military doctrines, where the protection of civilians has long been cast in terms of arms bearers upholding their responsibilities under international humanitarian law (IHL. However, opportunities for and pressures on military actors to develop more specific capacities and approaches in this field have grown: partly as a response to the changing nature, location and scope of conflict, particularly the increasing proportion of internal conflicts fought by irregular armed groups in urban environments. It is also a response to the scale and complexity of protection challenges in the Balkans, Rwanda, Darfur and Libya - each of which has clearly demonstrated that threats to civilians are complex and dynamic and that no single international actor is capable of mitigating them without significant support from other institutions (O’Callaghan and Pantuliano, 2007. Despite the enormous growth in opportunities for interaction between militaries and humanitarians there is only a very limited literature on their interaction over protection issues and evaluations of the emerging doctrines. Consequently this article charts the growth in military policies towards POC in the UN, UK, NATO and a range of other states as well as drawing attention to the challenges that still remain in operationalising responses.

  12. Civilian radioactive waste management program plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy`s site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program`s ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program`s mission and vision, and summarizes the Program`s broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program`s approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program`s organization chart; the Commission`s regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms.

  13. Civilian radioactive waste management program plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy's site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program's ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program's mission and vision, and summarizes the Program's broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program's approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program's organization chart; the Commission's regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms

  14. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  15. 海上核化生安全威胁与水面舰艇集体防护%Nautical nuclear chemical and biological security threat and collective protection of surface ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘虹; 刘飞; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    为保障水面舰艇形成与其任务相适应的核化生防护能力,从核化生武器扩散新样式、核化生事故、恐怖袭击、次生核化灾害等角度深入阐述并研究了海上核化生环境对水面舰艇安全的威胁.基于此背景,分析了水面舰艇核化生集体防护的技术要素、能力的必要性及其较个人防护更适合于海上环境的技术特点.另外,通过对比国外海军主战水面舰艇的集体防护能力,为我国今后集体防护设计明确了发展方向.%For ensuring nuclear, chemical, and biological(NCB) defense ability of surface ships in accord with its mission, combining with the current international condition, the nautical NCB security situation is analyzed, and the NCB threat to surface ship security is lucubrated, surrounding several main aspects including new modality of nuclear spread, NCB accident, terror raid, derivative nuclear and chemical disaster, and so on. Aiming at this threat, the technology essentials and the ability necessary of surface ship NCB collective protection are analyzed, and the technology traits between collective protection and individual protection for nautical environment are compared. In addition, by comparing the collective protection ability of foreign naval main active surface ships, it shows clearly the further development direction of collective protection designment.

  16. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA)

  17. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  18. Novel Ship Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yulong; SUN Yuqing; ZHANG Hongpeng; ZHANG Yindong; CHEN Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    As the development tends towards high-speed, large-scale and high-power, power of the ship main engine becomes larger and larger. This make the engine design and cabin arrangement become more and more difficult. Ship maneuverability becomes bad. A new ship propulsion system, integrated hydraulic propulsion (IHP), is put forward to meet the development of modem ship. Principle of IHP system is discussed. Working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is studied based on its matching characteristic charts. According to their propulsion principle, dynamic mathematic models of IHP ship and direct propulsion (DP) ship are developed. These two models are verified by test sailing and test stand data. Based on the software Matlab/Simulink, comparison research between IHP ship and DP ship is conducted. The results show that cabin arrangement of IHP ship is very flexible, working condition matching characteristic of IHP ship is good, the ratio of power to weight of IHP ship is larger than DP ship, and maneuverability is excellent. IHP system is suitable for engineering ship, superpower ship and warship, etc.

  19. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  20. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautray, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The author firstly gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the 1950s. "Neutronics", thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, taps, waste cock, safety circuits, heat exchange units, etc.) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. Notwithstanding, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling (i.e. inflammability) and other important security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchange devices) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the refabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. Among the priorities for a fully operational system (power station - the fuel cycle - operation-maintenance - the spent fuel pool and its cooling system-emergency cooling system-emergency electric power-transportation movements-equipment handling - final disposal of radioactive matter, independent safety barriers), the author includes materials (fabrication of targets, an irradiation and inspection instrument), the chemistry of all sorting processes, equipment "refabrication" or rehabilitation

  1. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This seventh Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal years (FY) 1989 and 1990. In November 1989, OCRWM is responsible for disposing of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. To direct the implementation of its mission, OCRWM has established the following objectives: (1) Safe and timely disposal: to establish as soon as practicable the ability to dispose of radioactive waste in a geologic repository licensed by the NRC. (2) Timely and adequate waste acceptance: to begin the operation of the waste management system as soon as practicable in order to obtain the system development and operational benefits that have been identified for the MRS facility. (3) Schedule confidence: to establish confidence in the schedule for waste acceptance and disposal such that the management of radioactive waste is not an obstacle to the nuclear energy option. (4) System flexibility: to ensure that the program has the flexibility necessary for adapting to future circumstances while fulfilling established commitments. To achieve these objectives, OCRWM is developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposed deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for MRS, and a system for transporting the waste

  2. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report covers the activities and expenditures of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987, which ended on September 30, 1987. The activities and accomplishments of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987 are discussed in chapters 1 through 9 of this report. The audited financial statements of the Nuclear Waste Fund are provided in chapter 10. Since the close of the fiscal year, a number of significant events have occurred. Foremost among them was the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act) on December 21, 1987, nearly 3 months after the end of the fiscal year covered by this report. As a result, some of the plans and activities discussed in chapters 1 through 9 are currently undergoing significant change or are being discontinued. Most prominent among the provisions of the Amendments Act is the designation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only candidate first repository site to be characterized. Therefore, the site characterization plans for Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington, discussed in chapter 3, will not be issued. The refocusing of the waste management program under the Amendments Act is highlighted in the epilogue, chapter 11. 68 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  3. International Cooperation to Minimize the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium in Civilian Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) works cooperatively with international partners worldwide to minimize the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in civilian applications. To achieve this mission, which was highlighted in the Communiqué of the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, GTRI implements two key HEU minimization efforts: the Reactor Conversion Program and the Mo-99 Program. Under the Reactor Conversion program, GTRI cooperates with dozens of international partners to convert HEU research reactors to operate with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and develops new LEU fuel technologies that will be used to convert higher-power, unique reactors. Under the Mo-99 program, GTRI cooperates with international molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) producers to convert their production processes from HEU to LEU targets and cooperates with domestic partners to establish a reliable non-HEU-based Mo-99 production capability in the United States. These critical efforts to minimize, and where possible eliminate, the use of and demand for HEU in civilian applications worldwide have received unprecedented political and financial support in recent years. As the programs begin to address facilities that are increasingly challenging from a technical perspective, an increasing level of political and financial support will be vital to ensuring that the programs succeed and that civilian facilities around the world can continue to fulfill critical scientific missions while greatly reducing the risk that HEU could fall into the wrong hands and be used for malevolent purposes. (author)

  4. 77 FR 25481 - Civilian Board of Contract Appeals; Submission for OMB Review; Civilian Board of Contract Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... in the Federal Register at 77 FR 5020, on February 1, 2012. No comments were received. Public... Contract Appeals, 1800 F Street NW., Washington, DC 20405, telephone (202) 606-8800 or via email to Greg... ADMINISTRATION Civilian Board of Contract Appeals; Submission for OMB Review; Civilian Board of Contract...

  5. Behavioral and health implications of civilian spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichman, Harvey A

    2005-06-01

    The current enthusiasm over the prospect of space tourism and the belief among many that such civilian spaceflight is imminent are characterized herein. There are many concerns about screening and certifying passengers for future spaceflight. Efforts by several organizations to propose such screening are cited. The problem with some of these proposals, which treat all types of spaceflight the same, is that they are so restrictive that too few people would be eligible for space travel to have a viable tourism industry. However, not all types of spaceflight are the same, so the distinctions between them need to be clarified. Of the five types of spaceflight described, one is proposed as the most likely to be the first significant phase of space tourism: long-term microgravity flight in low Earth orbit. But because of human problems with long-term exposure to microgravity, this phase requires rather conservative screening and extensive training. However, prior to discussing the passenger issues related to this early phase of space tourism, the reasons why Earth-like gravity, as well as microgravity, must be made available to spacefarers before space tourism can take place on a grand scale need to be explained. Finally, major passenger medical and behavioral issues of the first phase of orbital space tourism-long-term microgravity flight-are discussed. PMID:15943209

  6. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Marylou Noble; Howard Waitzkin

    2009-01-01

    Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessm...

  7. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information...... systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries...... and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  8. SPACs in Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Shachmurove, Yochanan; Vulanovic, Milos

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examine how Specified Purpose Acquisition Companies (SPACs) were used as a financing tool for companies in the shipping industry in period 2004-2011. We confirm that SPACs focused on acquisitions in the shipping industry have similar characteristics as the population of SPACs that entered U.S financial markets in the same period. When their characteristics differ, SPACs focused on shipping are larger in size than the rest of SPACs, have larger number of underwriters in syndic...

  9. Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller

    2011-01-01

    Liner shipping fleet repositioning consists of moving vessels between services in a liner ship- ping network in order to better orient the overall network to the world economy, and to ensure the proper maintenance of vessels. Thus, fleet repositioning involves sailing and loading activities subject......, can be accurately modeled. Numerous liner shipping fleet repositioning problems are solved each year by the world’s shipping firms without the assistance of any decision support, even though humans can require between two to three days to find a reasonable solution. Finding optimal repositionings...

  10. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  11. SHIPPING CONTAINER FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, H.D.; Biggs, B.B.; Tariello, P.J.; George, K.O.

    1963-01-15

    A shipping container is described for transponting a large number of radioactive nuclear fuel element modules which produce a substantial amount of heat. The container comprises a primary pressure vessel and shield, and a rotatable head having an access port that can be indexed with module holders in the container. In order to remove heat generated in the fuel eleme nts, a heat exchanger is arranged within the container and in contact with a heat exchange fluid therein. The heat exchanger communicates with additional external heat exchangers, which dissipate heat to the atmosphere. (AEC)

  12. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-July 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE/CH/10140-5 is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, state and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure listings, and a topical report

  13. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE/CH/10140-05 is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index

  14. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index

  15. The Economics of Nuclear Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kazutomo Irie

    2009-01-01

    The economics of the civilian uses of nuclear energy, that is to say the economics of nuclear power generation in which its civilian uses has been virtually limited to power generation---has been the focus of much public discussion both internationally and domestically here in Japan. The reasons are that there are many underlying factors which determine the economics of power generation methods and that various assumptions can be made concerning these factors. In addition, the value of these ...

  16. Managing proliferation risks from civilian and weapon-grade plutonium and enriched uranium: A comprehensive cut-off convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of weapon-grade fissile materials is closely related to the aim of achieving a nuclear-weapon-free world. Huge amounts of highly enriched uranium have been produced for nuclear weapons. More than 1000 tonnes of plutonium emerged as a by-product of civilian nuclear industry. Separated from spent fuel it is readily usable for nuclear weapons. The worldwide civilian tritium inventory may reach the same size as military stocks about the year 2010. This poses an increasing danger of horizontal nuclear proliferation. Production, stockpiling, trade, processing and uses of weapon-grade materials like Highly enriched uranium, plutonium and tritium promote its geographical spread, enlarge the group of people with the relate know-how and create the danger of diversion of material and the proliferation of knowledge for the purpose of weapons production. Therefore, a fundamental turn away from using weapon-grade materials in scientific and economic applications of nuclear energy is desirable in all countries. Priority should be given to using nuclear fuel cycles which are as proliferation resistant as possible. Without this, the continuation of civil nuclear programs seems to be irresponsible and unjustifiable. The role of the IAEA in export control safeguards related to the above problems is indispensable

  17. Evacuation from ships : account for ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Bles, W.

    1999-01-01

    A transnational BriteEuram programme on evacuation of passengers from ships is presented. Recent disasters on ferries of the roll-on/roll-off type have led to higher requirements for safety. These requirements are formulated in terms of overall performance rather than performance of a number of isol

  18. Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kaplan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available What are the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings? The article examines this question by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behavior of civilian residents, reducing the chances of them becoming involved with armed groups. It then considers how civilian communities can transmit those same norms, shared understandings, and patterns of interaction to the ranks of illegal armed groups and subsequently shape their decisions about the use of violence against civilians. The author argues that civilians may be better positioned to promote the principles codified in International Humanitarian Law than international humanitarian organizations because they have closer contact with irregular armed actors and are viewed with greater legitimacy. The analysis illustrates that to better understand civilian protection mechanisms it is essential to study the interactions between communities and armed actors.

  19. Travelers' Health: Cruise Ship Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children Fish Poisoning in Travelers Food and Water Getting Health ... INJURY ABOARD CRUISE SHIPS Cruise ship medical clinics deal with a wide variety of illnesses and injuries. ...

  20. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...... are just few examples of accident scenarios where the detailed knowledge of the crushing response of ship structure is crucial for a reliable engineering analysis....

  1. Do Waveless Ships Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe; Chapman, Jon; vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc

    2009-11-01

    Consider two-dimensional ideal and low-speed flow past a ship modeled as a semi-infinite body with constant draft. In the 1970s, on the basis of numerical evidence, it was conjectured that ships with a single front face will always generate a wake. Later in the 1980s, seemingly waveless ships with bulbous profiles were discovered. And finally, conflicting evidence in the 1990s suggested that the waves were in fact present, but simply too small to be recognized. In this talk, we will show how recent techniques in exponential asymptotics can be used in order to study the ship-wave problem. In particular, we will show how the formation of waves near a ship are a necessary consequence of singularities in ship's geometry, such as those corresponding to sharp corners or stagnation points. Finally, we will show how the theory can be applied in order to prove that certain ship profiles will or will not produce a wake in the low-speed limit.

  2. Caring for Active Duty Military Personnel in the Civilian Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylou Noble

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians, and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.

  3. Civilian Agency Industry Working Group EVM World Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Jerald

    2013-01-01

    Objectives include: Promote the use of standards ]based, objective, and quantitative systems for managing projects and programs in the federal government. Understand how civilian agencies in general, manage their projects and programs. Project management survey expected to go out soon to civilian agencies. Describe how EVM and other best practices can be applied by the government to better manage its project and programs irrespective of whether work is contracted out or the types of contracts employed. Develop model policies aimed at project and program managers that are transportable across the government.

  4. Contribution of civilian industry to the management of military fissile materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation about using of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and weapon grade plutonium (WgPu) for nuclear fuel preparation in U.S.A. and Russian Federation is reviewed. A few remarks were concluded: (1) We stand at the onset of a process that will be lengthy and which is unlikely to stop with the elimination of the 700 t of HEU and 2 x 34.5 t of WgPu concerned so far. If the announced negotiation of the third START treaty concludes favorably, additional tonnages will have to be recycled, particularly on the Russian side whose estimated inventory is larger. (2) The time scales necessitated by the management of these materials should be no surprise. On the one hand, the aim is to reduce an arsenal built up during 45 years of a Cold War. And this return to civilian life of materials of military origin must be achieved in conditions of safety and bilateral or international safeguards (IAEA), which obviously did not constitute the primary concern of the powers who produced them. Besides, insofar as it enlists the services of civilian industry, this return must be carried out with due respect for the equilibrium of markets that are severely mauled today, in other words, in an orderly and progressive manner. (3) Finally, it is important to recognize that without the contribution of the nuclear power industry, the elimination of military fissile materials would raise problems at another scale and would inevitably lead to regrettable waste. It is to be hoped that this will jog the minds of those who urge a rapid end to nuclear energy, when all the evidence demonstrates that the best way to eliminate surplus weapon grade materials is to recycle them in a reactor, in other words, to destroy them or to denature them while generating electricity. (4) The civilian nuclear industry is happy to contribute concretely and significantly to the solution of a problem of surplus nuclear weaponry, while at the same time utilizing technologies successfully developed for power generation

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  6. Safety test report for the SKN-AGM shipping package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Seo, K. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, W. S.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, K. Y.; Jeon, J. E.; Kim, J. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Safety evaluation for the SKN-AGM shipping package to transport safely radioactive material, which is produced at New KORI Nuclear Power Plant, was carried out. The safety tests were performed by using the test model of the SKN-AGM shipping package. In the safety test results for the SKN-AGM shipping package, the radioactive contents within the SKN-AGM shipping package did not loss or dispersal. Leak Test was performed after drop test and penetration test, the measured leakage rate was lower than 10{sup -3} atm {center_dot} cm{sup 3}/s. It is revealed that the containment integrity of the SKN-AGM shipping package is maintained. Therefore, it shows that the integrity of the SKN-AGM shipping package is well maintained under a bottom drop, a bottom slope drop, and a penetration condition

  7. Safety test report for the SKN-AGM shipping package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety evaluation for the SKN-AGM shipping package to transport safely radioactive material, which is produced at New KORI Nuclear Power Plant, was carried out. The safety tests were performed by using the test model of the SKN-AGM shipping package. In the safety test results for the SKN-AGM shipping package, the radioactive contents within the SKN-AGM shipping package did not loss or dispersal. Leak Test was performed after drop test and penetration test, the measured leakage rate was lower than 10-3 atm · cm3/s. It is revealed that the containment integrity of the SKN-AGM shipping package is maintained. Therefore, it shows that the integrity of the SKN-AGM shipping package is well maintained under a bottom drop, a bottom slope drop, and a penetration condition

  8. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  9. Civilian application of propulsion reactor in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been learned that to cope with energy requirement in the remote islands and less developed regions of Indonesia, small or very small nuclear reactors producing electricity and/or process heat could be appropriately applied. The barge mounted propulsion power reactors are the attractive examples so far envisioned, and technology information of which is being exposed to the world these last years. The solutions for least maintenance and no on-site refueling, no radioactive discharge, and no radioactive waste to remain in the user country are among the attractions for further deliberations. It has been understood, however, that there are many uncertainties to overcome, especially for the developing countries to introduce this novel application. International acceptance is the most crucial, availability of first-of-the-kind engineering, prototype or reference plant that would prove licensibility in the vendor's country is the second, and economic competitiveness due to very small size is the third among issues to enlighten. The relevant regulations concerning marine nuclear safety, marine transportation, and proliferation of information, as well as international forums to justify the feasibility of related transfer of technology, are the items that the IAEA could help to provide to smoothen any possible international transaction. Indonesia supports this AGM as one of the appropriate IAEA efforts in this line, and expects from it positive international consensus and possible studies/R and D work that this country could participate in. (author)

  10. SHIPPING REQUESTS ON EDH

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    Users are informed that as from 1 September 2001 all Shipping Requests must be made on EDH using the appropriate electronic form. The submission of user requests directly into EDH will help rationalise the activities of the Shipping Service (Import & Export), with requests being automatically forwarded to hierarchical supervisors thereby improving the processing speed and facilitating the follow-up. Thank you for your collaboration.

  11. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    ČULIN, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  12. Ship bow waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NOBLESSE Francis; DELHOMMEAU Gerard; LIU Hua; WAN De-cheng; YANG Chi

    2013-01-01

    The bow wave generated by a ship hull that advances at constant speed in calm water is considered.The bow wave only depends on the shape of the ship bow (not on the hull geometry aft of the bow wave).This basic property makes it possible to determine the bow waves generated by a canonical family of ship bows defined in terms of relatively few parameters.Fast ships with fine bows generate overturning bow waves that consist of detached thin sheets of water,which are mostly steady until they hit the main free surface and undergo turbulent breaking up and diffusion.However,slow ships with blunt bows create highly unsteady and turbulent breaking bow waves.These two alternative flow regimes are due to a nonlinear constraint related to the Bernoulli relation at the free surface.Recent results about the overturning and breaking bow wave regimes,and the boundary that divides these two basic flow regimes,are reviewed.Questions and conjectures about the energy of breaking ship bow waves,and free-surface effects on flow circulation,are also noted.

  13. Civilian Social Work: Serving the Military and Veteran Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitsky, Laura; Illingworth, Maria; DuLaney, Megan

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses social work practice areas for civilian social workers who provide services to military service members, veterans, and their families. These practice areas include education, child welfare, domestic violence, mental health, health care, substance abuse, and criminal justice. The authors examine the impact of the contemporary…

  14. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  15. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  16. SOME PROBLEMS ABOUT SHIP WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Min-jia

    2003-01-01

    Several problems about ship waves were discussed in the dissertation:(1) Transient ship waves from calmness to the generation of steady-state ship waves were described. (2) The procedure of the formation of the V-shaped steady-state ship waves were clearly shown, and the difference of ship waves on an inviscid fluid and on a viscous fluid was exmined. (3) With the Lighthill two-stage scheme, the algebraic expression for ship waves on a viscous fluid of finite depth was obtained.(4) Singularity on the two boundaries of the ship waves was treated.

  17. A new method of inshore ship detection in high-resolution optical remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qifeng; Du, Yaling; Jiang, Yunqiu; Ming, Delie

    2015-10-01

    Ship as an important military target and water transportation, of which the detection has great significance. In the military field, the automatic detection of ships can be used to monitor ship dynamic in the harbor and maritime of enemy, and then analyze the enemy naval power. In civilian field, the automatic detection of ships can be used in monitoring transportation of harbor and illegal behaviors such as illegal fishing, smuggling and pirates, etc. In recent years, research of ship detection is mainly concentrated in three categories: forward-looking infrared images, downward-looking SAR image, and optical remote sensing images with sea background. Little research has been done into ship detection of optical remote sensing images with harbor background, as the gray-scale and texture features of ships are similar to the coast in high-resolution optical remote sensing images. In this paper, we put forward an effective harbor ship target detection method. First of all, in order to overcome the shortage of the traditional difference method in obtaining histogram valley as the segmentation threshold, we propose an iterative histogram valley segmentation method which separates the harbor and ships from the water quite well. Secondly, as landing ships in optical remote sensing images usually lead to discontinuous harbor edges, we use Hough Transform method to extract harbor edges. First, lines are detected by Hough Transform. Then, lines that have similar slope are connected into a new line, thus we access continuous harbor edges. Secondary segmentation on the result of the land-and-sea separation, we eventually get the ships. At last, we calculate the aspect ratio of the ROIs, thereby remove those targets which are not ship. The experiment results show that our method has good robustness and can tolerate a certain degree of noise and occlusion.

  18. Analysis of the Total System Life Cycle of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents an analysis of the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) for one concept for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). This analysis is consistent with the design basis of the selected alternative, Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II), evaluated in the ''License Application Design Selection Report'' (CRWMS M and O 1999c). Two cost scenarios are presented within this document to address open policy questions relating to the implementation of the EDA II design from the License Applications Design Selection (LADS) study. Both cases represent the total system cost for the EDA II design described in the LADS Report, modified for emplacing all planned waste quantities in ''The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document'', Rev. 05 (DOE 1999a). Case 1 assumes that closure and decommissioning activities can begin 50 years after the beginning of waste emplacement. Subsequent to the publication of the LADS Report (CRWMS M and O 1999c), discussions with the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board (NWTRB) led to the consideration of keeping the repository open and ventilated for an additional 75 years. Case 2 represents the contingency of beginning closure and decommissioning activities 125 years after the beginning of waste emplacement, when it is expected that the temperature of the emplacement drift walls will remain below the boiling point of water

  19. 78 FR 36311 - Flag Recognition Benefit for Fallen Federal Civilian Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Federal Civilian Employees; Submission for Review: Application for U.S. Flag Recognition Benefit for... 550 RIN 3206-AM58 Flag Recognition Benefit for Fallen Federal Civilian Employees AGENCY: Office of... benefit for fallen Federal civilian employees, and describe the eligibility requirements and procedures...

  20. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    The purpose of the research project is to establish a reliable index in the performance evaluation of ships. During operation the ship will experience added resistance due to fouling of hull and propeller. The added resistance will lead to increased fuel consumption and thus increased emissions...... on the propeller shaft. Further, an index based on the properties of the ship’s propeller, is used. The different indexes are described in a case study where the performance of a container ship is evaluated over one year. The reliability of the performance index is measured from the scatter in results...... and the ability of identifying the events that improves performance e.g. propeller and hull clean....

  1. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  2. Granny s Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢琼; Dorothy; Dunn

    2000-01-01

    Throughout~*the Depression years~1,mybrothers,sisters and I often heard our grannysay,“One of these days,my ship is comingin.”Of course Granny s ship was just a~*dream—her escape from the reality of beingpoor~2 most of her life.But to us it was veryreal.~*Our family got by with the barest of ne-cessities;there rarely was enough left over forspecial desires.~3 So if we wished for other

  3. Global comparison of warring groups in 2002-2007: fatalities from targeting civilians vs. fighting battles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002-2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI, defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1. 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67% refrained from targeting civilians. 2. Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3. In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4. When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most warring groups in 2002-2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal

  4. Systems analysis of decontamination options for civilian vehicles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.

  5. Bio-indications of sunken ships and ship wrecks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    and time, the values for richness and heterogeneity in benthic macrofauna were generally higher at ship wreck sites than at close proximity natural sites. Rationale of using biotic factors as indicators of modification of submarine biotopes due to ship...

  6. Monte Carlo shipping cask calculations using an automated biasing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated biasing procedure for Monte Carlo shipping cask calculations within the SCALE system - a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation. The SCALE system was conceived and funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to satisfy a strong need for performing standardized criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of nuclear systems

  7. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  8. Ship Roll Motion Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    . This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems and the challenges associated with their design. The paper discusses how to assess performance, the applicability of dierent models, and control methods that have been applied in the past....

  9. Ship Roll Damping Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Tristan; Blanke, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    limitations and large variations of the spectral characteristics of wave-induced roll motion. This tutorial paper presents an account of the development of various ship roll motion control systems together with the challenges associated with their design. It discusses the assessment of performance and the...

  10. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  11. Hydroelastic Vibrations of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Folsø, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    A formula for the necessary hull girder bending stiffness required to avoid serious springing vibrations is derived. The expression takes into account the zero crossing period of the waves, the ship speed and main dimensions. For whipping vibrations the probability of exceedance for the combined ...

  12. Program summary for the Civilian Reactor Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This Civilian Reactor Development Program document has the prime purpose of summarizing the technical programs supported by the FY 1983 budget request. This section provides a statement of the overall program objectives and a general program overview. Section II presents the technical programs in a format intended to show logical technical interrelationships, and does not necessarily follow the structure of the formal budget presentation. Section III presents the technical organization and management structure of the program.

  13. EU Shipping Taxation: The Comparative Position of Greek Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Marlow; Kyriaki Mitroussi

    2008-01-01

    The critical role shipping taxation has played in the structure and evolution of the shipping business over the last century can easily be recognised. Whether connected with the actual initiation of the open registries scheme or as a means to improve competitiveness of traditional flags, shipping taxation attracts the attention of shipping practitioners and policy makers and constitutes an always topical focus of study. Recent years have particularly seen the rise and growth of tonnage tax sy...

  14. [Psychological distress among civilian police: A gender-based analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Franco, Letícia Gastão; Meireles, Camila de Carvalho; Ferreira, Vanessa Tokunaga; Dos Santos, Nilton César

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate potential psychological distress among members of the civilian police force, based on gender differences. It analyzes data from previous research on work, health conditions, and quality of life in the civilian police using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study included and tested data from the questionnaire applied to a statistically representative sample of 2,746 civilian police (80.8% males and 19.2% females) from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, according to gender variables and position in the police force (administrative, technical, and operational law enforcement). The study presents an overview of social and economic characteristics, job conditions, health problems, and quality of life, highlighting the areas of information where gender appears as an important factor. The Self-Reported Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to investigate psychological distress comparing males and females. The results did not show gender differences in psychological distress, but did identify significant differences in some items in the scale. Female police, especially in technical positions, showed a higher proportion than males. The conclusions corroborate some previous research. PMID:17187109

  15. Audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Taiana Pacheco; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Schütz, Gabriel Eduardo; Mello, Márcia Gomide da Silva; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the audiometric profile of civilian pilots according to the noise exposure level. METHODS This observational cross-sectional study evaluated 3,130 male civilian pilots aged between 17 and 59 years. These pilots were subjected to audiometric examinations for obtaining or revalidating the functional capacity certificate in 2011. The degree of hearing loss was classified as normal, suspected noise-induced hearing loss, and no suspected hearing loss with other associated complications. Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry was performed using supra-aural headphones and acoustic stimulus of the pure-tone type, containing tone thresholds of frequencies between 250 Hz and 6,000 Hz. The independent variables were professional categories, length of service, hours of flight, and right or left ear. The dependent variable was pilots with suspected noise-induced hearing loss. The noise exposure level was considered low/medium or high, and the latter involved periods > 5,000 flight hours and > 10 years of flight service. RESULTS A total of 29.3% pilots had suspected noise-induced hearing loss, which was bilateral in 12.8% and predominant in the left ear (23.7%). The number of pilots with suspected hearing loss increased as the noise exposure level increased. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss in civilian pilots may be associated with noise exposure during the period of service and hours of flight. PMID:25372170

  16. The African Union Mission in Somalia and Civilian Protection Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Williams

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deployed to Mogadishu in March 2007, it was not until late May 2013 that the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM adopted a mission-wide protection-of-civilians (PoC strategy. This article helps explain this long delay by highlighting the multiple PoC challenges faced by the mission. First, it shows how AMISOM’s relevant documents contained a variety of mixed messages on PoC issues. Second, it illustrates some of the ways in which the African Union was hardly an ideal actor to implement a civilian protection agenda because of its limited previous experience with these issues. Third, it analyzes the ways in which AMISOM was itself sometimes a source of civilian harm in Mogadishu. The fourth section examines the remedial policies AMISOM adopted to try and alleviate this problem. The conclusion reflects on the current PoC challenges facing AMISOM and suggests that to be successful the new mission-wide strategy must overcome these material, legal, moral, and doctrinal challenges.

  17. Epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian Pakistani population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Mehmood, Amber; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Sajjad Akbar; Akhtar, Umbreen; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian population of Pakistan. Information about suicide terrorism-related events, deaths and injuries was extracted from the South-Asian Terrorism Portal (SATP) for the period from 2002 to October 2009. Of 198 events, civilians were involved in 194 events. Civilians accounted for 74.1% (N = 2017) of those who died and 93.8% (N = 6129) of those who were injured. In nine districts, mortality rates were more than one death per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The yearly trend showed a shift of attack targets from foreigners and sectarian targets in 2002-2005 to security forces or general public in 2006-2009. Attacks on public installations (mosques) or political gatherings resulted in a significantly greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of deaths (22 vs. 8) and injuries (59 vs. 24) per event compared with security installations. These results show that prevention might focus on political negotiation with armed groups and that appropriate measures should be taken to protect mosques and political gatherings.

  18. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion: Military and Civilian Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Carl W; Tranberg, John W; Boyer, Phillip; Silvestri, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage and exsanguination are the leading cause of preventable death, and resuscitative therapy is a critical component for survival. In various combinations, fresh whole blood, blood components, colloids, and crystalloids have all been staples of trauma care. The use of fresh whole blood is a well-established military practice that has saved the lives of thousands of American and coalition military personnel. Civilian use of fresh whole blood is far less established owing to the wide availability of individual blood components. However, this highly tailored blood supply is vulnerable to both natural and man-made disasters. In the event of such disruption, such as a major hurricane, it may be necessary for civilian hospitals to rapidly enact a fresh whole blood program. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current use of blood therapy for trauma resuscitation, the US military's approach to fresh whole blood, and how maintaining a civilian capacity for fresh whole blood collection in the event of future man-made and natural disasters is key to promoting survival from trauma. PMID:27252101

  19. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  20. Ship Observations - VOS and Navy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Combination of Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) and US Navy Ship weather observations. Obs generally taken 2-4 times daily at 00, 06, 12, and 18z.

  1. Ageing of ships, LPG tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades there have been several major ship accidents, and it is believed that old ships are more unsafe than newer ships. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon the thesis is investigating different issues with ship ageing. This thesis consists of a general description of the most important ageing issues, and the condition of sea water ballast tanks is identified as one of the most critical issue regarded to ageing on LPG-tankers. This investigation consists of...

  2. Trends of shipping markets development

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-01-01

    Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increa...

  3. Trends of shipping markets development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Nowosielski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping markets are dependent on international trade transactions that generate transport needs. These needs can dynamically change depending on global natural resources and commodity markets situation. The changes affecting shipping markets can also be caused by changes to the existing cargo flows and by establishing new ones in different geographies. It is anticipated that in the future shipping markets will change, visible by a decline in shipping in North America and Europe and an increase in Asia.

  4. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    ship hull during ship-ship collisions. The striking ship is still considered as a rigid body. The local interaction between the two ships is modeled by a linear load-deflection relation. The analysis results for a simplified model of a struck coaster and of a large tanker show that the elastic energy...... to the impact location and where local and global bending vibration modes are neglected. That is, the structural deformation problem is considered quasi-static. In this paper a simple uniform free-free beam model is presented for estimating the energy transported into the global bending vibrations of the struck...

  5. Source term research for ship reactor anticipated operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the basic hypothesis of anticipated operational events, grounding on the special characters of a ship reactor, the equilibrium vapor specific activity and the cabin activity were calculated using NSRC code for the main loop and the secondary loop. The calculation results show that the computational mode of NSRC code is correct, and the NSRC code can be used to calculate radioactive effect of a ship reactor in anticipated operational events of design basis accidents. The calculation results can provide support to the safe operation of a ship nuclear power device. (authors)

  6. Effect of Ship Bow Overhang on Water Shipping for Ship Advancing in Regular Head Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdeljalil Benmansour; Benameur Hamoudi; Lahouari Adjlout

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation dealing with the effect of bow overhang extensions on the quantity of shipping water over the foredeck in case of ships advancing in regular head waves. To perform this investigation, a series of free-running tests was conducted in regular waves using an experimental model of a multipurpose cargo ship to quantify the amount of shipping water. The tests were performed on five bow overhang variants with several combinations of wavelength and ship speed conditions. It was observed that the quantity of shipping water was affected by some parameters such as wavelength, ship speed, and bow shape in terms of an overhang extension. The results show the significant influence of an overhang extension, which is associated with the bow flare shape, on the occurrence of water shipping. These results involve the combined incoming regular waves and model speed.

  7. Hydrodynamics of Ship Propellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslin, John P.; Andersen, Poul

    This book deals with flows over propellers operating behind ships, and the hydrodynamic forces and moments which the propeller generates on the shaft and on the ship hull.The first part of the text is devoted to fundamentals of the flow about hydrofoil sections (with and without cavitation......) and about wings. It then treats propellers in uniform flow, first via advanced actuator disc modelling, and then using lifting-line theory. Pragmatic guidance is given for design and evaluation of performance, including the use of computer modelling.The second part covers the development of unsteady forces...... arising from operation in non-uniform hull wakes. First, by a number of simplifications, various aspects of the problem are dealt with separately until the full problem of a non-cavitating, wide-bladed propeller in a wake is treated by a new and completely developed theory. Next, the complicated problem...

  8. EMP coupling to ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scale-model tests were conducted to establish the adequacy and limitations of model measurements as tools for predicting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling voltages and currents to the critical antennas, cables, and metallic structures on ships. The scale-model predictions are compared with the results of the full-scale EMP simulation test of the Canadian ASW ship, HMCS Huron. (The EMP coupling predictions in this report were made without prior knowledge of the results of the data from the HMCS Huron tests.) This report establishes that the scale-model tests in conjunction with the data base from EMP coupling modules provides the necessary information for source model development and permits effective, low-cost study of particular system configurations. 184 figures, 9 tables

  9. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  10. Shipping lines and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    FREMONT, A

    2009-01-01

    For some time it has been acknowledged that logistics is a driving force that shapes the integration of the transport chain. This paper argues that while the liner shipping industry exhibits increased horizontal integration, its vertical integration remains limited. A clear distinction is drawn between freight logistics, container logistics and vessel logistics. Freight logistics is defined as part of the supply chain process, the focus of which are the goods being transported. The purpose of...

  11. Emissions from international shipping: 1. The last 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, V.; KöHler, H. W.; van Aardenne, J.; Lauer, A.

    2005-09-01

    Seagoing ships emit exhaust gases and particles into the marine boundary layer and significantly contribute to the total budget of anthropogenic emissions. We present an emission inventory for international shipping for the past five decades to be used in global modeling studies with detailed tropospheric chemistry. The inventory is a bottom-up analysis using fuel consumption and fleet numbers for the total civilian and military fleet including auxiliary engines at the end of 2001. Trend estimates for fuel mass, CO2, NOx, and other emissions for the time between 1950 and 2001 have been calculated using ship number statistics and average engine statistics. Our estimate for total fuel consumption and global emissions for the year 2001 is similar to previous activity-based studies. However, compared to earlier studies, a detailed speciation of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and particulate matter is given, and carbon monoxide emissions are calculated explicitly. Our results suggest a fuel consumption of approximately 280 million metric tons (Mt) for the year 2001 and 64.5 Mt in 1950. This corresponds to 187 (5.4) Tg CO2 (NOx) in 1950, and 813 (21.4) Tg CO2 (NOx) in 2001. From 1970 to 2001 the world-merchant fleet increased rapidly in terms of ship numbers, with a corresponding increase in total fuel consumption. The fuel consumption estimates are compared against historical marine bunker fuel statistics, and our emission estimates are related to emission budgets of other transport modes. Global ship emissions are distributed geographically according to global vessel traffic densities of the AMVER (Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue system) data set for the year 2000. This work also sets the basis to develop future emission scenarios based on average-fleet emission indices in part 2 of this study.

  12. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ONWI-200 is a bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, state and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, subcontractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document is divided into three parts. The first two list reports in sequence by their work breakdown structure. Part 1 lists salt-specific reports, and Part 2 lists generic reports. Part 3 presents the bibliographic data for the reports in Parts 1 and 2

  13. Bibliography of studies for the Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, April 1978-March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ONWI-200 is a bibliography of approved reports produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the Department of Energy, state and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, subcontractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who have need for a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document is divided into three parts. The first two list reports in sequence by their work breakdown structure. Part 1 lists salt-specific reports, and Part 2 lists generic reports. Part 3 presents the bibliographic data for the reports in Parts 1 and 2

  14. Antineutrino monitoring of spent nuclear fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar, Vedran; Huber, Patrick; Kopp, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Military and civilian applications of nuclear energy have left a significant amount of spent nuclear fuel over the past 70 years. Currently, in many countries world wide, the use of nuclear energy is on the rise. Therefore, the management of highly radioactive nuclear waste is a pressing issue. In this letter, we explore antineutrino detectors as a tool for monitoring and safeguarding nuclear waste material. We compute the flux and spectrum of antineutrinos emitted by spent nuclear fuel eleme...

  15. A civilian perspective on ballistic trauma and gunshot injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pape Hans-Christoph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound contamination and wounding potential of firearms and ammunition. Gunshot injuries in civilians have more focal injury patterns and should be considered distinct entities. Methods A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed. Results Craniocerebral gunshot injuries are often lethal, especially after suicide attempts. The treatment of non space consuming haematomas and the indications for invasive pressure measurement are controversial. Civilian gunshot injuries to the torso mostly intend to kill; however for those patients who do not die at the scene and are hemodynamically stable, insertion of a chest tube is usually the only required procedure for the majority of penetrating chest injuries. In penetrating abdominal injuries there is a trend towards non-operative care, provided that the patient is hemodynamically stable. Spinal gunshots can also often be treated without operation. Gunshot injuries of the extremities are rarely life-threatening but can be associated with severe morbidity. With the exception of craniocerebral, bowel, articular, or severe soft tissue injury, the use of antibiotics is controversial and may depend on the surgeon's preference. Conclusion The treatment strategy for patients with gunshot injuries to the torso mostly depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient. Whereas hemodynamically unstable patients require immediate operative measures like thoracotomy or laparotomy, hemodynamically stable patients might be treated with minor surgical procedures (e.g. chest tube or even conservatively.

  16. Military and Civilian Burn Injuries During Armed Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Atiyeh, B.S.; Gunn, S.W.A.; Hayek, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment, and war burns have been described for more than 5,000 years of written history. Fire was probably utilized as a weapon long before that. With the ever-increasing destructive power and efficiency of modern weapons, casualties, both fatal and non-fatal, are reaching new highs, particularly among civilians who are becoming the major wartime targets in recent wars, accounting for most of the killed and wounded. Even though medical pe...

  17. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  18. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System. A directory of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. 2009 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (NFCIS) is an international directory of civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities, published online as part of the Integrated Nuclear Fuel Cycle Information System (iNFCIS: http://www-nfcis.iaea.org/). This is the fourth hardcopy publication in almost 30 years and it represents a snapshot of the NFCIS database as of the end of 2008. Together with the attached CD-ROM, it provides information on 650 civilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities in 53 countries, thus helping to improve the transparency of global nuclear fuel cycle activities

  19. DEPLOYMENT OF THE BULK TRITIUM SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanton, P.

    2013-10-10

    A new Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP) was designed by the Savannah River National Laboratory to be a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The BTSP was certified by the National Nuclear Safety Administration in 2011 for shipments of up to 150 grams of Tritium. Thirty packages were procured and are being delivered to various DOE sites for operational use. This paper summarizes the design features of the BTSP, as well as associated engineered material improvements. Fabrication challenges encountered during production are discussed as well as fielding requirements. Current approved tritium content forms (gas and tritium hydrides), are reviewed, as well as, a new content, tritium contaminated water on molecular sieves. Issues associated with gas generation will also be discussed.

  20. Ship voyage energy efficiency assessment using ship simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam, Ameen M.; Phillips, Alexander B.; Turnock, Stephen R.; Wilson, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in global trade is driving growth in both the size and number of ships. However, this increased demand is leading to greater contributions from shipping to air pollution. This is leading designers and operators to propose and adopt novel powering and propulsion systems. However, there is a challenge with assessing the actual benefit from using a certain retrofit technology or changing the operating conditions of their ships, this may be addressed using numerical simulations. This...

  1. Effective and Safe Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle;

    1996-01-01

    are described. The areas of safety that are presented are collisions, groundings, cargo shifting and ship fire. The areas of lack of knowledge are identified and the tasks within each subproject suggested. The proposal for the main project is presented in the summary. Background material of the state-of-the art...... is given in the appendices. The project is planned to take three years from the start. There are 28 tasks and the total volume is 18 personyears, or 6.3 MFIM. A scientific approach will be used in performing the tasks and some of them may be subjects for post graduate studies. A close co-operation between...

  2. Stress and Absenteeism in Civilian Employees Supervised by Army Sergeants: Empirical Evidence from Fort Belvoir, Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Carey; Chinta, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Past literature suggests that leadership style impacts employee attitudes and job performance in organizations. Given the broad scope of military operations, there are many situations in military where military managers supervise civilian employees.  Our empirical study explores the effects of Army sergeant supervision of civilian employees at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.  Eight themes in Army sergeants’ perceptions as supervisor of federal civilian employees were studied in-depth: (a) task, (b) e...

  3. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    of the struck ship hull during ship–ship collisions. The striking ship is still considered as a rigid body. The local interaction between the two ships is modeled by a linear load–deflection relation. The analysis results for a simplified model of a struck coaster and of a large tanker show that the elastic...... is confined to the impact location and where local and global bending vibration modes are neglected. That is, the structural deformation problem is considered quasi-static. In this paper a simple uniform free–free beam model is presented for estimating the energy transported into the global bending vibrations...

  4. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  5. Operational options for green ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  6. Operational Options for Green Ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Sherbaz; Wenyang Duan

    2012-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors.The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders,responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions,14%-15% of global NOx emissions,and 16% of global SOx emissions.In addition,continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness.The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions.Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness.This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts,principles,and potential of operational options for green ships.The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e.academic qualifications prior to induction,in-service training and motivation were discussed.The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  7. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  8. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its...

  9. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Kraker, J.K. de; DUNCAN, J; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activity encompasses data modeling, runtime simulation, and process aspects of virtual ship representation. SG61 is responsible for development of a formal NATO standards document (STANAG) to codify its ...

  10. Dynamics of a Rigid Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Matusiak, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    This book is primarily meant as textbook of the course Ship Dynamics provided for the students of Naval Architecture of Aalto University. The approach to ship dynamics presented in the book makes it possible to deal with the seemingly different problems such as ship maneouvring, sea-keeping and dynamic stability using the same unified mathematical model. Motion dynamics of a ship regarded as a rigid body in a general motion with six-degree-of-freedom is considered. The relation of non-lineari...

  11. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE`s Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  13. Integrated cargo routing and ship scheduling in liner shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    The problem consists of creating routes and schedules for a heterogeneous fleet of ships while determining the cargo routing and the speed for all relevant port pair/ship combinations. Transshipment is allowed in ports with transshipment capabilities. The service frequency is fixed at one week...

  14. Evaluating the Special Needs of The Military for Radiation Biodosimetry for Tactical Warfare Against Deployed Troops: Comparing Military to Civilian Needs for Biodosimetry Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Ali, Arif N; Boyle, Holly K; Du, Gaixin; Satinsky, Victoria A; Swarts, Steven G; Williams, Benjamin B; Demidenko, Eugene; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to delineate characteristics of biodosimetry most suitable for assessing individuals who have potentially been exposed to significant radiation from a nuclear device explosion when the primary population targeted by the explosion and needing rapid assessment for triage is civilians vs. deployed military personnel. The authors first carry out a systematic analysis of the requirements for biodosimetry to meet the military's needs to assess deployed troops in a warfare situation, which include accomplishing the military mission. Then the military's special capabilities to respond and carry out biodosimetry for deployed troops in warfare are compared and contrasted systematically, in contrast to those available to respond and conduct biodosimetry for civilians who have been targeted by terrorists, for example. Then the effectiveness of different biodosimetry methods to address military vs. civilian needs and capabilities in these scenarios was compared and, using five representative types of biodosimetry with sufficient published data to be useful for the simulations, the number of individuals are estimated who could be assessed by military vs. civilian responders within the timeframe needed for triage decisions. Analyses based on these scenarios indicate that, in comparison to responses for a civilian population, a wartime military response for deployed troops has both more complex requirements for and greater capabilities to use different types of biodosimetry to evaluate radiation exposure in a very short timeframe after the exposure occurs. Greater complexity for the deployed military is based on factors such as a greater likelihood of partial or whole body exposure, conditions that include exposure to neutrons, and a greater likelihood of combined injury. These simulations showed, for both the military and civilian response, that a very fast rate of initiating the processing (24,000 d) is needed to have at least some methods capable of

  15. Evaluating the Special Needs of The Military for Radiation Biodosimetry for Tactical Warfare Against Deployed Troops: Comparing Military to Civilian Needs for Biodosimetry Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Ann Barry; Ali, Arif N; Boyle, Holly K; Du, Gaixin; Satinsky, Victoria A; Swarts, Steven G; Williams, Benjamin B; Demidenko, Eugene; Schreiber, Wilson; Swartz, Harold M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to delineate characteristics of biodosimetry most suitable for assessing individuals who have potentially been exposed to significant radiation from a nuclear device explosion when the primary population targeted by the explosion and needing rapid assessment for triage is civilians vs. deployed military personnel. The authors first carry out a systematic analysis of the requirements for biodosimetry to meet the military's needs to assess deployed troops in a warfare situation, which include accomplishing the military mission. Then the military's special capabilities to respond and carry out biodosimetry for deployed troops in warfare are compared and contrasted systematically, in contrast to those available to respond and conduct biodosimetry for civilians who have been targeted by terrorists, for example. Then the effectiveness of different biodosimetry methods to address military vs. civilian needs and capabilities in these scenarios was compared and, using five representative types of biodosimetry with sufficient published data to be useful for the simulations, the number of individuals are estimated who could be assessed by military vs. civilian responders within the timeframe needed for triage decisions. Analyses based on these scenarios indicate that, in comparison to responses for a civilian population, a wartime military response for deployed troops has both more complex requirements for and greater capabilities to use different types of biodosimetry to evaluate radiation exposure in a very short timeframe after the exposure occurs. Greater complexity for the deployed military is based on factors such as a greater likelihood of partial or whole body exposure, conditions that include exposure to neutrons, and a greater likelihood of combined injury. These simulations showed, for both the military and civilian response, that a very fast rate of initiating the processing (24,000 d) is needed to have at least some methods capable of

  16. Spent fuel shipping costs for transportation logistics analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logistics analyses supplied to the nuclear waste management programs of the U.S. Department of Energy through the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories are used to predict nuclear waste material logistics, transportation packaging demands, shipping and receiving rates and transportation-related costs for alternative strategies. This study is an in-depth analysis of the problems and contingencies associated with the costs of shipping irradiated reactor fuel. These costs are extremely variable however, and have changed frequently (sometimes monthly) during the past few years due to changes in capital, fuel, and labor costs. All costs and charges reported in this study are based on January 1982 data using existing transport cask systems and should be used as relative indices only. Actual shipping costs would be negotiable for each origin-destination combination

  17. Community Resilience of Civilians at War: A New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul

    2016-01-01

    A new concept of community resilience pertaining to the community's post adversity strength to vulnerability ratio was associated with five determinants: individual resilience, national resilience, well-being, community size, and sense of coherence. The data was collected four months after Israel's war in the Gaza Strip in 2014. Participants were 251 adult civilians living in southern Israel who have recently been threatened by massive missile attacks, and 259 adults living in northern Israel, which has not been under missile fire recently. The investigated variables predicted community resilience, and their effects were mediated by sense of coherence. Results which were similar for both samples were discussed in terms of the nature of resilience and in terms of proximal and distal exposure to war. PMID:26482587

  18. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third annual report on the activities and expenditures of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and covers the period from October 1, 1984 through September 30, 1985. The following were among the most significant accomplishments during FY 1985: publication of the mission plan; creation of a systems integration capability; publication of draft environmental assessments; development of a program management system and implementation of a comprehensive approach of ''managing for quality'' in all program activities; and development of new initiatives and more consistent interactions in the area of institutional relationships. The Office's financial statements for fiscal years 1984 and 1985 are included, and a concluding chapter updates the report with a brief summary of highlights of accomplishments following the end of fiscal year 1985. 96 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  19. 46 CFR 154.1820 - Shipping document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping document. 154.1820 Section 154.1820 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1820 Shipping document. No person may operate a vessel without carrying a shipping document in the wheelhouse that lists for...

  20. 46 CFR 340.4 - Shipping services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping services. 340.4 Section 340.4 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY PRIORITY USE AND ALLOCATION OF SHIPPING SERVICES, CONTAINERS AND CHASSIS, AND PORT FACILITIES AND SERVICES FOR NATIONAL SECURITY...

  1. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  2. Advanced Demonstration of Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boehnen, Chris Bensing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ernst, Joseph [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Passive radiation detection is a key tool for detecting illicit nuclear materials. In maritime applications it is most effective against small vessels where attenuation is of less concern. Passive imaging provides: discrimination between localized (threat) and distributed (non-threat) sources, removal of background fluctuations due to nearby shorelines and structures, source localization to an individual craft in crowded waters, and background subtracted spectra. Unfortunately, imaging methods cannot be easily applied in ship-to-ship inspections because relative motion of the vessels blurs the results over many pixels, significantly reducing sensitivity. This is particularly true for the smaller water craft where passive inspections are most valuable. In this project we performed tests and improved the performance of an instrument (developed earlier under, “Motion Correction for Ship-to-Ship Passive Inspections”) that uses automated tracking of a target vessel in visible-light images to generate a 3D radiation map of the target vessel from data obtained using a gamma-ray imager.

  3. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Duncan, J.; Budde, E.W.; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modeling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activi

  4. NATO Standards for Virtual Ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraker, J.K. de; Reading, R.

    2005-01-01

    The NATO Naval Armaments Group Sub-Group 61 on Virtual Ships has been chartered to establish NATO standards for modelling and simulation applied to ship acquisition. Its objective is to enable multi-national simulation re-use and interoperability, as well as simulation composability. Technical activ

  5. Identification of Dynamically Positioned Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Todays model-based dynamic positioning (DP systems require that the ship and thruster dynamics are known with some accuracy in order to use linear quadratic optical control theory. However, it is difficult to identify the mathematical model of a dynamically posititmed (DP ship since the ship is not persistently excited under DP. In addition the ship parameter estimation problem is nonlinear and multivariable with only position and thruster state measurements available for parameter estimation. The process and measurement noise must also be modeled in order to avoid parameter drift due to environmental disturbances and sensor failure. This article discusses an off-line parallel extended Kalman filter (EKF algorithm utilizing two measurement series in parallel to estimate the parameters in the DP ship model. Full-scale experiments with a supply vessel are used to demonstrate the convergence and robustness of the proposed parameter estimator.

  6. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  7. Violent deaths of Iraqi civilians, 2003-2008: analysis by perpetrator, weapon, time, and location.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Armed violence is a major public health and humanitarian problem in Iraq. In this descriptive statistical analysis we aimed to describe for the first time Iraqi civilian deaths caused by perpetrators of armed violence during the first 5 years of the Iraq war: over time; by weapon used; by region (governorate; and by victim demographics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the Iraq Body Count database of 92,614 Iraqi civilian direct deaths from armed violence occurring from March 20, 2003 through March 19, 2008, of which Unknown perpetrators caused 74% of deaths (n = 68,396, Coalition forces 12% (n = 11,516, and Anti-Coalition forces 11% (n = 9,954. We analyzed the subset of 60,481 civilian deaths from 14,196 short-duration events of lethal violence to link individual civilian deaths to events involving perpetrators and their methods. One-third of civilian violent death was from extrajudicial executions by Unknown perpetrators; quadratic regression shows these deaths progressively and disproportionately increased as deaths from other forms of violence increased across Iraq's governorates. The highest average number of civilians killed per event in which a civilian died were in Unknown perpetrator suicide bombings targeting civilians (19 per lethal event and Coalition aerial bombings (17 per lethal event. In temporal analysis, numbers of civilian deaths from Coalition air attacks, and woman and child deaths from Coalition forces, peaked during the invasion. We applied a Woman and Child "Dirty War Index" (DWI, measuring the proportion of women and children among civilian deaths of known demographic status, to the 22,066 civilian victims identified as men, women, or children to indicate relatively indiscriminate perpetrator effects. DWI findings suggest the most indiscriminate effects on women and children were from Unknown perpetrators using mortar fire (DWI  = 79 and nonsuicide vehicle bombs (DWI  = 54 and from

  8. Geochemical modeling (EQ3/6) plan: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan replaces an earlier plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It includes activities for all repository projects in the Office of Geologic Repositories: NNWSI, the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Salt Repository Project, and the Crystalline Project. Each of these projects is part of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. The scope of work for fiscal years 1986 to 1992 includes the work required to upgrade the geochemical codes and supporting data bases, to permit modeling of chemical processes associated with nuclear waste repositories in four geological environments: tuff, salt, basalt, and crystalline rock. Planned tasks include theoretical studies and code development to take account of the effects of precipitation kinetics, sorption, solid solutions, glass/water interactions, variable gas fugacities, and simple mass transport. Recent progress has been made in the ability of the codes to account for precipitation kinetics, highly-saline solutions, and solid solutions. Transition state theory was re-examined resulting in new insights that will provide the foundation for further improvements necessary to model chemical kinetics. Currently there is an increased effort that is concentrated on the supporting data base. For aqueous species and solid phases, specific to nuclear waste, requisite thermodynamic values reported in the literature are being evaluated and for cases where essential data is lacking, laboratory measurements will be carried out. Significant modifications and expansions have been made to the data base. During FY86, the total number of species in the data base has almost doubled and many improvements have been made with regard to consistency, organization, user applications, and documentation. Two Ridge computers using a RISC implementation of UNIX were installed; they are completely dedicated EQ3/6 machines

  9. The Navy help in nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author tell us historical aspects of the radiological accident in Goiania, its effects and the solicitation made to the Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias to take care of the victims. He mentions the arrival of the patients and the human resources that there was when was established the seriousness of the fact, what made a need the mobilization of medical officers specialists in related subjects to the problem and also nursing personnel of high and technical level. He also describes the effort made to gather all the necessary personnel that came from many different organizations including ships. Emphasis is made on the previous qualifications of the personnel in the area of radio protection through courses and training given by the Brazilian Navy and the role played by the nursing personnel. Very important was the integration accomplished among all the clinical departments inside Navy Hospital Marcilio Dias and civilian organizations like Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Furnas, The Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the precious participation of foreign specialists. The author finishes telling the reasons why a Navy Hospital was chosen to do this job, accentuating the fact that a radiological accident is event that involves high risk and demands appropriate care and an organized hierarchical structure that only can be found in military hospitals

  10. Proceedings of the nuclear Inter Jura`93. Nuclear energy and sustainable development: the role of law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The importance of the law for the future of the nuclear energy within the context of the sustainable development is discussed in this Nuclear Inter Jura - Rio`93, which contains the individual papers, reports of working groups and a proposal of standards of good behavior for the civilian nuclear industry. This congress is divided in five sections: licensing and decommissioning; nuclear liability cover; international nuclear trade; radiological protection and radioactive waste management.

  11. Single liner shipping service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Pisinger, David; Salazar-González, Juan-José;

    2014-01-01

    demand under commercially driven constraints. This paper introduces the Single Liner Shipping Service Design Problem. Arc-flow and path-flow models are presented using state-of-the-art elements from the wide literature on pickup and delivery problems. A Branch-and-Cut-and-Price algorithm is proposed......The design of container shipping networks is an important logistics problem, involving assets and operational costs measured in billions of dollars. To guide the optimal deployment of the ships, a single vessel round trip is considered by minimizing operational costs and flowing the best paying...

  12. Production Balance of Ship Erection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ru-hong; TAN Jia-hua; LIU Cun-gen

    2008-01-01

    A network plan model of ship erection was established based on the network planning technologyand the work-package breakdown system. The load-oriented production control method was introduced to buildup a throughput diagram model thus it is possible to describe the ship erection process numerically. Based onthe digitaiized models some cases of production balance of ship erection were studied and three balance indexeswere put forward, they are the load balance rate, the input manpower balance rate and the maximum gantrycrane operating times. Such an analytic method based on the balance evaluation is the important foundationfor digitization and intelligentization of shipyard production management.

  13. Investigation into the feasibility of alternative plutonium shipping forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated for the Department of Energy by the Battelle Memorial Institute, is conducting a study for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the feasibility of altering current plutonium shipping forms to reduce or eliminate the airborne dispersibility of PuO2 which might occur during a shipping accident. Plutonium used for fuel fabrication is currently shipped as a PuO2 powder with a significant fraction in the respirable size range. If the high-strength container is breached due to stresses imposed during a transportation accident, the PuO2 powder could be subject to airborne dispersion. The available information indicated that a potential accident involving fire accompanied by crush/impact forces would lead to failure of current surface shipping containers (no assumptions were made on the possibility of such a severe accident). Criteria were defined for an alternate shipping form to mitigate the effects of such an accident. Candidate techniques and materials were evaluated as alternate shipping forms by a task team consisting of personnel from PNL and Rockwell Hanford Operations (RHO). At this time, the most promising candidate for an alternate plutonium shipping form appears to be pressing PuO2 into unsintered (green) pellets. These green pellets satisfy the criteria for a less dispersible form without requiring significant process changes. Discussions of all candidates considered are contained in a series of appendices. Recommendations for further investigations of the applicability of green pellets as an alternate shipping form are given, including the need for a cost-benefit study

  14. Secretary of Energy review of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January 19, 1993, in response to a question during her confirmation hearing, Secretary of Energy Hazel R. O'Leary stated that she believed that a comprehensive review of nuclear waste disposal programs and policies was needed. Her preferred approach to such a review would be to engage in a consensus-seeking effort in which all involved parties would be brought to the table to deal with contentious issues. This paper describes both the process and the separate elements of the review of the civilian radioactive waste management program conducted in 1993 and 1994 by Secretary O'Leary. The paper will trace the review beginning with the Secretary's statement at her confirmation hearing, through her interim guidance redirecting certain aspects of the program. It describes some initiatives and changes that are already underway as a result of this review. Throughout the year, stakeholders expressed their concerns, opinions, and recommendations regarding the program. These communications reflected the diversity of perspective that has become a hallmark of the radioactive waste program

  15. 5 CFR 890.111 - Continuation of eligibility for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program. 890.111 Section 890.111 Administrative Personnel... Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program. (a) A Federal employee who was employed by the Department of Defense to support the Civilian Marksmanship Program as of the day before the date of...

  16. 5 CFR 870.510 - Continuation of eligibility for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program. 870.510 Section 870.510 Administrative Personnel... the Civilian Marksmanship Program. (a) A Federal employee who was employed by the Department of Defense to support the Civilian Marksmanship Program as of the day before the date of the transfer of...

  17. 5 CFR 842.109 - Continuation of coverage for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program. 842.109 Section 842.109 Administrative Personnel... the Civilian Marksmanship Program. (a) A Federal employee who was covered under FERS; (1) Was employed by the Department of Defense to support the Civilian Marksmanship Program as of the day before...

  18. 5 CFR 831.206 - Continuation of coverage for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program. 831.206 Section 831.206 Administrative Personnel... § 831.206 Continuation of coverage for former Federal employees of the Civilian Marksmanship Program. (a... support the Civilian Marksmanship Program as of the day before the date of the transfer of the Program...

  19. Automated Detection of Anomalous Shipping Manifests to Identify Illicit Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2013-11-12

    We describe an approach to analyzing trade data which uses clustering to detect similarities across shipping manifest records, classification to evaluate clustering results and categorize new unseen shipping data records, and visual analytics to provide to support situation awareness in dynamic decision making to monitor and warn against the movement of radiological threat materials through search, analysis and forecasting capabilities. The evaluation of clustering results through classification and systematic inspection of the clusters show the clusters have strong semantic cohesion and offer novel ways to detect transactions related to nuclear smuggling.

  20. Ship Effect Measurements With Fiber Optic Neutron Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Kenneth L.; Dean, Rashe A.; Akbar, Shahzad; Kouzes, Richard T.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-08-10

    The main objectives of this research project was to assemble, operate, test and characterize an innovatively designed scintillating fiber optic neutron radiation detector manufactured by Innovative American Technology with possible application to the Department of Homeland Security screening for potential radiological and nuclear threats at US borders (Kouzes 2004). One goal of this project was to make measurements of the neutron ship effect for several materials. The Virginia State University DOE FaST/NSF summer student-faculty team made measurements with the fiber optic radiation detector at PNNL above ground to characterize the ship effect from cosmic neutrons, and underground to characterize the muon contribution.

  1. WMO Selected, Supplemenatary, Auxiliary Ships

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Meteorological Organization International List of Selected, Supplementary and Auxiliary Ships, recognized as Publication 47. 1973-1998 editions, gathered from...

  2. Military and civilian burn injuries during armed conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Hayek, S N

    2007-12-31

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment, and war burns have been described for more than 5,000 years of written history. Fire was probably utilized as a weapon long before that. With the ever-increasing destructive power and efficiency of modern weapons, casualties, both fatal and non-fatal, are reaching new highs, particularly among civilians who are becoming the major wartime targets in recent wars, accounting for most of the killed and wounded. Even though medical personnel usually believe that a knowledge of weaponry has little relevance to their ability to effectively treat injuries and that it may in some way be in conflict with their status, accorded under the Geneva and Hague treaties, it is imperative that they know how weapons are used and understand their effects on the human body. The present review explores various categories of weapons of modern warfare that are unfamiliar to most medical and paramedical personnel responsible for burn treatment. The mechanisms and patterns of injury produced by each class of weapons are examined so that a better understanding of burn management in a warfare situation may be achieved. PMID:21991098

  3. Civilian Power from Space in the Early 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, R; Ishikawa, M; Wood, L

    2003-06-01

    If power beamed from space is to be become widely used on Earth in the first half of the 21St century, several thus-far-persistent impediments must be obviated, including threshold effects and problematic aspects of cost, availability, reliability, hazards and environmental impacts. We sketch a generally-applicable route to doing so, noting key enabling technologies and practical features. Likely-essential features of any successful strategy include vigorous, systematic leveraging of all intrinsic features of space-derived power, e.g., addressing marginal, high-value-added markets for electric power in space- and time-agile manners to conveniently provide power-upon-demand, and incrementally ''wedging'' into ever-larger markets with ever more cost-efficient generations and scales of technology. We suggest that no prudent strategic plan will rely upon large-scale, long-term public subsidies--fiscal, regulatory, etc.--with their attendant ''sovereign risks'' and interminable delays, and that plan-essential governmental support likely will be limited to early feasibility demonstrations, provision of threshold technologies and a rational, competition-neutral licensing environment. If salient realities are uniformly respected and accessible technologies are intelligently leveraged, electricity derived from space-sourced power-beams may come into significant civilian use during the latter part of the first quarter of this century, and may become widely used by the half-century point.

  4. Neutron radiography for maintenance inspection of military and civilian aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to develop new and advanced nondestructive inspection techniques, a series of projects has been conducted to develop and evaluate neutron radiography as a nondestructive inspection tool. A major portion of this effort has been directed toward the application of neutron radiography as a maintenance inspection tool for military and civilian aircraft. The availability of 252Cf as a neutron source has enabled the use of neutron-radiography systems in normal maintenance environments for the inspection of flight-line aircraft with a minimum of interference. Neutron radiography has been demonstrated to be a powerful nondestructive inspection tool for a variety of applications involving the detection of organic or non-metallic compounds. Its ability to detect surface and subsurface corrosion in aircraft structure is unmatched by any other inspection technique. This capability of detecting corrosion without component disassembly is particularly significant when corrosion is hidden behind thick metallic structural members. The neutron radiographic technique has been applied successfully to detect corrosion in wing tanks, rear stabilators, aft spar, starboard and port wing, rudder, fuselage skin, and nose landing gears of a variety of fixed-wind aircraft, as well as rotary blades and rotary tail flaps of heliocopters

  5. Experimental model for civilian ballistic brain injury biomechanics quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Guan, Yabo; Gennarelli, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Biomechanical quantification of projectile penetration using experimental head models can enhance the understanding of civilian ballistic brain injury and advance treatment. Two of the most commonly used handgun projectiles (25-cal, 275 m/s and 9 mm, 395 m/s) were discharged to spherical head models with gelatin and Sylgard simulants. Four ballistic pressure transducers recorded temporal pressure distributions at 308kHz, and temporal cavity dynamics were captured at 20,000 frames/second (fps) using high-speed digital video images. Pressures ranged from 644.6 to -92.8 kPa. Entry pressures in gelatin models were higher than exit pressures, whereas in Sylgard models entry pressures were lower or equivalent to exit pressures. Gelatin responded with brittle-type failure, while Sylgard demonstrated a ductile pattern through formation of micro-bubbles along projectile path. Temporary cavities in Sylgard models were 1.5-2x larger than gelatin models. Pressures in Sylgard models were more sensitive to projectile velocity and diameter increase, indicating Sylgard was more rate sensitive than gelatin. Based on failure patterns and brain tissue rate-sensitive characteristics, Sylgard was found to be an appropriate simulant. Compared with spherical projectile data, full-metal jacket (FMJ) projectiles produced different temporary cavity and pressures, demonstrating shape effects. Models using Sylgard gel and FMJ projectiles are appropriate to enhance understanding and mechanisms of ballistic brain injury.

  6. Primary particles in ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridell, Erik; Steen, Erica; Peterson, Kjell

    There is not much data available regarding particle emissions from ships. In this study the size distributions of particles in ship exhaust from three different ships in normal operational conditions were studied using a cascade impactor. The ships were equipped with slow- or medium-speed main engines and medium-speed auxiliary engines. The fuel was residual oil except for the auxiliary engines on one ship which used marine diesel. Large emissions and a dependence of the sulfur content in the fuel were observed. High amounts of relatively large particles (around 8 μm) were observed. These are attributed to re-entrained soot particles from walls in the engine systems. A strong variation between different ships was observed for the particle-size distribution and for the dependence on engine load. The particle emissions were found to be reduced to about half, over the whole size range, by an SCR system. The total particle emission, measured after dilution, varied between 0.3 and 3 g kW h -1 depending on load, fuel and engine.

  7. 46 CFR 42.05-63 - Ship(s) and vessel(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship(s) and vessel(s). 42.05-63 Section 42.05-63... BY SEA Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-63 Ship(s) and vessel(s). The terms ship(s) and vessel(s) are interchangeable or synonymous words, and include every description of...

  8. 46 CFR 4.03-35 - Nuclear vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nuclear vessel. 4.03-35 Section 4.03-35 Shipping COAST... INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-35 Nuclear vessel. The term nuclear vessel means any vessel in which power for propulsion, or for any other purpose, is derived from nuclear energy; or any vessel handling or...

  9. Simulation of a marine nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Hideo; Ochiai, Masaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Office of Nuclear Ship Research and Development

    1995-02-01

    A Nuclear-powered ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (NESSY) has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute as an advanced design tool for research and development of future marine reactors. A marine reactor must respond to changing loads and to the ship`s motions because of the ship`s maneuvering and its presence in a marine environment. The NESSY has combined programs for the reactor plant behavior calculations and the ship`s motion calculations. Thus, it can simulate reactor power fluctuations caused by changing loads and the ship`s motions. It can also simulate the behavior of water in the pressurizer and steam generators. This water sloshes in response to the ship`s motions. The performance of NESSY has been verified by comparing the simulation calculations with the measured data obtained by experiments performed using the nuclear ship Mutsu. The effects of changing loads and the ship`s motions on the reactor behavior can be accurately simulated by NESSY.

  10. 75 FR 10791 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... about the history and current status of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste disposal in the United... to include presentations on the history of efforts to dispose of civilian light- water reactor spent... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear...

  11. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP)

  12. The Impact of Ship-Produced Aerosols on the Microstructure and Albedo of Warm Marine Stratocumulus Clouds: A Test of MAST Hypotheses 1i and 1ii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, P. A.; Noone, K. J.; Ferek, R. J.; Johnson, D. W.; Taylor, J. P.; Garrett, T. J.; Hobbs, P. V.; Hudson, J. G.; Bretherton, C. S.; Innis, G.; Frick, G. M.; Hoppel, W. A.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Russell, L. M.; Gasparovic, R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Tessmer, S. A.; Öström, E.;  Osborne, S. R.;  Flagan, R. C.;  Seinfeld, J. H.;  Rand, H.

    2000-08-01

    Anomalously high reflectivity tracks in stratus and stratocumulus sheets associated with ships (known as ship tracks) are commonly seen in visible and near-infrared satellite imagery. Until now there have been only a limited number of in situ measurements made in ship tracks. The Monterey Area Ship Track (MAST) experiment, which was conducted off the coast of California in June 1994, provided a substantial dataset on ship emissions and their effects on boundary layer clouds. Several platforms, including the University of Washington C-131A aircraft, the Meteorological Research Flight C-130 aircraft, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ER-2 aircraft, the Naval Research Laboratory airship, the Research Vessel Glorita, and dedicated U.S. Navy ships, participated in MAST in order to study processes governing the formation and maintenance of ship tracks.This paper tests the hypotheses that the cloud microphysical changes that produce ship tracks are due to (a) particulate emission from the ship's stack and/or (b) sea-salt particles from the ship's wake. It was found that ships powered by diesel propulsion units that emitted high concentrations of aerosols in the accumulation mode produced ship tracks. Ships that produced few particles (such as nuclear ships), or ships that produced high concentrations of particles but at sizes too small to be activated as cloud drops in typical stratocumulus (such as gas turbine and some steam-powered ships), did not produce ship tracks. Statistics and case studies, combined with model simulations, show that provided a cloud layer is susceptible to an aerosol perturbation, and the atmospheric stability enables aerosol to be mixed throughout the boundary layer, the direct emissions of cloud condensation nuclei from the stack of a diesel-powered ship is the most likely, if not the only, cause of the formation of ship tracks. There was no evidence that salt particles from ship wakes cause ship tracks.

  13. CASE: Reinventing the container shipping industry

    OpenAIRE

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Containerized shipping is the backbone of global trade and a pivotal element in modern day globalization. Every year, millions of containers are shipped onboard more than 5.000 container - the main shipping routes being between Asia, Europa and the USA. In 2010, more than 30 million TEUs (twenty foot equivalent units - the common unit in container shipping) were exported from China alone.

  14. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. (a) Applicability and use of shipping... a shipping tolerance. This section tells you, as the licensee, when you may take advantage of...

  15. 7 CFR 91.20 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping. 91.20 Section 91.20 Agriculture Regulations... AND GENERAL INFORMATION Samples § 91.20 Shipping. (a) Samples must be submitted to the laboratory in a... for providing shipping containers and paying shipping costs for fee basis tests. (f) A courier...

  16. On impact mechanics in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship–ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  17. Compendium of technical computer codes used in support of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of technical computer codes related to ongoing work under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM) is presented. Much of the information was obtained from responses to a questionnaire distributed by DOE/OCRWM to all DOE offices associated with the radioactive waste management program. The codes are arranged alphabetically by name. In addition to the code description, each sheet includes other data such as computer hardware and software requirements, document references, name of respondent, and code variants. The codes are categorized into seventeen subject areas plus a miscellaneous category. Some of the subject areas covered are atmospheric dispersion, biosphere transport, geochemistry, nuclear radiation transport, nuclide inventory, and risk assessment. Three appendixes are included which list the names of the contributors, a list of the literature reviewed, and a glossary of computer code terminology and definitions. 50 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  19. Perspective on methods to calculate a fee for disposal of defense high-level waste in combined (civilian/defense) repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy intends to send the high-level waste from defense operations to combined civilian/defense repositories for disposal. The federal government must pay a fee to cover its fair share of the cost for the disposal system. This report provides an overview perspective on the defense high-level waste (DHLW) quantities and characteristics and on potential alternatives for calculation and payment of the disposal fee. Information on the DHLW expected from government sites includes the number of waste canisters, radioactivity, thermal decay power, mass of defense reactor fuel, and total electrical energy-equivalents. Ranges in quantities are shown where different operating scenarios are being considered. Several different fee determination methods are described and fees for different quantities of waste are estimated. Information is also included on possible payment alternatives, production and shipping schedules, and credits which could be applied to the fee

  20. Community-integrated brain injury rehabilitation: Treatment models and challenges for civilian, military, and veteran populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Tina M; Nidiffer, F Don; Barth, Jeffrey T

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem in civilian, military, and veteran populations. Individuals experiencing moderate to severe TBI require a continuum of care involving acute hospitalization and postacute rehabilitation, including community reintegration and, one would hope, a return home to function as a productive member of the community. In the military, the goal is to help individuals with TBI return to active duty or make an optimal return to civilian life if the extent of their injuries necessitates a "medical board" discharge. Whether civilian, military, or veteran with TBI, individuals who move beyond the need to live in a facility must be reintegrated back into the community. This article discusses four treatment models for community reintegration, reviews treatment standardization and outcome issues, and describes a manualized rehabilitation pilot program designed to provide community reintegration and return to duty/work for civilians, veterans, and military personnel with TBI.

  1. Effects of ship's vibration and motion on plant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present report was written about the study of the effects of ship's vibration and motion on reactor plant performances measured and analyzed to confirm the total balance for control systems of reactor to propulsion. On July 10, 1990, or on the first day of the first voyage for the power up test, the sea trials of MUTSU, nuclear ship made first in Japan, started from the anchoring test. The trial tests had finished through the third voyage between October 30 and November 9 to the fourth voyage between 7 and 14 of December. The trial tests had been conducted over ten items or so containing in-house tests of the measurements of ship's vibration and motion in order to research the effects on reactor performance. We here call the in-house tests the plant correlation tests. In regard to the correlation with ship's vibration, we confirmed that the inherent vibrations of hull and reactor containment arisen from ship structure had precisely been measured and that the plant correlations due to the hull and local vibrations arising from propeller revolutions are very small. Concerning the correlation with ship's motion, it was shown that her rolling motion strongly had affected on the propulsion system such as shaft power and shaft revolutions. About the correlation with reactor systems it was found that her pitching motion had given effect on the water level in pressurizer, primary coolant average temperature, ε-signal of the auto-control of reactor power and primary coolant pressure etc, particularly, most-strongly on the water level in pressurizer; her rolling and pitching motions had given effect on nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and startup rate; in addition the fluctuation of 0.06 Hz, we think the response inherent in (MUTSU) reactor systems, had been observed on her reactor parameters like reactivity and startup rate, and her propulsion systems like shaft horse power. (author)

  2. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: Nuclear Waste, Unit 1. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 1 of the four-part series Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to help students establish the relevance of the topic of nuclear waste to their everyday lives and activities. Particular attention is…

  3. Studying Network design in Container linter shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Nguyen Khoi

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studies network design in container liner shipping by concentrating on four research questions: - How were operational patterns deployed in route design? - How was container shipping network developed? - How efficient were fleet expansion and mega vessel deployment? - How do operational factors influence on route design? Question 1 analyses characteristics of shipping routes, a basis component of shipping operation. Question 2 deals with shipping network, which is a combination of...

  4. A Culture of Protection? Perceptions of the Protection of Civilians from Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Lie, Jon Harald Sande; de Carvalho, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    The Protection of Civilians (PoC) concept is a prevalent buzzword in the contemporary security-development nexus and comes as a response to new modes of warfare that have made civilians the main causality of war. Just about all actors from the military, development and humanitarian segments relate to the PoC concept in conflict-situations. Although there is a presumably mainstreaming and general infusion of the concept within the international community, there exists no coherent and compre...

  5. Understanding Civil War Violence through Military Intelligence: Mining Civilian Targeting Records from the Vietnam War

    OpenAIRE

    Douglass, Rex W.

    2015-01-01

    Military intelligence is underutilized in the study of civil war violence. Declassified records are hard to acquire and difficult to explore with the standard econometrics toolbox. I investigate a contemporary government database of civilians targeted during the Vietnam War. The data are detailed, with up to 45 attributes recorded for 73,712 individual civilian suspects. I employ an unsupervised machine learning approach of cleaning, variable selection, dimensionality reduction, and clusterin...

  6. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  7. Development and organization for casualty management on a 1,000-bed hospital ship in the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, M G; Harviel, J D; Stafford, P W; Blankenship, C; Bosse, M J; Timberlake, G A; McSwain, N E

    1992-04-01

    A 1,000-bed hospital ship designed for trauma patients was deployed to the Middle East with the objectives of preparing for large numbers of casualties resulting from Operation Desert Storm from conventional, chemical, and biological weapons. Plans for receipt and decontamination of casualties, triage, and optimal utilization of the 1,000-bed facility were developed. Mass casualty drills were conducted, involving all aspects of patient care from the flight deck to the wards. Trauma and critical care registries were developed to collect casualty data that could then be analyzed for specific military purposes and compared with current civilian registries. Attempts were made to identify the advances in shock resuscitation, systems management, and operative treatment from the civilian community that could be applied to care of combat casualties. Difficulties with accomplishing these objectives included limited trauma experience and supplies and poorly defined medical regulating and evacuation policies. The development of these programs, as well as the unique difficulties encountered, are discussed.

  8. UNIVERSE IS LIKE SPACE SHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani, V.R.Hema Latha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A scientific research in this article focus that the whole Cosmo Universe shall be considered as a “SPACE SHIP”. The Space Ship shall be considered as ANCHORED to the base of universe with three-in-one space elements SUN, EARTH, MOON for its stability and symmetry. Further the Anchor of Universe shall be considered fastened to the “J-Hook” through strong THREAD consists of three core or strand for its “Centre of Buoyancy”.The Space Ship shall be considered as a suspending pendulum. The base of the pendulum considered like Anchor which is fastened to J-Hook through a cable of three core and in “Standstill State”.The human populations, life organisms spread all over the EARTH shall be considered as Passengers. Other space objects such as Planets, Comets, Asteroids, Matters, Molecules having definite mass shall be considered as CARGO existing in the Upper Deck of Human Passengers and other life organisms.The “J-Hook” shall be considered as having infinity energy level and any weight added to the base of space ship during the course of expanding universe shall not affect the centre of buoyancy of ship and the ship shall be considered as highly stable for ever (Highly Anchored and become standstill.

  9. Aim to International Shipping Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2009-01-01

    @@ Since 1990s,various countries in the world have been focusing on the construction of the key ports,leading to a fiercer competition between ports.For example,in East Asia,South Korea and Japan are rivaling for the international shipping center in Northeast Asia.Taking Busan Port and Gwangyang Port as the central ports,South Korea is boosting the ports expansion plans,to construct a"logistic center in Northeast Asia".Meanwhile.Japan is projecting the optimizmg and integration of port resources,to regain the international shipping center in Asia.The central government of China made plans for constructing Shanghai Shipping Center as early in 1996.and after 13 years'construction,now Shanghai Port has the largest cargo throughput and the second largest container throughput in the world.

  10. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    of transshipments on the most important sailing routes. The proposed methods in this thesis, aimed at liner shipping network design, integrate competitiveness such that the fuel consumption per transported container is reduced without increasing the transit times.A well-designed route net is decisive for container...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither......, the problem in itself is challenging to optimize due to its size and complexity. However, the field has seen crucial progress and is mature to include handling of competitiveness in the actual design of the network.As a liner shipping network is an organic entity, which is constantly changed to reflect...

  11. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.;

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  12. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  13. Wind Forces on Container Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the wind forces acting on a 9,000+ TEU container ship has been carried out through a series of wind tunnel tests. It was investigated how the wind forces depend on the container configuration on the deck using a 1:450 scale model and a series of appropriate container...... are presented as nondimensional coefficients. It is concluded, that the measured forces and moment depend on the container configuration on deck, and the results may provide a general idea of how the magnitude of the wind forces is affected by a given container stacking configuration on a similar container ship....

  14. Visualization of Ship Risk Profiles for the Shipping Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Knapp (Sabine); M. van de Velden (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article uses correspondence analysis to visualize risk profiles and their changes over the time period 1977 to 2008. It is based on a unique dataset which combines incident data and ship particular data. The risk profiles can help stakeholders better understand the relationship of s

  15. Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ship Tracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James G.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Strader, Scott R.; Xie, Yonghong; Yum, Seong Soo

    2000-08-01

    Enhancements of droplet concentrations in clouds affected by four ships were fairly accurately predicted from ship emission factors and plume and background cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectra. Ship exhausts thus accounted for the increased droplet concentrations in these `ship tracks.' Derived supersaturations were typical of marine stratus clouds, although there was evidence of some lowering of supersaturations in some ship tracks closer to the ships where CCN and droplet concentrations were very high.Systematic differences were measured in the emission rates of CCN for different engines and fuels. Diesel engines burning low-grade marine fuel oil produced order of magnitude higher CCN emissions than turbine engines burning higher-grade fuel. Consequently, diesel ships burning low-grade fuel were responsible for nearly all of the observed ship track clouds. There is some evidence that fuel type is a better predictor of ship track potential than engine type.

  16. Merchant marine nuclear insurance and indemnity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text is presented of a bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, to provide for public remuneration in the event of a nuclear incident involving a nuclear-powered United States flag merchant ship

  17. Safety doctrine for nuclear submarines in Brazil; Doutrina de seguranca para submarinos nucleares no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2012-07-15

    The recognition of nuclear ship as a single system, incorporating the safety problems and the techniques of both naval and nuclear industry, constitutes a pressing need in order to make nuclear energy as a means of propulsion. Recognize the nuclear ship as the results of two major branches of engineering implies the need for a safety doctrine that deals with the ship and the nuclear facility as a system combining and synthesizing all aspects relevant to military ships as to the commercial nuclear power plants. The non-recognition of nuclear ship as a specific system results in the application of safety rules and regulations set for conventional ships, overlapping (and possibly conflicting) rules and regulations developed to nuclear power plants. This approach does not lead to an optimization of design and operation of the ship, neither from the safety nor from the functional point of view. The paper presents the aspects of naval, nuclear and nuclear ships safety, the application of the doctrine, the control methods and conclusions. (author)

  18. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. 7. activity report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is concerned with trends in nuclear power; basic radiation protection norms and their application; radiation protection considerations relating to the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive waste management; safety research for reactors, nuclear ships and fuel cycle; licensing of nuclear installations; nuclear law; nuclear fuel cycle studies; technical cooperation; scientific support for nuclear technology and NEA data bank

  19. Stress analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report specifies the requirements and criteria for stress analysis of closure bolts for shipping casks containing nuclear spent fuels or high level radioactive materials. The specification is based on existing information conceming the structural behavior, analysis, and design of bolted joints. The approach taken was to extend the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements and criteria for bolting analysis of nuclear piping and pressure vessels to include the appropriate design and load characteristics of the shipping cask. The characteristics considered are large, flat, closure lids with metal-to-metal contact within the bolted joint; significant temperature and impact loads; and possible prying and bending effects. Specific formulas and procedures developed apply to the bolt stress analysis of a circular, flat, bolted closure. The report also includes critical load cases and desirable design practices for the bolted closure, an in-depth review of the structural behavior of bolted joints, and a comprehensive bibliography of current information on bolted joints

  20. Nuclear terrorism - an unavoidable companion of nuclear fission?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparing the security measures provided for with regard to nuclear weapons or to the nuclear inventory of the civilian fuel cycle, it is shown that there are significantly lower standards applied to the storage, processing, and transport of the radioactive fuel material. The difference becomes most obvious when looking at the planning horizons of those responsible for the security measures. The NATO institutions establish their system of security measures on the basis of a dynamical 'threat analysis' reaching far into the future. In the civilian sector, risk analyses and the deduced security measures are well lagging behind the development of realistic risk scenarios. This makes life easier for the operators of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, who otherwise would be obliged to continuously backfit their installations. The cost advantage on the operator's part, however, is obtained at the expense of security. (orig./HSCH)

  1. Automated Planning for Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin; Jensen, Rune Møller; Kroer, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs that are a ......The Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Problem (LSFRP) poses a large financial burden on liner shipping firms. During repositioning, vessels are moved between services in a liner shipping network. The LSFRP is characterized by chains of interacting activities, many of which have costs...

  2. The doctor and nuclear warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 34th World Medical Assembly in Lisbon in 1981 the World Medical Association adopted a motion proposed by the American Medical Association that national medical associations should develop programs to educate the civilian population on the medical consequences of nuclear war. This article discusses the attitude the medical professions should have, should nuclear warfare in some form confront them in the future. The conclusion is drawn that defence against nuclear warfare is only a part of civil defence against any disaster, including the natural disasters such as flood and fire and the man-made disasters of transport accidents, even of problems at nuclear plants designed to supply energy

  3. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  4. Real-Time Simulation of Ship-Structure and Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Bingham, Harry B.;

    2013-01-01

    condition and higher-order accurate numerical approximations. The equations presented facilitate both Neumann-Kelvin and double-body linearizations. The body boundary condition on the ship hull is approximated by a static and dynamic moving pressure distribution. The pressure distribution method is used...... forward speed and lock entrance of a TEU 12.000 Container Carrier. These calculations reveal that the pressure distribution model is a too simple approximation of the body boundary condition and that it has the limitations of a flat-ship approximation. It is necessary to investigate more accurate...... approximations of the body boundary condition, which does not compromise the overall computational efficiency....

  5. Legal risk management in shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...

  6. Decree no. 2001-1199 of the 10 december 2001 publishing the resolution MSC. 88 (71) notifying adoption of the international compilation of safety rules for the spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport in casks on ships (compilation INF) (annexes), adopted at London the 27 may 1999; Decret no. 2001-1199 du 10 decembre 2001 portant publication de la resolution MSC.88 (71) portant adoption du recueil international de regles de securite pour le transport de combustible nucleaire irradie, de plutonium et de dechets hautement radioactifs en colis a bord de navires (recueil INF) (ensemble une annexe), adoptee a Londres le 27 mai 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This legislative text concerns the safety rules of spent nuclear fuels, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes transport, in casks on ships. Rules, fire prevention, temperature control of casks, electric supply, radioprotection, management and emergency plans are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. An Algorithm for Interpolating Ship Motion Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyou Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpolation of ship motion vectors is able to be used for estimating the lost ship AIS dynamic information, which is important for replaying marine accidents and for analysing marine traffic data. The previous methods can only interpolate ship's position, while not including ship's course and speed. In this paper, vector function is used to express the relationship between the ship's time and space coordinates, and the tangent of the vector function and its change rate are able to express physical characteristics of ship's course, speed and acceleration. The given AIS dynamic information can be applied to calculate the parameters of ship's vector function and then the interpolation model for ship motion vectors is developed to estimate the lost ship dynamic information at any given moment. Experiment results show that the ship motion vector function is able to depict the characteristics of ship motions accurately and the model can estimate not only the ship's position but also ship's course and speed at any given moment with limited differences.

  8. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  9. Carcass or Tissue Packaging and Shipping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP on proper shipping of wildlife tissues to labs. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect and ship wildlife carcasses, carcass parts, or...

  10. Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries in Civilian Recruits During Mandatory Combat Training at Military Garrisons: A Nationwide Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ebrahimi, Ali; Askary, Amin

    2012-01-01

    Background There is significant prevalence of physical injuries sustained by civilian recruits at military training garrisons. Civilian recruits sustain these injuries mostly during the intensive and rigorous military combat-training period. Objectives We sought to determine the prevalence and causes of oral and maxillofacial injuries as the first step in reducing and preventing them in civilian recruits (males aged over18 years) during their 2-year mandatory military service. Materials and M...

  11. Accidents on ships in the Danish International Ship register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara

    our study is to describe trend of accidents and their contributing factors, with special focus on nationality, occurring in ships under Danish flag in the period 2010-2012. The study used two independent data sources, the Danish Maritime Authority and the Danish Radio Medical. It is mandatory to...... report accidents causing at least one day off work beyond the day of accident but the first source contains several accidents not fulfilling this criterion, too. Radio Medical is an independent service where all Danish ships may seek medical advice. The data sets were merged by identification number to...... create a single database that has been studied by descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Findings show a stabilised number of accidents in the analysed period. The occurrence of accidents is influenced by nationality. There is a higher frequency of reported injuries found among Danish and other...

  12. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter;

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... the model into a large maritime simulator for training of naval officers, in particular tug boat helmsmen. Tug boat simulators are used for training of communication and situation awareness during manoeuvre involved with towing of large vessels. A main objective of the work is to improve and enable more...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  13. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The service for the import/export of radioactive materials reminds you that shipping requests for potentially radioactive materials must be made via the EDH request form by ticking the box 'radioactive material'. All the necessary information is given on the web site: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Requests not complying with the above procedure will not be taken into account. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Tel. 73171 Fax: 69200

  14. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  15. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  16. World nuclear outlook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries

  17. World nuclear outlook 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries

  18. Weighing and control of bulk material in ship-lading process at harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes a new weighing and control system for bulk material in ship-loading process at harbor. It adopts nuclear radiation measurement, computer control and digital signal process techniques to weigh the bulk material with no-touch with the advantages of stability and anti-jamming. The measure accuracy reaches to 0.5% - 1.0%. It is was applicable in the bad condition of ship-loading spot at harbor

  19. Operations manual for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System cask. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the Operations Manual for the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask. These operating instructions address requirements; for loading, shipping, and unloading, supplementing general operational information found in the BUSS Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), SAND 83-0698. Use of the BUSS cask is authorized by Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the shipment of special form cesium chloride or strontium flouride capsules.

  20. Experience in treatment of components, waste treatment, packaging and shipping related to decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common practice of the treatment of large amounts of activated core components, contaminated components and waste treatment is described. Single tasks of actual repair and backfitting work comprise up to 800 tons of material to be removed, packed, shipped and decontaminated. Decontamination for unrestricted release has already been successfully performed. Special container systems for shipment and storage of every kind of radioactive waste are presented. Containers resulting in maximum shipping, storage and disposal capacity as well as shipping and storage casks for canned and uncanned fuel are described. The experience gained with nuclear facilities in Europe is correlated to the decommissioning tasks to be performed in the near future. 7 figures

  1. Evaluation of the Service Performance of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Borrod, Anne-Sophie; Blanchot, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    A simple method has been established for the evaluation of the service performance of ships. Input data are easily collected daily on board and transformed to a well-defined condition that makes possible the comparison between ships, for instance, sister ships, and between different time periods...

  2. 27 CFR 44.254 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.254 Section 44.254 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Requirements § 44.254 Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container, in which cigars...

  3. 27 CFR 44.187 - Shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping containers. 44.187 Section 44.187 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Shipping containers. Each shipping case, crate, or other container in which tobacco products, or...

  4. 41 CFR 51-5.6 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shipping. 51-5.6 Section... Shipping. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, commodities are sold to the Government... pay all shipping charges to specified delivery points. (b) The Committee may determine that...

  5. 49 CFR 177.817 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 177.817 Section 177.817... Information and Regulations § 177.817 Shipping papers. (a) General requirements. A person may not accept a... received a shipping paper prepared in accordance with part 172 of this subchapter or the material...

  6. 49 CFR 174.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 174.24 Section 174.24... Requirements § 174.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by rail unless that person receives a shipping paper prepared in...

  7. 49 CFR 176.24 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 176.24 Section 176.24... Requirements § 176.24 Shipping papers. (a) A person may not accept a hazardous material for transportation or transport a hazardous material by vessel unless that person has received a shipping paper prepared...

  8. 33 CFR 151.29 - Foreign ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign ships. 151.29 Section 151.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION... Pertains to Pollution from Ships Oil Pollution § 151.29 Foreign ships. (a) Each oil tanker of 150...

  9. The Character Strengths of Special Forces Personnel: Insights for Civilian Health Care Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Scott D; Kehoe, E James

    2016-09-01

    Civilian employees, contractors, and private community clinicians are increasingly providing health treatment to currently serving and former military personnel. This study addresses recent calls for evidence-based information to assist civilian practitioners in understanding the perspectives of their military clients. To this end, the self-reported character strengths of military personnel were elicited as an operationalized expression of their underlying personal values that shape their perspectives and conduct as soldiers. Specifically, Australian Army Special Forces operators and support personnel (N = 337) were asked to rank themselves on 24 character strengths. The three character strengths of integrity, teamworker, and good judgment were ranked significantly above random assignment. Nearly all the respondents (84%) gave a top rank to at least one of these character strengths. Differences between the operators and support personnel were modest. Results are discussed with respect to establishing an effective relationship between military clients and civilian health care practitioners. PMID:27612343

  10. Understanding Civil War Violence through Military Intelligence: Mining Civilian Targeting Records from the Vietnam War

    CERN Document Server

    Douglass, Rex W

    2015-01-01

    Military intelligence is underutilized in the study of civil war violence. Declassified records are hard to acquire and difficult to explore with the standard econometrics toolbox. I investigate a contemporary government database of civilians targeted during the Vietnam War. The data are detailed, with up to 45 attributes recorded for 73,712 individual civilian suspects. I employ an unsupervised machine learning approach of cleaning, variable selection, dimensionality reduction, and clustering. I find support for a simplifying typology of civilian targeting that distinguishes different kinds of suspects and different kinds targeting methods. The typology is robust, successfully clustering both government actors and rebel departments into groups that mirror their known functions. The exercise highlights methods for dealing with high dimensional found conflict data. It also illustrates how aggregating measures of political violence masks a complex underlying empirical data generating process as well as a comple...

  11. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    leg are used to balance sailings speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results......We present a solution method for the liner shipping network design problem which is a core strategic planning problem faced by container carriers. We propose the first practical algorithm which explicitly handles transshipment time limits for all demands. Individual sailing speeds at each service...... are presented showing very promising results for realistic global liner shipping networks. Due to a number of algorithmic enhancements, the obtained solutions can be found within the same time frame as used by previous algorithms not handling time constraints. Furthermore we present a sensitivity analysis...

  12. Ship motion estimation from polarized Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wang-Qiang; Zhang, Min; Nie, Ding; Sun, Rong-Qing

    2016-07-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the Doppler spectra from ship wakes on two-dimensional sea surfaces and further estimate the ship motion characteristics. The analysis of the ship wakes is helpful to detect the existence of ships on sea surface. And it will be an alternative method when the radar cross-section values are not competent to identify the ship target. In the study, Doppler spectra for different polarizations are compared with and without ship's wakes based on the second-order small slope approximation method. As expected, there appears the second spectral peak when ship's wake is considered. Moreover, the ship velocities, wind speed, and direction are also analyzed. As the results shown, there is a good linearity relation between the position of the second Doppler spectral peak and the ship velocity. Therefore, it is feasible to detect ship according the Doppler spectra.

  13. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...... between 0.8-2.8%, which is about the same accuracy as for the measurements. The methods developed are intended to support the performance monitoring system SeaTrend® developed by FORCE Technology (FORCE (2008))....

  14. 75 FR 64390 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Formal safety assessment --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --General cargo ship...

  15. Head-and-face shape variations of U.S. civilian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Shu, Chang; Xi, Pengcheng; BERGMAN, MICHAEL; Joseph, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify head-and-face shape variations of U.S. civilian workers using modern methods of shape analysis. The purpose of this study was based on previously highlighted changes in U.S. civilian worker head-and-face shape over the last few decades – touting the need for new and better fitting respirators – as well as the study's usefulness in designing more effective personal protective equipment (PPE) – specifically in the field of respirator design. The raw s...

  16. An integrated approach to strategic planning in the civilian high-level radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the approach that the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to the task of strategic planning for the civilian high-level radioactive waste management program. It highlights selected planning products and activities that have emerged over the past year. It demonstrates that this approach is an integrated one, both in the sense of being systematic on the program level but also as a component of DOE strategic planning efforts. Lastly, it indicates that OCRWM strategic planning takes place in a dynamic environment and consequently is a process that is still evolving in response to the demands placed upon it

  17. Foreign Interventions and Abuse of Civilians during the Peruvian Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Fielding, David; Shortland, Anja

    2010-01-01

    The international community has a declared intention to protect innocent civilians from direct and deliberate violence in civil conflicts, but its track record of actually doing so is mixed. Using a new monthly time-series data set, we explore the factors associated with variations in the number of civilians killed or wounded by participants in the civil war in Peru during the 1980s and 1990s. We find that an increase in the level of abuse by one side is strongly associated with subsequent in...

  18. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  19. Beyond bathymetry: probing the ocean subsurface using ship-based lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees, Charles C.

    2014-05-01

    This document outlines a `proof-of-concept' for the maritime application of a ship-based LIDAR system for measuring the optical and physical properties in the water column. It is divided up into sections, documenting that there exists today the engineering, modeling and optical expertise to accomplish this task as well as a discussion of the reasons that LIDAR has not become the powerful observational platform that it should have been for horizontally and vertically monitoring optical and physical water column properties. Previous research on this approach has been limited because LIDAR systems have for most cases not been thoroughly calibrated, if at all, nor have LIDARs been focused on above-water, ship-based measurements. Efforts at developing derived product algorithms with uncertainties have been limited. This review concludes that there is a huge potential for the successful application of LIDAR measurements in the marine environment to estimate the vertical distribution of optical and physical properties and that measurement costs can be minimized by deployment of these automated systems on `ships-of-opportunity' and military vessels on a non-interfering basis. Although LIDAR measurements and research have been around since the 1960's, this approach has not really been investigated by any civilian or military agencies or laboratories even though providing `through-sensor performance matrixes' for existing bathymetry, target detection, underwater communication and imaging should be high on their list.

  20. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  1. Effect of Buffer Bow Structure in Ship-Ship Collision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Yasuhira; Endo, Hisayoshi; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2008-01-01

    A disastrous oil spill from a struck oil tanker has become one of the major problems in view of conservation of maritime environment. So far double hulls (D/H) have been introduced to reduce the consequences of collision and grounding events In order to further reduce the oil spill from struck oi......) and the forward velocity of the struck ship on the collapse mode of the bow of the striking vessel are investigated. Collapse modes, contact forces and energy absorption capabilities of the buffer bows are compared with those of conventional bows....

  2. 20 CFR 404.1018a - Work by civilians for the United States Government or its instrumentalities-remuneration paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Government or its instrumentalities-remuneration paid prior to 1984. 404.1018a Section 404.1018a Employees... by civilians for the United States Government or its instrumentalities—remuneration paid prior to 1984. (a) General—remuneration paid prior to 1984. If you worked as a civilian employee of the...

  3. Nuclear safety advisory committee (NSAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 11th Meeting of NSAC of the NNSA was held in China from October 26 to 28, 1995. The main topics of the meeting were to hear and discuss the working report by the Third NSAC and establish the Fourth NSAC, to hear and discuss the report by the NNSA concerning the safety regulation on the nuclear power plants under operation, in-service research reactors, nuclear fuel cycle installation, and nuclear materials control as well as verification of qualification for units engaged in activities of nuclear pressure retaining components. The NSAC convened four SC meetings in 1995. In the meetings, the qualificatory licenses of units engaged in activities of civilian nuclear pressure retaining components, the operational license conditions for the Yibin Nuclear Fuel plant were discussed and comments related to selection of applied standards and review of earthquake and hydrography in the design of nuclear power plants were raised

  4. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5-10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  5. Prediction of ship-ship interactions in ports by a non-hydrostatic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明贵; 邹早建

    2015-01-01

    Complicated channel geometry and currents may aggravate the interactions between passing ships and berthed ships, which should be evaluated and taken into account in a port design. A method for predicting the ship-ship interactions, based on a non-hydrostatic shallow water flow model, is presented in this paper and is validated by comparing the numerical results with experimental data. The method is subsequently applied to predict the interaction forces acting on a berthed ship due to a passing ship in ports. The influences of the difference of the water depths between the dock and the main channel, the dock geometry, the current and another berthed ship in the dock on the ship-ship interactions are studied. Analysis based on the numerical results is carried out, which is useful for the port design.

  6. Mental Health Symptoms among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…

  7. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to Tehran, capital of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Khaji; Shoaodin Fallahdoost; Mohammad Reza Soroush; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran,the capital of Iran,during Iraq-Iran war.Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war.Results: During 52 days,Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile).Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas.During Iraqi missile attacks,422 civilians died and 1579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile).During 52 days,8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily.Of the cases that died,101 persons (24%) were excluded due to the lack of information.Among the remainders,179 (55.8%) were male and 142 (44.2%) were female.The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years.Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded areas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran.The presence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties.Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces,rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile attacks are necessary.

  8. Art Therapy Services to Support Veterans' Transition to Civilian Life: The Studio and the Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia, Jennifer Marie

    2016-01-01

    Beyond having knowledge of the treatment of combat-related trauma, art therapists need to understand veterans' experiences of transition from military to civilian life in order to offer effective interventions. This article reviews the literature on veteran transition and the challenges common to transition difficulty and describes two major…

  9. THE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS AND AMERICAN EDUCATION--THREAT TO LOCAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOWER, CALVIN W.

    THE HISTORY OF THE CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS (CCC) AND ITS CONTROVERSIAL EDUCATION PROGRAM IS REVIEWED. CREATED IN MARCH, 1933, THE CCC PROVIDED WORK FOR UNEMPLOYED YOUTH (18-25). THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RECRUITED THEM, THE DEPARTMENT OF WAR RAN THE CAMPS, AND THE DEPARTMENTS OF INTERIOR AND AGRICULTURE DIRECTED THE CONSERVATION WORK. IN JULY…

  10. Implications of Posttraumatic Stress among Military-Affiliated and Civilian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with problem drinking and alcohol-related consequences, as well as academic correlates among military-affiliated and civilian students. Participants: The final sample (n = 248) included 78 combat-exposed student service members/veterans, 53 non-combat-exposed…

  11. 76 FR 72912 - TRICARE; Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); Fiscal Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Medical Education (IDME) plus a fixed dollar amount. Thus, for FY 2012, in order for a case to qualify for... hospital specific cost to charge ratios. G. Indirect Medical Education (IDME) Adjustment Passage of the MMA... of the Secretary TRICARE; Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services...

  12. MIIT Convened Work Meeting for Upstream and Downstream Cooperation Mechanism of Aluminum Material For Civilian Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    On September 15,2015,the Department of Raw Material Industry and the Department of Equipment Industry of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology(MIIT)jointly organized and convened the first work meeting for upstream and downstream cooperation mechanism of aluminum material for civilian aircraft in Shanghai.Entrusted by Vice

  13. Ship Collision Avoidance by Distributed Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Gyun Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of world trade is transported by sea. The size and speed of ships is rapidly increasing in order to boost economic efficiency. If ships collide, the damage and cost can be astronomical. It is very difficult for officers to ascertain routes that will avoid collisions, especially when multiple ships travel the same waters. There are several ways to prevent ship collisions, such as lookouts, radar, and VHF radio. More advanced methodologies, such as ship domain, fuzzy theory, and genetic algorithm, have been proposed. These methods work well in one-on-one situations, but are more difficult to apply in multiple-ship situations. Therefore, we proposed the Distributed Local Search Algorithm (DLSA to avoid ship collisions as a precedent study. DLSA is a distributed algorithm in which multiple ships communicate with each other within a certain area. DLSA computes collision risk based on the information received from neighboring ships. However, DLSA suffers from Quasi-Local Minimum (QLM, which prevents a ship from changing course even when a collision risk arises. In our study, we developed the Distributed Tabu Search Algorithm (DTSA. DTSA uses a tabu list to escape from QLM that also exploits a modified cost function and enlarged domain of next-intended courses to increase its efficiency. We conducted experiments to compare the performance of DLSA and DTSA. The results showed that DTSA outperformed DLSA.

  14. Design of Crashworthy Ship Strucures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toernqvist, Rikard

    2003-01-01

    of the structural design. For a tanker vessel or other vessels carrying hazardous cargo, damage is not acceptable if it results in cargo outflow with disastrous consequences to the environment. Likewise, the foundering of a passenger vessel can be disastrous with loss of many human lives. A major challenge......The main purpose of the project has been to develop a rational procedure for designing new crashworthy side structures for those ship types where it could be expected that a substantial improvement of the crashworthiness and the related safety could be achieved by careful consideration...

  15. The perils of proliferation: Organization theory, deterrence theory, and the spread of nuclear weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, S.D. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    What is missing in the literature on nuclear proliferation is an alternative theory of the consequences of nuclear proliferation; the effects of nuclear weapons on the likelihood of war. This article presents such an alternative, rooted in organizational theory, which leads to a more pessimistic assessment of the future prospects for peace. Professional military organizations display strong proclivities toward organizational behaviors that lead to deterrence failures. Such organizational proclivities can be effectively countered only by tight and sustained civilian control of the military. There are strong reasons to believe that future nuclear-armed states will lack such positive mechanisms of civilian control.

  16. Ship emissions and air pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam; Winther, Morten; Ellermann, Thomas;

    A project has been carried out to map the contribution from ship traffic to air pollution in Denmark. A main element in the project is the establishment of a new, improved inventory of ship emissions for the waters around Denmark. The inventory makes use of the so-called AIS system, which...... continuously keeps track of ship positions. The inventory provides basis for model calculations of air quality in Denmark for the years 2007, 2011 and 2020. The study has focus on identifying the contribution from ships, and on assessing the effect of international regulations of ship pollution. A minor...... component of the study concerns the contribution to local air pollution from ships at port....

  17. Ice Nucleation from Ship Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E. S.; Weber, D.; Tuomi, J.; Pettersson, J.; Bingemer, H. G.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric ice particles play a significant role in many atmospheric processes and are central to the role of clouds in determining the global radiative balance. Atmospheric ice originates when Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) lower the free energy barrier to phase transformation. The Earth's polar regions are well isolated from the middle and lower latitudes and thus have limited access to INP, and therefore small changes in terms of regional sources or large scale transport of particulate may have significant impacts on polar ice cloud formation. Here we describe field measurements of INP collected in the Port of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. The port is the largest Scandinavian seaport and thus has heavy and diverse ocean vessel traffic. Unique to this study was the ability to isolate the INP contribution directly from the ship traffic by utilizing a sampling method that nearly simultaneously captured transiting ship plumes and the background aerosol. A small but potentially significant increase in IN from marine vessels was observed over two consecutive years. The results have implications for Arctic and global climate in the context of growing global commerce and trans-polar transport.

  18. Diagnosis of Dry Bulk Shipping Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wendy Wu

    2009-01-01

    @@ A sudden severe winter for dry bulk shipping market Since the second half of last year,dry bulk shipping market experienced a sudden and dramatical change which caught everyone off guard in just a few months'time.As the wind vane of dry bulk shipping market,BDI index(Baltic index)has been climbing higher and higher from the middle of 2005.It began to nearly shoot up into the 2007.

  19. Physical protection of nuclear material in the nuclear powered icebreaker fleet in Murmansk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of eight nuclear powered ships, owned by the Russian Ministry of Transportation (MINTRAN) and operated by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo), constitute the Russian nuclear icebreaker fleet, supporting the northern Arctic shipping routes. The ships are five seagoing icebreakers, two river icebreakers and one freighter. The reactors in the vessels are based on the same design as reactors in submarines, using highly enriched uranium fuel. The present security standards for the fuel are not satisfactory. Given the lack of permanent on-shore storage facilities, fresh and spent fuel is stored on two ships lying at the dockside together with the icebreaker fleet at the 'RTP Atomflot', a harbour approximately two kilometers north of the centre of Murmansk. While the fresh highly enriched uranium fuel poses a serious proliferation risk, the spent fuel mainly represents a potential pollution risk. Upgrading of the physical protection at the MSCo will bring all nuclear material under high level security in the next few years. Key targets for physical protection are the port area, the storage ships 'Imandra' and 'Lotta' because of the nuclear material contained on these ships, and the improved physical protection of the reactor sections on the icebreakers. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate have agreed with Gosatomnadzor of Russia and the MSCo to support the Company to further improve the physical protection system on the ships in the Atomic Fleet, as well as the system of accountancy and control of their nuclear fuel. (author)

  20. Convolution neural networks for ship type recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Katie; Reeder, John D.; Corelli, Alexander G.

    2016-05-01

    Algorithms to automatically recognize ship type from satellite imagery are desired for numerous maritime applications. This task is difficult, and example imagery accurately labeled with ship type is hard to obtain. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown promise in image recognition settings, but many of these applications rely on the availability of thousands of example images for training. This work attempts to under- stand for which types of ship recognition tasks CNNs might be well suited. We report the results of baseline experiments applying a CNN to several ship type classification tasks, and discuss many of the considerations that must be made in approaching this problem.

  1. The Mersey Barrage - the impact on shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the main findings of the shipping and navigation studies carried out in 1990/1991 to assess the impact on shipping of the proposed barrage on the Mersey estuary in the United Kingdom. Shipping in the estuary has been studied using a traffic model and shiphandling simulations to identify any additional shipping related costs as a result of constructing the barrage and to demonstrate the adequacy of the facilities proposed. Consideration has also been given to the effect of the barrage on pilotage, towage, dredging and vessel traffic services and a risk assessment has been carried out. (author)

  2. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  3. Potential of biofuels for shipping. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentinus, A.; Hamelinck, C.; Van den Bos, A.; Winkel, R.; Cuijpers, M. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Biofuels could be one of the options to realize a lower carbon intensity in the propulsion of ships and also possibly reduce the effect of ship emissions on local air quality. Therefore, EMSA, the European Maritime Safety Agency, is evaluating if and how biofuels could be used in the shipping sector as an alternative fuel. To determine the potential of biofuels for ships, a clearer picture is needed on technical and organizational limitations of biofuels in ships, both on board of the ship as in the fuel supply chain to the ship. Economic and sustainability analysis of biofuels should be included in this picture, as well as an overview on current and potential policy measures to stimulate the use of biofuels in shipping. Ecofys has determined the potential of biofuels, based on analysis of collected data through literature review, own expertise and experiences, direct communication with EMSA, research publications, market developments based on press and other media, and consultations with relevant stakeholders in the shipping market.

  4. COMPARISON BETWEEN FORMULAS OF MAXIMUM SHIP SQUAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRU SERGIU SERBAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ship squat is a combined effect of ship’s draft and trim increase due to ship motion in limited navigation conditions. Over time, researchers conducted tests on models and ships to find a mathematical formula that can define squat. Various forms of calculating squat can be found in the literature. Among those most commonly used are of Barrass, Millward, Eryuzlu or ICORELS. This paper presents a comparison between the squat formulas to see the differences between them and which one provides the most satisfactory results. In this respect a cargo ship at different speeds was considered as a model for maximum squat calculations in canal navigation conditions.

  5. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and...

  6. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  7. Global nuclear material control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of a disposition program for special nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool that treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. Such a tool must represent the fundamental data, information, and capabilities of the fuel cycle including an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, and a framework supportive of national or international perspective. They have developed a prototype global nuclear material management and control systems analysis capability, the Global Nuclear Material Control (GNMC) model. The GNMC model establishes the framework for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material

  8. The role of ship and mortgage registration in shipping finance: : the prospects for the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to provide an analysis of the current issues and conditions affecting shipping finance in Russia based on the development of the systems of ship and mortgage registration. Particular economic reasons describing the situation on the shipping markets lie outside the scope of this thesis. However, a general overview of the situation of the shipping markets and results achieved by the leading banks will be provided in the first chapter. The reason is to demonst...

  9. The End of National Shipping Policy? A Historical Perspective on Shipping Policy in a Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnar K Sletmo

    2001-01-01

    National shipping policy has a long history and is firmly engraved in the economic and political psyche of many nations. This paper, which is centred on history rather than the future, asks whether globalisation implies the end of national shipping policy. While deregulation of world shipping started long before globalisation became a recognised force in trade and trade policies, globalisation will inevitably reinforce liberal trends in shipping. However, there are still many who argue that s...

  10. Payment charges for federal interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from civilian nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the study conducted by the Department of Energy (the Department) regarding payment charges for the federal interim storage (FIS) of spent fuel and presents the study results. It describes the methodology proposed for calculating the FIS fee schedule, provides a range of estimates for the fee, and describes a proposed method of payment. The fee is structured for a range of spent fuel capacities because of uncertainties regarding the schedule of availability and amount of spent fuel that may require and qualify for FIS. The Department is currently determining how best to provide FIS for commercial spent fuel, and it expects to publish in the Federal Register a fee schedule to be effective on or before January 1, 1984. An additional report to Congress describing specific plans for deploying FIS facilities will be provided by January 7, 1984, in accordance with the requirements of the Act. 3 references, 3 tables

  11. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  12. Nuclear fleet: Today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many years of operational experience have shown advantages of nuclear liner icebreakers over those burning fossil fuels primarily in ensuring reliable and stable shipping along the North Sea Route with an extended navigation season being realized. The advantages of the nuclear fleet are described

  13. 48 CFR 1371.118 - Changes-ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Changes-ship repair. 1371... SUPPLEMENTAL REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.118 Changes—ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-87, Changes—Ship Repair, in all solicitations...

  14. 46 CFR 91.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 91.60-45 Section 91.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS....60-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  15. 46 CFR 189.60-45 - American Bureau of Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false American Bureau of Shipping. 189.60-45 Section 189.60-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION...-45 American Bureau of Shipping. (a) The American Bureau of Shipping, with its home office at...

  16. 46 CFR 151.45-7 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 151.45-7 Section 151.45-7 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-7 Shipping papers. Each barge carrying... towing vessel shall either have a copy of the shipping papers for each barge in his tow or he shall...

  17. 46 CFR 148.02-1 - Shipping papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping papers. 148.02-1 Section 148.02-1 Shipping... MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-1 Shipping papers. (a) Carriers may not accept for..., unless the hazardous materials offered for such shipment is accompanied by a shipping paper on which...

  18. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel sec

  19. A Survey on the Ship Loading Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iris, Cagatay; Pacino, Dario

    2015-01-01

    on externalities. One of those is the ship loading process. Based on the stowage plan received by liner shippers, terminal operators plan the execution of load and discharge operations. In this paper we present a literature review for the Ship Loading Problem, where stowage and loading sequencing and scheduling...

  20. 19 CFR 4.69 - Shipping articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....S.C. chapter 103, in the form provided for in 46 CFR 14.05-1. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipping articles. 4.69 Section 4.69 Customs... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.69 Shipping articles. No vessel of the...

  1. 31 CFR 361.3 - Shipping procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping procedure. 361.3 Section 361.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... § 361.3 Shipping procedure. Shipments of valuables shall be made so as to provide the greatest...

  2. 48 CFR 8.708 - Shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shipping. 8.708 Section 8.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.708 Shipping. (a) Delivery is accomplished when a shipment is placed...

  3. Air pollution from ships over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Eleni Sotiropoulou, Rafaella; Tagaris, Efthimios

    2016-04-01

    Shipping sector is a large and growing source of emissions. Large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) are emitted from ships affecting the chemical composition of the atmosphere in coastal areas. Changes of the world fleet over the past decades suggest a continuously increasing trend of the shipping emissions. Therefore, shipping emissions may partly offset the benefits from the reduction of anthropogenic emissions over land. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of shipping emissions on air quality degradation over Europe for a winter (January 2006) and a summer month (July 2006) using CMAQ modeling system and the TNO anthropogenic emission inventory for 2006. Results suggest that shipping emissions increase NO2 and SO2 mixing ratios more than 90% over the sea and close to the coastline, locally. Ship induced ozone contribution to total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline during the summer month. The largest impact is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. Ship traffic emissions are estimated to increase PM2.5 concentration during winter up to 40% over the Mediterranean Sea while during summer an increase more than 50% is simulated over the sea.

  4. Dynamic recognition from ship-radiated noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xungao; FENG Xinxin; GE Yi

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of envelope spectrum analysis of ship-radiated noise, the features and the extracting methods are discussed, and then a new method of dynamic recognition has been proposed. Using this method, accurate recognition rate for different types of ship targets can be effectively improved, and some of the important parameters of target's movement can be obtained at the same time.

  5. Another Version of the Shipping Agency Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiangShaoyun

    2004-01-01

    BEIJING—On January 7, Penavico Shanghai held in Beijing an agreement signing ceremony with Wallem Shipping (HK) Co., Ltd of the Wallem (Group) Corporation for the joint establishment of a joint venture corporation named Pen-Wallem Shipping Co., Ltd.This is the first sino-foreign joint venture corporation

  6. Optimizing Liner Shipping Fleet Repositioning Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tierney, Kevin

    With the incredible growth of containerization over the past half century, shipping lines and ports are facing increasing challenges in ensuring that containers arrive at their destinations on time and on budget. This dissertation addresses several critical problems to the operations of shipping ...

  7. Science Ⅲ marine research ship delivered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 18, China's most advanced marine research ship Science Ⅲ was commissioned into operation at Qingdao and became an official member of China's marine research fleet. Designed and built by CSIC, the ship was delivered at Shanghai to the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. The mechanics of ship impacts against bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    a glancing blow between the ship and the bridge structure. This model is based on rigid body mechanics and well suited for inclusion in a probabilistic analysis procedure. Finally, some empirical expressions are presented which relate the energy absorbed by crushing of ship structures to the maximum impact...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.162 - Ship's boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ship's boilers. (a) Before work is performed in the fire, steam, or water spaces of a boiler where employees may be subject to injury from the direct escape of a high temperature medium such as steam, or... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's boilers. 1915.162 Section 1915.162 Labor...

  10. Ship detection with Envisat's alternating polarization mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.J.E.; Chesworth, J.; Greidanus, H.

    2005-01-01

    A ship detection algorithm is developed that uses Envisat ASAR imagery in alternating polarisation mode. From airborne data it is shown that of the two co-polarisations, HH is preferred over VV because of a larger ship-to-clutter ratio. Combining the HH and HV images of alternating polarisation mode

  11. The nuclear sector in India: a world apart?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article comments some basic data regarding electricity production in India, recalls the history and context of the development of the civilian nuclear sector (international context, technological choices), evokes the various Indian institutions involved in the nuclear sector, comments the fact that India did not sign the NPT and the evolutions associated with cooperation agreements with France, with the United States and with Russia in 2008 and 2009. A map indicates the locations of Indian nuclear organisations and installations

  12. Practice Makes Perfect?: The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avery Plaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available U.S. officials have recently claimed that the CIA has sharply reduced the number of civilian casualties resulting from covert Predator and Reaper drone strikes in the Taliban-controlled agencies of Northwest Pakistan. Critics, especially in Pakistan, along with human rights NGOs have, however, questioned these claims. This article examines independent databases tracking the drone strikes and finds that there is significant support for the U.S. officials’ claims, or at least for their more moderate assertions. It also briefly reviews the explanations that have been offered for the declining civilian death toll from drone strikes. It shows that there is reason to believe that this development is the deliberate result of adjustments to CIA targeting procedures and improvements in spy networks and technology, and thus is likely to prove broadly sustainable at least for the immediate future.

  13. Civilian Power Program. Part 1, Summary, Current status of reactor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Author, Not Given

    1959-09-01

    This study group covered the following: delineation of the specific objectives of the overall US AEC civilian power reactor program, technical objectives of each reactor concept, preparation of a chronological development program for each reactor concept, evaluation of the economic potential of each reactor type, a program to encourage the the development, and yardsticks for measuring the development. Results were used for policy review by AEC, program direction, authorization and appropriation requests, etc. This evaluation encompassed civilian power reactors rated at 25 MW(e) or larger and related experimental facilities and R&D. This Part I summarizes the significant results of the comprehensive effort to determine the current technical and economic status for each reactor concept; it is based on the 8 individual technical status reports (Part III).

  14. The use of civilian-type GPS receivers by the military and their vulnerability to jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Combrinck

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We considered the impact of external influences on a GPS receiver and how these influences affect the capabilities of civilian-type GPS receivers. A standard commercial radio frequency signal generator and passive GPS antenna were used to test the sensitivity of GPS to intentional jamming; the possible effects of the terrain on the propagation of the jamming signal were also tested. It was found that the high sensitivity of GPS receivers and the low strength level of GPS satellite signals combine to make GPS receivers very vulnerable to intentional jamming or unintentional radio frequency interference. Terrain undulation was used to shield GPS antennas from the direct line-of-sight of the jamming antenna and this indicated that terrain characteristics can be used to mitigate the effects of jamming. These results illuminate the vulnerability of civilian-type GPS receivers to the possibility and the ease of disablement and establish the foundation for future work.

  15. Feasibility of Burning Civilian Grade Pu in the Modular HTR with Th Fuel Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许云林; 经荥清

    2001-01-01

    The Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTR) can be usedto burn plutonium fuel to reduce Pu stockpiles because of its inherent safety characteristics and ability to burn a variety of fuel mixtures. The equilibrium core is calculated and analyzed for Pu enriched fuel. Fuel spheres with 7 g heavy metal including the civilian grade Pu and thorium are loaded into the reactor. An enrichment of 11% is chosen to provide the desired equilibrium core reactivity. The fuel and moderator temperature coefficients are both negative. The maximum fuel element temperature during normal operation and during a loss of coolant accident is less than 1500 ℃. 92% of 239Pu will be burnt during nomal operation. Therefore, a thorium fuel cycle in the modular HTR is an effective method for burning civilian grade plutonium.

  16. 75 FR 45167 - Notice of Public Workshop on a Potential Rulemaking for Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... civilian nuclear power globally and close the nuclear fuel cycle through reprocessing spent fuel and... Requirements for the Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level Radioactive Waste, and Reactor... regulations in 10 CFR Part 171, ``Annual Fees for Reactor Licenses and Fuel Cycle Licenses and......

  17. Control mechanisms for Nordic ship emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, K. [DNV, Oslo (Norway); Torvanger, A. [Cicero, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    Shipping today operates under a complex set of international and domestic regulations. However, the environmental regulations have lagged behind those of other industries. This situation is now changing quite dramatically. The increased focus on environmental issues, combined with the growing realisation of the actual pollution burden imposed by shipping, has led to an upsurge in both international and national regulations. Some are ready and will enter into force in the near future, while others are still being developed. On behalf of the Nordic Council of Ministers DNV has carried out a study on possible control mechanisms for Nordic ship emission. The aim is to assess the baseline shipping emissions and reduction potential and the possible controlling mechanisms (both incentives and regulations) available for reducing the emissions to air from shipping within the Nordic region. (Author)

  18. 1989 OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] Bulletin compilation and index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-01

    The OCRWM Bulletin is published by the Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1989 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information contained in this year`s Bulletins. The pages have been numbered consecutively at the bottom for easy reference. 7 figs.

  19. OCRWM annual report to Congress FY 1999 [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    During Fiscal Year 1999, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) continued to make significant progress in its characterization of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate geologic repository site. Although OCRWM's appropriation for Fiscal Year 1999 was lower than requested, the Program accomplished all three success measures in the Secretary's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Agreement with the President and completed important work in many other areas. This Annual Report reviews this work and looks toward future activities.

  20. Practice Makes Perfect?: The Changing Civilian Toll of CIA Drone Strikes in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Avery Plaw; Matthew S. Fricker; Brian Glyn Williams

    2011-01-01

    U.S. officials have recently claimed that the CIA has sharply reduced the number of civilian casualties resulting from covert Predator and Reaper drone strikes in the Taliban-controlled agencies of Northwest Pakistan. Critics, especially in Pakistan, along with human rights NGOs have, however, questioned these claims. This article examines independent databases tracking the drone strikes and finds that there is significant support for the U.S. officials’ claims, or at least for their mo...

  1. A Legal Approach to Civilian Use of Drones in Europe. Privacy and Personal Data Protection Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Pauner Chulvi, Cristina; Viguri Cordero, Jorge Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Drones are a growth industry evolving quickly from military to civilian uses however, they have the potential to pose a serious risk to security, privacy and data protection. After a first stage focused on safety issues, Europe is facing the challenge to develop a regulatory framework for drones integration into the airspace system while safeguarding the guarantees of fundamental rights and civil liberties. This paper analyses the potential privacy and data protection risks ...

  2. OCRWM annual report to Congress FY 1999 [USDOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Fiscal Year 1999, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) continued to make significant progress in its characterization of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate geologic repository site. Although OCRWM's appropriation for Fiscal Year 1999 was lower than requested, the Program accomplished all three success measures in the Secretary's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Agreement with the President and completed important work in many other areas. This Annual Report reviews this work and looks toward future activities

  3. 1989 OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] Bulletin compilation and index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OCRWM Bulletin is published by the Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1989 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information contained in this year's Bulletins. The pages have been numbered consecutively at the bottom for easy reference. 7 figs

  4. Social factors impacting recruitment and retention of the civilian acquisition workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Krost, Neill G.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis looks at the recruitment and retention challenge facing the DoD's civilian acquisition workforce in light of the demographic gap caused by years of downsizing. It provides a qualitative assessment of the adequacy of existing recruitment and retention tools in light of the generational differences between current policy makers (Baby Boomers) and needed younger employees (Generation-X). Key generational characteristics are compared and assessed in relation to workforce recruitment a...

  5. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package-railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1983-10-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Cask Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations. 1 reference, 18 figures.

  6. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems during coupling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, S.R.

    1981-12-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Casks Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations.

  7. Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. TRU curium shipping container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranium (TRU) Curium Shipping Container was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing offsite shipment of packages containing radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the container complies with the applicable regulations

  8. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  9. 76 FR 51980 - Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc. v. Di Nos Shipping, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and...) by Atlantic Shipping Company, Inc., hereinafter ``Complainant,'' against DI Nos Shipping, Inc... Respondent is in violation of the Shipping Act of 1984, 46 U.S.C. 40901 and 40902, by operating as a...

  10. No to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Beazley has again stated a Labor Government would not pursue nuclear power because the economics 'simply don't stack up'. 'We have significant gas, coal and renewable energy reserves and do not have a solution for the disposal of low-level nuclear waste, let alone waste from nuclear power stations.' The Opposition Leader said developing nuclear power now would have ramifications for Australia's security. 'Such a move could result in our regional neighbours fearing we will use it militarily.' Instead, Labor would focus on the practical measures that 'deliver economic and environmental stability while protecting our national security'. Mr Beazley's comments on nuclear power came in the same week as Prime Minister John Howard declined the request of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for uranium exports, although seemingly not ruling out a policy change at some stage. The Prime Ministers held talks in New Delhi over whether Australia would sell uranium to India without it signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. An agreement reached during a visit by US President George W. Bush gives India access to long-denied nuclear technology and guaranteed fuel in exchange for allowing international inspection of some civilian nuclear facilities. Copyright (2006) Crown Content Pty Ltd

  11. The Trumpeter, Company 424 Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Redington in Swan Quarter, North Carolina; October Issue, Volume 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a historic monthly report of Camp Redington Civilian Conservation Corps located in Swan Quarter, North Carolina. It describes the progress and...

  12. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  13. 77 FR 57638 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures; Formal safety assessment; Piracy and armed robbery against ships; Implementation...

  14. 76 FR 19176 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct two... safety --Piracy and armed robbery against ships --Implementation of instruments and related...

  15. 78 FR 29201 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... new measures Formal safety assessment Piracy and armed robbery against ships Implementation...

  16. 46 CFR 167.05-25 - Nautical school ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SHIPS Definitions § 167.05-25 Nautical school ship. The term nautical school ship means a vessel operated by or in connection with a nautical school or an educational institution under Section 13 of...

  17. 75 FR 39089 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING CODE 4710-09-P...

  18. 77 FR 16316 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: March 9, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  19. 75 FR 3272 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . ] Dated: January 12, 2009. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  20. 75 FR 54415 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct four...: August 30, 2010. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department...

  1. 77 FR 57637 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of administrative requirements in mandatory...

  2. 78 FR 58596 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... session of the Assembly --Protection of vital shipping lanes --Periodic review of...

  3. 77 FR 70525 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  4. 76 FR 70529 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will...: November 7, 2011. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  5. 75 FR 65551 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Subcommittee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct.... Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State....

  6. 75 FR 10546 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . ] Dated: March 2, 2010. Jon Trent Warner, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee,...

  7. 78 FR 45592 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2013. Marc Zlomek, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State....

  8. 77 FR 28923 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an..., 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of...

  9. 77 FR 27832 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... Governing Board --Protection of vital shipping lanes --External relations: --Relations with the...

  10. 76 FR 82026 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct an... . Dated: December 22, 2011. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  11. 77 FR 47490 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will conduct open.... Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating Committee, Department of State. BILLING...

  12. 77 FR 64576 - Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Shipping Coordinating Committee; Notice of Committee Meeting The Shipping Coordinating Committee (SHC) will... . Dated: October 15, 2012. Brian Robinson, Executive Secretary, Shipping Coordinating...

  13. The Problems of Reducing Exhaust Gas Emissions from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Panasiuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the environmental impact of shipping and air pollution caused by ships. The paper presents the development of regulations on air pollution caused by ships and describes the efficiency of methods for reducing emissions.

  14. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  15. MASTER OF THE SHIP, MANAGER AND INSTRUCTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin IORDANOAIA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The master of the ship is the person on the board who has the qualification and the necessary certificate of competency for running a maritime transport ship. He is the one who takes the ship into administration from the ship-owner, he is the only leader, the legal and direct chief of the entire crew, being invested with authority upon all the members of the crew. The master fulfils the attributes and displays his activity according to the legal laws of his flag, of the marine regulations and of the international conventions. In all the relationships which he establishes with physical or juridical people, the master represents the ship-owner, in a double condition, as an officer and as a commercial manager. In this paper, it is analysed the situation of the ship masters, the relationships which these masters have with the crew and the problems which appear during their voyage. At the end of the paper there are proposed measures to increase the quality of the training of the ship masters, to solve the situations connected with the members of the crew.

  16. Satellite measurements of formaldehyde from shipping emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marbach

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available International shipping is recognized as a pollution source of growing importance, in particular in the remote marine boundary layer. Nitrogen dioxide originating from ship emissions has previously been detected in satellite measurements. This study presents the first satellite measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO linked to shipping emissions as derived from observations made by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME instrument.

    We analyzed enhanced HCHO tropospheric columns from shipping emissions over the Indian Ocean between Sri Lanka and Sumatra. This region offers good conditions in term of plume detection with the GOME instrument as all ship tracks follow a single narrow track in the same east-west direction as used for the GOME pixel scanning. The HCHO signal alone is weak but could be clearly seen in the high-pass filtered data. The line of enhanced HCHO in the Indian Ocean as seen in the 7-year composite of cloud free GOME observations clearly coincides with the distinct ship track corridor from Sri Lanka to Indonesia. The observed mean HCHO column enhancement over this shipping route is about 2.0×1015 molec/cm2.

    The observed HCHO pattern also agrees qualitatively well with results from the coupled earth system model ECHAM5/MESSy applied to atmospheric chemistry (EMAC. However, the modelled HCHO values over the ship corridor are two times lower than in the GOME high-pass filtered data. This might indicate that the used emission inventories are too low and/or that the in-plume chemistry taking place in the narrow path of the shipping lanes are not well represented at the rather coarse model resolution.

  17. Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?

    CERN Document Server

    Rabaud, Marc

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as $U^{-1}$ at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of $19.47\\degree$ independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number $Fr = U/\\sqrt{gL} \\simeq 0.5$, where $L$ is the hull ship length.

  18. Insight of The New Shipping Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    @@ Last year,the financial crisis sourced in USA caused shipping market to decline.All at once,global economy's environment,industrial structure,capital value and supply chain structure changed greatly,marking the beginning of world economic fission.Great fission brings chances of great consolidation.Just one year after the financial crisis broke out,shipping industry participants are standing at the point of consolidation,considering a light,strong,clear strategy for this new shipping and trade industrial trend.

  19. Ship wakes: Kelvin or Mach angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaud, Marc; Moisy, Frédéric

    2013-05-24

    From the analysis of a set of airborne images of ship wakes, we show that the wake angles decrease as U(-1) at large velocities, in a way similar to the Mach cone for supersonic airplanes. This previously unnoticed Mach-like regime is in contradiction with the celebrated Kelvin prediction of a constant angle of 19.47° independent of the ship's speed. We propose here a model, confirmed by numerical simulations, in which the finite size of the disturbance explains this transition between the Kelvin and Mach regimes at a Froude number Fr=U/√[gL]~/=0.5, where L is the hull ship length. PMID:23745883

  20. Ship motion pattern directed VTOL letdown guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.; Paulk, C. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines ship motion pattern directed letdown guidance strategies for landing a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off-line computer simulation of the shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. A sum of seventy sinusoids representation is used to model the ship motion time histories. The touchdown performance of a nonimal constant-rate-of-descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes.