WorldWideScience

Sample records for civil rights

  1. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  2. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1968, the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) has collected data on key education and civil rights issues in our nation's public schools for use by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), other Department offices, other federal agencies, and by policymakers and researchers outside of the Department. The CRDC has…

  3. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.), and the NASA implementing regulations (14 CFR parts 1250... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  5. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination...

  6. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  7. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  8. PRIORITY RIGHTS IN THE RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Shaidurov I. V.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we consider the category of priority rights in the Russian civil law. The author gives a brief historical analysis of this important institution of civil law, consistently considering priority rights in different legal situations and formulates the concept of priority rights

  9. 38 CFR 21.7310 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... Rights Act of 1964; (2) Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, as amended; (3) Section...

  10. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rights. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies and recipient agencies shall comply with the Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21...

  11. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  12. The American South: From Civil Rights Struggle to Civil Rights Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorit Wagner

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the American South has become the platform for an authenticity seeking tourism industry. Former sites of civil rights action have been revived and transformed into tourist attractions. The following paper introduces the notion of so-called civil rights tourism and presents a critical analysis of current sites of civil rights commemoration throughout the American South.

  13. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... benefits and on equal employment opportunity including 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b; and 45 CFR part 90, as... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will...

  14. 7 CFR 1735.15 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations...

  15. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Health and Human Services with the approval of the President (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to...

  16. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such form as may be required by the Director. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply...

  17. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Department of Justice Non-Discrimination regulations 28 CFR part 42, subparts C, D, E, and G. ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that...

  18. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... thereunder, 43 CFR part 17. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative...

  19. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 42, subparts C, D, E, and G. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on...

  20. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1901, subpart E. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer...

  1. Rhetorical Alliances in the Civil Rights Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Molefi Kete

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the rhetorical mode of the civil rights movement and gives some attention to the problematic convergence of white and Black progressive writers. Focuses on two recurring metaphors used to describe the condition of Blacks: invisibility and Black Power. (KH)

  2. Protection of civil rights and technological development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  4. 32 CFR 935.21 - Civil rights, powers, and duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.21 Civil rights, powers, and duties. In any case in... the laws of the United States or this part, the civil rights, powers, and duties as they obtain under... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights, powers, and duties. 935.21...

  5. Civil Rights in the Third Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffler, Alvin

    1982-01-01

    Current political and legal institutions must be restructured to accommodate the new, higher levels of social diversity brought about by technological progress. Those who are committed to civil rights should recognize the need to tolerate and even encourage diversity, instead of attempting to recreate the homogeneity of yesterday's mass society.…

  6. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 20-15:320-15, “Equal Employment Opportunity in Construction Financed with RUS Loans”; 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b and 45 CFR part 90. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17...

  7. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resize A A A Print Share Office for Civil Rights (OCR) I would like info on. . . Contact ... enter your contact information below. Email Office for Civil Rights Headquarters U.S. Department of Health & Human Services ...

  8. 40 CFR 35.925-9 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 35.925-9 Section 35.925-9... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-9 Civil rights. That if the... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and part 7 of this chapter have been met....

  9. The Covenant on civil and political rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulona HAXHIRAJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The civil and political rights as protected under the Covenant from the core of human rights protection on the international plane. This paper seeks to demonstrate how this goal may be archieved. The genesis of the Covenant will be discussed in the context of the evolution of human rights law. Starting from the normative framework and its development after the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the scope of the Covenant rights as well as the duties of the State parties will be discussed. The monitoring role of th Human Rights Committee as major element in the implementation process will be closely examined. The paper will be focused on the status of the State parties and the Status of the Covenant in domestic law. Also will specifically focus on the State reporting system and the individual complaint procedure be carefully selected case studies. In conclusion, will be discussed the legal consequences of violations of rights protected by the Covenant.

  10. Bush Has Own View of Promoting Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's own view of promoting civil rights. Mr. Bush has sought to redefine the discussion of civil rights in education. Instead of focusing on racial integration in public schools, for instance, the president has emphasized the achievement gap between minority and white students. He has spoken of school choice as a…

  11. Teaching Students about Civil Rights Using Print Material and Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmer, Denise

    2007-01-01

    The author describes teaching eighth-grade students about the civil rights movement. Teachers used photographs of students in the 1950s as a central theme of their unit about the U.S. civil rights movement. Using these photographs as a learning tool inspired the students to be engaged in history. At the end of the unit, students were able to…

  12. 7 CFR 2.25 - Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Justice on matters relating to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d), title IX of the..., and 15d of this title, except in those cases where the Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights has... substantial minority group enrollment in Departmental programs and activities. (17) Related to...

  13. 7 CFR 2.300 - Director, Office of Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Justice on matters relating to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d), Title IX of the..., and 15d of this title, except in those cases where the Director, Office of Civil Rights, has... substantial minority group enrollment in Departmental programs and activities. (17) Related to...

  14. 7 CFR 247.37 - Civil rights requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... against should file a discrimination complaint with the USDA Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20250-9410, or telephone (202) 720-5964....

  15. Civil rights and civil responsibilities. How The Unionist Party perceived and responded to the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland 1968-1972

    OpenAIRE

    Klepaker, Eirik Søreide

    2010-01-01

    This thesis contains a analys of the Unionist Party's preception and respons to the Northern Irish civil rights movement. The thesis sets out to explore how the civil rights movement influenced the events leading up to the supension of the Stormont parliament in 1972. The time period streches from October 1968 to March 1972.

  16. Civil Affairs Authorities Bent on Protecting People s Basic Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In response to the global financial crisis,China's civil affairs au-thorities redoubled their effort in 2009 to improve the livelihood of the Chinese people and protect their basic rights and interests under the constitutional principle of respectingand protecting human rights.

  17. Civil Rights for Trafficked Persons: Recommendations for a More Effective Federal Civil Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Lack

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its status as the first comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation to be enacted in the United States, the TVPA fails to sufficiently address human trafficking concerns. It is suggested that the failure of the TVPA is a result of both the prosecutorial focus of the legislation, a focus which tends to overlook victims’ civil rights, and the contingency of TVPA benefits upon adherence to the prosecutorial process. In response to the shortcomings of the TVPA, the legislation was amended by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (TVPRA to provide a civil remedy for trafficking victims. The civil remedy confers on trafficking victims the private right to vindicate their civil rights and hold their traffickers directly accountable for their exploitative acts. By directly compensating victims, the civil remedy acts as a financial deterrent against traffickers and provides a private enforcement anti-trafficking policy. In pursuing the civil remedy, trafficking victims possess several advantages over the prosecutorial process of the TVPA and other civil causes of action. However, despite its advantages, the civil remedy is infrequently utilized thus frustrating congressional intent that victims advance antitrafficking policy by enforcing a civil remedy against their traffickers.

  18. 75 FR 38824 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... of the Privacy Act because it is a law enforcement system. However, CRCL, component civil rights and... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL--029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Records System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. 75 FR 39266 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... of the Privacy Act because it ] is a law enforcement system. However, CRCL, component civil rights... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/ALL-029 Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Records System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice of...

  20. Cloture Motion to Cease Debate on 1964 Civil Rights Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the practice of the filibuster, using as the featured document the signed cloture motion in the Senate for an end to the filibuster to block the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The accompanying teaching activities enable teachers to introduce their classes to the history and practice of the filibuster. (Contains 1…

  1. Bringing Civil Rights Figures to the "Peace Table"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Mary; Field, Sherry L.; Baumi, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In a fifth grade classroom at The University of Texas Elementary School (UTES), a unit on the Constitution sets the stage for a year of integrated learning. The very next unit of study focuses on the civil rights movement. Teaching UTES students, who come from diverse backgrounds, means exposing them to many points of view so that they may form…

  2. Equity Overlooked: Charter Schools and Civil Rights Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    The Civil Rights Project (CRP) is in the midst of an analysis of rapidly growing charter school enrollment, which the authors anticipate releasing next month. Similar to trends described in their 2003 report and in other research on racial isolation in charter schools, they find higher levels of segregation for black students in charter schools…

  3. Alexander v. Sandoval:A Setback for Civil Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article confronts the serious implications of a recent U.S. Supreme Court decision, Alexander v. Sandoval, which eliminated an important legal avenue for civil rights plaintiffs. For over 35 years, individuals have been allowed to bring lawsuits directly challenging violations of rights set forth in the federal regulations implementing Title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Because these actions could be grounded in proof of disparate impact, rather than discriminatory intent, they allowed for some claims that could not go forward under other legal authorities, such as the Fourteenth Amendment. While the author concludes by identifying key remaining options, he highlights the real damage done by this decision.

  4. 41 CFR 105-53.130-2 - Office of Ethics and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Ethics and... ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Central Offices § 105-53.130-2 Office of Ethics and Civil Rights. The Office of Ethics and Civil Rights, headed by the Special Counsel for Ethics and Civil Rights, is responsible...

  5. 24 CFR 108.21 - Civil rights/compliance reviewing office compliance responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil rights/compliance reviewing... MARKETING § 108.21 Civil rights/compliance reviewing office compliance responsibility. The civil rights/compliance reviewing office shall be responsible for determining whether an applicant's actions are...

  6. 77 FR 23229 - Submission for OMB Review; Assurance of Compliance-Civil Rights Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Submission for OMB Review; Assurance of Compliance--Civil Rights Certificate SUMMARY: The Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has enforcement responsibilities under several civil rights laws, including Title VI, Title... ``Download Attachments'' to view. Written requests for information should be addressed to U.S. Department...

  7. Comment: The Rise and Fall of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Jocelyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    With some Congressional resistance, the Commission on Civil Rights began in 1957 and vigorously promoted civil rights until 1983. Today it lacks credibility due to questionable reorganization practices, a narrow definition of civil rights, and a change from the role of watchdog to one of preserver of the status quo. (VM)

  8. 78 FR 37529 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Mandatory Civil Rights Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Mandatory Civil Rights Data Collection AGENCY... Rights Data Collection. OMB Control Number: 1870--NEW. Type of Review: A new information collection... uses data. For school years 2009-10 and 2011-12, the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) was...

  9. Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarandega, Reuben

    2009-01-01

    High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty. PMID:20726138

  10. Integrated human rights and poverty eradication strategy: the case of civil registration rights in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musarandega, Reuben

    2009-01-01

    High poverty levels characterise sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe included. Over 80 per cent of Zimbabwe's population lived below the total consumption poverty line and 70 per cent below the food poverty line in 2003. This plummeting of social indicators resulted from the freefall suffered by the country's economy from the 1990s, after unsuccessful attempts to implement structural adjustment programmes prescribed by international financial institutions. The ensuing socioeconomic decay, political crisis and international isolation of the country from the late 1990s reversed gains made in social indicators during the 1980s. Development theories attribute poverty to unchecked population growth, political, economic and environmental mismanagement, while developing countries' leaders attribute it to historical imbalances and global political and economic injustices. Despite this debate, poverty continues to evolve, expand and deepen and the need to eradicate it has become urgent. The complex question of what causes and what drives poverty is perpetually addressed and new ideas are emerging to answer the question. One recent view is that failure to centre development on people and to declare poverty a violation of human rights has allowed poverty to grow the world over. This study uses a hypothesised cause of poverty - civil registration - to exemplify the human right nature of poverty, and how a human rights' policy can be used as an instrument to eradicate poverty. The study demonstrates that civil registration is a right of instrumental relevance to poverty; and achieving civil registration grants people access to numerous other rights, some of which will lift them out of poverty, while the failure of civil registration deprives people of access to livelihoods, thereby entrenching them in poverty.

  11. 28 CFR 16.90 - Exemption of Civil Rights Division Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with ongoing criminal or civil law enforcement proceedings and impose an impossible administrative... the records could interfere with ongoing criminal or civil law enforcement proceedings and impose an... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Civil Rights...

  12. "Fleshing Out Consensus": Radical Pragmatism, Civil Rights, and the Algebra Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahman, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    It has been said that pragmatism's "merely instrumental" truths fail to motivate radical change whereas absolute ideals make excellent guiding and driving forces for justice. However, in "Radical Equations: Math Literacy and Civil Rights," Robert Moses speaks of the radical success of pragmatic principles, used in the Civil Rights Movement, that…

  13. Civil Rights Enforcement Gone Haywire: The Federal Government's New School-Discipline Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    In January, 2014, the Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Office for Civil Rights in the Department of Education (ED) issued a joint "Dear Colleague Letter" to K-12 schools. The topic discussed in their joint letter is whether administrators are punishing minority children more harshly than white children for…

  14. Civil Rights Project's Response to "Re-Analysis" of Charter School Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Rights Project / Proyecto Derechos Civiles, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Civil Rights Project (CRP) was founded, in part, to bring rigorous social science inquiry to bear on the most pressing civil rights issues. On-going trends involving public school segregation have been a primary focus of the CRP's research, and the expanding policy emphasis on school choice prompted analysis of the much smaller--but…

  15. Women’s Contributions in African-American Civil Rights Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the roles and contributions of black women in the Civil Right Movement against racial discriminations in the U.S.A in 1960 s. The conclusion comes from three aspects of the black women’s involving the Civil Right Movement.

  16. Women’s Contributions in African-American Civil Rights Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王姗姗

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the roles and contributions of black women in the Civil Right Movement against racial discriminations in the U.S.A in 1960s. The conclusion comes from three aspects of the black women’s involving the Civil Right Movement.

  17. The Freedom Schools, the Civil Rights Movement, and Refocusing the Goals of American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Jon N.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the history of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools to illustrate how integrating the Civil Rights Movement into the social studies curriculum refocuses the aims of American education on participatory democracy. Teaching the Civil Rights Movement and employing the teaching strategies used in the Freedom Schools leads to the…

  18. Office for Civil Rights Annual Report to Congress, Fiscal Years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report details the U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights' (OCRs') accomplishments in enforcing the civil rights laws under which OCR has been granted jurisdiction to address and remedy discrimination. These enforcement efforts include complaint investigation and resolution, compliance reviews and technical assistance, as well…

  19. Subjective Rights that may be Acquisitively Prescribed in the System of the Valid Civil Code

    OpenAIRE

    Peptan, Rodica

    2010-01-01

    From the text of art. 1837, art. 1844 and art. 1895 Civil Code, we get the idea that the acquisitive prescription is applied to the property right. Other regulations (1846 Civil Code , art. 623 and 624 Civil Code ), but, I complete that, by supporting the conclusion of the judicial doctrine and practice, namely not only the property right, but also the other main real rights – usufruct, use, occupancy, servitude and superficies – may be gained by means of the short or long term acquisitive pr...

  20. Civility: The Right Thing to Teach in Contentious Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2008-01-01

    Drawing attention to widespread instances of discourteous speech and hate discourse that permeate US and world culture, Alleen Pace Nilsen maintains that our imperative as educators is to teach "students the benefits of being civil to each other." She proposes some avenues for enriching students' understanding of the power of civil language.

  1. Sex Differences in Attitudes toward Homosexual Persons, Behaviors, and Civil Rights: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Used meta-analytic techniques to compare men's and women's attitudes toward homosexual persons, homosexual behaviors, and gay people's civil rights. As expected, size of sex differences varied across these categories. Men were more negative than women toward homosexual persons and homosexual behavior, but the sexes viewed gay civil rights…

  2. Strategies for the safeguarding of civil rights in the age of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contribution examines our age from the point of view of 'safeguarding' civil rights. The author discusses the concept of privacy and the conditions in industrial establishments which, in this context, are described as areas where the validity of civil rights is interrupted or diluted, and shows that the number of spheres of life where civil rights loose in validity are increasing, as e.g. research centres, and power generating industrial plants. The current concept of risk acceptance and security is discussed as well as the possibility and necessity to safeguard civil rights. The author concludes that security in the social meaning cannot be achieved by establishing a more or less rigid surveillance system. (orig./HSCH)

  3. The orality in the civil justice as an element of due process: a human rights approach

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Villadiego Burbano

    2010-01-01

    The article proposes the hypothesis that orality is a central element of due process in civil justice, which is derived from the “right to a hearing” contained in Article 8.1 of the American Convention on Human Rights. This hypothesis is based on four arguments: a) the need to ensure the principle of immediacy in the civil process, b) recognition of the right of hearing as part of due process in other international human rights instruments, c) some pronouncements from agencies and institution...

  4. Civil Rights Continued: How History Positions Young People to Contemplate Sexuality (In)justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Same-sex marriage is part of a global civil rights struggle for LGBQ rights. How this movement is framed, advanced, and critiqued across the globe can be linked to how young people in schools are prepared to deliberate social issues in the political sphere. This article examines national history books as cultural artifacts that present what is…

  5. Framing and Claiming Reproductive Rights: A Case Study of Civil Society Actors in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Davidson (Rebecca)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article focuses on the issue of maternal mortality in Tanzania from a human rights perspective. It deals with the findings of a study conducted in 2008, which examined the role of civil society actors in framing and claiming rights. During the research process, qualitative interview

  6. Teaching about Gay Civil Rights: U.S. Courts and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Cruz, Bárbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the timely and sometimes controversial topic of gay civil rights and how the attendant issues might be taught in the social studies classroom. Many teachers shy away from teaching students about gay rights issues for a variety of reasons including personal beliefs, a lack of instructional time as a result of…

  7. Article 6 ECHR, Civil Rights and the Enduring Role of the Common Law

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role that the common law has played in Human Rights Act 1998 case law on the protection of 'civil rights' within the meaning of Article 6 ECHR. Focusing on Article 6 ECHR's 'disclosure' and 'full jurisdiction' requirements, it highlights an increasingly nuanced relationship between the ECHR and common law in cases under and outside the Human Rights Act 1998. Although the general pattern within the case law has been one of domestic court fidelity to the ECHR - somethi...

  8. Civil Rights and the Changing Admissions Policy at a Mid-Western University: The Impact of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Adem; Kerns, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the value of personal rights and freedoms, along with the associated questions and continuing problems, the issue of "civil rights" continues to be relevant in the twenty-first century. In the United States, the civil rights of disenfranchised people are adversely affected by various social, regional, and federal policies.…

  9. The Fundamental Rights Agency and Civil Society: Reminding the Gardeners of their Plants’ Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Kjaerum, Gabriel N. Toggenburg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA, the EU body responsible for advising EU institutions on fundamental rights, is equipped with a Fundamental Rights Platform (FRP to ensure an on-going and structured exchange of information and feedback between the FRA and Civil Society. When the FRA was founded in 2007, there was little pre-existing knowledge on how to design such a Platform; hence, the development of the relationship between the FRA and Civil Society over the first five years proved an interesting experiment. Although the Platform was never intended as a mechanism of democratic co-decision making, it is far more than a loose marketplace where Civil Society actors across the spectrum of fundamental rights themes gather. The Platform offers channels of consultation and exchange not only among the participants but also with the FRA. It allows for cross-pollination, ensuring informed grassroots input into FRA work and FRA expertise flow to Civil Society actors. This synergetic relationship builds upon both the self-organising forces of Civil Society and the terms of references of the FRP as defined by the FRA. The Platform allows to find a certain unity in the remarkable diversity of fundamental rights voices. To what degree, however, the Platform’s dynamics allow the transformation of sometimes ‘compartmentalised’ single human rights discussions into wider trans-sectoral and transnational debates within the Human Rights Community depends on the motivation and the interest(s of the different Civil Society players.

  10. Revenue Sharing and its Impact on Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Marvin A.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion by the Assistant to the Director, Office of Revenue Sharing, U.S. Treasury Department, of the four part approach of that agency to extending the ability of the federal government to combat discrimination in the state and local sector; human rights workers should focus on the monetary and economic impact these funds have on the…

  11. Human rights "naming & shaming" and civil war violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ruggeri; B. Burgoon

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PEPS Letter is to clarify the effects of human rights "Naming and Shaming" by international actors, such as IOs, NGOs and the international media, on the intensity of violence in domestic conflict. The note carries out, evaluates and proposes empirical strategies to study such effect

  12. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  13. Dealing with diversity : Adolescents' support for civil liberties and immigrant rights

    OpenAIRE

    Gieling, M.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this project was to increase our understanding of adolescents’ support for civil liberties and minority rights. Within democratic societies, this topic is of great importance. To ensure that all citizens can participate and to sustain democratic involvement, modern, liberal democracies guarantee all their citizens’ specific rights, such as freedom of speech and association. As a consequence, individuals have to be able to deal with diversity of beliefs, opinions and lifestyles...

  14. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part V--Outdoor Pursuits as an Extracurricular Alternative for Addressing Office of Civil Rights Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy D.; Felix, Manny

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) recently clarified that schools are required to provide students with disabilities (SWD) equal opportunities to participate in extracurricular activities (U.S. Department of Education [USDE] Office for Civil Rights, 2013). Schools have flexibility to design and expand extracurricular opportunities based on existing…

  15. The Economy of Literacy: How the Supreme Court Stalled the Civil Rights Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes three landmark Supreme Court cases in which the value of literacy and the reality of racial discrimination were contested. Concludes that there is an ideology in which the economy of literacy is regarded as white property and argues that these court decisions have stalled the civil rights movement. (Contains 59 references.) (SK)

  16. Fostering Historical Thinking toward Civil Rights Movement Counter-Narratives: Documentary Film in Elementary Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how elementary preservice teachers used four documentary films to think historically about the United States Civil Rights Movement. The author situates the descriptive case study within research about historical thinking and documentary film, identifying the need for using documentary film to think historically in the…

  17. 75 FR 60757 - Office for Civil Rights; Statement of Organization, Functions, and Delegations of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services, Chapter AT, Office for Civil Rights (OCR), as last amended at 69 FR... Improvement Act (PSQIA) patient safety protections, the Director provides leadership, priorities, guidance and... Deputy Director for Enforcement and Regional Operations include: (1) Providing leadership,...

  18. Choice without Equity: Charter School Segregation and the Need for Civil Rights Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Erica; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Wang, Jia

    2010-01-01

    Seven years after the Civil Rights Project first documented extensive patterns of charter school segregation, the charter sector continues to stratify students by race, class and possibly language. This study is released at a time of mounting federal pressure to expand charter schools, despite on-going and accumulating evidence of charter school…

  19. Glorious Burdens: Teaching Obama's History and the Long Civil Rights Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Nico

    2011-01-01

    As a young child, Barack Obama learned about the civil rights movement from his mother. Obama's mother strove to instill in her multiracial son pride in being more than just literally African American. There is much to learn from Obama's history, understood both as the story of his life and as what Obama himself has said about his past and the…

  20. Women in History--Marian Wright Edelman: Crusader for Civil and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Shirley J.

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles Marian Wright Edelman, a crusader for civil and children's rights. She was born June 6, 1939, at a time when prejudice and segregation were the norm. The Wright family lived in a small, southern town of Bennetsville, South Carolina, where Marian was the youngest of five children. Her father, the Reverend Arthur Jerome Wright,…

  1. 民法总则如何反映民事权利?%How General Principles of Civil Law Reflects Civil Right?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔建远

    2015-01-01

    Although General Principles of Civil Law is not suitable to adopt a linear listing of regula⁃tions of property ownership right, rights related to the former such as property right, creditor ’s rights, intellectual property, right of inheritance, it can not transfer completely all the civil right regu⁃lation to the compilation of each individual principle but sets up a general regulation of civil right, whose regulation range should be restricted by the system and the content of each chapter, by the content regulated by the civil code and by the idea and guiding thought pursued by the civil code. Civil code should not only require the establishment and implementation of civil right not be against the public order and good custom, follow principle of being honest and trustworthy, but also set up regulations about the composition, types and efficacy of expectation right and debate right. Even if General Principles of Civil Law or civil code can not include all the civil rights, they cannot advo⁃cate blindly“Everything is permitted, which is not forbidden by law”.%民法总则虽然不宜再沿用民法通则一字排开地规定财产所有权、与财产所有权有关的财产权、债权、知识产权、继承权等类型,但并不可将民事权利的规范完全交给民法典的各分则编,而是应当设置民事权利的一般规则,其规范范围受制于民法总则的体系及其章节内容,受制于民法典所规制的内容,受制于民法典奉行的理念、指导思想。民法总则不但应规定民事权利的设立及行使不得违背公序良俗原则,应当遵循诚实信用等原则,而且应就期待权、抗辩权的构成、类型、效力等内容设置必要的规范。即使民法总则乃至民法典无法将所有的民事权利规范收拢在怀,也不可盲目地高倡“法不禁止即自由”。

  2. A white dean and black physicians at the epicenter of the civil rights movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deShazo, Richard D; Smith, Robert; Skipworth, Leigh Baldwin

    2014-06-01

    Robert Q. Marston, MD, a gregarious Rhodes and Markel Scholar, native Virginian, and well-connected National Institutes of Health-trained medical scientist found himself the new dean and hospital director of a promising academic medical center at age 38. It was 1961 and the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) in Jackson was, unknown to him, about to be at the geographic center of the struggle for African American civil rights. That struggle would entangle UMMC in a national search for social justice and change the course of American history and American medicine. Shortly after his arrival, the new dean received and refused a written request from the Secretary of the Mississippi Chapter of the National Medical Association (NMA) to make educational venues at the segregated medical center available to black physicians. The same year, UMMC became the primary medical provider for sick and injured Freedom Riders, sit-in and demonstration participants, and others who breached the racial divide defined by the state's feared Sovereignty Commission. That divide was violently enforced by collaboration among law enforcement, Citizens' Councils, and the Ku Klux Klan. The crescendo of the civil rights struggle that attended Marston's arrival included a deadly riot following James Meredith's integration of the Ole Miss campus in Oxford in 1962, the death of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Field Secretary Medgar Evers at UMMC in 1963, a national controversy over UMMC's role in the autopsies of 3 civil rights workers murdered in Neshoba County, an attempt at limited compliance to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and a federal civil rights complaint against UMMC by the NAACP Legal and Educational Fund in 1965. That complaint noted that UMMC was out of compliance with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and seriously threatened its federal funding and academic operations. Marston developed a compliance strategy that included the hiring

  3. Sharing the Prize: The Economics of the Civil Rights Revolution in the American South [Book Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    2014-01-01

    Stanford University economic historian Gavin Wright's clear, accessible, and deeply researched book argues persuasively, first, that it was civil rights laws and federal court decisions from Brown v. Board of Education (1954) on that substantially enhanced the economic well-being of southern blacks after 1960. These improvements in black status, he demonstrates with both statistical evidence and qualitative case studies, would not have come about through the operation of mar...

  4. 29 CFR 1601.2 - Terms defined in title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms defined in title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the... REGULATIONS Definitions § 1601.2 Terms defined in title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Americans with... in this part shall have the meanings set forth in section 701 of title VII of the Civil Rights Act...

  5. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.27 Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. (a) In situations where the jurisdictional prerequisites of both the EPA and title VII of...

  6. The role of the United States Supreme court in securing African Americans’ Civil rights in 1945–1952

    OpenAIRE

    Sementsov Nikolay Yur’evich

    2013-01-01

    The article dwells on the major United States Supreme court decisions that influenced African Americans’ civil rights progress in 1945-1952. These decisions referred racial segregation in transportation, education, housing and the election system. The Supreme Court reconsidered the federal power in civil rights protection against violations by states, local authorities and private persons. The issue is studied with a brief regard of previous court practice. The study concludes that a signific...

  7. History of the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the abuse of their civil rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of persons with psychological difficulties varied in different historical periods, but in its essence remained similar until today. It included an inhumane relationship towards these persons, involuntary treatment through torture, and isolation from society as a kind of punishment for their diversity. It was not until the late 19th century that the relationship of society towards these individuals started to improve gradually, but in the 21st century isolation of these individuals still remained the dominant form of acceptable social solution for the “problem”, with a somewhat more humane attitude towards them and less cruel treatment. Serbia has followed the trends of treatment of the persons with psychological difficulties from the rest of Europe for centuries, but is still lagging behind the world in the introduction of new methods of treatment. Indeed the first legal solution to regulate the human rights of these people is currently in the process of implementation. The subject of this paper is the treatment of persons with psychological difficulties and the violation of their civil rights. In a subject specific context the goal of the analysis was the historical review of the treatment towards persons with psychological difficulties by doctors, other practicioners and the community in general, with reference to the current situation regarding their treatment within the psychiatric institutions, as well as the legal regulations and the protection of their civil rights.

  8. Barack Obama, John Lewis, and the Legacy of the Civil Rights Struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn T. Eskew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The watershed election in 2008 of Barack Obama as the first President of the United States to have African ancestry resulted from the life work of such civil rights activists as U.S. Congressman John Lewis. Born on a sharecropper’s farm in 1940, the African American Lewis grew up in segregated Alabama. As a college student in Nashville, he joined the sit-in protests and volunteered for the original Freedom Ride in 1961. He was elected chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, becoming the youngest speaker at the March on Washington in 1963. The radical shift to Black ultimately forced Lewis out of SNCC. Consequently Lewis capitalized on the Voting Rights Act of 1965, turned his attentions to voter registration campaigns, and continued working within the system. In 1986 he won election to the U.S. House of Representatives to represent Atlanta’s Fifth Congressional District, a seat he continues to hold today.

  9. GENERAL GUIDELINES CONCERNING THE RELATION INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY BUSINESS VERSUS HUMAN RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speriusi-Vlad Alin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, the intellectual property protection is no longer an absolute social and legal that justifies adoption of any measures necessary to protect it. Initially seen as the prerequisite for sustainable development, implementation of new technologies, and encouragement of international trade, the intellectual property, especially prior to ACTA (Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement international trial implementation, and also thereafter, was increasingly identified as a source of violation of fundamental rights and civil liberties, i.e. the right to protection of personal data, the right to privacy, freedom to send and receive information freedom of information, freedom to contract, and freedom to carry out economic activities (freedom of commerce. As far as international trade transactions have often a component of intellectual property that requires to be protected, it is necessary to identify the landmarks, the rules establishing de facto limits in order to protect the intellectual property without risk of infringement of fundamental rights and civil liberties of other persons, in particular users or potential users of goods and services incorporating intellectual property. The best guidelines in this regard may be provided by the CJEU (Court of Justice of the European Union case-law both due to its reasoning underlying the decision of the Parliament to reject ACTA ratification and the fact that the case-law of this Court, especially the most recent one, is highly complex and nuanced, not denying in any way the importance of intellectual property, and identifying certain cases where their primacy persist and whose analysis leads to laying down some general rules in the field.

  10. Discrimination, developmental science, and the law: addressing dramatic shifts in civil rights jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Roger J R

    2014-01-01

    The civil rights movement fostered dramatic shifts in legal responses to discrimination based on race, gender, and a host of other group characteristics. The legal system now evinces yet another dramatic shift, as it moves from considering difference to focusing on neutrality, from efforts that seek to counter subjugation to those that adopt a "color-blind" approach. The shifting approach already has reached laws regulating responses to the group that spurred massive civil rights reform: minority youth. The shift requires a different body of empirical evidence to address it and a new look at equality jurisprudence. This article notes the need to turn to the current understanding of prejudice and discrimination for guidance, and uses, as illustration, developmental science to shed light on the development, manifestation, and alleviation of invidious discrimination. Using that understanding, the analysis details how the legal system can benefit from that research and better address discrimination in light of dramatic changes in law. The article articulates the need to address discrimination by recognizing and enlisting the law's inculcative powers through multiple sites of inculcation, ranging from families, schools, health and justice systems to religious and community groups. The discussion concludes with brief suggestions for reform benefiting from understandings of prejudice and its expression.

  11. PROTECTION OF RIGHTS UNDER RUSSIAN CIVIL LAW IN A COMPARATIVE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Karkhalev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the new rules securing the protection of rights introduced in the Russian Civil Code. New enforcement provisions in the Code will contribute to the stability and sustainability of business transactions in the market economy and the observance of contractual discipline. They aim at ensuring the most complete restoration of violated civil rights and restoring the situation that existed before the violation. Positive changes appear in Article 395 of the Code, including penalties prescribing interest payments on unpaid funds for nonperformance of a monetary obligation. The changes to this article have already been tested in practice, as found in a number of interpretations announced in the decisions of higher courts of the judiciary. Yet, an analysis of the Code reveals the absence of any form of penalty in the chapters on the individual types of obligations. Furthermore, a forfeiture occurs only in certain circumstances where it is required due to the nature of the legal relations, as under, for example, transport charters and codes, and laws on the supply of goods for state requirements.

  12. The role of the United States Supreme court in securing African Americans’ Civil rights in 1945–1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sementsov Nikolay Yur’evich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the major United States Supreme court decisions that influenced African Americans’ civil rights progress in 1945-1952. These decisions referred racial segregation in transportation, education, housing and the election system. The Supreme Court reconsidered the federal power in civil rights protection against violations by states, local authorities and private persons. The issue is studied with a brief regard of previous court practice. The study concludes that a significant change in Supreme Court approach to the issue of race took place in 1945–1952. The cases examined allow determining the reasons of the change. They were the new international conditions and the policy of the national executive power. The first one is connected with the international condemnation of Nazi ideology as well as with the need to concur Soviet influence on the new independent sates inhabited by representatives of non-white races. The domestic reason is connected with the personality of president Harry S.Truman. He claimed officially for civil rights reform and turned the attention of all state powers, including the judicial one, to the issue. He gathered a special committee to make recommendations on the civil rights reform. It was also Truman who had formed the personal membership of Supreme court and pointed liberal judge Fred Winson as the court president. Some states had also prepared the basis for the court’s decisions by taking some non-discriminatory measures. The article also includes the comparative evaluation of the Supreme Court and other United States institutions performance in the issue of civil rights. The performance of Congress is determined as incommensurably lower than that of Supreme court. The Supreme Court appearance is regarded as a prerequisite for the followed civil rights movement. But strong opposition of southern states representatives indicated future difficulties of such actions.

  13. Iranian Democratization Part II: The Green Movement - Revolution or Civil Rights Movement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Sundquist

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental question of whether or not the Green Movement’s opposition leaders were successful in their attempts to change the political landscape in Iran first lies in understanding the premise behind the organization and secondly recognizing the actual goals of the leadership. Consequently, this article analyzes these questions as a framework for developing a comparative analysis between revolutions and civil rights movements as a means to understand both the intent and outcomes of the Green Movement. From this analysis, lessons learned are put forth as a means to establish a series of recommendations for future Western political engagements with Iran. In doing so, the hope is that a political dialogue will emerge between Western governments that both alleviate the current tensions while also addressing security concerns in the region.

  14. Ethical Implications For Attorneys Involved In Extraterritorial Application Of The Civil Rights Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard E. McNier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of business has increasingly involved American attorneys in an ethical dilemma which is not just academic, but may result in disciplinary action against the attorney. What is counsel to do when it is discovered that overseas employment practices (legal in the foreign country violate American law? May counsel, citing current case law, ethically advise management that discharge of a troublesome employee may be effected "legally" by simply transferring the employee overseas, then firing her? These ethical issues can be put in sharp focus by reviewing a provision of the 1991 Civil Rights Act (CRA that extends application of the 1964 CRA to cover American citizens working overseas for American owned or controlled firms. Expansive interpretation of this by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC has ensnarled over 21,000 overseas businesses with the threat of being sued, in the United States, for employment practices committed outside of the United States.

  15. Attitudes of national populations towards social and civil rights for family members and the role of the EU in converging these rights: A cross-national pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Yerkes; Cristina Solera; Giulia M. Dotti Sani; Trudie Knijn; Manuela Naldini; Birte Siim; John Gal; Dana Halevy; Marta Ibanez; Ana Rosa Argüelles; Luis Antonio Fernanández Villazón; Josip Sipic

    2015-01-01

    Deliverable 9.4  aims to investigate the relationship between the effects of existing discrepancies between civil, political, social, and economic citizenship rights on the one hand, and obligations of European and non-European citizens as family members moving across borders on the other. The goal of Deliverable 9.4 is to provide insights on national attitudes towards several key themes, including: family and reproductive rights across diverse family forms in Europe, attitudes...

  16. The general clause of right abuse as longa manus function of civil responsibility institute
    A cláusula geral do abuso de direito como função longa manus do instituto da responsabilidade civil

    OpenAIRE

    Franciel Munaro

    2007-01-01

    The new Civil Code brings the institute of right abuse as a general clause. This clause, through its structural elements, as good-faith, good-customs and the social and economical aims, will find the responsibility of the agent into compensate another person who has overtook the limits of the law. The right abuse institute, however, goes further one to the civil order and the responsibility institute, coming around another fields of the law as well the institute of civil responsibility, match...

  17. The Role of Civil Society in Implementing the General Measures of the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    OpenAIRE

    Nevena Vuvkovic-Sahovic

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of civil society in the process of implementing the general measures of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, as defined in article 4 of the Convention and its General Comment No.5 (2003). While it is established in international law that States parties are the primary duty bearers to promote and protect children's rights, the Committee on the Rights of the Child has also recognized that other actors, including children, have a right and need to be engaged in...

  18. Citizenship beyond politics: the importance of political, civil and social rights and responsibilities among women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Coffé, Hilde

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that men are more engaged as citizens than are women. Yet, little is known about gender cleavages across a variety of citizenship norms. To what extent do men and women define citizenship differently? To address that question, this study examines the importance men and women assign various citizenship rights and responsibilities using 2004 ISSP data from 18 Western, industrialized nations. Using a disaggregated approach to understanding definitions of citizenship, we examine political, civil, and social rights and responsibilities. After controlling for a variety of demographic and attitudinal influences, we find that men and women are not different in their views regarding the importance of political responsibilities. However, women do view political rights as significantly more important than do men. Further, in comparison to men, women view both civil and social responsibilities and rights domains as significantly more important.

  19. Assessing the Harms of Noncompliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights' Protections of Sexual Minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Holning

    2006-01-01

    On July 17-18, a delegation from the United States Department of State will meet with the United Nations Human Rights Committee (“HRC”) in Geneva, Switzerland, to discuss the United States’ compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (“ICCPR”). This report draws from the Williams Institute’s empirical research to assess the effects that the United States’ noncompliance has on sexual minorities. The United States is noncompliant with the ICCPR’s antidiscri...

  20. Black Religion as BOTH Opiate and Inspiration of Civil Rights Militancy: Putting Marx's Data to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Larry L.; Hunt, Janet G.

    1977-01-01

    Concludes that Harry Marx's (1964) inference of a general opiate quality in black religion is incomplete and misleading. Examines data concerning religion and civil rights militancy. Finds that secular social factors (e.g., social class, region, and nonurban origins) are better indicators of militance than is religiosity. (Author/GC)

  1. Status of Civil Rights in Texas. Volume II: An Employment Profile of San Antonio, 1968-1978. A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Ernest

    As of 1978 in San Antonio, Texas, equal employment opportunity remained an unfulfilled promise. The Texas Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights studied private sector employment in four industries (banking, hospitals, universities, broadcasting), public employment at four governmental levels (municipal, county, state, federal),…

  2. "A Better Chance to Learn: Bilingual Bicultural Education," U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. A Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, S. Macpherson

    The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights report, "A Better Chance to Learn: Bilingual Bicultural Education," is summarized from sociological, psychological, and anthropological perspectives to indicate its contribution to our understanding of the social, cultural, and intellectual aspects of education. This study summarizes significant facts from the…

  3. LAWS ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT--FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, TITLE VII. STATE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    TITLE VII OF THE FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT (1964) PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN ADDITION TO THE USUAL GROUNDS OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, AND NATIONAL ORIGIN. IT COVERS PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN INDUSTRIES AFFECTING COMMERCE, AS WELL AS EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. IT IS UNLAWFUL FOR EMPLOYERS TO REFUSE TO HIRE,…

  4. The Trouble with Unifying Narratives: African Americans and the Civil Rights Movement in U.S. History Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl B.

    2013-01-01

    This textual analysis is a collective case study of K-12 United States History content standards in light of how they represent the historical experiences of African Americans during the Civil Rights Movement. The study uses a multi-perspective critical conceptual framework to evaluate the standards for nine state-level polities on both the…

  5. The Third-Order Multiculturalism: Civil Rights, Diversity, and Equality in Korea's Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the politics of South Korea's multicultural discourse and locates its recent development in the context of a broader analytical discussion about multiculturalism. Utilizing the historical experience of the USA, this paper identifies the three orders of multiculturalism. Up until the civil rights movement of the 1950s and…

  6. Amistad Symposium on Southern Civil Rights Litigation Records for the 1960s (New Orleans, Louisiana, December 8-9, 1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard Univ., New Orleans, LA. Armistad Research Center.

    This report contains transcripts of speeches given at the Amistad Symposium by lawyers, judges, and others active in the civil rights movement since the 1960s. Speakers include Clifton Johnson, J. Skelly Wright, John P. Nelson, Edwin King, Fred L. Banks, Jr., Lawrence A. Aschenbrenner, Frank R. Parker, Henry Schwarzschild, and Richard B. Sobol.…

  7. 28 CFR 50.3 - Guidelines for the enforcement of title VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964. 50.3 Section 50.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... procedural guidance to the responsible department and agency officials in exercising their statutory... opportunity for a hearing, and (4) to complete the other procedural steps outlined in section 602,...

  8. From Freedom Riders to the Children's March: Civil Rights Documentaries as Catalysts for Historical Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2014-01-01

    Historical documentary film usually offers content in a format that students find more engaging than traditional historical texts. In the classroom, documentary film can be positioned within a historical thinking framework to study a broad concept like civil rights while facilitating students' source work and skill development. While social…

  9. Hope and Despair: Southern Black Women Educators across Pre- and Post-Civil Rights Cohorts Theorize about Their Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2012-01-01

    Framed by theoretical perspectives on Black Feminist Thought, the life course, and the Generation X/Hip-Hop generation, I present findings from a subset of 10 Black women educators in Birmingham, Alabama who participated in a larger life story project. The participants, who came of age professionally across the pre- and post-civil rights movement…

  10. Pedagogies of Protest: African American Teachers and the History of the Civil Rights Movement, 1940-1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Although the dominant narrative of the civil rights movement marginalizes the role of black educators, revisionist scholars have shown that a significant number of black teachers encouraged student protest and activism. There has, however, been little analysis of the work of black teachers inside segregated schools in the…

  11. Carrying on the Good Fight: Summary Paper from Think Tank 2000--Advancing the Civil and Human Rights of People with Disabilities from Diverse Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, Washington, DC.

    This paper summarizes a May 2000 conference about advancing the civil and human rights of people with disabilities from diverse cultures. The conference included people with disabilities from diverse cultures and members of national civil rights organizations. The conference identified five priority areas for attention: (1) cultivating leadership…

  12. 著作人身权性质辨析%Analysis on the Personal Right of Author and the Personal Right of Civil Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贻珍

    2014-01-01

    There are two wrong opinions on personal right of an author :one insists on that personal right of an author is the right of identity ,the other considers it as property right .The former view only sees the phenomenon of personal right of an author but ignores its essence ,and the latter view misunder-stands its essential characteristic .It is arguable that personal right of an author is a special social personal right w hich shouldn't be merged into the personal right of civil law ,and that personal right of an author should adhere to its primary meaning and be improved in details .%认为著作人身权是身份权的观点,只看到现象而忽视了著作人身权本质;认为著作人身权是财产权的观点,是对人格权的本质属性存在误解,没有看到社会人格权能够转让的属性。著作人身权是特殊的人格权,取缔或者合并到民法中的人格权中都是不可取的,而应该在现有基础上对著作人身权的内容加以完善。

  13. Challenges of regulatory rights of half-capacitated persons: A sociological perspective on the French Civil Code reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyraud, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Democratic societies are based on the principle of equal legal capacity of all citizens to decide and act for themselves in all areas of social life. This "socio-civil capacity", which may involve both material property of an individual, as well as private life in matters ranging from health to personal relationships, is recognized by the law (both codified law and common law). These rights guarantee the autonomy and freedom of individuals in the name of respect for human dignity. Civil capacity of a person is legally diminished because his or her "natural" abilities, capacity, or competence are reduced. Recent social changes have lead to increased uses of legal measures of protection. The reasons for these changes are complex and they are accompanied by legislative reforms that modify the rights of half-capacitated persons. In this article, we examine certain issues of civil capacity rights based on the French example. We start present a perspective of the historical definition and practice of these rights as well as their democratization. PMID:27184167

  14. Challenges of regulatory rights of half-capacitated persons: A sociological perspective on the French Civil Code reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyraud, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Democratic societies are based on the principle of equal legal capacity of all citizens to decide and act for themselves in all areas of social life. This "socio-civil capacity", which may involve both material property of an individual, as well as private life in matters ranging from health to personal relationships, is recognized by the law (both codified law and common law). These rights guarantee the autonomy and freedom of individuals in the name of respect for human dignity. Civil capacity of a person is legally diminished because his or her "natural" abilities, capacity, or competence are reduced. Recent social changes have lead to increased uses of legal measures of protection. The reasons for these changes are complex and they are accompanied by legislative reforms that modify the rights of half-capacitated persons. In this article, we examine certain issues of civil capacity rights based on the French example. We start present a perspective of the historical definition and practice of these rights as well as their democratization.

  15. CIVIL PROTECTION MECHANISM OF THE ASSIGNEE RIGHTS BASED ON THE PATENT CLAIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Marchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Statistical analysis of inventive activity in Ukraine shows that the largest number of applications is submitted by employees of universities and research institutions – almost 60% of all inventions. Practice of inventions execution proves that for researchers, especially for students, the most difficult part of the application and author documents is the claim. The purpose of research is a synthesis and supplying the general principles of quality drafting the patent claim, providing further legal protection of the patent. Methodology. Monitoring and analysis of the world documentary informational flow through the civil protection mechanism of the assignee rights on the basis of the patent claim allows us to compare the world systems of formulas development and summarize some key moments concerning the point in question. The example analysis of the correct patent claim drafting and its interpretation in court cases on intellectual property was made. Findings. The specific properties of the patent claim were described. They are conciseness, latitude, completeness and certainty, compliance with unity requirements and novelty of the invention. On the basis of the research it is established that there is a great difference between Ukrainian and American patent claims. A number of common mistakes and shortcomings during the claim drafting were identified. The need to restore the various forms of the invention training in universities of Ukraine was emphasized, since on this basis one should train a number of specialists who are able to carry out the commercialization of intellectual property results into productive findings. Originality. A number of issues and techniques was investigated and summarized. They can be applied by the courts in interpreting of the patent claim in the processing of intellectual property cases. Especially it concerns determining the correct drafting of the patent claim. Practical value. This work may be used

  16. Relationship between Security and Human Rights in Counter-Terrorism: A Case of Introducing Body Scanners in Civil Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Prezelj Iztok

    2015-01-01

    Changes in security environment after the end of Cold War and 9/11 have strongly affected our security concepts and paradigms. In the field of counter-terrorism, a serious conceptual and practical debate on the relationship between security and human rights and freedoms has begun. The goal of this paper is to reflect on this complex relationship at the conceptual level and introduce the empirical debate on this relationship in the field of civil aviation (case of introducing body scanners). T...

  17. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    OpenAIRE

    Renée Ater

    2015-01-01

    History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their strug...

  18. Linking Health System Responsiveness to Political Rights and Civil Liberties: A Multilevel Analysis Using Data From 44 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Margot I; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Arah, Onyebuchi A

    2015-01-01

    Responsiveness is a dimension of health system functioning and might be dependent upon contextual factors related to politics. Given this, we performed cross-national comparisons with the aim of investigating: 1) the associations of political factors with patients' reports of health system responsiveness and 2) the extent to which health input and output might explain these associations. World Health Survey data were analyzed for 44 countries (n = 103 541). Main outcomes included, respectively, 8 and 7 responsiveness domains for inpatient and outpatient care. Linear multilevel regressions were used to assess the associations of politics (namely, civil liberties and political rights), socioeconomic development, health system input, and health system output (measured by maternal mortality) with responsiveness domains, adjusted for demographic factors. Political rights showed positive associations with dignity (regression coefficient = 0.086 [standard error = 0.039]), quality (0.092 [0.049]), and support (0.113 [0.048]) for inpatient care and with dignity (0.075 [0.040]), confidentiality (0.089 [0.043]), and quality (0.124 [0.053]) for outpatient care. Positive associations were observed for civil liberties as well. Health system input and output reduced observed associations. Results tentatively suggest that strengthening political rights and, to a certain extent, civil liberties might improve health system responsiveness, in part through their effect on health system input and output. PMID:26002910

  19. Sex Discrimination and Hair-Length Requirements Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 -- the Long and Short of It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H. Bruce

    1974-01-01

    Since the passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, an employer's rights to establish dress and appearance standards for employees has been challenged with increasing frequency as a discriminatory employment practice based upon sex. The majority of such cases have concerned the right of male employees to wear their hair as long as that…

  20. The Understanding of Right Depriving Jural Facts in Respect to the Reasons of Deprivation of Right of Property: Legal Civil Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostruba A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of approaches to understanding of jural facts is accomplished in the article. The definition of right depriving jural facts in civil law is brought. It’s researched the classical for Roman-Germany legal system reasons for deprivation of right of property and the concrete actions or events that deprive such a right are analyzed. All examined facts of property rights deprivation could be classified and arranged into four basic groups: cessation of the property existance (destruction of property, cessation of the owner existance (death of a natural person, liquidation of the legal entity, transaction on alienation (alienation of the property by the owner, requisition, administrative act (abandonement of the property by the owner, foreclosure on the property for the owner obligations, seizure. Such deprivation of property rights as termination of the right to property, which can not belong to the person, and the compulsory acquisition may occur through jural facts like seizure or administrative act. In the case of requisition termination of right takes place directly at the moment the relevant administrative act comes into force. In other words only destruction of property, death of a natural person or legal entity liquidation can be regarded totally as depriving jural facts. All jural facts of right of property deprivation can be grouped but can not be reduced to basic groups. The law model must determine the circumstances under which the model will lead to the desired legal result, otherwise the legal facts were too extensive and could take place even in undesirable cases. In this context these circumstances are conditions of jural fact o occurence. That is why, for example, "termination of the right to property, which can not belong to the person" is only a general name of right-depriving jural fact or even a specific mechanism of depriving the right itself, and therefore includes in its content as well as the actual jural fact and

  1. A Wrong Name——A Comment about International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dasheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ According to the spirit of strengthening the protection of human rights in the whole world that promoted by the Charter of the United Nations and Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UN General Assembly Meeting passed two international covenants on human rights in December 1966.

  2. Relationships between right-wing authoritarianism, terrorism threat, and attitudes towards restrictions of civil rights: a comparison among four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Trejtowicz, Mariusz; de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin; Van Hiel, Alain; Goodwin, Robin

    2011-05-01

    The present study tested the role of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), terrorist threat, and sociopolitical 'climate' as predictors of support for governmental anti-terrorism policies and actions. Two dimensions of analysis were defined: the presence versus absence of al-Qaeda attacks, and adherence to surveillance versus anti-surveillance mainstream politics. In order to study the influence of these two contextual dimensions on the expression of attitudes, we selected four European countries that fall into these two dimensions--Poland, Belgium, Spain, and the UK. Results from our study provide support for the contention that attitudes towards restrictions of civil rights are related to RWA independently of the cultural context. Moreover, in the UK sample, we found that the threat of terrorism increases acceptance of limitations of civil liberties, but only among people who hold authoritarian beliefs. However, in Spain, the other country that experienced terrorist attacks, this moderation effect was not found which is interpreted in terms of differences in the sociopolitical climate in both countries. As predicted, we did not find such moderation effect in countries in which threat is relatively low (Poland and Belgium). The results are discussed with reference to the conceptual framework based on the importance of fear experiences, security-focused policies, as well as the specific cultural context in the study of reaction to terrorist threat. PMID:21492144

  3. Statement of Hubert Velarde, Jicarilla Apache Tribe to United States Commission on Civil Rights at Albuquerque Convention Center (Albuquerque, New Mexico, November 14, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Hubert

    The statement by the President of the Jicarilla Apache Tribe emphasizes reservation problems that need to be examined. Presented at a 1972 Civil Rights Commission hearing on Indian Concerns, Velarde's statement listed employment, education, the administration of justice, water rights, and medical services as areas for investigation. (KM)

  4. The Law of Special Education in the United States and England: Civil Rights and Public Duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Examines the law of special educational needs in the United States and England, focusing on local authorities' power to determine provision levels. American courts have closely linked education and equality; constitutional law concentrates on the child's legal rights. The English system does not recognize a right to education or equal access to…

  5. 声音权的民法保护%Civil Protection of the Sound Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淑娴

    2016-01-01

    声音权作为一种新出现的人格权类型,已被很多国家确立为一项独立的权利。对声音权进行法律保护,在维护人的自由和尊严方面,具有重要意义,但我国立法尚未确立该项权利。本文首先探讨了声音权的概念和法律特征。其次,从学理角度分析声音权的三大构成要素:主体、客体、内容。最后,提出构建我国声音权保护制度的设想。%Sound right as an emerging type of personality rights, it has been established in many countries as an independent right. Right sound legal protection, in the preservation of human freedom and dignity, it is important, but our legislation has not been established that right. This paper discusses the concept and legal characteristics of the sound right. Secondly, from a theoretical point of view the three sound right to constituent elements:subject, object, content. Finally, the right to build our sound protection system envisaged.

  6. Commemoration, Race, and World War II: History and Civil Rights at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Ater

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available History and civil rights are intertwined at the Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site at Moton Field in Tuskegee, Alabama. Moton Field was a training flight facility for African American pilot candidates in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II, operating from 1941–45. Through the extant buildings and interpretive exhibits, the National Park Service commemorates the Tuskegee Airmen’s contributions to World War II, recognizing the first African American military aviators and their struggle for civil rights during the 1940s. This essay examines the way in which race, personal narratives, historical objects, and sensorial experience (sight, sound, touch, and smell are used at the historic site to suggest the significance of the Tuskegee Airmen. Despite the segregation and racism that they experienced in the U.S. military, the African American pilots and the men and women who worked alongside them believed staunchly in the idea of service to the nation as a means of participating in democracy and gaining full citizenship.

  7. CORRECTING MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE IN THE CIVIL PROCEDURE BEING A COMPONENT TO THE RIGHT TO DEFENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Vitalyevna BLAZOMIRSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    The paper considered miscarriage of justice, i.e. an adjudi-cation being wrong judgment in effect containing either denial of defense within the actual (scope of) right(s) or defending the unlisted right for, for instance, while an in-nocent convict or an acquitted criminal. The dominant fea-tures of miscarriage of justice are the following: 1) A mis-carriage of justice appeared at the final adjudication; 2) A miscarriage of justice was presumed; 3) An agent commis-sioned to operate by a spec...

  8. Rebels without a Cause? Civil disobedience, Conscientious Objection and the Art of Argumentation in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kati Nieminen

    2015-01-01

    Civil disobedience is often seen as a political statement whilst conscientious objection is understood as a private matter. This article discusses real-life acts of disobedience in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The emphasis is on the argumentative strategies by which the potential for profound social change can be neutralised in legal argumentation. The cases discussed here concentrate on Turkey and represent acts of conscientious objection and civil disobedience. The ma...

  9. Civil rights for people with disabilities: obstacles related to the least restrictive environment mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    State and other social service agencies as well as service providers are governed by laws that often provide unclear guidance regarding the rights of people with disabilities. Although some standards can be, and have been, developed to protect the rights of people with disabilities, all people with disabilities are not the same and therefore, each can require very different types of accommodations. Some aspects of disability rights must be individually based, including the requirement that people with disabilities receive educational services in the least restrictive environment and care in the most inclusive setting. The current interpretation of these mandates suggests that agency decisions rely on professional judgments. Unless professionals work with their clients, this reliance can serve to disempower those whom the law was intended to protect. Though much debated, the legal definition of a person with a disability is unclear. This article examines the concept of disability and that of the least restrictive environment as well as that of the "most inclusive setting," explains to whom they apply, discusses how they have been defined both in statutes and case law, and elaborates on the role of social workers as a result of the law's reliance on professional judgment in ascertaining client rights.

  10. Denial of equal civil rights for lesbian and gay men in The Netherlands,1980-1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Meerendonk, Bas; Scheepers, Peer

    2004-01-01

    In six national samples (a total of 11,863 respondents) of the Dutch population, aged 16 and over, the denial of equal rights (in housing, inheriting, and adoption) for lesbians and gay men decreased from 1980 and 1985, and remained stable between 1985 and 1993. The denial of equal rights for lesbians and gay men was subscribed to more strongly by social categories that have been exposed to traditional socializing agents and socializing circumstances in which traditional norms prevailed:members of denominations, people who frequently attend church, and older cohorts, especially the ones born before 1948, as well as by those who have presumably not dissociated themselves from these traditional norms, i.e., the lower educated. PMID:15271623

  11. Human rights and global business: the evolving notion of corporate civil responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Sascha-Dominik

    2010-01-01

    Global market participation of corporations often leads to a conflict of duties: the duty to its customers and shareholder to “do business” vs. the duty to protect the populations affected by these business operations. Today, in a reality where gross human rights violations are not only committed by states and individuals but increasingly by multinational corporations (MNCs) by aiding and abetting the actual perpetrators in the states where MNCs operate, the global recession has aggravated th...

  12. CORRECTING MISCARRIAGE OF JUSTICE IN THE CIVIL PROCEDURE BEING A COMPONENT TO THE RIGHT TO DEFENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Vitalyevna BLAZOMIRSKAYA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered miscarriage of justice, i.e. an adjudi-cation being wrong judgment in effect containing either denial of defense within the actual (scope of right(s or defending the unlisted right for, for instance, while an in-nocent convict or an acquitted criminal. The dominant fea-tures of miscarriage of justice are the following: 1 A mis-carriage of justice appeared at the final adjudication; 2 A miscarriage of justice was presumed; 3 An agent commis-sioned to operate by a specific ruling would ascertain and eliminate a miscarriage of justice; 4 A specific way of proving a miscarriage of justice; 5 Actual miscarriage of justice has not been subsequent upon the fault / negli-gence having been let / tolerated / omitted by the judge who passed the final adjudication. Eliminating a miscar-riage of justice by the superior court should be one of three steps required for judicial defense. The first step shall be referring to the court and the hearing of the case by the court of first instance with the final disposition of the case that should be mandatory. The second and third steps shall be eliminating a miscarriage of justice and enforcing the court‟s disposition, – should be secured by the State as the effective remedies of judicial defense, and the party con-cerned may involve these when required.

  13. 论民事抗诉权的限缩与优化%On Limitation and Optimization of the Civil Protest Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永平

    2011-01-01

    民事抗诉的目的仅在于纠正法院错误的民事裁决,保护当事人的合法权益,且是二者的统一。在此目的支配下,在修改民事诉讼法、完善民事抗诉权时,要注意协调民事抗诉主体的立法配置,并对民事抗诉事由进行理性限缩,适当调整和优化民事抗诉程序。%The only purpose of civil protest lies in correcting the wrong verdicts and protecting the litigant's rights,and is the unification of the two.In this purpose domination,when amending the civil procedure law and perfecting civil protest right,attention should be paid to coordinate the subject of civil protest in legislation,to limit the reason of the civil protest rationally,and to adjust and optimize civil protest program.

  14. Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren; Lucas, Mark; Jones, Jeffery; Humphreys, Dan; Cody, Ann; Vaughn, Bev; Storms, Tommie

    2013-01-01

    "Helping General Physical Educators and Adapted Physical Educators Address the Office of Civil Rights Dear Colleague Guidance Letter: Part IV--Sport Groups" provides the the following articles: (1) "Sport Programming Offered by Camp Abilities and the United States Association for Blind Athletes" (Lauren Lieberman and Mark…

  15. A lot of leaders? Robert Parris Moses, SNCC, and leadership in the production of social change during the American Civil Rights Movement, 1960-1965

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Maessen, Laura Gerarda Maria

    2013-01-01

    This is the definitive biography of one of the most influential, yet relatively unstudied, leaders of the civil rights movement: SNCC-worker Robert Parris Moses. Uniquely written with his rare personal cooperation and based on new primary source material, it fills the gap in historical knowledge con

  16. Civil Rights Era Movers and Shakers in Higher Education: From Grassroots to Curricular Reform at San Francisco State College, 1967-1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carolyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Thoughts of college student protests during the late 1960's and early 1970's often ignite memories of demonstrations against the Vietnam War. Stories of college student activism during the these years underplay the Civil Rights focus of African American students that preceded and paralleled the more salient Vietnam War protests. Less attention in…

  17. History and Civility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  18. A Study of the Environment Rights in the Context of Civil and Political Rights%公民权利和政治权利语境下的环境权探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松才

    2012-01-01

    As an important human right, the environmental right is manifested in several human rights conventions. It can be found not only in the treaties on civil and political rights, but also in treaties on economic, social and cultural rights. Some civil and political rights prescribed in the international conventions are potentially relevant to the environmental right, which includes right to life, freedom of families and their properties from intervention, right to fair trial, freedom of information. The existence of these fights reveals the indivisible connection between human rights and environment. The realization of human rights relies on proper environment. Good environment can tacilitate the full realization of human rights.%环境权作为一项重要的人权散见于一系列人权公约当中。它分散在与公民权利和政治权利有关的人权公约中,也存在于同经社文权利相关的公约中。在与公民权利和政治权利相关的公约所规定的一些权利中,潜含着环境权或者环境保护的内容。这些权利包括生命权、家庭和财产不受干预权、公正审判权和信息自由权。这些权利的存在,揭示了人权与环境密不可分的联系;人权的实现必须依赖于适当的环境,良好的环境能够让人权得以更加充分地实现。

  19. On Information Investigation and Guarantee of Civil Rights%论信息化侦查与公民权利保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文安

    2011-01-01

    信息化侦查是利用现代信息技术的一种崭新的侦查模式,其对提升打击犯罪的有效性具有积极意义。但由于对信息化侦查缺乏必要的法律规制,侦查机关尚未建立内部防控机制,侦查机关及其人员保护公民权利的意识薄弱,从而导致信息化侦查过程中公民权利尤其是公民的隐私权经常受到侵害。必须通过加强对信息化侦查的规制,加强法制宣传教育,树立侦查机关及其人员权利保障意识等途径,实现信息化侦查中保障公民权利之目的。%Information investigation is a new investigation mode using modern information technology,which plays an effective role in enhancing the effectiveness of cracking down on crimes.But due to the lack of necessary legal regulations of information investigation,investigation agency has not built an internal prevention and control system,the consciousness of investigation agency and its staff to protect the civil rights is weak.Therefore,the civil rights especially privacy right are often infringed in information investigation.Measures should be taken to strengthen the regulations of information investigation,promote legal publicity and education and raise the consciousness of investigation agency and its staff to guarantee the civil rights.In this way,civil rights in information investigation can be guaranteed.

  20. U.S. civil rights policy and access to health care by minority Americans: implications for a changing health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, S; Markus, A; Darnell, J

    2000-01-01

    The history of health care discrimination as well as ongoing, extensive evidence of racial disparities argue for continued vigilance in the area of health care and civil rights. Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, individuals have challenged de facto discriminatory policies adopted by health entities receiving federal financial assistance. Title VI health litigation is difficult because of complex issues of proof as well as confounding problems of poverty and lack of health insurance that affect both claims and remedies. An analysis of cases brought under the law suggests that discrimination claims within a particular market fare better than those challenging decisions to relocate or alter the market served. This has important implications for claims involving discrimination by managed care organizations. Because the same potential for discrimination exists in the new health system of managed care, although in altered form, data collection and evaluation are warranted.

  1. Immigrant Education, Social Justice, and the Civil Rights Project: An Interview with Dr. Patricia Gándara and Dr. Gary Orfield

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2007-01-01

    HR-4437 passed the Congress in December of 2005, and among its provisions would make felons out of undocumented immigrants. Subsequently, there has been a flurry of federal and local attempts to increase immigration enforcement under the guise that they are leeching resources from more “deserving” Americans. The following is a conversation with UCLA Professors Patricia Gándara and Gary Orfield regarding how the Civil Rights Project (CRP) is looking to focus immigration and education as pres...

  2. Observations regarding the right of civil servants to pursue a career. About „instability” in civil service and law non-compliance practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia STOICA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the regulation of the carrier of the civil servants is considered, especially the stability and continuity – essential elements at the European Union level. Unfortunately, in the Romanian legislation, as well as in the institutional case law, it remains a purely declarative issue. The study is based on a series of recent court decisions. We criticized the abusive use of the expeditious ordinances and the instruments of legislative regulation. This is considered as an abusive practice of the law maker and shows a legislative inability related to the regulation of the public office, especially by not observing the conditions in which a person could be relieved of his office. The conclusion of the study leads to the necessity for the law maker to revise the statute of the civil servant, especially by eliminating the fluctuation determined by the succession of the governing political forces.

  3. Advocating for Change? How a Civil Society-led Coalition Influences the Implementation of the Forest Rights Act in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnes, Clare; van Laerhoven, Frank; Driessen, Peter P J

    2016-01-01

    Forest policy implementation is a political endeavor involving both state and non-state actors. We observe that civil society organizations (CSOs) often federate into civil society-led coalitions (CSCs) in order to shape forest policies in their favor. They appear to be successful in doing this duri

  4. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  5. O direito à saúde na interface entre sociedade civil e Estado The right to healthcare at the interface between civil society and state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Rangel de Souza Machado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir sobre o desenvolvimento do direito à saúde no Brasil. Parte-se do processo de construção dos direitos sociais, passando pela assunção destes direitos na Carta Magna Brasileira até chegar às compreensões atuais de certos segmentos sociais sobre o direito à saúde. A análise baseia-se na pesquisa realizada em Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, a respeito da atuação conjunta entre conselhos de saúde e Ministério Público. Pode-se observar que o direito à saúde tem sido associado à ideia de acesso a serviços de saúde. Isto, no entanto, tem se mostrado ser um aspecto limitador na luta pela garantia e ampliação deste direito. Por este motivo, determinados segmentos da sociedade vêm adotando uma postura mais ativa em relação à compreensão sobre este direito. Tal compreensão tem rendido ganhos substanciais na luta pela ampliação do direito à saúde no Brasil. Assim, explicitar as diferentes concepções sobre o direito à saúde de um conselho de saúde que tem se demonstrado atuante no cenário nacional pode dar indícios sobre as formas de atuação possíveis e as estratégias desenvolvidas nestas instituições para a garantia deste direito.The objective of this paper is to discuss the development of the right to healthcare in Brazil. It begins with the process of creating social rights, going from the rise of these rights in the Brazilian Constitution until reaching the current understandings of certain social groups concerning the right to healthcare. The analysis is based on research conducted in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, in regards to the joint action between health councils and the Public Ministry. It can be observed that the right to healthcare has been associated with the idea of access to healthcare services. This, however, has been shown to be a limiting aspect in the fight for the security and expansion of this right. For this reason, certain groups of society

  6. 孙中山民权主义的宪政考量%Examining Sun Yat-sen’s Civil Rights Doctrine According to the Principle of Constitutionalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈先初

    2014-01-01

    孙中山的民权主义,包含着某些宪政因素,但与宪政的要求相去甚远。19世纪末叶的中国已经沦为半殖民地半封建社会,摆在中国人民面前的主要任务不是从事国家建设,而是驱逐外国势力和推翻封建帝制,为建立新国家扫清障碍,由此决定了主要服务于当前革命运动的民权主义不可能遵循宪政的逻辑。不过民权主义中关于未来中国政治制度的目标设定,仍具有相当的宪政意义。%Sun Yat-sen’s civil rights doctrine is far away from the requirement of constitutionalism,though it contains some constitutional factors.The end of the 19th century,the Chinese society has been reduced to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society,the main task of the Chinese people is not engaged in national construction,but the expulsion of foreign powers and overthrow the feudal monarchy,clear the way for establishing a new nation,which determines the civil rights doctrine can only be in the service of the current revolutionary movement and impossible to follow the logic of constitutionalism.But the pro-visions of the civil rights doctrine about the future of the constitutional China still have the constitutional significance.

  7. 民法视角下的休息权%RIGHT TO REST FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CIVIL LAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程思良

    2011-01-01

    The right to rest is an independent personal right which is necessary for natural person to maintain their independent personality.Holiday entitlement and leisure rights are rights to rest which have the nature of welfare as a recompense for surplus labor.And yet leisure rights have the nature of public welfare.Therefore,right to refreshment and tranquility right are personal rights,while holiday entitlement and leisure rights are not.The main body of right to rest is a natural person,not just workers.The law should define that right to rest is a personal right,and specify the rights that natural person have,and stipulate the legal obligation of violating the right to rest definitely.%休息权为自然人维护其独立人格所必需,且不为其他任何一项人格权所包容,因而是一项独立的人格权。在休息权所包含的全部内容中,休假权和休闲权是主要为劳动者享有的带有劳动福利性质的权利,是对劳动者剩余劳动的一种报偿,而休闲权还具有社会公共福利的性质。因此,休整权、安宁权是人格权,而休假权和休闲权则不是。作为人格权的休息权的主体是自然人,而不限于劳动者。法律应明确规定休息权为自然人的一项人格权,明确列举自然人享有休息权的范围,并明确规定侵犯休息权的法律责任。

  8. A constitutional analysis of the right of action in the brazilian civil suit Uma análise constitucional do direito de ação no processo civil brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pitta Lopes Aquino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the right of action in the Brazilian Civil Suit according to the Federal Constitution. This research highlights the crisis that the State, the Law and the Juridical Science have gone through go mainly after World War II. Proceduralism and substantialism are addressed in regard to their fundamental aspects as well as the existent dilemma between juridical positivism and jusnaturalism. Based on the theories that encompass the “third way”, this work attempts to show the importance of certain procedures for realizing values of constitutional principles that permeate the whole juridical order. It is concluded that the process is not only an instrument but also a dimension of law itself. The right of action as expressed in art. 5, Chapter XXXV of the Federal Constitution is eminently procedural and should be undertood as a right to process.O estudo objetiva a análise do direito de ação no processo civil brasileiro a partir da Constituição Federal. Aponta a crise por que passam Estado, Direito e Ciência Jurídica ,especialmente após a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Procedimentalismo e substancialismo, bem como jusnaturalismo e positivismo jurídico são apresentados em seus pontos fundamentais. Com fundamento em teorias que compõem uma “terceira via”, busca demonstrar a importância dos procedimentos na realização dos valores consubstanciados em princípios constitucionais que se irradiam por todo o ordenamento jurídico. Conclui que o processo não é apenas um instrumento, mas uma dimensão do direito. O direito de ação expresso no artigo 5º , XXXV da Constituição Federal é eminentemente processual e deve ser entendido como direito ao processo.

  9. Direitos civis dos jovens e a insegurança urbana Youth civil rights and urban insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Caccia-Bava Junior

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio parte do reconhecimento de uma conjuntura de crise institucional, para analisar o contexto da formação dos direitos civis dos jovens e suas fragilidades ,com vista a alcançar, por meio dessa reflexão, uma exposição dos aspectos da insegurança urbana presentes na sociedade brasileira. Palavras-chave: Crise institucional. Direitos civis dos jovens. Insegurança urbana. This essay starts with the recognition of a particular political institutional crisis as a base to analyze the development of the youth civil wrights and their gaps in order to reach an exposition of the characteristics of urban insecurity that takes place in Brazilian society. Keywords: Institutional crisis; Youth civil wrigths; Urban insecurity.

  10. On the Discovery Right in Civil Law of China---With Theoretical Proposition to Take the Discovery Right as a Right of Honor in the Field of Science%论我国民法上的发现权--兼论将发现权作为科学领域荣誉权的理论构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王竹; 杨亦楠

    2014-01-01

    我国民法上的发现权制度源于前苏联的科技成果权中的发现权制度,《民法通则》将其纳入知识产权体系是立法错位的遗留问题。发现权在性质上不是知识产权,我国司法实务对发现权的定性实为科学领域的荣誉权。建议以《人格权法》起草为契机,将发现权改造为一种科学领域的荣誉权,纳入人格权体系,对发现的判断标准、发现人的确认、发现权的内容和适用范围作出明确规定。%The rule of discovery right in civil law of China has its origin in the rule of discovery right in the right of scientific and technological achievement system established by the former Soviet Union .It is an unsolved mistake of legislation that the General Principles of Civil Law treats it as an intellectual prop -erty right.Discovery right is not an intellectual property right in nature .The legal practice in China re-gards discovery right as the right of honor in the field of science .It is suggested that the drafting work of Personality Right Law provide an opportunity to transform the discovery right into the right of honor in the field of science , and consolidate it into the system of personality right , and provide a clear regulation in terms of criteria of judging a discovery , determining the discoverer , and the contents and scope of appli-cation of discovery right .

  11. “It’s made a huge difference” : recognition, rights and the personal significance of Civil Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Shipman, B.; Smart, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we map briefly some of the arguments around the meaning and significance of the introduction of Civil Partnership in England and Wales, and in this way show how contested these meanings are. We then turn to our empirical data to explore the extent to which these arguments and issues are part of the everyday decision making processes of same sex couples who have decided to register their partnerships or to undergo a commitment ceremony of some kind. In doing this, we were inter...

  12. On Homeowners' Rights Protection, Civil Spirit and Citizen Society%业主维权、公民精神与公民社会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂洪辉

    2015-01-01

    There are disputes over whether homeowners ' rights protection showed civil society or not in aca-demic circles.Through the analysis of the connotation of civil society and contrast standard of citizen socie -ty, it is hard to draw the conclusion that the civil society will come .From the homeowners ' rights target point of view , the homeowners are only for the benefit of their own community , and do not respect the inter-ests of the society .From the movement means point of view , the homeowners use informal political action , and lack rule consciousness .From the community autonomy point of view , self-governing is difficult because the homeowners lack autonomous spirit and ability .From the citizen spirits point of view , homeowners ' rights protection is not rational , lacking sense , equality , tolerance , concession and volunteer .Whether a so-cial movement has the characteristics of civil society or not depends on the followings :its external system of democracy and market economy , its public pursuit of social movement , a higher level of the public value pursuit of issues , the citizen ' s spirit individuality , the movement targets of homeowners beyond their own in-terests, and the common interests of the personage , the others and the society .According to this standard , some of the the environmental movements in China , and the labor politics movements of NGOs may promote a civil society .%学界对业主维权是否预示着公民社会到来存在争议. 从业主维权目标上看,业主仅是为了社区利益,没有尊重他人利益或社会利益;从运动手段上看,业主维权采取非正式政治与策略性行动,缺乏规则意识;从社区自治角度看,业主在社区治理的常态下自治非常困难,缺乏自治精神与能力;从公民素养看,业主维权行动不妥协和不理性,缺乏理性、平等、宽容、妥协和志愿精神为特征的公民精神. 判断一个社会运动是否具有公民社会的特质,除了看

  13. 论当事人证据收集权的程序保障%Protection of the Right on Evidence Collection by Parties in Civil Litigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱新林

    2012-01-01

    当事人是民事诉讼证据收集的主角,对作为裁判对象的事实基础负责,有必要为当事人收集证据提供程序保障。法律传统、诉讼理念、律师代理情况与立法成本等是构建当事人证据收集制度路径选择中的考量因素。增加文书提出命令、重构庭前证据交换制度、通过切断当事人对书面证言之依赖进而强化证人出庭作证是提升当事人收集证据能力的基本出路,应该纳入到民事诉讼法修正案草案中。%In civil evidence collection system, the parties is the leading role and responsible for providing evidence, the civil pro- cedure law should safeguard the parties' right to collect evidences especially when their burden of proof is strengthened. Facing with various suggestions, how to choose the specific evidence collection approach suitable for China? There are several consider- ing factors : legal tradition,litigation theory, the situation of lawyer agency and the legislative cost. In order to improve the par- ties' ability to collect evidence, we should establish the order of putting forward evidence to court, reconstruct the evidence - ex- change system and perfect the witness appearing in court system, through revising the Civil Procedure Law of PRC.

  14. Improving the police activities in ensuring the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen and interaction with civil society institutions: comprehensive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichek E.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian police reform is another important step to modernize the country and public administration system. The main purpose of ongoing reforms is to create the modern and efficient law enforcement system, to form a new image of police officer in the XXI century and to change the social role of law enforcement agencies in society. Unfortunately, the results expected by society aren’t achieved. It’s stated that the reform is only at its beginning, many decisions are still to be made and implemented. The main focus is on comprehensive measures aimed at improving the police activities in ensuring the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen and interaction with civil society institutions. Some features and problems of interaction between police and civil society institutions are considered. Statistics is provided. A number of constructive conclusions concerning further progressive development of interaction of police with civil society institutions are made. Despite the significant number of papers devoted to these issues, it’s necessary to note the insufficient elaboration of problems in this area. The reason is the ongoing reforms in Russia in general and police reform in particular, the instability of the current legislation regulating these issues. A lack of a clear concept of the reform, arising from a clear understanding of the police role and functions, is evident. These and other circumstances determine the topicality and practical importance of the research, the necessity of studying the peculiarities of police activities to improve its efficiency. They also indicate the need for scientific and practical recommendations.

  15. 14 CFR 1204.508 - Delegation of authority of certain civil rights functions to Department of Health, Education, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rights functions to Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1204.508 Section 1204.508 Aeronautics... Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (a) Pursuant to the authority of § 1250.111(c) of this chapter..., Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, on March 15, 1966: (1) Responsibilities with respect...

  16. The United States and South Africa: History, Civil Rights, and the Legal and Cultural Vulnerability of Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, JoAnne

    1986-01-01

    The cultural histories of Blacks in the United States and in Southern Africa are parallel in the following ways: (1) the roles of Blacks in the labor force and in politics; (2) the careers of leaders like King, Mandela, and Tutu; (3) organized struggle for rights; and (4) the rise of a Black consciousness. (VM)

  17. La ampliación de los derechos civiles de las mujeres en Chile (1925 y Argentina (1926 The expansion of women's civil Rights in Chile (1925 and Argentina (1926

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Giordano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo asume una perspectiva de género y de hibridación de disciplinas que alienta la confrontación del derecho privado y del derecho público, para dar cuenta del avance desigual de la ciudadanía en Chile y Argentina, en la década de 1920. En ambos países hubo leyes de ampliación del estatuto jurídico de las mujeres, derivadas de procesos legislativos impulsados tanto por partidos políticos como por movimientos sociales. En ambos casos las reformas fueron expresión de un proceso de cambio social más amplio, de sostenida combatividad del movimiento obrero y de creciente participación de las mujeres en el mercado de trabajo, tanto de las obreras como, más incipientemente, de las profesionales de clase media. En este marco, la reforma civil fue limitada y se hizo simultáneamente con el avance de los derechos sociales y en nombre de una mujer ideal: la madre y la esposa. Congruentemente, se mantuvo el principio de autoridad del varón en el seno de la familia y la exclusión de las mujeres respecto del sufragio.This article offers a perspective of hybridization of disciplines and a gender perspective that thrusts a cross-check of private law and public law to explain the irregular advance of citizenship in Chile and Argentina in the 1920's. In both countries there were laws that extended women's civil status. These laws were part of a legislative process carried out by political parties and social movements. In both cases the reforms expressed a broader process of social change, of rising confrontation of the working class movement and increasing participation of women in the labour market, both working class women and middle class professionals. In this context, the reform was limited and it was carried out simultaneously with the advance of social rights and in the name of an ideal woman: the mother and the wife. Congruently, the principle of authority of the man within family relations and the exclusion of women concerning

  18. Rebels without a Cause? Civil disobedience, Conscientious Objection and the Art of Argumentation in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Nieminen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil disobedience is often seen as a political statement whilst conscientious objection is understood as a private matter. This article discusses real-life acts of disobedience in the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The emphasis is on the argumentative strategies by which the potential for profound social change can be neutralised in legal argumentation. The cases discussed here concentrate on Turkey and represent acts of conscientious objection and civil disobedience. The main finding is that in legal argumentation there are two strategies for neutralising the potential for change: first, labelling the disobedient act as a private matter in order to deprive it of its political message, or second, labelling the act as violent, undemocratic behaviour so that it can be disregarded. The article shows that the law is unable, and perhaps unwilling, to fully acknowledge the political claims of disobedience. A menudo se percibe la desobediencia civil como una declaración política, mientras que la objeción de conciencia se entiende como un asunto privado. Este artículo analiza actos de desobediencia de la vida real a través de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos. Se enfatizan las estrategias argumentativas por las que se puede neutralizar el potencial de cambio social profundo a través de la argumentación jurídica. Los casos analizados aquí se centran en Turquía y representan actos de objeción de conciencia y desobediencia civil. La conclusión principal es que en la argumentación jurídica existen dos estrategias para neutralizar el potencial de cambio: en primer lugar, etiquetar el acto de desobediencia como un asunto privado, para privarlo de su mensaje político, en segundo lugar, etiquetar el acto como un comportamiento violento y no democrático, para que pueda ser ignorado. El artículo demuestra que el derecho es incapaz de, y tal vez reticente a, reconocer totalmente las reivindicaciones pol

  19. 家庭权的私法保障%The Protection of the Civil Law on Family Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕玲

    2012-01-01

    Our Constitution to the protection of the family means not only prohibits the State from the family to the implementation of direct infringement, but also requires the State to enact laws to implement the constitutional protection of the family. "Marriage Law" as the Basic Law to adjust the domestic relationship, the system on the family right to build and perfect has a direct impact on the realization of family right for every citizen. China should draw lessons from the international community diversification of family forms and the concept that children~ interests to maximize, correct gaps in the existing law, Perfect the family support sys- tem, realize the family pension and social security~ complement each other; Expand the connotation of the family, give cohabiting couples equal family rights protection; estabilish artificial reproductive standard, clear the legal status of the artificial reproductive children;perfect the family violence prevention legislation, let family realize the balance and harmony between the private law and public rights autonomy.%宪法对家庭的保护意味着既禁止国家对其实施直接侵害,又要求国家颁布法律以落实宪法精神。《婚姻法》作为规范家庭成员权利义务关系的基本法,其关于家庭的制度构建及完善直接影响着公民家庭权益的实现。我国应借鉴国际社会家庭形式多元化与子女利益最大化之理念,弥补传统法的缺陷,完善家庭扶养制度,实现家庭养老与社会保障的互为补充;拓展家庭的法律内涵,赋予同居伴侣平等的家庭权益保护;健全人工生殖规范,明确人工生殖子女的法律地位;完善家庭暴力的防治立法,让家庭和谐在私法自治与公权干预的最佳平衡间实现。

  20. Conflict and Balance between Public and Private Rights in Civil Protest System%民事抗诉制度公权与私权的冲突及平衡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石莹芸; 李福建

    2012-01-01

    民事抗诉制度可能影响申诉人或被申诉人的权益,但并非对私权的不当干预。对申诉人或被申诉人权益的影响,可以通过平衡民事抗诉中公权与私权的关系,既要依法适当行使民事抗诉权,追求维护司法公正的价值目标,又要注重维护当事人的权利,努力寻求二者之间的最佳平衡点,实现二者的和谐统一。%Civil protest system may influence the rights and interests of complainants or defendants,but it is not an undue interference to private rights.The influence on the rights and interests of complainants or defendants can be studied through balancing the relationship between public and private rights in civil protest.We should not only exercise the right of civil protest according to the law properly and pursue the value targets of safeguarding judicial justice,but also focus on protecting the rights of the litigants,try to find the best balance between them,and realize their harmony and unity.

  1. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  2. The Role of Prosecutorial Supervision in Supervision of Power and Right Relief in Civil Procedure%民事诉讼权力监督与权利救济中检察监督的角色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪夜丰

    2014-01-01

    The supervision of powers is to ensure the proper exercise of public rights and protect private rights prop -erly.The essence of procuratorial supervision of civil procedure is to realize the relief of litigants ’ rights through the supervision of courts ’ civil trial powers .The finality and judgement of jurisdiction also give it a rejection to external oversight to some extent .Civil prosecutorial supervision is procedural , so the relations between the supervision of power and right relief in civil procedure should be understood correctly and given a reasonable position .Within the scope of its duties ,fair civil trial and effective relief right should be protected by means of scientific supervision ac -cording to the respective characteristics of cases .%权力监督是为确保公权的正确行使,对私权尽到应有的保护。民事诉讼检察监督实质是通过对法院民事审判权力的监督,实现对诉讼当事人权利的救济。审判权的终局性和裁决性也赋予其对外部监督某种程度的排斥性,民事检察监督只具有程序性,在民事诉讼检察监督的实践中,应正确认识民事诉讼权力监督与权利救济的关系,合理定位,在职责范围内,根据案件属性特点,以科学监督的方式,保障民事审判公正和权利有效救济。

  3. 我国传染病防治领域公民权利保护的立法进展与思考%Legislative Progress and Strategies on Civil Rights Protection among Infectious Disease Prevention and Control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐缓; 黎慕

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003,obviously progress has been made on civil rights protection among infectious disease prevention and control in China,fight to life. right to health has been strengthened,restriction for right to freedom and living support for it close to human nature,governmental power for right to property and compensation for it equalized,application for right to know is gradually systemization and individualization,approach for right to be assisted become diversity,regulation for right to privacy goes more detail,scope for right to anti-discrimination is appropriate concrete For improving of civil rights protection,however,it is suggested that legislation for equalization of civil rights protection should be sped up,application of civil rights protection written in regulation should be emphasized,law awareness of self-protection for individual rights should be cultivated,experiences and lessons from other countries should be learned to.%2003年以来,我国传染病防治领域公民权利保护的法制建设取得了较大进展,生命权、健康权的维护不断强化,人身自由权的限制及其生活保障更加人性化,财产权的政府处置权力与补偿义务逐渐对等化,知情权的运用逐步制度化、个体化,受救助权的实现形式日益多元化,隐私权的规定越来越具体化,不受歧视权的保护范围适度细化.但是,为了进一步完善传染病防治领域的公民权利保护,建议:加快公民权利保护均等化的立法步伐,关注公民权利保护的法律法规可操作性,提高公民维护自身权利的法律意识,汲取国外依法保护公民权利的有益经验.

  4. Vida, obra y muerte de Alfonsina Storni, Delmira Agustini y Ercília Cobra: La construcción de los derechos civiles Life, work and death of Alfonsina Storni, Delmira Agustini and Ercília Cobra: The builiding of civil rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Giordano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hacia 1920, los derechos civiles de las mujeres fueron discutidos en diversas instancias del espacio público en Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay. No obstante, la sanción de la "capacidad civil plena" fue largamente demorada. En este marco, se observa un fenómeno provocador: la aparición de vidas, obras y muertes de mujeres que tuvieron un sino común. Su estudio permite conocer el proceso de emancipación civil femenina desde una perspectiva novedosa. Una interpretación en términos jurídicos y comparativos permite poner de relieve los límites de un proceso de emancipación del que sin duda estas mujeres fueron parte aunque más no sea a título individual.In the 1920s women's civil rights were discussed at different stages of the public sphere in Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Nevertheless, the formula "full civil capacity" was long retarded. In this context, we observe a provocative phenomenon: the lives, works and deaths of three women that transited a common fate. Through the study of this phenomenon we can look at the process of women's civil emancipation from a new perspective. A juridical and comparative interpretation of it helps to underline the limits of a process of emancipation of which these women were undoubtedly part of at least as individuals.

  5. 社会法治的一个维度:警察权与公民权的平衡%A Dimension of Social Rule of Law: Balance between Police Power and Civil Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文成

    2012-01-01

    This article explained the definition of the police power and the civil rights respectively and analyzed the relationship between police power and civil rights which is unity and conflict. They are unified for the police power is derived from citizenship, safeguards citizen rights, subjects to civil needs, and be supervised by civil rights. Meanwhile, there are many conflictions between them on public and individual interests, order and freedom value, discretion and rights judges, law enforcement authorities and negative confrontation of contradictions. The author suggested countermeasures on the balance of police power and civil rights, including setting up the thought of law enforcement for the people and concept of human rights protection, improving legal awareness and regulations, enhancing the legitimacy and credibility of the police power by the principle of procedural justice, earnestly upholding the authority of police law enforcement and law enforcement interests.%文章分别对警察权和公民权加以诠释。分析了警察权与公民权既统一又冲突的关系,从警察权源自公民权、保障公民权、服从公民权需要、接受公民权监督等,归纳了二者统一的实质;从公共利益与个人利益、秩序价值与自由价值、自由裁量与权益评判、执法权威与消极对抗等矛盾,归纳了二者冲突的表征。论述了探求并实践警察权与公民权平衡的对策,包括树立执法为民思想和人权保障理念、提高法律意识和完善法律规制、以程序公正原则提升警察权的正当性和公信力、切实维护警察执法权威和执法权益等。

  6. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  7. A Comparative Study on Rural Land Property Right in Common Law Legal System and Civil Law System%农地物权制度与农地产权制度比较考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶银球

    2011-01-01

    What is rural land property right system in the civil law system and what is rural land property right system in the common law legal system. How to give them a specific definition, and recognize their characteristics, content, and limitations and find their relationship , is an unavoidable question in the study of rural land property right system. This paper discusses the evolution of rural land property right in common law legal system and civil law system , put forward that the civil law system emphasis too much on ownership while the common law system didn't pursuit overall control, but actual possession and use. At present, the two legal systems show a blend of mutual trend on rural land property right .%何谓农地物权制度、何谓农地产权制度,分别应当作何界定及其分别所具有的特点、内容、局限性是什么,彼此间有何关系,是研究农地产权制度时不可回避的问题。本文分别探讨两种农地制度的演进,认为内地法系的土地物权制度过分强调了所有权的优位,影响了农地的社会化利用,普通法系土地产权制度不过度追求物的归属与全面支配,但重视农地的实际占有与利用,当前,农地物权制度与农地产权制度呈现出交融互鉴的趋势。

  8. 公民权利语境下的我国个人所得税改革%Individual Income Tax Reform in the Context of Civil Rights in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋励佳

    2012-01-01

    Tax revenue indicates the fundamental relationship between citizens and the nation.The rights of citizens as taxpayers epitomize the state power and civil rights in the field of taxation.From the perspective of the civil rights to examine individual income tax reform in China will give full play to citizens′ orderly participation in government management of public affairs.Thus,citizens and the government will communicate effectively,and the citizens will enjoy their rights.%税收是反映公民与国家根本关系的领域,公民作为纳税人的权利就是国家权力和公民权利在税收领域的一个缩影。从公民权利的视角来审视我国个人所得税改革,有助于充分发挥公民有序参与政府管理公共事物的积极性,从而形成公民与政府间的有效沟通,使得公民权利从法律文本走向现实。

  9. Protect and Develop Citizens' Legitimate Rights and Interests——An Interview with Vice-Minister Dou Yupei of Civil Affairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE: The Ministry of Civil Affairs is a most important Chinese Government organ charged with administering social development and management. The scope of its authority covers social refief, disaster refief, social welfare, charity affairs, development of grassroots democracy and administration over non-governmental organization. Following is a transcript of an interview given by Vice-Minister Dou Yupei of Civil affairs on some aspects of ministry's work.

  10. 论美国重建时期南部黑人民权运动的兴起%On the Rise of the African American Civil Rights Movement in South America During the Reconstruction Era of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅琦; 张玲玲

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the African Americans in American history wasn't solved properly for a long time and the American Civil War provided a chance to solve this problem.After the Civil War,the changes in domestic politics and economy,the fights of the slavery abolitionism advocators and African Americans and the awakening of African Americans' racial consciousness and rights consciousness precipitated the raise of the African American Civil Rights Movement in South America.%在历史上美国黑人问题长期未得到合理解决,南北战争为解决这一问题提供了契机。美国内战后国内政治和经济上的变化,废奴主义者和黑人长期坚持不懈的抗争,黑人自身种族和权利意识的觉醒,共同促成了内战后美国南部黑人民权运动的兴起。

  11. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights." PMID:24684150

  12. 34 CFR 303.424 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 303.424 Section 303.424 Education... Civil action. Any party aggrieved by the findings and decision regarding an administrative complaint has the right to bring a civil action in State or Federal court under section 639(a)(1) of the...

  13. 34 CFR 300.516 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 300.516 Section 300.516 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.516 Civil action. (a... aggrieved by the findings and decision under § 300.514(b), has the right to bring a civil action...

  14. 宪法发展与刑法理念的更新——国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变%Constitutional Development and the Updating of the Concept of Criminal Law -- The Evolution o~ Country Rights Criminal Law to the Civil Rights Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛波

    2012-01-01

    As the enforcement of the constitution, criminal Law directly inherited the basic spirit of the constitution. Evolution on value, spirit and concept of the constitution will have a direct impact on the transmutation of the value, spirit and concept of criminal law. The transmutation can be reflected from country rights criminal law to the civil rights criminal law. Regulations about human rights protection and non - public economy in the constitution promote the evolution of country rights criminal law to the civil rights criminal law.%刑法作为宪法的实施法,直接传承着宪法中所蕴涵的基础精神。宪法的价值、精神、理念的嬗变会直接影响到刑法价值、精神及理念的嬗变,这种嬗变可体现为国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变。宪法关于人权保障的规范和关于非公有制经济的规范直接推动国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变。

  15. 关于一般人格权的民法价值及其立法发展%The Value of General Human Rights in Civil Law and Devolopment in Legislation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋涛

    2009-01-01

    Genearl speaking,the freedom,dignity and safty are the standards of personality rights,which are of high generality,the development of the Personality rights is not only the growth of the modern civil law,but also the expression of human's the social value,representing the main body of its society,the diversification of human rights enriches the content of Personality rights.Deemed as a right of"conlmon term",it plays a possitive role in judicial practice.%一般人格权是以人的自由、尊严和安全为标的的,具有高度概括性的权利.它的发展不仅是现代民法的进步,更体现了人作为社会主体的价值所在.人格利益的多样化不仅丰富了它的内容,而且作为具有一般条款性质的权利,在司法实践中发挥着积极的作用.

  16. 民诉立案审查机制与平等就业权的司法救济%Filing Review Mechanism in Civil Procedure and Judicial Relief of Equal Employment Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 吴启敏

    2012-01-01

    Equal employment fight has broad and narrow senses. Equal employment right in a narrow sense specifically refers to the right of access to jobs, and this paper discusses equal employment right in a narrow sense. Equal employ- ment right in a narrow sense has some difficulties in judicial relief because its special tort liability standards are incompatible with China' s stringent filing review mechanism adopted in civil procedure. Therefore, it' s necessary to reform China's theory about right to lawsuit and filing review mechanism, lower the standards of bringing lawsuit to expand the access of equal employment right in a narrow sense to judicial relief, develop new tort liability standards, and achieve judicial relief of equal employment right.%平等就业权有广义狭义之分,狭义的平等就业权专指获得工作岗位的权利,本文采取狭义。狭义平等就业权在司法救济上的存在特殊困境,原因在于其特殊的侵权责任构成标准与我国民事诉讼所采取的严苛的立案审查机制不相容。因此,应改革我国的诉权理论和立案审查机制,降低诉讼提起的门槛,以扩大狭义平等就业权获得司法救济的入口,发展新的侵权责任构成标准,实现平等就业权的司法救济。

  17. 民法视野下排污权交易合同法律关系探析%Analysis about the Legal Relationship of the Pollution Right Trading Contract with View of Civil Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史玉成; 王卿

    2012-01-01

    The system of pollution fight trading contract is the core of pollution fight trading systems. The pol- lution right trading contract belongs to civil contracts and it is of the new kind of civil contract. It is of the environ- mental civil contract. The pollution fight trading contract is distinguished from the common civil contract in the rule of autonomy of the will, the conditional rule, subject of contract, object of contract and it's performance. Based on construction of the system of pollution right trading contract in Environmental Law and perfection of the Contract Law the , China should add regulations to the environmental civil contract. At the same time China should reform the license system of pollution discharge, so as to realize the change of government functions from the leading to su- pelwlsory type%排污权交易合同制度是排污权交易制度体系中的核心问题。排污权交易合同属于民事合同,但又不同于普通民事合同,应将其定性为一种新型的民事合同即环境民事合同。排污权交易合同除在意思自治原则和合同相对性原则上有所突破外,在合同主体、合同客体、合同履行等方面也与其他民事合同有所区别。我国应在《环境保护法》创设排污权交易制度的基础上,完善我国《合同法》的规定,增加环境民事合同的相关规定。同时,改革排污许可证制度,使之与排污权交易合同制度相衔接。

  18. Civil Drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Karen; Kellum, Mary, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains a course in civil drafting to train entry-level workers for jobs in the field. The module contains 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to civil drafting; (2) map scales and measurement; (3) standard symbols and abbreviations; (4) interpretation of surveyor's notations; (5) legal…

  19. 空白票据补充权基础问题的民法学分析%The Analysis of Fundamental Problems of the Supplementary Right of the Blank Commercial Instrument in the Civil Law Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大何

    2014-01-01

    Blank commercial instrument, also known as blank authorized bill, refers to the commercial instru-ment that the person who acts on commercial instrument only signs his name on the bill, and leaves the rest of items to be recorded, partly or even entirely, to other people to finish.And the supplementary right of the blank commercial instrument, terns out to be the central issue in this field.Since the supplementary right of the blank commercial instrument is a civil right, we can analyze it in the civil law perspective.About its theo-retical basis, there are mainly four doctrines:theory of appointment, theory of agency, theory of contract, and theory of authorization.After compare these theories and the supporters’ point of view of each other, we can draw a conclusion that the theory of authorization is the most appropriate one.Finally, concerning the type of the right, we find that it is a dilemmatic situation between admitting that the supplementary right of the blank commercial instrument is a right of formation and applying to the limitation of actions.%空白票据,又称空白授权票据,是指票据行为人仅在票据上签名,而将票据上的其他应记载事项,全部或一部分交由他人完成的票据。而空白票据补充权是其中的核心问题。空白票据补充权是民事权利,故应从民法角度对其进行剖析。关于空白票据补充权的理论基础,主要有委任说、代理说、契约说、授权说四种。在以民法视角比较分析相关理论及支持理由之后,可知授权说最为妥当。最后,关于权利类型问题,发现在承认其为形成权,以及适用诉讼时效之间,发生了一个两难的选择。

  20. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  1. 马来西亚民商事管辖权制度初探%On the System of Civil and Commercial Jurisdictional Rights of Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧福永; 王岚岚

    2004-01-01

    In Malaysia, jurisdictional rule consists of convention, domestic legislation and case law. In court system, it has its supreme court and subordinate courts. In jurisdictional restriction, it primarily has state immunity, diplomatic and consular immunity and does not stipulate any rights over foreign land and forum agreements. However, the Court of Malaysia reserves its rights of the proceedings for “Lis Alibi Pendens or non convement court” .

  2. State-Sponsored Homophobia and the Denial of the Right of Assembly in Central and Eastern Europe : The "Boomerang" and the "Ricochet" between European Organizations and Civil Society to Uphold Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    State-sponsored homophobia emerged in certain Central and Eastern European states in the past decade, with the denial of the right of assembly for gay pride marches. However, more recently there has been progress in the recognition of the fundamental democratic right of assembly. What accounts for t

  3. Civilizing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Paddy

    2011-01-01

    The theory of “civilizing processes” was developed by Norbert Elias in the 1930s to describe and explain the generation of higher standards of various forms of conduct in the context of unplanned but structured changes in state formation and lengthening chains of social interdependencies (Elias 2000). The idea of civilized conduct may seem a strange companion to popular understandings of consumer culture, when the latter phrase is often associated with hedonism, individualism and excess. But ...

  4. Human Rights Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China issues a white paper on its human rights,highlighting freedom of speech on the Interne The Chinese Government released a white paper on its human rights in 2009 on September 26,highlighting the role of Internet freedom and the country’s efforts in safeguarding citizens’legitimate civil and political rights.

  5. On Civil Protection of Right of Private Information on Internet%网络空间个人信息隐私权的民法保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤伟; 李志珍

    2011-01-01

    隐私权是公民的基本人格权利。计算机信息网络技术的发展使得网络空间的信息隐私权受到严峻挑战。信息隐私权具有不同于普通隐私权的属性并极易受到侵害,国外形成了不同的保护模式,我国应参考不同的立法例并根据我国国情提出适当的信息隐私权保护模式。%Privacy is the basic personal rights.The development of the internet technology has brought serious challenges to the protection of the right of private information on the Internet.The right of information privacy is different from the traditional right of privacy and can be easily offended.The foreign countries have formed the protection modes which we should refer to,thus we should put forward an appropriate mode according to China's actual conditions.

  6. The Clash of Civilizations, Much Ado about Nothing or Something Rotten in the Kingdom of Enforcement! Do IP rights merit special considerations under competition law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2011-01-01

    It is often claimed, but rarely in further detail, that IP rights create tensions under competition law and thus merit special considerations. While little can be held against the first, the latter is significantly less evidential if it involves a restrictive, or no application, as strong arguments...

  7. Eliminating mental disability as a legal criterion in deprivation of liberty cases: The impact of the Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities on the insanity defense, civil commitment, and competency law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobogin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A number of laws that are associated with deprivations of liberty, including the insanity defense, civil commitment, guardianship of the person and numerous competency doctrines in the criminal context, require proof of mental disability as a predicate. The Convention on the Rights of Persons With Disabilities commands signatory states to eliminate that predicate. Summarizing principles set out in my book Minding Justice: Laws That Deprive People With Mental Disability of Life and Liberty, I explain how this seemingly radical stance can be implemented. Specifically, this article proposes adoption of an "integrationist defense" in the criminal context, an "undeterrability requirement" when the state seeks preventive detention outside of the criminal process, and a "basic rationality and self-regard test" for incompetency determinations. None of these proposals requires proof of a mental disorder as a predicate condition.

  8. 股份有限责任公司中小股东权益的民事诉讼救济措施%A Tentative Study on Reliefs in Civil Litigations for Moderate/Minor Shareholders' Rights in Limited Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖

    2001-01-01

    Based on the definition of moderated/minor shareholders and a study on the rights they share and the possibility of their rights being injured, an analysis is made of the imperfectness of reliefs in civil litigations when the rights of moderate/minor shareholders are injured. It proposes that reliefs for moderate/minor shareholder's rights be constructed in civil litigations.%通过对中小股东的定义、中小股东享有的权益及权益受到侵害的可能性进行探 讨,分析我国对中小股东权益遭受侵害时民事诉讼救济措施不完善的表现,提出构建保护中小股东权益的民事诉讼救济措施的设想。

  9. MEDIAMUSIC RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on copyright and related rights related to music and near-music works (literary, scientific in the media environment. The key legal issues of right holders and users are investigated on the basis of the modern Russian law (Civil Code, and on examples from practice of broadcasters, leading music education institutions and scientific databases. The emphasis is on the music art, literature and science in the digital space of Internet, which today is associated with the largest number of creative innovation, and in which accordingly, there is the greatest number of violations of copyright and related rights. In this regard, the author proposes to amend the current Russian legislation to allow the creation of the organization managing the intellectual property rights in the web on a collective basis.

  10. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  11. Conforming Amendments to the Regulations Governing Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, National, Origin, Disability, Sex, and Age under the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987; Final Rule. Federal Register, Part IV: Department of Education, 34 CFR Parts 100, 104, 106, and 110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Register, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The Secretary amends the regulations governing nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, handicap, and age to conform with statutory amendments made by the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 (CRRA). These amendments add a definition of "program or activity" or "program" that adopts the statutory definition of "program…

  12. 公民基本权利在刑事追诉中的可能状态%The Possibility of Basic Civil Rights in Penal Prosecution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕萍

    2012-01-01

    公民一旦受到国家刑事追诉,其基本权利即陷入了危险的境地,既有可能受到因正当程序造成的合理性伤害,更有可能遭受非正当程序带来的巨大侵害,再强大的犯罪势力在国家暴力机器面前也渺如蝼蚁,更何况国家追诉还存在因制度缺陷而殃及无辜的可能性。这就是刑事诉讼制度在打击犯罪的同时必须充分保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人基本人权不受过分损害和非法侵害的根本理由。%Once a citizen is under the penal prosecution of the state, his or her basic rights are in danger hereupon. There may be reasonable infringe caused by due process, or great infringe caused by undue process. Even the most powerful crime forces become small as worms before state violent machinery, let alone the state prosecution has the possibility of hurting the innocent because of the defects in system. That' s the fundamental reason why penal prosecution system must protect completely the basic human rights of suspects and defendants from over and illegal infringe.

  13. The Enlightenment of The Love Canal Events to Chinese Civil Environmental Rights Movement%“拉夫运河事件”对中国民间环境维权运动的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹

    2015-01-01

    拉夫运河事件是20世纪70年代末期在美国发生的典型的有毒废气物掩埋造成严重污染的事件,该事件对运河周围居民的健康造成了极其严重的威胁。人们在路易斯·吉布斯的领导下,以拉夫运河户主协会为组织,同污染企业及政府进行了艰难的斗争。在经历了疑惑、失望、绝望之后,最终,拉夫运河居民在这场漫长的环境维权运动中赢得了胜利。在这一维权运动中,有很多经验教训值得我们深思,并对当今中国的环境维权运动有很大的启示:首先,在一场环境维权运动中必须要有一个有组织的公民团体;其次,新闻媒体在环境维权中所发挥的作用是不容忽视的;最后,相关的环保法律法规在环境维权运动中同样是必不可少的。%The Love Canal Events seriously threatened the health of the residents. In order to survive, people were forced to form the Citizens' Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes (CCHW) and in the lead of Louis Gibbs they struggled hardly with polluting enterprises and the government. After the confusion, disappointment and despair, the love canal residents eventually won the day in the long environmental activism. The rights movement has a lot of experience and lessons worthy of our consideration and has significance to current Chinese environmental rights movement:Firstly, in an environment rights movement an organized civil society is necessary. Secondly, the role of news media in environmental activist cannot be ignored. Finally, the relevant environmental protection laws and regulations in environmental rights movement are also indispensable.

  14. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  15. Os direitos civis das mulheres casadas no Brasil entre 1916 e 1962: ou como são feitas as leis Civil rights for married women in Brazil, from 1916 through 1962: or better, how laws are made

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Novaes Marques

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A historiografia sobre transformações culturais associa modificações no modelo de família a mudanças econômicas de ordem estrutural, tal como industrialização e crescimento da população urbana. A sociedade brasileira mudou radicalmente da segunda metade do século XIX aos anos 1950. Ainda assim, foi preciso um processo de decisão amadurecido no Congresso para ajustar o país legal ao país real. Este artigo examina um aspecto dessa separação: o poder que os maridos detinham como tutores de suas esposas. Em termos metodológicos, são examinados os debates parlamentares sobre direitos de mulheres casadas em dois momentos históricos: nos anos 1930 e 1950.The branch of historiography that studies cultural changes relates modifications to family models and structural economical changes, such as industrialization and growth of urban life. Brazilian society, for instance, changed radically between the second half of the 19th Century and the 1950s. Even so, adjustments between legality and reality took a long time to mature in the Parliament. This article examines one aspect of such discrepancies between legal and real world: the tutorial power of husbands over their wives. In methodological terms, the article analyzes parliamentarian debates on women's civil rights in two moments of the history of Brazilian political institutions: in the1930s and in the 1950s. It examines which forces interacted to make institutional changes concerning women in Brazil along this period a viable option.

  16. 13 CFR 302.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... found at 15 CFR part 8; (2) 42 U.S.C. 3123 (proscribing discrimination on the basis of sex in Investment... Local Public Works Program), and the Department's implementing regulations found at 15 CFR 8.7 through 8... discrimination on the basis of disabilities), and the Department's implementing regulations found at 15 CFR...

  17. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Program (EEOP), if required to maintain one under 28 CFR 42.301, et seq... will: (1) Require that every applicant required to formulate an EEOP in accordance with 28 CFR 42.201...,000 or more submit a copy of its EEOP (if required to maintain one under 28 CFR 42.301, et seq.)...

  18. Research on the External Conditions and the Government Responsibility for the Realization of Civil Rights of Consciousness in China%论我国公民权利自觉化实现的外部条件与政府职责

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽芳

    2012-01-01

    公民权利的自觉化,是指公民对自己权利的自我认识及正确行使的能力状态。要想让这种自觉化变为现实,在外部条件上,必须有完善社会的法治环境,树立法治理念;明确国家权力和公民权利的辩证关系,对主权者身份认同意识重新觉醒;认清国家权力和公民权利的辩证关系,能够帮助公民充分认识到公民权利是国家权力的来源和存在前提;依法享有和维护正当权利是行使人民当家作主的合法权力;政府对公民维权行为采取鼓励支持态度;创造条件让公民熟悉法定权利,提高法治素质和维权能力。这些外部条件赋予了政府以重要的职责:加大法律执行力度,坚决实施依法治国的基本方略;扩大人民民主,加强公共行政监督机制;深化政治制度改革,促进服务型政府转型;理论实践相结合,坚决落实公民权利教育。%Consciousness of civil rights refers to the state of the ability of citizens about what civil rights are and how to exercise them. To transform the consciousness of civil rights to realization, in the external conditions, we should have a systematic and perfect law environment, set up the concept of legality, clarify the dialectical relationship of national power and civil rights and awaken the sovereign status consciousness; the government should take more positive attitude to help the citizens realize that the civil rights of the citizens are the sources and premise of the state power and that it is the legitimate power for them to enjoy and defend their due masters' rights. Many conditions and environment should be created so that citizens can be familiar with legal rights and improve their ability to use them. Because of these external conditions, the government has its unshirkable responsibility to strengthen the enforcement of law, firmly implement the basic strategy of state affairs according to law, expand the civil democracy and reinforce the public

  19. The Human Right to Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Villán Durán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The international codification of the human right to peace was brought to the United Nations by civil society organizations. The draft declaration submitted to the States has a holistic nature, is very rooted in the international human rights law, and considers peace as the absence of all forms of violence (Santiago Declaration on the Human Right to Peace of 10 December 2010. A working group appointed by the UN Human Rights Council should achieve a new and consensual text to bridge the existing gap between developed and developing States in this field, the former being more supportive of the thesis maintained by civil society.

  20. 5 CFR 359.702 - Placement rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Placement rights. 359.702 Section 359.702 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR... rights. (a) An appointee covered by this subpart is entitled to be placed in a vacant civil...

  1. Rights or Repentance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnigerode, Fred A.

    1977-01-01

    Early data suggest that homosexuals are becoming more aware of their civil rights and more willing to fight for them. Men and women no longer have to repent for their homosexual feelings and behavior. Presented at the 1976 American Psychological Association Convention, Washington, D.C. (Author)

  2. Legal Protection of the Right of Appeal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江曼

    2014-01-01

    The right of appeal consists in the essential civil rights of the citizens promulgated in the constitution. The essence of the private rights of citizens against the administration of public power. This article through to the relevant laws and regulations of civil appeal right and academic achievements of research, the article defines the concept the right of appeal, and compares with the administrative reconsideration system and the petition system, and expounds the legal position of administrative complaint system. The author also combines the reality of our country, and puts forward suggestions on the protection of citizens’ right of appeal.

  3. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  4. Det civile samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement.......Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement....

  5. The Geography of Civil Unions in Vermont

    OpenAIRE

    Coulmont, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, Vermont established "civil unions" meant for same-sex couples. This form of marriage relied on the existence of a local gay and lesbian community, while contributing to the development of "gay and lesbian tourism" and pushing certain churches to revisit their treatment of same-sex couples. Gay and lesbian rights and rural communities are not mutually exclusive.

  6. State Phobia and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell; Villadsen, Kaspar

    State Phobia draws extensively upon the work of Michel Foucault to argue for the necessity of the concept of the state in political and social analysis. In so doing, it takes on not only the dominant view in the human sciences that the concept of the state is outmoded, but also the large interpre...... and political rights of individuals. Arguing that states and their cooperation remain of vital importance to resolving contemporary crises, they demonstrate the interdependence of state and civil society and the necessity of social forms of governance....

  7. A right to cultural identity in a UK Bill of Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the possible inclusion of a right to cultural identity in a UK Bill of Rights, highlighting the centrality of culture to debates about the accommodation of diversity in the UK as well as the increased recognition of the importance of cultural rights under international human rights law. The article argues that the inclusion of a minimal minority rights guarantee based on Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966 would be an innocuous s...

  8. The Judicial Application of the Plaintiff's Cancellation Right in the Appeal of Civil Proceedings%论民事二审程序中原告撤诉权的司法适用——兼与李海涛法官商榷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石珍; 曾令抄

    2011-01-01

    私权自治并不能证成二审撤诉权的自由行使,《民事诉讼法》第13条、第157条也不能成为二审撤诉权的规范依据。二审撤诉权必须以《最高人民法院关于适用〈民事诉讼法〉若干意见的规定》第191条为适用依据。在原告申请撤诉、被告同意撤诉且生效判决尚未确定等要件之下,方可允许原告撤回起诉,且应通过禁止再诉防止原告滥用诉讼权利。%Proprietary autonomy can not verify the justification of the free exercise of cancellation right in the appeal of civil proceedings,and also the Section13 and Section157 of the Civil Procedure Law can not be the standard basis of the cancellation in the appeal.The application of the cancellation in the appeal must be in accordance with the Section 191 of the Supreme Court opinions on the application of certain provisions of the Civil Procedure Law.Until the Application for withdrawal of the plaintiff,the defendant agreed to the withdrawal and the entry into force of such elements has not been established under the ruling,can the plaintiff be allowed to withdraw the complaint,and to avoid the plaintiff 's abuse of the litigation rights,it is not allowed to take the repeat complaint..

  9. 42 CFR 488.436 - Civil money penalties: Waiver of hearing, reduction of penalty amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties: Waiver of hearing, reduction... Civil money penalties: Waiver of hearing, reduction of penalty amount. (a) Waiver of a hearing. The... the civil money penalty. (b) Reduction of penalty amount. (1) If the facility waives its right to...

  10. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  11. Right patient, Right blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selberg, Hanne; Madsen, Trine Stougaard

    2014-01-01

    Right patient, Right Blood Simulation based training in blood transfusion practice in nursing education Background: In spite of strict checking procedures to handling transfusion of blood severe adverse reactions are likely to happen and the major cause of morbidity occurs to be liable to human...

  12. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...

  13. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  14. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  15. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journe...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time.......An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...

  16. 5 CFR 185.118 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rights of parties. 185.118 Section 185.118 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.118 Rights of parties. Except as otherwise limited by this part, all parties...

  17. 5 CFR 185.144 - Right to administrative offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Right to administrative offset. 185.144 Section 185.144 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.144 Right to administrative offset. The amount of any penalty or...

  18. "The Goddamndest, Toughest Voting Rights Bill": Critical Race Theory and the Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The author utilized Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the passage of the US Voting Rights Act (VRA) of 1965 in an effort to disrupt the simplistic, uncritical understandings of the US Civil Rights Movement common to school texts while also arguing for the ongoing importance of the VRA in a time when voting rights for people of color are under…

  19. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  20. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors ...

  1. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  2. Civil Society Organizations: Development and Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Ali Saleh

    2016-01-01

    One has not to be worried about civil society organizations because they have already received an important role to play in social activities, in the development and the defense of human rights. Therefore, they represent a key partner for the state, alongside with which they participate in economic and social development. In fact, nowadays, it is no longer possible for the state alone to vouch for social development and to assume responsibility for all social problems. The relations between t...

  3. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  4. Judicialização da política e Sistema Interamericano de Direitos Humanos: uma investigação empírica da atuação das organizações da sociedade civil / Judicialization of Politics and Inter-American Human Rights system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Alves Vestena

    2011-09-01

    ção destes mecanismos de controle social pela sociedade civil organizada. Palavras-chave: Sistema Interamericano de Direitos Humanos, Judicialização da Política, Pesquisa Empírica, Organizações não governamentais. Abstract This article brings analysis on the third stage of the research lead by the group Human Rights, Judiciary and Society – DHPJS (in portuguese – about the justice system and the performance of its agents in Rio de Janeiro. Its focus is set on the usage of international human rights laws by national courts. During previous stages, judges (both of district and circuit courts were interviewed and asked about the usage of such norms in their decision-making process and about their education on the theme. This time, attention is brought to those recurring to the system, especially when organized collectively in civil associations. Our hypothesis sustains that judicial courts have been looked for as locations for disputes, both in an internal perspective (which may be proved by many theoretical outlooks as in an international one. The phenomenon identified in the national arena can be interpreted in the context of regional protection system for Human Rights: the Inter-American Court and Commission may be developing into a “para-judicial” stage in the concretization of those rights. This second hypothesis may be spoken of theoretically and proven empirically so as to check if civil organizations are used to turning their social struggles into cases before the mentioned system. The empirical research lead by the group supplies data for reflections on the hypothesis aside from showing threads to pursue. The group talked to 36 NGOs registered on ABONG – Brazilian Association of Non-Governmental Organizations –who aim at Human Rights protection so as to gather information on their articulation with both the national justice system and the regional one. The article presents possible connections between judicialization of politics and the regional

  5. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  6. The Right to Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2001-01-01

    When Canada signed the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1990, all government levels became responsible for adopting and implementing a set of entitlements considered too radical for Americans. Critics claim the Convention subverts absolute parental and institutional authority over children. Implementation problems and progress are…

  7. Reform and Development of Shanghai's Civil Affairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINGLING

    2005-01-01

    The work of the Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau centers on social administration,democratic political construction at grass roots level, social relief and welfare,care and support of servicemen and their families, and national defense construction. It guarantees the people's basic rights, particularly those in difficulty,and maintains social stability. Effective management of civil affairs is crucial to the construction of a weft-off society.

  8. Socio-Economic Rights: Legally Enforceable or Just Aspirational?

    OpenAIRE

    Ilias Trispiotis

    2010-01-01

    Although the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 cited social welfare rights without distinguishing them from civil and political rights, the separation has been widely accepted by judges, scholars and politicians. Historically, the classification of human rights into two groups, with the relegation of socio-economic rights into a lower category of human rights, emerged and developed mainly after the 1950s during the Cold War and ultimately led to the adoption of two separate UN Cov...

  9. THE PUBLIC DEFENDER OFFICE IN THE NEW CIVIL PROCEDURE CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Barros dos Reis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is objective and descriptive study about the main forecasts of the New Code of Civil Procedure on the Public Defender Office, as well as their influences and consequences in the work of the Public Defender in the civil lawsuit. Starting from the analysis of the Public Defender Office as essential to justice institution with the task of promoting the rights of the needy, the study is to discuss the importance of the institution as a subject standalone process, its function as a special curator, as well as systematize the prerogatives and responsibilities of Public Defender in the New Code of Civil Procedure

  10. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T B; Morris, M

    1977-05-01

    We have argued that planning for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence should involve a minimum number of assumptions. In view of the feasibility (at our present level of understanding) of using nuclear fusion to effect interstellar travel at a speed of 0.1c, it appears unwarranted (at this time) to assume that it would not occur for at least some technologically advanced civilizations. One cannot even conclude that humans would not attempt this within the next few centuries. On the contrary, the most likely future situation, given the maintenance of technological growth and the absence of extraterrestrial interference, is that our civilization will explore and colonize our galactic neighborhood. A comparison of the time scales of galactic evolution and interstellar travel leads to the conclusion that the galaxy is either essentially empty with respect to technological civilizations or extensively colonized. In the former instance, a SETI would be unproductive. In the latter, a SETI could be fruitful if a signal has been deliberately directed at the earth or at an alien outpost, probe, or communication relay station in our solar system. In the former case, an existing antenna would probably be sufficient to detect the signal. In the latter case, success would depend on the way in which the communications were coded. Failure to detect a signal could permit any of the following conclusions: (i) the galaxy is devoid of technological civilizations, advanced beyond our own, (ii) such civilizations exist, but cannot (for some reason which is presently beyond our ken) engage in interstellar colonization, or (iii) such civilizations are not attempting overt contact with terrestrial civilizations and their intercommunications, if present, are not coded in a simple way. To plan at this time for a high-cost, large-array SETI based on the last two possibilities appears to be rather premature. PMID:17760037

  11. 45 CFR 1225.21 - Statutory rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory rights. 1225.21 Section 1225.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE... Statutory rights. (a) A Volunteer, trainee, or applicant is authorized to file a civil action in...

  12. 5 CFR 752.605 - Appeal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeal rights. 752.605 Section 752.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) ADVERSE... Service § 752.605 Appeal rights. (a) Under 5 U.S.C. 7543(d), a career appointee against whom an action...

  13. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  14. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  15. 试析民事合同欺诈与合同诈骗罪的区别--以一起林权转让纠纷为例%Difference between Civil Contract Fraud and Crime of Fraud of the Contract---Take a Case of the Forest Rights Transfer Disputes as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武亚莉

    2014-01-01

    从一起林权转让纠纷的定性为切入点,深入探讨民事合同欺诈与合同诈骗罪的含义、特征,分析二者的区别,即民事合同欺诈与合同诈骗罪在主观目的、客观表现、数额要求、法律责任等方面不同,指出执法实践中特别应注意审查欺诈行为人主体资格是否属实,弄清欺诈行为人客观上有无实际履约能力,查清欺诈行为人有无实际履约行为,核实行为人不履行合同的原因,查明行为人资金和财务流向等问题。%As transfer forest rights disputes together qualitative is the breakthrough point, this paper deeply discusses the meanings of civil contract fraud and contract fraud, characteristics, and analysis the difference between the them, namely the civil contract fraud and crime of fraud of the contract in the subjective purpose, objective performance, requirements, legal liability, and so on. This paper mainly points out that more attention should be paid to the problems of law enforcement practice, and the reason why perpetrator doesn’t carry out the contracts.

  16. To Make the Right Realized——The Design of Self-help Behavior System in Civil Code%让权利得到实现——民法典民事自助行为制度的立法设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沃耘

    2011-01-01

    Self-help behavior is a type of the private-relief behaviors,which is the most direct and effective way to achieve the right.Self-help behavior should be disciplined and guided by the way of model feature rules and guidelines of the law,in order to achieve the institutionalization and standardization of self-help behavior.The mode of the operation of self-help behavior is distinguished between absolute and relative right,and the logical position of self-help behavior is determined in the claim relief system of the Civil Code.Operational legal system of self-help behavior should be built in the future Chinese Civil Code,learning the reasonable factors of the foreign related legislation.Institutionalization of self-help behavior is accomplished on the basis of combination of general rules and classification.%民事自助行为属私力救济的一种行为样态,是权利主体最直接、最为有效实现权利的方式。通过法的示范功能和指引作用对民事自助行为加以规范与引导,进而实现民事自助行为的制度化与规范化。区分民事自助行为在绝对权与相对权请求权救济体系中的运作方式,确定民事自助行为在民法典权利保护与实现制度中的逻辑定位。我国未来《民法典》应有倾向地借鉴国外民事立法相关制度的合理因素,采取一般化与类型化相结合的立法模式,构建具有可操作性的民事自助行为法律制度。

  17. Civil Preparedness: Government Propaganda

    OpenAIRE

    Grieve, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The United States government used civil defense theater as a means to distract the U.S. public from the dangers of atomic weapons and the build up and testing of its nuclear stockpile. When defense theater failed, the government sought out other events as a means to continue the distraction.

  18. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  19. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  20. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  1. EXPLORATION ON PERFORMANCE AND CAUSES OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS OF AFRICAN-AMERICAN IN WORLD WAR II---LEAVING ASIDE THE DISCUSSION OF THE POSTWAR BLACK CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT%二战后美国黑人教育进步的表现及原因探析--撇开战后黑人民权运动的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩; 周磊

    2014-01-01

    Education is particularly important for enlightening wisdom and heritage of national culture of a nation, but as a "second-class citizens", the African-American’ right to receive education was denied when they came to the American continent. The African Americans not only struggle for freedom, but also for the right to receive education at all times. The blacks’right to receive education after World War II has been continuously improved and achieved great progress. The progress in educational advancement is due to the post-war turbulent black civil rights movement and more importantly, the main reason is due to the enhancement of the political and economic status of African Americans;In addition, Postwar America needs high-quality labor of African Americans; Postwar U.S. domestic and international situation have also played a significant role in promoting the educational progress of African Americans;certainly the progress also benefits from the support of liberal American politicians.%教育对于启迪一个民族的智慧和传承民族文化尤为重要,而作为“二等公民”的美国黑人接受教育的权力在其来到美洲大陆,就被剥夺。美国黑人在争取自由的同时,也在无时不刻的争取接受教育的权利。二战后黑人受教育权利不断得到改善,进步明显。这些进步不仅是战后风起云涌的黑人民权运动所致,更主要的是美国黑人自身政治经济地位的提升;战后对于高素质黑人劳动力的需要;同时战后美国国内和国际形势对于黑人教育进步也起到了很大的促进作用;当然也得益于开明美国政治人物的支持。

  2. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  3. China's Judicial Protection of Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN LIANG

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has devoted great efforts to improving judicial protection of human rights in the past 30 years.It has ratified the International Covenant on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights,signed but yet to ratify the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and become a state party to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel,Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.In March 2004,the 10th National People's Congress adopted at its second plenary session the amendments to the Constitution,writing "the state respects and protects human rights" into the Constitution,declaring that China will use legal means to protect and safeguard human rights.

  4. Exploring Civilizations with 'Seven Wolves'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing - A farewell party for the CCTV (China Central Television) crew 'Road to Civilizations-Global Exploration Tour of World Major Civilizations' - the world's first TV series documenting the journey of exploring the 12 civilizations in the human world, was sponsored by Fujian Septwolves Industry Co., Ltd and held at the Beijing Landmark hotel on 16 January.

  5. 77 FR 70710 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... civil penalty policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10... action is taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as..., adjust penalties based on inflation at least every four years. DATES: This rule is effective December...

  6. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...) entitled ``Civil Penalties'' which proposed the adjustment of certain civil penalties for inflation. 74 FR.... See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997) (NHTSA's civil penalty policy under the Small Business Regulatory... Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act...

  7. China's Ratification and Reservation of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights%论我国加入《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》的批准与保留——以刑事诉讼法为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 左勇

    2012-01-01

    At present, a certain gap of requirements exists in Criminal Procedure Law of PRC and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). For example, in China's Criminal Procedure Law, the scope of charges is narrower than that of the ICCPR; equality, openness, impartiality are not fully reflected ; the presumption of innocence principle is not established ; the minimum protection of the rights of the accused in criminal trials is not equal to the required protection of the ICCPR; and the principle of ne bis in idem is not established. Meanwhile, according to the reservation of the fair trial procedures upon the accession to the ICCPR of each state, this paper an- alyzes the enlightenment for China. On this basis, this paper probes into the construction of fair trial procedures be- fore China accedes to the Covenant.%目前我国《刑事诉讼法》与《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》的要求具有一定的差距,如指控范围窄于《公约》要求;平等、公开、公正原则不能全面体现;无罪推定原则没有真正确立;刑事审判中对被告人权利最低限度的保障达不到以及一事不再理原则没有真正确立等。同时,根据各国加入《公约》时对公正审判程序的保留情况,分析对我国的启示。在此基础上,探讨我国加入《公约》前对公正审判程序的构建。

  8. Human Rights of Women and A Harmonious World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XIAOLING

    2007-01-01

    @@ Human rights of women are an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights, as well as a major reflection of social civilization and social harmony. Human society is a whole consisting of men and women. The world will inevitably be a disharmonious one if women, who make up half of the total population, cannot enjoy equal human rights.

  9. 5 CFR 352.206 - Expiration of reemployment rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expiration of reemployment rights. 352.206 Section 352.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS....206 Expiration of reemployment rights. Reemployment rights granted under a Letter of Authority...

  10. The Limitation of Western Civilization And the Revival of Oriental Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Hao

    2014-01-01

    <正>In the distribution of modem world civilizations,the Oriental civilization and Western civilization are the two major civilization systems.Western civilization is often represented by the Christian civilization in Europe and North America on both sides across the North Atlantic.Oriental civilization appears more diversified,among which the Chinese civilization,India civilization and Islamic civilization are the most influential

  11. Galactic-scale civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  12. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and citiz......The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...... degree, what kind of groups and which types of aims are pursued via these channels and this type of engagement. The paper ends with some preliminary empirical findings of transnational engagement and organisation among Alevis and (Turkish) Assyrians in Denmark, Sweden, and Germany....

  13. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.

  14. Civil Servants’ Salary Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bilquees, Faiz

    2006-01-01

    The paper looks at the trends in nominal and real salaries of the Federal Government employees over the period 1990-2006. It examines the structural defects in the existing salary structure and the anomalies in the allowances structure to show that appropriate remuneration for the civil servants requires serious and urgent consideration. The widening gap in the emoluments of government employees versus the public sector corporations and private sector employees has a strong bearing on the mot...

  15. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  16. Children's Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)

  17. Jurisdiction and its determination in civil cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rasnačs, Lauris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The main target for the present research is creation of the comprehensive research on jurisdiction in civil cases. In the result of the present research is proposed the new definition for legal term ‘jurisdiction’, undefined in the present Latvian legal science, as the proposals of the amendments to legal terms ‘pakļautība’ and ‘piekritība’, related to jurisdiction and specific for Latvian law. The author also has made the broad research on the principle of right to a fair trial a...

  18. Historical aspects of the nuclear right development; Aspectos historicos en el desenvolviminento del derecho nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Diva E. [Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay). Facultad de Derecho

    1999-04-01

    This paper analyses the historical aspects of the nuclear right development. It makes the evolution of the fundamental principles of nuclear right, in special, the civil responsibility for nuclear damages. (author)

  19. Is there a human right not to be a trade union member?: labour rights under the European Convention on Human Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Mantouvalou, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the protection of labour rights in the context of civil and political rights documents and explores the compatibility of closed shop arrangements with human rights law. It contributes to the relevant debates in two ways. First, it seeks to examine how the “integrated approach” to interpretation, a method increasingly preferred by the European Court of Human Rights when examining work-related complaints, affects the regulation of closed shops. Second, it attempts to resolve...

  20. 7 CFR 16.2 - Rights of religious organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and expression of its religious beliefs, provided that it does not use USDA direct assistance to... employment discrimination on the basis of religion, set forth in section 702(a) of the Civil Rights Act...

  1. 马克思早期在何种意义上批判了黑格尔的市民社会观*--基于对《黑格尔法哲学批判》的文本分析%In What Sense Marx Criticized Hegel”s Concept of Civil Society:A Textual Analysis Based on Marx”s Critique of Hegel”s Philosophy of Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福公; 孙乐强

    2014-01-01

    As people”s understandings of civil society are asynchronous historically and logically,Marx and Hegel came up with different views of civil society.As Hegel had an in-depth understanding of the double meaning of Eng-lish civil society deeply,his concept of civil society represents such a logic:privilege-coequality-privilege subla-ting coequality.In Critique of Hegel”s Philosophy of Right (1843),influenced by the traditional political privilege of civil society as well as Feuerbach's philosophical methodology,Marx proposed the view of privileged civil society with humanism as the framework and people”s sovereignty as his content in criticizing Hegel,which means that Marx only criticized the first link of Hegel”s logic from the perspective of political privilege, so he had not refuted Hegel completely,which is directly attributable to his lack of classical economics knowledge at that time.Although his lack of classical economics knowledge plunged Marx into bourgeoisie ideology of right,his attention on modern civil society proved a turning point that marked his turn to realism and started his road to search for historical materialism.%基于对市民社会在历史和逻辑上的非同步性认识,马克思和黑格尔提出了不同的市民社会观。由于深刻认识了英国式市民社会的双重性,黑格尔的市民社会观表现为这样的逻辑:特权-同权-扬弃同权的特权。而在《黑格尔法哲学批判》中,受市民社会的传统政治内涵和费尔巴哈的影响,马克思在批判黑格尔的过程中建构起以人本学为框架、以人民主权为内容的特权市民社会观,即马克思只是从政治特权层面上批判了黑格尔逻辑中的第一环,而没有完全驳倒黑格尔。这是与他此时缺乏古典经济学知识直接相关的。这种理论缺失虽然使马克思无意中陷入了资产阶级法权意识形态,但其对市民社会的关注却成为他转向一般唯物主义、

  2. 马克思早期在何种意义上批判了黑格尔的市民社会观*--基于对《黑格尔法哲学批判》的文本分析%In What Sense Marx Criticized Hegel”s Concept of Civil Society:A Textual Analysis Based on Marx”s Critique of Hegel”s Philosophy of Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福公; 孙乐强

    2014-01-01

    基于对市民社会在历史和逻辑上的非同步性认识,马克思和黑格尔提出了不同的市民社会观。由于深刻认识了英国式市民社会的双重性,黑格尔的市民社会观表现为这样的逻辑:特权-同权-扬弃同权的特权。而在《黑格尔法哲学批判》中,受市民社会的传统政治内涵和费尔巴哈的影响,马克思在批判黑格尔的过程中建构起以人本学为框架、以人民主权为内容的特权市民社会观,即马克思只是从政治特权层面上批判了黑格尔逻辑中的第一环,而没有完全驳倒黑格尔。这是与他此时缺乏古典经济学知识直接相关的。这种理论缺失虽然使马克思无意中陷入了资产阶级法权意识形态,但其对市民社会的关注却成为他转向一般唯物主义、开启历史唯物主义探索之路的重要契机。%As people”s understandings of civil society are asynchronous historically and logically,Marx and Hegel came up with different views of civil society.As Hegel had an in-depth understanding of the double meaning of Eng-lish civil society deeply,his concept of civil society represents such a logic:privilege-coequality-privilege subla-ting coequality.In Critique of Hegel”s Philosophy of Right (1843),influenced by the traditional political privilege of civil society as well as Feuerbach's philosophical methodology,Marx proposed the view of privileged civil society with humanism as the framework and people”s sovereignty as his content in criticizing Hegel,which means that Marx only criticized the first link of Hegel”s logic from the perspective of political privilege, so he had not refuted Hegel completely,which is directly attributable to his lack of classical economics knowledge at that time.Although his lack of classical economics knowledge plunged Marx into bourgeoisie ideology of right,his attention on modern civil society proved a turning point that marked his turn to realism and

  3. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...... theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...

  4. On Property Right and Its Application in Economic Law —— Some Thoughts on the Theory of Civil Law Property Rights%刍议经济法之内物权理论的首创及其意义——对民法物权理论的一些思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼建兵

    2012-01-01

    The Property Right and Its Application in Economic Law which originated from Pro. Cheng Naixin, had broken with the sanctity of traditional Property Law, and developed a domain theory. The traditional Property Law is a narrow sense about "corporeal property law", not including the fructus inside the body, which is the right of labor ability. But the right of labor ability is the first level of human rights, and the core meaning of property law under economic law, which is the foundation of existence and development of human beings. The theory about inner propery is on the basic of morden Property Law, which is a kind of development and breakout of tradition Property Law. The inner prperty law under economic law is the basic right which economic law confirms and protects, and has an extensive application prospect in scientific study and practice. This is beneficial to our huge labor market by arousing the enthusiasm of billions of people making money and improving the ability of making money. And in the end, it is beneficial to promote the rapid and sound development of national eccnomy, and gradually building a harmonious society.%陈乃新先生首创的“经济法之内物权理论”打破了传统民法物权的神圣性,提出了全面而独到的理论——传统物权法理论只有外物权的狭义物权,对作为人为孳息的“存在于人体之内”的劳动力权没有界定,而劳动力权是第一人权,是经济法内物权,是人得以存在和发展的基础。内物权理论是基于法权理论之上的现代物权理论。是对传统物权理论的深化与突破。经济法之内物权是经济法所需确认和保护的最基本的权利,在经济法领域和实践过程中具有广阔的应用前景,这有利于开发我国庞大的人力资源,有利于调动亿万劳动人民创造财富的积极性和提高创造财富的能力,有利于促进国民经济的快速、健康发展,逐步构建和谐社会。

  5. Sociedad civil, ciudadanía y género Civil society, citizenship and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Reverter Bañón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este artículo es ver y comprender la relación de tres conceptos: igualdad de género, sociedad civil y ciudadanía, con el interés de concluir cómo se puede hacer avanzar la agenda feminista. En la historia del movimiento feminista la relación de la sociedad civil y la ciudadanía y sus nexos con el estado han sido el centro de la lucha de las demandas feministas. La historia de los grupos feministas en sus luchas de finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX son un buen ejemplo de cómo las mujeres han sabido constituirse en asociaciones como parte de la sociedad civil para demandar derechos que los estados finalmente han incorporado a través de las leyes y las políticas de igualdad. Los actuales estados democráticos han alcanzado un gran nivel de igualdad legal, principalmente a través del mecanismo de la ciudadanía; pero, este mecanismo no parece suficiente para deshacer algunas desigualdades e injusticias que las mujeres sufren, especialmente en los ámbitos cultural, social y económico. Al analizar estas desigualdades podemos encontrar que la sociedad civil es un campo duro para ser transformado hacia la igualdad, más duro que el representado por el estado democrático.The aim of this paper is to examine three concepts, gender equality, civil society and citizenship, in order to understand what kind of relationship there is between them, and to observe how the feminist agenda might gain from such a relationship. In the revision of feminist history, the link between civil society,citizenship and state appears as the logical development in the struggle for feminist demands. Late 19th century and early 20th century feminist groups are a good example of how women have been very successful in forming associational groups as part of civil society and have claimed the rights that states have finally incorporated through equality policies and laws. Current democratic states have achieved a high level of legal

  6. Women's Rights' Protection: Globalization or Localization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojisola Eseyin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Contextually, the issue of globalization is a socio-political phenomenon. The issue of women's rights is also a socio-political issue. Howbeit, legal implications predicated on them remove them from mere social concerns to the issues of law. Law has its root in culture. This work advocated therefore, caution in the application of globalization euphoria to the issue of women's rights, as their protection is far beyond legal and globalization cosmetics, but entrenched in the application of a more holistic approach. It encouraged an enhancement of women's civil, political and social rights of citizenship, and engagement in transnational solidarity to promote women's human rights across the globe.

  7. Understanding civil society before and after 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Miszlivetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrapped in the ambiguities of the Realpolitik of the Yalta system, East and Central European societies had to proceed on a long path of learning in order to find the right modes of self-organization and articulation to defend their values and identities vis-à-vis dictatorship and authoritarian rule. These bitter lessons contributed to the emergence of a new «strategy», a new vision which materialized in the emerging political philosophy and the political and social practice of civil society. This development would not have been possible without a gradual and fundamental change in political thinking and goal-setting, expressed in the development of a new concept of civil society.Atrapados en las ambigüedades de la Realpolitik del sistema de Yalta, las sociedades del Centro y Este de Europea han tenido que proceder a un largo camino de aprendizaje a fin de encontrar formas correctas de autoorganización y la articulación de la defensa de sus valores e identidades vis-à- vis con una dictadura y una administración autoritaria. Estas amargas lecciones contribuyeron a la emergencia de una nueva «estrategia», una nueva visión materializada en la emergente filosofía política y la práctica social y política de la sociedad civil. Este desarrollo no hubiera sido posible sin el gradual y fundamental cambio en el pensamiento político y el establecimiento de metas, expresadas en el desarrollo de un nuevo concepto de sociedad civil

  8. Challenging Ideological Exclusion of Curriculum Material: Rights of Students and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nat

    1979-01-01

    Argues that, as a matter of constitutional law, public school boards of education do not possess unrestricted authority to exclude material from the curriculum on the basis of ideological content, and explores the rights of students and parents to challenge such exclusions. Available from Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Harvard…

  9. Criminal law repercussions on the Civil Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Musso, L.

    2009-09-01

    The legal systems of our Countries provide the citizenship with a high level of protection. Personal safety and the protection of property are guaranteed by the State through organized structures among which we can include the Civil Protection. The progress of science and technology has greatly improved monitoring tools, currently used by the Civil Protection, which allow, to a certain extent, to predict and prevent risk and natural hazards. The assertion of an individual right, which in some cases has reached a constitutional rank, to benefit from Civil Protection services and the widespread perception throughout the citizenship of the competence of the system to prevent disasters, often causes people to take legal action against Civil Protection authorities should they fail in their duties to protect. However, the attempt of having both recognized an economic compensation for the suffered loss and the punishment of those whom misled, frequently undergoes criminal law. This process could have results that may jeopardize the effectiveness of Civil Protection service without meeting citizens’ demands. A dual effort is thus necessary in order to solve such a problem. On the one hand, an interdisciplinary knowledge needs to pervade criminal law in an attempt to relieve its self-referentiality and pretended supremacy. On the other hand an alternative, and more agile, system -such as civil or administrative law- has to be identified in order to respond to the legitimate requests for protection in the case of a faulty behaviour of the authorities.

  10. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CRIMINAL ACTION AND THE CIVIL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Florin MICU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the free access to the law is considered a fundamental human right, enriched by the Constitution itself. In practice, the committing of an illegal act may cause prejudice, being described as a civil offense, but at the same time may create a report of criminal law, attracting the criminal liability, in which case it is called offense. This is how we find in the jurisprudence, both civil action and criminal action, so that, in this study we try to present some singularities of these two types of actions, and of the relation between them.

  11. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CRIMINAL ACTION AND THE CIVIL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN FLORIN MICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the free access to the law is considered a fundamental human right, enriched by the Constitution itself. In practice, the committing of an illegal act may cause prejudice, being described as a civil offense, but at the same time may create a report of criminal law, attracting the criminal liability, in which case it is called offense. This is how we find in the jurisprudence, both civil action and criminal action, so that, in this study we try to present some singularities of these two types of actions, and of the relation between them.

  12. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CRIMINAL ACTION AND THE CIVIL ACTION

    OpenAIRE

    BOGDAN FLORIN MICU

    2013-01-01

    In Romania, the free access to the law is considered a fundamental human right, enriched by the Constitution itself. In practice, the committing of an illegal act may cause prejudice, being described as a civil offense, but at the same time may create a report of criminal law, attracting the criminal liability, in which case it is called offense. This is how we find in the jurisprudence, both civil action and criminal action, so that, in this study we try to present some singularities of thes...

  13. Civil Society in Romania and Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Lencan STOICA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of civil society has a long and rich tradition in the political thought and activity of the Western world, the identification of its first forms of manifestation often intersecting both human rights issues and the first aspects of democracy in the modern world. Moreover, the essence of the last decades’ changes in Central and Eastern Europe followed naturally the democratic evolution, as well as the state of justice. Therefore, the concept of civil society has a special significance, and in order to understand its deep meaning a more through investigation, a comparative analysis and its compulsory historical survey should be taken into account.

  14. Civil Rights of Foreigners in Private Legal Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukagjin Leka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement of people, goods, money, intellectual property and ideas, nowadays is a normal phenomenon and important characteristic of the contemporary world, and certainly would be characteristic for the future, even in a greater extent, when we consider the fact that globalization today is one of the phenomena that has swept across the globe. Knowing the fact that the intensification of legal relations with a foreign element as to the type and for the content imposes various problems of law, which greatly appears repeatedly and stretches in a new form and new dimension, so today in terms of development contemporary society in general, there are no legal areas where no foreign element appears. For this reason, taking into account the development and intensification of legal relations with a foreign element, especially in the late twentieth century, with the dissolution of a significant number of countries and the creation of new states there are new situations created, which seek diverse solutions that would answer the interests of legal entities, which should be in accordance with the principles of the international community and for this reason a study of this topic will be analyzed.

  15. Should Religious Groups Ever Be Exempt From Civil Rights Laws?

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2007-01-01

    Should a private religious university lose its tax exempt status if it bans interracial dating? Should a religious school be able fire a pregnant married teacher because her continued work would violate the church's view that mothers of young children should not work outside the home? Should a religious social service agency, such as Catholic Charities, be exempt from a state regulation banning discrimination in the delivery of social services on the basis of sexual orientation? Should religi...

  16. Should Religious Groups Be Exempt from Civil Rights Laws?

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2007-01-01

    Should a private, religious university lose its tax-exempt status because it bans interracial dating? Should a religious school fire a pregnant married teacher on religious grounds despite the ban against gender discrimination in employment? Should a religious social service agency be exempt from a state regulation banning discrimination in the delivery of social services on the basis of sexual orientation? This Article argues that courts and legislatures have granted and refused exemptions f...

  17. Charter Schools, Civil Rights and School Discipline: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Keith, Michael A., II; Hodson, Cheri L.; Martinez, Tia E.

    2016-01-01

    This report, along with the companion spreadsheet, provides the first comprehensive description ever compiled of charter school discipline. In 2011-12, every one of the nation's 95,000 public schools was required to report its school discipline data, including charter schools. This analysis, which includes more than 5,250 charter schools, focuses…

  18. Randolph Blackwell and the economics of civil rights

    OpenAIRE

    Hickmott, Alec Fazcakerley

    2011-01-01

    The life of Randolph Blackwell (1927-1981) provides a new lens through which to view the evolution of African American politics during the 20th century. Though perhaps most recognizable as a member of Martin Luther King‘s Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Blackwell‘s career as an activist had dimensions far broader than that of non-violent resistance. Most importantly, Blackwell‘s thought and praxis suggests the centrality of an economic and class-rooted analysis that endured far beyo...

  19. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    OpenAIRE

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Economic, social and cultural right (“social right”) have historically been viewed as distinct in natyre and scope from civil and political right. Rather than being viewed as judicially enforceable rights of immeadiate application, such rights have widely been considered non-justiciable programmatic goals to be archieved progressively within available resources, through political processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the legal and analytical tools to understand why this dichotomy...

  20. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  1. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  2. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  3. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  4. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  5. The rivers of civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  6. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  7. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  8. Codificación civil

    OpenAIRE

    Verdera Server, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Conferencias sobre la codificación civil: aspectos históricos (R. Aznar) y jurídicos (J.M. Badenas)Actividad complementaria de los Departamentos de Historia del Derecho y Derecho Civil.Grado en Derecho

  9. 75 FR 79978 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Enforcement Fairness Act (SBREFA). See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997). As a matter of policy, we intend to... the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection... Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461, Notes, Pub. L. 101-...

  10. 77 FR 55175 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997) (NHTSA's... susceptibility requirements. This action would be taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation... Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 Notes, Pub. L. 101- 410), as amended...

  11. Civil engineering experiences in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de

    2009-01-01

    The good cooperation established between Universities, Laboratory National of Civil Engineering and private companies made possible the execution of a considerable number of civil engineering works by Portugueses, inside and outside the country. Some good examples are presented in this paper.

  12. A theoretical examination of the rights of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Viitalähde, Kirsi; Porkka, Sanna

    2010-09-01

    Nurses' duties and patients' rights have been important foci in nursing. Nurses' rights legitimate the power and responsibility of the profession. There are few published articles on this subject in the nursing science literature. This article is a theoretical examination of nurses' rights that aims to structure (i.e. show the internal logic of) those that have been little studied. It is based on the philosophical literature and published research. Nurses' rights can be divided into: human and civil rights, rights based on health care legislation, professional rights, and earned rights. In this context, professional rights relate to nursing and also to tasks shared with other health care professions. Analyzing nurses' rights will help to promote these rights, improve nurses' position both nationally and internationally, and provide possibilities for enhancing patient care.

  13. Speaking of Race, Speaking of Sex: Hate Speech, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Henry Louis, Jr.; And Others

    The essays of this collection explore the restriction of speech and the hate speech codes that attempt to restrict bigoted or offensive speech and punish those who engage in it. These essays generally argue that speech restrictions are dangerous and counterproductive, but they acknowledge that it is very difficult to distinguish between…

  14. DHS Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties FY 2012 Annual Report to Congress

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Annual Report details CRCL's priorities and activities in FY2012. CRCL’s activities focused on alignment with the Department’s missions: Preventing Terrorism...

  15. DHS Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties FY 2011 Annual Report to Congress

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Annual Report details CRCL's priorities and activities in FY2011. CRCL’s activities focused on alignment with the Department’s missions: Preventing Terrorism...

  16. DHS Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties FY 2013 Annual Report to Congress

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This Annual Report details CRCL's priorities and activities in FY2013. CRCL’s activities focused on alignment with the Department’s missions: Preventing Terrorism...

  17. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  18. The Right to Marry: "Loving v. Virginia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenstein, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the background, legal issues, and significance of the Supreme Court decision, "Loving v. Virginia" (1967). Outlines the history of laws against interracial marriage throughout U.S. history. Asserts that interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment, applying federal civil rights to the states, was a key factor in the case. (CFR)

  19. Human rights begin at birth: international law and the claim of fetal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelon, Rhonda; Zampas, Christina; Brusie, Elizabeth; Devore, Jacqueline

    2005-11-01

    In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the foundation of human rights, the text and negotiating history of the "right to life" explicitly premises human rights on birth. Likewise, other international and regional human rights treaties, as drafted and/or subsequently interpreted, clearly reject claims that human rights should attach from conception or any time before birth. They also recognise that women's right to life and other human rights are at stake where restrictive abortion laws are in place. This paper reviews the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Inter-American Human Rights Agreements and African Charter on Human and People's Rights in this regard. No one has the right to subordinate another in the way that unwanted pregnancy subordinates a woman by requiring her to risk her own health and life to save her own child. Thus, the long-standing insistence of women upon voluntary motherhood is a demand for minimal control over one's destiny as a human being. From a human rights perspective, to depart from voluntary motherhood would impose upon women an extreme form of discrimination and forced labour.

  20. The United States and the universality of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, N

    1999-01-01

    The United States takes a highly relativistic stance toward the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It regards the socio-economic rights and the right to development as without status; exempts itself from all provisions of the Declaration by failing to sign the conventions designed to implement these provisions; and unilaterally qualifies its support of civil and political rights. Leading recipients of U.S. aid have traditionally included regimes with atrocious human rights records. Those struggling for human rights should have no illusions about the systems of power and their servants.

  1. Technical Civilizations in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.

  2. Organized Civil Society, Participation and Citizenship in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    ’s nation states is closely related to the evolution of civil society. (b) European modernity is to be understood within the framework of state, market and civil society based institutions, and (c) there is a strong relationship between citizenship rights, economic prosperity, and political involvement...... of citizens in the society. The economic and social crisis in Europe has accentuated the importance of different types of civic organisations in defending the social rights of the citizens and mediating between citizens and the political authorities. The main reason for this is the legitimacy crisis...... of the participatory democracy in the post-industrial countries. Additional factor to be considered are difficulties of realizing processes that are able to involve citizens in strategic decision-making at community as well as national level and difficulties in the identification and organization of welfare services...

  3. How persistent is civilization growth?

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions will continue to grow exponentially at an average rate of about 2.3% per year.

  4. 33 CFR 1.07-70 - Right to appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Right to appeal. 1.07-70 Section 1.07-70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-70 Right to appeal. (a) Any appeal...

  5. Information for Inmates, Series # 1; A Bibliography of Fundamental Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Joel A., Comp.

    All of the books cited in this brief bibliography are annotated. Included are books on such subjects as: censorship, the moral and legal rights of prisoners, and basic human and civil rights. Some, if not all, of these books should be part of every prison library collection. (NH)

  6. Democratization in the Gulf Monarchies and American Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. Nazrul Islam and Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts made by American private sector and civil society actors after 2000 to popularize democratic values and norms in the six Gulf states, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The study is focused on areas including politics, education, culture, media, human rights, and women empowerment. The paper also deals with approaches adopted, goals and objectives set and strategies devised and employed by the American NGOs regardi...

  7. Human Rights and Transitional Societies: Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Obel

    2008-01-01

    This paper will assess how alternative approaches to transitional justice have the potential for overcoming tensions in between human rights standards. A rule in international law prescribing that states have a duty to prosecute gross human rights violations has emerged. Accordingly, transitional...... in respecting the rights of the accused arose. A group of paralegals known as the "Corps of Judicial Defenders" was thus relied upon as to provide legal assistance for genocide suspects, but also for civil parties. This paper describes the work of these paralegals relating to the transitional trials, and, more...

  8. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  9. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  10. Aspects concerning the immovable accession from the perspective of the new Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria LUPULESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Civil Code introduces several important changes and clarifications regarding the ownership right in general, including in the matter of the ways of acquiring private ownership. Among the ways of acquiring the private ownership right, the accession gets in the new Civil Code a legal regulation which is much more precise and better systematized, especially in relation to the artificial immovable accession, the legislator thus responding to practical needs, as they have been raised in the jurisprudence, but also to controversial issues outlined in the juridical doctrine. This paper aims to conduct a comparative analysis, which is necessary to both the analyst in law and the practitioner, between the old regulation contained in the Civil Code of 1864 and the current regulation provided by the new Civil Code in the field of immovable accession, with special attention to artificial immovable accession, due to its practical incidence.

  11. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  12. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...

  13. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  14. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  15. 30 CFR 903.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  16. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  17. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  18. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the ...

  19. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards an

  20. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  1. Civil Works Seismic Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. This rule defines: - the parameters characterizing the design seismic motions - the calculation methods - the mathematical schematization principles on which calculations are based - the use of the seismic response for the structure checking - the content of the documents to be presented

  2. The Right to Water in the Case-Law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Murillo Chávarro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human right to water is nowadays more broadly recognised, mainly due to the essential societal function that this resource plays; likewise, because of the present water scarcity is generating conflicts between its different uses. Thus, this right aims at protecting human beings by guaranteeing access to clean water that is essential to satisfy vital human needs. Similarly, access to clean water is an important element to guarantee other rights including the right to life and health. The recognition of the right to water is mainly achieved in two ways: as a new and independent right and as a subordinate or derivative right. Concerning the latter, the right to water can emanate from civil and political rights, such as the right to life; or can be derived from economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to health, the right to an adequate standard of living, and the right to housing. This contribution explores the position of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights regarding the right to water, and analyses whether the Court has recognised the right to water and, if so, in which manner.

  3. L’arrêt n°41/2002 de la Cour d’arbitrage : de la notion constitutionnelle de droit politique à la notion de "droit civil" au sens de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme

    OpenAIRE

    Rosoux, Géraldine

    2002-01-01

    The article analyzes the impact of the conventional concept of "civil right" (art. 6 E.C.H.R.) on the constitutional distinction between civil and political rights (art. 144-145 Const.). L'article analyse l'impact du concept conventionnel de "droit civil" (art. 6 C.E.D.H.) sur la distinction constitutionnelle entre droits civils et politiques (art. 144-145 Const.). Peer reviewed

  4. On Limitation of Action against Acts of Continuous Infringement of Trademark Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Ze

    2005-01-01

      The right to claim for damages for infringement is of the character of credit and an object of limitation of action. In case of trademark right infringement, the provision on limitation of action of the General Principles of the Civil Law also apply to the trademark proprietor's right to claim for damages for infringement.……

  5. On Limitation of Action against Acts of Continuous Infringement of Trademark Right

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ze

    2005-01-01

    @@ The right to claim for damages for infringement is of the character of credit and an object of limitation of action. In case of trademark right infringement, the provision on limitation of action of the General Principles of the Civil Law also apply to the trademark proprietor's right to claim for damages for infringement.

  6. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  7. THE RIGHT TO LIFE ENDANGERED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ramalingam

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In this insightful article, Sudha Ramalingam and R.S. Akila highlight the apathy of the State machinery, judiciary and the civil society towards the increasing violations of the right to life through encounter killings. Tracing the history of response to encounter killings, the authors illustrate how perpetrators of this extra-legal deprivation of life and liberty are glorified in news media, revered by the State and civil society, and thus enjoy immunity from the clutches of the criminal justice system. The situation prevalent in a relatively stable Tamil Nadu is especially highlighted in order to demonstrate the falsity of the assumption that encounter killings are widespread only in conflict-ridden states. The willingness of society to acquiesce while the law of the court is replaced with the law of the street is attributed to the lack of faith of civil society in the criminal justice system. The authors lament the proliferation and acceptance of these extra-legal killings in a constitutional democracy like India, labelling the same to be unacceptable.

  8. Sociedad civil y capital social

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernández Santillán

    2009-01-01

    Este documento aborda el tema de la democracia desde una perspectiva opuesta al llamado neoinstitucionalismo; es decir, se orienta a analizar los procesos de democratización desde la base de la sociedad civil y, en es pe cial, desde lo que se conoce como el cap i tal so cial. Desde mediados de la década de 1980, el tema de la democracia desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil fue cobrando cada vez mayor relevancia. Esta tendencia se vio reforzada por la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de nov...

  9. Three generations of human rights of women in the 20th century : an analysis of international legal documents

    OpenAIRE

    Birdal, Sevcan

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 129-142 This thesis focuses on the generations of human rights of women based on Vasak’s notion of three generations of human rights - in which the first generation rights refer political and civil rights; the second generation rights include economic, social and cultural rights while the third ...

  10. Right Place,Right Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Few hotels have captured as much attention before their opening as Mandarin Oriental, Beijing. Mandarin Oriental, Beijing has attracted extensive publicity for its spectacular appearance, and it also stands right beside China Central Television’s (CCTV) breathtaking structure, with two tall .leaning towers joined by a horizontal section suspended in mid-air. The building has been described by Time magazine as an architectural wonder. The stunning pair of buildings advertise engineering excellence, avant-garde style and adventurous spirit.

  11. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-12-12

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  12. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  13. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  14. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  15. Etica civile e beatitudini evangeliche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colaianni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, riproduce il testo dell’intervento nel dibattito a due voci (con il presidente della Corte costituzionale, Gaetano Silvestri a conclusione del convegno “La Bibbia sulle strade dell’uomo” (Messina, 23 novembre 2013, ed è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti.SOMMARIO: 1. L’etica civile come etica costituzionale – 2. L’etica evangelica – 3. Irriducibilità? – 4. La promessa e il terzo – 5. La libertà – 6. Il tratto di cammino insieme.  Civil Ethic and Evangelical Beatitudes ABSTRACT The differences between civil ethic and religious ethic, that the Author defines as constitutional principles and evangelic Beatitudes, are well known: it’s common knowledge that the ones are effective in the earthly life while the others are oriented to the eternal life. Nevertheless the Author argues that they both have a common feature before that last analysis: they cross as principles of continuing opposition to unjust society, to “unlawful law”, to spreading apart between the constitutional and evangelic must be and the legislative being of positive law.KEY-WORDS: Civil Ethic – Constitution – Evangelical Beatitudes – Differences - Common Feature.

  16. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  17. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  18. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  19. Aging of civil explosives (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam-La Haye, E.L.M.; Klerk, W.P.C. de; Hoen, C. 't; Krämer, R.E.

    2014-01-01

    For the Dutch MoD and police, TNO composed sets with different kinds of civil explosives to train their detection dogs. The manufacturer of these explosives guarantees several years of stability of these explosives. These sets of explosives are used under different conditions, like temperature and h

  20. 75 FR 49879 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. 73 FR 9955. Most recently, on February 2, 2010, the... (SBREFA). See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997). As a matter of policy, we intend to continue to consider the... defraud. This action would be taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation...

  1. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  2. REFORMING CIVIL SERVICE IN KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerievich Bespalov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Administrative reform and, in particular, the civil service reform in Kazakhstan, like other countries of the former Soviet Union in the past 25 years, was due not only need to implement state-building in the former Soviet republics, but also influenced by global trends.The aim of this paper is a comprehensive description of the main stages of the reform of the civil service in the post-Soviet Kazakhstan. The article used the methods of institutional and diachronic analysis (the study of the successive in real historical time steps. Since 1995, Kazakhstan’s leadership proclaimed the establishment of a modern, efficient public service system a strategic priority of its policy. Analyzing the world experience and learning from their own miscalculations, the authorities have made significant progress in this area. At the same time, the unwillingness to make the final choice in favor of the positional model of public service, based on the competitive selection of cadres of public servants, their generous financial reward to bring you to the civil service people from the business, or career model, involving, on the contrary, «closed» career combined intangible benefits and guarantees for public servants, considerably reduces the effectiveness of the reforms. In 2015, President Nursultan Nazarbayev announced a new ambitious program of modernization of the civil service in Kazakhstan. However, the government of Kazakhstan announced plans to reform demonstrate actual recognition of the serious flaws and shortcomings in the implementation of civil service reforms in the early stages.

  3. Extraterrestrial civilizations: Problems of their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskov, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of finding extraterrestrial civilizations and establishing contact with them is directly related to the problem of their evolution. Possible patterns in this evolution and the stages in the evolution of extraterrestrial civilizations are examined.

  4. Selected issues of the property right limitation in the criminal proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Mityukova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The study aims at an analysis of the relationship between civil law and the criminal procedure law system. The author focus on the limitation of the property right in the selected aspects of the criminal proceedings.

  5. 5 CFR 352.907 - Exercise or termination of reemployment rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rights. 352.907 Section 352.907 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... Board on appeal. ... after receipt of notice of involuntary separation during the term of employment with the Commission;...

  6. Animal Rights as a Mainstream Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Rollin, Bernard E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The twentieth century has witnessed a bewildering array of ethical revolutions, from civil rights to environmentalism to feminism. Often ignored is the rise of massive societal concern across the world regarding animal treatment. Regulation of animal research exists in virtually all western countries, and reform of “factory farming” is regnant in Europe and rapidly emerging in the United States. Opponents of concern for animals often dismiss the phenomenon as rooted in emotion ...

  7. RECRUITMENT AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Cristina RADU; Eliza Adela VOICU

    2014-01-01

    An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is...

  8. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  9. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities. PMID:22267079

  10. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  11. Analysis of Reinforcement of Civil Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Corroborative evidence is the basis for ascertaining and corroboration rules are proof the rules, plays a corroborative proof function and limiting the discretion of judges. Full study of corroborative evidence in civil procedure rules to use, helps to perfect evidence rules of civil procedure and civil systems.

  12. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... the USDA civil monetary penalty provisions for the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 (PFCRA) in... E-Government Act to promote the use of the internet and other information technologies to provide... Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 in regulations at 7 CFR part 1, subpart L. The Agency...

  13. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  14. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...

  15. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57... REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For any... willfully participates in the violation, a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000. (b) For any willful...

  16. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  17. 32 CFR 310.46 - Civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil actions. 310.46 Section 310.46 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.46 Civil actions. An individual may file a civil...

  18. 22 CFR 127.10 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780...

  19. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  20. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty. Any... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  1. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to a civil penalty under this part: (1) 10 CFR Part 1017—Identification and Protection of... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 1017.29 Section 1017.29 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Violations § 1017.29 Civil penalty. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 66033, Dec. 14,...

  2. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  3. 33 CFR 401.102 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 401.102 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Penalties-Violations of Seaway Regulations § 401.102 Civil penalty. (a) A person, as described in § 401.101(b), who violates a regulation is liable to a civil penalty...

  4. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia Overview What is arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia? Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (say: “uh-rith-mo-jen-ic right ven-trick- ...

  5. Right heart ventriculography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiography - right heart ... The catheter will be moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can record pressures from the right atrium and right ventricle. Contrast material ("dye") is ...

  6. ARTICLE 21 OF CONSTITUTION OF INDIA AND RIGHT TO LIVELIHOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Neepa Jani

    2013-01-01

    In any organized society, right to live as a human being is not ensured by meeting only the animal needs of man. It is secured only when he is assured of all facilities to develop himself and is freed from restrictions which inhibit his growth. All human rights are designed to achieve this object. Right to live guaranteed in any civilized society implies the right to food, water, decent environment, education, medical care and shelter. The word 'life' as employed by Article 21 takes in its sw...

  7. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised. PMID:27424031

  8. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-07-16

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised.

  9. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    state system has evolved such standards have also developed, incorporating the capacity for social cooperation and self-government to which states must conform in order to fully participate as legitimate members in international society. This study analyzes their justification, and their political...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary......Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...

  10. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  11. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  12. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  13. 32 CFR 537.17 - Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for civil works claims of maritime nature. 537.17 Section 537.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS... nature. Under the River and Harbors Act (33 U.S.C. 408), the United States has the right to recover...

  14. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rrustem Qehaja; Elza Bajrami

    2016-01-01

    This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it ...

  15. Civil service employment statistics 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Livesey; Craig Taylor; Pete Jones

    2007-01-01

    Presents a summary of annual statistics, previously produced by the Cabinet Office and now the responsibility of ONS.This article presents a summary of annual Civil Service statistics for the year ending 30 September 2006, as published in July 2007. Previously produced by the Cabinet Office, responsibility for the collection and publication of these statistics is now with the Office for National Statistics (ONS). This transfer of responsibility was outlined in an ‘In brief’ article in the Feb...

  16. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  17. EXPERIMENTING TOWARDS CIVIL SOCIETY RESILIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbach, Wolf; Kloyber, Christian; Rigaud, Eric; Wendt, Willi

    2015-01-01

    International audience Civil Society Resilience is an area of crisis management that is complementary to professional response. Crisis managers and response organizations need to integrate individuals, communities and local governments in their management efforts, among others by efficient crisis communication via media and the mobilization and handling of citizens as spontaneous volunteers. DRIVER aims at a campaign of experiments: organizational concepts and IT-solutions will be iterativ...

  18. The demography of extraterrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried out within the last ten years on the nature and distribution of extraterrestrial intelligent life are reviewed. Arguments for the absence of intelligent life in the Galaxy based on the assumption that at least some of these would have engaged in colonization and for the presence of colonies of extraterrestrials in some undiscovered location in the solar system are presented, and it is noted that both these views rest on the notion that interstellar travel can be achieved at high velocities in very large vehicles, which has been questioned. Alternative suggestions concerning interstellar exploration by automated probes and the possible extended time scale and motivation for galactic colonization are pointed out. Attention is then given to arguments for the extreme smallness of one of the factors in the Drake equation used to estimate the number of communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Galaxy, including the frequency of single stars, the likelihood that planets with the correct initial composition and conditions for life are at the proper distance from their stars, the probability of the formation of DNA and the origin of life, and the time for the evolution of intelligence. It is concluded that it seems likely that other civilizations exist in the Galaxy, although the number and distribution of such civilizations may only be determined by the detection of one or more examples.

  19. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  20. Towards the Full Realization of the Human Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition*

    OpenAIRE

    Flavio Luiz Schieck Valente

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the conceptual evolution of the right to food into its current denomination as human right to adequate food and nutrition in the broader context of the indivisibility of human rights, women’s rights and food sovereignty. It also explores the challenges and opportunities provided by the Second International Conference on Nutrition and describes the political foundations of civil society’s engagement in the preparation and planned follow-up of the conference.

  1. Child's right to special care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Gupta, S

    1991-01-01

    In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status. PMID:12317284

  2. Perinatal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, A E

    1984-01-01

    The history of perinatal rights is traced to determine how far the law has settled with reasonable certainty and principles can be drawn from decided cases, where the law remains uncertain. It is unlikely that there will be legislation in the near future to bring the law up to date in these matters. The right to prevent conception is accepted these day by practically all shades of opinion. Opinions on methods may differ, but the dividing line between what is contraception and what amounts to abortion is sometimes difficult to determine. The object of the offense of abortion is to protect human life. Briefly, Section 58 of the British Offences Against the Person Act 1861 makes it an offense for a pregnant woman to try unlawfully to procure her own miscarriage and for any person to try to procure unlawfully the miscarriage of a woman, whether she is pregnant or not. The precise time from which the developing ovum is protected has not been legislatively or judicially determined. In 1962 a report commissioned by the British Council of Churches suggested that for legal purposes conception should be taken to commence with implantation, i.e., about 2 weeks after fertilization. It is possible to argue that human life begins at fertilization but that is not a very convincing arugument these days. A better view seens to be that so long as the postcoital pill is taken before the fertilized egg is implanted in the womb it is contraception rather than abortion. The matter will not be totally free from question until Parliament of the courts determine the issue. The Attorney General's view that this form of postcoital treatment does not constitute a criminal offenses within either Section 58 or 59 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1860 goes a long way towards clarifying the position. Opinions begin to divide again when considering the next step after conception. Regarding abortion, the doctor should ensure that be keeps within the Abortion Act 1967 by acting with a

  3. Legislation and patients' rights: some necessary remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic-Zornic, Hajrija

    2007-12-01

    The essence of a patient's rights and legislation framework requires an answer to the question on how legislation can work towards better defining, respecting, protecting and effectiveness of these rights. First, it is necessary to give a short introduction to patients' rights, their definition and different classifications. In the long list of human rights, patients' rights obviously take one of the very important places. Human life and health are the values, which, in comparison with all other human values, are considered as values of the highest rank. Patients' rights represent a legal expression of something, which every person basically and naturally expects from a doctor, medical staff, and from a health care system in general. The subject of the second part of this paper presents the intention, scope and conception of necessary legislation. How should it be considered - in a wider sense or as a special law? Some theoretical and practical questions regarding interaction between medical ethics regulation, confidentiality, and legislation are discussed as well. In the European context there are numerous examples of laws with the specific purpose of protecting patients' rights. Special attention and critical review will be paid to the situation of patients' rights in Serbia. The paper concludes with the point that the role of legislation is evidently important, but the traditional view should be replaced with a new one, due to the reason that modem health law puts the protection of patients' rights on a higher level. De lege lata, the whole system of health law in its diversity (civil, penal and administrative) is characterized by better understanding of rights, duties and legal relations, either through regulation or the protection of patients' rights.

  4. Milestone in the Protection of Human Rights on the Part of the Accused——From the Supreme People's Court recovery of death sentence approval authority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANYI

    2011-01-01

    @@ The protection of human rights on the part of the accused is the core of modern human rights protection, known as the barometer of human rights conditions of a society.The death sentence is, no doubt, the key in this respect,because the right to live is the most basic human right, an inherent natural right, belonging to the first generation of human rights.The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights says in Article 6: "Every human being has the inherent right to life.This right shall be protected by law.

  5. A Brief Overview of the Civil Union Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ntlama

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (the Constitution has provided a sound framework for the elimination of discrimination and prejudice against all members of our society. The Constitution provides for equal recognition of the right to freedom of religion and sexual orientation within the framework of the right to equality. This note aims to provide a brief overview and analysis of the general and potentially problematic features of the Civil Union Act 17 of 2006 (the Act in the context of equality, generally and within realm of the constitutional protection afforded to everyone in South Africa. This contribution is limited to an examination of the quality of the legal protection accorded to same-sex couples as envisaged inthe Act, and not to an analysis of the nature of the institution of marriage itself or the theological and social dimensions of same-sex marriages.

  6. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

  7. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels. PMID:18382849

  8. Human Rights and Peace Education in the Lebanese Civics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuayb, Maha

    2015-01-01

    In 1997 the Lebanese government published its newly developed curriculum and textbooks following a long and fierce civil war, which started in 1975. The new curriculum emphasized nation building, reconciliation and citizenship. This study aims to examine how the civics textbooks in Lebanon addressed human rights and peace education, both of which…

  9. The Democratic Imperative to Address Sexual Equality Rights in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereluk, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Issues of sexual orientation elicit ethical debates in schools and society. In jurisdictions where a legal right has not yet been established, one argument commonly rests on whether schools ought to address issues of same-sex relationships and marriage on the basis of civil equality, or whether such controversial issues ought to remain in the…

  10. Comparison between the legal regime of the extinctive prescription in Romanian civil law and fiscal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucia CRISTEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the institution of the extinctive prescription, first synthesizing the common law stated by the Romanian Civil Code (Section I and then the special regulation given by the Romanian Code of Fiscal Procedure (Section II in which we differentiate between the particular legal regime of the extinctive prescription in the area of the rights of claim (Section 2.1-2.2, in the area of the right to initiate the foreclosure (Section 2.3, and in that of the right to ask for compensation and restitution (Section 2.7. The comparison between the legal regime of the extinctive prescription in civil law and its regulation given by the fiscal law it is stated by the last section, structured into similarities and differences.

  11. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  12. Custodians of the land: Indigenous peoples, human rights and the right to cultural integrity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Gilbert; Expert Seminar on Indigenous Cultures and Languages in collaboration with the UN

    2012-01-01

    This presentation was given as part of the Expert Seminar on Indigenous Cultures and Languages in collaboration with the UN by Dr Jeremie Gilbert from the Middlesex University. The seminar, hosted at Brunel University, took place on the 8th and 9th March 2012 and was organised by Brunel Law School's Human Rights Research Centre. The initiative, fronted by Dr Alexandra Xanthaki of Brunel Law School, represents a positive example of how academia, the civil society and the international communit...

  13. Noviolencia, desobediencia civil y ejemplaridad

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo), sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una edu...

  14. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1998-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment After watching this film you can get the view of the civil engineering work at POINT1 where the ATLAS will be built. 03-11-1998 The video starts with the view of the POINT1 taken from the roof of the building 33. 04-11-1998 View of the installation of the entrance of the SDX1 18/19-11-1998 Installation of the rafters to the building PX15

  15. Classification Of Human Rights: Modern Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor I. Pishhulin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article existing doctrinal approaches to the classification of the rights and freedoms of person are revealed. Author suggests to approach a problem of the rights and freedoms of person classification in a historical and chronological order and on this basis to allocate three generations of human rights. In the article the role of human rights in creation of democratic constitutional state is shown. It is emphasized that a main goal of any state – protection of constitutional rights of the personality and providing opportunities for their full practical realization. According to the author, achievements of modern legal and political science can act as a form of insurance from false understanding of human rights. Author analyzes essence and principles of the rights and freedoms of person, reflecting on problems of their classification and protection, scientists create the base for the legislation on human rights development and for their full realization. Due to such understanding of the scientific activity importance the state and scientific community can combine efforts for the achievement of public consent objectives, creation of civil society, development of its institutes. Author proves that an important role in this process is played also by the legal education which carries out educational functions, promotes in the society formation of the legal culture. In the conclusion author explains why a main goal of any state – protection of constitutional rights of the personality and providing opportunities for their full practical realization. In the achievement of this goal the modern state has to consider human rights not as the instrument of political struggle and a factor of games of politics, but as an inherent supreme value.

  16. Special Issue: Labour Rights, Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Review, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction"; "International Labour Standards and Human Rights" (Valticos); "The Origins of Convention No. 87 on Freedom of Association and the Right to Organize" (Dunning); "Human Rights Law and Freedom of Association" (Swepston); "Freedom of Association" (von Potobsky); "The ILO [International Labour Organization] Declaration of 1998…

  17. HUMAN RIGHTS IN TIME OF GLOBALIZING SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Garb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of processes in the contemporary international environment and the attendant effects, including security risks bring rapid changes in society. On the other hand, new opportunities and challenges are characterized by globalization of security and modern security paradigm, triggered by the overwhelming number of processes within existing systems of national security that modify the state's role in ensuring the safety of its citizens or residents.In the contemporary security paradigm appears a tendency to provide individual security or deviation to the concept of ensuring security of the individual. Security is becoming a fundamental civil right which requires the synthesis of a wide range of state and social policies, including respect of human rights.International terrorism, as one of the security risks, against which many countries have accepted anti-terrorism laws, which intervene in the free exercise of individual rights and that leads to an imbalance between freedom and security.

  18. Responsabilidade civil e ética do ortodontista The orthodontist's civil and ethical responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Minervino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O que se observa atualmente é um aumento no processo de desenvolvimento social que abrange, praticamente, todas as áreas da ciência. Essa conscientização global assegura direitos bem definidos para toda a sociedade, bem como deveres para os profissionais que detêm o conhecimento científico. Em virtude disso, surge o aumento de conflitos entre profissionais de todas as áreas com seus clientes, assim como de dentistas para com seus pacientes. A preocupação desse estudo é apresentar aspectos relacionados à natureza legal e ética a que os ortodontistas estão submetidos, diariamente, em suas clínicas, mencionando aspectos pilares da responsabilidade civil do ordenamento jurídico atual, como também a postura ética que o ortodontista deverá ter com seu assistido.Considering the social development process, an increase that practically embraces all the areas of science is observed nowadays. This global consciousness properly assures defined rights to the society as a whole, as well as duties to the professionals who detain the scientific knowledge. Therefore, the increase of conflicts among professionals from all fields and their clients, and among the odontologists and their patients arouses. The purpose of this study is to show aspects related to the legal and ethical nature to which the orthodontists are daily submitted to, in their offices, mentioning the main aspects of the civil responsibility of the current juridical ordering, as well as the ethical posture that the orthodontist must have in relation to his patient.

  19. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  20. Poverty and Civil War: Revisiting the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has interpreted the correlation between per capita income and civil war as evidence that poverty is a main determinant of conflict. In this paper, we find that the relationship between poverty and civil war is spurious and is accounted for by historical phenomena that jointly determine income evolution and conflict. In particular, the statistical association between poverty and civil wars disappears once we include country fixed effects. Also, using cross-section data for 19...

  1. Your Health Information Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to access your health information Right to an accounting of disclosures of your health information Right to ... Yes. You have a right to receive an "accounting of disclosures," which is a list of certain ...

  2. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  3. Moral autonomy, civil liberties, and Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, J

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the associations among moral autonomy, civil liberties and Confucianism. Concept of moral autonomy; Elements of moral living; Application of moral autonomy in Confucian ethics; Theories of freedom.

  4. Judicial Enforcement of Economic, Social and Cultural Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulona Haxhiraj

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic, social and cultural right (“social right” have historically been viewed as distinct in natyre and scope from civil and political right. Rather than being viewed as judicially enforceable rights of immeadiate application, such rights have widely been considered non-justiciable programmatic goals to be archieved progressively within available resources, through political processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the legal and analytical tools to understand why this dichotomy is false. The paper will consider the international normative framework for the legal protection of social rights, the specific content of state obligations under treaties dealing with such rights, how the international social rights monitoring system functions, and the various obstacles and opportunities currently facing the judicial enforceability of social rights. In every society there is violation which implies its citizen not get proper social right, economical right and cultural right. Proper implementation and adoption of judicial enforcement can reduce this violation rate and established social peace. Step mentioned in the above might not perfect but it might be small starting and ensure social, culture & economical right for the people living in the society.

  5. Coronial law and practice: a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian; McGregor, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Coronial law and practice inevitably impact upon the human rights of those affected by deaths. It is important that such rights be incorporated in how death investigations, up to and including coronial inquests, take place. This article explores the significant impact of the jurisprudence emanating from the European Court of Human Rights, as well as the application of such law by the courts of the United Kingdom and potentially in other countries. It argues that viewing the work of coroners through the lens of human rights is a constructive approach and that, although in the coronial legislation of Australia and New Zealand, many human rights, especially those of family members, and civil liberties are explicitly protected, there remain real advantages in reflecting upon compliance with human rights by death investigation procedures and decision-making.

  6. Promoting Human Rights,Building a Harmonious World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周觉

    2007-01-01

    @@ More than 50 years ago,the United Nations adopted the renowned Universal Declaration of Human Rights. And 40 years passed since the adoption by the United Nations of the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights and the International Convention on Economic,Social and Cultural Rights, and we are also celebrating the 20th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration on the Right to Development. Our gathering here in Bei-jing, which is themed on "respecting and promoting human rights and building a harmonious world," is therefore important.May I extend, on behalf of the China Society for Human Rights Studies, extend a warm welcome to guests, experts, scholars and other friends present on this occasion.

  7. Removing Barriers: The Struggle to Ensure Educational Rights for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix-Hodes, Patricia; Heybach, Laurene M.

    2014-01-01

    While the intent of the federal and state homeless education laws is clear, securing the educational rights of students without housing has been a long legal and political struggle in Chicago and Illinois. Education for students experiencing homelessness is a continuation of the civil rights struggle for equality in education and educational…

  8. Comparing Audio-Supported Text and Explicit Instruction on Students' Knowledge of Accommodations, Rights, and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles L.; Kelley, Kelly R.; Test, David W.; Fowler, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing numbers of students with disabilities entering postsecondary education, it is important to teach students with disabilities their rights and responsibilities governed by civil rights acts (i.e., Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Americans With Disabilities Act) for requesting accommodations in postsecondary education.…

  9. 5 CFR 179.217 - Non-waiver of rights by payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-waiver of rights by payments. 179.217 Section 179.217 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.217 Non-waiver of rights by payments. An employee's...

  10. 42 CFR 460.112 - Specific rights to which a participant is entitled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appeals processes as well as civil and other legal rights. (7) To be encouraged and assisted to recommend... when and where the need arises without prior authorization by the PACE interdisciplinary team. (e... appeals. Each participant has the right to a fair and efficient process for resolving differences with...

  11. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  12. Abortion as a contentious issue in Polish Culture war. Women and their rights in nationalists' strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Gąsiorowska, Halina

    2016-01-01

    This is the 26. article in our series Trouble on the­ Far-Right. In Poland, the long lasting culture war1 over gender roles and religion has been easily framed by the far right into Samuel Huntington’s concept of the “clash of civilizations”. A well-known juxtaposition used in right-wing propaganda: ‘civilization of life’ vs. ‘civilization of death’ in reference to anti-abortion and pro-choice movements respectively is now used to refer to Christians and Muslims. The role of Polish women a...

  13. CIVIL HEALTH IN THE CONTEXT OF PSYCHO-SPIRITUAL HEALTH OF THE GROWING PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. ZEMSH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the axiological aspect of the phenomenon of civil health. As an important characteristic of health program, civil health reflects a complex of thoughts and moods of people, combination of mental and moral qualities of people. Noting the emotional component as a basic feature characterizing the socio-psychological aspects of health, we suggest to distinguish between   althy and unhealthy civil feeling. In this context, healthy civil feeling is characterized by vital activity, patriotism, altruism and tolerance. The following life strategies of a personality are marked, which are formed on the basis of a healthy civil wellbeing: striving for philanthropy, charity, mercy, patronage of art, human rights advocacy, the role of a public activist, military man etc. Unhealthy civil feeling characterizes a wide range of manifestations from civil passivity to personal egocentrism. Today, regretfully we have to state that from primary school age there is a weakening of psychological mechanisms designed to enhance civilian health and growing social activity of the personality. Kids more often demonstrate the signs of addictive behavior, increased isolation and aggressiveness, high level of anxiety. In the article we make an attempt of theoretical understanding of the problem of optimization of relationships with children enhancing their psycho-spiritual health. Under conditions when the school is entrusted with the complex mission of preparing children for life in the system of developing civil institutions, a special importance is attached to interaction between family and education system in the process of changing models of pedagogical interaction.

  14. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  15. Instituciones de Derecho Civil Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Barrera Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dice el autor, que con esta obra culmina su labor de tratadista iniciada hace 40 años, tras la aparición de la primera edición en hojas mimeografiadas en 1970, de las clases de derecho procesal que dictó en la Universidad La Gran Colombia; nos parece un acto más contestatario, que la culminación de su producción científica; y esto por el tratamiento dado al derecho procesal por el legislador, especialmente al Código de Procedimiento Civil de 1970; que en algún momento fue considerado de los más desarrollados en la cultura jurídica “neorománica”.

  16. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too

  17. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  18. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  19. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  20. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  1. Native Americans and the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Arrell Morgan

    1985-01-01

    Details combat and conflicts between Native Americans and settlers before, during, and following the Civil War. Shows how the involvement of tribes in the Civil War and Reconstruction diminished their martial power and made them certain marks for conquest and relegation to reservations. (JHZ)

  2. Searching for extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindilis, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The probability of radio interchange with extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed. Difficulties constitute absorption, scattering, and dispersion of signals by the rarified interstellar medium as well as the deciphering of received signals and convergence of semantic concept. A cybernetic approach considers searching for signals that develop from astroengineering activities of extraterrestrial civilizations.

  3. Active Center of Islamic Dialogue Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Moghimi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that an essay have introduced about Dialogue Civilizations, at first must be start with a definition about it. Obviously, this simple definition is almost difficult. Defining of Dialogue Civilizations is complex and difficult as far as it need to a vast range of definitions. In this essay will argue that how ever definition of Dialogue Civilization is different, can only seek as specific of intemporall and special situations that are in real-life. As well as this essay emphasize to practice of environmental (realm in Islamic countries. The philosophy of this essay is that, what is the share of Islamic environments with regard to looking at Civilizations special phenomena. The first attitude is that Islamic civilization includes different spaces around the globe. The second attitude is that Islamic Civilization includes developing of other Civilizations realm. The third is that in the realm of Islamic Civilization live different human life and this is an important starting point for Cultural Dialogue in the Islamic countries together. The fourth is that, there are expanding (space, population, political systems, organs and economic is different, that we will describe them in this essay.

  4. 49 CFR 235.9 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 235.9 Section 235.9 Transportation... SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of... violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a...

  5. Promoting Civil Discourse in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Billie F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…

  6. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner,...

  7. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...

  8. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1846 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil action. 493.1846 Section 493.1846 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1846 Civil action. If...

  10. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  11. Whose Human Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendel, Margherita

    During the last 50 years, principles, institutions, and policies of human rights have been developed worldwide. This book brings together European and international conventions on human rights, the rights of women, and the users and uses of education, and places them in their wider context. It examines issues in how human rights work, the ways in…

  12. The Forgotten Property Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Tarp, Finn; Van Den Broeck, Katleen

    Studies of land property rights usually focus on tenure security and transfer rights. Rights to determine how to use the land are regularly ignored. However, in transition economies such as Vietnam and China, user rights are often limited. Relying on a unique Vietnamese panel data set at both...

  13. Participation and the right to health: lessons from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Sam Foster

    2009-01-01

    The right to participation is the "the right of rights"--the basic right of people to have a say in how decisions that affect their lives are made. All legally binding international human rights treaties explicitly recognize the essential role of participation in realizing fundamental human rights. While the substance of the human right to health has been extensively developed, the right to participation as one of its components has remained largely unexplored. Should rights-based health advocacy focus on participation because there is a relationship between an individual's or a community's active involvement in health care decision-making and the highest attainable standard of health? In the context of the human right to health, does participation mean primarily political participation, or should we take the right to participation to mean more specifically the right of persons, individually and as a group, to shape health care policy for society and for themselves as patients? Decentralization of health care decision-making promises greater participation through citizen involvement in setting priorities, monitoring service provision, and finding new and creative ways to finance public health programs. Between 1999 and 2008, Indonesia decentralized health care funding and delivery to regional governments, resulting in substantial exclusion of its poor and uneducated citizens from the health care system while simultaneously expanding the opportunities for political participation for educated elites. This article explores the tension between the right to participation as an underlying determinant of health and as a political right by reviewing the experience of Indonesia ten years after its decision to decentralize health care provision. It is ultimately argued that rights-based advocates must be vigilant in retaining a unified perspective on human rights, resisting the persistent tendency to separate and prioritize the civil and political aspects of participation

  14. Superficiary Right of Building: Origin and Development in Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has been dealing for the last four years with a legal revolution in the field of private law. A new Civil Code was adopted in 2012 and many new and forgotten legal figures were restored in the text of the code. An interesting example of forgotten legal figures is the superficiary right of building, which has again entered the legal order of the Czech Republic after a long one hundred years. Unlike the Act on the Superficiary Right of Building of 1912, the new Civil Code extends the scope of persons that may create the superficiary right of building to their land. This should eliminate the obstacle that has substantially limited its wider use. The superficiary right of building is not likely to become a legal concept very frequently seen in public registers. The aim of this paper is, therefore, a reflection on divided ownership and the purpose and genesis of the superficiary right of building in relation to its origins, as well as a prediction of future developments of this legal concept in the real estate market. To analyse the concept, the paper employs formal and legal methods (logical, grammatical and historical method. A comparative study is conducted in the spirit of the comparative method. The superficiary right of building is a suitable complement to the range of options of property rights offered by the new Civil Code. The author concludes that the use of the superficiary right of building, although not limited in comparison with the 1912 Act, will likely be less frequent and focused on longer-term projects.

  15. Advancement of human rights standards for LGBT people through the perspective of international human rights law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cviklová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the issue how various religious and legal systems cope with current developments that undermine binary opposition of man and woman including definition of their sexual and cultural identities. More concretely, it tries to explain, how concrete societies and legislations deal with claims of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals (LGBT that claim broader recognition. It elucidates differences among Western provisions and policies of the relevant legal bodies such as the General Assembly of the United Nations, the European Court of Human Rights and the Supreme Court concerning these issues. It also points to the nature and real impact of international civil society forces such as Yogyakarta principles that formulate extension of rights concerning lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transsexuals. On the basis of comparison of various legal and religious discourses it explains current practices of direct and indirect discrimination and in some non-European national systems even extra-judicial killings, torture and ill-treatment, sexual assault, rape and other violations of human rights. When emphasizing substantial differences among current European states and non-European ones concerning policies toward lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people (LGBT, it shows current tendencies of advancement in the field by common policies of Council of Europe, recent judgments issued by the European Court of Human Rights as well as civil society efforts such as Yogyakarta principles. Swedish standards have been introduced in order to emphasize existing progressive attitudes to LGBT people concerning gay marriages and adoption procedures.

  16. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Bockeria O.L.; Lе T.G.

    2015-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a hereditary cardiomyopathy characterized by structural and functional disorders in the right ventricle, which results in ventricular arrhythmias. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is one of the important causes of sudden cardiac death in young people and athletes. Structural disorders in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia are associated with fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the right ventricular myocardium. These changes lead t...

  17. ECONOMIC RIGHTS OF THE NEIGHBORING RIGHTS OWNERS PERFORMERS’ RIGHTS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA SAVU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific research theme aims to deepen a topical issue, i.e. to examine the legal requirements of performers’ rights from Romania, by collective management, to do a critical analysis of the regulation in our country and to contribute thereby to the correction of the law, to its harmonization with the EU countries. Intellectual creation has some amazing features: it is invisible, it can be passed across borders, it can be multiplied to infinity and its value increases steadily over time. Any country that cares about its traditions and seeks to make progress in the field of culture, of science and education, must recognize, encourage and protect intellectual creation. The copyright neighboring rights or "les droits voisins" as they were called in doctrine and jurisprudence, have been regulated for the first time in the Romanian law by the Law no.8 /1996 on copyright and neighboring rights. The neighboring rights are intellectual property rights, other than the copyright, granted to performers for their own performances or executions, to sound recordings producers and audiovisual recordings producers for their own recordings, and to broadcasting organizations (radio and television for their own transmissions and program services. Performers’ rights can be managed mandatory or optionally by the collective management societies. The collective management of copyright and neighboring rights is a necessary step for implementation of certain rights in comparison with various ways of exploitation. Since the beginning, some of performers’ economic rights proved difficult to assess individually. The technical progress and widespread mass exploitation have made individual control virtually impossible. Collective management primarily involves the collection of remuneration payable by users/importers and its distribution to those entitled to it, proportional to the actual use of each repertory, within 6 months from collection date.

  18. CHILDREN’S RIGHTS TO PLAY AND THE CHANGING PLAY CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    KÜÇÜKALİ, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Many social facts such as civil disturbance, domestic violence, unplanned and incorrect urbanization, virtual world include serious dangers which threaten today’s children and restrict their rights to play substantially. It is not an acceptable attitude for developed and modern societies to leave children alone with such insuperable complications. Adopting all individuals of society to the consideration of children’s right to play, as a right and a responsibility, can merely be achieved not o...

  19. Survivorship and Inheritance Rights for Same-Gender Couples: Relevance to Social Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Cordero; Darrel Montero; Teisha Portee; Renee Spears; Vicki Stevenson; Erica Tatum

    2011-01-01

    Californians voted in November 2008 to ban the right to same-gender marriage in California. This paper summarizes data on changes in societal attitudes relative to homosexuals, same-gender couples, and their civil rights as reflected in Gallup and Princeton Survey Research Associates International poll data over the years through 2011. These findings report deeply entrenched and enduring divisions in American attitudes toward the rights and status of same-gender couples. Although historically...

  20. Political Liberalism, Group Rights, and the Politics of Fear and Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Offe, Claus

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses some of the peculiarities of the “fourth” wave of new democracies, those having emerged in Central East Europe. It also focuses on the “fourth” family of democratic rights which are being demanded not just in this but many other democratic regions; the demand for “group” rights, in addition to civil, democratic, and social rights. The argument explores some of the promises and limitations of “federalist” solutions to the problem of political community.

  1. Study on the Security of the Civil Rights of the Disabled People---Reflection of the Preferential Tax Policy of Social Welfare Enterprises in China%残疾人公民权利的保障性研究--关于中国社会福利企业税收优惠政策的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时立荣; 刘菁

    2013-01-01

    As a significant solution of disability employment,social welfare enterprises play a significant role in the protection of the right of employment and other rights of disabled people. The development of social welfare enterprises depend on preference policy of the country, especially the tax preference policy. This article is trying to overview the historical evolution of social welfare enterprises based on the major tax reform as the main line, then analyzing the evaluation of the present problem. Therefore, to promote the researches of the social welfare enterprises could safeguard and realize the rights of disabled people better.%社会福利企业是中国的残疾人就业的主要平台,国家通过组织集中就业的福利企业模式来保障残疾人的就业。社会福利企业由于先天的不足,其发展壮大依赖于国家的支持和鼓励政策,尤其是税收优惠方面的政策。文章试图以中国建国以来的几次重大税制改革为主线,对社会福利企业所享受的税收优惠政策进行梳理,并对新的税收优惠政策下福利企业发展所存在的问题进行分析。

  2. THE POETIC VECTOR OF CIVILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Epstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article regards poetry as the type of a world view that has profound effect on the social and technical development of civilization. Contrary to popular belief about the decline of poetry in the technological age, poetry, as the desire for imaginative comprehension and transformation of the world, remains the most powerful engine of civilization. There are new, non-linguistic forms of existence of poetry (outside of verses and books that are explored in the article: anthropoeia, biopoeia, kosmopoeia, noopoeia, sociopoeia, technopoeia… For example, the technique is no less metaphorical and symbolic than poetry is, but it embodies the energy of creation not in words, but in the poetically transfigured matter where each element is „playing” with nature, overcomes the force of gravity, the distances of time and space. Tehnopoeia as realized in aviation, rocketry, electronics, Internet, new means of communication, allows to see clearly the invisible, to hear the inaudible, to speak many languages. Technopoeia is the poetic aspect of technology as an activity that implements the creative aspirations of humans and the symbolic vision of the world. The article examines the „physics of poetry,” as it was understood by Surrealists, and shows that the poetic perception of things is not opposed to its utilitarian functions, but both can be harmoniously combined. Contemporatry science and technology aspire to implement a number of fundamental biopoetic and cosmopoetic metaphors: the universe — a computer, a planet — a living organism, the computer — the brain, the Internet — the nervous system, infectious viruses — computer and genes, the language of life — the process of writing… The metaphor becomes an integral part of the scientific outlook and the driving force behind the new discovery. Philology and poetics need to develop new methods of analysis of poetic phenomena as embodied not in verses, but in scientific thinking and

  3. Tropical Climate Dynamics and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, G. H.; Yancheva, G.; Peterson, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James P. Kennett has been a leader in the area of rapid climate change. Jim and his son Douglas J. Kennett, a scientific archeologist, were among the first to make a serious effort to combine high-quality climate data with archeological information to study the impact of climate on societies. They argued about the 'strong relationship between climatically induced changes in environmental conditions and social, political, and economic responses' in coastal California during the past 2 millennia. One tropical climate archive with an appropriate memory for the most relevant sub-centennial to sub-decadal scale climate swings is the anoxic Cariaco Basin off northern Venezuela. Millimeter to micrometer-scale geochemical data in the laminated sediments of the Cariaco Basin have been interpreted to reflect variations in the hydrological cycle and the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical South America during the past millennia. These data with decadal to (sub)annual resolution show that the Terminal Collapse of the Classic Maya civilization occurred during an extended dry period. In detail, the Cariaco record reveals evidence for three separate droughts during the period of Maya downfall, each lasting a decade or less. These data suggest that climate change was potentially one immediate cause of the demise of Mayan civilization, with a century-scale decline in rainfall putting a general strain on resources and several multi-year events of more intense drought pushing Mayan society over the edge. Here, we present a new data set of comparable quality and resolution from Southern China. In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Boelling-Alleroed warming, during the Younger Dryas, and

  4. Competencies Framework for Civil Engineer in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanudej Kudngaongarm

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability and the talent that civil engineers apply in the development process. A competency framework defines a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that professionals must have to excel in their careers. A competency framework facilitates the identification of training needs and guides the design of a professional development program. In this paper we propose a competency framework for civil engineers, whose design is based on the activities and interactions that they perform during the civil development process. Thus, competency framework for civil engineers defines a set of knowledge, abilities and key behaviors, with special emphasis in the soft skills. The organization that adopts this framework must define and integrate the specific competencies needed by for civil engineers to allow them to fulfill their goals.

  5. Politicization of Senior Civil Servants in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea NAHTIGAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the civil service system reform, the new normative framework adopted in 2002 introduced a new management arrangement in public administration, whose consequence was the transition of senior positions within ministries, bodies within ministries, and government offices from political officials to positional civil servants with a limited term of office, who have thus become the most senior civil servants, called administrative managers. Based on extensive empirical research and statistical data, this article provides an in-depth analysis of the status and position of administrative managers, which is intended to serve as a test whether the apex of the Slovenian administrative system is politicized and in what form. In the so-called new democracies, politicization most often is manifested as a violation of the principles of political neutrality characteristic of a professional civil service, through personalized and biased appointments of senior civil servants and in the low degree of protection against lay-offs of civil servants on political grounds. Administrative managers thus often have to decide between political susceptibility and trustworthiness versus professionalism and professional accountability, for their tasks belong to the administrative and political realms. This poses a question about the degree of influence politicians exert on administrative managers and the rate of success with which administrative managers manage to retain their professionalism and independence, which should represent the key characteristics of a senior civil servant.

  6. Possession as an institute of civil law in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltrinë Haliti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social interest and main aim of this paper is to introduce a proper problematic of this institute, given that after the war in Kosovo, numerous usurpations have occurred. A vast number of related cases are pending to be solved which at first impression seem to be unimportant. However, having such cases unsolved which are deliberately categorized as proceedings of an urgent need by the legislator, frequently resulted with serious consequences as well as commission of major crimes. Today, the approach that obstruction of possession is a factual power over an item prevails, which provides a legal contribution pursuant to law and enjoys civil-legal protection. A crucial legal contribution of possession is its court protection in case of obstruction by unlawful self-judgment. Possession also enjoys independent protection of a right over an item. Given that possession itself is not a right whatsoever, herewith we may conclude that obstruction of possession constitutes infringement of no rights. However, should the obstruction to possession is committed violently, such possession constitutes the right’s infringement provided that every violent act is unlawful, and thus it is correctly protected by an interdict claim.

  7. Challenging orthodoxies: the road ahead for health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Two decades of work delivering health care in poor communities provide a standpoint from which to challenge conventional doctrines in human rights and public health. These orthodoxies include the priority often assigned to civil and political rights over economic and social rights and a narrow concept of cost-effectiveness in public health policy. An analysis based on economic and social rights underscores, for example, that effectively treating infectious diseases in poor communities requires ensuring that people receive adequate food The challenge of maternal mortality in low-income settings similarly shows the need for an approach to rights that is simultaneously comprehensive and pragmatic. In many settings, paying community health workers for their efforts on behalf of their neighbors can also be seen as a critical strategy to realize right. Across contexts, the yield on the expanded and pragmatic view of health and human rights adumbrated here may be considerable. In forthcoming issues, Health and Human Rights will continue to investigate the conceptual, but above all the practical aspects of such issues, seeking to shift the health and rights agenda in a way that may make sense to the world's poor and marginalized, the chief victims of contemporary human rights violations.

  8. Post Civil War African American History: Brief Periods of Triumph, and Then Despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    During Reconstruction, which is often called the most progressive period in American history, African Americans made great strides. By 1868 African American men constituted a majority of registered voters in South Carolina and Mississippi, and by 1870 eighty-five percent of Mississippi's black jurors could read and write. However, Reconstruction was followed by approximately one hundred years of Jim Crow laws, lynching, disenfranchisement, sharecropping, unequal educational resources, terrorism, racial caricatures, and convict leasing. The Civil Rights Revolution finally ended that period of despair, but the era of mass incarceration can be understood as a reaction to the Civil Rights Movement. This article attempts to understand the persistence of racism in the United States from slavery's end until the present. PMID:27108470

  9. Liability according to civil law regarding border-crossing nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the liability in border-crossing damage caused by a nuclear-reactor accident is divided into two different areas: the liability according to international law of the state, and liability according to civil right of the licensee of a nuclear power plant. In this study attention is paid to the question of the liability according to civil right: is it possible that an aggrieved obtains compensation for damage? This is investigated on the basis of three standard questions of international private law: which judge is qualified, which law is to be applied, and is acknowledgement and execution of foreign sentences possible? First a historical survey is given of international agreements and national legislations regarding third-party liability. (author). 112 refs

  10. ECHR: Right to marry

    OpenAIRE

    C. Draghici

    2015-01-01

    The right to marry is guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights ECHR)in art.12, which reads: "Men and women of marriageable age have the right to marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing the exercise of this right". This provision was given effect in the UK through the enactment of the Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporated ECHR rights, allowing domestic litigants to rely on them before the British courts. The express referral to "national laws" ...

  11. Noviolencia, desobediencia civil y ejemplaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo, sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una educación y filosofía para lapaz. Es por ello por lo que se hace imprescindible traer a primer plano la importanciadel compromiso, la responsabilidad y el sacrificio que comporta la noviolencia, a finde que se los pueda hacer trascender socialmente bajo la modalidad (decisiva en unacultura de paz de ejemplaridad y autoridad, muy relevantes para que la noviolenciagane prestigio social real (y no un prestigio utópico.

  12. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak S. Vede

    2015-01-01

    The excavations carried in Western India have brought to light the important civilization of the Indus Valley. This is the most important civilization of the prehistoric period. The sites of this civilization are Mohenjo-Daro, meaning the Mound at the Dead, on the Indus in Sind and the other Harappa on the Ravi in the Montqomery district of the Punjab. The surrounding region of Moh enjo-Daro is wonderfully fertile and is called even today Nakhlistan or the “Garden of Sind”. Here, the city ...

  13. Citizenship, Democratic Participation, and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    the relationship between market, state, civil society and family has been under restructuring due to the financial crisis and the retrenchment of the welfare state. This article tries to establish a frame for understanding the potential role of civil society organizations and the importance of introducing...... concerning provision of public goods. Second, the public sector is in need of information concerning marginalized groups and has problems representing these groups because of the growing diversity in the population. Only the civil society and its organizations seem to have the capability and resources...

  14. International migration: security concerns and human rights standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépeau, François; Nakache, Delphine; Atak, Idil

    2007-09-01

    Over the last two decades, the reinforcement of security-related migration policies has resulted in the perception of the foreigner, and especially the irregular migrant, as a category outside the circle of legality. The rights of foreigners in host countries have deteriorated due to the connection made between immigration and criminality. Restrictions imposed upon irregular migrants' basic political and civil rights have been accompanied by major obstacles to their access to economic and social rights, including the right to health. The events of 9/11 further contributed to this trend, which contradicts the basic premises of the human rights paradigm. Recent policy developments and ongoing international cooperation implementing systematic interception and interdiction mechanisms have led to the securitization of migration. The preventive and deterrent measures reinforce the security paradigm. By contrast, various national and international actors have been successful in defending irregular migrants' rights. At the domestic level, the involvement of the judiciary and civil society enhances the rights-based approach to foreigners. The role of judges is vital in holding policy-makers accountable for respecting the high national standards of human rights protection. This article elaborates on the dichotomy between the state's legitimate interest to ensure national security, and its domestic and international obligations to protect human rights for all, including irregular migrants. It focuses on the changing relationship between migration and security, on the one hand, and between state and individual, on the other hand. It affirms the necessity to recognize the pre-eminence of fundamental rights upon security concerns. PMID:17938150

  15. NEW STATES ON STATE REGISTRATION AND ACCOUNTING OF PLEDGE IN THE CIVIL CODE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neteshinskaya L. F.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the new states on state registration and accounting of pledge in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, specifically, new status of pledging of the real-estate state registration and member's rights in the limited liability company; pledging of securities and other property accounting

  16. UNDER THE NEW CIVIL CODE: THE SALE CONTRACT IS TRANSLATED PROPERTY OR CREATOR ONLY OF OBLIGATIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu ST NCIULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 1650, paragraph. 1, of the Civil Code, "The sale is the contract that the seller transmits or, where appropriate, seek to transmit the property of an asset to the buyer, for a price which the buyer is obliged to pay" The dispositions of the 2011 civil code suggests that compared to the time of transfer of ownership, the contract may have different legal nature: creative translative property or obligations. Thus, transfer of ownership may be immediately and in this case, as occurs or may be postponed (conclusion of the contract and in this case, is an obligation of the seller. For example, art. 1674 of Civil Code states that "the property is" shifting "by right to the buyer" and "General Provisions" of art. 1672. paragraph 1 and art. 1673. paragraph 1 of Civil Code provides that "The seller is obliged to transmit the buyer the ownership of the sold property ". Please note that until the appearance of the Civil Code 2011, the sale was widely known as "translational property" and a possible shift in the category of contracts creating obligations would produce important consequences for the concept (and related institutions. On the background issues above, we consider that the presentation of opinions and arguments in their support could be beneficial.

  17. Legal Regulation of Civil Servants in Russia and Germany Receiving Gifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Zimneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the conflict between the provisions of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, where the minimum amount of the bribe is not defined, and the provision of the Federal Law ‘On State Civil Service of the Russian Federation,’ which, on the one hand, contains an absolute ban on civil servants receiving gifts and other types of remuneration, while, on the other hand, Art. 575 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation admits a possibility for civil servants to receive gifts of an amount not exceeding 3,000 rubles in the performance of their official duties. This legal conflict necessitates conceptual clarification of such notions as ‘gift’ and ‘bribe.’The authors underline that a determining factor for establishing the legitimacy of the customary gifts given to government officials is whether the gifts were accepted by the officials, while executing their duties, without a prior agreement for an action or inaction. It is noted that the limitation of a gift’s maximum value to 3,000 rubles, as stated in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, creates an opportunity to abuse or evade the law.The article presents a comparative study of European laws, more specifically dealing with the institute of donation, and Russian legislation regarding the possibility of civil servants receiving gifts. German law does not single out ‘customary gifts;’ it simply does not admit the possibility of giving gifts or the right to receive gifts by German civil servants.The authors have developed proposals to improve the legal regulation concerning the giving of gifts to government officials in Russia.

  18. Assessing the democratic value of civil society engagement in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Hüller, Thorsten; Kohler-Koch, Beate

    2008-01-01

    "The title indicates an empirical question, but the main problems to solve are of a theoretical nature: Only when this preparatory work is done, we can - with the help of a theoretical model - investigate the democratic quality of civil society engagement in the EU empirically. So this paper is mostly on ‘asking the right questions’: First, a normative conception of democracy is outlined, which is in our view appropriate to measure and assess the changing quality of European democratic per...

  19. The conflict trap in the Greek Civil War 1946-1949: an economic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulakis, Nicos

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a quantitative analysis of the armed confrontation that took place in Greece between the Communist Party and the Centre-Right Government during 1946-1949. Using monthly data for battle casualties a dynamic Lotka-Volterra framework is estimated, pointing to the existence of a conflict trap that explains the prolongation of the civil war and its dire consequences for the country. To examine the extent to which the confrontation was influenced by socio-economic factors, a regi...

  20. Citizenship as perceived in the social media during the civil disobedience movement

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Ying-tung, Bonny; 方映彤

    2015-01-01

    Before the happening of Umbrella Movement, a civil disobedience movement in September 2014, political engagement of Hongkongers was not in a high priority. With the emphasis on economic prosperity and materialistic life, most of Hong Kong people seldom take risk to strike for political rights through unlawful action. However, in this occupying movement, over 10,000 participants occupied the road and protested for more participation in Chief Executive Election 2017. After the start of Umbr...

  1. Virtual Placements to Develop Employability Skills for Civil and Environmental Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Parneet Paul

    2015-01-01

    This project work addresses the crucial need to encourage undergraduate civil and environmental engineering students to gain employment skills and training right from the start of their studies so that their overall employability increases; their confidence level in networking with industry and within the workplace increases; and so that they are successfully able to obtain employment after finishing their studies. This initiative is a stepping-stone employability exercise which focuses sp...

  2. Personal rights and social control: Civil commitment for the mentally ill and legal issues in the United States%个人权利与社会控制:美国对精神疾病患者的“民事监禁”与法律问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤宜朗

    2013-01-01

    It often requires cautious and careful considerations in psychiatric practice regarding how to protect personal rights (including health care rights) of patients with mental illness,and to involuntarily hospitalize patients who pose danger to self,others or the society.Psychiatry is one of the few medical specialties that are most vulnerable to be abused by public power or other external factors.Psychiatrists are among the minority of medical professionals who can take away one's freedom by making diagnosis.The author attempts to bring some unique perspectives based on his own clinical experience in both China and the United States,as a clinical psychiatrist,by using illustrative clinical cases.%如何保障患者的个人权利(包括医疗健康权利),同时对可能危及个人、他人或社会的少数患者实施非自愿治疗(社会控制),这在精神病学实践中常常需要谨慎处理.精神病学很可能是医学学科中最容易被公权或其他外在因素利用的学科.精神科医生是极少数能够有权力通过给予诊断而剥夺患者自由的医学专业人员.本文作者根据在中美两国从事精神病学临床实践的经历,利用一些描述性实例,试图提供一些相对独特的视角.

  3. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which included the Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission was appointed by President Bill Clinton, ... role in making sure they have rights and responsibilities with regard to health improvement. The Consumer Bill ...

  4. Double outlet right ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007328.htm Double outlet right ventricle To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a heart disease that is ...

  5. Eating Right during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Women For Seniors Top Tips for Eating Right During Pregnancy Reviewed by Jill Kohn, MS, RDN, ... pregnancy include eating a balanced diet; gaining the right amount of weight; enjoying regular physical activity; taking ...

  6. A Universal Model of Global Civil Unrest

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, we analyze records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008. We demonstrate that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  7. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  8. On the detectivity of advanced galactic civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Even with slow rates of technological advance, extraterrestrial civilizations substantially in our future will have technologies and laws of nature currently inaccessible to us, and will probably have minimal interest in communicating with us. If this communication horizon is about 1000 years in our future, other crude estimates previously published imply that only about .0001 of the technical civilizations in the Galaxy are accessible to us. The mean distance to the nearest such society is then about 10,000 light years. Radio detection of extraterrestrial intelligence seems to imply either (1) much larger telescopes or antenna arrays for the detection of civilizations within our Galaxy than now exist; or (2) attention to the nearer extragalactic systems, with smaller radio telescopes, to detect the very small fraction of very advanced societies which may choose to make their presence known to emerging civilizations via antique communication modes.

  9. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Uniform Fine Assessment (UFA) algorithm, which FMCSA currently uses for calculation of civil penalties... penalty is less than $2,000, however. In such cases, the UFA algorithm may generate a gross revenue...

  10. The search for signals from extraterrestrial civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. C. G.

    1973-01-01

    The probability that a star has a habitable planet with a communicative civilization is investigated. One approach to the search problem is to assume that the other civilization will do most of the work, which implies that the search is limited to 'supercivilizations' able to transmit detectable signals in all directions all the time. The development of an optimal search strategy is discussed together with questions of the probability of success.

  11. Competencies Framework for Civil Engineer in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Phanudej Kudngaongarm; Chuchai Sujivorakul

    2012-01-01

    The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability a...

  12. Active interaction control for civil structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Luo-Jia

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents a civil engineering approach to active control for civil structures. The proposed control technique, termed Active Interaction Control (AIC), utilizes dynamic interactions between different structures, or components of the same structure, to reduce the resonance response of the controlled or primary structure under earthquake excitations. The primary control objective of AIC is to minimize the maximum story drift of the primary structure. This is accomplished by timing th...

  13. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education...

  14. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing number and increase in size of civil engineering works and the growing need for protection measures of the sandy coasts have led to an ever increasing risk of adverse effects on the nature and lan...

  15. Reforming Rights Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For China, the recently established UN Human Rights Council is a victory of multilateralism This spring witnessed a significant reform in the United Nations human rights protection mechanism. On March 15, the UN General Assembly approved a draft resolution, with a 170 to 4 vote and 3 abstentions, to create a Human Rights Council (HRC). Then, March 23, the UN Economic and

  16. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). (CMK)

  17. When legal rights are not a reality: do individuals know their rights and how can we tell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvir, Catrina; Balmer, Nigel J; Pleasence, Pascoe

    2013-03-01

    Public knowledge of rights has been the subject of a number of empirical enquiries over the last decade. In England and Wales, knowledge of rights and its relationship with an individual's capacity to 'self-help' and 'self-represent' when faced with a civil justice problem has become the subject of renewed attention following changes to legal aid which, from March 2013, will see the availability of legal advice and representation dramatically reduced. Previous studies focusing on public knowledge of rights in this (and other) jurisdictions have illustrated a lack of knowledge amongst the general population and more specifically, a widespread tendency of individuals to assume that the law aligns with their own moral, ethical or social attitudes. However, many of these studies have also suffered from methodological shortcomings. In attempting to address some of these shortcomings this study uses an open-ended format to ask individuals with one or one or more civil or social justice problems to describe their rights/legal position. We find that whilst an open-ended question approach to exploring knowledge of rights yields insight not acquired by other formats, its utility is constrained by difficulty reconciling articulation and actual knowledge of rights. We discuss the implications of these findings as they relate to the development of future research in the field of family and social welfare law, Public Legal Education (PLE) and access to justice post-March 2013. PMID:25045215

  18. When legal rights are not a reality: do individuals know their rights and how can we tell?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denvir, Catrina; Balmer, Nigel J; Pleasence, Pascoe

    2013-03-01

    Public knowledge of rights has been the subject of a number of empirical enquiries over the last decade. In England and Wales, knowledge of rights and its relationship with an individual's capacity to 'self-help' and 'self-represent' when faced with a civil justice problem has become the subject of renewed attention following changes to legal aid which, from March 2013, will see the availability of legal advice and representation dramatically reduced. Previous studies focusing on public knowledge of rights in this (and other) jurisdictions have illustrated a lack of knowledge amongst the general population and more specifically, a widespread tendency of individuals to assume that the law aligns with their own moral, ethical or social attitudes. However, many of these studies have also suffered from methodological shortcomings. In attempting to address some of these shortcomings this study uses an open-ended format to ask individuals with one or one or more civil or social justice problems to describe their rights/legal position. We find that whilst an open-ended question approach to exploring knowledge of rights yields insight not acquired by other formats, its utility is constrained by difficulty reconciling articulation and actual knowledge of rights. We discuss the implications of these findings as they relate to the development of future research in the field of family and social welfare law, Public Legal Education (PLE) and access to justice post-March 2013.

  19. La desobediencia civil como recurso de la sociedad civil para el alcance de la justicia

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Elvira García GONZÁLEZ

    2006-01-01

    En este escrito se presenta la propuesta de Rawls en torno a la posible desobediencia civil ante una autoridad democrática legítimamente establecida. La desobediencia civil rawlsiana muestra pretensiones antiautoritarias en función del mantenimiento de un orden justo, y cuyo gestor se ubica en la sociedad civil. Ahí se comparten valores tales como la justicia, la diversidad, el respeto mutuo, el sentido de dignidad y el respeto a la libertad. La sociedad civil está conformada por elementos ta...

  20. Galactic civilizations - Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.

  1. Civil Education in the Theory and Practice of Women's Civil Work Association in the Second Polish Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piwowarczyk Mirosław

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main aims of Women's Civil Work Association (Związek Pracy Obywatelskiej Kobiet (1928–1939: the largest and the most influential women's organisation of the Sanation political camp in Poland in the interwar period, was the creation of a new model of a woman citizen and forming and educating women, in concordance with ideological and political ideas of the Sanation (the state-forming idea of J. Piłsudski, to be “a new type of citizens”, aware of their rights and duties, who take an interest in the affairs of the state and who take an active stance towards the strengthening of the new independent state. The Association tried to achieve this aim by organising various forms and methods of civil education, setting up and running various educational, supportive, an economic institutions, which made it possible for the Association to bring into effect its ideas, including the main goal, that is, the creation of a modern, active, and responsible woman citizen.

  2. GOLPE CIVIL-MILITAR DE 1964: ORIGENS E NOTAS CARACTERIZADORAS / CIVIL-MILITARY COUP OF 1964: ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria D’Ávila Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about the origins and characteristics of the Coup of 64. In order to do so, we use the interdisciplinary bibliographic research. On the first topic the origins of the coup of 64 are analyzed, highlighting the role played by political, economic and social factors that were its tangential. Then, our research comments the characteristics of the coup of 64, especially the bureaucratic authoritarian character; consensual legitimacy of civil society; the extension of the central military power; State terrorism implemented through the institutionalization of enforcement agencies to commit serious human rights violations and the authoritarian legality. By the end, it is concluded that the coup of 64 is headquartered in factual and symbolic legacy of Vargas, represented in the imaginary of elites, mainly by the figure of the former president João Goulart, coupled to polarization between capitalism and communism at the global level and at economic struggles on opening markets, remittance of foreign exchange dealing abroad and increased investment from the state to the private sector. In the same way, it verifies that Brazil singled out for its bureaucratic authoritarianism, by legitimacy - of origin - consented by the sophistication of its state terrorism, as well as, the exacerbation of its authoritarian legality. Furthermore, it stresses the nature of the coup of 64, and not “revolution” and its hybridity, due to the support of civil seizure to the achievement of power by the military segments.

  3. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in §...

  4. Civil Technology Applications. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Karen

    Teacher and student editions of Civil Technology Applications are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for drafting and civil technology programs. It includes the technical content and tasks necessary for a student to be employed as a drafter or civil technician in a civil engineering firm. Introductory pages in the teacher…

  5. 33 CFR 1.07-95 - Civil and criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-95 Civil and criminal penalties. (a) If a violation of law or regulation carries both a civil and a criminal penalty... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil and criminal penalties....

  6. Civility in Politics and Education. Routledge Studies in Contemporary Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Deborah, Ed.; Robison, Wade L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the concept of civility and the conditions of civil disagreement in politics and education. Although many assume that civility is merely polite behavior, it functions to aid rational discourse. Building on this basic assumption, the book offers multiple accounts of civility and its contribution to citizenship, deliberative…

  7. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil...

  8. 78 FR 5760 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 326 RIN 0710-AA66 Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation... Engineers (Corps) is proposing to amend its regulations to adjust its Class I civil penalties under the... civil penalties to account for inflation is required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation...

  9. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  10. 49 CFR 599.514 - Assessment of civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of civil penalties. 599.514 Section 599... ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.514 Assessment of civil penalties. (a) Not later... Hearing Officer's assessment of a civil penalty, or decision not to assess a civil penalty. In...

  11. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  12. 25 CFR 11.500 - Law applicable to civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law applicable to civil actions. 11.500 Section 11.500 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.500 Law applicable to civil actions. (a) In all civil cases,...

  13. 49 CFR 1503.413 - Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Assessment of Civil Penalties by TSA § 1503.413 Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty. (a) Issuance. TSA may initiate a civil penalty action under this section by serving a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty on the person charged with a violation of a TSA requirement. TSA will serve...

  14. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  15. Equal rights. Up to What Point?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhabir Zejnuni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today around the world is being discussed on human rights. These rights have taken and take each day more space and attention. With the evolution of today's society evolve the requirements of a part of this society for even more special recognitions. Such knowledge has to do with unions or gay marriages. For the applicants of this right, this requirement is more than natural, while for part of the other society this kind of requirement is not natural, knowing the cell of society is natural family created by the union of a man and a woman that has as ultimate goal childbearing. Demand for unions or gay marriage is not so easy to realize apparently at first sight, because then the consequences will fall upon all civil society. Also accepting gay unions or marriages, brings to amend and modify the relevant legislation which creates threatening of the balances set before. Anyone today can make choices, which he believes are most appropriate for his or her self, but not to the point that this choice affect the rest of society, as it has (also choices which cannot or should not be resolved necessarily.Keywords: freedom, law, rights, marriage

  16. Student Rights and Student Discipline. School Leadership Digest Series, Number 13. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Dee

    This analysis of the research outlines the history of the conflict over student rights--a conflict that has its basis in American political and social philosophy. The author views the tension between those who favor the expansion of civil rights for students and those who advocate a return to discipline based on the in loco parentis doctrine as…

  17. Bilingual/Bicultural Education--A Privilege or a Right? Education Bilingue/Bicultural--Un Privilegio o un Derecho?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Frank, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by the Illinois State Advisory Committee for submission to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, this report focused on the growing concern among Latino parents, students, and community leaders over alleged violations of Latino students' rights to an education in Chicago, the only city in the United States with a large population of both…

  18. Liberty and Equality for Whom? How to Think Inclusively about the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Herman

    1992-01-01

    Considers who was intended to have civil rights under the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Suggests that broad and inclusive historical analysis reveals individual citizens as the intended beneficiaries. Argues that the founders established a constitutional framework flexible enough to function in the transition from patriarchy and…

  19. Constitutional foundations of the property rights of citizens and organizations for real estate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Kamilevna Kondratenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop a comprehensive scientific conception of the constitutional foundations of the property rights of citizens and organizations for real estate. Methods general and specific scientific methods including formal logical methods hypothesis analysis synthesis deduction induction. The special methods included historical legaltechnical interdisciplinary comparativelegal systemic and other methods of scientific cognition. Results first the Constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain detailed regulation of property relations as they are regulated by the branches of Civil law. Therefore as certain property disputes affect substantial property interests of physical and juridical persons which are not under the protection of property rights in the traditional sense there is a need for a broad interpretation of the relevant provisions of the Russian Constitution. However the mixing of proprietary and contractual rights in this case does not occur. Second the Russian Civil Code reproducing and specifying the constitutional provisions as principles of private law form a direct normative basis of the whole civil law. However the constitutional law attributes a broader meaning to the notions of property and property right than the traditional civil law. Third the possible limitations of the Federal law of the rights of ownership use and disposition of property as well as freedom of entrepreneurship and freedom of contract must meet the requirements of justice to be adequate proportionate be of general and abstract character be not retroactive and not affect the essence of constitutional rights i.e. not limit the scope and application of the substantive content of the relevant constitutional norms.The possibility of such limitations and their nature must be determinedby the need to protect the significant values ndash the foundations of the constitutional system morality health rights and lawful interests of other persons provision

  20. Amendment works of the Korean civil code (Property Law)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Yong

    2001-01-01

    "The Korean Civil Code is currently in the process of amendment. The government expects to submit a proposal for amending the Civil Code to this year's regular session of the National Assembly. However, considering the extent to which the works for amending the Civil Code being in process by the Civil Code amendment committee have thus far advanced, submission of the proposal for Civil Code amendment within this year’s regular session of the National Assembly can be considered ...