WorldWideScience

Sample records for civil infrastructure systems

  1. Piezoelectric power generation for civil infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, A.; Inman, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    Civil infrastructure systems (CIS) employ various small electronic components ranging from temperature and humidity sensors used in buildings to acoustics emission sensors used for damage detection in bridges. Other than solar energy that has already found several applications in CIS; moving loads, surface strain fluctuations, and wind energy available in the vicinity of CIS constitute important sources of energy that can be converted into electricity. This paper focuses on low power generation from these energy sources using piezoelectric transduction. Moving loads caused by travelling vehicles can be used for exciting piezoceramics located on the road. Structural vibrations resulting from various sources such as support motions and interaction of CIS with the surrounding fluid may yield local surface strain fluctuations. Wind energy is available not only due to regular atmospheric flow but also due to the motion of vehicles travelling at relatively high speeds. This paper investigates and formulates (1) the electromechanical moving load problem for slender bridges with a piezoelectric cantilever and with embedded piezoceramics, (2) the problem of piezoelectric power generation from surface strain fluctuations using a piezoceramic patch, and (3) piezoelectric energy harvesting from wind excitation through aeroelastic flutter.

  2. Vulnerability and Robustness of Civil Infrastructure Systems to Hurricanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuoqi Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Civil infrastructure systems play an important role in community resilience. Without proper functioning of the infrastructure, especially power delivery, society will not recover quickly from disruptive events, such as hurricanes. In this paper, the vulnerability, response, and recovery of selected infrastructure at the system level for several hurricanes in the USA are modeled using geostatistical methods, employing post-event data. Inoperability is the main variable modeled for each infrastructure system. In this paper, robustness is a property considered to be the opposite of vulnerability, and it plays an important role in the resiliency modeling. The infrastructure systems examined in this paper are electric power delivery and telecommunications. Connections among the systems are briefly explored.

  3. R and D non-destructive damage monitoring and diagnosing system for civil infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Weixin; Abu Bakar Mohamad Diah; Cheng Hao

    1998-01-01

    Since civil infrastructures serve as the underpinnings of our highly industrialized society, and much of them are now decaying, it is the time to consider how to maintain these widely spread infrastructures in order to prevent potential catastrophic events. Changes in use and the need to maintain an ageing system require improvements in instrumentation for sensing and recording, data acquisition for diagnosing the possible damage, and algorithm for identifying and monitoring the changes in structural characteristics. Researching and developing a real-time, in-serve health detection and monitoring system has drawn a worldwide attention recently for various types of structures. The paper conceives an integrated non-destructive damage monitoring and diagnosing system for civil infrastructures. The system is a high technology and high-commercialised industrial integrated product involved in research and development. The research activities of the system cover three core parts: structural modelling, structural system identification and damage criterion establishment. The development activities of the system include experimental measurements, data acquisition and processing, instrumentation set-up, computer visualisation, and software development. The state-of -the art theories and practices are systematically merged and integrated in the development of the system, and the system will be verified through the real world application for civil infrastructures. Our research results on the damage criterion based on the changes in structural dynamic properties are also reported in the paper. (Author)

  4. Nondestructive evaluation of civil infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ken P.; Scalzi, John B.; Carino, Nicholas J.

    1995-05-01

    Construction is the largest industry in the world, amounting to 10% of the world's gross domestic product. Civil infrastructure systems are generally the most expensive investments/assets in any country. In the U.S. it is estimated at 20 trillion dollars. In addition, these systems have long service life compared with any other kinds of commercial product and are rarely replaceable once they are erected. Yet the feedback and controls ont he 'state of health' of constructed systems are practically nonexistent. Nondestructive evaluation is an essential part of this feedback and monitoring systems for infrastructures. NSF and NIST NDE initiative as well as workshops and recent awards/projects are described in this paper.

  5. Self-monitoring fiber reinforced polymer strengthening system for civil engineering infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoliang; Dawood, Mina; Peters, Kara; Rizkalla, Sami

    2008-03-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials are currently used for strengthening civil engineering infrastructures. The strengthening system is dependant on the bond characteristics of the FRP to the external surface of the structure to be effective in resisting the applied loads. This paper presents an innovative self-monitoring FRP strengthening system. The system consists of two components which can be embedded in FRP materials to monitor the global and local behavior of the strengthened structure respectively. The first component of the system is designed to evaluate the applied load acting on a structure based on elongation of the FRP layer along the entire span of the structure. Success of the global system has been demonstrated using a full-scale prestressed concrete bridge girder which was loaded up to failure. The test results indicate that this type of sensor can be used to accurately determine the load prior to failure within 15 percent of the measured value. The second sensor component consists of fiber Bragg grating sensors. The sensors were used to monitor the behavior of steel double-lap shear splices tested under tensile loading up to failure. The measurements were used to identify abnormal structural behavior such as epoxy cracking and FRP debonding. Test results were also compared to numerical values obtained from a three dimensional shear-lag model which was developed to predict the sensor response.

  6. Detection of flaws on surface of civil infrastructures and their profiling using imaging system with laser displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Paritosh; Kharkovsky, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Civil infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, roads and pipelines are the integral part of people's lives and their failure can have large public safety and economic consequences. Early detection of flaws in civil infrastructures and their appropriate retrofitting will aid in preventing this failure. Flaws such as cracks and impact damages initially occur on the surface and propagate inside the materials causing further degradation. There is a need to develop systems that can detect these surface flaws. Developing a system with one sensing technique which can detect the flaws is a challenging task since infrastructures are made up of diverse materials such as concrete, metal, plastics, composite and timber that have different electrical and mechanical properties. It is also desired that non-plain surfaces with complex profiles can be interrogated and surface flaws can be detected. We have proposed an imaging system capable of interrogating structures with complex surface profiles for the purpose of detection and evaluation of surface flaws such as cracks and impact damages using laser displacement sensor (LDS). The developed system consists of LDS mounted on the scanner which is able to perform raster scan over the specimen under test. The reading of displacement from the sensor head to the laser spot on the surface of the test material is then used to generate images which can be used to detect the surface flaws. The proof of concept is given by testing specimens made of metal, concrete and plastics with complex surface profiles.

  7. Intelligent Structural Health Management of Civil Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    The collapse of the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minneapolis has spawned a growing interest in the : development of reliable techniques for evaluating the structural integrity of civil infrastructure. Current inspection : techniques tailored to ...

  8. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new, with potential for operational applications, but currently not exploited to full advantage. Here we investigate how to optimally assess and monitor the structural health of civil infrastructure usi...

  9. Development of an intelligent hydroinformatic system for real-time monitoring and assessment of civil infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Paul; Michalis, Panagiotis; Solman, Hrvoje; Kerin, Igor; Bekic, Damir; Pakrashi, Vikram; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    With the effects of climate change becoming more apparent, extreme weather events are now occurring with greater frequency throughout the world. Such extreme events have resulted in increased high intensity flood events which are having devastating consequences on hydro-structures, especially on bridge infrastructure. The remote and often inaccessible nature of such bridges makes inspections problematic, a major concern if safety assessments are required during and after extreme flood events. A solution to this is the introduction of smart, low cost sensing solutions at locations susceptible to hydro-hazards. Such solutions can provide real-time information on the health of the bridge and its environments, with such information aiding in the mitigation of the risks associated with extreme weather events. This study presents the development of an intelligent system for remote, real-time monitoring of hydro-hazards to bridge infrastructure. The solution consists of two types of remote monitoring stations which have the capacity to monitor environmental conditions and provide real-time information to a centralized, big data database solution, from which an intelligent decision support system will accommodate the results to control and manage bridge, river and catchment assets. The first device developed as part of the system is the Weather Information Logging Device (WILD), which monitors rainfall, temperature and air and soil moisture content. The ability of the WILD to monitor rainfall in real time enables flood early warning alerts and predictive river flow conditions, thereby enabling decision makers the ability to make timely and effective decisions about critical infrastructures in advance of extreme flood events. The WILD is complemented by a second monitoring device, the Bridge Information Recording Device (BIRD), which monitors water levels at a given location in real-time. The monitoring of water levels of a river allows for, among other applications

  10. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  11. Infrastructure development through civil nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, A.M.; Burkart, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Due to growing concerns over electricity demand, energy security, and climate change, numerous countries are considering the construction of new nuclear power plants. Most of these will be built in nations with existing nuclear power programs, but an increasing number of States have expressed serious interest in developing new nuclear power programs. These countries will be faced with many challenges in establishing the robust infrastructures necessary for the safe, secure, and safeguarded deployment of nuclear power. Fortunately, there is much a State can gain through cooperation with other States with more developed programs. By sharing information on previous experience and established best practices, an emerging nuclear energy State can benefit from the lessons learned by its partners. Through a broad range of civil nuclear cooperation, the United States is helping new entrants develop the sound infrastructure necessary to deploy nuclear power plants with the highest standards of safety, security, and nonproliferation

  12. International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, Marina; Ismail, Zulhabri; Amin, Norliyati; Fadzil, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The special focus of this proceedings is to cover the areas of infrastructure engineering and sustainability management. The state-of-the art information in infrastructure and sustainable issues in engineering covers earthquake, bioremediation, synergistic management, timber engineering, flood management and intelligent transport systems. It provides precise information with regards to innovative research development in construction materials and structures in addition to a compilation of interdisciplinary finding combining nano-materials and engineering.

  13. International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, Marina; Alisibramulisi, Anizahyati; Amin, Norliyati; Ismail, Zulhabri

    2015-01-01

    The special focus of this proceedings is to cover the areas of infrastructure engineering and sustainability management. The state-of-the art information in infrastructure and sustainable issues in engineering covers earthquake, bioremediation, synergistic management, timber engineering, flood management and intelligent transport systems. It provides precise information with regards to innovative research development in construction materials and structures in addition to a compilation of interdisciplinary finding combining nano-materials and engineering.

  14. Complexities in Assessing Structural Health of Civil Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Hussein

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity in the health assessment of civil infrastructures, as it evolves over a long period of time, is briefly discussed. A simple problem can become very complex based on the current needs, sophistication required, and the technological advancements. To meet the current needs of locating defect spots and their severity accurately and efficiently, infrastructures are represented by finite elements. To increase the implementation potential, the stiffness parameters of all the elements are identified and tracked using only few noise-contaminated dynamic responses measured at small part of the infrastructure. To extract the required information, Kalman filter concept is integrated with other numerical schemes. An unscented Kalman filter (UKF concept is developed for highly nonlinear dynamic systems. It is denoted as 3D UKF-UI-WGI. The basic UKF concept is improved in several ways. Instead of using one long duration time-history in one global iteration, very short duration time-histories and multiple global iterations with weight factors are used to locate the defect spot more accurately and efficiently. The capabilities of the procedure are demonstrated with the help of two informative examples. The proposed procedure is much superior to the extended Kalman filter-based procedures developed by the team earlier.

  15. 3rd International Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamid, Nor; Arshad, Mohd; Arshad, Ahmad; Ridzuan, Ahmad; Awang, Haryati

    2016-01-01

    The special focus of these proceedings is on the areas of infrastructure engineering and sustainability management. They provide detailed information on innovative research developments in construction materials and structures, in addition to a compilation of interdisciplinary findings combining nano-materials and engineering. The coverage of cutting-edge infrastructure and sustainability issues in engineering includes earthquakes, bioremediation, synergistic management, timber engineering, flood management and intelligent transport systems.

  16. Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Using Optical Fiber Sensing Technology: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. W. Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM of civil infrastructure.

  17. Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructure Using Optical Fiber Sensing Technology: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, X. W.; Su, Y. H.; Han, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, a significant number of innovative sensing systems based on optical fiber sensors have been exploited in the engineering community due to their inherent distinctive advantages such as small size, light weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and corrosion, and embedding capability. A lot of optical fiber sensor-based monitoring systems have been developed for continuous measurement and real-time assessment of diversified engineering structures such as bridges, buildings, tunnels, pipelines, wind turbines, railway infrastructure, and geotechnical structures. The purpose of this review article is devoted to presenting a summary of the basic principles of various optical fiber sensors, innovation in sensing and computational methodologies, development of novel optical fiber sensors, and the practical application status of the optical fiber sensing technology in structural health monitoring (SHM) of civil infrastructure. PMID:25133250

  18. Multi-hazard approaches to civil infrastructure engineering

    CERN Document Server

    LaFave, James

    2016-01-01

    This collection focuses on the development of novel approaches to address one of the most pressing challenges of civil engineering, namely the mitigation of natural hazards. Numerous engineering books to date have focused on, and illustrate considerable progress toward, mitigation of individual hazards (earthquakes, wind, and so forth.). The current volume addresses concerns related to overall safety, sustainability and resilience of the built environment when subject to multiple hazards: natural disaster events that are concurrent and either correlated (e.g., wind and surge); uncorrelated (e.g., earthquake and flood); cascading (e.g., fire following earthquake); or uncorrelated and occurring at different times (e.g., wind and earthquake). The authors examine a range of specific topics including methodologies for vulnerability assessment of structures, new techniques to reduce the system demands through control systems; instrumentation, monitoring and condition assessment of structures and foundations; new te...

  19. Bayesian updating of reliability of civil infrastructure facilities based on condition-state data and fault-tree model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching Jianye; Leu, S.-S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers a difficult but practical circumstance of civil infrastructure management-deterioration/failure data of the infrastructure system are absent while only condition-state data of its components are available. The goal is to develop a framework for estimating time-varying reliabilities of civil infrastructure facilities under such a circumstance. A novel method of analyzing time-varying condition-state data that only reports operational/non-operational status of the components is proposed to update the reliabilities of civil infrastructure facilities. The proposed method assumes that the degradation arrivals can be modeled as a Poisson process with unknown time-varying arrival rate and damage impact and that the target system can be represented as a fault-tree model. To accommodate large uncertainties, a Bayesian algorithm is proposed, and the reliability of the infrastructure system can be quickly updated based on the condition-state data. Use of the new method is demonstrated with a real-world example of hydraulic spillway gate system.

  20. Advanced e-Infrastructures for Civil Protection applications: the CYCLOPS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Ayral, P. A.; Fiorucci, P.; Pina, A.; Oliveira, J.; Sorani, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the full cycle of the emergency management, Civil Protection operative procedures involve many actors belonging to several institutions (civil protection agencies, public administrations, research centers, etc.) playing different roles (decision-makers, data and service providers, emergency squads, etc.). In this context the sharing of information is a vital requirement to make correct and effective decisions. Therefore a European-wide technological infrastructure providing a distributed and coordinated access to different kinds of resources (data, information, services, expertise, etc.) could enhance existing Civil Protection applications and even enable new ones. Such European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure should be designed taking into account the specific requirements of Civil Protection applications and the state-of-the-art in the scientific and technological disciplines which could make the emergency management more effective. In the recent years Grid technologies have reached a mature state providing a platform for secure and coordinated resource sharing between the participants collected in the so-called Virtual Organizations. Moreover the Earth and Space Sciences Informatics provide the conceptual tools for modeling the geospatial information shared in Civil Protection applications during its entire lifecycle. Therefore a European Civil Protection e-infrastructure might be based on a Grid platform enhanced with Earth Sciences services. In the context of the 6th Framework Programme the EU co-funded Project CYCLOPS (CYber-infrastructure for CiviL protection Operative ProcedureS), ended in December 2008, has addressed the problem of defining the requirements and identifying the research strategies and innovation guidelines towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection. Starting from the requirement analysis CYCLOPS has proposed an architectural framework for a European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure. This architectural framework has

  1. Adapting Infrastructure and Civil Engineering Practice to a Changing Climate: Developing a Manual of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Ayyub, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    According to U.S. Census, new construction spending in the U.S. for 2014 was $993 Billion (roughly 6 percent of U.S. GDP). Informing the development of standards of engineering practice related to design and maintenance thus represents a significant opportunity to promote climate adaptation and mitigation, as well as community resilience. The climate science community informs us that extremes of climate and weather are changing from historical values and that the changes are driven substantially by emissions of greenhouse gases caused by human activities. Civil infrastructure systems traditionally have been designed, constructed, operated and maintained for appropriate probabilities of functionality, durability and safety while exposed to climate and weather extremes during their full service lives. Because of uncertainties in future greenhouse gas emissions and in the models for future climate and weather extremes, neither the climate science community nor the engineering community presently can define the statistics of future climate and weather extremes. The American Society for Civil Engineering's (ASCE) Committee on Adapting to a Changing Climate is actively involved in efforts internal and external to ASCE to promote understanding of the challenges climate change represents in engineering practice and to promote a re-examination of those practices that may need to change in light of changing climate. In addition to producing an ASCE e-book, as well as number of ASCE webinars, the Committee is currently developing a Manual of Practice intended to provide guidance for the development or enhancement of standards for infrastructure analysis and design in a world in which risk profiles are changing (non-stationarity) and climate change is a reality, but cannot be projected with a high degree of certainty. This presentation will explore both the need for such guidance as well as some of the challenges and opportunities facing its implementation.

  2. Towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection applications: Research Strategies and Innovation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Angelini, V.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of the EU co-funded project CYCLOPS (http://www.cyclops-project.eu) the problem of designing an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection (CP) applications has been addressed. As a preliminary step, some studies about European CP systems and operational applications were performed in order to define their specific system requirements. At a higher level it was verified that CP applications are usually conceived to map CP Business Processes involving different levels of processing including data access, data processing, and output visualization. At their core they usually run one or more Earth Science models for information extraction. The traditional approach based on the development of monolithic applications presents some limitations related to flexibility (e.g. the possibility of running the same models with different input data sources, or different models with the same data sources) and scalability (e.g. launching several runs for different scenarios, or implementing more accurate and computing-demanding models). Flexibility can be addressed adopting a modular design based on a SOA and standard services and models, such as OWS and ISO for geospatial services. Distributed computing and storage solutions could improve scalability. Basing on such considerations an architectural framework has been defined. It is made of a Web Service layer providing advanced services for CP applications (e.g. standard geospatial data sharing and processing services) working on the underlying Grid platform. This framework has been tested through the development of prototypes as proof-of-concept. These theoretical studies and proof-of-concept demonstrated that although Grid and geospatial technologies would be able to provide significant benefits to CP applications in terms of scalability and flexibility, current platforms are designed taking into account requirements different from CP. In particular CP applications have strict requirements in terms of: a) Real

  3. School infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System (SIPIS) project which explores how an indicator system could be developed for school infrastructure in South Africa. It outlines the key challenges faced by the system...

  4. Contextual-Analysis for Infrastructure Awareness Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurelien; Alt, Florian

    Infrastructures are persistent socio-technical systems used to deliver different kinds of services. Researchers have looked into how awareness of infrastructures in the areas of sustainability [6, 10] and software appropriation [11] can be provided. However, designing infrastructure-aware systems...... has specific requirements, which are often ignored. In this paper we explore the challenges when developing infrastructure awareness systems based on contextual analysis, and propose guidelines for enhancing the design process....

  5. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  6. Usable Design of Civil Engineer Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kastenholz, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    .... Data was collected from a literature review of pertinent Civil Engineer information system design documents, and conclusions drawn about the existing level of specification of usability engineering principles...

  7. Information systems for civil engineering; Sistemas de informacion para ingenieria civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buen R, Pablo R; Alvarado G, Alonso; Alaniz Q, Felipe de J; Guerrero F, Vicente A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    Since its beginnings, in the Gerencia de Ingenieria Civil (GIC) of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the interest has existed to take advantage of and to promote the advantages that the appropriate use of the computerizing systems in the different tasks of civil engineering in the power sector represent. Either as a part of its infrastructure or at the request of their clients, at the GIC have been developed calculation systems for the analysis and design of special structures such as turbo-generators foundations, poles for transmission and distribution and transmission towers, in addition the information systems for the consultation and the analysis of diverse information, such as the related to the Manuals of Civil Works of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) or the relative to the existing instruments in the large dams of our country. In this article are briefly described some of the computer systems developed by the GIC in recent years. [Spanish] Desde sus inicios, en la Gerencia de Ingenieria Civil (GIC) del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha existido el interes por aprovechar y promover las ventajas que representa el uso adecuado de los sistemas de computo en las diferentes tareas de ingenieria civil en el sector energetico. Ya sea como parte de su infraestructura o a solicitud de sus clientes, en la GIC se han desarrollado sistemas de calculo para el analisis y diseno de estructuras especiales como lo son las cimentaciones de turbogeneradores, los postes para transmision y distribucion y las torres de transmision, ademas de sistemas de informacion para la consulta y el analisis de informacion diversa, como es la relacionada con los manuales de obras civiles de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) o a la relativa a los instrumentos existentes en las grandes presas de nuestro pais. En este articulo se describen brevemente algunos de los sistemas de computo desarrollos por la GIC en anos recientes.

  8. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  9. Children restraint systems for civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Child restraint systems have been developed to provide protection to children involved in automobile crashes. These systems are not yet approved for use in civil aircraft. Six typical systems were exposed to controlled impacts on a test sled to simul...

  10. Child restraint systems for civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Child restraint systems have been developed to provide protection to children involved in automobile crashes. These systems are not yet approved for use in civil aircraft. Six typical systems were exposed to controlled impacts on a test sled to simul...

  11. Critical infrastructure system security and resiliency

    CERN Document Server

    Biringer, Betty; Warren, Drake

    2013-01-01

    Security protections for critical infrastructure nodes are intended to minimize the risks resulting from an initiating event, whether it is an intentional malevolent act or a natural hazard. With an emphasis on protecting an infrastructure's ability to perform its mission or function, Critical Infrastructure System Security and Resiliency presents a practical methodology for developing an effective protection system that can either prevent undesired events or mitigate the consequences of such events.Developed at Sandia National Labs, the authors' analytical approach and

  12. A HOLISTIC APPROACH FOR INSPECTION OF CIVIL INFRASTRUCTURES BASED ON COMPUTER VISION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stentoumis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is examined the 2D recognition and 3D modelling of concrete tunnel cracks, through visual cues. At the time being, the structural integrity inspection of large-scale infrastructures is mainly performed through visual observations by human inspectors, who identify structural defects, rate them and, then, categorize their severity. The described approach targets at minimum human intervention, for autonomous inspection of civil infrastructures. The shortfalls of existing approaches in crack assessment are being addressed by proposing a novel detection scheme. Although efforts have been made in the field, synergies among proposed techniques are still missing. The holistic approach of this paper exploits the state of the art techniques of pattern recognition and stereo-matching, in order to build accurate 3D crack models. The innovation lies in the hybrid approach for the CNN detector initialization, and the use of the modified census transformation for stereo matching along with a binary fusion of two state-of-the-art optimization schemes. The described approach manages to deal with images of harsh radiometry, along with severe radiometric differences in the stereo pair. The effectiveness of this workflow is evaluated on a real dataset gathered in highway and railway tunnels. What is promising is that the computer vision workflow described in this work can be transferred, with adaptations of course, to other infrastructure such as pipelines, bridges and large industrial facilities that are in the need of continuous state assessment during their operational life cycle.

  13. a Holistic Approach for Inspection of Civil Infrastructures Based on Computer Vision Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentoumis, C.; Protopapadakis, E.; Doulamis, A.; Doulamis, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, it is examined the 2D recognition and 3D modelling of concrete tunnel cracks, through visual cues. At the time being, the structural integrity inspection of large-scale infrastructures is mainly performed through visual observations by human inspectors, who identify structural defects, rate them and, then, categorize their severity. The described approach targets at minimum human intervention, for autonomous inspection of civil infrastructures. The shortfalls of existing approaches in crack assessment are being addressed by proposing a novel detection scheme. Although efforts have been made in the field, synergies among proposed techniques are still missing. The holistic approach of this paper exploits the state of the art techniques of pattern recognition and stereo-matching, in order to build accurate 3D crack models. The innovation lies in the hybrid approach for the CNN detector initialization, and the use of the modified census transformation for stereo matching along with a binary fusion of two state-of-the-art optimization schemes. The described approach manages to deal with images of harsh radiometry, along with severe radiometric differences in the stereo pair. The effectiveness of this workflow is evaluated on a real dataset gathered in highway and railway tunnels. What is promising is that the computer vision workflow described in this work can be transferred, with adaptations of course, to other infrastructure such as pipelines, bridges and large industrial facilities that are in the need of continuous state assessment during their operational life cycle.

  14. Infrastructure Plan for Home Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Yao

    2011-01-01

    Tong, Yao. 2011. Infrastructure Plan for Home Security System. Bachelor’s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 53. Appendix 1. The aims of this research were to design an infrastructure plan for home security system, analyze the most mature and emerging technologies, connect the security services through different types of interfaces, and assign different security levels for home security system based on the user requirements. The whole infrastru...

  15. Risk Analysis of Accounting Information System Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    MIHALACHE, Arsenie-Samoil

    2011-01-01

    National economy and security are fully dependent on information technology and infrastructure. At the core of the information infrastructure society relies on, we have the Internet, a system designed initially as a scientists’ forum for unclassified research. The use of communication networks and systems may lead to hazardous situations that generate undesirable effects such as communication systems breakdown, loss of data or taking the wrong decisions. The paper studies the risk analysis of...

  16. Earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures from tall buildings to urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xinzheng

    2017-01-01

    Based on more than 12 years of systematic investigation on earthquake disaster simulation of civil infrastructures, this book covers the major research outcomes including a number of novel computational models, high performance computing methods and realistic visualization techniques for tall buildings and urban areas, with particular emphasize on collapse prevention and mitigation in extreme earthquakes, earthquake loss evaluation and seismic resilience. Typical engineering applications to several tallest buildings in the world (e.g., the 632 m tall Shanghai Tower and the 528 m tall Z15 Tower) and selected large cities in China (the Beijing Central Business District, Xi'an City, Taiyuan City and Tangshan City) are also introduced to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed computational models and techniques. The high-fidelity computational model developed in this book has proven to be the only feasible option to date for earthquake-induced collapse simulation of supertall buildings that are higher than 50...

  17. The research infrastructure of Chinese foundations, a database for Chinese civil society studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Wang, Qun; Dong, Chao; Li, Huafang

    2017-07-25

    This paper provides technical details and user guidance on the Research Infrastructure of Chinese Foundations (RICF), a database of Chinese foundations, civil society, and social development in general. The structure of the RICF is deliberately designed and normalized according to the Three Normal Forms. The database schema consists of three major themes: foundations' basic organizational profile (i.e., basic profile, board member, supervisor, staff, and related party tables), program information (i.e., program information, major program, program relationship, and major recipient tables), and financial information (i.e., financial position, financial activities, cash flow, activity overview, and large donation tables). The RICF's data quality can be measured by four criteria: data source reputation and credibility, completeness, accuracy, and timeliness. Data records are properly versioned, allowing verification and replication for research purposes.

  18. Infrastructure Management Information System User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This publication describes and explains the user interface for the Infrastructure Management Information System (IMIS). The IMIS is designed to answer questions regarding public water supply, wastewater treatment, and census information. This publica...

  19. A life cycle costing approach for discounting in age and interval replacement optimisation models for civil infrastructure assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boomen, M.; Schoenmaker, R.; Wolfert, A.R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Civil infrastructure assets, such as roads, locks, bridges, treatment plants and storm surge barriers, are often characterised by long service lives and corresponding technical life cycles. When life cycles are long, the time value of money plays a role in asset management decision-making on capital

  20. Infrastructure sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-08-06

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors.

  1. Infrastructure sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Kenichi; Schooling, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Design, construction, maintenance and upgrading of civil engineering infrastructure requires fresh thinking to minimize use of materials, energy and labour. This can only be achieved by understanding the performance of the infrastructure, both during its construction and throughout its design life, through innovative monitoring. Advances in sensor systems offer intriguing possibilities to radically alter methods of condition assessment and monitoring of infrastructure. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the future of infrastructure relies on smarter information; the rich information obtained from embedded sensors within infrastructure will act as a catalyst for new design, construction, operation and maintenance processes for integrated infrastructure systems linked directly with user behaviour patterns. Some examples of emerging sensor technologies for infrastructure sensing are given. They include distributed fibre-optics sensors, computer vision, wireless sensor networks, low-power micro-electromechanical systems, energy harvesting and citizens as sensors. PMID:27499845

  2. MOVEMENT WITHIN THE LOCAL CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Rajko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the current Croatian regulation of movement within the local and regional civil service system. This includes the institutes of transfer, promotion, appointment and removal of the heads of administrative bodies, as well as changes in the workplace that may occur in the process of reorganization of the administrative bodies, with additional references to the particularities related to the position of heads of administrative bodies and employees. The procedural context of these issues, related to the implementation of administrative procedure and administrative dispute, is also discussed. The author offers legal interpretation to resolve doubts arising in the practice of implementation of the mentioned civil service institutes.

  3. An Infrastructure for a Traffic Warning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2005-01-01

    The LIWAS Trafc Warning System aims at providingearly warning to vehicles about road conditions, such aswhether the road is slippery. The LIWAS system is currentlybeing developed and consists of two main parts:sensors for determining the state of the road and a communicationinfrastructure...... supporting inter-vehicle communication.This paper presents our results on requirementsidentication, design, and prototyping of the infrastructure.The infrastructure combines communication via mobilephones with communication based on the principles ofad-hoc networking, and it supports units in being...

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  5. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  7. Global positioning system (GPS) civil monitoring performance specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-30

    This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...

  8. Call for civil registration and vital statistics systems experts | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-06-30

    Jun 30, 2017 ... This is a call for experts in civil registration, information technology, public health, statistics, law, and social behaviour change for civil registration and vital statistics systems strengthening. Professionals who have extensive operational or policymaking experience in civil registration systems, identification, ...

  9. 75 FR 35093 - Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors AGENCY... providing notice of adjusted present value factors applicable to retirees under the Civil Service Retirement... present value factors to changes in demographic factors adopted by the Board of Actuaries of the Civil...

  10. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission infrastructure plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This system plan presents the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Infrastructure Program. This Infrastructure Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project's Retrieval and Disposal Mission

  11. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  12. Structural Control Systems Implemented in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Pastia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, a great interest has been generated by the use of protection systems to mitigate the effects of dynamic environmental hazards on civil engineering structures, such as earthquakes and strong wind. These control systems develop controllable forces to add or dissipate energy in a structure, or both, due to specific devices integrated with sensors, controllers and real – time process to operate. The paper includes the advantages of these technologies consisting of the following sections: 1 represents an introduction, 2 deals with passive control system, 3 regards some control techniques, 4 concerns hybrid control techniques, 5 contains semi – active control techniques, and 6 is dedicated to general conclusions.

  13. Infrastructure Support for Collaborative Pervasive Computing Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Mogensen, Martin

    Collaborative Pervasive Computing Systems (CPCS) are currently being deployed to support areas such as clinical work, emergency situations, education, ad-hoc meetings, and other areas involving information sharing and collaboration.These systems allow the users to work together synchronously......, are all characterized by unstable, volatile environments, either due to the underlying components changing or the nomadic work habits of users. A major challenge, for the creators of collaborative pervasive computing systems, is the construction of infrastructures supporting the system. The complexity......, but from different places, by sharing information and coordinating activities. Several researchers have shown the value of such distributed collaborative systems. However, building these systems is by no means a trivial task and introduces a lot of yet unanswered questions. The aforementioned areas...

  14. Civil society- state relations in Turkey: Analysis of legislative infrastructure and institutional reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Balcıoğlu, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the way the institutional and legal mechanisms initiated, reformed and practiced regarding the civil society organizations and public sector relations in Turkey and assess their compatibility to the international standards and capability to bring out an affirmative action to enlarge and strengthen the enabling environment for civil society and improve the accountability and transparency of the public institutions. To do that, it particularly focuses on the ...

  15. Coordinated robotic system for civil structural health monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qidwai Uvais

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent advances in sensors, robotics, unmanned aerial vehicles, communication, and information technologies, it is now feasible to move towards the vision of ubiquitous cities, where virtually everything throughout the city is linked to an information system through technologies such as wireless networking and radio-frequency identification (RFID tags, to provide systematic and more efficient management of urban systems, including civil and mechanical infrastructure monitoring, to achieve the goal of resilient and sustainable societies. In this proposed system, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs is used to ascertain the coarse defect signature using panoramic imaging. This involves image stitching and registration so that a complete view of the surface is seen with reference to a common reference or origin point. Thereafter, crack verification and localization has been done using the magnetic flux leakage (MFL approach which has been performed with the help of a coordinated robotic system. In which the first robot is placed at the top of the structure whereas the second robot is equipped with the designed MFL sensory system. With the initial findings, the proposed system identifies and localize the crack in the given structure.

  16. A new vision of the post-NIST civil infrastructure program: the challenges of next-generation construction materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. Felix; Wan, Yan

    2014-03-01

    , security, and safety of elements of critical infrastructure for the Nation's already deteriorating civil infrastructure. It is envisioned that the Nation should look far beyond: not only should we efficiently and effectively address current problems of the aging infrastructure, but we must also further develop next-generation construction materials and processes for new construction. To accomplish this ambitious goal, we must include process efficiency that will help select the most reliable and cost-effective materials in construction processes; performance and cost will be the prime consideration for selections construction materials based on life-cycle cost and materials performance; energy efficiency will drive reduced energy consumption from current levels by 50 % per unit of output; and environmental responsiveness will achieve net-zero waste from construction materials and its constituents. Should it be successfully implemented, we will transform the current 21st century infrastructure systems to enable the vital functioning of society and improve competitiveness of the economy to ensure that our quality of life remains high.

  17. Importance for Municipalities of Infrastructure Information Systems in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kamil KARATAS; Cemal BIYIK

    2017-01-01

    Technical infrastructures are the important development-level parameters of countries, difficult to maintain and require high-investment cost. It is required to take the advantage of information system for the better administration of technical infrastructure facilities, planning and taking effective decisions. Hence, infrastructure information systems must be built oriented to technical infrastructure (TI). In this study, Kunduracilar Street in Trabzon was selected as pilot area oriented to ...

  18. The Evolution and Challenges of the Danish Civil Service System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2013-01-01

    In this article a descriptive analysis of the evolution and current challenges of the Danish civil service system is given. The focus is on the state administration. Theories of path-dependency and the transnational diffusion of ideas inform the empirical analysis. The broad features of the long......-term history of the Danish civil service system are analyzed. The basic characteristics of the current internal labor market of the civil service are analyzed as well as some recent changes in the system. Issues of politicization of the civil service are discussed and public opinion concerning the civil...... service is examined. The Danish civil service system has been characterized by long-term gradual evolution and adoption of many of the prevailing institutions in medieval and modern European state administration. This adaptation to prevailing trends has been predominantly characterized by integration...

  19. Intelligent transportation infrastructure deployment analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathi, A.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Harding, J.A. [Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Much of the work on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to date has emphasized technologies, standards/protocols, architecture, user services, core infrastructure requirements, and various other technical and institutional issues. ITS implementations in the United States and elsewhere in the world have demonstrated benefits in the areas of safety, productivity, efficiency, and environmental impact. However, quantitative benefits and satisfactory cost estimates are not available or cannot be derived for many components of the ITS, whether deployed individually or in some integrated fashion. The limitations of existing analysis and evaluation capabilities coupled with the lack of strong empirical evidence presents a major knowledge and data gap for infrastructure investment decisions involving ITS alternatives. This paper describes the over-arching issues and requirements associated with the analysis capabilities required for a systematic, faithful, and rigorous evaluation of the impacts of deploying ITS in a metropolitan area. It then describes the conceptual framework of a modeling system that will provide a preliminary analysis capability to support ITS deployment analysis and evaluation.

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  1. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi.

    The various water-cooling circuits ran smoothly over the summer. The overall performance of the cooling system is satisfactory, even if some improvements are possible, concerning the endcap water-cooling and the C6F14 circuits. In particular for the endcap cooling circuit, we aim to lower the water temperature, to provide more margin for RPC detectors. An expert-on-call piquet has been established during the summer global run, assuring the continuous supervision of the installations. An effort has been made to collect and harmonize the existing documentation on the cooling infrastructures at P5. The last six months have seen minor modifications to the electrical power network at P5. Among these, the racks in USC55 for the Tracker and Sniffer systems, which are backed up by the diesel generator in case of power outage, have been equipped with new control boxes to allow a remote restart. Other interventions have concerned the supply of assured power to those installations that are essential for CMS to run eff...

  2. A New Quantitative Method for Studying the Vulnerability of Civil Aviation Network System to Spatially Localized Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.; Hu, Xiao Bing; Guo, Xiaomei; Xu, Z.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    As an important infrastructure system, civil aviation network system can be severely affected by natural hazards. Although a natural hazard is usually local, its impact, through the network topology, can become global. Inspired by Wilkinson’s work in 2012, this article proposes a new quantitative

  3. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2013-01-01

      Most of the CMS infrastructures at P5 will go through a heavy consolidation-work period during LS1. All systems, from the cryogenic plant of the superconducting magnet to the rack powering in the USC55 counting rooms, from the cooling circuits to the gas distribution, will undergo consolidation work. As announced in the last issue of the CMS Bulletin, we present here one of the consolidation projects of LS1: the installation of a new dry-gas plant for inner detectors inertion. So far the oxygen and humidity suppression inside the CMS Tracker and Pixel volumes were assured by flushing dry nitrogen gas evaporated from a large liquid nitrogen tank. For technical reasons, the maximum flow is limited to less than 100 m3/h and the cost of refilling the tank every two weeks with liquid nitrogen is quite substantial. The new dry-gas plant will supply up to 400 m3/h of dry nitrogen (or the same flow of dry air, during shut-downs) with a comparatively minimal operation cost. It has been evaluated that the...

  4. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    During the last winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages were completed. On the surface, the site cooling facility has passed the annual maintenance process that includes the cleaning of the two evaporative cooling towers, the maintenance of the chiller units and the safety checks on the software controls. In parallel, CMS teams, reinforced by PH-DT group personnel, have worked to shield the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR against the magnetic stray field in the CMS Forward region, to add labels to almost all the valves underground and to clean all the filters in UXC55, USC55 and SCX5. Following the insertion of TOTEM T1 detector, the cooling circuit has been branched off and commissioned. The demineraliser cartridges have been replaced as well, as they were shown to be almost saturated. New instrumentation has been installed in the SCX5 PC farm cooling and ventilation network, in order to monitor the performance of the HVAC system...

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    With all the technical services running, the attention has moved toward the next shutdown that will be spent to perform those modifications needed to enhance the reliability of CMS Infrastructures. Just to give an example for the cooling circuit, a set of re-circulating bypasses will be installed into the TS/CV area to limit the pressure surge when a circuit is partially shut-off. This problem has affected especially the Endcap Muon cooling circuit in the past. Also the ventilation of the UXC55 has to be revisited, allowing the automatic switching to full extraction in case of magnet quench. (Normally 90% of the cavern air is re-circulated by the ventilation system.) Minor modifications will concern the gas distribution, while the DSS action-matrix has to be refined according to the experience gained with operating the detector for a while. On the powering side, some LV power lines have been doubled and the final schematics of the UPS coverage for the counting rooms have been released. The most relevant inte...

  6. Developing marketing system for civil engineering firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper intention was to reveal insufficient connection between theory and practice in civil engineering as indispose condition for more efficient solving problems which products unstable environment of engineering firms. Successful connection between theory and practice, when we talk about marketing in civil engineering, did not develop at satisfied way. Civil engineering is, in aspect of implementation of modern philosophy of marketing, in big residue related to the other spices of economy. In that order we want to appoint on possibility to resolve this discrepancy.

  7. Controlling Hazardous Releases while Protecting Passengers in Civil Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, Sara P.; Katopodes, Nikolaos D.

    2015-11-01

    The threat of accidental or deliberate toxic chemicals released into public spaces is a significant concern to public safety, and the real-time detection and mitigation of such hazardous contaminants has the potential to minimize harm and save lives. Furthermore, the safe evacuation of occupants during such a catastrophe is of utmost importance. This research develops a comprehensive means to address such scenarios, through both the sensing and control of contaminants, and the modeling of and potential communication to occupants as they evacuate. A computational fluid dynamics model is developed of a simplified public space characterized by a long conduit (e.g. airport terminal) with unidirectional ambient flow that is capable of detecting and mitigating the hazardous contaminant (via boundary ports) over several time horizons using model predictive control optimization. Additionally, a physical prototype is built to test the real-time feasibility of this computational flow control model. The prototype is a blower wind-tunnel with an elongated test section with the capability of sensing (via digital camera) an injected `contaminant' (propylene glycol smoke), and then mitigating that contaminant using actuators (compressed air operated vacuum nozzles) which are operated by a set of pressure regulators and a programmable controller. Finally, an agent-based model is developed to simulate ``agents'' (i.e. building occupants) as they evacuate a public space, and is coupled with the computational flow control model such that agents must interact with a dynamic, threatening environment. NSF-CMMI #0856438.

  8. Intelligent systems for strategic power infrastructure defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hwan

    SER information. In order to avoid ambiguity of the hypotheses, this study proposes a new method to determine the credibility of each hypothesis. Even if there is not enough SER information, the proposed method is able to perform an accurate fault and malfunction analysis. To avoid exhaustive testing, a minimal set of test scenarios is derived, which is able to handle missing information and SERs. During extreme contingencies or cascading events, fault diagnosis is the first step in the operation of the power system. On-line fault diagnosis provides necessary and correct information for the defense system to make correct and efficient decisions on self-healing control actions. It has been shown in previous studies that incorrect fault diagnosis can lead to catastrophic failures in power systems. Fault diagnosis is an important issue for strategic power infrastructure defense.

  9. 76 FR 32241 - Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors AGENCY... providing notice of adjusted present value factors applicable to retirees under the Civil Service Retirement... nonappropriated fund instrumentalities. This notice is necessary to conform the present value factors to changes...

  10. Human respiratory considerations for civil transport aircraft oxygen system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    This report is intended to acquaint personnel involved in the design, inspection, and maintenance of civil transport oxygen systems with the human respiratory requirements and oxygen system design considerations necessary to effect an interface and p...

  11. Intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Thomas M.; Meegoda, Jay N.

    2002-02-01

    The objectives of this research project are to identify, demonstrate, and validate intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure that will enable effective, affordable, real-time, remote measurement, analysis, and reporting of their structural health. Specifically, the project involves testing and validating smart pipes, which could indicate locations of structurally weak areas, i.e., where leaks are likely to occur, and the location of existing leaks for corrective action. During the initial phase of this project an extensive literature search was conducted to identify technologies that could potentially be used in intelligent systems. Although the search was primarily focused on new emerging smart technologies, consideration was also given to innovative uses of established structural monitoring or testing technologies. Four emerging technologies that can potentially locate structurally weak areas and predict incipient leaks were identified: electrically conducting composite pipes, electrochemistry-based corrosion sensors, instrumented cathodic protection, and distributed piezoelectric sensors. Also identified was an innovative use of acoustic emission techniques to track deterioration in pre-stressed concrete pipes by monitoring energy releases from breaking corroded pre-stressing wires. A review of each of these technologies is presented. During the next phase of the program one or more of these technologies will be tested and evaluated further.

  12. Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Supporting the strong demand in data storage, computation and interactive performances required by visual analytics applications is still a challenge. All currently existing visual analytics applications need to build their own specialised infrastructure for their specific problem. One of the most difficult issues of visual analytics is that it is both user driven and data-driven. It is user-driven because during the interactive steps of the analysis, the user is specif...

  13. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  14. A decision model for intergenerational life-cycle risk assessment of civil infrastructure exposed to hurricanes under climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Yun; Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Public awareness of civil infrastructure performance has increased considerably in recent years as a result of repeated natural disasters. Risks from natural hazards may increase dramatically in the future, given current patterns of urbanization and population growth in hazard-prone areas. Risk assessments for infrastructure with expected service periods of a century or more are highly uncertain, and there is compelling evidence that climatology will evolve over such intervals. Thus, current natural hazard and risk assessment models, which are based on a presumption of stationarity in hazard occurrence and intensity, may not be adequate to assess the potential risks from hazards occurring in the distant future. This paper addresses two significant intergenerational elements – the potential impact of non-stationarity in hazard due to climate change and intergenerational discounting practices – that are essential to provide an improved decision support framework that accommodates the needs and values of future generations. The framework so developed is tested through two benchmark problems involving buildings exposed to hurricanes. - Highlights: • Difficulties of conventional life-cycle engineering decision-making over multiple generations are clearly elaborated. • Two intergenerational elements are proposed to reflect equitable allocations of risk between generations. • A data-based approach to forecast future hurricanes is provided to bridge the gap between models at large and local scales. • The feasibility and practicability of a refined framework are examined through two lifecycle cost assessment examples. • The two intergenerational elements suggested in this study have a wide range of applicability.

  15. Reproducibility in Research: Systems, Infrastructure, Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Crick

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The reproduction and replication of research results has become a major issue for a number of scientific disciplines. In computer science and related computational disciplines such as systems biology, the challenges closely revolve around the ability to implement (and exploit novel algorithms and models. Taking a new approach from the literature and applying it to a new codebase frequently requires local knowledge missing from the published manuscripts and transient project websites. Alongside this issue, benchmarking, and the lack of open, transparent and fair benchmark sets present another barrier to the verification and validation of claimed results. In this paper, we outline several recommendations to address these issues, driven by specific examples from a range of scientific domains. Based on these recommendations, we propose a high-level prototype open automated platform for scientific software development which effectively abstracts specific dependencies from the individual researcher and their workstation, allowing easy sharing and reproduction of results. This new e-infrastructure for reproducible computational science offers the potential to incentivise a culture change and drive the adoption of new techniques to improve the quality and efficiency – and thus reproducibility – of scientific exploration.

  16. Distinctions between intelligent manufactured and constructed systems and a new discipline for intelligent infrastructure hypersystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktan, A. Emin

    2003-08-01

    Although the interconnected systems nature of the infrastructures, and the complexity of interactions between their engineered, socio-technical and natural constituents have been recognized for some time, the principles of effectively operating, protecting and preserving such systems by taking full advantage of "modeling, simulations, optimization, control and decision making" tools developed by the systems engineering and operations research community have not been adequately studied or discussed by many engineers including the writer. Differential and linear equation systems, numerical and finite element modeling techniques, statistical and probabilistic representations are universal, however, different disciplines have developed their distinct approaches to conceptualizing, idealizing and modeling the systems they commonly deal with. The challenge is in adapting and integrating deterministic and stochastic, geometric and numerical, physics-based and "soft (data-or-knowledge based)", macroscopic or microscopic models developed by various disciplines for simulating infrastructure systems. There is a lot to be learned by studying how different disciplines have studied, improved and optimized the systems relating to various processes and products in their domains. Operations research has become a fifty-year old discipline addressing complex systems problems. Its mathematical tools range from linear programming to decision processes and game theory. These tools are used extensively in management and finance, as well as by industrial engineers for optimizing and quality control. Progressive civil engineering academic programs have adopted "systems engineering" as a focal area. However, most of the civil engineering systems programs remain focused on constructing and analyzing highly idealized, often generic models relating to the planning or operation of transportation, water or waste systems, maintenance management, waste management or general infrastructure hazards

  17. Evaluating Air Force Civil Engineer's Current Automated Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Edward

    2002-01-01

    ...) to the Automated Civil Engineer System (ACES). This research focused on users perceptions of both database and data importance to determine if significant differences existed between various user sub-groups...

  18. Harnessing the power of civil registration and vital statistics systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-27

    :45pm. This conference will identify how best to harness the global momentum for strengthening civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems to meet the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Policy and practice ...

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    In addition to the intense campaign of replacement of the leaky bushing on the Endcap circuits, other important activities have also been completed, with the aim of enhancing the overall reliability of the cooling infrastructures at CMS. Remaining with the Endcap circuit, the regulating valve that supplies cold water to the primary side of the circuit heat-exchanger, is not well adapted in flow capability and a new part has been ordered, to be installed during a stop of LHC. The instrumentation monitoring of the refilling rate of the circuits has been enhanced and we can now detect leaks as small as 0.5 cc/sec, on circuits that have nominal flow rates of some 20 litres/sec. Another activity starting now that the technical stop is over is the collection of spare parts that are difficult to find on the market. These will be stored at P5 with the aim of reducing down-time in case of component failure. Concerning the ventilation infrastructures, it has been noticed that in winter time the relative humidity leve...

  20. The integration of novel diagnostics techniques for multi-scale monitoring of large civil infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soldovieri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, structural monitoring of large infrastructures (buildings, dams, bridges or more generally man-made structures has raised an increased attention due to the growing interest about safety and security issues and risk assessment through early detection. In this framework, aim of the paper is to introduce a new integrated approach which combines two sensing techniques acting on different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon, which allows a spatially and temporally continuous monitoring of the structure with a "low" spatial resolution (meter. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR, which can provide detailed images of the inner status of the structure (with a spatial resolution less then tens centimetres, but does not allow a temporal continuous monitoring. The paper describes the features of these two techniques and provides experimental results concerning preliminary test cases.

  1. An agent-based microsimulation of critical infrastructure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,DIANNE C.; STAMBER,KEVIN L.

    2000-03-29

    US infrastructures provide essential services that support the economic prosperity and quality of life. Today, the latest threat to these infrastructures is the increasing complexity and interconnectedness of the system. On balance, added connectivity will improve economic efficiency; however, increased coupling could also result in situations where a disturbance in an isolated infrastructure unexpectedly cascades across diverse infrastructures. An understanding of the behavior of complex systems can be critical to understanding and predicting infrastructure responses to unexpected perturbation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an agent-based model of critical US infrastructures using time-dependent Monte Carlo methods and a genetic algorithm learning classifier system to control decision making. The model is currently under development and contains agents that represent the several areas within the interconnected infrastructures, including electric power and fuel supply. Previous work shows that agent-based simulations models have the potential to improve the accuracy of complex system forecasting and to provide new insights into the factors that are the primary drivers of emergent behaviors in interdependent systems. Simulation results can be examined both computationally and analytically, offering new ways of theorizing about the impact of perturbations to an infrastructure network.

  2. Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, Dana A

    2004-01-01

    .... Industrial control computer systems involved in this infrastructure are specific points of vulnerability, as cyber-security for these systems has not been previously perceived as a high priority...

  3. Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, Dana A

    2003-01-01

    .... Industrial control computer systems involved in this infrastructure are specific points of vulnerability, as cyber-security for these systems has not been previously perceived as a high priority...

  4. Criminal law repercussions on the Civil Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamura, M.; Musso, L.

    2009-09-01

    The legal systems of our Countries provide the citizenship with a high level of protection. Personal safety and the protection of property are guaranteed by the State through organized structures among which we can include the Civil Protection. The progress of science and technology has greatly improved monitoring tools, currently used by the Civil Protection, which allow, to a certain extent, to predict and prevent risk and natural hazards. The assertion of an individual right, which in some cases has reached a constitutional rank, to benefit from Civil Protection services and the widespread perception throughout the citizenship of the competence of the system to prevent disasters, often causes people to take legal action against Civil Protection authorities should they fail in their duties to protect. However, the attempt of having both recognized an economic compensation for the suffered loss and the punishment of those whom misled, frequently undergoes criminal law. This process could have results that may jeopardize the effectiveness of Civil Protection service without meeting citizens’ demands. A dual effort is thus necessary in order to solve such a problem. On the one hand, an interdisciplinary knowledge needs to pervade criminal law in an attempt to relieve its self-referentiality and pretended supremacy. On the other hand an alternative, and more agile, system -such as civil or administrative law- has to be identified in order to respond to the legitimate requests for protection in the case of a faulty behaviour of the authorities.

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    The long winter shut-down allows for modifications that will improve the reliability of the detector infrastructures at P5. The annual maintenance of detector services is taking place as well. This means a full stop of water-cooling circuits from November 24th with a gradual restart from mid January 09. The annual maintenance service includes the cleaning of the two SF5 cooling towers, service of the chiller plants on the surface, and the cryogenic plant serving the CMS Magnet. In addition, the overall site power is reduced from 8MW to 2MW, compatible with the switchover to the Swiss power network in winter. Full power will be available again from end of January. Among the modification works planned, the Low Voltage cabinets are being refurbished; doubling the cable sections and replacing the 40A circuit breakers with 60A types. This will reduce the overheating that has been experienced. Moreover, two new LV transformers will be bought and pre-cabled in order to assure a quick swap in case of failure of any...

  6. Evaluation of Current Automated Civil Engineer System Non-Appropriated Funds Project Programming Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ligday, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    ...) to support the changing needs of the organization. The Air Force civil engineering organization is no exception since they have drastically improved their Automated Civil Engineer System (ACES...

  7. Infrastructure system restoration planning using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Steven; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to address restoration issues for supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure. Rapid restoration of infrastructure after a large-scale disaster is necessary to sustaining a nation's economy and security, but such long-term restoration has not been investigated as thoroughly as initial rescue and recovery efforts. A model of the Greater Saint Louis Missouri area was created and a disaster scenario simulated. An evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the order in which the bridges should be repaired based on indirect costs. Solutions were evaluated based on the reduction of indirect costs and the restoration of transportation capacity. When compared to a greedy algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm solution reduced indirect costs by approximately 12.4% by restoring automotive travel routes for workers and re-establishing the flow of commodities across the three rivers in the Saint Louis area.

  8. Performance of pile foundation for the civil infrastructure of high speed rail in severe ground subsidence area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of pile foundation is assessed for the 30 km long viaduct bridge structure seating in the ground subsidence area in the central part of Taiwan. The focus of this paper is placed on the settlement behaviour of a continuous 3-span R. C. viaduct bridge supported on piles adjacent to highway embankment. Monitoring data accumulated over the last 12 years indicate that the observed pace of the settlement of the viaduct structure in other sections matches that of the ground. However, the bridge piers adjacent to the embankment have been suffering an additional approximately 1 cm settlement every year since the completion of the embankment construction. It was believed that the piers may suffer from enormous negative skin friction owing to the surcharge from the embankment and groundwater depression. This paper first summarizes the settlement analysis results to quantify the settlement of pile due to regional ground subsidence and the combined effects from ground water fluctuation and embankment surcharge loading. Accordingly, a loading path on P'-q stress space is formulated to illustrate the loading variation subject to the combined loading effects that can explain why the combined effect becoming significant on settlement control for civil infrastructure in ground subsidence area.

  9. Intelligent monitoring, control, and security of critical infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polycarpou, Marios

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the challenges that critical infrastructure systems face, and presents state of the art solutions to address them. How can we design intelligent systems or intelligent agents that can make appropriate real-time decisions in the management of such large-scale, complex systems? What are the primary challenges for critical infrastructure systems? The book also provides readers with the relevant information to recognize how important infrastructures are, and their role in connection with a society’s economy, security and prosperity. It goes on to describe state-of-the-art solutions to address these points, including new methodologies and instrumentation tools (e.g. embedded software and intelligent algorithms) for transforming and optimizing target infrastructures. The book is the most comprehensive resource to date for professionals in both the private and public sectors, while also offering an essential guide for students and researchers in the areas of modeling and analysis of critical in...

  10. Patterns of Force: System Strength, Terrorism and Civil War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freytag, Andreas; Meierrieks, Daniel; Münch, Angela

    2010-01-01

    in response to the strengths and weaknesses of the system they challenge. An empirical test of this hypothesis for 104 countries for 1992 to 2004 indeed shows that the socio-economic strength of a system positively correlates with the likelihood of terrorism, but negatively with the incidence of civil war....... Institutional quality and political participation of opponents reduce the risk of civil war, but do not affect the likelihood of terrorism. We also show that system stability reduces the likelihood of all forms of violent opposition....

  11. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects.; Le regime international de responsabilite civile nucleaire. Perspectives d`evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyners, P. [Nuclear Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-10-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs.

  12. Importance for Municipalities of Infrastructure Information Systems in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil KARATAS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Technical infrastructures are the important development-level parameters of countries, difficult to maintain and require high-investment cost. It is required to take the advantage of information system for the better administration of technical infrastructure facilities, planning and taking effective decisions. Hence, infrastructure information systems must be built oriented to technical infrastructure (TI. In this study, Kunduracilar Street in Trabzon was selected as pilot area oriented to urban TI studies. Graphic and attribute information of the pilot area were collected. Every TI facility was arranged into the same coordinate system with different layers. Maps showing TI facilities in the pilot area and 3D view of the site were prepared on ArcGIS software.

  13. In situ monitoring of the integrity of bonded repair patches on aircraft and civil infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amrita; Roach, Dennis; Beard, Shawn; Qing, Xinlin; Hannum, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Monitoring the continued health of aircraft subsystems and identifying problems before they affect airworthiness has been a long-term goal of the aviation industry. Because in-service conditions and failure modes experienced by structures are generally complex and unknown, conservative calendar-based or usage-based scheduled maintenance practices are overly time-consuming, labor-intensive and expensive. Metal structures such as helicopters and other transportation systems are likely to develop fatigue cracks under cyclic loads and corrosive service environments. Early detection of cracks is a key element to prevent catastrophic failure and prolong structural life. Furthermore, as structures age, maintenance service frequency and costs increase while performance and availability decrease. Current non-destructive inspection (NDI) techniques that can potentially be used for this purpose typically involve complex, time-intensive procedures, which are labor-intensive and expensive. Most techniques require access to the damaged area on at least one side, and sometimes on both sides. This can be very difficult for monitoring of certain inaccessible regions. In those cases, inspection may require removal of access panels or even structural disassembly. Once access has been obtained, automated inspection techniques likely will not be practical due to the bulk of the required equipment. Results obtained from these techniques may also be sensitive to the sweep speed, tool orientation, and downward pressure. This can be especially problematic for hand-held inspection tools where none of these parameters is mechanically controlled. As a result, data can vary drastically from one inspection to the next, from one technician to the next, and even from one sweep to the next. Structural health monitoring (SHM) offers the promise of a paradigm shift from schedule-driven maintenance to condition-based maintenance (CBM) of assets. Sensors embedded permanently in aircraft safety

  14. INFRASTRUCTURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important tasks for LS1 was achieved this autumn when all the electronics racks in the USC55 counting rooms were switched from the standard powering network to the CMS low-voltage UPS. This long-sought move will prevent fastidious power cuts of the CMS electronics in case of short power glitches on the main powering network, as already assured to the detector front-end electronics in UXC55. In the same time, a study to update the dedicated UPS units for some crucial detector sub-systems, as the Magnet Control System (MCS), the Detector Safety System (DSS) and the IT Network Star-points, has been lunched. A new architecture, with fully redundant UPS units, able to assure power supply in case of long network outage (up to a maximum of five hours, in the case of the Magnet) has been recently presented by the EN-EL group and is currently under evaluation. The dry-gas plant recently commissioned in SH5 has passed a first test in order to understand the time needed to switch from dry-air to dry-n...

  15. Communication analysis for feedback control of civil infrastructure using cochlea-inspired sensing nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckens, Courtney A.; Cook, Ireana; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2016-04-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as a reliable, low-cost alternative to the traditional wired sensing paradigm. While such networks have made significant progress in the field of structural monitoring, significantly less development has occurred for feedback control applications. Previous work in WSNs for feedback control has highlighted many of the challenges of using this technology including latency in the wireless communication channel and computational inundation at the individual sensing nodes. This work seeks to overcome some of those challenges by drawing inspiration from the real-time sensing and control techniques employed by the biological central nervous system and in particular the mammalian cochlea. A novel bio-inspired wireless sensor node was developed that employs analog filtering techniques to perform time-frequency decomposition of a sensor signal, thus encompassing the functionality of the cochlea. The node then utilizes asynchronous sampling of the filtered signal to compress the signal prior to communication. This bio-inspired sensing architecture is extended to a feedback control application in order to overcome the traditional challenges currently faced by wireless control. In doing this, however, the network experiences high bandwidths of low-significance information exchange between nodes, resulting in some lost data. This study considers the impact of this lost data on the control capabilities of the bio-inspired control architecture and finds that it does not significantly impact the effectiveness of control.

  16. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

      During the Year-End Technical Stop all the systems have been carefully inspected in order to assure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. Regarding the electrical distribution, the annual General Emergency Stop test (AUG, in CERN language) has shown a discrepancy in the action matrix, as some racks were not cut off by the AUG action as they should have been. The subsequent investigation quickly indicated that a missing connection at the main UPS switchboard was the source of the problem. The problem has been addressed to the EN/EL group responsible for the equipment and a new test is planned in the beginning of March. Some consolidation work has been carried out as well, namely the doubling of the line powering the rack that houses the DCS servers in USC55. During the last months of the technical stop, the cooling systems of CMS have undergone the usual preventive maintenance, a few corrective interventions and a huge programme of performance tests. The preventive maintenance programm...

  17. Tunable mechanical monolithic sensors for real-time broadband distributed monitoring of large civil and industrial infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, F.; Giordano, G.

    2017-04-01

    In the last decades the interest in the development of sensors for low-frequency long-term monitoring systems aimed to assess the structural health status of large buildings and infrastructures like dams, bridges, sky-scrapes, oil platforms, etc., has largely increased. Among the different architecture of candidate sensors for this task, the UNISA Folded Pendulum class of sensors is one of the most promising ones for the implementation of mechanical accelerometers (horizontal, vertical and angular). In this paper, we present monolithic implementations of inertial mechanical seismometers/accelerometers based on the UNISA Folded Pendulum mechanical configuration, optimized for low frequency characterization of large structures.

  18. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    P. Tropea and A. Gaddi

    2013-01-01

    One of the first activities of LS1 has been the refurbishment of the rack ventilation units in the USC55 counting rooms. These rack-mounted turbines have been in service since 2007 and they have largely passed the expected lifetime. Some 450 motor-fans units have been procured in Germany, via the CERN store, and shipped to CMS where a team of technicians has dismounted the old turbines, keeping only the bare chassis, and inserted the new fans. A metallic mesh has also been added to better protect personnel from possible injuries by spinning blades. A full test of several hours has validated the new units, prior to their installation inside the racks. The work, started soon after the beginning of LS1, has been successfully concluded last week. Figure 1: Drawing of the fan units recently refurbished in the USC55 counting room racks Image 1: New filter on the main rack water-cooling distribution line The cooling systems of CMS are gently coming out of their maintenance programme. All water circuits have...

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the May 31st to June 2nd LHC Technical Stop, a major step was made towards upgrading the endcap cooling circuit. The chilled-water regulation valve on the primary side of the heat-exchanger was changed. This now allows reduction of the set-value of the water temperature cooling the RPCs and CSCs of the CMS endcaps. At the same time, the bypass re-circulating valve on the secondary circuit of the heat-exchanger was also changed to allow better regulation of this set-value. A project has been launched with the objective of improving the distribution of the chilled water to the different users. This was triggered by evidence that the Tracker compressors in USC55 receive insufficient flow. The chilled water is shared with the HVAC system and experts are now looking at how to better balance the flow between these two main users. The cooling loop filters located in UXC55 have been inspected and cleaned. Samples were sent to CERN Radioprotection Service to check for activation and to the Material Analysis...

  20. Centre of Excellence for Civil Registration and Vital Statistics Systems

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Housed at IDRC, the Centre of Excellence is a global resource hub that actively supports national efforts to develop, strengthen, and scale-up civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems. Its role is to facilitate access to technical assistance, global standards and tools, evidence, and good practice.

  1. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  2. SIMULATION OF INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SMALL PEDAGOGICAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Artemova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The model of information infrastructure control for small pedagogical system including virtual machines is presented. Particular models of pedagogical system parameters are defined within the control model; the usage of risk model and application possibility of software technical quality model are justified. The key events (decision points are highlighted in describing the life cycle of infrastructure control. The set of methods and algorithms supporting decision-making in the framework of a small pedagogical system is proposed. In order to illustrate the applicability of the generated solutions the main results of the experiments are presented.

  3. Securing military information systems on public infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, P

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available to private encrypted networks. Several security mechanisms from commercial enterprise and social networking systems were adopted and customised in order to secure Cmore, a Web based real time distributed command and control system developed by the Council...

  4. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  5. Stochastic Modelling and Optimization of Complex Infrastructure Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown that recent progress in stochastic modelling and optimization in combination with advanced computer systems has now made it possible to improve the design and the maintenance strategies for infrastructure systems. The paper concentrates on highway networks and single large...

  6. Information system of forecasting infrastructure development in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gats Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Manuscript is devoted to the development of information system for tourist objects infrastructure growth and its practical implementation in form of information system using methods of fuzzy logic, theory of fractals and diffusion. Developed technology allows compute attractiveness of Carpathian region, structure, dynamics of the main tourist settlements Vorochta and Slavske, prospective territories for tourist business, growing strategies for region.

  7. Testing Infrastructure for Operating System Kernel Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Maxwell; Karlsson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Testing is an important part of system development, and to test effectively we require knowledge of the internal state of the system under test. Testing an operating system kernel is a challenge as it is the operating system that typically provides access to this internal state information. Multi......-core kernels pose an even greater challenge due to concurrency and their shared kernel state. In this paper, we present a testing framework that addresses these challenges by running the operating system in a virtual machine, and using virtual machine introspection to both communicate with the kernel...... and obtain information about the system. We have also developed an in-kernel testing API that we can use to develop a suite of unit tests in the kernel. We are using our framework for for the development of our own multi-core research kernel....

  8. Finding Correlation and Predicting System Behavior in Large IT Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Modern IT development infrastructure has a large number of components that must be monitored, for instance servers and network components. Various system-metrics (build time, CPU utilization, queries time etc.) are gathered to monitor system performance. In practice, it is extremely difficult for a system administrator to observe a correlation between several systemmetrics and predict a target system-metric based on highly correlated system-metrics without machine learning support. The experi...

  9. Romanian Civil Service - Still Lacking a Real Merit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ȘANDOR

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil service is different from one country to another. It can be attractive, having a lot of prestige in country like United Kingdom, France or Japan, or less interesting and with a low prestige. The esteem every civil service has depends on the quality of public employees. For long time aristocracy held all the government jobs, at least the most important ones. New comers could enter in government jobs only by buying those positions. Democratization of societies needed another system for recruitment. The spoil system was a system that permitted access to public function to people from every social class, from every region. “To the victor go the spoils” system implied massive changes in administration each time the leaders were changed.

  10. A Cyber-Based Data-Enabled Virtual Organization for Wind Load Effects on Civil Infrastructures: VORTEX-Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite many advances in the area of wind effects on structures in recent decades, research has been traditionally conducted within limited resources scattered geographically. With the trend toward increasingly complex designs of civil infrastructure combined with the escalating potential for losses by extreme wind events, a new culture of research needs to be established based on innovative and collaborative solutions for better management of the impact of extreme wind events. To address this change, this paper presents a new paradigm of a multiscale cyber-based laboratory framework for the analysis/design, modeling, and simulation of wind load effects based on an ongoing collaborative cyberinfrastructure-based platform, Virtual Organization for Reducing the Toll of EXtreme Winds (VORTEX-Winds, https://vortex-winds.org, and discusses its current status since its inception in 2007 and ongoing developments. This collaborative framework as it evolves would enable a paradigm shift by offering advanced cyber-enabled modules (e-modules for accelerating advances in research and education to achieve improved understanding and better modeling of wind effects on structures. Accordingly, it will enhance wind community’s analysis and design capabilities to address next-generation challenges posed by wind. Through empowering those without computational or experimental resources, the e-modules will encompass a large set of subject areas and topics categorized as Database-enabled design, Full-scale/Field site data repository, Statistical/Stochastic toolboxes, Tele-experimentation, Uncertainty modeling, Damage assessment, and Computational platforms. This prototype will allow access to the individual e-module, while it is envisaged that next level of development in VORTEX-Winds will have the capability for an automated and integrated analysis/design through a nexus of e-modules. A highlight of the e-modules currently completed or in development is presented

  11. Network Basic Language Translation System: Security Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mittrick, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    .... The Network Basic Language Translation System (NetBLTS) was proposed and accepted as part of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's offering of initiatives within the Horizontal Fusion portfolio in 2003...

  12. Planning for a space infrastructure for disposal of nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J. Jr.; Albert, T.E.; Lee, J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of safe, reliable, and compact power systems is vital to humanity's exploration, development, and, ultimately, civilization of space. Nuclear power systems appear to present to offer the only practical option of compact high-power systems. From the very beginning of US space nuclear power activities, safety has been a paramount requirement. Assurance of nuclear safety has included prelaunch ground handling operations, launch, and space operations of nuclear power sources, and more recently serious attention has been given to postoperational disposal of spent or errant nuclear reactor systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the progress of a project to utilize the capabilities of an evolving space infrastructure for planning for disposal of space nuclear systems. Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion - Nuclear) is a project that has been initiated to consider post-operational disposal options for nuclear space power systems. The key finding of Project SIREN was that although no system currently exists to affect the disposal of a nuclear space power system, the requisite technologies for such a system either exist or are planned for part of the evolving space infrastructure

  13. Infrastructure to Support Hydrologic Research: Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.; Duffy, C j

    2001-12-01

    Hydrologic Sciences are inherently interdisciplinary. Consequently, a myriad state variables are of interest to hydrologists. Hydrologic processes transcend many spatial and temporal scales, and their measurements reflect a variety of scales of support. The global water cycle is continuously modified by human activity through changes in land use, alteration of rivers, irrigation and groundwater pumping and through a modification of atmospheric composition. Since water is a solvent and a medium of transport, the water cycle fundamentally influences other material and energy cycles. This metaphor extends to the function that a hydrologic research information system needs to provide, to facilitate discovery in earth systems science, and to improve our capability to manage resources and hazards in a sustainable manner. At present, we have a variety of sources that provide data useful for hydrologic analyses, that range from massive remote sensed data sets, to sparsely sampled historical and paleo data. Consequently, the first objective of the Hydrologic Information Systems (HIS) group is to design a data services system that makes these data accessible in a uniform and useful way for specific, prioritized research goals. The design will include protocols for archiving and disseminating data from the Long Term Hydrologic Observatories (LTHOs), and comprehensive modeling experiments. Hydrology has a rich tradition of mathematical and statistical modeling of processes. However, given limited data and access to it, and a narrow focus that has not exploited connections to climatic and ecologic processes (among others), there have been only a few forays into diagnostic analyses of hydrologic fields, to identify and evaluate spatial and process teleconnections and an appropriate reduced space for modeling and understanding systems. The HIS initiative consequently proposes an investment in research and the provision of toolboxes to facilitate such analyses using the data

  14. Simulation-based design for infrastructure system simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fumarola, M.; Huang, Y.; Tekinay, C.; Seck, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Simulation models are often used to analyze the behavior and performance of infrastructure systems. The use of simulation models in multi-actor design processes is restricted to the analysis phase after conceptual designs have been completed. To use simulation models throughout the design process,

  15. Network Interdependency Modeling for Risk Assessment on Built Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    transportation sectors (Korpi, 2008). Kim et al. (2010) demonstrate its applicability by developing an LCC estimate for light rail transit. The objective...Kim, H., & Jun, J. (2010). Development of a life cycle cost estimate system for structures of light rail transit infrastructure. Automation in

  16. A Novel Surveillance System Applied in Civil Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hua Bo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional security monitoring of civil airport usually uses a fixed camera to acquire images. There are several problems with performance including difficulties introduced in the information transmission, storage, and analysis of the process. Insect compound eyes offer unique advantages for moving target capture and these have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. This paper contributes to this research by proposing a new surveillance system applied in civil airport. We discuss the finished bionic structure of the system, the development of the bionic control circuit, and introduce the proposed mathematical model of bionic compound eyes for data acquisition and image mosaic. Image matching for large view is also illustrated with different conditions. This mode and algorithm effectively achieve safety surveillance of airport with large field of view and high real-time processing.

  17. LEGAL SYSTEM IN BRAZILIAN CONSTITUTIONALISM: PERPLEXITIES REFERRING TO CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Iribure Júnior, Hamilton da Cunha; Guimarães, Henrique Cassalho

    2017-01-01

    The contemporaneous constitutionalism outlines a new manner to conceive and interpret the legal system, considering the alignment of law with society and society with law in order to emancipate the individual in the factual level. This results in the repercussion of humanization purpose in the Constitution of Federative Republic of Brazil of 1988 in civil law, to the extent of approaching it under a new perspective. However, such relationship involves several aspects which cannot be neglected...

  18. 78 FR 55766 - Submission for Review: Civil Service Retirement System Survivor Annuitant Express Pay Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Civil Service Retirement System Survivor Annuitant Express Pay Application... currently approved information collection request (ICR) 3206-0233, Civil Service Retirement System Survivor.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: RI 25-51 will be used by the Civil Service Retirement System solely to pay benefits...

  19. The ISTIMES project: a new integrated system for monitoring critical transport infrastructures interested by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Massimo, Bavusi; Francesco, Soldovieri

    2010-05-01

    measurements. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. Thus, the proposal will concern also with the development of tools for handling, analysing and processing large data volume (Information Fusion) and then providing information and performing behaviour prediction in a quick, easy and intuitive way (Situation Awareness). The proposal is based on several independent non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing. Sensor cross validation, synergy and new data fusion and correlation schemes will permit a multi-method, multi-resolution and multi-scale electromagnetic detection and monitoring of surface and subsurface changes of the infrastructure. According to GMES and European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI) initiatives, the system will adopt open architectures and will make efforts to achieve full interoperability. The system will be tested on two very challenging test beds such as: a highway-bridge and a railway tunnel. The system will be based on clear end-user requirements, coming from representative end-users and technological choices will be based on a long term cost-benefit analysis. Then, a dissemination plan was included into the project to encourage a wide range of public institutions and private companies to evaluate and adopt our approach for real-time control and distributed monitoring also in the more general framework of critical and civil infrastructure management and protection. Finally, an exploitation plan will develop for the commercialization of any derived technology, software, or monitoring concepts. ISTIMES project is carried out by an international partnership formed by nine partners coming from seven countries: Tecnologie per le Osservazioni della Terra (TeRN), Elsag Datamat (ED) and Dipartimento della Protezione Civile (DPC) from Italy

  20. Time-Varying, Multi-Scale Adaptive System Reliability Analysis of Lifeline Infrastructure Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kurtz, Nolan Scot [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The majority of current societal and economic needs world-wide are met by the existing networked, civil infrastructure. Because the cost of managing such infrastructure is high and increases with time, risk-informed decision making is essential for those with management responsibilities for these systems. To address such concerns, a methodology that accounts for new information, deterioration, component models, component importance, group importance, network reliability, hierarchical structure organization, and efficiency concerns has been developed. This methodology analyzes the use of new information through the lens of adaptive Importance Sampling for structural reliability problems. Deterioration, multi-scale bridge models, and time-variant component importance are investigated for a specific network. Furthermore, both bridge and pipeline networks are studied for group and component importance, as well as for hierarchical structures in the context of specific networks. Efficiency is the primary driver throughout this study. With this risk-informed approach, those responsible for management can address deteriorating infrastructure networks in an organized manner.

  1. Global Positioning System (GPS) civil signal monitoring (CSM) trade study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-07

    This GPS Civil Signal Monitoring (CSM) Trade Study has been performed at the direction of DOT/FAA Navigation Programs as the agency of reference for consolidating civil monitoring requirements on the Global Positioning System (GPS). The objective of ...

  2. Construction of Evaluation System of Provincial Ecological Civilization - A Case of Shangong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhang, Baohua; Cao, Jianrong; Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    According to the connotation of ecological civilization, construction principle of ecological civilization index system is expatiated, including integrity principle, applicability and feasibility principle, quantification principle and purposefulness principle. Based on this, a total of 23 single factors are selected from four aspects of ecological environmental protection, economic development, social progress and environmental protection consciousness. Ecological civilization index system i...

  3. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  4. Modernization of B-2 Data, Video, and Control Systems Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmar, Mark D.; Maloney, Christian T.; Butala, Vishal D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) Plum Brook Station (PBS) Spacecraft Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is NASA s third largest thermal-vacuum facility with propellant systems capability. B-2 has completed a modernization effort of its facility legacy data, video and control systems infrastructure to accommodate modern integrated testing and Information Technology (IT) Security requirements. Integrated systems tests have been conducted to demonstrate the new data, video and control systems functionality and capability. Discrete analog signal conditioners have been replaced by new programmable, signal processing hardware that is integrated with the data system. This integration supports automated calibration and verification of the analog subsystem. Modern measurement systems analysis (MSA) tools are being developed to help verify system health and measurement integrity. Legacy hard wired digital data systems have been replaced by distributed Fibre Channel (FC) network connected digitizers where high speed sampling rates have increased to 256,000 samples per second. Several analog video cameras have been replaced by digital image and storage systems. Hard-wired analog control systems have been replaced by Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC), fiber optic networks (FON) infrastructure and human machine interface (HMI) operator screens. New modern IT Security procedures and schemes have been employed to control data access and process control flows. Due to the nature of testing possible at B-2, flexibility and configurability of systems has been central to the architecture during modernization.

  5. Modeling In-Use Steel Stock in China’s Buildings and Civil Engineering Infrastructure Using Time-Series of DMSP/OLS Nighttime Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanwei Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid urbanization has led to increasing steel consumption for buildings and civil engineering infrastructure. The in-use steel stock in the same is considered to be closely related to social welfare and urban metabolism. Traditional approaches for determining the in-use steel stock are labor-intensive and time-consuming processes and always hindered by the availability of statistical data. To address this issue, this study proposed the use of long-term nighttime lights as a proxy to effectively estimate in-use steel stock for buildings (IUSSB and civil engineering infrastructure (IUSSCE at the provincial level in China. Significant relationships between nighttime lights versus IUSSB and IUSSCE were observed for provincial variables in a single year, as well as for time series variables of a single province. However, these relationships were found to differ among provinces (referred to as “inter-individual differences” and with time (referred to as “temporal differences”. Panel regression models were therefore proposed to estimate IUSSB and IUSSCE in consideration of the temporal and inter-individual differences based on a dataset covering 1992–2007. These models were validated using data for 2008, and the results showed good estimation for both IUSSB and IUSSCE. The proposed approach can be used to easily monitor the dynamic of IUSSB and IUSSCE in China. This should be critical in providing valuable information for policy making regarding regional development of buildings and infrastructure, sustainable urban resource management, and cross-boundary material recycling.

  6. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  7. Civil Society Participation in the Governance of Educational Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Donor organizations increasingly support the idea that civil society organizations should be involved in the process of national education reform. Yet despite this widespread endorsement, little is known about the quality and effectiveness of civil society participation in education reform. This project will explore the role of civil ...

  8. Developing Sustainable Urban Water-Energy Infrastructures: Applying a Multi-Sectoral Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems (SEIS) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.

    2016-12-01

    Urban infrastructure - broadly defined to include the systems that provide water, energy, food, shelter, transportation-communication, sanitation and green/public spaces in cities - have tremendous impact on the environment and on human well-being (Ramaswami et al., 2016; Ramaswami et al., 2012). Aggregated globally, these sectors contribute 90% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and 96% of global water withdrawals. Urban infrastructure contributions to such impacts are beginning to dominate. Cities are therefore becoming the action arena for infrastructure transformations that can achieve high levels of service delivery while reducing environmental impacts and enhancing human well-being. Achieving sustainable urban infrastructure transitions requires: information about the engineered infrastructure, and its interaction with the natural (ecological-environmental) and the social sub-systems In this paper, we apply a multi-sector, multi-scalar Social-Ecological-Infrastructural Systems framework that describes the interactions among biophysical engineered infrastructures, the natural environment and the social system in a systems-approach to inform urban infrastructure transformations. We apply the SEIS framework to inform water and energy sector transformations in cities to achieve environmental and human health benefits realized at multiple scales - local, regional and global. Local scales address pollution, health, wellbeing and inequity within the city; regional scales address regional pollution, scarcity, as well as supply risks in the water-energy sectors; global impacts include greenhouse gas emissions and climate impacts. Different actors shape infrastructure transitions including households, businesses, and policy actors. We describe the development of novel cross-sectoral strategies at the water-energy nexus in cities, focusing on water, waste and energy sectors, in a case study of Delhi, India. Ramaswami, A.; Russell, A.G.; Culligan, P.J.; Sharma, K

  9. Vehicle Tracking System, Vehicle Infrastructure Provided with Vehicle Tracking System and Method for Tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papp, Z.; Doodeman, G.J.N.; Nelisse, M.W.; Sijs, J.; Theeuwes, J.A.C.; Driessen, B.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A vehicle tracking system is described comprising - a plurality of sensor nodes (10) that each provide a message (D) indicative for an occupancy status of a detection area of an vehicle infrastructure monitored by said sensor node, said sensor nodes (10) being arranged in the vehicle infrastructure

  10. Polymers for hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Rachel Reina; Simmons, Kevin L.; San Marchi, Christopher W.

    2013-10-01

    This document addresses polymer materials for use in hydrogen service. Section 1 summarizes the applications of polymers in hydrogen infrastructure and vehicle fuel systems and identifies polymers used in these applications. Section 2 reviews the properties of polymer materials exposed to hydrogen and/or high-pressure environments, using information obtained from published, peer-reviewed literature. The effect of high pressure on physical and mechanical properties of polymers is emphasized in this section along with a summary of hydrogen transport through polymers. Section 3 identifies areas in which fuller characterization is needed in order to assess material suitability for hydrogen service.

  11. Electronic health record standards, coding systems, frameworks, and infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Pradeep K; Bendale, Prashant; Mantri, Manisha; Dande, Atreya

    2013-01-01

    Discover How Electronic Health Records Are Built to Drive the Next Generation of Healthcare Delivery The increased role of IT in the healthcare sector has led to the coining of a new phrase ""health informatics,"" which deals with the use of IT for better healthcare services. Health informatics applications often involve maintaining the health records of individuals, in digital form, which is referred to as an Electronic Health Record (EHR). Building and implementing an EHR infrastructure requires an understanding of healthcare standards, coding systems, and frameworks. This book provides an

  12. Designing for the invisible: user-centered design of infrastructure awareness systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    matching. This technique provides three benefits: 1) evaluate how relevant is the information displayed by infrastructure awareness systems; 2) identify which of users' interests infrastructure awareness systems do not take into account; 3) identify elements of re-design in the infrastructures themselves...

  13. Automated Civil Engineer Planning and Execution System (ACEPES)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bodner, Bryan

    1996-01-01

    .... Although Air Force Civil Engineers (CE) have historically used new technologies to improve their effectiveness, CE combat support has not yet fully benefited from improvements in automation technology...

  14. Micromachined Systems-on-a-Chip: Infrastructure, Technology and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J. J.; Krygowski, T. W.; Miller, S. L.; Montague, S.; Rodgers, M. S.; Schriner, H.; Smith, J. H.; Sniegowski, J. J.

    1998-10-09

    A review is made of the infrastructure, technology and capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories for the development of micromechanical systems that have potential space applications. By incorporating advanced fabrication processes, such as chemical mechanical polishing, and several mechanical polysilicon levels, the range' of rrticromechanical systems that can be fabricated in these technologies is virtually limitless. Representative applications include a micro- engine driven mirror, and a micromachined lock. Using a novel integrated MEM!YCMOS technology, a six degree-of-freedom accelerometer/gyroscope system has been designed by researchers at U.C. Berkeley and fabricated on the same silicon chip as the CMOS control circuits to produce an integrated micro-navigational unit.

  15. Earthquake warning system for infrastructures : a scoping analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Nancy S.; O' Connor, Sharon L.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Kelic, Andjelka; Fogleman, William E. (GRIT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Vugrin, Eric D.; Corbet, Thomas Frank, Jr.; Brown, Theresa Jean

    2011-09-01

    This report provides the results of a scoping study evaluating the potential risk reduction value of a hypothetical, earthquake early-warning system. The study was based on an analysis of the actions that could be taken to reduce risks to population and infrastructures, how much time would be required to take each action and the potential consequences of false alarms given the nature of the action. The results of the scoping analysis indicate that risks could be reduced through improving existing event notification systems and individual responses to the notification; and production and utilization of more detailed risk maps for local planning. Detailed maps and training programs, based on existing knowledge of geologic conditions and processes, would reduce uncertainty in the consequence portion of the risk analysis. Uncertainties in the timing, magnitude and location of earthquakes and the potential impacts of false alarms will present major challenges to the value of an early-warning system.

  16. Librarian in the new salary system of civil servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Fras-Popovič

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Salary System in the Public Sector Act (Uradni list RS, No. 95/07 consolidated text,and 17/08 regulates the salary system for civil servants anew. Until now, posts in different workplaces and under the competence of diferrent ministries have been valued differently, but at the same time different criteria for promotion into titles and also for promotion into grades have been used. Experts have put a lot of effort into establishing a uniform system of promotion for all professional library workers in all types of libraries. The article gives a survey of experts' articles in which experts drew attention to problems regarding the position of the librarian in the salary system. At the same time, the author tries to find out whether they were successful in solving these problem, and is concerned with the position of the librarian in the new salary system. The article also tries to answer the question whether there are unified criteria for the promotion of librarians in the new system.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NAVIGATION SYSTEMS IN CIVIL AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Sergeyevna Stepanenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history of navigation systems formation, such as "Cicada" system, which at that time could compete with the US "Transit", European, Chinese Beidou navigation system and the Japanese Quasi-Zenit.The detailed information about improving the American GPS system, launched in 1978 and working till now is provided. The characteristics of GPS-III counterpart "Transit", which became the platform for creating such modern globalnavigation systems as GLONASS and GPS. The process of implementation of the GLONASS system in civil aviation, itssegments, functions and features are considered. The stages of GLONASS satellite system orbital grouping formation are analyzed. The author draws the analogy with the American GPS system, the GALILEO system, which has a number of additional advantages, are given. The author remarks the features of the European counterpart of the GALILEO global nav- igation system. One of the goals of this system is to provide a high-precision positioning system, which Europe can rely on regardless of the Russian GLONASS system, the US - GPS and the Chinese Beidou. GALILEO offers a unique global search and rescue function called SAR, with an important feedback function. The peculiarities of Chinese scientists’ navi- gation system, the Beidou satellite system, and the Japanese global Quasi-Zenith Satellite System are described.Global navigation systems development tendencies are considered. The author dwells upon the path to world satel- lite systems globalization, a good example of which is the trend towards GLONASS and Beidou unification. Most attention was paid to the latest development of Russian scientists’ autonomous navigation system SINS 2015, which is a strap-down inertial navigation system and allows you to navigate the aircraft without being connected to a global satellite system. The ways of navigation systems further development in Russia are determined. The two naturally opposite directions are

  18. Environmental and natural resource implications of sustainable urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D.; Suh, Sangwon; Baynes, Timothy M.; Kaviti Musango, Josephine

    2017-12-01

    As cities grow, their environmental and natural resource footprints also tend to grow to keep up with the increasing demand on essential urban services such as passenger transportation, commercial space, and thermal comfort. The urban infrastructure systems, or socio-technical systems providing these services are the major conduits through which natural resources are consumed and environmental impacts are generated. This paper aims to gauge the potential reductions in environmental and resources footprints through urban transformation, including the deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems and strategic densification. Using hybrid life cycle assessment approach combined with scenarios, we analyzed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water use, metal consumption and land use of selected socio-technical systems in 84 cities from the present to 2050. The socio-technical systems analyzed are: (1) bus rapid transit with electric buses, (2) green commercial buildings, and (3) district energy. We developed a baseline model for each city considering gross domestic product, population density, and climate conditions. Then, we overlaid three scenarios on top of the baseline model: (1) decarbonization of electricity, (2) aggressive deployment of resource-efficient socio-technical systems, and (3) strategic urban densification scenarios to each city and quantified their potentials in reducing the environmental and resource impacts of cities by 2050. The results show that, under the baseline scenario, the environmental and natural resource footprints of all 84 cities combined would increase 58%-116% by 2050. The resource-efficient scenario along with strategic densification, however, has the potential to curve down GHG emissions to 17% below the 2010 level in 2050. Such transformation can also limit the increase in all resource footprints to less than 23% relative to 2010. This analysis suggests that resource-efficient urban infrastructure and decarbonization of

  19. Multi-Sensing system for outdoor thermal monitoring: Application to large scale civil engineering components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Antoine; Dumoulin, Jean; Manceau, Jean-Luc; Perez, Laetitia; Bourquin, Frederic

    2014-05-01

    Aging of transport infrastructures combined with traffic and climatic solicitations contribute to the reduction of their performances. To address and quantify the resilience of civil engineering structure, investigations on robust, fast and efficient methods are required. Among research works carried out at IFSTTAR, methods for long term monitoring face an increasing demand. Such works take benefits of this last decade technological progresses in ICT domain. The present study follows the ISTIMES European project [1], which aimed at demonstrate the ability of different electromagnetic sensing techniques, processing methods and ICT architecture, to be used for long term monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. Thanks to this project a multi-sensing techniques system, able to date and synchronize measurements carried out by infrared thermography coupled with various measurements data (i.e. weather parameters), have been designed, developed and implemented on real site [2]. Among experiments carried out on real transport infrastructure, it has been shown, for the "Musmesci" bridge deck (Italy), that by using infrared thermal image sequence with weather measurements during sevral days it was possible to develop analysis methods able to produce qualitative and quantitative data [3]. In the present study, added functionalities were designed and added to the "IrLAW" system in order to reach full autonomy in term of power supply, very long term measurement capability (at least 1 year) and automated data base feeding. The surveyed civil engineering structures consist in two concrete beams of 16 m long and 21 T weight each. One of the two beams was damage by high energy mechanical impact at the IFSTTAR falling rocks test station facilities located in the French Alpes [4]. The system is composed of one IR uncooled microbolometric camera (FLIR SC325) with a 320X240 Focal Plane Array detector in band III, a weather station VAISALA WXT520, a GPS, a failover power supply

  20. Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure systems (CISs) to provide essential services that support economic prosperity, governance, and quality of life. These systems are not alone but interdependent at multiple levels to enhance their overall performance. However, recent worldwide events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf Coast hurricanes, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, and even heat waves have highlighted that interdependencies among CISs increase the potential for cascading failures and amplify the impact of both large and small scale initial failures into events of catastrophic proportions. To better understand CISs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision making, modeling and simulation of interdependencies across CISs has recently become a key field of study. This paper reviews the studies in the field and broadly groups the existing modeling and simulation approaches into six types: empirical approaches, agent based approaches, system dynamics based approaches, economic theory based approaches, network based approaches, and others. Different studies for each type of the approaches are categorized and reviewed in terms of fundamental principles, such as research focus, modeling rationale, and the analysis method, while different types of approaches are further compared according to several criteria, such as the notion of resilience. Finally, this paper offers future research directions and identifies critical challenges in the field. - Highlights: • Modeling approaches on interdependent critical infrastructure systems are reviewed. • I mainly review empirical, agent-based, system-dynamics, economic, network approaches. • Studies by each approach are sorted out in terms of fundamental principles. • Different approaches are further compared with resilience as the main criterion

  1. Civil Society Participation in the Governance of Educational Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Together, they will provide a baseline assessment of the current capacity of civil society organizations to engage effectively in the governance of the education sector; help shape a collaborative program of support for southern civil society organizations interested in becoming more effective education policy advocates; and ...

  2. Traffic Infrastructure in the Development of the Croatian Traffic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Šimulčik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a long-term traffic policy and of the policyof financing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastructurefacilities, represents a synthesis of numerous unresolvedrelations whose negative effects are felt in the overalleconomic and traffic development and consequently theevaluation of national potentials in the field. Adverse aspectcaused by the lack of a clear and feasible policy of financing thetraffic infrastructure facilities, is also a result of not having definedan adequate traffic policy, programme and strategiccourses of development, nor financing models that would be inaccordance with the market and economy system.This indicates that it is necessary to determine a policy forfinancing the constntction and maintenance of traffic infrastntcture,which has to be based on scientific development,team work, availability of plans and programmes to scientistsand experts, determined methodology based on marketing andeconomic logic in defining the programme and strategic tasksand assignments so as to make them feasible.In the near future, intensive preparations for investments inthe overall traffic sysiem are necessary, especially regarding thetraffic infrastntcture facilities - the pivotal points in the processof evaluating the traffic in our national tenitory. Croatia needsto define clearly its strategy in constructing and maintaining thegeneral traffic infrastructure, appointing at the same time thosewho will carry out the given tasks.

  3. System architecture of communication infrastructures for PPDR organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wilmuth

    2017-04-01

    The growing number of events affecting public safety and security (PS and S) on a regional scale with potential to grow up to large scale cross border disasters puts an increased pressure on organizations responsible for PS and S. In order to respond timely and in an adequate manner to such events Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR) organizations need to cooperate, align their procedures and activities, share the needed information and be interoperable. Existing PPDR/PMR technologies do not provide broadband capability, which is a major limitation in supporting new services hence new information flows and currently they have no successor. There is also no known standard that addresses interoperability of these technologies. The paper at hands provides an approach to tackle the above mentioned aspects by defining an Enterprise Architecture (EA) of PPDR organizations and a System Architecture of next generation PPDR communication networks for a variety of applications and services on broadband networks, including the ability of inter-system, inter-agency and cross-border operations. The Open Safety and Security Architecture Framework (OSSAF) provides a framework and approach to coordinate the perspectives of different types of stakeholders within a PS and S organization. It aims at bridging the silos in the chain of commands and on leveraging interoperability between PPDR organizations. The framework incorporates concepts of several mature enterprise architecture frameworks including the NATO Architecture Framework (NAF). However, OSSAF is not providing details on how NAF should be used for describing the OSSAF perspectives and views. In this contribution a mapping of the NAF elements to the OSSAF views is provided. Based on this mapping, an EA of PPDR organizations with a focus on communication infrastructure related capabilities is presented. Following the capability modeling, a system architecture for secure and interoperable communication infrastructures

  4. Optimal Workflow Scheduling in Critical Infrastructure Systems with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vukmirović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructure systems (CISs, such as power grids, transportation systems, communication networks and water systems are the backbone of a country’s national security and industrial prosperity. These CISs execute large numbers of workflows with very high resource requirements that can span through different systems and last for a long time. The proper functioning and synchronization of these workflows is essential since humanity’s well-being is connected to it. Because of this, the challenge of ensuring availability and reliability of these services in the face of a broad range of operating conditions is very complicated. This paper proposes an architecture which dynamically executes a scheduling algorithm using feedback about the current status of CIS nodes. Different artificial neural networks (ANNs were created in order to solve the scheduling problem. Their performances were compared and as the main result of this paper, an optimal ANN architecture for workflow scheduling in CISs is proposed. A case study is shown for a meter data management system with measurements from a power distribution management system in Serbia. Performance tests show that significant improvement of the overall execution time can be achieved by ANNs.

  5. Impedance-Based Non-Destructive Testing Method Combined with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongi S Na

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, commonly known as drones, are a rising topic in remote sensing technologies for structural health monitoring. With technology advancement in cameras, the visual inspection method using drones is gaining much attention in the field of civil engineering. However, although visual inspection methods are feasible for finding cracks in structures, the limitations of image processing for finding internal damage or small defects cannot be ignored. To overcome this problem, a possible application concept of UAV, combined with a vibration-based non-destructive health monitoring method, is proposed. The idea is for the drone to temporarily attach the piezoelectric transducer onto a specific region where excitation and data acquisition occurs simultaneously. This eliminates the need for a structure to be covered with hundreds of sensors for monitoring, as this concept uses a single piezoelectric transducer for monitoring a structure. The proposed work offers new areas of research by converging UAV with a vibration-based method, as associated problems are required to be solved.

  6. The Idea to Promote the Development of E-Government in the Civil Aviation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renliang, Jiang

    E-government has a significant impact on the organizational structure, working mechanism, operating methods and behavior patterns of the civil aviation administration department.The purpose of this research is to find some countermeasures propelling the electronization, network and office automation of the civil aviation system.The method used in the study was field and literature research.The studies showed that government departments in the civil aviation system could promote the development of e-government further by promoting open administration and implementing democratic and scientific decision-making, strengthening the popularization of information technology and information technology training on civil servants, paying attention to the integration and sharing of information resources, formulating a standard e-government system for the civil aviation system, developing the legal security system for the e-government and strengthening the network security.

  7. 78 FR 47018 - Civil Service Retirement System and Federal Employees' Retirement System; Opportunity for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    .... Information by Email: [email protected] . Information or Elections by Mail: U.S. Office of Personnel Management... submitting them to OPM. U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Elaine Kaplan, Acting Director. BILLING CODE... MANAGEMENT Civil Service Retirement System and Federal Employees' Retirement System; Opportunity for...

  8. Application of Smart Infrastructure Systems approach to precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Annaswamy, Anuradha M

    2015-12-01

    All biological variation is hierarchically organized dynamic network system of genomic components, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, families, populations and metapopulations. Individuals are axial in this hierarchy, as they represent antecedent, attendant and anticipated aspects of health, disease, evolution and medical care. Humans show individual specific genetic and clinical features such as complexity, cooperation, resilience, robustness, vulnerability, self-organization, latent and emergent behavior during their development, growth and senescence. Accurate collection, measurement, organization and analyses of individual specific data, embedded at all stratified levels of biological, demographic and cultural diversity - the big data - is necessary to make informed decisions on health, disease and longevity; which is a central theme of precision medicine initiative (PMI). This initiative also calls for the development of novel analytical approaches to handle complex multidimensional data. Here we suggest the application of Smart Infrastructure Systems (SIS) approach to accomplish some of the goals set forth by the PMI on the premise that biological systems and the SIS share many common features. The latter has been successfully employed in managing complex networks of non-linear adaptive controls, commonly encountered in smart engineering systems. We highlight their concordance and discuss the utility of the SIS approach in precision medicine programs.

  9. A virtual computing infrastructure for TS-CV SCADA systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    2008-01-01

    In modern data centres, it is an emerging trend to operate and manage computers as software components or logical resources and not as physical machines. This technique is known as â€ワvirtualisation” and the new computers are referred to as â€ワvirtual machines” (VMs). Multiple VMs can be consolidated on a single hardware platform and managed in ways that are not possible with physical machines. However, this is not yet widely practiced for control system deployment. In TS-CV, a collection of VMs or a â€ワvirtual infrastructure” is installed since 2005 for SCADA systems, PLC program development, and alarm transmission. This makes it possible to consolidate distributed, heterogeneous operating systems and applications on a limited number of standardised high-performance servers in the Central Control Room (CCR). More generally, virtualisation assists in offering continuous computing services for controls and maintaining performance and assuring quality. Implementing our systems in a vi...

  10. The Associative Memory System Infrastructure of the ATLAS Fast Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00525014; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Associative Memory (AM) system of the Fast Tracker (FTK) processor has been designed to perform pattern matching using the hit information of the ATLAS experiment silicon tracker. The AM is the heart of FTK and is mainly based on the use of ASICs (AM chips) designed on purpose to execute pattern matching with a high degree of parallelism. It finds track candidates at low resolution that are seeds for a full resolution track fitting. The AM system implementation is based on a collection of boards, named “Serial Link Processor” (AMBSLP), since it is based on a network of 900 2 Gb/s serial links to sustain huge data traffic. The AMBSLP has high power consumption (~250 W) and the AM system needs custom power and cooling. This presentation reports on the integration of the AMBSLP inside FTK, the infrastructure needed to run and cool the system which foresees many AMBSLPs in the same crate, the performance of the produced prototypes tested in the global FTK integration, an important milestone to be satisfie...

  11. Application of Smart Infrastructure Systems approach to precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diddahally R. Govindaraju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All biological variation is hierarchically organized dynamic network system of genomic components, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, families, populations and metapopulations. Individuals are axial in this hierarchy, as they represent antecedent, attendant and anticipated aspects of health, disease, evolution and medical care. Humans show individual specific genetic and clinical features such as complexity, cooperation, resilience, robustness, vulnerability, self-organization, latent and emergent behavior during their development, growth and senescence. Accurate collection, measurement, organization and analyses of individual specific data, embedded at all stratified levels of biological, demographic and cultural diversity – the big data – is necessary to make informed decisions on health, disease and longevity; which is a central theme of precision medicine initiative (PMI. This initiative also calls for the development of novel analytical approaches to handle complex multidimensional data. Here we suggest the application of Smart Infrastructure Systems (SIS approach to accomplish some of the goals set forth by the PMI on the premise that biological systems and the SIS share many common features. The latter has been successfully employed in managing complex networks of non-linear adaptive controls, commonly encountered in smart engineering systems. We highlight their concordance and discuss the utility of the SIS approach in precision medicine programs.

  12. 5 CFR 6.7 - Movement of persons between the civil service system and other merit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... service system and other merit systems. 6.7 Section 6.7 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES EXCEPTIONS FROM THE COMPETITIVE SERVICE (RULE VI) § 6.7 Movement of persons between the civil service system and other merit systems. Whenever OPM and any Federal agency having an...

  13. Enabling Generic Distributed Computing Infrastructure Compatibility For Workflow Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kozlowszky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solving workflow management system’s Distributed Computing Infrastructure (DCI incompatibility and their workflow interoperability issues are very challenging and complex tasks. Workflow management systems (and therefore their workflows, workflow developers and also their end-users are bounded tightly to some limited number of supported DCIs, and efforts required to allow additional DCI support. In this paper we are specifying a concept how to enable generic DCI compatibility for grid workflow management systems (such as ASKALON, MOTEUR, gUSE/WS-PGRADE, etc. on job and indirectly on workflow level. To enable DCI compatibility among the different workflow management systems we have developed the DCI Bridge software solution. In this paper we will describe its internal architecture, provide usage scenarios to show how the developed service resolve the DCI interoperability issues between various middleware types. The generic DCI Bridge service enables the execution of jobs onto the existing major DCI platforms (such as Service Grids (Globus Toolkit 2 and 4, gLite, ARC, UNICORE, Desktop Grids, Web services, or even cloud based DCIs.

  14. Civil society, political mobilization, and the impact of HIV scale-up on health systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard G

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the role of civil society in shaping HIV and AIDS policies and programs in Brazil. It focuses on the historical context of the redemocratization of Brazilian society during the 1980s, when the initial response to the epidemic took shape, and emphasizes the role of social movements linked to the progressive Catholic Church, the sanitary reform movement in public health, and the emerging gay rights movement in the early response to the epidemic in Brazil. It highlights the broad-based civil society coalition that took shape over the course of the 1990s and the political alliances that were built up shortly after the 1996 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver, Canada, to pass legislation guaranteeing the right to access to antiretroviral treatment. It emphasizes the continued importance of civil society organizations-in particular, AIDS-related nongovernmental organizations-and leading AIDS activists in exerting continued pressure to guarantee the sustainability of treatment access and the impact that action focused on HIV and AIDS has had on the Brazilian public health system more broadly, particularly through strengthening health infrastructures and providing a model for health-related social mobilization.

  15. Civil Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaneman, Paulette S.; And Others

    These materials are part of the Project Benchmark series designed to teach secondary students about our legal concepts and systems. This unit focuses on the structure and procedures of the civil court systems. The materials outline common law heritage, kinds of cases, jurisdiction, civil pretrial procedure, trial procedure, and a sample automobile…

  16. Risk-based asset management methodology for highway infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining the infrastructure of roads, highways, and bridges is paramount to ensuring that these assets will remain safe and reliable in the future. If maintenance costs remain the same or continue to escalate, and additional funding is not made av...

  17. Whistland: An Augmented Reality Crowd-Mapping System for Civil Protection and Emergency Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioele Luchetti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and correct management of natural disaster event sequences play a key role in saving human lives. The availability of embedded and mobile smart computing systems opens new roads for the management of land and infrastructures by civil protection operators. To date, research has explored the use of social networks for the management of disasters connected to meteorological/hydrogeological events or earthquakes, but without emphasis on the importance of an integrated system. The main feature of the Whistland system proposed in this paper is to make synergistic use of augmented reality (AR, crowd-mapping (CM, social networks, the Internet of Things (IoT and wireless sensor networks (WSN by exploiting technologies and frameworks of Web 2.0 and GIS 2.0 to make informed decisions about the chain of events. The Whistland system is composed of a geo-server, a mobile application with AR and an analytics dashboard. The geo-server acts as the hub of the sensor and social networks. The abstracted concept in this sense is the transformation of the user domain into “intelligent sensors” for the whole scope of crisis management. The social network integration is made through an efficient pointer-like mechanism that keeps the storage requirement low through a mobile application based on an augmented reality engine and provides qualitative information that sensors are unable to capture. Real-time analyses, geo-searches and the capability to examine event histories with an augmented reality engine all help the stakeholders to understand better the state of the resources under observation/monitoring. The system has been extensively tested in the programmed maintenance of river basins, where it is necessary to log maintenance activities in order to keep the riverbank clean: a significant use-case in many countries affected by hydro-geological instability.

  18. Why Replacing Legacy Systems Is So Hard in Global Software Development: An Information Infrastructure Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Stina; Bjørn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    to be obvious explanations for why GSD tasks fail to reach completion; however, we account for the difficulties within the technical nature of software system task. We use the framework of information infrastructure to show how replacing a legacy system in governmental information infrastructures includes...... the work of tracing back to knowledge concerning law, technical specifications, as well as how information infrastructures have dynamically evolved over time. Not easily carried out in a GSD setup is the work around technical tasks that requires careful examination of mundane technical aspects, standards......, and bureaucratic forms, as well as the excavation work that keeps the information infrastructure afloat....

  19. EKB: semantic information system for energy-aware monitoring in distributed infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, H.; van der Veldt, K.; Grosso, P.; Liao, X.; de Laat, C.

    2013-01-01

    Most monitoring and discovery systems deployed in computer infrastructures do not take dynamic energy characteristics into consideration, and do not provide the mechanisms to exchange information across systems and administrative domains. Our energy-aware semantic information system, called Energy

  20. Evaluation system of water ecological civilization of irrigation area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Chen, J.; Chen, D.; Zhang, S.; Li, X. C.; Zhu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Irrigation area is an important carrier, and also has a pivotal role in the construction of water ecological civilization in China, as well as worldwide. This work extracted the five basic characteristics of water ecological civilization of irrigated area, namely "resource saving, efficient production, ecological nature, beautiful environment, and civilized consciousness". Further, based on the frequency analysis of indicators related to the evaluation of irrigation area, we proposed the evaluation system of water ecological civilization of irrigated area. Taking an irrigation district of Huaian City, Jiangsu Province, China as an example, we carried out the case evaluation in use of the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Thus, we provide the theoretical and technical reference for the construction and assessment of water ecological civilization of irrigation district to both China and abroad.

  1. Essays on Infrastructure Design and Planning for Clean Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Ayse Selin

    The International Energy Agency estimates that the number of people who do not have access to electricity is nearly 1.3 billion and a billion more have only unreliable and intermittent supply. Moreover, current supply for electricity generation mostly relies on fossil fuels, which are finite and one of the greatest threats to the environment. Rising population growth rates, depleting fuel sources, environmental issues and economic developments have increased the need for mathematical optimization to provide a formal framework that enables systematic and clear decision-making in energy operations. This thesis through its methodologies and algorithms enable tools for energy generation, transmission and distribution system design and help policy makers make cost assessments in energy infrastructure planning rapidly and accurately. In Chapter 2, we focus on local-level power distribution systems planning for rural electrification using techniques from combinatorial optimization. We describe a heuristic algorithm that provides a quick solution for the partial electrification problem where the distribution network can only connect a pre-specified number of households with low voltage lines. The algorithm demonstrates the effect of household settlement patterns on the electrification cost. We also describe the first heuristic algorithm that selects the locations and service areas of transformers without requiring candidate solutions and simultaneously builds a two-level grid network in a green-field setting. The algorithms are applied to real world rural settings in Africa, where household locations digitized from satellite imagery are prescribed. In Chapter 3 and 4, we focus on power generation and transmission using clean energy sources. Here, we imagine a country in the future where hydro and solar are the dominant sources and fossil fuels are only available in minimal form. We discuss the problem of modeling hydro and solar energy production and allocation, including

  2. Toward disaster-resilient cities: characterizing resilience of infrastructure systems with expert judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephanie E; McDaniels, Timothy; Fox, Jana; Dhariwal, Rajan; Longstaff, Holly

    2014-03-01

    Resilient infrastructure systems are essential for cities to withstand and rapidly recover from natural and human-induced disasters, yet electric power, transportation, and other infrastructures are highly vulnerable and interdependent. New approaches for characterizing the resilience of sets of infrastructure systems are urgently needed, at community and regional scales. This article develops a practical approach for analysts to characterize a community's infrastructure vulnerability and resilience in disasters. It addresses key challenges of incomplete incentives, partial information, and few opportunities for learning. The approach is demonstrated for Metro Vancouver, Canada, in the context of earthquake and flood risk. The methodological approach is practical and focuses on potential disruptions to infrastructure services. In spirit, it resembles probability elicitation with multiple experts; however, it elicits disruption and recovery over time, rather than uncertainties regarding system function at a given point in time. It develops information on regional infrastructure risk and engages infrastructure organizations in the process. Information sharing, iteration, and learning among the participants provide the basis for more informed estimates of infrastructure system robustness and recovery that incorporate the potential for interdependent failures after an extreme event. Results demonstrate the vital importance of cross-sectoral communication to develop shared understanding of regional infrastructure disruption in disasters. For Vancouver, specific results indicate that in a hypothetical M7.3 earthquake, virtually all infrastructures would suffer severe disruption of service in the immediate aftermath, with many experiencing moderate disruption two weeks afterward. Electric power, land transportation, and telecommunications are identified as core infrastructure sectors. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Developing an infrastructure index : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Over the past decade the American Society of Civil Engineers has used the Infrastructure Report : Card to raise awareness of infrastructure issues. Aging and deteriorating infrastructure has : recently been highlighted in the popular media. However, ...

  4. NAS infrastructure management system build 1.5 computer-human interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Human factors engineers from the National Airspace System (NAS) Human Factors Branch (ACT-530) of the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center conducted an evaluation of the NAS Infrastructure Management System (NIMS) Build ...

  5. DNS as critical infrastructure, the energy system case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, E.; Gheorghe, A.V.; Caselli, M.; Coletta, A.; Nai Fovino, I.

    2013-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructures (e.g., power plants, energy grids, oil pipelines, etc.), make nowadays extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As a direct consequence their exposure to cyber-attacks is becoming a matter of public security. In this paper, we analyse a

  6. Evaluating Infrastructure Development in Complex Home Visiting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Margaret; Cole, Russell; Coffee-Borden, Brandon; Paulsell, Diane; Boller, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, increased focus on the effectiveness and accountability of prevention and intervention programs has led to greater government funding for the implementation and spread of evidence-based health and human service delivery models. In particular, attention has been paid to programs that require significant infrastructure investment…

  7. Infrastructure Systems for Advanced Computing in E-science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzo, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    In the e-science field are growing needs for having computing infrastructure more dynamic and customizable with a model of use "on demand" that follow the exact request in term of resources and storage capacities. The integration of grid and cloud infrastructure solutions allows us to offer services that can adapt the availability in terms of up scaling and downscaling resources. The main challenges for e-sciences domains will on implement infrastructure solutions for scientific computing that allow to adapt dynamically the demands of computing resources with a strong emphasis on optimizing the use of computing resources for reducing costs of investments. Instrumentation, data volumes, algorithms, analysis contribute to increase the complexity for applications who require high processing power and storage for a limited time and often exceeds the computational resources that equip the majority of laboratories, research Unit in an organization. Very often it is necessary to adapt or even tweak rethink tools, algorithms, and consolidate existing applications through a phase of reverse engineering in order to adapt them to a deployment on Cloud infrastructure. For example, in areas such as rainfall monitoring, meteorological analysis, Hydrometeorology, Climatology Bioinformatics Next Generation Sequencing, Computational Electromagnetic, Radio occultation, the complexity of the analysis raises several issues such as the processing time, the scheduling of tasks of processing, storage of results, a multi users environment. For these reasons, it is necessary to rethink the writing model of E-Science applications in order to be already adapted to exploit the potentiality of cloud computing services through the uses of IaaS, PaaS and SaaS layer. An other important focus is on create/use hybrid infrastructure typically a federation between Private and public cloud, in fact in this way when all resources owned by the organization are all used it will be easy with a federate

  8. Applying systems engineering in the civil engineering industry : an analysis of systems engineering projects of a Dutch water board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R. S. (Robin); Vromen, R. M.(Rick); Boes, J. (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    The past decade, practice and literature have shown an increasing interest in Systems Engineering (SE) in the civil engineering industry. The aim of this study is to analyse to what extent SE is applied in six civil engineering SE projects of a Dutch water board. The projects were analysed using a

  9. The Development and Current Features of the French Civil Service System

    OpenAIRE

    Bezes, Philippe; Jeannot, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this chapter, four issues are examined. The first section is devoted to the historical development of the French civil service. The second section focuses on the various dimensions of the internal labour market while the third one addresses the issue of politicization. The fourth section analyses the recent transformations at stake and the way they potentially challenge the existing features of the French civil service system. The conclusion draws some perspectives ...

  10. Infrastructure and the Operational Art: A Handbook for Understanding, Visualizing, and Describing Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    closings were a result of the roadways needing to be cleared, and the lasting power outages in the area. Conclusions: Mapping events from Hurricane ...over and it was safe to do so. In general, the users were also prepared to withstand the power outages expected by the storm. Where the system failed...14 2 networks and systems comprising identifiable industries, institutions (in- cluding people and procedures), and distribution capabilities that

  11. Electromagnetic launch systems for civil aircraft assisted take-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertola Luca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the feasibility of different technologies for an electromagnetic launcher to assist civil aircraft take-off. This method is investigated to reduce the power required from the engines during initial acceleration. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. The research compares two possible linear motor topologies which may be efficaciously used for this application. The comparison is made on results from both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA.

  12. A Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Global Mercury Observation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS Project includes a specific Work Package aimed at developing tools (i.e. databases, catalogs, services to collect GMOS datasets, harvest mercury databases, and offer services like search, view, and download spatial datasets from the GMOS portal (www.gmos.eu. The system will be developed under the framework of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE Directive and the Directive 2003/4/EC on public access to environmental information, which both aim to make relevant, harmonized, high-quality geographic information available to support the formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and activities that have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. Three databases have been proposed (on emissions, field data and model results, and each will be equipped with state-of-the-art, open-source software to allow for the highest performance possible. Web-based user-interfaces and prototype applications will be developed to demonstrate the potential of blending different datasets from different servers for environmental assessment studies. Several services (i.e. catalog browsers, WMS and WCS services, web GIS services will be developed to facilitate data integration, data re-use, and data exchange within and beyond the GMOS project. Different types of measurement and model datasets provided by project partners and other sources will be integrated into PostgreSQL-PostGIS, harmonized by creating INSPIRE-compliant metadata and made available to a larger community of stakeholders, policy makers, scientists, and NGOs (as well as to other public and private institutions, as dictated by the Directive 2003/4/EC. Since interoperability is a central concept for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS, the Global Monitoring for Environmental and Security (GMES and the INSPIRE Directive, guidelines developed in these three frameworks will be

  13. 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    Walls ETL 1110-2-563, by John D. Clarkson and Robert C. Patev Belleville Locks & Dam Barge Accident on 6 Jan 05, by John Clarkson Portugues Dam Project...Update, by Alberto Gonzalez, Jim Mangold and Dave Dollar Portugues Dam: RCC Materials Investigation, by Jim Hinds Nonlinear Incremental Thermal Stress...Strain Analysis Portugues Dam, by David Dollar, Ahmed Nisar, Paul Jacob and Charles Logie Seismic Isolation of Mission-Critical Infrastructure to

  14. DLVM: A modern compiler infrastructure for deep learning systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Richard; Schwartz, Lane; Adve, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning software demands reliability and performance. However, many of the existing deep learning frameworks are software libraries that act as an unsafe DSL in Python and a computation graph interpreter. We present DLVM, a design and implementation of a compiler infrastructure with a linear algebra intermediate representation, algorithmic differentiation by adjoint code generation, domain-specific optimizations and a code generator targeting GPU via LLVM. Designed as a modern compiler ...

  15. Design of a System for Monitoring Reliability of Structures and Constructions in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav S. Igić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of civil engineering structures and constructions requires techniques which can produce high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements and fast processing speed. The development of information and communication systems as well as of microprocessor controllers has enabled a creation of monitoring systems that can be used for tracking reliability of structures and constructions in civil engineering, with described key features. This paper describes in detail the architecture of the Civil Engineering Structures Reliability Monitoring (CERM system. The system has been designed for the purposes of the Technical Mechanics and Theory of Constructions Department at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis. Unlike general commercial monitoring systems, the CERM system has been specially designed for the purpose of reliability monitoring, and its potential will be further exploited in this paper. It is based on usage of universal microprocessor controllers Integraf of series 10X, along with specially designed software package. This system provides real time acquisition of measurements for observed civil engineering structures and analysis of received values based on developed mathematical models.

  16. Critical Data Source; Tool or Even Infrastructure? Challenges of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Disaster Risk Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fekete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk information is spatial in nature and Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS play an important key role by the services they provide to society. In this context, to risk management and governance, in general, and to civil protection, specifically (termed differently in many countries, and includes, for instance: civil contingencies in the UK, homeland security in the USA, disaster risk reduction at the UN level. The main impetus of this article is to summarize key contributions and challenges in utilizing and accepting GIS and RS methods and data for disaster risk governance, which includes public bodies, but also risk managers in industry and practitioners in search and rescue organizations. The article analyzes certain method developments, such as vulnerability indicators, crowdsourcing, and emerging concepts, such as Volunteered Geographic Information, but also investigates the potential of the topic Critical Infrastructure as it could be applied on spatial assets and GIS and RS itself. Intended to stimulate research on new and emerging fields, this article’s main contribution is to move spatial research toward a more reflective stance where opportunities and challenges are equally and transparently addressed in order to gain more scientific quality. As a conclusion, GIS and RS can play a pivotal role not just in delivering data but also in connecting and analyzing data in a more integrative, holistic way.

  17. Safety and operations of hydrogen fuel infrastructure in northern climates : a collaborative complex systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    "This project examined the safety and operation of hydrogen (H2) fueling system infrastructure in : northern climates. A multidisciplinary team lead by the University of Vermont (UVM), : combined with investigators from Zhejiang and Tsinghua Universi...

  18. Bulk Fuel Storage and Delivery Systems Infrastructure Military Construction Requirements for Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Gary

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, and environmental and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  19. Infrastructure Systems Interdependencies and Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM: Impact Scenario Analysis of Infrastructure Risks Induced by Natural, Technological and Intentional Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Frederick Stapelberg

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews current research into infrastructure systems interdependencies with regard to safesty risks induced by natural, technological and intentional hazards. The paper further considers risk informed decision-making.

  20. On the Peripheries of Scholarly Infrastructure: A look at the Journals Using Open Journal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alperin, J.P.; Stranack, K.; Garnett, A.

    2016-07-01

    Although there have been calls for scholarly infrastructure to be inclusive, new layers of infrastructure are built without a clear understanding of the breadth of scholarly journals that lie on the peripheries of the existing infrastructure. In the hopes that future infrastructure can take a wider range of journals into account, this paper presents the results of an effort to track the number, location, and rate of publication of journals using Open Journal Systems, an open source manuscript management and publication system built by the Public Knowledge Project. The method employed, which involves a combination of scanning weblogs, scraping webpages, and harvesting metadata, has yielded an estimated 9,828 journals that have collectively published 2,565,300 articles since 1990. These journals are distributed across 136 countries on 6 continents, and, in 2015, around a fifth of the OJS journals were published in low or low-middle income countries, and over a third in upper-middle income countries, suggesting that the majority of OJS journals are on the on the “periphery” of today's global scholarly infrastructure. As infrastructure and services continue to be developed, this paper argues, it is necessary to look to such journal so that the infrastructure that is built can be developed in a way that is truly inclusive of the global nature of scholarship. (Author)

  1. 78 FR 66972 - Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), SF 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Designation of Beneficiary: Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), SF 2808 AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day notice and... Retirement System, SF 2808. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C...

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION MULTISENSOR INFRASTRUCTURE INSPECTION WITH UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eschmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the investigations made at Fraunhofer Institute for Non-Destructive Testing (IZFP where different rotary wing micro UAS have been used to scan infrastructures including bridges and monuments at high resolutions for remote damage assessment and monitoring purposes. The aerial pictures taken at high speed and frequency have then been stitched together to obtain full 2D and 3D building reconstructions at a resolution allowing damages and cracking to be observed still in the millimeter range. With these ultra hi-res building reconstruction models a specific data base could be created for each object in order to provide extensive information for long term evaluation and life cycle management. The UAS also have been equipped with sensors for damage size estimation, which combined with an image processing software developed to allow automatic cracking pattern recognition could be used for further analysis.

  3. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.

    2010-01-01

    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  4. Choice Architecture as a Way to Encourage a Whole Systems Design Perspective for More Sustainable Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Harris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Across fields, more sustainable and resilient outcomes are being realized through a whole systems design perspective, which guides decision-makers to consider the entire system affected including interdependent physical and social networks. Although infrastructure is extremely interdependent, consisting of diverse stakeholders and networks, the infrastructure design and construction process is often fragmented. This fragmentation can result in unnecessary tradeoffs, leading to poor outcomes for certain stakeholders and the surrounding environment. A whole systems design perspective would help connect this fragmented industry and lead to more sustainable outcomes. For example, a whole systems design approach to relieve traffic on a highway might see beyond the obvious, but often ineffective, response of adding a new vehicle lane to encourage a solution such as repurposing existing road lanes from automobiles to above-ground “subway” systems. This paper discusses influences to whole systems design and how intentional choice architecture, meaning the way decisions are posed, can nudge decision-makers to employ whole systems design and result in more sustainable infrastructure. By uncovering these influences and organizing them by the social, organizational, and individual levels of the infrastructure design process, this paper provides the needed foundation for interdisciplinary research to help harness these influences through choice architecture and whole systems design for the infrastructure industry.

  5. Effect of infrastructure design on commons dilemmas in social−ecological system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, David J.; Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Anderies, John M.; Aggarwal, Rimjhim M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of shared infrastructure to direct natural processes for the benefit of humans has been a central feature of human social organization for millennia. Today, more than ever, people interact with one another and the environment through shared human-made infrastructure (the Internet, transportation, the energy grid, etc.). However, there has been relatively little work on how the design characteristics of shared infrastructure affect the dynamics of social−ecological systems (SESs) and the capacity of groups to solve social dilemmas associated with its provision. Developing such understanding is especially important in the context of global change where design criteria must consider how specific aspects of infrastructure affect the capacity of SESs to maintain vital functions in the face of shocks. Using small-scale irrigated agriculture (the most ancient and ubiquitous example of public infrastructure systems) as a model system, we show that two design features related to scale and the structure of benefit flows can induce fundamental changes in qualitative behavior, i.e., regime shifts. By relating the required maintenance threshold (a design feature related to infrastructure scale) to the incentives facing users under different regimes, our work also provides some general guidance on determinants of robustness of SESs under globalization-related stresses. PMID:26460043

  6. Effect of infrastructure design on commons dilemmas in social-ecological system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, David J; Qubbaj, Murad R; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Anderies, John M; Aggarwal, Rimjhim M

    2015-10-27

    The use of shared infrastructure to direct natural processes for the benefit of humans has been a central feature of human social organization for millennia. Today, more than ever, people interact with one another and the environment through shared human-made infrastructure (the Internet, transportation, the energy grid, etc.). However, there has been relatively little work on how the design characteristics of shared infrastructure affect the dynamics of social-ecological systems (SESs) and the capacity of groups to solve social dilemmas associated with its provision. Developing such understanding is especially important in the context of global change where design criteria must consider how specific aspects of infrastructure affect the capacity of SESs to maintain vital functions in the face of shocks. Using small-scale irrigated agriculture (the most ancient and ubiquitous example of public infrastructure systems) as a model system, we show that two design features related to scale and the structure of benefit flows can induce fundamental changes in qualitative behavior, i.e., regime shifts. By relating the required maintenance threshold (a design feature related to infrastructure scale) to the incentives facing users under different regimes, our work also provides some general guidance on determinants of robustness of SESs under globalization-related stresses.

  7. Strategic preparedness for recovery from catastrophic risks to communities and infrastructure systems of systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    2012-11-01

    Natural and human-induced disasters affect organizations in myriad ways because of the inherent interconnectedness and interdependencies among human, cyber, and physical infrastructures, but more importantly, because organizations depend on the effectiveness of people and on the leadership they provide to the organizations they serve and represent. These human-organizational-cyber-physical infrastructure entities are termed systems of systems. Given the multiple perspectives that characterize them, they cannot be modeled effectively with a single model. The focus of this article is: (i) the centrality of the states of a system in modeling; (ii) the efficacious role of shared states in modeling systems of systems, in identification, and in the meta-modeling of systems of systems; and (iii) the contributions of the above to strategic preparedness, response to, and recovery from catastrophic risk to such systems. Strategic preparedness connotes a decision-making process and its associated actions. These must be: implemented in advance of a natural or human-induced disaster, aimed at reducing consequences (e.g., recovery time, community suffering, and cost), and/or controlling their likelihood to a level considered acceptable (through the decisionmakers' implicit and explicit acceptance of various risks and tradeoffs). The inoperability input-output model (IIM), which is grounded on Leontief's input/output model, has enabled the modeling of interdependent subsystems. Two separate modeling structures are introduced. These are: phantom system models (PSM), where shared states constitute the essence of modeling coupled systems; and the IIM, where interdependencies among sectors of the economy are manifested by the Leontief matrix of technological coefficients. This article demonstrates the potential contributions of these two models to each other, and thus to more informative modeling of systems of systems schema. The contributions of shared states to this modeling and to

  8. Design of Smart Charging Infrastructure Hardware and Firmware Design of the Various Current Multiplexing Charging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-07

    Currently, when Electric Vehicles (EVs) are charging, they only have the option to charge at a selected current or not charge. When during the day there is a power shortage, the charging infrastructure should have the options to either shut off the power to the charging stations or to lower the power to the EVs in order to satisfy the needs of the grid. There is a need for technology that controls the current being disbursed to these electric vehicles. This paper proposes a design for a smart charging infrastructure capable of providing power to several EVs from one circuit by multiplexing power and providing charge control. The smart charging infrastructure includes the server and the smart charging station. With this smart charging infrastructure, the shortage of energy in a local grid could be solved by our EV management system

  9. Decision analysis and risk models for land development affecting infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekdi, Shital A; Lambert, James H

    2012-07-01

    Coordination and layering of models to identify risks in complex systems such as large-scale infrastructure of energy, water, and transportation is of current interest across application domains. Such infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to adjacent commercial and residential land development. Land development can compromise the performance of essential infrastructure systems and increase the costs of maintaining or increasing performance. A risk-informed approach to this topic would be useful to avoid surprise, regret, and the need for costly remedies. This article develops a layering and coordination of models for risk management of land development affecting infrastructure systems. The layers are: system identification, expert elicitation, predictive modeling, comparison of investment alternatives, and implications of current decisions for future options. The modeling layers share a focus on observable factors that most contribute to volatility of land development and land use. The relevant data and expert evidence include current and forecasted growth in population and employment, conservation and preservation rules, land topography and geometries, real estate assessments, market and economic conditions, and other factors. The approach integrates to a decision framework of strategic considerations based on assessing risk, cost, and opportunity in order to prioritize needs and potential remedies that mitigate impacts of land development to the infrastructure systems. The approach is demonstrated for a 5,700-mile multimodal transportation system adjacent to 60,000 tracts of potential land development. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Arterial intelligent transportation systems : infrastructure elements and traveler information requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Applying Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) to arterial systems allows TxDOT to significantly enhance : transportation system operation efficiency and improve traffic mobility. However, no guidelines are available to : assist TxDOT staff in sel...

  11. Structural Vulnerability of Energy Distribution Systems; Incorporating Infrastructural Dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Helseth, Arild; Holen, Arne T

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a method for assessing the structural vulnerability of two coupled energy distribution systems is proposed. The co-existing of an electric power distribution system and a district heating system is described and modelled, under the assumption that the operation of the district heating system is directly dependent on electric power. The structural vulnerability of the two systems subject to single failures or a set of simultaneous failures in the power system is found. Thus, the ...

  12. Implementing Systems Engineering in the Civil Engineering Consulting Firm: An Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Robin S.; Voordijk, Johannes T.; van den Heuvel, Len

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the challenges that civil engineering consulting firms face in their projects when they apply Systems Engineering (SE). It is also explained were these firms should focus when improving the use of SE. To conduct this study, the methodology of Eisenhardt (Building theories from

  13. Infrastructure needs to support unattended and remote detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trombka, Jacob; McClanahan, Timothy; Floyd, Samuel

    2002-01-01

    The use of unattended and remote detection systems for use in telemedicine, teleforensics and applications to operations in homeland security and nuclear non proliferation programs will require the development of portable detector systems and public information network systems. With the availability of such networks, the deployment of relatively inexpensive sensor systems can be achieved

  14. JACoW A new distributed control system for the consolidation of the CERN tertiary infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Scibile, Luigi; Villeton Pachot, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    The operation of the CERN tertiary infrastructures is carried out via a series of control systems distributed over the CERN sites (Meyrin and Prevessin). The scope comprises: $\\sim$ 260 buildings, 2 large heating plants ($\\sim$ 50 MW overall capacity) with 27 km heating network and 200 radiators circuits, $\\sim$ 500 air handling units, $\\sim$ 52 chillers, $\\sim$ 300 split systems, $\\sim$ 3000 electric boards and $\\sim$ 100k light points. In the last five years and with the launch of major tertiary infrastructure consolidations, CERN is carrying out a migration and an extension of the old control systems dated back to the 70's, 80's and 90's to a new simplified, yet innovative, distributed control system aimed at minimizing the programming and implementation effort, standardizing equipment and methods and reducing lifecycle costs. This new methodology allows for a rapid development and simplified integration of the new controlled building/infrastructure processes. The basic principle is based on open standards...

  15. Tool-based Risk Assessment of Cloud Infrastructures as Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nidd, Michael; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.

    2015-01-01

    therefore constitutes a socio-technical system. Attacks on socio-technical systems are still mostly identified through expert brainstorming. However, formal risk assessment for systems including human actors requires modeling human behavior, which is difficult at best. In this chapter, we present a modeling...... exercise for cloud infrastructures using the socio-technical model developed in the TRESPASS project; after showing how to model typical components of a cloud infrastructure, we show how attacks are identified on this model and discuss their connection to risk assessment. The technical part of the model...

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying facility civil - structural system design description (SYS 06)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility civil - structural system. This system consists of the facility structure, including the administrative and process areas. The system's primary purpose is to provide for a facility to house the CVD process and personnel and to provide a tertiary level of containment. The document provides a description of the facility and demonstrates how the design meets the various requirements imposed by the safety analysis report and the design requirements document

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying facility civil structural system design description (SYS 06)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility civil - structural system. This system consists of the facility structure, including the administrative and process areas. The system's primary purpose is to provide for a facility to house the CVD process and personnel and to provide a tertiary level of containment. The document provides a description of the facility and demonstrates how the design meets the various requirements imposed by the safety analysis report and the design requirements document.

  18. Telecommunications, power supply, computer systems: the infrastructures of the soccer world cup; Telecommunications, electricite, informatique: les infrastructures de la Coupe du Monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-06-01

    The 1998 edition of the soccer world cup took place in ten different stadiums in France and several related sites. This short paper gives a general overview of the infrastructures developed for this occasion in the domains of telecommunications, power supply (substations, protection systems, computerized control systems..), and computer systems. (J.S.)

  19. The method and index of sustainability assessment of infrastructure projects based on system dynamics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As one of the most important overhead capital of urban economics and social development, the sustainable development of urban infrastructure is becoming a key issue of prosperous society growing. The purpose of this paper is to establish a basic model to analysis certain infrastructure project’s sustainable construction and operation. Design/methodology/approach: System dynamics is an effective stimulation method and tool to deal with such complex, dynamics, nonlinear systems, which could be used in analyzing and evaluating all aspects of infrastructure sustainability internally and externally. In this paper, the system is divided into four subsystems and 12 main impact indicators. Through setting the boundary and other basic hypothesis, this paper designs the basic causal loop diagrams and stock & flow diagrams to describe the relationship between variables and establish a quantifiable structure for the system. Findings: Adopting a sewerage treatment in China as a case to test our model, we could conclude that the model of internal sustainable subsystem is reasonable. However, this model is a basic model, and it need to be specific designed for the certain project due to the diversity of infrastructure types and the unique conditions of each projects. Originality/value: System Dynamics (SD is widely used in the study of sustainable development and has plentiful research achievements from macro perspective but few studies in the microcosmic project systems. This paper focuses on the unique characteristics of urban infrastructure in China and selects infrastructure project which is based on micro-system discussion. The model we designed has certain practical significance in policy setting, operation monitoring and adjustment of the urban projects with high rationality and accuracy.

  20. Risoe energy report 8. The intelligent energy system infrastructure for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2009-09-15

    This report is volume 8 in a series started in 2002, and will take its point of reference in the need for the development of a highly flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructure which facilitates substantial higher amounts of renewable energy than today's energy systems. This intelligent and flexible infrastructure is a prerequisite in achieving the goals set up by IPCC in 2007 on CO{sub 2} reductions as well as ensuring the future security of energy supply in all regions of the world. The report presents a generic approach for future infrastructure issues on local, regional and global scale with focus on the energy system. The report is based on chapters and updates from Risoe Energy Report 1 - 7, as well as input from contributors to the DTU Climate Change Technology workshops and available international literature and reports. (author)

  1. School System (Re)design: Developing Educational Infrastructures to Support School Leadership and Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan; Woulfin, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    A central challenge for local education agencies (i.e., school districts in the United States) undergoing reform is to design systems that facilitate instructional improvement. At the core of these systems are educational infrastructures that bolster capacity building efforts and support teaching and leadership practices. Our goal for this special…

  2. Leveraging existing infrastructure for central automatic control of multiple sewer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, A.; Van Heeringen, K.J.; Van Nooyen, R.R.P.; Van Velzen, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a project in which water quality improvements of surface waters are gained by upgrading locally controlled sewer systems. The paper focuses on the reuse and extension of existing sewer systems and hardware and software infrastructure in an experimental integrated automatic

  3. Innovation in civil construction system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    Nowadays, the computer-aided production systems have been already introduced to almost all kinds of industries. The construction industry, which has been said to be conservative for the modernization of production system, now expects the CIC (Computer Integrated Construction) as the means to innovate the construction production process. Shimizu Corporation has developed the new computer-aided production system, 'SIPS: Shimizu Integrated Production System', and has used it in the actual construction projects. In the system, the computer supports every phase of construction projects like market researching, design, material purchase, construction work, and maintenance. The project of Kashiwazaki-kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No.7 is one of the model cases. Here we applied following three concepts, (1) the full use and integration of 3D-CAD data-base through all phases of construction, (2) the setting-up of the information network system among the site office, the head office, and the mechanical and electrical manufacturer, (3) the introduction of advanced construction technologies such as large block prefabrication method. (author)

  4. Infrastructure certification plan for HANDI 2000 business management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.E.

    1998-09-17

    Hanford Data Integration 2000 (HANDI 2000) Project will result in an integrated and comprehensive set of functional applications containing core information necessary to support the Project Hanford Management Contract. It is based on the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf product solution with commercially proven business processes. The system will reduce the number of legacy systems maintained today and absorb key systems identified that have Year 2000 issues.

  5. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY INFRASTRUCTURE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolley, George S

    2010-06-29

    An agent-based model of the transition to a hydrogen transportation economy explores influences on adoption of hydrogen vehicles and fueling infrastructure. Attention is given to whether significant penetration occurs and, if so, to the length of time required for it to occur. Estimates are provided of sensitivity to numerical values of model parameters and to effects of alternative market and policy scenarios. The model is applied to the Los Angeles metropolitan area In the benchmark simulation, the prices of hydrogen and non-hydrogen vehicles are comparable. Due to fuel efficiency, hydrogen vehicles have a fuel savings advantage of 9.8 cents per mile over non-hydrogen vehicles. Hydrogen vehicles account for 60% of new vehicle sales in 20 years from the initial entry of hydrogen vehicles into show rooms, going on to 86% in 40 years and reaching still higher values after that. If the fuel savings is 20.7 cents per mile for a hydrogen vehicle, penetration reaches 86% of new car sales by the 20th year. If the fuel savings is 0.5 cents per mile, market penetration reaches only 10% by the 20th year. To turn to vehicle price difference, if a hydrogen vehicle costs $2,000 less than a non-hydrogen vehicle, new car sales penetration reaches 92% by the 20th year. If a hydrogen vehicle costs $6,500 more than a non-hydrogen vehicle, market penetration is only 6% by the 20th year. Results from other sensitivity runs are presented. Policies that could affect hydrogen vehicle adoption are investigated. A tax credit for the purchase of a hydrogen vehicle of $2,500 tax credit results in 88% penetration by the 20th year, as compared with 60% in the benchmark case. If the tax credit is $6,000, penetration is 99% by the 20th year. Under a more modest approach, the tax credit would be available only for the first 10 years. Hydrogen sales penetration then reach 69% of sales by the 20th year with the $2,500 credit and 79% with the $6,000 credit. A carbon tax of $38 per metric ton is not

  6. Defining the required infrastructure supporting co-operative systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.; Kievit, M.; Maas, S.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative Systems will play a critical role in enabling safe, smart and clean transport, as well as meeting the European Commission's 2020 policy goals. There is today a general understanding of the benefits of cooperative systems but there is still a need for further validation of the estimated

  7. Financail Disaster Risk Mangement Solutions for Life Systems Infrastructure in Low and Middle Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skees, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Growing populations and increased frequency of extreme climate events as a result of anthropogenic climate change will make poor populations more vulnerable in the future. Seismic events (earthquakes and tsunamis) also create extreme hazards for the poor and vulnerable living in cities in low and middle income countries. Vulnerability of life-systems infrastructure (e.g., water treatment facilities, hospitals, protective sea walls, etc.) to extreme climate and seismic events compound problems for the poor and vulnerable. By using risk hazard modelling with engineering design, it is possible to blend improved engineering in concert with financial disaster risk management (including insurance) solutions to improve the resiliency of life-systems infrastructure.

  8. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems and Cyber-Security: Best Practices to Secure Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsey, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In the critical infrastructure world, many critical infrastructure sectors use a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The sectors that use SCADA systems are the electric power, nuclear power and water. These systems are used to control, monitor and extract data from the systems that give us all the ability to light our homes…

  9. Infrastructures for systems medicine in Iran’s health roadmap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Systems medicine denotes a paradigm shift in medicine that arising from fundamental thoughts in systems biology. Systems medicine looks at health and disease using systems approaches. Systems or holistic approaches to studying the complexities of disease, emerging measurement and visualization molecular technologies to exploring of patient data space, and new computational and mathematical tools are fundamentals for this revolution in medicine. Methods: In order to explore the scientific/technological key objectives for systems medicine in “Iran’s Scientific Map in the Health Sector”, the details of goals, policies and requisites of Iran’s Health Roadmap were compared with horizontal and vertical policies of “National Institutes of Health (NIH Roadmap for Medical Research in U.S.A”. Results: A great attention has been paid on information technology, networking, interdisciplinary approach, innovation and high- risk research in Iran’s Health Roadmap. However, areas of research such as biological pathways (including metabolomics and networks structural biology molecular libraries and imaging bioinformatics and computational biology and human genome have not been adequately addressed. Conclusion: In order to react to waves of systems medicine, as a megatrend in health, Iran’s Scientific Map in the Health Sector should be synthesized to paradigm shift of emerging technologies in biomedicine. A framework for a broad interdisciplinary approach in biomedical research should be addressed to change medicine from reactive to proactive.

  10. Evaluation of Supply Chain Management Systems Used in Civil Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Michał; Rzepecki, Łukasz

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important factors which have an effect on the cost and time of the building process is the organization of physical resources and the information flow structure. Depending on how effective this system is, a building project may end with a success or a failure. Because of many conditions of the construction executing and different needs of the contractors, there are different Supply Chain Management (SCM) systems connected with supplying construction projects: single-stage, multi-stage or combined. The article presents a comparative analysis of construction SCM systems based on a modified fuzzy AHP. The modification of this method is based on the use of interval type-2 fuzzy sets to aggregate evaluation according to the idea proposed by Mikhailov. The use of such a model of group preferences of decision-makers, makes it possible to take into consideration both the linguistic imprecision of an evaluation and the small number of experts. The weight values of specific criteria and the final scale vector of considered variants are obtained during the analysis. This may give a recommendation to general contractors in construction projects about which evaluation criteria and supply systems are preferred.

  11. Innovative neuro-fuzzy system of smart transport infrastructure for road traffic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinarovica, Anna; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2017-09-01

    The proposed study describes applying of neural network and fuzzy logic in transport control for safety improvement by evaluation of accidents’ risk by intelligent infrastructure devices. Risk evaluation is made by following multiple-criteria: danger, changeability and influence of changes for risk increasing. Neuro-fuzzy algorithms are described and proposed for task solution. The novelty of the proposed system is proved by deep analysis of known studies in the field. The structure of neuro-fuzzy system for risk evaluation and mathematical model is described in the paper. The simulation model of the intelligent devices for transport infrastructure is proposed to simulate different situations, assess the risks and propose the possible actions for infrastructure or vehicles to minimize the risk of possible accidents.

  12. An automated system for rail transit infrastructure inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This project applied commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) : technologies such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), laser, GIS, and GPS to passenger rail : inspections. An integrated rail inspection system that can be mounted on hi...

  13. Traffic signal control enhancements under vehicle infrastructure integration systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Most current traffic signal systems are operated using a very archaic traffic-detection simple binary : logic (vehicle presence/non presence information). The logic was originally developed to provide input for old : electro-mechanical controllers th...

  14. A pay-for-performance system for civil service doctors: the Indonesian experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernichovsky, D; Bayulken, C

    1995-07-01

    In 1980 the Government of Indonesia proposed the introduction of a pay-for-performance system, the Functional Position System (FPS), for certain occupational categories of civil servants to provide a career development path and stimulate productivity (Government of Indonesia. Government Ordinance No. 3, 1980 Concerning Appointment to Civil Service Rank. Jakarta, 1980). The FPS, a bold pay concept in the civil service, links pay to skills and performance. In 1987, instructions were issued for doctors to be included in the system (Government of Indonesia, Credit Scores for Doctors. Circular Issued by the Ministry of Health and the Agency for Administration of the Civil Service No. 614/MENKES/E/VIII/1987 and No. 16/SE/1987). In this paper we evaluate how well the system-which in principle could be applicable to both developed and developing economies--can meet its stated objectives for Indonesian doctors working in the community, and for Indonesian health policy objectives as stated in the country's last five-year development plan "Repelita V" (Government of Indonesia. The Fifth Five-year Development Plan (Repelita V) 1989-1994. Jakarta, Indonesia, 1989). The FPS is particularly innovative in the Indonesian environment where wages are low and comparatively uniform, reflecting a philosophy of 'shared poverty', and vary primarily by seniority. The FPS has, however, several conceptual and practical shortcomings. The design of the reward system disregards effort or time inputs, as well as other inputs needed per unit of reward. Consequently, the FPS can not be used as an effective incentive system promoting professional excellence and health policy objectives. Practically, the system hardly provides an effective alternative for career development among community physicians.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The BRAzilian Seismographic Integrated Systems (BRASIS: infrastructure and data management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Dourado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In geophysics and seismology, raw data need to be processed to generate useful information that can be turned into knowledge by researchers. The number of sensors that are acquiring raw data is increasing rapidly. Without good data management systems, more time can be spent in querying and preparing datasets for analyses than in acquiring raw data. Also, a lot of good quality data acquired at great effort can be lost forever if they are not correctly stored. Local and international cooperation will probably be reduced, and a lot of data will never become scientific knowledge. For this reason, the Seismological Laboratory of the Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of São Paulo (IAG-USP has concentrated fully on its data management system. This report describes the efforts of the IAG-USP to set up a seismology data management system to facilitate local and international cooperation.

  16. Experience of Use of Knowledge Relative Assessment System for Training in Area of Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays E-Learning is becoming more and more relevant in training civil engineers. Electronic resources are used for classroom activities and for independent work. It allows allocating extra time for development of practical skills. Experience of remote knowledge control application in the educational process of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering is presented in the article. The control system is called Knowledge Relative Assessment System using Bekker's method. The following steps of system using are described in detail in the article: loading test material, action of users, protection from wrong acts and calculation of rating. The main merits and demerits from the point of view of teachers and students are listed.

  17. Reliability design of mechanical systems a guide for mechanical and civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Seongwoo

    2017-01-01

    This book describes basic reliability concepts – parametric ALT plan, failure mechanism and design, and reliability testing with acceleration factor and sample size equation. A generalized life-stress failure model with a new effort concept has been derived and recommended to calculate the acceleration factor of the mechanical system. The new sample size equation with the acceleration factor has also been derived to carry out the parametric ALT. This new parametric ALT should help a mechanical/civil engineer to uncover the design parameters affecting reliability during the design process of the mechanical system. Consequently, it should help companies to improve product reliability and avoid recalls due to the product/structure failures in the field. As the improper or missing design parameters in the design phase are experimentally identified by this new reliability design method - parametric ALT, the mechanical/civil engineering system might improve in reliability by the increase in lifetime and the reduc...

  18. Managing Infrastructure in the ALICE Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Lechman, M; Bond, P M; Chochula, P.Ch; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O; Rosinsky, P; Kurepin, A N; Pinazza, O

    2014-01-01

    The main role of the ALICE Detector Control System (DCS) is to ensure safe and efficient operation of one of the large high energy physics experiments at CERN. The DCS design is based on the commercial SCADA software package WinCC Open Architecture.

  19. Communication infrastructure and data management for operating smart distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, C.; Buchholz, B.M.; Gelfand, A.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Naumann, A.

    2012-01-01

    The enhancement of distribution networks into smart grids is based on three pillars: • Energy management on distribution level, • Distribution system automation, • Involvement of the consumers into the market for electricity by smart metering All these functions require an intensive exchange of

  20. Cluster management system design for big data infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,we have seen amajor shift in computing systems: data volumes are growing very fast, but hardware capabilities to store, process, and transfer the massive data are not speeding up at the same rate. Today, data are generated from a variety of sources, such as social networking

  1. A smart monitoring infrastructure design for distributed renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalci, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A smart grid model for renewable energy sources is proposed in this study. • The renewable energy conversion system is constituted with solar plants and full bridge inverter. • The power line communication is performed with QPSK modulation. • The transmission line that has 25 km length is modelled with real-time parameters. • The efficiency of system is analysed by comparing transmitted and received data. - Abstract: The automatic meter reading is essentially required in renewable grids as in conventional grids. It is intended to propose a reliable measurement system that is validated in a photovoltaic power system to meet the requirement of a renewable grid. In the presented study, the photovoltaic plants are controlled by using a widely known maximum power point tracking algorithm that is named as “Perturb and Observe”. The distribution line at the output of inverter is modelled according to realistic parameters of 25 km line. Besides carrying the generated line voltage, the grid is used as a transmission medium for the generated power measurements of photovoltaic plants and power consumptions of load plants separately. The modem constituting the power line communication manages the dual-channel transfer and transmits the consumed energy ratios of the load plants. One of the modems is located at the output of voltage source inverter and the other one of the load plants. The power consumption values of each load plants are individually measured and successfully transmitted to monitoring section in the modelled system. The obtained data that is only used for monitoring in this application can also be evaluated for automatic meter reading applications

  2. Freva - Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework for Scientific HPC Infrastructures in Earth System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadow, C.; Illing, S.; Schartner, T.; Grieger, J.; Kirchner, I.; Rust, H.; Cubasch, U.; Ulbrich, U.

    2017-12-01

    The Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework (Freva - freva.met.fu-berlin.de) is a software infrastructure for standardized data and tool solutions in Earth system science (e.g. www-miklip.dkrz.de, cmip-eval.dkrz.de). Freva runs on high performance computers to handle customizable evaluation systems of research projects, institutes or universities. It combines different software technologies into one common hybrid infrastructure, including all features present in the shell and web environment. The database interface satisfies the international standards provided by the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Freva indexes different data projects into one common search environment by storing the meta data information of the self-describing model, reanalysis and observational data sets in a database. This implemented meta data system with its advanced but easy-to-handle search tool supports users, developers and their plugins to retrieve the required information. A generic application programming interface (API) allows scientific developers to connect their analysis tools with the evaluation system independently of the programming language used. Users of the evaluation techniques benefit from the common interface of the evaluation system without any need to understand the different scripting languages. The integrated web-shell (shellinabox) adds a degree of freedom in the choice of the working environment and can be used as a gate to the research projects HPC. Plugins are able to integrate their e.g. post-processed results into the database of the user. This allows e.g. post-processing plugins to feed statistical analysis plugins, which fosters an active exchange between plugin developers of a research project. Additionally, the history and configuration sub-system stores every analysis performed with the evaluation system in a database. Configurations and results of the tools can be shared among scientists via shell or web system. Furthermore, if configurations match

  3. An authentication and authorization infrastructure: The PAPI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.; Lopez, D.R.; Vega, J.

    2006-01-01

    PAPI is a system for providing access control to restricted information resources across the Internet. It intends to keep authentication as an issue local to the organization the user belongs to, while leaving information providers full control over the resources they offer. The authentication mechanisms are designed to be as flexible as possible, allowing each organization to use its own authentication schema, keeping user privacy, and offering information providers data enough for statistics. Moreover, access control mechanisms are transparent to the user and compatible: with the most commonly employed Web browsers (i.e., Netscape/MSIE/Mozilla/Lynx), with any HTTP based java application solution, and any operating system. This solution is being successfully used in different research organizations in Spain and Europe as a control access system to restricted resources in a transparent and single sign-on way. It is allowing mobile and external users to access to resources that are internal to organizations, contributing to remote participations in results of experiments and inter-institutional resource collaboration

  4. Running a Reliable Messaging Infrastructure for CERN's Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Ehm, F

    2011-01-01

    The current middleware for CERN’s Controls System is based on two implementations: CORBA-based Controls MiddleWare (CMW) and Java Messaging Service (JMS). The JMS service is realized using the open source messaging product ActiveMQ and had became an increasing vital part of beam operations as data need to be transported reliably for various areas such as the beam protection system, post mortem analysis, beam commissioning or the alarm system. The current JMS service is made of 18 brokers running either in clusters or as single nodes. The main service is deployed as a two node cluster providing failover and load balancing capabilities for high availability. Non-critical applications running on virtual machines or desktop machines read data via a third broker to decouple the load from the operational main cluster. This scenario has been introduced last year and the statistics showed an uptime of 99.998% and an average data serving rate of 1.6GByte per minute represented by around 150 messages per second. Depl...

  5. New infrastructure for studies of transmutation and fast systems concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panza Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report initial studies on a low power Accelerator-Driven System as a possible experimental facility for the measurement of relevant integral nuclear quantities. In particular, we performed Monte Carlo simulations of minor actinides and fission products irradiation and estimated the fission rate within fission chambers in the reactor core and the reflector, in order to evaluate the transmutation rates and the measurement sensitivity. We also performed a photo-peak analysis of available experimental data from a research reactor, in order to estimate the expected sensitivity of this analysis method on the irradiation of samples in the ADS considered.

  6. Market system infrastructure: a major issue for the power system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passelergue, J.Ch.

    2005-01-01

    The restructuring and opening of the electricity market made more complex the power system operation. While the system operator does not own anymore the generation assets, a perfect coordination with the market players is critical to guarantee the power system operation reliability. The market platforms, which are the main links between the system operator and the market players, must include communication means guaranteeing an uninterrupted service. The data-processing infrastructure must thus be designed to ensure the market system accessibility, as well as the effective exchange of data. Moreover, the market systems must facilitate the market operation and monitoring. They must allow the definition of a business process that, on the one hand, allows sequencing the users' actions, and that, on the other hand, provides the errors detected during the data-processing. Lastly, the market systems must facilitate the putting in place and follow-up by the market operator of operational procedures covering all the situations the operator can have to face. (author)

  7. Tank waste remediation system privatization infrastructure program requirements and document management process guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROOT, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This guide provides the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Infrastructure Program management with processes and requirements to appropriately control information and documents in accordance with the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Plan (Vann 1998b). This includes documents and information created by the program, as well as non-program generated materials submitted to the project. It provides appropriate approval/control, distribution and filing systems

  8. Remote-operated systems for interventions in civil nuclear facilities; Systemes teleoperes pour interventions dans les installations nucleaires civiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, A. [Groupe INTRA, 37 - Avoine (France)

    1999-10-01

    This short paper is a presentation of the aerial and terrestrial means developed by the Intra Group specialized in interventions in the case of nuclear accidents and incidents. The aerial means consist in a airborne system called Helinuc and which can perform spectro-gamma measurements over surfaces of about 15 km{sup 2} using an `Ecureuil`-type helicopter. The terrestrial means comprise different types of robots for surveys, sampling, manipulation, various works etc.. and remote-controlled caterpillar tractors, shovels and dumper trucks. (J.S.)

  9. The Role of Sharia Judges in Indonesia: Between the Common Law and the Civil Law Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alfitri, Alfitri

    2017-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse the role of Religious Courts' (Pengadilan Agama or PA) Judges in the formation of Islamic law in Indonesia. As part of the civil legal system, PA Judges are bound by legal provisions in handling legal disputes in court. They must apply the applicable legal provisions to decide upon a case. This condition can also be understood from the aspect of appointment of judges in Indonesia, including PA Judges, which is conducted not through professional career path as in ...

  10. Civil Legislation and International Treaties: The Interaction within the Legal System of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Eremenko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of theoretical aspects of the category of “international treaties” from the point of view of their place in the hierarchical structure of the legal system of the Russian Federation and their correlation to the civil legislation. The author describes the synthetic models of correlation of international treaties and national legislation and formulates these models as concepts of “super-nationalism”, “sub-constitutionalism”, “super-legalism” and “inter-legalism”....

  11. Job and Workload Analysis System for Civil Servants in North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnanda, M.; Mewengkang, A.; Rompas, P. T. D.; Togas, P. V.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to create automation system to assist sub division of job analysis and workload of North Sulawesi, Indonesia in completing its annual tasks to record all civil servants. The method used in this research is prototyping where a system will be developed according to the revision supplied by the user. The result of this research is a system used to generate reports and calculations based on user filled forms. The result gathered from the interviews, users can make reports faster and easier. Users can also optimise reports on time using the built system.

  12. ISTIMES Integrated System for Transport Infrastructures Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argenti, M.; Giannini, V.; Averty, R.; Bigagli, L.; Dumoulin, J.

    2012-04-01

    The EC FP7 ISTIMES project has the goal of realizing an ICT-based system exploiting distributed and local sensors for non destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to make critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. Higher situation awareness thanks to real time and detailed information and images of the controlled infrastructure status allows improving decision capabilities for emergency management stakeholders. Web-enabled sensors and a service-oriented approach are used as core of the architecture providing a sys-tem that adopts open standards (e.g. OGC SWE, OGC CSW etc.) and makes efforts to achieve full interoperability with other GMES and European Spatial Data Infrastructure initiatives as well as compliance with INSPIRE. The system exploits an open easily scalable network architecture to accommodate a wide range of sensors integrated with a set of tools for handling, analyzing and processing large data volumes from different organizations with different data models. Situation Awareness tools are also integrated in the system. Definition of sensor observations and services follows a metadata model based on the ISO 19115 Core set of metadata elements and the O&M model of OGC SWE. The ISTIMES infrastructure is based on an e-Infrastructure for geospatial data sharing, with a Data Cata-log that implements the discovery services for sensor data retrieval, acting as a broker through static connections based on standard SOS and WNS interfaces; a Decision Support component which helps decision makers providing support for data fusion and inference and generation of situation indexes; a Presentation component which implements system-users interaction services for information publication and rendering, by means of a WEB Portal using SOA design principles; A security framework using Shibboleth open source middleware based on the Security Assertion Markup Language supporting Single Sign On (SSO). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The research leading to these

  13. Landscape infrastructure : urbanism beyond engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélanger, P.

    2013-01-01

    As ecology becomes the new engineering, the project of Landscape Infrastructure - a contemporary, synthetic alignment of the disciplines of landscape architecture, civil engineering and urban planning - is proposed here. Predominant challenges facing urban regions today are addressed, including

  14. Research on public participant urban infrastructure safety monitoring system using smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Wang, Niannian; Ou, Jinping; Yu, Yan; Li, Mingchu

    2017-04-01

    Currently more and more people concerned about the safety of major public security. Public participant urban infrastructure safety monitoring and investigation has become a trend in the era of big data. In this paper, public participant urban infrastructure safety protection system based on smart phones is proposed. The system makes it possible to public participant disaster data collection, monitoring and emergency evaluation in the field of disaster prevention and mitigation. Function of the system is to monitor the structural acceleration, angle and other vibration information, and extract structural deformation and implement disaster emergency communications based on smartphone without network. The monitoring data is uploaded to the website to create urban safety information database. Then the system supports big data analysis processing, the structure safety assessment and city safety early warning.

  15. Examination of decision support systems for composite CBA & MCDA assessments of transport infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA). Two DSS are in this context examined and compared using a case study dealing with alternatives for a new...... as the latter for the rating of alternatives and the determination of criteria weights, namely the REMBRANDT technique combined with swing weights. However, this system does not convert the results of the CBA into value function scores. Instead the value functions computed in the MCA are added to the CBA...... of the examination and comparison of the two systems is to determine which is the most appropriate for conducting composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects. The first system provides a conventional widely used and theoretical well founded framework. The COSIMA framework is founded on a somewhat...

  16. A Systematic Review of Quantitative Resilience Measures for Water Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sangmin; Lee, Seungyub; Judi, David R.; Parvania, Masood; Goharian, Erfan; McPherson, Timothy N.; Burian, Steven J.

    2018-02-07

    Over the past few decades, the concept of resilience has emerged as an important consideration in the planning and management of water infrastructure systems. Accordingly, various resilience measures have been developed for the quantitative evaluation and decision-making of systems. There are, however, numerous considerations and no clear choice of which measure, if any, provides the most appropriate representation of resilience for a given application. This study provides a critical review of quantitative approaches to measure the resilience of water infrastructure systems, with a focus on water resources and distribution systems. A compilation of 11 criteria evaluating 21 selected resilience measures addressing major features of resilience is developed using the Axiomatic Design process. Existing gaps of resilience measures are identified based on the review criteria. The results show that resilience measures have generally paid less attention to cascading damage to interrelated systems, rapid identification of failure, physical damage of system components, and time variation of resilience. Concluding the paper, improvements to resilience measures are recommended. The findings contribute to our understanding of gaps and provide information to help further improve resilience measures of water infrastructure systems.

  17. A Systematic Review of Quantitative Resilience Measures for Water Infrastructure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the concept of resilience has emerged as an important consideration in the planning and management of water infrastructure systems. Accordingly, various resilience measures have been developed for the quantitative evaluation and decision-making of systems. There are, however, numerous considerations and no clear choice of which measure, if any, provides the most appropriate representation of resilience for a given application. This study provides a critical review of quantitative approaches to measure the resilience of water infrastructure systems, with a focus on water resources and distribution systems. A compilation of 11 criteria evaluating 21 selected resilience measures addressing major features of resilience is developed using the Axiomatic Design process. Existing gaps of resilience measures are identified based on the review criteria. The results show that resilience measures have generally paid less attention to cascading damage to interrelated systems, rapid identification of failure, physical damage of system components, and time variation of resilience. Concluding the paper, improvements to resilience measures are recommended. The findings contribute to our understanding of gaps and provide information to help further improve resilience measures of water infrastructure systems.

  18. Algorithms for Bayesian network modeling and reliability assessment of infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, Iris; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Novel algorithms are developed to enable the modeling of large, complex infrastructure systems as Bayesian networks (BNs). These include a compression algorithm that significantly reduces the memory storage required to construct the BN model, and an updating algorithm that performs inference on compressed matrices. These algorithms address one of the major obstacles to widespread use of BNs for system reliability assessment, namely the exponentially increasing amount of information that needs to be stored as the number of components in the system increases. The proposed compression and inference algorithms are described and applied to example systems to investigate their performance compared to that of existing algorithms. Orders of magnitude savings in memory storage requirement are demonstrated using the new algorithms, enabling BN modeling and reliability analysis of larger infrastructure systems. - Highlights: • Novel algorithms developed for Bayesian network modeling of infrastructure systems. • Algorithm presented to compress information in conditional probability tables. • Updating algorithm presented to perform inference on compressed matrices. • Algorithms applied to example systems to investigate their performance. • Orders of magnitude savings in memory storage requirement demonstrated.

  19. Airborne Camera System for Real-Time Applications - Support of a National Civil Protection Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gstaiger, V.; Romer, H.; Rosenbaum, D.; Henkel, F.

    2015-04-01

    In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), powerful tools are being developed to aid public authorities and organizations with security responsibilities as well as traffic authorities when dealing with disasters and large public events. One focus lies on the acquisition of high resolution aerial imagery, its fully automatic processing, analysis and near real-time provision to decision makers in emergency situations. For this purpose a camera system was developed to be operated from a helicopter with light-weight processing units and microwave link for fast data transfer. In order to meet end-users' requirements DLR works close together with the German Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK) within this project. One task of BBK is to establish, maintain and train the German Medical Task Force (MTF), which gets deployed nationwide in case of large-scale disasters. In October 2014, several units of the MTF were deployed for the first time in the framework of a national civil protection exercise in Brandenburg. The VABENE++ team joined the exercise and provided near real-time aerial imagery, videos and derived traffic information to support the direction of the MTF and to identify needs for further improvements and developments. In this contribution the authors introduce the new airborne camera system together with its near real-time processing components and share experiences gained during the national civil protection exercise.

  20. Rapid assessment of infrastructure of primary health care facilities - a relevant instrument for health care systems management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Stefan; Ngoli, Baltazar; Flessa, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    Health care infrastructure constitutes a major component of the structural quality of a health system. Infrastructural deficiencies of health services are reported in literature and research. A number of instruments exist for the assessment of infrastructure. However, no easy-to-use instruments to assess health facility infrastructure in developing countries are available. Present tools are not applicable for a rapid assessment by health facility staff. Therefore, health information systems lack data on facility infrastructure. A rapid assessment tool for the infrastructure of primary health care facilities was developed by the authors and pilot-tested in Tanzania. The tool measures the quality of all infrastructural components comprehensively and with high standardization. Ratings use a 2-1-0 scheme which is frequently used in Tanzanian health care services. Infrastructural indicators and indices are obtained from the assessment and serve for reporting and tracing of interventions. The tool was pilot-tested in Tanga Region (Tanzania). The pilot test covered seven primary care facilities in the range between dispensary and district hospital. The assessment encompassed the facilities as entities as well as 42 facility buildings and 80 pieces of technical medical equipment. A full assessment of facility infrastructure was undertaken by health care professionals while the rapid assessment was performed by facility staff. Serious infrastructural deficiencies were revealed. The rapid assessment tool proved a reliable instrument of routine data collection by health facility staff. The authors recommend integrating the rapid assessment tool in the health information systems of developing countries. Health authorities in a decentralized health system are thus enabled to detect infrastructural deficiencies and trace the effects of interventions. The tool can lay the data foundation for district facility infrastructure management.

  1. Towards a global system of compensation for transboundary nuclear damage: reflexions on the interrelationship of civil and international state liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, G.

    1993-01-01

    International state liability is an essential complementary element of any global and comprehensive nuclear compensation system. Civil liability alone will not be able to fully compensate victims of a nuclear accident and will therefore not fully internalize the costs of nuclear activities. To make it effective and politically acceptable, state liability must be fully integrated procedurally with any civil liability system as a last tier of compensation following a simple process for handling together both civil and state liability claims at the international level, with individuals being able to sue Installation States. 69 refs

  2. Case studies of scenario analysis for adaptive management of natural resource and infrastructure systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, M.C.; Thekdi, S.A.; Jenicek, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources and infrastructure systems for sustainability is complicated by uncertainties in the human and natural environment. Moreover, decisions are further complicated by contradictory views, values, and concerns that are rarely made explicit. Scenario analysis can play...... a major role in addressing the challenges of sustainability management, especially the core question of how to scan the future in a structured, integrated, participatory, and policy-relevant manner. In a context of systems engineering, scenario analysis can provide an integrated and timely understanding...... of emergent conditions and help to avoid regret and belated action. The purpose of this paper is to present several case studies in natural resources and infrastructure systems management where scenario analysis has been used to aide decision making under uncertainty. The case studies include several resource...

  3. Development of the efficient emergency preparedness system for the nuclear critical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, V.; Marn, J.; Petelin, S.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of the critical nuclear infrastructure vulnerability to threats like human occurrences, terrorist attacks and natural disasters and the preparation of emergency response plans with the estimation of optimized costs are of the vital importance for the assurance of a safe nuclear facilities operation and the national security. In the past national emergency systems did not include vulnerability assessments of the critical nuclear infrastructure as the important part of the comprehensive preparedness framework. The fundamental aims of the efficient emergency preparedness and response system are to provide a sustained emergency readiness and to prevent an emergency situation and accidents. But when an event happens the mission is to mitigate consequences and to protect the people and environment against the nuclear and radiological damage. The efficient emergency response system, which would be activated in the case of the nuclear and/or radiological emergency and release of the radioactivity to the environment, is an important element of a comprehensive system of the nuclear and radiation safety. In the article the new methodology for the critical nuclear infrastructure vulnerability assessment as a missing part of an efficient emergency preparedness system is presented. It can help the overall national energy sectors to identify and better understand the terrorist threats and vulnerabilities of their critical infrastructure. The presented methodology could also facilitate national agencies to develop and implement a vulnerability awareness and education programs for their critical assets to enhance the security, reliability and safe operation of the whole energy infrastructure. The vulnerability assessment methodology will also assist nuclear power plants to develop, validate, and disseminate the assessment and survey of new efficient countermeasures. The significant benefits of the new vulnerability assessment research are to increase nuclear power

  4. A systemic method for evaluating the potential impacts of floods on network infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eleutério

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding network infrastructures and their operation under exceptional circumstances is fundamental for dealing with flood risks and improving the resilience of a territory. This work presents a method for evaluating potential network infrastructure dysfunctions and damage in cases of flooding. In contrast to existing approaches, this method analyses network infrastructures on an elementary scale, by considering networks as a group of elements with specific functions and individual vulnerabilities. Our analysis places assets at the centre of the evaluation process, resulting in the construction of damage-dysfunction matrices based on expert interviews. These matrices permit summarising the different vulnerabilities of network infrastructures, describing how the different components are linked to each other and how they can disrupt the operation of the network. They also identify the actions and resources needed to restore the system to operational status following damage and dysfunctions, an essential point when dealing with the question of resilience. The method promotes multi-network analyses and is illustrated by a French case study. Sixty network experts were interviewed during the analysis of the following networks: drinking water supply, waste water, public lighting, gas distribution and electricity supply.

  5. JUSTIFICATION OF CONTROL SYSTEM TYPES OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE FOR CIVIL AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control systems is a complicated issue which requires consideration of the tasks and applications of unmanned aerial vehicles. The typology of control systems combination for civil unmanned aerial vehicle is suggested and justified. Methods: The methodology of the research was based on application of the varieties of the experts method for rationale of the variants of control system combinations for a specific type of unmanned aerial vehicle and the morphological analysis was used to generate the variants of control system combinations. Results: The causes that lead to discrepancies in types of control systems for civil unmanned aerial vehicle are revealed. Compliance between remote radio control application and type of feedback signal are considered. Based on morphological analysis method, 25 variants of combined unmanned aerial vehicle control systems are suggested. Discussion: Regulatory, substantive and technical components of basic unmanned aerial vehicle control systems are considered. The practical experience of the development by Scientific Production Center of Unmanned Aviation “Virazh” is used to demonstrate the applicability of findings.

  6. TO THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION: CIVILIZED APPROACH. TENDENCIES OF LEGAL FAMILIES APPROACHING IN THE CONDITIONS OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rasskazov L. P.

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses various criteria for the classification of legal systems. Special attention is drawn to the civilizational approach, which can be effectively used in the classification of legal systems. In accordance with the civilizational approach in the world there are many civilizations, developing according to its own laws (for example, the Scythian civilization, ancient Egyptian, etc.). In accordance with this approach the history of mankind is a history of the development of civi...

  7. A Model for the Departmental Quality Management Infrastructure Within an Academic Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Simon C; Demski, Renee; Hooper, Jody E; Biddison, Lee Daugherty; Berry, Stephen A; Petty, Brent G; Chen, Allen R; Hill, Peter M; Miller, Marlene R; Witter, Frank R; Allen, Lisa; Wick, Elizabeth C; Stierer, Tracey S; Paine, Lori; Puttgen, Hans A; Tamargo, Rafael J; Pronovost, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    As quality improvement and patient safety come to play a larger role in health care, academic medical centers and health systems are poised to take a leadership role in addressing these issues. Academic medical centers can leverage their large integrated footprint and have the ability to innovate in this field. However, a robust quality management infrastructure is needed to support these efforts. In this context, quality and safety are often described at the executive level and at the unit level. Yet, the role of individual departments, which are often the dominant functional unit within a hospital, in realizing health system quality and safety goals has not been addressed. Developing a departmental quality management infrastructure is challenging because departments are diverse in composition, size, resources, and needs.In this article, the authors describe the model of departmental quality management infrastructure that has been implemented at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. This model leverages the fractal approach, linking departments horizontally to support peer and organizational learning and connecting departments vertically to support accountability to the hospital, health system, and board of trustees. This model also provides both structure and flexibility to meet individual departmental needs, recognizing that independence and interdependence are needed for large academic medical centers. The authors describe the structure, function, and support system for this model as well as the practical and essential steps for its implementation. They also provide examples of its early success.

  8. Space Shuttle Operations and Infrastructure: A Systems Analysis of Design Root Causes and Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Carey M.

    2005-01-01

    This NASA Technical Publication explores and documents the nature of Space Shuttle operations and its supporting infrastructure and addresses fundamental questions often asked of the Space Shuttle program why does it take so long to turnaround the Space Shuttle for flight and why does it cost so much? Further, the report provides an overview of the cause-and effect relationships between generic flight and ground system design characteristics and resulting operations by using actual cumulative maintenance task times as a relative measure of direct work content. In addition, this NASA TP provides an overview of how the Space Shuttle program's operational infrastructure extends and accumulates from these design characteristics. Finally, and most important, the report derives a set of generic needs from which designers can revolutionize space travel from the inside out by developing and maturing more operable and supportable systems.

  9. Infrastructure Operations Technical Baseline Development at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Using Systems Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliva, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory that has been performing environmental cleanup and stabilization, which was accelerated upon the end of the cold war. In fact, the INEEL currently receives two-thirds of its scope to perform these functions. These activities can only be successful, however, if infrastructure operations are adequate and appropriately tailored. Several of the systems engineers supporting a group called Environmental Management Integration (EMI) were given the charter to develop the technical baseline for all INEEL infrastructure operations. This paper will discuss the systems engineering process developed in order to capture the driving requirements and identify the necessary functions that must exist in order to successfully support environmental cleanup and stabilization

  10. METHODS OF MANAGING TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenko, Viktor; Persiyanova, Elena; Belotskyy, Oleksiy; Malyeyeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The subject matter of the article is information and communication networks (ICN) of critical infrastructure systems (CIS). The goal of the work is to create methods for managing the data flows and resources of the ICN of CIS to improve the efficiency of information processing. The following tasks were solved in the article: the data flow model of multi-level ICN structure was developed, the method of adaptive distribution of data flows was developed, the method of network resource assignment...

  11. Tank waste remediation system privatization infrastructure program configuration management implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaus, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    This Configuration Management Implementation Plan (CMIP) was developed to assist in managing systems, structures, and components (SSCS), to facilitate the effective control and statusing of changes to SSCS, and to ensure technical consistency between design, performance, and operational requirements. Its purpose is to describe the approach Privatization Infrastructure will take in implementing a configuration management program, to identify the Program's products that need configuration management control, to determine the rigor of control, and to identify the mechanisms for that control

  12. SMART CITIES INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM (SMACiSYS INTEGRATING SENSOR WEB WITH SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURES (SENSDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bhattacharya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper endeavours to enhance the Sensor Web with crucial geospatial analysis capabilities through integration with Spatial Data Infrastructure. The objective is development of automated smart cities intelligence system (SMACiSYS with sensor-web access (SENSDI utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. There has been a need to develop automated integrated system to categorize events and issue information that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled information system exists which can disseminate messages after events evaluation in real time. Research work formalizes a notion of an integrated, independent, generalized, and automated geo-event analysing system making use of geo-spatial data under popular usage platform. Integrating Sensor Web With Spatial Data Infrastructures (SENSDI aims to extend SDIs with sensor web enablement, converging geospatial and built infrastructure, and implement test cases with sensor data and SDI. The other benefit, conversely, is the expansion of spatial data infrastructure to utilize sensor web, dynamically and in real time for smart applications that smarter cities demand nowadays. Hence, SENSDI augments existing smart cities platforms utilizing sensor web and spatial information achieved by coupling pairs of otherwise disjoint interfaces and APIs formulated by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC keeping entire platform open access and open source. SENSDI is based on Geonode, QGIS and Java, that bind most of the functionalities of Internet, sensor web and nowadays Internet of Things superseding Internet of Sensors as well. In a nutshell, the project delivers a generalized real-time accessible and analysable platform for sensing the environment and mapping the captured information for optimal decision-making and societal benefit.

  13. Smart Cities Intelligence System (SMACiSYS) Integrating Sensor Web with Spatial Data Infrastructures (sensdi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Painho, M.

    2017-09-01

    The paper endeavours to enhance the Sensor Web with crucial geospatial analysis capabilities through integration with Spatial Data Infrastructure. The objective is development of automated smart cities intelligence system (SMACiSYS) with sensor-web access (SENSDI) utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. There has been a need to develop automated integrated system to categorize events and issue information that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled information system exists which can disseminate messages after events evaluation in real time. Research work formalizes a notion of an integrated, independent, generalized, and automated geo-event analysing system making use of geo-spatial data under popular usage platform. Integrating Sensor Web With Spatial Data Infrastructures (SENSDI) aims to extend SDIs with sensor web enablement, converging geospatial and built infrastructure, and implement test cases with sensor data and SDI. The other benefit, conversely, is the expansion of spatial data infrastructure to utilize sensor web, dynamically and in real time for smart applications that smarter cities demand nowadays. Hence, SENSDI augments existing smart cities platforms utilizing sensor web and spatial information achieved by coupling pairs of otherwise disjoint interfaces and APIs formulated by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) keeping entire platform open access and open source. SENSDI is based on Geonode, QGIS and Java, that bind most of the functionalities of Internet, sensor web and nowadays Internet of Things superseding Internet of Sensors as well. In a nutshell, the project delivers a generalized real-time accessible and analysable platform for sensing the environment and mapping the captured information for optimal decision-making and societal benefit.

  14. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  15. Semicentralised supply and treatment systems: integrated infrastructure solutions for fast growing urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, S; Cornel, P; Wagner, M

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the development of the world population is characterised by two trends: absolute population growth and rapid urbanisation. Especially rapid urbanisation, taking place in Asia, Latin America and Africa, poses major pressure on the affected regions. The development of e.g. Asian countries today is stamped by a combination of urbanisation with high economic growth rates. Conventional centralised infrastructure of supply, treatment and disposal of water is not able to cope with the new challenges arising from these, in history incomparable, high growth rates. Therefore new approaches to infrastructure supply and treatment systems are required - for ecological, sociocultural and economic reasons. The semicentralised approach, focusing on integrated water supply and treatment structures for wastewater and waste on the neighbourhood level, offers one possible solution to the challenges imposed by rapid urbanisation and growing resource needs. The change from centralised to semicentralised supply and treatment systems will minimise the grave discrepancy between the rapid urban growth and the provision of supply and treatment infrastructure. Integrated semicentralised supply and treatment systems face the challenge of growing amounts of wastewater and solid waste combined with rising needs of water for private households and industrial use. The semicentralised approach offers a wide range of flexibility in implementation, energy self-sufficient operation, enormous saving potentials in water demands through intra-urban water reuse and further more advantages in comparison to centralised sectored solutions as practised today.

  16. Modelling the impact of mining on socio-economic infrastructure development: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maluleke, George

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of mining activities to social infrastructure and human development is a complex socio-economic development issue in South Africa. Complexity theory has introduced a new approach to solving problems in social systems, recognising them as complex systems. The socio-economic development system in South Africa falls into this category of complex systems. Analysing such a system requires that a number of feedback loops and details about the issues be analysed simultaneously. This level of complexity is above a human’s ability to comprehend without the aid of tools such as systems thinking and system dynamics. The causality between investment in infrastructure capacity and socio-economic development is dynamic. The relationship is influenced by exogenous feedback that, if not managed, is likely to reverse itself. This paper presents the results of a system dynamics modelling of the relationship, based on the principle of relative attractiveness developed in previous system dynamics research. A Monte Carlo analysis is used to determine the sensitivity of the system to changes in feedback. The paper concludes that the limits to growth in a socio-economic environment are determined by more factors than the availability of capital, and also include land capacity constraints and skills shortage.

  17. Resilience assessment of interdependent infrastructure systems: With a focus on joint restoration modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min; Wang, Zhenghua

    2015-01-01

    As infrastructure systems are highly interconnected, it is crucial to analyze their resilience with the consideration of their interdependencies. This paper adapts an existing resilience assessment framework for single systems to interdependent systems and mainly focuses on modeling and resilience contribution analysis of multi-systems’ joint restoration processes, which are seldom addressed in the literature. Taking interdependent power and gas systems in Houston, Texas, USA under hurricane hazards as an illustrative exmaple, five types of joint restoration stategies are proposed, including random restoration strategy RS 1 , independent restoration strategy RS 2 , power first and gas second restoration strategy RS 3 , gas aimed restoration strategy RS 4 , and power and gas compromised restoration strategy RS 5 . Results show that under limited restoration resources, RS 1 produces the least resilience for both systems, RS 2 and RS 3 both generates the largest power system resilience while RS 4 is the best for the gas system; and if quantifying the total resilience as the evenly weighted sum of two systems’ individual resilience, RS 5 produces the largest total resilience. The proposed method can help decision makers search optimum joint restoration strategy, which can significantly enhance both systems’ resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a method to assess resilience of interdependent infrastructure systems. • We consider unidirectional interdependencies from power system to gas system. • Multi-systems’ restoration processes are solved by using genetic algorithm. • Effectiveness of five restoration strategies are compared and analyzed. • Interdependency-based strategies produce the largest total resilience

  18. Infrastructure, Technology and Applications of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.J.; Jakubczak, J.F.; Krygowski, T.W.; Miller, S.L.; Montague, S.; Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1999-07-09

    A review is made of the infrastructure, technology and capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories for the development of micromechanical systems. By incorporating advanced fabrication processes, such as chemical mechanical polishing, and several mechanical polysilicon levels, the range of micromechanical systems that can be fabricated in these technologies is virtually limitless. Representative applications include a micro-engine driven mirror, and a micromachined lock. Using a novel integrated MEMS/CMOS technology, a six degree-of-freedom accelerometer/gyroscope system has been designed by researchers at U.C. Berkeley and fabricated on the same silicon chip as the CMOS control circuits to produce an integrated micro-navigational unit.

  19. Architecture and Key Techniques of Augmented Reality Maintenance Guiding System for Civil Aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    hong, Zhou; Wenhua, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality technology is introduced into the maintenance related field for strengthened information in real-world scenarios through integration of virtual assistant maintenance information with real-world scenarios. This can lower the difficulty of maintenance, reduce maintenance errors, and improve the maintenance efficiency and quality of civil aviation crews. Architecture of augmented reality virtual maintenance guiding system is proposed on the basis of introducing the definition of augmented reality and analyzing the characteristics of augmented reality virtual maintenance. Key techniques involved, such as standardization and organization of maintenance data, 3D registration, modeling of maintenance guidance information and virtual maintenance man-machine interaction, are elaborated emphatically, and solutions are given.

  20. Infrastructure requirement of knowledge management system model of statistical learning tool (SLT) for education community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Rusli; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Bolong, Jusang; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Shaffril, Hayrol Azril Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Today, teaching and learning (T&L) using technology as tool is becoming more important especially in the field of statistics as a part of the subject matter in higher education system environment. Eventhough, there are many types of technology of statistical learnig tool (SLT) which can be used to support and enhance T&L environment, however, there is lack of a common standard knowledge management as a knowledge portal for guidance especially in relation to infrastructure requirement of SLT in servicing the community of user (CoU) such as educators, students and other parties who are interested in performing this technology as a tool for their T&L. Therefore, there is a need of a common standard infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal in helping CoU for managing of statistical knowledge in acquiring, storing, desseminating and applying of the statistical knowedge for their specific purposes. Futhermore, by having this infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal model of SLT as a guidance in promoting knowledge of best practise among the CoU, it can also enhance the quality and productivity of their work towards excellence of statistical knowledge application in education system environment.

  1. Infrastructure for thulium-170 isotope power systems for autonomous underwater vehicle fleets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, C.E.

    1991-07-01

    The radioisotope thulium-170 is a safe and environmentally benign heat source for providing the high endurance and energy densities needed by advanced power systems for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV). Thulium Isotope Power (TIP) systems have an endurance of ∼3000 h, and gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 3 x 10 4 Wh/kg and 3 x 10 8 Wh/m 3 , respectively. These energy densities are more than 200 times higher than those currently provided by Ag-Zn battery technology. In order to capitalize on these performance levels with about one hundred AUVs in continuous use, it will be necessary to establish an infrastructure for isotope production and heat-source refurbishment. The infrastructure cost is not trivial, and studies are needed to determine its optimum configuration. The major component of the projected infrastructure is the nuclear reactor used to produce Tm- 170 by neutron absorption in Tm-169. The reactor design should ideally be optimized for TM-170 production. Using the byproduct ''waste'' heat beneficially would help defray the cost of isotope production. However, generating electric power with the reactor would compromise both the cost of electricity and the isotope production capacity. A coastal location for the reactor would be most convenient from end-use considerations, and the ''waste'' heat could be used to desalinate seawater in water-thirsty states. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Application of System Dynamics to Evaluate the Social and Economic Benefits of Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiep Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA is often employed to inform decision makers about the desirability of transport infrastructure investment options. One of the main limitations of traditional CBA approaches is that they do not provide a dynamic view that explicitly illustrates the cost and benefit relationships between component entities over time. This paper addresses this issue by describing a System Dynamics (SD approach that can perform transport infrastructure CBA through the application of systems thinking to develop a causal-loop model that can subsequently be operationalised into an executable stock-and-flow model. Execution of this model readily enables sensitivity analysis of infrastructure investment options and visualisation of the cost-benefit behaviour of each variant over time. The utility of the approach is illustrated through a case study, the Co Chien Bridge project in Vietnam, using a model that incorporates conventional economic metrics and factors that measure indirect project benefits, such as impact on gross domestic product, unemployment rate, and total taxes gained from affected economic sectors.

  3. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Monica; Perez, David; Moreno, Felix

    2015-11-17

    The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor's infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc.

  4. Some approaches to the effective functioning of the system model social infrastructure company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Armashova-Telnik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's economic conditions, characterized by a high degree of instability and uncertainty as the conditions for the functioning of economic entities, as well as political and economic conditions in general, in the management structure of the economy it is advisable to proceed from the position of the key concepts of management, optimally adapted to the real situation. In this context, it is necessary to use scientific innovation to improve the economic growth of economic entities through the effective functioning of the enterprise social infrastructure models. Lineup social infrastructure systems involves various models of a number of features of structure. In this regard, according to the strategic objectives of a business entity, on its socio-economic targets need to use all the resource capacity of the organization to achieve its objectives by means of integration in the social infrastructure system model that focuses on the efficient use of human resources in the process of increasing the economic performance of the company. So, guided by a number of basic principles of the successful implementation of social infrastructure mechanisms of enterprises, structure of the economy with a view to long-term effective operation, it is necessary to take into account the value of the vectors of the organizational culture of polarization in the motivation of personnel, which could be one of the levers of growth of efficiency of functioning of the enterprise, a powerful strategic tool to target all units and individual subjects for the organization, mobilize the initiative of employees and ensure productive interaction of subjects in the format “business-to-employee” rather than substantially predetermine the competitiveness and success of the organization in the long run.

  5. Environmental justice: a form of passive revolution and civil society against capitalist system hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Keuly Luz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the notion of civil society, hegemony and passive revolution in the thoughts of Antonio Gramsci and its relation to the need for implementation of environmental justice. The concept of civil society in Gramsci's view appears as a group of organisms commonly designated as “private”, formed by the organizations responsible for drafting much as the dissemination of ideologies, so understanding the school system, the churches, trade unions, political parties, professional organizations, material culture of the organization, while the concept of hegemony arises within the Marxist tradition as a response to new social settings. Despite its origins in the Russian social democracy and to be present at the thought of Lenin, this concept was developed in a more elaborated by Gramsci. The concept of “passive revolution”, “revolution–restoration” or “evolutionism” is crucial category that Gramsci uses to understand the formation of the modern bourgeois state in Italy (starting from the facts of the Risorgiment o, which culminated in the national unification, to define the fundamental features of the passage of Italian capitalism to step monopoly capitalism and to point fascism as a form of “passive revolution”. It is from this understanding that we use the concept of “passive revolution” to discuss pratics the principles of environmental justice, given that this concept applies to many episodes of the story, as well as more generally, the transition from the industrial model capitalist development of the capitalist system of sustainable development. It consists in a literature review from the work of Gramsci, where it can be concluded that the movements that call for environmental justice in Brazil and the world, mitigated by civil society through a process of passive revolution, based on the insertion of dignity human and the environment as key goals of the state, propose a new model of sustainable

  6. Towards universal civil registration and vital statistics systems: the time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbouZahr, Carla; de Savigny, Don; Mikkelsen, Lene; Setel, Philip W; Lozano, Rafael; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-10-03

    The health and development challenges of the coming decades cannot be tackled effectively without reliable data for births, deaths, and causes of death, which only a comprehensive civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) system can deliver. Alternative methods such as surveys, censuses, or surveillance are not adequate substitutes from a statistical perspective, and do not provide individuals with the legal documentation they need to benefit from services and participate fully in a modern society. Research is needed to generate and disseminate evidence about which CRVS strategies work best in which contexts and to ensure that the potential benefits of innovation are successfully scaled up, and that possible pitfalls are avoided. Research findings need to be compiled and made readily accessible to users for policy making, programming, and practice. Modernisation of CRVS systems necessitates new, broad-based national and international coalitions. The global architecture for CRVS, so far dominated by UN agencies, should extend to include bilateral donors, funds, foundations, non-governmental organisations, the private sector, academic institutions, and civil society. This change is essential to ensure that further development of CRVS systems is inclusive, participatory, multisectoral, and has a strong evidence base. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Are well functioning civil registration and vital statistics systems associated with better health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Lopez, Alan D; Mikkelsen, Lene; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Wilmoth, John; Setel, Philip W

    2015-10-03

    In this Series paper, we examine whether well functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are associated with improved population health outcomes. We present a conceptual model connecting CRVS to wellbeing, and describe an ecological association between CRVS and health outcomes. The conceptual model posits that the legal identity that civil registration provides to individuals is key to access entitlements and services. Vital statistics produced by CRVS systems provide essential information for public health policy and prevention. These outcomes benefit individuals and societies, including improved health. We use marginal linear models and lag-lead analysis to measure ecological associations between a composite metric of CRVS performance and three health outcomes. Results are consistent with the conceptual model: improved CRVS performance coincides with improved health outcomes worldwide in a temporally consistent manner. Investment to strengthen CRVS systems is not only an important goal for individuals and societies, but also a development imperative that is good for health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tool-based Risk Assessment of Cloud Infrastructures as Socio-Technical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nidd, Michael; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Probst, Christian W.; Tanner, Axel; Ko, Ryan; Choo, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Assessing risk in cloud infrastructures is difficult. Typical cloud infrastructures contain potentially thousands of nodes that are highly interconnected and dynamic. Another important component is the set of human actors who get access to data and computing infrastructure. The cloud infrastructure

  9. Examination of Decision Support Systems for Composite CBA and MCDA Assessments of Transport Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines decision support systems (DSS) for composite appraisals of transport infrastructure projects comprising both cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Two DSS, REMBRANDT and COSIMA, are in this context examined and compared using a case study...... technique using pair wise comparisons on attribute level and swing weights on criteria level. One difference between the two approaches is the focus the COSIMA system puts on combining the CBA and MCDA results influencing, among other things, the way that the final results are expressed. Finally...

  10. Impact of Electric Vehicle Infrastructure on the City of Chatsworth Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Shalalfel, Laith [University of Southern California, Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J [University of Southern California

    2014-12-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this paper, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. Chatsworth distribution system was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.

  11. Time-dependent resilience assessment and improvement of urban infrastructure systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Min; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo

    2012-09-01

    This paper introduces an approach to assess and improve the time-dependent resilience of urban infrastructure systems, where resilience is defined as the systems' ability to resist various possible hazards, absorb the initial damage from hazards, and recover to normal operation one or multiple times during a time period T. For different values of T and its position relative to current time, there are three forms of resilience: previous resilience, current potential resilience, and future potential resilience. This paper mainly discusses the third form that takes into account the systems' future evolving processes. Taking the power transmission grid in Harris County, Texas, USA as an example, the time-dependent features of resilience and the effectiveness of some resilience-inspired strategies, including enhancement of situational awareness, management of consumer demand, and integration of distributed generators, are all simulated and discussed. Results show a nonlinear nature of resilience as a function of T, which may exhibit a transition from an increasing function to a decreasing function at either a threshold of post-blackout improvement rate, a threshold of load profile with consumer demand management, or a threshold number of integrated distributed generators. These results are further confirmed by studying a typical benchmark system such as the IEEE RTS-96. Such common trends indicate that some resilience strategies may enhance infrastructure system resilience in the short term, but if not managed well, they may compromise practical utility system resilience in the long run.

  12. Enhancing future resilience in urban drainage system: Green versus grey infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Guo, Hao; Zeng, Siyu

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, the concept transition from fail-safe to safe-to-fail makes the application of resilience analysis popular in urban drainage systems (UDSs) with various implications and quantifications. However, most existing definitions of UDSs resilience are confined to the severity of flooding, while uncertainties from climate change and urbanization are not considered. In this research, we take into account the functional variety, topological complexity, and disturbance randomness of UDSs and define a new formula of resilience based on three parts of system severity, i.e. social severity affected by urban flooding, environmental severity caused by sewer overflow, and technological severity considering the safe operation of downstream facilities. A case study in Kunming, China is designed to compare the effect of green and grey infrastructure strategies on the enhancement of system resilience together with their costs. Different system configurations with green roofs, permeable pavement and storage tanks are compared by scenario analysis with full consideration of future uncertainties induced by urbanization and climate change. The research contributes to the development of sustainability assessment of urban drainage system with consideration of the resilience of green and grey infrastructure under future change. Finding the response measures with high adaptation across a variety of future scenarios is crucial to establish sustainable urban drainage system in a long term. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Integrating operation design into infrastructure planning to foster robustness of planned water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Federica; Giuliani, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Over the past years, many studies have looked at the planning and management of water infrastructure systems as two separate problems, where the dynamic component (i.e., operations) is considered only after the static problem (i.e., planning) has been resolved. Most recent works have started to investigate planning and management as two strictly interconnected faces of the same problem, where the former is solved jointly with the latter in an integrated framework. This brings advantages to multi-purpose water reservoir systems, where several optimal operating strategies exist and similar system designs might perform differently on the long term depending on the considered short-term operating tradeoff. An operationally robust design will be therefore one performing well across multiple feasible tradeoff operating policies. This work aims at studying the interaction between short-term operating strategies and their impacts on long-term structural decisions, when long-lived infrastructures with complex ecological impacts and multi-sectoral demands to satisfy (i.e., reservoirs) are considered. A parametric reinforcement learning approach is adopted for nesting optimization and control yielding to both optimal reservoir design and optimal operational policies for water reservoir systems. The method is demonstrated on a synthetic reservoir that must be designed and operated for ensuring reliable water supply to downstream users. At first, the optimal design capacity derived is compared with the 'no-fail storage' computed through Rippl, a capacity design function that returns the minimum storage needed to satisfy specified water demands without allowing supply shortfall. Then, the optimal reservoir volume is used to simulate the simplified case study under other operating objectives than water supply, in order to assess whether and how the system performance changes. The more robust the infrastructural design, the smaller the difference between the performances of

  14. A Review of Current and Prospective Factors for Classification of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Morris, A. Terry; Neogi, Natasha; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    While progress is being made on integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into our national airspace on a broad scale, much work remains to establish appropriate certification standards and operational procedures, particularly with respect to routine commercial operations. This paper summarizes research to examine the extent to which today's civil aircraft taxonomy applies to UAS, and, if needed, how that taxonomy could be amended to better cover different UAS designs and operations. Factors that shape the current taxonomy, as defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations, were assessed for applicability to UAS, potential incompatibilities were identified, and additional factors were proposed that might be useful for an updated aircraft taxonomy intended to cover UAS. The results suggest the possibility of constructing new groups in the taxonomy for UAS under a restricted category that share common airworthiness standards. Establishing distinct groups for UAS and associated standards that enable low risk operations for compensation or hire could be a timely step toward full integration. Such a step would allow the civil aviation industry and regulators to gain valuable experience with UAS while carefully controlling access and potential harm to the aviation system as a whole.

  15. a System Dynamics Model to Study the Importance of Infrastructure Facilities on Quality of Primary Education System in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Ozdamar, Linet; Weber, Gerhard-Wilhelm; Kropat, Erik

    2010-06-01

    The system dynamics approach is a holistic way of solving problems in real-time scenarios. This is a powerful methodology and computer simulation modeling technique for framing, analyzing, and discussing complex issues and problems. System dynamics modeling and simulation is often the background of a systemic thinking approach and has become a management and organizational development paradigm. This paper proposes a system dynamics approach for study the importance of infrastructure facilities on quality of primary education system in developing nations. The model is proposed to be built using the Cross Impact Analysis (CIA) method of relating entities and attributes relevant to the primary education system in any given community. We offer a survey to build the cross-impact correlation matrix and, hence, to better understand the primary education system and importance of infrastructural facilities on quality of primary education. The resulting model enables us to predict the effects of infrastructural facilities on the access of primary education by the community. This may support policy makers to take more effective actions in campaigns.

  16. Scaling Information Infrastructures: the Case of the Medical Licensing System in a Southeast Asian Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Ngoc Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scaling health information system from small scale pilots to national systems in developing countries poses a key challenge to system designers and health managers. As a consequence, many projects dissolve and die before they reach the scale where they are useful for information management. The concept of bootstrapping from the Information Infrastructure literature has proven useful to discuss and understand how to initiate and grow large-scale, complex and networked information systems from scratch. We use this concept to analyze and discuss an empirical case of building a large scale medical licensing system in a Southeast Asian country. Beyond describing the process leading up to the success of the licensing system, we contribute by identifying a range of factors influencing the bootstrapping process and we suggest extensions to make the bootstrapping strategy relevant in this context.

  17. Examining Cybersecurity of Cyberphysical Systems for Critical Infrastructures Through Work Domain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lau, Nathan; Gerdes, Ryan M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply work domain analysis for cybersecurity assessment and design of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Adoption of information and communication technology in cyberphysical systems (CPSs) for critical infrastructures enables automated and distributed control but introduces cybersecurity risk. Many CPSs employ SCADA industrial control systems that have become the target of cyberattacks, which inflict physical damage without use of force. Given that absolute security is not feasible for complex systems, cyberintrusions that introduce unanticipated events will occur; a proper response will in turn require human adaptive ability. Therefore, analysis techniques that can support security assessment and human factors engineering are invaluable for defending CPSs. We conducted work domain analysis using the abstraction hierarchy (AH) to model a generic SCADA implementation to identify the functional structures and means-ends relations. We then adopted a case study approach examining the Stuxnet cyberattack by developing and integrating AHs for the uranium enrichment process, SCADA implementation, and malware to investigate the interactions between the three aspects of cybersecurity in CPSs. The AHs for modeling a generic SCADA implementation and studying the Stuxnet cyberattack are useful for mapping attack vectors, identifying deficiencies in security processes and features, and evaluating proposed security solutions with respect to system objectives. Work domain analysis is an effective analytical method for studying cybersecurity of CPSs for critical infrastructures in a psychologically relevant manner. Work domain analysis should be applied to assess cybersecurity risk and inform engineering and user interface design.

  18. Proceedings of the 2007 annual conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering : where the road ends, ingenuity begins : cold regions civil engineering in Canada's North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, K.L.W.

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss recent developments in all areas of civil engineering. It provided an opportunity for national and international delegates from industrial, research, and academic institutions to interact and learn about innovative technologies in the different areas of civil engineering and to identify future directions. The presentations addressed a broad range of issues, such as the need for sustainable infrastructure while improving the safety of roads, dams, water supply and sewage treatment systems. Technical sessions addressed infrastructure management issues, risk assessment, hydrotechnical engineering and transportation engineering. The conference featured 98 presentations, of which 25 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  19. Assessment Systems and Data Management in Colleges of Education: An Examination of Systems and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Noela A.; Keil, Virginia L.

    2009-01-01

    The College of Education Assessment Infrastructure Survey was developed and administered to 1011 institutions over a twelve-month period ending April 2007. The survey examined the capacity of university-based teacher preparation programs to respond to the growing and increasingly complex data management requirements that accompanies assessment and…

  20. Scaling Analysis Techniques to Establish Experimental Infrastructure for Component, Subsystem, and Integrated System Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O' Brien, James E. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Housley, Gregory K. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid energy system research has the potential to expand the application for nuclear reactor technology beyond electricity. The purpose of this research is to reduce both technical and economic risks associated with energy systems of the future. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources, provide opportunities to produce revenue from different product streams, and avoid capital inefficiencies by matching electrical output to demand by using excess generation capacity for other purposes when it is available. An essential step in the commercialization and deployment of this advanced technology is scaled testing to demonstrate integrated dynamic performance of advanced systems and components when risks cannot be mitigated adequately by analysis or simulation. Further testing in a prototypical environment is needed for validation and higher confidence. This research supports the development of advanced nuclear reactor technology and NHES, and their adaptation to commercial industrial applications that will potentially advance U.S. energy security, economy, and reliability and further reduce carbon emissions. Experimental infrastructure development for testing and feasibility studies of coupled systems can similarly support other projects having similar developmental needs and can generate data required for validation of models in thermal energy storage and transport, energy, and conversion process development. Experiments performed in the Systems Integration Laboratory will acquire performance data, identify scalability issues, and quantify technology gaps and needs for various hybrid or other energy systems. This report discusses detailed scaling (component and integrated system) and heat transfer figures of merit that will establish the experimental infrastructure for component, subsystem, and integrated system testing to advance the technology readiness of components and systems to the level required for commercial

  1. Civil and military satellite communications: A systems overview and the future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezaire, J. P.

    1991-02-01

    The project A90KM616, Orientatie SATCOM, is being performed on behalf of the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) to assist the Navy on the subject of satellite communications. An overview is given of the phenomenon satellite communication. The result is a general overview of satellite communications for both civil and military applications. Some examples of applications are; international telephony, television broadcasting, small private business networks, and mobile (at the moment still principally maritime) communications. In these applications satellite communication systems provide a global coverage and a high flexibility. The scientific articles have not been considered because in this stage it was the intention to study on a specialist level the broad area of techniques. Magazines, books, and a number of reports of universities and research institutes have been the main sources of information. They provided afforded an understanding of the existing systems and insight in the future developments.

  2. The E-learning system used in the civil servants' job-training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Ruan, Jianhai

    The Chinese government is pursuing e-learning policies which makes job-training with a knowledge-based society. To explain more fully the important role of the e-learning environment, this article undertakes some typical examples of the governments' job-training under e-learning environment. The main problems in servants' job-training in China are the low quantity in the servants' training, short of restriction, the uniform manner in the training and less fairness and availability of opportunities for educational training. In order to develop the e-learning system, the civil servant's job-training policies are provided and the measures of the effective e-learning system are designed.

  3. Railway infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.; Van Overbeek, F.; Gravendeel, B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract of corresponding document: EP 2017118 (A1) The invention relates to a railway infrastructure for a tram- or train transport system, comprising rails and an overhead contact line for providing the tram or train movable over the rails with an electrical drive power, which overhead contact line comprises overhead contact line sections connected to each other, each of which are individually connected with at least one feeder cable, wherein each separate overhead contact line section is a...

  4. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  5. Diffusion of Electric Vehicles and Novel Social Infrastructure from the Viewpoint of Systems Innovation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takaaki

    This paper describes diffusion of electric vehicles and novel social infrastructure from the viewpoint of systems innovation theory considering both human society aspects and elemental technological aspects. Firstly, fundamentals of the systems innovation theory and the platform theory are mentioned. Secondly, discussion on mobility from the viewpoint of the human-society layer and discussion of electrical vehicles from the viewpoint of the elemental techniques are carried out. Thirdly, based on those, R & D, measures are argued such as establishment of the ubiquitous noncontact feeding and authentication payment system is important. Finally, it is also insisted that after the establishment of this system the super smart grid with temporal and spatial control including demand itself with the low social cost will be expected.

  6. An argumentation-based method for managing complex issues in design of infrastructural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marashi, Emad; Davis, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The many interacting and conflicting requirements of a wide range of stakeholders are the main sources of complexity in the infrastructure and utility systems. We propose a systemic methodology based on negotiation and argumentation to help in the resolution of complex issues and to facilitate options appraisal during design of such systems. A process-based approach is used to assemble and propagate the evidence on performance and reliability of the system and its components, providing a success measure for different scenarios or design alternatives. The reliability of information sources and experts opinions are dealt with through an extension of the mathematical theory of evidence. This framework helps not only in capturing the reasoning behind design decisions, but also enables the decision-makers to assess and compare the evidential support for each design option

  7. IT Infrastructure Design and Implementation Considerations for the ATLAS TDAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Caramarcu, C; Dumitru, I; Valsan, L; Darlea, G L; Bujor, F; Bogdanchikov, A G; Korol, A A; Zaytsev, A S; Ballestrero, S

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a thorough overview of the ATLAS TDAQ SysAdmin group activities which deals with administration of the TDAQ computing environment supporting Front End detector hardware, Data Flow, Event Filter and other subsystems of the ATLAS detector operating on the LHC accelerator at CERN. The current installation consists of approximately 1500 netbooted nodes managed by more than 60 dedicated servers, a high performance centralized storage system, about 50 multi-screen user interface systems installed in the control rooms and various hardware and critical service monitoring machines. In the final configuration, the online computer farm will be capable of hosting tens of thousands applications running simultaneously. The ATLAS TDAQ computing environment is now serving more than 3000 users subdivided into approximately 300 categories in correspondence with their roles in the system. The access and role management system is custom built on top of an LDAP schema. The engineering infrastructure of the ATLAS ...

  8. Slovene smart card and IP based health-care information system infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trcek, D; Novak, R; Kandus, G; Suselj, M

    2001-04-01

    Slovenia initiated a nation-wide project to introduce smart cards in the health sector in 1995 and its full-scale deployment started in September 2000. Although the basic aim of the project was to support insurance related procedures, the system was designed in a flexible and open manner to present an infrastructure for the whole health sector. The functionality of the current system is described in this paper along with lessons learned so far. The upgrade of the system is outlined, with emphasis on technical details, the objective being to provide a real-time EDI based environment for a general set of applications in the medical sector, supported by the flexibility and security of modern smart card technologies. Integration with similar systems in other EU countries is discussed.

  9. IT infrastructure design and implementation considerations for the ATLAS TDAQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Caramarcu, C; Dumitru, I; Valsan, L; Darlea, G L; Bujor, F; Bogdanchikov, A G; Korol, A A; Zaytsev, A S; Ballestrero, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a thorough overview of the ATLAS TDAQ SysAdmin group activities which deals with administration of the TDAQ computing environment supporting Front End detector hardware, Data Flow, Event Filter and other subsystems of the ATLAS detector operating on the LHC accelerator at CERN. The current installation consists of approximately 1500 netbooted nodes managed by more than 60 dedicated servers, a high performance centralized storage system, about 50 multi-screen user interface systems installed in the control rooms and various hardware and critical service monitoring machines. In the final configuration, the online computer farm will be capable of hosting tens of thousands applications running simultaneously. The ATLAS TDAQ computing environment is now serving more than 3000 users subdivided into approximately 300 categories in correspondence with their roles in the system. The access and role management system is custom built on top of an LDAP schema. The engineering infrastructure of the ATLAS ...

  10. Public road infrastructure inventory in degraded global navigation satellite system signal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, N.; Morrison, A.; Haakonsen, T. A.

    2015-04-01

    Recent advancement of land-based mobile mapping enables rapid and cost-effective collection of highquality road related spatial information. Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) can provide spatial information with subdecimeter accuracy in nominal operation environments. However, performance in challenging environments such as tunnels is not well characterized. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) manages the country's public road network and its infrastructure, a large segment of which is represented by road tunnels (there are about 1 000 road tunnels in Norway with a combined length of 800 km). In order to adopt mobile mapping technology for streamlining road network and infrastructure management and maintenance tasks, it is important to ensure that the technology is mature enough to meet existing requirements for object positioning accuracy in all types of environments, and provide homogeneous accuracy over the mapping perimeter. This paper presents results of a testing campaign performed within a project funded by the NPRA as a part of SMarter road traffic with Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) (SMITS) program. The testing campaign objective was performance evaluation of high end commercial MMSs for inventory of public areas, focusing on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal degraded environments.

  11. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...

  12. A scalable infrastructure for CMS data analysis based on OpenStack Cloud and Gluster file system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, S; Eerola, P; Kraemer, O; Lindén, T; Osmani, L; Tarkoma, S; White, J

    2014-01-01

    The challenge of providing a resilient and scalable computational and data management solution for massive scale research environments requires continuous exploration of new technologies and techniques. In this project the aim has been to design a scalable and resilient infrastructure for CERN HEP data analysis. The infrastructure is based on OpenStack components for structuring a private Cloud with the Gluster File System. We integrate the state-of-the-art Cloud technologies with the traditional Grid middleware infrastructure. Our test results show that the adopted approach provides a scalable and resilient solution for managing resources without compromising on performance and high availability.

  13. Development of a structural health monitoring system for the life assessment of critical transportation infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Jauregui, David Villegas (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Daumueller, Andrew Nicholas (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2012-02-01

    Recent structural failures such as the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minnesota have underscored the urgent need for improved methods and procedures for evaluating our aging transportation infrastructure. This research seeks to develop a basis for a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to provide quantitative information related to the structural integrity of metallic structures to make appropriate management decisions and ensuring public safety. This research employs advanced structural analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for an accurate fatigue analysis. Metal railroad bridges in New Mexico will be the focus since many of these structures are over 100 years old and classified as fracture-critical. The term fracture-critical indicates that failure of a single component may result in complete collapse of the structure such as the one experienced by the I-35W Bridge. Failure may originate from sources such as loss of section due to corrosion or cracking caused by fatigue loading. Because standard inspection practice is primarily visual, these types of defects can go undetected due to oversight, lack of access to critical areas, or, in riveted members, hidden defects that are beneath fasteners or connection angles. Another issue is that it is difficult to determine the fatigue damage that a structure has experienced and the rate at which damage is accumulating due to uncertain history and load distribution in supporting members. A SHM system has several advantages that can overcome these limitations. SHM allows critical areas of the structure to be monitored more quantitatively under actual loading. The research needed to apply SHM to metallic structures was performed and a case study was carried out to show the potential of SHM-driven fatigue evaluation to assess the condition of critical transportation infrastructure and to guide inspectors to potential problem areas. This project combines the expertise in transportation infrastructure at New

  14. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  15. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure w...

  16. Vehicle infrastructure integration (VII) based road-condition warning system for highway collision prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    As a major ITS initiative, the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) program is to revolutionize : transportation by creating an enabling communication infrastructure that will open up a wide range of : safety applications. The road-condition warn...

  17. Incorporating a Systems Approach into Civil and Environmental Engineering Curricula: Effect on Course Redesign, and Student and Faculty Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Nancy J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Dewoolkar, Mandar M.; Neumann, Maureen D.; Lathem, Sandra; Sadek, Adel

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the changes made during our department level reform (DLR) process (Grant Title: "A Systems Approach for Civil and Environmental Engineering Education: Integrating Systems Thinking, Inquiry-Based Learning and Catamount Community Service-Learning Projects") and some of the effects of these changes on…

  18. Requirements for a systems-based research and development management process in transport infrastructure engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rust, Frederik Christoffel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of research and development (R&D in the transport infrastructure field is complex due to the multidisciplinary nature of the work. The literature shows that linear R&D models that progress from idea through to consumer product are not suitable for the management of such multi-disciplinary projects. This study focuses on determining the key characteristics required for a systems-based approach to the management of R&D projects. The information and data was compiled from literature reviews, interviews, and an e-mail survey with responses from 42 significant international R&D programmes. The findings confirmed the need for a systems-based approach to R&D management. The study formulated twelve principles or tenets for a new, systems-based approach.

  19. An intrusion prevention system as a proactive security mechanism in network infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulanović Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A properly configured firewall is a good starting point in securing a computer network. However, complex network environments that involve higher number of participants and endpoints require better security infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, proposed as a solution to perimeter defense, have many open problems and it is clear that better solutions must be found. Due to many unsolved problems associated with IDS, Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS are introduced. The main idea in IPS is to be proactive. This paper gives an insight of Cobrador Bouncer IPS implementation. System architecture is given and three different Bouncer IPS deployment modes are presented. The Bouncer IPS as a proactive honeypot is also discussed.

  20. Designing educational software for analysing pressurised hydraulic systems in civil engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Rocío Pallares Muñoz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available New information technologies have opened up a world of inexhaustible possibilities in teaching. Using such technologies in technical teaching has become indispensable due to the nature of current resources in industrial design and production. This work consists of preparing didactic material (educational software aimed at tea- ching fluid mechanics, particularly analysing tube, tank and pumping systems, initially aimed at civil engineering students from the Universidad Santo Tomás in Bogotá. Such materials have been successfully developed and used in their formal programmes by several universities around the world during the last few years. The didactic software mentioned in this work was constructed using Visual Basic programming language. This has resulted in a very useful educational tool, leading to effective teacher—student communication which is suitable for both the classroom and students’ personal work (Angel y Bautista, 2001; Aguiar, 2002.

  1. The Earth System Grid Federation: An Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geospatial Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthakrishnan, Rachana [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bell, Gavin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Cinquini, Luca [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Crichton, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Danvil, Sebastian [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Des Sciences de L' Environnement; Drach, Bob [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fiore, Sandro [Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change; Gonzalez, Estanislao [German Climate Computing Center; Harney, John F [ORNL; Mattmann, Chris [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Kershaw, Philip [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, NCAS/BADC; Miller, Neill [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Morgan, Mark [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Des Sciences de L' Environnement; Pascoe, Stephen [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, NCAS/BADC; Schweitzer, Roland [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Wang, Feiyi [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF s architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  2. Tracking the Evolution of Infrastructure Systems and Mass Responses Using Publically Available Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Guan

    Full Text Available Networks can evolve even on a short-term basis. This phenomenon is well understood by network scientists, but receive little attention in empirical literature involving real-world networks. On one hand, this is due to the deceitfully fixed topology of some networks such as many physical infrastructures, whose evolution is often deemed unlikely to occur in short term; on the other hand, the lack of data prohibits scientists from studying subjects such as social networks that seem likely to evolve on a short-term basis. We show that both networks-the infrastructure network and social network-are able to demonstrate evolutionary dynamics at the system level even in the short-term, characterized by shifting between different phases as predicted in network science. We develop a methodology of tracking the evolutionary dynamics of the two networks by incorporating flows and the microstructure of networks such as motifs. This approach is applied to the human interaction network and two transportation networks (subway and taxi in the context of Hurricane Sandy, using publically available Twitter data and transportation data. Our result shows that significant changes in the system-level structure of networks can be detected on a continuous basis. This result provides a promising channel for real-time tracking in the future.

  3. The Earth System Grid Federation : an Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Mattmann, Chris; Harney, John; Shipman, Galen; Wang, Feiyi; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Miller, Neill; Denvil, Sebastian; Morgan, Mark; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF's architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  4. Quantifying the benefits of urban forest systems as a component of the green infrastructure stormwater treatment network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Kuehler; Jon Hathaway; Andrew Tirpak

    2017-01-01

    The use of green infrastructure for reducing stormwater runoff is increasingly common. One under‐studied component of the green infrastructure network is the urban forest system. Trees can play an important role as the “first line of defense” for restoring more natural hydrologic regimes in urban watersheds by intercepting rainfall, delaying runoff, infiltrating, and...

  5. Civil Society as a Self-Organizing Social System and the State: Some Objections to the Hegel Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila J. Grudtsina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author attempts by using different scientific methods used in synergy, to propose an alternative formula to the formula of Hegelian distinction of civil society and state, that are not as different and competing with each other systems as well as the necessary elements to each other converge single social system. This scientific idea is presented in an arithmetic progression in civil society - "mass", next level - the civil society itself, realizing itself, advancing and increasingly, next level – the legal state (ideal for which to strive. In this case, the state will not be the term, but the result in the formula. In the conclusion, author concludes that one can not ignore responsibility of authorities, seeking in the modern world to create institutes of civil society. Taking into account that this generally positive process can be used as a special instrument of government, including the effective management of the objective processes in society, where the presence of democratic prerequisites, no matter how weak they are, civil society inevitably grows up.

  6. Scaling of an information system in a public healthcare market--infrastructuring from the vendor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Liv Karen; Obstfelder, Aud; Lotherington, Ann Therese

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the making and scaling of information infrastructures, as well as how the conditions for scaling a component may change for the vendor. The first research question is how the making and scaling of a healthcare information infrastructure can be done and by whom. The second question is what scope for manoeuvre there might be for vendors aiming to expand their market. This case study is based on an interpretive approach, whereby data is gathered through participant observation and semi-structured interviews. A case study of the making and scaling of an electronic system for general practitioners ordering laboratory services from hospitals is described as comprising two distinct phases. The first may be characterized as an evolving phase, when development, integration and implementation were achieved in small steps, and the vendor, together with end users, had considerable freedom to create the solution according to the users' needs. The second phase was characterized by a large-scale procurement process over which regional healthcare authorities exercised much more control and the needs of groups other than the end users influenced the design. The making and scaling of healthcare information infrastructures is not simply a process of evolution, in which the end users use and change the technology. It also consists of large steps, during which different actors, including vendors and healthcare authorities, may make substantial contributions. This process requires work, negotiation and strategies. The conditions for the vendor may change dramatically, from considerable freedom and close relationships with users and customers in the small-scale development, to losing control of the product and being required to engage in more formal relations with customers in the wider public healthcare market. Onerous procurement processes may be one of the reasons why large-scale implementation of information projects in healthcare is difficult

  7. Natural disaster risk analysis for critical infrastructure systems: An approach based on statistical learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis has historically been developed for situations in which measured data about the overall reliability of a system are limited and expert knowledge is the best source of information available. There continue to be a number of important problem areas characterized by a lack of hard data. However, in other important problem areas the emergence of information technology has transformed the situation from one characterized by little data to one characterized by data overabundance. Natural disaster risk assessments for events impacting large-scale, critical infrastructure systems such as electric power distribution systems, transportation systems, water supply systems, and natural gas supply systems are important examples of problems characterized by data overabundance. There are often substantial amounts of information collected and archived about the behavior of these systems over time. Yet it can be difficult to effectively utilize these large data sets for risk assessment. Using this information for estimating the probability or consequences of system failure requires a different approach and analysis paradigm than risk analysis for data-poor systems does. Statistical learning theory, a diverse set of methods designed to draw inferences from large, complex data sets, can provide a basis for risk analysis for data-rich systems. This paper provides an overview of statistical learning theory methods and discusses their potential for greater use in risk analysis

  8. Image restoration for civil engineering structure monitoring using imaging system embedded on UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozel, Benoit; Dumoulin, Jean; Chehdi, Kacem

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, civil engineering structures are periodically surveyed by qualified technicians (i.e. alpinist) operating visual inspection using heavy mechanical pods. This method is far to be safe, not only for civil engineering structures monitoring staff, but also for users. Due to the unceasing traffic increase, making diversions or closing lanes on bridge becomes more and more difficult. New inspection methods have to be found. One of the most promising technique is to develop inspection method using images acquired by a dedicated monitoring system operating around the civil engineering structures, without disturbing the traffic. In that context, the use of images acquired with an UAV, which fly around the structures is of particular interest. The UAV can be equipped with different vision system (digital camera, infrared sensor, video, etc.). Nonetheless, detection of small distresses on images (like cracks of 1 mm or less) depends on image quality, which is sensitive to internal parameters of the UAV (vibration modes, video exposure times, etc.) and to external parameters (turbulence, bad illumination of the scene, etc.). Though progresses were made at UAV level and at sensor level (i.e. optics), image deterioration is still an open problem. These deteriorations are mainly represented by motion blur that can be coupled with out-of-focus blur and observation noise on acquired images. In practice, deteriorations are unknown if no a priori information is available or dedicated additional instrumentation is set-up at UAV level. Image restoration processing is therefore required. This is a difficult problem [1-3] which has been intensively studied over last decades [4-12]. Image restoration can be addressed by following a blind approach or a myopic one. In both cases, it includes two processing steps that can be implemented in sequential or alternate mode. The first step carries out the identification of the blur impulse response and the second one makes use of this

  9. On civil engineering disasters and their mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Qu, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, floods, landslides, and debris flows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientific and technological challenges.

  10. Monitoring and Control of Urban Critical Infrastructures: A Novel Approach to System Design and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario La Manna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and control of urban critical infrastructures consists of the protection of assets such as houses, offices, government and private buildings, with low cost, high quality and high dependability. In order to satisfy all these requirements at the same time, the control of a number of assets has to be performed by means of automated systems based on networks of heterogeneous sensors. This new concept idea is based on the use of unmanned operations at each of the many remote assets (each asset is monitored through a network of sensors and a man-in-the-loop automated control in a central site (Operational Center, which performs alarm detection and system management.

  11. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  12. Interface control document for tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure support Project W-519

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the functional and physical interfaces between the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Project W-519 and the various other projects (i.e., Projects W-314, W-464, W-465, and W-520) supporting Phase 1 that will require the allocation of land in and about the Privatization Phase 1 Site and/or interface with the utilities extended by Project W-519. Project W-519 will identify land use allocations and upgrade/extend several utilities in the 200-East Area into the Privatization Phase 1 Site (formerly the Grout Disposal Compound) in preparation for the Privatization Contractors (PC) to construct treatment facilities. The project will upgrade/extend: Roads, Electrical Power, Raw Water (for process and fire suppression), Potable Water, and Liquid Effluent collection. The replacement of an existing Sanitary Sewage treatment system that may be displaced by Phase 1 site preparation activities may also be included

  13. Installation of secure, always available wireless LAN systems as a component of the hospital communication infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Eisuke; Kudou, Takato; Tsumoto, Shusaku

    2013-06-01

    Wireless technologies as part of the data communication infrastructure of modern hospitals are being rapidly introduced. Even though there are concerns about problems associated with wireless communication security, the demand is remarkably large. In addition, insuring that the network is always available is important. Herein, we discuss security countermeasures and points to insure availability that must be taken to insure safe hospital/business use of wireless LAN systems, referring to the procedures introduced at Shimane University Hospital. Security countermeasures differ according to their purpose, such as for preventing illegal use or insuring availability, both of which are discussed. It is our hope that this information will assist others in their efforts to insure safe implementation of wireless LAN systems, especially in hospitals where they have the potential to greatly improve information sharing and patient safety.

  14. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  15. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess the Risk of Hurricane Hazards on the Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Sever, T.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of the Maya civilization spanned across portions of modern day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. Paleoclimatic studies suggest this region has been affected by strong hurricanes for the past six thousand years, reinforced by archeological evidence from Mayan records indicating they experienced strong storms. It is theorized hurricanes aided in the collapse of the Maya, damaging building structures, agriculture, and ceasing industry activities. Today, this region is known for its active tropical climatology, being hit by numerous strong storms including Hurricane Dean, Iris, Keith, and Mitch. This research uses a geographic information system (GIS) to model hurricane hazards, and assess the risk posed on the Maya civilization. GIS has the ability to handle various layer components making it optimal for combining parameters necessary for assessing the risk of experiencing hurricane related hazards. For this analysis, high winds, storm surge flooding, non-storm surge related flooding, and rainfall triggered landslides were selected as the primary hurricane hazards. Data sets used in this analysis include the National Climatic Data Center International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardships (IBTrACS) hurricane tracks, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model, WorldClim monthly accumulated precipitation, USGS HydroSHEDS river locations, Harmonized World Soil Database soil types, and known Maya site locations from the Electronic Atlas of Ancient Maya Sites. ArcGIS and ENVI software were utilized to process data and model hurricane hazards. To assess locations at risk of experiencing high winds, a model was created using ArcGIS Model Builder to map each storm's temporal wind profile, and adapted to simulate forward storm velocity, and storm frequency. Modeled results were then combined with physical land characteristics, meteorological, and hydrologic data to identify areas likely affected. Certain areas along the eastern

  16. Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Birkan Bayrak, Mustafa; Guclu, Alper

    2013-09-01

    The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterising materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial neural systems, also known as artificial neural networks (ANNs), are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex engineering problems. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, non-linear unbound aggregate base and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis programme to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained with varying levels of noise in them. The trained ANN models were capable of rapidly predicting the pavement layer moduli and critical pavement responses (tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer, compressive strains on top of the subgrade layer and the deviator stresses on top of the subgrade layer), and also pavement

  17. Integrating Urban Infrastructure and Health System Impact Modeling for Disasters and Mass-Casualty Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, J. M.; Kirsch, T.; Mitrani-Reiser, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over recent decades, natural disasters and mass-casualty events in United States have repeatedly revealed the serious consequences of health care facility vulnerability and the subsequent ability to deliver care for the affected people. Advances in predictive modeling and vulnerability assessment for health care facility failure, integrated infrastructure, and extreme weather events have now enabled a more rigorous scientific approach to evaluating health care system vulnerability and assessing impacts of natural and human disasters as well as the value of specific interventions. Concurrent advances in computing capacity also allow, for the first time, full integration of these multiple individual models, along with the modeling of population behaviors and mass casualty responses during a disaster. A team of federal and academic investigators led by the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is develoing a platform for integrating extreme event forecasts, health risk/impact assessment and population simulations, critical infrastructure (electrical, water, transportation, communication) impact and response models, health care facility-specific vulnerability and failure assessments, and health system/patient flow responses. The integration of these models is intended to develop much greater understanding of critical tipping points in the vulnerability of health systems during natural and human disasters and build an evidence base for specific interventions. Development of such a modeling platform will greatly facilitate the assessment of potential concurrent or sequential catastrophic events, such as a terrorism act following a severe heat wave or hurricane. This presentation will highlight the development of this modeling platform as well as applications not just for the US health system, but also for international science-based disaster risk reduction efforts, such as the Sendai Framework and the WHO SMART hospital project.

  18. Curricular Reform: Systems Modeling and Sustainability in Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, D. M.; Hayden, N. J.; Dewoolkar, M.; Neumann, M.; Lathem, S.

    2009-12-01

    Researchers at the University of Vermont were awarded a NSF-sponsored Department Level Reform (DLR) grant to incorporate a systems approach to engineering problem solving within the civil and environmental engineering programs. A systems approach challenges students to consider the environmental, social, and economic aspects within engineering solutions. Likewise, sustainability requires a holistic approach to problem solving that includes economic, social and environmental factors. Our reform has taken a multi-pronged approach in two main areas that include implementing: a) a sequence of three systems courses related to environmental and transportation systems that introduce systems thinking, sustainability, and systems analysis and modeling; and b) service-learning (SL) projects as a means of practicing the systems approach. Our SL projects are good examples of inquiry-based learning that allow students to emphasize research and learning in areas of most interest to them. The SL projects address real-world open-ended problems. Activities that enhance IT and soft skills for students are incorporated throughout the curricula. Likewise, sustainability has been a central piece of the reform. We present examples of sustainability in the SL and modeling projects within the systems courses (e.g., students have used STELLA™ systems modeling software to address the impact of different carbon sequestration strategies on global climate change). Sustainability in SL projects include mentoring home schooled children in biomimicry projects, developing ECHO exhibits and the design of green roofs, bioretention ponds and porous pavement solutions. Assessment includes formative and summative methods involving student surveys and focus groups, faculty interviews and observations, and evaluation of student work.

  19. Transportation Systems: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    Intelligence Report: Weekly compilation and analysis at the FOUO/SSI level of terrorist threats, trends , incidents, and suspicious events that are...suspicious incidents. • Intelligence Notes: Classified and FOUO/SSI assessments of transportation-related threat information; terrorist trends ...and will help develop a more secure model for future eBusiness strategies and positioning. 62 Transportation Systems Sector-Specific Plan Figure

  20. GPS Civil Monitoring Performance Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...

  1. SBSI: an extensible distributed software infrastructure for parameter estimation in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard; Clark, Allan; Yamaguchi, Azusa; Hanlon, Neil; Tsorman, Nikos; Ali, Shakir; Lebedeva, Galina; Goltsov, Alexey; Sorokin, Anatoly; Akman, Ozgur E; Troein, Carl; Millar, Andrew J; Goryanin, Igor; Gilmore, Stephen

    2013-03-01

    Complex computational experiments in Systems Biology, such as fitting model parameters to experimental data, can be challenging to perform. Not only do they frequently require a high level of computational power, but the software needed to run the experiment needs to be usable by scientists with varying levels of computational expertise, and modellers need to be able to obtain up-to-date experimental data resources easily. We have developed a software suite, the Systems Biology Software Infrastructure (SBSI), to facilitate the parameter-fitting process. SBSI is a modular software suite composed of three major components: SBSINumerics, a high-performance library containing parallelized algorithms for performing parameter fitting; SBSIDispatcher, a middleware application to track experiments and submit jobs to back-end servers; and SBSIVisual, an extensible client application used to configure optimization experiments and view results. Furthermore, we have created a plugin infrastructure to enable project-specific modules to be easily installed. Plugin developers can take advantage of the existing user-interface and application framework to customize SBSI for their own uses, facilitated by SBSI's use of standard data formats. All SBSI binaries and source-code are freely available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbsi under an Apache 2 open-source license. The server-side SBSINumerics runs on any Unix-based operating system; both SBSIVisual and SBSIDispatcher are written in Java and are platform independent, allowing use on Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. The SBSI project website at http://www.sbsi.ed.ac.uk provides documentation and tutorials.

  2. European civil procedure: current status within the legal system of the European Union and its member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Terekhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9The purpose of the article is to provide a critical analysis of different approaches towards the notion of “European Civil Procedure”, to substantiate by means of legal and judicial practice, research papers a true essence and legal nature of the European Civil Procedure.The methodological basis for the study: general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, comparison; private and academic (interpretation, comparison, formal-legal.Problems and basic scientific results: the notion of “European Civil Procedure”, which describes the process of EU Member States judicial cooperation, bears largely a conventional character. It is not used officially by the organs and institutions of the EU, or its Member States. Moreover, it assumes an unjustified monopolization of the European discourse on the side of EU’s initiatives, although Europe is not limited to that association neither in geographical, nor in a legal sense. However, the given notion has become quite colloquial and does not cause any difficulties to the beneficiaries, and thus we may use the terms “European Civil Procedure” (ECP and “Civil Procedure of the EU” (CP EU as synonyms.Different approaches towards the nature of the European Civil Procedure claim that it may be regarded as: (1 a separate (communitary regime of Private International Law (or, otherwise, International Civil Procedure; (2 means to approximate national rules of Civil Pro-cedure; 3 a particular system of judicial decisions recognition; (4 an independent area of supranational law; 5 an aggregate of all or part of the qualities mentioned above.The system of EU Civil Procedure constitutes “federal” procedural law of the Union that functions side-by-side national procedural rules. It governs those relations that go beyond the borders of one Member State, but not the EU itself. Relations between Member States and third nations are still generally out of the federal competence.We need not to

  3. The Role of Sharia Judges in Indonesia: Between The Common Law and The Civil Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfitri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyse the role of Religious Courts’ (Pengadilan Agama or PA Judges in the formation of Islamic law in Indonesia. As part of the civil legal system, PA Judges are bound by legal provisions in handling legal disputes in court. They must apply the applicable legal provisions to decide upon a case. This condition can also be understood from the aspect of appointment of judges in Indonesia, including PA Judges, which is conducted not through professional career path as in the common law system. Thus, they are appointed from a new graduate of law/sharia faculty and then trained, inter alia, to apply and/or interpret applicable laws (legislation; and not to make the law itself. However, on the basis of secondary data analysis, studies on the ijtihad of PA Judges reveal that they are no longer only fixated on the provisions of statutes in deciding cases. They also make laws, cases in point are the Compilation of Islamic Law (KHI and the Compilation of Sharia Economic Law (KHES, do ijtihad on the books of fiqh which became the basis for the drafting of Islamic legislation in Indonesia. Some of them even do direct ijtihad from Sharia sources, namely the Qur'an and Hadith. This condition is arguably more in accordance with the character of judges (qadis in Islamic history which on a certain level similar to the role of judges in common law system.

  4. Multisensor system for the protection of critical infrastructure of a seaport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Dulski, Rafał; Zyczkowski, Marek; Szustakowski, Mieczysław; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Ciurapinski, Wiesław; Grelowska, Grazyna; Gloza, Ignacy; Milewski, Stanislaw; Listewnik, Karol

    2012-06-01

    There are many separated infrastructural objects within a harbor area that may be considered "critical", such as gas and oil terminals or anchored naval vessels. Those objects require special protection, including security systems capable of monitoring both surface and underwater areas, because an intrusion into the protected area may be attempted using small surface vehicles (boats, kayaks, rafts, floating devices with weapons and explosives) as well as underwater ones (manned or unmanned submarines, scuba divers). The paper will present the concept of multisensor security system for a harbor protection, capable of complex monitoring of selected critical objects within the protected area. The proposed system consists of a command centre and several different sensors deployed in key areas, providing effective protection from land and sea, with special attention focused on the monitoring of underwater zone. The initial project of such systems will be presented, its configuration and initial tests of the selected components. The protection of surface area is based on medium-range radar and LLTV and infrared cameras. Underwater zone will be monitored by a sonar and acoustic and magnetic barriers, connected into an integrated monitoring system. Theoretical analyses concerning the detection of fast, small surface objects (such as RIB boats) by a camera system and real test results in various weather conditions will also be presented.

  5. Revising legislative system for E-commerce activation and expansion of infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Hee [Ministry of Infomatiion and Communications, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Since the rapidly developing E-commerce in worldwide enables direct transactions between producers and consumers, it improves efficiency over whole economy with cutbacks of intermediate trade and growth of parcel service business. However, E-commerce is basically a trade without meeting each other and the side effects of E-commerce, such as a fraud and outflow of personal information, are emerging by abusing its feature that cannot be known a counterpart of trade. To be developed as an advanced country in E-commerce area by 2003, Korea should settle the revision of legislative system on E-commerce and the expansion of infrastructure first for a continuous development of such a new business.

  6. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  7. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  8. A Systems-Based Risk Assessment Framework for Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (IEMI) on Critical Infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Benjamin Donald; Mattsson, Lars-Göran; Näsman, Per; Glazunov, Andrés Alayón

    2018-01-03

    Modern infrastructures are becoming increasingly dependent on electronic systems, leaving them more vulnerable to electrical surges or electromagnetic interference. Electromagnetic disturbances appear in nature, e.g., lightning and solar wind; however, they may also be generated by man-made technology to maliciously damage or disturb electronic equipment. This article presents a systematic risk assessment framework for identifying possible, consequential, and plausible intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) attacks on an arbitrary distribution network infrastructure. In the absence of available data on IEMI occurrences, we find that a systems-based risk assessment is more useful than a probabilistic approach. We therefore modify the often applied definition of risk, i.e., a set of triplets containing scenario, probability, and consequence, to a set of quadruplets: scenario, resource requirements, plausibility, and consequence. Probability is "replaced" by resource requirements and plausibility, where the former is the minimum amount and type of equipment necessary to successfully carry out an attack scenario and the latter is a subjective assessment of the extent of the existence of attackers who possess the motivation, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the scenario. We apply the concept of intrusion areas and classify electromagnetic source technology according to key attributes. Worst-case scenarios are identified for different quantities of attacker resources. The most plausible and consequential of these are deemed the most important scenarios and should provide useful decision support in a countermeasures effort. Finally, an example of the proposed risk assessment framework, based on notional data, is provided on a hypothetical water distribution network. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. The North American power delivery system: Balancing market restructuring and environmental economics with infrastructure security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud Amin, S.; Gellings, Clark W.

    2006-01-01

    The North American electric power system was developed over the last 100 years without a conscious awareness and analysis of the system-wide implications of its current evolution under the forces of deregulation, system complexity, power-market impacts, terrorism, and human error. The possibility of power delivery beyond neighboring areas was a distant secondary consideration. Today, the North American power network may realistically be considered to be the largest machine in the world. With the advent of deregulation and competition in the electric power industry, new ways are being sought to improve the efficiency of that network without seriously diminishing its reliability and security. Controlling a heterogeneous, widely dispersed, yet globally interconnected system is a serious technological problem in any case. It is even more complex and difficult to control it for optimal efficiency and maximum benefit to the ultimate consumers while still allowing all its business components to compete fairly and freely. In this paper we present an overview of key issues and the context in which the electricity infrastructure is being operated under the above forces along with a strategic vision extending to a decade, or longer, that would enable more secure and robust systems operation, security monitoring, and efficient energy markets. (author)

  10. A global assessment of civil registration and vital statistics systems: monitoring data quality and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Lene; Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Setel, Philip W; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-10-03

    Increasing demand for better quality data and more investment to strengthen civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems will require increased emphasis on objective, comparable, cost-effective monitoring and assessment methods to measure progress. We apply a composite index (the vital statistics performance index [VSPI]) to assess the performance of CRVS systems in 148 countries or territories during 1980-2012 and classify them into five distinct performance categories, ranging from rudimentary (with scores close to zero) to satisfactory (with scores close to one), with a mean VSPI score since 2005 of 0·61 (SD 0·31). As expected, the best performing systems were mostly in the European region, the Americas, and Australasia, with only two countries from east Asia and Latin America. Most low-scoring countries were in the African or Asian regions. Globally, only modest progress has been made since 2000, with the percentage of deaths registered increasing from 36% to 38%, and the percentage of children aged under 5 years whose birth has been registered increasing from 58% to 65%. However, several individual countries have made substantial improvements to their CRVS systems in the past 30 years by capturing more deaths and improving accuracy of cause-of-death information. Future monitoring of the effects of CRVS strengthening will greatly benefit from application of a metric like the VSPI, which is objective, costless to compute, and able to identify components of the system that make the largest contributions to good or poor performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    To promote the benefits of green infrastructure, help communities overcome barriers to using GI, and encourage the use of GI to create sustainable and resilient water infrastructure that improves water quality and supports and revitalizes communities.

  12. Adaptive Resource Utilization Prediction System for Infrastructure as a Service Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Zia Ullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS cloud provides resources as a service from a pool of compute, network, and storage resources. Cloud providers can manage their resource usage by knowing future usage demand from the current and past usage patterns of resources. Resource usage prediction is of great importance for dynamic scaling of cloud resources to achieve efficiency in terms of cost and energy consumption while keeping quality of service. The purpose of this paper is to present a real-time resource usage prediction system. The system takes real-time utilization of resources and feeds utilization values into several buffers based on the type of resources and time span size. Buffers are read by R language based statistical system. These buffers’ data are checked to determine whether their data follows Gaussian distribution or not. In case of following Gaussian distribution, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA is applied; otherwise Autoregressive Neural Network (AR-NN is applied. In ARIMA process, a model is selected based on minimum Akaike Information Criterion (AIC values. Similarly, in AR-NN process, a network with the lowest Network Information Criterion (NIC value is selected. We have evaluated our system with real traces of CPU utilization of an IaaS cloud of one hundred and twenty servers.

  13. The Trauma Patient Tracking System: implementing a wireless monitoring infrastructure for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Jonathan; C Ng, Thomas; Li, Dustin; Wang, Jian; Wang, Kang; Bergeron, William; Martin, Ron; Budinger, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In mass trauma situations, emergency personnel are challenged with the task of prioritizing the care of many injured victims. We propose a trauma patient tracking system (TPTS) where first-responders tag all patients with a wireless monitoring device that continuously reports the location of each patient. The system can be used not only to prioritize patient care, but also to determine the time taken for each patient to receive treatment. This is important in training emergency personnel and in identifying bottlenecks in the disaster response process. In situations where biochemical agents are involved, a TPTS may be employed to determine sites of cross-contamination. In order to track patient location in both outdoor and indoor environments, we employ both Global Positioning System (GPS) and Television/ Radio Frequency (TVRF) technologies. Each patient tag employs IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi)/TCP/IP networking to communicate with a central server via any available Wi-Fi basestation. A key component to increase TPTS fault-tolerance is a mobile Wi-Fi basestation that employs redundant Internet connectivity to ensure that tags at the disaster scene can send information to the central server even when local infrastructure is unavailable for use. We demonstrate the robustness of the system in tracking multiple patients in a simulated trauma situation in an urban environment.

  14. Award ER25750: Coordinated Infrastructure for Fault Tolerance Systems Indiana University Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2013-03-08

    The main purpose of the Coordinated Infrastructure for Fault Tolerance in Systems initiative has been to conduct research with a goal of providing end-to-end fault tolerance on a systemwide basis for applications and other system software. While fault tolerance has been an integral part of most high-performance computing (HPC) system software developed over the past decade, it has been treated mostly as a collection of isolated stovepipes. Visibility and response to faults has typically been limited to the particular hardware and software subsystems in which they are initially observed. Little fault information is shared across subsystems, allowing little flexibility or control on a system-wide basis, making it practically impossible to provide cohesive end-to-end fault tolerance in support of scientific applications. As an example, consider faults such as communication link failures that can be seen by a network library but are not directly visible to the job scheduler, or consider faults related to node failures that can be detected by system monitoring software but are not inherently visible to the resource manager. If information about such faults could be shared by the network libraries or monitoring software, then other system software, such as a resource manager or job scheduler, could ensure that failed nodes or failed network links were excluded from further job allocations and that further diagnosis could be performed. As a founding member and one of the lead developers of the Open MPI project, our efforts over the course of this project have been focused on making Open MPI more robust to failures by supporting various fault tolerance techniques, and using fault information exchange and coordination between MPI and the HPC system software stack from the application, numeric libraries, and programming language runtime to other common system components such as jobs schedulers, resource managers, and monitoring tools.

  15. Multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks: A new emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure and industrial control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Zimba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The inevitable integration of critical infrastructure to public networks has exposed the underlying industrial control systems to various attack vectors. In this paper, we model multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks, which are today an emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure. We evaluate our modeling approach using multi-stage attacks by the infamous WannaCry ransomware. The static malware analysis results uncover the techniques employed by the ransomware to discover vulnerable nodes in different SCADA and production subnets, and for the subsequent network propagation. Based on the uncovered artifacts, we recommend a cascaded network segmentation approach, which prioritizes the security of production network devices. Keywords: Critical infrastructure, Cyber-attack, Industrial control system, Crypto ransomware, Vulnerability

  16. A Decision Support System for the Resilience of Critical Transport Infrastructure to Extreme Weather Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiel, J.; Petiet, P.J.; Nieuwenhuis, A.; Peters, T.; Ruiten, K. van

    2016-01-01

    Resilience of critical transport infrastructure to extreme weather events, such as heavy rainfall, drought or icing, is one of the most demanding challenges for both government and society. Extreme weather is a phenomenon that causes threats to the well-functioning of the infrastructure. The impacts

  17. Private Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on the World Bank's Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database, this Note provides an overview of private activity in infrastructure in developing countries between 1990 and 2000. Three main trends characterized that decade: Private activity in infrastructure grew each year except 1998 and 1999. Most developing countries introduced some form of private activity in inf...

  18. Infrastructure Rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Junko Sagara; Mikio Ishiwatari

    2013-01-01

    Social infrastructure and public utilities are critical for quick and effective disaster response and recovery. Japan's rigorous seismic reinforcement of infrastructure has greatly reduced the effort required to restore essential facilities. Identification of priority infrastructure, legislation of financial arrangements for rehabilitation, and establishment of pre-disaster plans alongside...

  19. The system of direct provision & Ireland's obligations under the UN International Covenant on Civil & Political Rights (ICCPR)

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2014-01-01

    The system of direct provision for asylum seekers will be 14 years in operation on 10 April 2014. I contend that the system of direct provision violates a number of rights specifically protected under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR): in particular, the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, protection of the right to private and family life, and the right to equal treatment under law.

  20. Analysis of the Civil Defence system and service of radiation-ecological safety in nuclear and chemical accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    System of Civil Defense (CD) and service of radiation-ecological safety of the population of Belarus in case of nuclear and chemical accidents are analysed. Shortcomings in CD system organization are marked. Recommendations on the removal of available shortcomings are given. Necessity of modern information techniques for continuous monitoring of hazards sources is shown as well as operative control of preventive and rescue actions

  1. Multilevel Control System of Regional Power Consumption: Analysis of Infrastructure Elements Interconnections, Efficiency Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolaevna Myznikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental strategic programs in the spheres of power and economics adopted at various levels of management, are not always capable to solve the problem of power efficiency. The changes of systemic connections of economy and power elements are one of the basic problems of management at the regional level. The development of market relations has caused the growth of uncertainty factors at all levels of power consumption management. An insufficient estimation of system infrastructural interrelations and an individualization of organizational-economic relations of economic subjects and their localization, have generated the intersystem conflictness in distribution of power resources and have aggravated the problem of estimating power consumption efficiency at a systemic level. The restriction of application of the traditional management methods based on the principles of technological efficiency of the processes of energy manufacture and consumption, is connected with the information ruptures caused by the growth of factors of uncertainty and inconsistency of efficiency criteria. Application of modern methods of power consumption forecasting has a number of essential restrictions. At the present stage the management of power consumption in multilevel systems is aimed at realisation of system integrity and economic coordination of manufacture elements, transfer and consumption at regional level and demands working out of the new effective management methods based on the analysis of system interrelations. Allocation of system interrelations depends on features of development of electropower sector, active and passive elements of the structure of consumption, power balance. The analysis and estimation of interrelations of power and economic sphere allow to improve methodology of management of power consumption at the regional level in the conditions of uncertainty.

  2. The "weak" interdependence of infrastructure systems produces mixed percolation transitions in multilayer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Eisenberg, Daniel A; Seager, Thomas P; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies of multilayer network robustness model cascading failures via a node-to-node percolation process that assumes "strong" interdependence across layers-once a node in any layer fails, its neighbors in other layers fail immediately and completely with all links removed. This assumption is not true of real interdependent infrastructures that have emergency procedures to buffer against cascades. In this work, we consider a node-to-link failure propagation mechanism and establish "weak" interdependence across layers via a tolerance parameter α which quantifies the likelihood that a node survives when one of its interdependent neighbors fails. Analytical and numerical results show that weak interdependence produces a striking phenomenon: layers at different positions within the multilayer system experience distinct percolation transitions. Especially, layers with high super degree values percolate in an abrupt manner, while those with low super degree values exhibit both continuous and discontinuous transitions. This novel phenomenon we call mixed percolation transitions has significant implications for network robustness. Previous results that do not consider cascade tolerance and layer super degree may be under- or over-estimating the vulnerability of real systems. Moreover, our model reveals how nodal protection activities influence failure dynamics in interdependent, multilayer systems.

  3. Lbs Augmented Reality Assistive System for Utilities Infrastructure Management Through Galileo and Egnos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianidis, E.; Valaria, E.; Smagas, K.; Pagani, A.; Henriques, J.; Garca, A.; Jimeno, E.; Carrillo, I.; Patias, P.; Georgiadis, C.; Kounoudes, A.; Michail, K.

    2016-06-01

    There is a continuous and increasing demand for solutions, both software and hardware-based, that are able to productively handle underground utilities geospatial data. Innovative approaches that are based on the use of the European GNSS, Galileo and EGNOS, sensor technologies and LBS, are able to monitor, document and manage utility infrastructures' data with an intuitive 3D augmented visualisation and navigation/positioning technology. A software and hardware-based system called LARA, currently under develop- ment through a H2020 co-funded project, aims at meeting that demand. The concept of LARA is to integrate the different innovative components of existing technologies in order to design and develop an integrated navigation/positioning and information system which coordinates GNSS, AR, 3D GIS and geodatabases on a mobile platform for monitoring, documenting and managing utility infrastruc- tures on-site. The LARA system will guide utility field workers to locate the working area by helping them see beneath the ground, rendering the complexity of the 3D models of the underground grid such as water, gas and electricity. The capacity and benefits of LARA are scheduled to be tested in two case studies located in Greece and the United Kingdom with various underground utilities. The paper aspires to present the first results from this initiative. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European GNSS Agency under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 641460.

  4. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, S.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, T.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region`s production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy`s ability to respond to disaster.

  5. Estimation of small business activity by county for the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, S.E. (Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)); Yoder, T.N. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has commissioned the design of an assessment system to perform rapid analysis of the economic impacts of various disasters. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed the National Infrastructure Information System (NIIS) in response to this need. Its design includes several modules to support emergency assessment--the Facility Damage Assessment Module to provide rapid summaries of economic capacity at risk in a disaster area, the Regional Impacts Module (RIM) to estimate the change in a region's production, consumption, and net exports as a result of capacity lost in the disaster area, the Inter-Regional Trade Flows Module to identify potential interruptions in commodity trade flows between regions, based on the results of the RIM analysis, and the National Economic Model to identify potential macroeconomic impacts of the disaster. In addition to the assessment system, FEMA needs a core data base that contains the comprehensive, county-level information required to conduct regional and national impact analyses. The effort is focused on a general overview of the seriousness of each disaster (e.g., how large is the relative impact) and not on detailed local effects. However, the core data file must be complete enough and accurate enough to support analysis of the relative costs of different disasters. Coverage must be comprehensive in order to address equity issues, as well as detailed in the specific industries that most affect the economy's ability to respond to disaster.

  6. Evolving the Technical Infrastructure of the Planetary Data System for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Crichton, D.; Hughes, S.; Grayzeck, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) was established in 1989 as a distributed system to assure scientific oversight. Initially the PDS followed guidelines recommended by the National Academies Committee on Data Management and Computation (CODMAC, 1982) and placed emphasis on archiving validated datasets. But overtime user demands, supported by increased computing capabilities and communication methods, have placed increasing demands on the PDS. The PDS must add additional services to better enable scientific analysis within distributed environments and to ensure that those services integrate with existing systems and data. To face these challenges the Planetary Data System (PDS) must modernize its architecture and technical implementation. The PDS 2010 project addresses these challenges. As part of this project, the PDS has three fundamental project goals that include: (1) Providing more efficient client delivery of data by data providers to the PDS (2) Enabling a stable, long-term usable planetary science data archive (3) Enabling services for the data consumer to find, access and use the data they require in contemporary data formats. In order to achieve these goals, the PDS 2010 project is upgrading both the technical infrastructure and the data standards to support increased efficiency in data delivery as well as usability of the PDS. Efforts are underway to interface with missions as early as possible and to streamline the preparation and delivery of data to the PDS. Likewise, the PDS is working to define and plan for data services that will help researchers to perform analysis in cost-constrained environments. This presentation will cover the PDS 2010 project including the goals, data standards and technical implementation plans that are underway within the Planetary Data System. It will discuss the plans for moving from the current system, version PDS 3, to version PDS 4.

  7. 'Known Secure Sensor Measurements' for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Detecting Falsification of System State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Annarita Giani

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a first investigation on a low cost and low false alarm, reliable mechanism for detecting manipulation of critical physical processes and falsification of system state. We call this novel mechanism Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM). The method moves beyond analysis of network traffic and host based state information, in fact it uses physical measurements of the process being controlled to detect falsification of state. KSSM is intended to be incorporated into the design of new, resilient, cost effective critical infrastructure control systems. It can also be included in incremental upgrades of already in- stalled systems for enhanced resilience. KSSM is based on known secure physical measurements for assessing the likelihood of an attack and will demonstrate a practical approach to creating, transmitting, and using the known secure measurements for detection.

  8. Civil Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews the historical development of civil procedure (the rules that dictate how a civil case can proceed through the courts) and identifies some of its main components. Discusses procedures such as subject matter jurisdiction, personal jurisdiction, venue, discovery, motions practice, pleadings, pretrial conference, and trials. (MJP)

  9. Moving Stormwater Infrastructure from Real-time Control to Smart Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadzuk, B.; Bryant, S.; Lewellyn, C.; Zaremba, G.; Traver, R.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas, especially combined sewer communities, are using green infrastructure (GI) systems (e.g. rain gardens, green roofs) to mitigate stormwater runoff volume, rate, and quality issues. Most municipal guidance and regulation limits these systems to static, passive designs that neither fully utilize the active hydrology of a GI system during and after a rainfall event, nor enable dynamic operational control. Real-time control (RTC) applied to GI is emerging, and under ideal model conditions has shown improved performance (i.e., greater volumes managed while minimizing downstream impact). There are a few RTC pilot field projects with promising results, such as on a cistern - green roof system there were only 30 overflow events out of 126 rain events and at a rain garden - cistern system only 1 of 81 events resulted in overflow. However, RTC does not get to a fully dynamic system as the initiation and consequent action is preset and static. In stormwater RTC systems, the initiation is typically a rain forecast or a sensor reading. At a rain garden - cistern system, a cistern that fills when raining is hard set to pump water to the rain garden 24 hours after the predicted rain ends. There have been instances where there is rain occurring or only a minimal amount of dry time for the rain garden to reestablish capacity for the pumped stored water. There is also no mechanism to automatically change the pump initiation time based on season or ambient conditions. A cistern - green roof system that uses stored water in an upstream cistern for green roof irrigation is initiated on a set soil moisture reading or a set irrigation volume daily. The soil moisture reading was rarely reached, so irrigation was often not initiated and the set daily irrigation volume did not vary over season. Moving from RTC to a smart system uses longer term and/or historical data to inform decisions beyond what a short-term forecast or real-time sensor can provide to give more context and

  10. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  11. Modeling complexity in engineered infrastructure system: Water distribution network as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Xiang; Li, Ke

    2017-02-01

    The complex topology and adaptive behavior of infrastructure systems are driven by both self-organization of the demand and rigid engineering solutions. Therefore, engineering complex systems requires a method balancing holism and reductionism. To model the growth of water distribution networks, a complex network model was developed following the combination of local optimization rules and engineering considerations. The demand node generation is dynamic and follows the scaling law of urban growth. The proposed model can generate a water distribution network (WDN) similar to reported real-world WDNs on some structural properties. Comparison with different modeling approaches indicates that a realistic demand node distribution and co-evolvement of demand node and network are important for the simulation of real complex networks. The simulation results indicate that the efficiency of water distribution networks is exponentially affected by the urban growth pattern. On the contrary, the improvement of efficiency by engineering optimization is limited and relatively insignificant. The redundancy and robustness, on another aspect, can be significantly improved through engineering methods.

  12. Cyber Vulnerabilities Within Critical Infrastructure: The Flaws of Industrial Control Systems in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Danielle Marie

    The 16 sectors of critical infrastructure in the US are susceptible to cyber-attacks. Potential attacks come from internal and external threats. These attacks target the industrial control systems (ICS) of companies within critical infrastructure. Weakness in the energy sector's ICS, specifically the oil and gas industry, can result in economic and ecological disaster. The purpose of this study was to establish means for oil companies to identify and stop cyber-attacks specifically APT threats. This research reviewed current cyber vulnerabilities and ways in which a cyber-attack may be deterred. This research found that there are insecure devices within ICS that are not regularly updated. Therefore, security issues have amassed. Safety procedures and training thereof are often neglected. Jurisdiction is unclear in regard to critical infrastructure. The recommendations this research offers are further examination of information sharing methods, development of analytic platforms, and better methods for the implementation of defense-in-depth security measures.

  13. Requirements and potential development pathways for fission energy supply infrastructures of the 21st century - a systems viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D. C.

    1999-01-01

    Using an energy supply systems approach, we envision attributes and characteristic needs of a future global fission-based energy supply infrastructure, enumerate potential pathways for meeting those needs, and identify the underlying enabling science and technology developments for R and D efforts to meet the needs

  14. Adapting the social-ecological system framework for urban stormwater management: the case of green infrastructure adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli D. Flynn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater management has long been a critical societal and environmental challenge for communities. An increasing number of municipalities are turning to novel approaches such as green infrastructure to develop more sustainable stormwater management systems. However, there is a need to better understand the technological decision-making processes that lead to specific outcomes within urban stormwater governance systems. We used the social-ecological system (SES framework to build a classification system for identifying significant variables that influence urban stormwater governance decisions related to green infrastructure adoption. To adapt the framework, we relied on findings from observations at national stormwater meetings in combination with a systematic literature review on influential factors related to green infrastructure adoption. We discuss our revisions to the framework that helped us understand the decision by municipal governments to adopt green infrastructure. Remaining research needs and challenges are discussed regarding the development of an urban stormwater SES framework as a classification tool for knowledge accumulation and synthesis.

  15. 76 FR 21789 - ITS Joint Program Office; Vehicle to Infrastructure Core System Concept of Operations; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Concept of Operations; Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration...) Core System Concept of Operations on May 17, 2011 at the Detroit Metro Airport Marriott, 30559 Flynn... to work originally performed under the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration Proof of Concept (VII POC...

  16. Green infrastructure: a natural systems approach to stormwater in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel S. Cormier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents diverse typologies of urban open space designed as green infrastructure in the american cities of Seattle and Portland. In these cities of the Pacific Northwest, landscape design is viewed as much more than mere beautification of the urban environment, but as pieces of a high-performance infrastructure that protects and even improves urban hydrology, climate, and ecology. Green infrastructure is a landscape approach that creates a distinctive local landscape identity and a more sustainable urban environment.

  17. The Role of NASA's Planetary Data System in the Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    An effort underway in NASA's planetary science community is the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/mapsit/). MAPSIT is a community assessment group organized to address a lack of strategic spatial data planning for space science and exploration. Working with MAPSIT, a new initiative of NASA and USGS is the development of a Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure (PSDI) that builds on extensive knowledge on storing, accessing, and working with terrestrial spatial data. PSDI is a knowledge and technology framework that enables the efficient discovery, access, and exploitation of planetary spatial data to facilitate data analysis, knowledge synthesis, and decision-making. NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) archives >1.2 petabytes of digital data resulting from decades of planetary exploration and research. The PDS charter focuses on the efficient collection, archiving, and accessibility of these data. The PDS emphasis on data preservation and archiving is complementary to that of the PSDI initiative because the latter utilizes and extends available data to address user needs in the areas of emerging technologies, rapid development of tailored delivery systems, and development of online collaborative research environments. The PDS plays an essential PSDI role because it provides expertise to help NASA missions and other data providers to organize and document their planetary data, to collect and maintain the archives with complete, well-documented and peer-reviewed planetary data, to make planetary data accessible by providing online data delivery tools and search services, and ultimately to ensure the long-term preservation and usability of planetary data. The current PDS4 information model extends and expands PDS metadata and relationships between and among elements of the collections. The PDS supports data delivery through several node services, including the Planetary Image Atlas (https

  18. Adapting the social-ecological system framework for urban stormwater management: the case of green infrastructure adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Carli D. Flynn; Cliff I. Davidson

    2016-01-01

    Stormwater management has long been a critical societal and environmental challenge for communities. An increasing number of municipalities are turning to novel approaches such as green infrastructure to develop more sustainable stormwater management systems. However, there is a need to better understand the technological decision-making processes that lead to specific outcomes within urban stormwater governance systems. We used the social-ecological system (SES) framework to build a classifi...

  19. X-Band wave radar system for monitoring and risk management of the coastal infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    waves from the coastal infrastructures, e.g. from the harbor jetties. In fact, the reflected waves may significantly complicate the harbour activities (e.g., berthing operations), as they interfere with the oncoming waves thus creating a confused sea [2]. References [1] G. Ludeno, C. Brandini, C. Lugni, D. Arturi, A. Natale, F. Soldovieri, B. Gozzini, F. Serafino, "Remocean System for the Detection of the Reflected Waves from the Costa Concordia Ship Wreck", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, Vol.7, no.3, pp.3011-3018, July 2014. [2] G. Ludeno, F. Reale, F. Dentale, E. Pugliese Carratelli, A. Natale, F. Soldovieri, F. Serafino "An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in Harbor Area", Sensors, Vol.15, no.1, pp. 1691-1707, January 2015. [3] F. Raffa, G. Ludeno, B. Patti, F. Soldovieri, S. Mazzola, and F. Serafino, "X-band wave radar for coastal upwelling detection off the southern coast of Sicily.", Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, January 2017, Vol. 34, No. 1, Published online on 22 Dec 2016.

  20. Decision Tools for Transportation Infrastructure Reinvestment: User Guidelines for Microcomputer Decision Support System (DSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    This report is intended to improve the quality of decisions about reinvestments, : and modest new investments, in highway transportation infrastructure. Decisions : of this type comprise the majority of planning actions taken in the field of : public...

  1. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    de Savigny, D; Riley, I; Chandramohan, D; Odhiambo, F; Nichols, E; Notzon, S; AbouZahr, C; Mitra, R; Cobos Muñoz, D; Firth, S; Maire, N; Sankoh, O; Bronson, G; Setel, P; Byass, P

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time befor...

  2. Pragmatic Metadata Management for Integration into Multiple Spatial Data Infrastructure Systems and Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, K. K.; Scott, S.

    2013-12-01

    multiple data infrastructures, as has been demonstrated through EDAC's testing and deployment of metadata into multiple external systems: Data.Gov, the GEOSS Registry, the DataONE network, the DSpace based institutional repository at UNM and semantic mediation systems developed as part of the NASA ACCESS ELSeWEB project. Each of these systems requires valid metadata as a first step, but to make most effective use of the delivered metadata each also has a set of conventions that are specific to the system. This presentation will provide an overview of the underlying metadata management model, the processes and web services that have been developed to automatically generate metadata in a variety of standard formats and highlight some of the specific modifications made to the output metadata content to support the different conventions used by the multiple metadata integration endpoints.

  3. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers’ Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruohua Liao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers’ compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers’ compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO2, NOx, HC, and CO emissions. CO2 was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  4. Analysis of Emission Effects Related to Drivers' Compliance Rates for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System at Signalized Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ruohua; Chen, Xumei; Yu, Lei; Sun, Xiaofei

    2018-01-12

    Unknown remaining time of signal phase at a signalized intersection generally results in extra accelerations and decelerations that increase variations of operating conditions and thus emissions. A cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system can reduce unnecessary speed changes by establishing communications between vehicles and the signal infrastructure. However, the environmental benefits largely depend on drivers' compliance behaviors. To quantify the effects of drivers' compliance rates on emissions, this study applied VISSIM 5.20 (Planung Transport Verkehr AG, Karlsruhe, Germany) to develop a simulation model for a signalized intersection, in which light duty vehicles were equipped with a cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system. A vehicle-specific power (VSP)-based model was used to estimate emissions. Based on simulation data, the effects of different compliance rates on VSP distributions, emission factors, and total emissions were analyzed. The results show the higher compliance rate decreases the proportion of VSP bin = 0, which means that the frequencies of braking and idling were lower and light duty vehicles ran more smoothly at the intersection if more light duty vehicles complied with the cooperative vehicle-infrastructure system, and emission factors for light duty vehicles decreased significantly as the compliance rate increased. The case study shows higher total emission reductions were observed with higher compliance rate for all of CO₂, NO x , HC, and CO emissions. CO₂ was reduced most significantly, decreased by 16% and 22% with compliance rates of 0.3 and 0.7, respectively.

  5. Optimal expansion of a drinking water infrastructure system with respect to carbon footprint, cost-effectiveness and water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Qi, Cheng; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2012-11-15

    Urban water infrastructure expansion requires careful long-term planning to reduce the risk from climate change during periods of both economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternatives responding to the population dynamics, ecological conservation, and water management policies should be systematically examined to balance the water supply and demand temporally and spatially with different scales. To mitigate the climate change impact, this practical implementation often requires a multiobjective decision analysis that introduces economic efficiencies and carbon-footprint matrices simultaneously. The optimal expansion strategies for a typical water infrastructure system in South Florida demonstrate the essence of the new philosophy. Within our case study, the multiobjective modeling framework uniquely features an integrated evaluation of transboundary surface and groundwater resources and quantitatively assesses the interdependencies among drinking water supply, wastewater reuse, and irrigation water permit transfer as the management options expand throughout varying dimensions. With the aid of a multistage planning methodology over the partitioned time horizon, such a systems analysis has resulted in a full-scale screening and sequencing of multiple competing objectives across a suite of management strategies. These strategies that prioritize 20 options provide a possible expansion schedule over the next 20 years that improve water infrastructure resilience and at low life-cycle costs. The proposed method is transformative to other applications of similar water infrastructure systems elsewhere in the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Planning Policies for Infrastructural Investments in Seaports: a System Dynamics Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Carlucci Fabio; Cirà Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The constant growth of containerized traffic in the ports of the Mediterranean Sea has led many local administrations to recast their development plans on seaports infrastructures in order to best meet market demand. Among the reasons that justify investments in port sector, higher seaport efficiency incentives the economic development of the area where the infrastructure is located generating important social benefits, such as higher employment and growth of the local gross domestic product....

  7. ENVRI PLUS project: Developing an ethical framework for Environmental and Earth System Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppoloni, Silvia; Di Capua, Giuseppe; Haslinger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    ENVRI PLUS is a Horizon 2020 project bringing together Environmental and Earth System Research Infrastructures (RIs), projects and networks with technical specialist partners to create a more coherent, interdisciplinary and interoperable cluster of Environmental Research Infrastructures across Europe (http://www.envriplus.eu/). One theme of the project deals with the societal relevance and understanding, and within that theme an entire work-package (WP) aims at developing an ethical framework for RIs. Objectives of this WP are: • increase the awareness of both the scientists and the public on the importance of ethical aspects in Earth sciences; • establish a shared ethical framework of reference, to be adopted by RIs governing bodies; • increase the awareness of RIs management and operational levels and of the individual involved scientists on their social role in conducting research activities and research work environment; • assess the ethical and social aspects related to the results achieved and deliverables released within the project. The ongoing activities include: • reviewing the state of art on ethical issues useful for the goals of the project (collection and analysis of materials already existing within scientific organizations, institutions all over the world); • the creation of a questionnaire, through which to investigate how each RI participating in ENVRI PLUS faces ethical issues in relation to its activities, and so to understand the level of perception that researchers and technicians involved in the project have on the ethical implications of their scientific activities; • the definition of ethics guidelines to be used by partners for building their policies and their own codes of conduct; • the elaboration of an ethical label template to characterize each product of the project, that partners will be able to use in order to give essential information about the ethical and social implications of their products; • the

  8. Data Acquisition Based on Stable Matching of Bipartite Graph in Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolan; Hong, Donghui; Chen, Wenlong

    2017-06-08

    Existing studies on data acquisition in vehicular networks often take the mobile vehicular nodes as data carriers. However, their autonomous movements, limited resources and security risks impact the quality of services. In this article, we propose a data acquisition model using stable matching of bipartite graph in cooperative vehicle-infrastructure systems, namely, DAS. Contents are distributed to roadside units, while vehicular nodes support supplementary storage. The original distribution problem is formulated as a stable matching problem of bipartite graph, where the data and the storage cells compose two sides of vertices. Regarding the factors relevant with the access ratio and delay, the preference rankings for contents and roadside units are calculated, respectively. With a multi-replica preprocessing algorithm to handle the potential one-to-many mapping, the matching problem is addressed in polynomial time. In addition, vehicular nodes carry and forward assistant contents to deliver the failed packets because of bandwidth competition. Furthermore, an incentive strategy is put forward to boost the vehicle cooperation and to achieve a fair bandwidth allocation at roadside units. Experiments show that DAS achieves a high access ratio and a small storage cost with an acceptable delay.

  9. Health and demographic surveillance systems: a step towards full civil registration and vital statistics system in sub-Sahara Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yazoume; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Ezeh, Alex; Emina, Jacques B O; Sankoh, Osman

    2012-09-05

    In the developed world, information on vital events is routinely collected nationally to inform population and health policies. However, in many low-and middle-income countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is a lack of effective and comprehensive national civil registration and vital statistics system. In the past decades, the number of Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs) has increased throughout SSA. An HDSS monitors births, deaths, causes of death, migration, and other health and socio-economic indicators within a defined population over time. Currently, the International Network for the Continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH) brings together 38 member research centers which run 44 HDSS sites from 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Oceana. Thirty two of these HDSS sites are in SSA. This paper argues that, in the absence of an adequate national CRVS, HDSSs should be more effectively utilised to generate relevant public health data, and also to create local capacity for longitudinal data collection and management systems in SSA. If HDSSs get strategically located to cover different geographical regions in a country, data from these sites could be used to provide a more complete national picture of the health of the population. They provide useful data that can be extrapolated for national estimates if their regional coverage is well planned. HDSSs are however resource-intensive. Efforts are being put towards getting them linked to local or national policy contexts and to reduce their dependence on external funding. Increasing their number in SSA to cover a critical proportion of the population, especially urban populations, must be carefully planned. Strategic planning is needed at national levels to geographically locate HDSS sites and to support these through national funding mechanisms. The paper does not suggest that HDSSs should be seen as a replacement for civil registration systems

  10. Health and demographic surveillance systems: a step towards full civil registration and vital statistics system in sub-Sahara Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yazoume

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developed world, information on vital events is routinely collected nationally to inform population and health policies. However, in many low-and middle-income countries, especially those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, there is a lack of effective and comprehensive national civil registration and vital statistics system. In the past decades, the number of Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSSs has increased throughout SSA. An HDSS monitors births, deaths, causes of death, migration, and other health and socio-economic indicators within a defined population over time. Currently, the International Network for the Continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health (INDEPTH brings together 38 member research centers which run 44 HDSS sites from 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Oceana. Thirty two of these HDSS sites are in SSA. Discussion This paper argues that, in the absence of an adequate national CRVS, HDSSs should be more effectively utilised to generate relevant public health data, and also to create local capacity for longitudinal data collection and management systems in SSA. If HDSSs get strategically located to cover different geographical regions in a country, data from these sites could be used to provide a more complete national picture of the health of the population. They provide useful data that can be extrapolated for national estimates if their regional coverage is well planned. HDSSs are however resource-intensive. Efforts are being put towards getting them linked to local or national policy contexts and to reduce their dependence on external funding. Increasing their number in SSA to cover a critical proportion of the population, especially urban populations, must be carefully planned. Strategic planning is needed at national levels to geographically locate HDSS sites and to support these through national funding mechanisms. Summary The paper does not suggest that HDSSs should be

  11. An approach to design interface topologies across interdependent urban infrastructure systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang Min, E-mail: min.ouyang@rice.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS-318, TX 77005 (United States); Duenas-Osorio, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.duenas-osorio@rice.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS-318, TX 77005 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This paper proposes an approach to design or retrofit interface topologies to minimize cascading failures across urban infrastructure systems. Four types of interface design strategies are formulated based on maximum network component degree, maximum component betweenness, minimum Euclidean distance across components and component reliability rankings. To compute and compare strategy effectiveness under multiple hazard types, this paper introduces a global annual cascading failure effect (GACFE) metric as well as a GACFE-based cost improvement (GACI) metric. The GACI metric quantifies the improvement of the strategy effectiveness per kilometer increment of interdependent link length (ILL) relative to a reference strategy with minimum ILL. Taking as examples the power and gas transmission systems in Harris County, Texas, USA, optimum interface designs under random and hurricane hazards are discussed. Findings include that the strategy based on reliability rankings minimizes the GACFE metric, and decreases the GACI value relative to a reference practical strategy by 10-15% under different power grid safety margins. Such metrics will contribute to coupled utility system design or retrofit given that current guidelines or recommended practices in the utility industry mostly rely on minimum Euclidean distances and are yet to include interdependent effects in their provisions. - Highlights: > This paper offers interface topology design methods to reduce cascading failures. > Design strategies are judged by performance and cost metrics under multiple hazards. > Reliability-based interfaces globally outperform topological and distance designs. > Only low levels of extra link density and distance are needed for desired designs. > Interface distance relaxation is more effective at yielding maximum performance.

  12. An approach to design interface topologies across interdependent urban infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Min; Duenas-Osorio, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to design or retrofit interface topologies to minimize cascading failures across urban infrastructure systems. Four types of interface design strategies are formulated based on maximum network component degree, maximum component betweenness, minimum Euclidean distance across components and component reliability rankings. To compute and compare strategy effectiveness under multiple hazard types, this paper introduces a global annual cascading failure effect (GACFE) metric as well as a GACFE-based cost improvement (GACI) metric. The GACI metric quantifies the improvement of the strategy effectiveness per kilometer increment of interdependent link length (ILL) relative to a reference strategy with minimum ILL. Taking as examples the power and gas transmission systems in Harris County, Texas, USA, optimum interface designs under random and hurricane hazards are discussed. Findings include that the strategy based on reliability rankings minimizes the GACFE metric, and decreases the GACI value relative to a reference practical strategy by 10-15% under different power grid safety margins. Such metrics will contribute to coupled utility system design or retrofit given that current guidelines or recommended practices in the utility industry mostly rely on minimum Euclidean distances and are yet to include interdependent effects in their provisions. - Highlights: → This paper offers interface topology design methods to reduce cascading failures. → Design strategies are judged by performance and cost metrics under multiple hazards. → Reliability-based interfaces globally outperform topological and distance designs. → Only low levels of extra link density and distance are needed for desired designs. → Interface distance relaxation is more effective at yielding maximum performance.

  13. Risk and opportunity in upgrading the US drinking water infrastructure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey W; Louis, Garrick E

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a practical risk assessment methodology to provide drinking water infrastructure (DWI) decision-makers with an objective risk assessment tool. The purpose of this risk assessment tool is to maintain the desired level-of-service or systems reliability [r(f)], while managing the financial uncertainty of the expected budgetary impact within the capital improvement program (CIP). The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the value of an objective risk assessment tool for estimating the DWI decision-maker's sensitivity to the risk of systems failure (R). The objectives are to: (1) incorporate probability of systems failure [p(f)] into the CIP budgetary analysis process and (2) evaluate the affects of p(f) on the expected CIP budgetary outcome. The magnitude of the expected budgetary impact is managed through the DWI decision-maker's sensitivity to R, which is represented by the level of the rate of reinvestment (RR). The expected result of the proposed risk assessment tool demonstrates that by proactively managing R to maintain a desired r(f) will effectively manage the impact of uncertainty on the expected budgetary outcome within the CIP. The expected contribution of the practical risk assessment methodology is to provide DWI decision-makers with the ability to reduce budgetary uncertainty when allocating limited financial resources among competing operational, repair, maintenance, and expansion activities within the CIP. The conclusions of the paper reveal that if DWI decision-makers assume risk-avoidance positions through proactive asset management (AM) strategies, they will achieve positive affects on expected budgetary outcomes.

  14. Email based remote access and surveillance system for smart home infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooshkar Rajiv

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rise of Internet of Things in public domain, people expect fast, reliable and on-demand home security via the Internet. However, existing remote home surveillance systems place a very rigid constraint on authentication and require customized hardware and software. In this paper we have proposed an ingenious and reliable internet based, home access system for smart homes that can be easily deployed on generic hardware. The proposed architecture uses popular email service providers to notify and update the user about the home access. It sends an email to the owner with the attached picture of the person who is at the door. It also incorporates a protected mechanism to give access of the door to a remote user by responding to that email. It essentially means that we can view and give access to the person at our door via sending and receiving an email. Furthermore, an image processing based mechanism has also been incorporated to provide access without email, to few selected personnel who are trusted by the owner. It works by capturing and comparing the visitor's image with the stored images in the database. Perceptual hashing or fingerprint matching algorithm is used for comparison purposes. Similarity percentage based on hamming distance was evaluated, and the similarity threshold for providing access was set. The simulations were performed in rigorous environment. The efficiency of the hashing algorithm was found to be 97% at the similarity threshold of 95%. The results validate that the average latency is only 155 ms with low standard deviation. The CPU utilization remained quite low with a minimum value of 10 MHz and a maximum value of 30 MHz when the payload size of the sent mail was increased to 1500 kB. Thus, the proposed system can be used for developing a larger low power infrastructure.

  15. Availability and Reliability of Disaster Early Warning Systems and the IT Infrastructure Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, J.; Loewe, P.

    2012-12-01

    Decision Processes in Evolving Crises) funded under the European Union's seventh Framework Programme (FP7). This ongoing project focuses on real-time intelligent information management in Earth management and its long-term application. All technical development in TRIDEC is based on mature system architecture models and industry standards. The use of standards applies also to the operation of individual TRIDEC reference installations and their interlinking into an integrated service infrastructure for supranational warning services: A set of best practices for IT service management is used to align the TEWS software services with the requirements by the Early Warning Centre management by defining Service Level Agreements (SLA) and ensuring appliance. For this, the concept of service lifecycles is adapted for the TEWS domain, which is laid out in the IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) by the United Kingdom's Office of Government Commerce (OGC). The cyclic procedures, tasks and checklists described by ITIL are used to establish a baseline to plan, implement, and maintain TEWS service components in the long run. This allows to ensure compliance with given international TEWS standards and to measure improvement of the provided services against a gold-standard.

  16. SIB-ESS-C - A Spatial Data Infrastructure to Facilitate Earth System Science in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmullius, C. C.; Gerlach, R.; Hese, S.

    2006-12-01

    The potential of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) to share geoinformation and services over the Internet has been widely recognized and various initiatives (e.g. INSPIRE, GMES, GEOSS) are actively engaged to implement such systems on local, national or global level. Standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) or the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) provide the basis for distributed yet interoperable SDI's. Following the available guidelines and standards the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) is being developed as a spatial data infrastructure for remote sensing product generation, data dissemination and scientific data analysis. This paper describes the concept of the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster. SIB-ESS-C emerged from the EU funded SIBERIA-II project (EVG2-2001-00008, 2002-2005) which was a joint Russian-European remote sensing project focusing on a 300 Million ha area in the central Siberian region. This area represents a significant part of the Earth's boreal biome which plays a critical role in global climate change in Northern Eurasia. The overall objective of the SIBERIA-II project was to demonstrate the viability of full carbon accounting including greenhouse gases (GHG) on a regional basis using state-of-the-art environmental methods and advanced remote sensing technologies. The tools and systems which have been employed include a selected yet spectrally and temporally diverse set of 15 Earth observation instruments on 8 satellites, detailed GIS databases and Dynamic Global Vegetation Models to account for fluxes between land and atmosphere. The data sets and value-added products created within the SIBERIA-II project will form the basic set of products for SIB-ESS-C. These products include regional maps of land cover, fire induced disturbances, phenology, snow depth, snow melt date, onset and duration of freeze and thaw, LAI and others. Since these products

  17. Systems and methods for tracking a device in zero-infrastructure and zero-power conditions, and a tracking device therefor

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2017-03-23

    Disclosed are embodiments for a tracking device having multiple layers of localization and communication capabilities, and particularly having the ability to operate in zero-infrastructure or zero-power conditions. Also disclosed are methods and systems that enhance location determination in zero-infrastructure and zero-power conditions. In one example, a device, system and/or method includes an infrastructure-based localization module, an infrastructure-less localization module and a passive module that can utilize at least two of the modules to determine a location of the tracking device.

  18. Efficient integration of renewable energy into future energy systems. Development of European energy infrastructures in the period 2030 to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, Carolin; Uhlig, Jeanette; Zoch, Immo (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    In consideration of strategic climate mitigation, energy security and economic competitiveness goals, the EU passed the Directive 2009/28/EC, including a binding target of 20 per cent renewable energy consumption in the EU by 2020. This target is comprehensive and includes energy generation, transport, heating and cooling sectors. In 2008, renewable energy consumption in the EU was about 10 per cent. So meeting the 20 per cent renewable energy objective will require massive changes in energy production, transmission and consumption in the EU. Furthermore, it is obvious that the development of the energy system will not stop in 2020, but that it will continue towards 2050 and beyond. Over the past century, the European electricity system was developed in line with a national utilit y perspective which heavily emphasised large, centralised conventional power production. Investment decisions for new energy infrastructure and technology were typically made at the national level. In the future, much more energy production will be based on local or regional renewable energy sources (RES). Many consumers may also become energy producers feeding into the infrastructures. Transnational energy transfers will gain in importance. These changes will require very different electricity and gas infrastructures and decision-making processes from today. Lack of infrastructure capacity is already a barrier for the further deployment of RES-based energy production in some regions in Europe. (orig.)

  19. Change as a Service: Challenges and Effects of a New Paradigm for Library Systems and Content Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The infrastructure for supplying information resources to higher education and research has gone through dramatic changes the last 15 years. The amount of electronic resources available and library systems that handle them have multiplied leaving libraries in a challenging situation. We are coping with a changing definition of library collections, changing business models for owning and accessing materials as well as a shift in the architecture of library systems. The Library at Chalmers U...

  20. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  1. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens......In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  2. Civil Support: DOD Needs to Clarify Its Roles and Responsibilities for Defense Support of Civil Authorities during Cyber Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    CIVIL SUPPORT DOD Needs to Clarify Its Roles and Responsibilities for Defense Support of Civil Authorities during...Clarify Its Roles and Responsibilities for Defense Support of Civil Authorities during Cyber Incidents Why GAO Did This Study Cyber threats to U.S...recognizes that the department plays a crucial role in supporting a national effort to confront cyber threats to critical infrastructure. House

  3. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  4. Commissions of audit in Australia: health system privatisation directives and civil conscription protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    practitioner co-payment as a means of testing the response of the medical profession and public. The column also examines how the civil conscription clause in s 51 (xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution may serve to protect practitioner and patient rights should some of these privatisation changes to Australia's health system be challenged in the High Court of Australia.

  5. Financing Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz de Mello; Douglas Sutherland

    2014-01-01

    The need for infrastructure building, replacement and updating is large worldwide and governments - particularly subnational governments - will need to mobilise budgetary resources while simultaneously restoring public finances to sound health and meeting other spending pressures. This paper considers the factors affecting investment in infrastructure (with an emphasis on fixed networks), the specific characteristics of the different financing modalities applicable to subnational governments ...

  6. Sustainable infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Elle, Morten; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    1998-01-01

    an article on the analytic approach used in analysis of technical infrastructure in the Copenhagen region and other European regions.......an article on the analytic approach used in analysis of technical infrastructure in the Copenhagen region and other European regions....

  7. Developing a concept of social-ecological-technological systems to characterize resilience of urban areas and infrastructure to extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, M.; Grimm, N. B.; Redman, C.; Miller, T.; McPherson, T.; Munoz-Erickson, T.; Chandler, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is widely considered one of the greatest challenges to global sustainability, with extreme events being the most immediate way that people experience this phenomenon. Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to these events given their location, concentration of people, and increasingly complex and interdependent infrastructure. We are developing a conceptual framework for urban social-ecological-technological systems (SETS) that will allow researchers and practitioners to assess how infrastructure can be resilient, provide ecosystem services, improve social well being, and exploit new technologies in ways that benefit urban populations. The framework integrates the three domains of social and equity issues, environmental quality and protection, and technical/engineering aspects, to form a concept of infrastructure that occurs at the intersection of the domains. Examples show how the more common socioecological systems and socially sensitive engineering approaches that fail to incorporate the third dimension may elevate vulnerability to climate-related disaster. The SETS conceptual framework bridges currently siloed social science, environmental science, and engineering approaches to significantly advance research into the structure, function, and emergent properties of SETS. Extreme events like heat waves in Phoenix; coastal and urban flooding in the wake of superstorm Sandy and following hurricanes in Miami, FL; drought in Mexico; and urban flooding in Baltimore, Portland, San Juan PR, Syracuse, and Valdivia, Chile provide examples of the impacts of and vulnerability to extreme events that demand a new approach. The infrastructure of the future must be resilient, leverage ecosystem services, improve social well being, and exploit new technologies in ways that benefit all segments of urban populations and are appropriate to the particular urban contexts. These contexts are defined not only by the biophysical environment but also by culture and

  8. Civil responsibilities stemming from environmental damage (ecological transgression and legal system). Responsabilidad civil por danos al medio ambiente (delito ecologico y sistema juridico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This book contains the conferences of the course on civil responsibility by environmental damage. The conferences are: 1.- The EU and the responsibility by environmental damage 2.- Ecological damage 3.- Legislation of environmental damage 4.- Ecoaudits 5,. Environment and law 6.- Environment and the law in the EU.

  9. Remote sensing data handling to improve the system integration of indonesian national spatial data infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari, G. R. V.

    2010-01-01

    With the usage of metadata as a reference for spatial data query, remote sensing images and other spatial datasets have been linked to their related semantic information. In the current catalogue systems, like those or satellite data provides, or clearinghouses, each remote sensing image is maintained as an independent entity. There is a very limited possibility to know the linkage of one image to another, even if one image has actually been derived from the other. It is an advantage for many purposes if the linkage among remote sensing image or other spatial data can be maintained or at least reconstructed. This research will explore how an image is linked to its related information, and how an image can be linked to another images. By exploring links among remote sensing images, a query of remote sensing data collection can be extended, for example, to find the answer of the query: 'which images are used to create certain dataset?', or 'which images have been created from a concrete dataset?', or 'is there a relationship between image A and image B based on their processing steps?'. By building links among spatial datasets in a collection based on their creation process, a further possibility of spatial data organization can be supported. The applicability and compatibility of the proposed method with the current platform is also considered. The proposed method can be implemented using the same standard and protocol and using the same metadata file as used by the existing system. This approach makes it also possible to be implemented in many countries which use the same infrastructure. To prove this purpose, we develop a prototype based on open source platform, including PostgreSQL, Apache Webserver, Mapserver WebGIS, and PHP programming environment. The output of this research leads to an improvement of spatial data handling, where an adjacency list is used to maintain spatial dataset history link. This improvement can enhance the query of spatial data in a

  10. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for high resolution topography and monitoring: civil protection purposes on hydrogeological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Eleonora; Castagnetti, Cristina; Corsini, Alessandro; De Cono, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The proposed work concerns the analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), also known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), on hydrogeological contexts for civil protection purposes, underlying the advantages of using a flexible and relatively low cost system. The capabilities of photogrammetric RPAS multi-sensors platform were examined in term of mapping, creation of orthophotos, 3D models generation, data integration into a 3D GIS (Geographic Information System) and validation through independent techniques such as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The RPAS used (multirotor OktoXL, of the Mikrokopter) was equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, digital cameras for photos and videos, an inertial navigation system, a radio device for communication and telemetry, etc. This innovative way of viewing and understanding the environment showed huge potentialities for the study of the territory, and due to its characteristics could be well integrated with aircraft surveys. However, such characteristics seem to give priority to local applications for rigorous and accurate analysis, while it remains a means of expeditious investigation for more extended areas. According to civil protection purposes, the experimentation was carried out by simulating operational protocols, for example for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, land mapping, georeferencing methods (with or without Ground Control Points - GCP) based on high resolution topography (2D and 3D information).

  11. Green Infrastructure and Watershed-Scale Hydrology in a Mixed Land Cover System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoghooghi, N.; Golden, H. E.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization results in replacement of pervious areas (e.g., vegetation, topsoil) with impervious surfaces such as roads, roofs, and parking lots, which cause reductions in interception, evapotranspiration, and infiltration, and increases in surface runoff (overland flow) and pollutant loads and concentrations. Research on the effectiveness of different Green Infrastructure (GI), or Low Impact Development (LID), practices to reduce these negative impacts on stream flow and water quality has been mostly focused at the local scale (e.g., plots, small catchments). However, limited research has considered the broader-scale effects of LID, such as how LID practices influence water quantity, nutrient removal, and aquatic ecosystems at watershed scales, particularly in mixed land cover and land use systems. We use the Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) model to evaluate the effects of different LID practices on daily and long-term watershed-scale hydrology, including infiltration surface runoff. We focus on Shayler Crossing (SHC) watershed, a mixed land cover (61% urban, 24% agriculture, 15% forest) subwatershed of the East Fork Little Miami River watershed, Ohio, United States, with a drainage area of 0.94 km2. The model was calibrated to daily stream flow at the outlet of SHC watershed from 2009 to 2010 and was applied to evaluate diverse distributions (at 25% to 100% implementation levels) and types (e.g., pervious pavement and rain gardens) of LID across the watershed. Results show reduced surface water runoff and higher rates of infiltration concomitant with increasing LID implementation levels; however, this response varies between different LID practices. The highest magnitude response in streamflow at the watershed outlet is evident when a combination of LID practices is applied. The combined scenarios elucidate that the diverse watershed-scale hydrological responses of LID practices depend primarily on the type and extent of the implemented

  12. Tank waste remediation system privatization Phase 1 infrastructure, project W-519, project execution plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented

  13. Tank waste remediation system privatization phase 1 infrastructure project W-519, project execution plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1998-08-28

    This Project Execution Plan (PEP) defines the overall strategy, objectives, and contractor management requirements for the execution phase of Project W-519 (98-D403), Privatization Phase 1 Infrastructure Support, whose mission is to effect the required Hanford site infrastructure physical changes to accommodate the Privatization Contractor facilities. This plan provides the project scope, project objectives and method of performing the work scope and achieving objectives. The plan establishes the work definitions, the cost goals, schedule constraints and roles and responsibilities for project execution. The plan also defines how the project will be controlled and documented.

  14. Designing for Social Infrastructures in Complex Service Systems: A Human-Centered and Social Systems Perspective on Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer

    Full Text Available Service design is one of the keys to improving how we target today’s complex societal problems. The predominant view of service systems is mechanistic and linear. A service infrastructure—which includes solutions like service blueprints, scripts, and protocols—is, in some ways, designed to control the behavior of service professionals at the service interface. This view undermines the intrinsic motivation, expertise, and creativity of service professionals. This article presents a different perspective on service design. Using theories of social systems and complex responsive processes, I define service organizations as ongoing iterated patterns of relationships between people, and identify them as complex social service systems. I go on to show how the human-centeredness of design practices contributes to designing for such service systems. In particular, I show how a deep understanding of the needs and aspirations of service professionals through phenomenological themes contributes to designing for social infrastructures that support continuous improvement and adaptation of the practices executed by service professionals at the service interface.

  15. Development and Test of an Infrastructure Free Real-Time Water Level Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, E. R.; Heitsenrether, R.; Hensley, W., III; Krug, W.; Wolcott, D.

    2016-02-01

    NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) is responsible for developing and maintaining the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). NWLON consists of over 200 long term observatories that provide near real-time, 6 minute average, water level observations from locations throughout all U.S. coasts. CO-OPS continually analyzes state-of-the-art and emerging technologies to identify potential improvements in data quality and operating efficiency. NOAA, recognizing the changing conditions, anticipates a critical need for real time oceanographic and meteorological observations where traditional approaches are less feasible. CO-OPS is working on the design, development and testing of a real-time tidal measurement system, "The Hermit," for use in coastal regions. The latest prototype has recently completed a successful 3 month field test deployment in the St Andrews Sound region of Georgia, a location where relatively few long term water level records have been collected to date. The test location provided unique challenges such as having a very limited coastal infrastructure and experiencing a 7-8 foot tidal range. The Hermit consists of a bottom mounted pressure/conductivity/temperature sensor (Seabird SBE 26+) and a surface communications buoy which are linked via acoustic modems (Link Quest). The surface buoy relays data back to the CO-OPS database in near-real time using an Iridium satellite based communication system. Additionally, the buoy includes an AirMar all-in-one meteorological sensor. In addition to The Hermit deployment, three test GPS bench marks and a tide staff were installed on a nearby coastline to vertically reference water level measurements. During this deployment, The Hermit successfully provided near real-time measurements of bottom pressure, water conductivity and temperature, wind speed and direction, air temperature, and barometric pressure over the 3 month deployment. During the test period, several

  16. Towards a Fast, Low-Cost Indoor Mapping and Positioning System for Civil Protection and Emergency Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelats, E.; Navarro, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    Civil protection and emergency teams work usually under very risky conditions that endanger their lives. One of the factors contributing to such risks is the lack of knowledge about their physical environment, especially when working indoors. Mapping and location indoor and outdoor technologies exist; for outdoors, very good levels of precision and accuracy may be obtained using offthe- shelf equipment; on the other side, and although good solutions for indoor environments are available, these require some extra pre-deployed infrastructure in the area to navigate, which is unacceptable in the case of emergency teams. It may be said, then, that no mature indoor + outdoor integrated solution providing the appropriate precision and accuracy for the purposes of emergency teams exist. In this paper, the assessment of a set of currently available sensors (IMUs, RGB-D cameras, GNSS receivers) and algorithms is presented to show that it is already possible to build such a solution relying on them - providing that appropriate (indoor) lightning and texture conditions exist.

  17. The impact of infrastructural works on regional settlement systems : the Via Appia and the Pontine marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Tymon; Tol, Gijs; Armstrong, Kate; Attema, Peter; Martinez, José; Nogales Basarrate, Trinidad; Rodà de Llanza, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a project that investigates developments in settlement and infrastructure in the Pontine Plain (Lazio, Central Italy) through geographic models and new fieldwork. The preliminary results of this fieldwork on two sites along the Via Appia, Forum Appii and Ad Medias, show that

  18. An Agent-Based Information System for Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-18

    The current scarcity of public charging infrastructure is one of the major barriers to mass household adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Although most PEV drivers can recharge their vehicles at home, the limited driving range of the vehicl...

  19. Demonstration and Evaluation of Innovative Rehabilitation Technologies for Water Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The needs associated with the deteriorating water infrastructure are immense and have been estimated at more than $1 trillion over the next 20 years for water and wastewater utilities. To meet this growing need, utilities require the use of innovative technologies and procedures ...

  20. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  1. Next-generation Algorithms for Assessing Infrastructure Vulnerability and Optimizing System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchett, Deon L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Richard Li-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richard, Jean-Philippe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project project Next-Generation Algo- rithms for Assessing Infrastructure Vulnerability and Optimizing System Resilience. The goal of the project was to improve mathematical programming-based optimization technology for in- frastructure protection. In general, the owner of a network wishes to design a network a network that can perform well when certain transportation channels are inhibited (e.g. destroyed) by an adversary. These are typically bi-level problems where the owner designs a system, an adversary optimally attacks it, and then the owner can recover by optimally using the remaining network. This project funded three years of Deon Burchett's graduate research. Deon's graduate advisor, Professor Jean-Philippe Richard, and his Sandia advisors, Richard Chen and Cynthia Phillips, supported Deon on other funds or volunteer time. This report is, therefore. essentially a replication of the Ph.D. dissertation it funded [12] in a format required for project documentation. The thesis had some general polyhedral research. This is the study of the structure of the feasi- ble region of mathematical programs, such as integer programs. For example, an integer program optimizes a linear objective function subject to linear constraints, and (nonlinear) integrality con- straints on the variables. The feasible region without the integrality constraints is a convex polygon. Careful study of additional valid constraints can significantly improve computational performance. Here is the abstract from the dissertation: We perform a polyhedral study of a multi-commodity generalization of variable upper bound flow models. In particular, we establish some relations between facets of single- and multi- commodity models. We then introduce a new family of inequalities, which generalizes traditional flow cover inequalities to the multi-commodity context. We present encouraging numerical results. We also consider the directed

  2. Infrastructure sociotechnique

    OpenAIRE

    Millerand, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Le terme « infrastructure » évoque spontanément les équipements routiers, ferroviaires, maritimes, le système d’électricité ou le réseau hydraulique. En science, les infrastructures de recherche réfèrent aux grands équipements scientifiques (observatoires astronomiques, synchrotrons, réseaux de surveillance de l’environnement), aux collections (musées d’histoire naturelle) ou encore aux infrastructures informationnelles (Internet et grandes bases de données). Sur le plan théorique, la notion ...

  3. SIOS: A regional cooperation of international research infrastructures as a building block for an Arctic observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, K. J.; Lønne, O. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Svalbard Integrated Earth Observing System (SIOS) is a regional response to the Earth System Science (ESS) challenges posed by the Amsterdam Declaration on Global Change. SIOS is intended to develop and implement methods for how observational networks in the Arctic are to be designed in order to address such issues in a regional scale. SIOS builds on the extensive observation capacity and research installations already in place by many international institutions and will provide upgraded and relevant Observing Systems and Research Facilities of world class in and around Svalbard. It is a distributed research infrastructure set up to provide a regional observational system for long term measurements under a joint framework. As one of the large scale research infrastructure initiatives on the ESFRI roadmap (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures), SIOS is now being implemented. The new research infrastructure organization, the SIOS Knowledge Center (SIOS-KC), is instrumental in developing methods and solutions for setting up its regional contribution to a systematically constructed Arctic observational network useful for global change studies. We will discuss cross-disciplinary research experiences some case studies and lessons learned so far. SIOS aims to provide an effective, easily accessible data management system which makes use of existing data handling systems in the thematic fields covered by SIOS. SIOS will, implement a data policy which matches the ambitions that are set for the new European research infrastructures, but at the same time be flexible enough to consider `historical' legacies. Given the substantial international presence in the Svalbard archipelago and the pan-Arctic nature of the issue, there is an opportunity to build SIOS further into a wider regional network and pan-Arctic context, ideally under the umbrella of the Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks (SAON) initiative. It is necessary to anchor SIOS strongly in a European

  4. Infrastructure Specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Floros, Evangelos; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Kenny, Stuart; Aggelou, Evangelos; Loomis, Charles; Mpoumpouka, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the computing infrastructure deployed in the context of StratusLab project, details the configuration of the computing resources used and the commitments made from the project partners to contribute with computing resources in the project. During the first months of operation this infrastructure has already been significantly exploited to deliver the first results towards the project's goals. The OpenNebula virtual management software has been used to install private cl...

  5. Using Business Intelligence to Analyze and Share Health System Infrastructure Data in a Rural Health Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Bonnie; Berg, Emery; Dhanoa, Ramandeep

    2014-01-01

    Background Health care organizations gather large volumes of data, which has been traditionally stored in legacy formats making it difficult to analyze or use effectively. Though recent government-funded initiatives have improved the situation, the quality of most existing data is poor, suffers from inconsistencies, and lacks integrity. Generating reports from such data is generally not considered feasible due to extensive labor, lack of reliability, and time constraints. Advanced data analytics is one way of extracting useful information from such data. Objective The intent of this study was to propose how Business Intelligence (BI) techniques can be applied to health system infrastructure data in order to make this information more accessible and comprehensible for a broader group of people. Methods An integration process was developed to cleanse and integrate data from disparate sources into a data warehouse. An Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube was then built to allow slicing along multiple dimensions determined by various key performance indicators (KPIs), representing population and patient profiles, case mix groups, and healthy community indicators. The use of mapping tools, customized shape files, and embedded objects further augment the navigation. Finally, Web forms provide a mechanism for remote uploading of data and transparent processing of the cube. For privileged information, access controls were implemented. Results Data visualization has eliminated tedious analysis through legacy reports and provided a mechanism for optimally aligning resources with needs. Stakeholders are able to visualize KPIs on a main dashboard, slice-and-dice data, generate ad hoc reports, and quickly find the desired information. In addition, comparison, availability, and service level reports can also be generated on demand. All reports can be drilled down for navigation at a finer granularity. Conclusions We have demonstrated how BI techniques and tools can be used

  6. Using business intelligence to analyze and share health system infrastructure data in a rural health authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Waqar; Urquhart, Bonnie; Berg, Emery; Dhanoa, Ramandeep

    2014-08-06

    Health care organizations gather large volumes of data, which has been traditionally stored in legacy formats making it difficult to analyze or use effectively. Though recent government-funded initiatives have improved the situation, the quality of most existing data is poor, suffers from inconsistencies, and lacks integrity. Generating reports from such data is generally not considered feasible due to extensive labor, lack of reliability, and time constraints. Advanced data analytics is one way of extracting useful information from such data. The intent of this study was to propose how Business Intelligence (BI) techniques can be applied to health system infrastructure data in order to make this information more accessible and comprehensible for a broader group of people. An integration process was developed to cleanse and integrate data from disparate sources into a data warehouse. An Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) cube was then built to allow slicing along multiple dimensions determined by various key performance indicators (KPIs), representing population and patient profiles, case mix groups, and healthy community indicators. The use of mapping tools, customized shape files, and embedded objects further augment the navigation. Finally, Web forms provide a mechanism for remote uploading of data and transparent processing of the cube. For privileged information, access controls were implemented. Data visualization has eliminated tedious analysis through legacy reports and provided a mechanism for optimally aligning resources with needs. Stakeholders are able to visualize KPIs on a main dashboard, slice-and-dice data, generate ad hoc reports, and quickly find the desired information. In addition, comparison, availability, and service level reports can also be generated on demand. All reports can be drilled down for navigation at a finer granularity. We have demonstrated how BI techniques and tools can be used in the health care environment to make informed

  7. The courts and the code. Legal osmosis between religion and law in the cultural framework of civil law systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fuccillo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: 1. The value of religious law in modern (and secular states - 2. Religious rules and individual choices in Europe - 3. Religious law and the fields in which it can operate effectively - 4. The rules of religious courts in civil legal systems - 4.1 ..The direct referral to religious laws - 4.2. The pronounces of religious courts and its importance for faithful - 5. The development of Religious Arbitration Courts in Italy - 6. Does religious jurisdiction another side of religious freedom?

  8. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Riley, Ian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Odhiambo, Frank; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Sam; AbouZahr, Carla; Mitra, Raj; Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Firth, Sonja; Maire, Nicolas; Sankoh, Osman; Bronson, Gay; Setel, Philip; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Boerma, Ties; Lopez, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time before they can provide physician-certified COD for every death. Proposals: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a method to ascertain the probable COD and, although imperfect, it is the best alternative in the absence of medical certification. There is extensive experience with VA in research settings but only a few examples of its use on a large scale. Data collection using electronic questionnaires on mobile devices and computer algorithms to analyse responses and estimate probable COD have increased the potential for VA to be routinely applied in CRVS systems. However, a number of CRVS and health system integration issues should be considered in planning, piloting and implementing a system-wide intervention such as VA. These include addressing the multiplicity of stakeholders and sub-systems involved, integration with existing CRVS work processes and information flows, linking VA results to civil registration records, information technology requirements and data quality assurance. Conclusions: Integrating VA within CRVS systems is not simply a technical undertaking. It will have profound system-wide effects that should be carefully considered when planning for an effective implementation. This paper identifies and discusses the major system-level issues and emerging practices, provides a planning checklist of system-level considerations and proposes an overview for how VA can be integrated into routine CRVS systems. PMID:28137194

  9. Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS): system-level considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Savigny, Don; Riley, Ian; Chandramohan, Daniel; Odhiambo, Frank; Nichols, Erin; Notzon, Sam; AbouZahr, Carla; Mitra, Raj; Cobos Muñoz, Daniel; Firth, Sonja; Maire, Nicolas; Sankoh, Osman; Bronson, Gay; Setel, Philip; Byass, Peter; Jakob, Robert; Boerma, Ties; Lopez, Alan D

    2017-01-01

    Reliable and representative cause of death (COD) statistics are essential to inform public health policy, respond to emerging health needs, and document progress towards Sustainable Development Goals. However, less than one-third of deaths worldwide are assigned a cause. Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems in low- and lower-middle-income countries are failing to provide timely, complete and accurate vital statistics, and it will still be some time before they can provide physician-certified COD for every death. Proposals: Verbal autopsy (VA) is a method to ascertain the probable COD and, although imperfect, it is the best alternative in the absence of medical certification. There is extensive experience with VA in research settings but only a few examples of its use on a large scale. Data collection using electronic questionnaires on mobile devices and computer algorithms to analyse responses and estimate probable COD have increased the potential for VA to be routinely applied in CRVS systems. However, a number of CRVS and health system integration issues should be considered in planning, piloting and implementing a system-wide intervention such as VA. These include addressing the multiplicity of stakeholders and sub-systems involved, integration with existing CRVS work processes and information flows, linking VA results to civil registration records, information technology requirements and data quality assurance. Integrating VA within CRVS systems is not simply a technical undertaking. It will have profound system-wide effects that should be carefully considered when planning for an effective implementation. This paper identifies and discusses the major system-level issues and emerging practices, provides a planning checklist of system-level considerations and proposes an overview for how VA can be integrated into routine CRVS systems.

  10. Development of Resource Sharing System Components for AliEn Grid Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Harutyunyan, Artem

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the resource provision, sharing, accounting and use represents a principal issue in the contemporary scientific cyberinfrastructures. For example, collaborations in physics, astrophysics, Earth science, biology and medicine need to store huge amounts of data (of the order of several petabytes) as well as to conduct highly intensive computations. The appropriate computing and storage capacities cannot be ensured by one (even very large) research center. The modern approach to the solution of this problem suggests exploitation of computational and data storage facilities of the centers participating in collaborations. The most advanced implementation of this approach is based on Grid technologies, which enable effective work of the members of collaborations regardless of their geographical location. Currently there are several tens of Grid infrastructures deployed all over the world. The Grid infrastructures of CERN Large Hadron Collider experiments - ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb which are exploi...

  11. 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition. Volume 5, Track 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    Walls ETL 1110-2-563, by John D. Clarkson and Robert C. Patev Belleville Locks & Dam Barge Accident on 6 Jan 05, by John Clarkson Portugues Dam Project...Update, by Alberto Gonzalez, Jim Mangold and Dave Dollar Portugues Dam: RCC Materials Investigation, by Jim Hinds Nonlinear Incremental Thermal Stress...Strain Analysis Portugues Dam, by David Dollar, Ahmed Nisar, Paul Jacob and Charles Logie Seismic Isolation of Mission-Critical Infrastructure to

  12. 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition. Volume 6, Track 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    Walls ETL 1110-2-563, by John D. Clarkson and Robert C. Patev Belleville Locks & Dam Barge Accident on 6 Jan 05, by John Clarkson Portugues Dam Project...Update, by Alberto Gonzalez, Jim Mangold and Dave Dollar Portugues Dam: RCC Materials Investigation, by Jim Hinds Nonlinear Incremental Thermal Stress...Strain Analysis Portugues Dam, by David Dollar, Ahmed Nisar, Paul Jacob and Charles Logie Seismic Isolation of Mission-Critical Infrastructure to

  13. 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition. Volume 9, Tracks 9-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    Walls ETL 1110-2-563, by John D. Clarkson and Robert C. Patev Belleville Locks & Dam Barge Accident on 6 Jan 05, by John Clarkson Portugues Dam Project...Update, by Alberto Gonzalez, Jim Mangold and Dave Dollar Portugues Dam: RCC Materials Investigation, by Jim Hinds Nonlinear Incremental Thermal Stress...Strain Analysis Portugues Dam, by David Dollar, Ahmed Nisar, Paul Jacob and Charles Logie Seismic Isolation of Mission-Critical Infrastructure to

  14. 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition. Volume 10, Track 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    Walls ETL 1110-2-563, by John D. Clarkson and Robert C. Patev Belleville Locks & Dam Barge Accident on 6 Jan 05, by John Clarkson Portugues Dam Project...Update, by Alberto Gonzalez, Jim Mangold and Dave Dollar Portugues Dam: RCC Materials Investigation, by Jim Hinds Nonlinear Incremental Thermal Stress...Strain Analysis Portugues Dam, by David Dollar, Ahmed Nisar, Paul Jacob and Charles Logie Seismic Isolation of Mission-Critical Infrastructure to

  15. 2005 Tri-Service Infrastructure Systems Conference and Exhibition. Volume 13, Tracks 20, 21 and Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-04

    Walls ETL 1110-2-563, by John D. Clarkson and Robert C. Patev Belleville Locks & Dam Barge Accident on 6 Jan 05, by John Clarkson Portugues Dam Project...Update, by Alberto Gonzalez, Jim Mangold and Dave Dollar Portugues Dam: RCC Materials Investigation, by Jim Hinds Nonlinear Incremental Thermal Stress...Strain Analysis Portugues Dam, by David Dollar, Ahmed Nisar, Paul Jacob and Charles Logie Seismic Isolation of Mission-Critical Infrastructure to

  16. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  17. [Comparative analysis of tuberculosis morbidity trends in the penitentiary and civil health care systems of the Udmurt Republic over 10 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russkikh, O E

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis morbidity trends were comparatively analyzed in the penitentiary and civil health care systems of the Udmurt Republic (UR) over 10 years (1996-2005). Two periods were identified in the course of a tuberculous process. In the first period (1996-2000), the increase in pulmonary tuberculosis morbidity rates in the UR penitentiary system was 3 times greater than the republican rates, the rise in this index in the UR penitentiary system being 25.3 times higher than that in the civil health system. In the second period (2001-2005), the UR penitentiary system was marked by a good tendency towards the stabilization of tuberculosis morbidity rates. At the same time, in the UR civil health care system, there is a further increase in tuberculosis morbidity rates in the population, although it occurs more slowly.

  18. [Risk management in health care systems: the new legislative orientations in medical civil responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, A; Signorelli, C; Colzani, E

    2004-01-01

    The recent radical change in the relationships between physicians and patients has increased the frequency of malpractice. Consequently, on one hand, many physicians got used to avoiding any possible risk of denunciation by applying the so called "defensive medicine", while on the other hand, the insurance companies raised the prices of their premiums for policies concerning civil responsibility of health operators. In order to avoid this "vicious circle", some health structures created Units for the Risk Management related to malpractice, while others took advantage of the collaboration of Associations for Patients' Rights to create database about the most frequent medical mistakes. The need for a legislative change has been accepted by the Parliament which expects with the proposal n.108 (approved in spring 2002 by the Commission for Hygiene and Health of the Senate) to attribute the civil responsibility of the physicians to the hospitals (both private and public) for which they work, to constitute a Register of experts and to accelerate the legal disputes. The problem is complex and still to be solved, but it seems that time for a strong intervention in order to improve the situation has to come.

  19. The Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Guadarrama, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. The Nuclear Power Plant of Chernobyl. Us found in the investigation what not exist one legislation agree with the needs of development of the actual world in matter of the liability civil in case of the nuclear accidents. Found only the Convention of the Vienna. the Convention of the Brussels the which only cover the transportation the Nuclear substances in ships and others transportation medios. The complementary a the convention of the Paris and actually The Communication in case of the nuclear accidents and radiological accidents. In the present work think what the Community International haven the needs of created one legislation with character international what can help a the many countries what have Nuclear Power Plants, on all for protection of the her habitants. The International Atomic Energy Agency together with the International Justice Court and the United Nations Organization (U.N.O.) aplicated the law in matter of the nuclear accidents derivates of the liability responsibility in the use of the Nuclear Plants for elaboration the Electrical Energy or for Investigation in matter the nuclear energy both with identical responsibility civil in case the nuclear accident. (Author)

  20. Infrastructure of Baltic Region Transmission System: Analysis of Technical and Economic Factors of its Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obushevs, A.; Oleinikova, I.; Mutule, A.

    2014-08-01

    The operational conditions of new networks dictate new requirements for the transmission planning, which would include the electricity market figures and a sizable involvement of renewable generation. This paper focuses on the transmission expansion planning techniques based on the calculations of optimal power flows and on the concept of development planning and sustainability. A description is given for the mathematical model of calculations and analysis of transmission system. The results have shown that the Baltic transmission system infrastructure can successfully be analyzed based on the proposed methodology and developed mathematical model Baltijas valstu (Latvijas, Lietuvas un Igaunijas) energosistēmas ir cieši saistītas vēsturiski, un to darbība nav iespējama bez savstarpējas sadarbības attīstības un darba režīmu jautājumos. Ekonomisko attiecību īstenošanu enerģētikas sektorā paātrināja elektroenerģijas tirgus attīstība. Baltijas valstu enerģētikas politika ir integrēta ES enerģētikas stratēģijas sastāvdaļa, nosakot trīs galvenos mērķus: enerģētikas nozares konkurētspēja, ilgtspējīga attīstība un drošība. Visas trīs Baltijas energosistēmas veica lielu darba apjomu iekārtu modernizācijā un standartu saskaņošanā, kuras ir saskaņā ar Eiropas Savienības prasībām, kā arī par tirgus attiecību un tehnoloģiju standartu ieviešanu, lai nodrošinātu energoapgādes drošību un elektroenerģijas pieejamību patērētājiem Tomēr, ņemot vērā strauji mainīgos ārējos apstākļus, it īpaši ģeopolitiskos faktorus, Baltijas valstu enerģētikas politika būtu jāizskata ar mērķi novērtēt, kā šie faktori ietekmē energosistēmas ilgtspējīgu attīstību kopumā. No iepriekš minētā izriet, ka nepieciešama jauna nacionāla enerģētikas stratēģija, kura stiprinātu efektīvu ekonomisko un sociālo pamatu ilgtspējīgu attīstību Baltijas valstu nacionālā ekonomikā. Šī darba m

  1. Reforming Russian Civil Procedur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The II Annual Symposium of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure ‘2015: The Civil Procedure 2.0: Reform and Current State’ took place on October 9, 2015, at the Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga region Federal University.The Symposium is now an established tradition for the University. In 2015 it brought together in Kazan eminent scholars of civil procedure from cities across the whole of Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, Samara, Nizhnekamsk and others. This large-scale event attracted the attention not only of Russian scholars, but also of legal scholars from abroad: Elisabetta Silvestri (Professor, University of Pavia, Italy, William B. Simons (Professor, University of Tartu, Estonia, Jaroslav Turlukovsky (Professor, Warsaw University, Poland, Stuart H. Schultz (Practising Attorney, USA, Irina Izarova (Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.The opening ceremony of the Symposium began with greetings to all participants and best wishes for productive discussions. Participants were welcomed with remarks by Marat Khairullin, Deputy Chair of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tatarstan, Radik Ilyasov, Head of the Federal Bailiff Service of the Republic of Tatarstan, and Ildar Tarkhanov, Academic Supervisor at the Faculty of Law. They expressed their appreciation for the great value of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure in the growth of the science of civil procedure and enforcement procedure, and for its contributions to the development of the judicial system of the Russian Federation.In addition to hearing prepared reports and discussing viewpoints on current issues of civil and arbitration procedure, participants attended presentations by representatives from procedural law periodicals in the frame of the Symposium. The Editor-in-Chief of Herald of Civil Procedure, Damir Valeev, and the Commercial Director of the Statut Publishing House (Moscow, Kirill Samoilov, presented new

  2. Evaluative Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Pflueger, Dane; Mouritsen, Jan

    To date, much of the accounting literature focuses on control and coordination within and from the perspective of organizations, reflecting what Hopwood described as accounting’s “hierarchical consciousness”. Inspired by the growing phenomenon of network organizational forms such as eBay, Air...... for the hierarchical firm, evaluative infrastructures provide the accounting practices for networks. Illustrating the concept of evaluative infrastructure with the extended example of eBay, the paper’s contribution is to extend accounting scholars’ analytical focus from hierarchical settings to heterarchies...

  3. Management of Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Community at Royal Belum State Park Using Geographical Information System: A Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zainon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed. Keywords: Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community

  4. Management of Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Community at Royal Belum State Park Using Geographical Information System: A Conceptual Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Zainon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Nowadays, an integrated location, descriptive inventory data and geographical information are required for a better decision making in Indigenous community management activities. The management system can improve productivity and to save time, money and man power. Conventional maps and Indigenous inventories on papers or spread sheet are lack of meeting these requirements which are not static and subjected to change rapidly. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Database Management (DBM System are capabilities and confined in manipulation of location and descriptive data, respectively. A GIS system is chosen in Management Information and Infrastructure of Indigenous Communities because its meets all the requirements that can help the authorities to managed the community. GIS able to manipulate location and descriptive data as well as the relationships between them are dynamic. This paper will discussed briefly the conceptual design of GIS activities and Indigenous community in Royal Belum State Park, Malaysia, then terminology and theoretical concepts of GIS, Indigenous community management and the link between them are reviewed.Keywords:  Management, information, infrastructure, conceptual design, Indigenous community 

  5. System Architecture Development for Energy and Water Infrastructure Data Management and Geovisual Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berres, A.; Karthik, R.; Nugent, P.; Sorokine, A.; Myers, A.; Pang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Building an integrated data infrastructure that can meet the needs of a sustainable energy-water resource management requires a robust data management and geovisual analytics platform, capable of cross-domain scientific discovery and knowledge generation. Such a platform can facilitate the investigation of diverse complex research and policy questions for emerging priorities in Energy-Water Nexus (EWN) science areas. Using advanced data analytics, machine learning techniques, multi-dimensional statistical tools, and interactive geovisualization components, such a multi-layered federated platform is being developed, the Energy-Water Nexus Knowledge Discovery Framework (EWN-KDF). This platform utilizes several enterprise-grade software design concepts and standards such as extensible service-oriented architecture, open standard protocols, event-driven programming model, enterprise service bus, and adaptive user interfaces to provide a strategic value to the integrative computational and data infrastructure. EWN-KDF is built on the Compute and Data Environment for Science (CADES) environment in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  6. Intrusion detection system using Online Sequence Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) in advanced metering infrastructure of smart grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuancheng; Qiu, Rixuan; Jing, Sitong

    2018-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) realizes a two-way communication of electricity data through by interconnecting with a computer network as the core component of the smart grid. Meanwhile, it brings many new security threats and the traditional intrusion detection method can't satisfy the security requirements of AMI. In this paper, an intrusion detection system based on Online Sequence Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) is established, which is used to detecting the attack in AMI and carrying out the comparative analysis with other algorithms. Simulation results show that, compared with other intrusion detection methods, intrusion detection method based on OS-ELM is more superior in detection speed and accuracy.

  7. Rebuilding Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan Schwartz; Pablo Halkyard

    2006-01-01

    Postconflict countries have had difficulty attracting private investment in infrastructure, and their growth and stability have suffered as a result. But the success of a few countries hints at policy initiatives that governments could pursue to close this destabilizing gap in investment. The emphasis should be on making sure that sector reforms go far enough, getting the timing and sequen...

  8. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , and coal, with a concomitant release of greenhouse gases. Green infrastructure seeks to perform those functions in a manner that, at the very least, minimises its impact on the natural environment and, at best, enhances the quality of the natural...

  9. From Civil Protection Plan to Disaster Management. PETer evolution from GIS tool to multi-area Emergency Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Simone; Sterlacchini, Simone; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Glade, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    PETer (Protection and Emergency of the Territory) has been developed since 2006 as a tool to manage all the information available to perform a wide range of Civil Protection activities. Based on MapObjects spatial support, it was relied on capacity to manage data from different sources and at different scale, offering practical GIS-tools for a technical and practical use during crisis state. At the first stages of the development, after different assessment, critical on-field analysis and a direct proof on test area, the approach came into sight like a valid database management for the entire dataset, but quite static, not full-blown for every emergency necessity, too complicate and not enough user-friendly, considering people in charge during emergency management, the quick change of state with many parameters involved and also uncertainty, hesitation, confusion or general panic among decision makers. As a second step of research, a more down-to-earth methodology targeted to cope with the aftermath of critical events is presented here. It takes advantage of Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Decision Support Systems (DSS), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to prepare, apply and coordinate Civil Protection plans. The main aim was to set up and manage contingency plans in advance; that is, to identify and prepare people in charge to take action to define the activities to be performed, to be aware of available resources and to optimize the communication system among the people involved, in order to efficiently face a prospective crisis phase. A disaster preparedness plan should anticipate the demands for a disaster relief operation and indicate the most effective way of joining those requirements. Through scientific and technical co-operation between public and private research groups, a new platform was planned and set up, in order to test the aims of the project. The application was based on a cooperative organizational structure by which

  10. URBAN-NET: A Network-based Infrastructure Monitoring and Analysis System for Emergency Management and Public Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Chen, Liangzhe [ORNL; Duan, Sisi [ORNL; Chinthavali, Supriya [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Prakash, B. Aditya [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Critical Infrastructures (CIs) such as energy, water, and transportation are complex networks that are crucial for sustaining day-to-day commodity flows vital to national security, economic stability, and public safety. The nature of these CIs is such that failures caused by an extreme weather event or a man-made incident can trigger widespread cascading failures, sending ripple effects at regional or even national scales. To minimize such effects, it is critical for emergency responders to identify existing or potential vulnerabilities within CIs during such stressor events in a systematic and quantifiable manner and take appropriate mitigating actions. We present here a novel critical infrastructure monitoring and analysis system named URBAN-NET. The system includes a software stack and tools for monitoring CIs, pre-processing data, interconnecting multiple CI datasets as a heterogeneous network, identifying vulnerabilities through graph-based topological analysis, and predicting consequences based on what-if simulations along with visualization. As a proof-of-concept, we present several case studies to show the capabilities of our system. We also discuss remaining challenges and future work.

  11. Coding and encoding rights in internet infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores bottom-up grassroots ordering in internet governance, investigating the efforts by a group of civil society actors to inscribe human rights in internet infrastructure, lobbying the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Adopting a Science and Technology Studies (STS perspective, we approach this struggle as a site of contestation, and expose the sociotechnical imaginaries animating policy advocacy. Combining quantitative mailing-list analysis, participant observation and qualitative discourse analysis, the article observes civil society in action as it contributes to shape policy in the realm of institutional and infrastructure design.

  12. A systems approach to risk reduction of transportation infrastructure networks subject to multiple hazards : final report, December 31, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-31

    Integrity, robustness, reliability, and resiliency of infrastructure networks are vital to the economy, : security and well-being of any country. Faced with threats caused by natural and man-made hazards, : transportation infrastructure network manag...

  13. A System Architecture for a Transnational Data Infrastructure supporting Maritime Spatial Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Reiter, Ida Maria; Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2017-01-01

    been an increasing international recognition of the need to manage human activities that influence the marine environment and its ecosystems in an integrated, cross-sectoral manner. Recently, Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) has gained significant attention as a new paradigm aiming at minimising......The use of the seas and oceans is overall regulated by the United Nations through the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which defines the rights and responsibilities. However, with the rapidly increasing use of the sea and oceans it is inevitable that conflicts may arise. Accordingly, there has...... the conflicts among different sea uses through involving various stakeholders and sectors while aiming for sustainable growth. The aim of this research is to build a conceptual model for a Data Infrastructure to support marine space in a transnational context addressing the challenges related to the increasing...

  14. COSIMA-DSS Evaluation System: A new Decision Support System for Large-Scale Transport Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Jensen, Anders Vestergaard; Leleur, Steen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new decision support model COSIMA-DSS that examines socio-economic feasibility risks involved in the implementation of transport infrastructure projects. The model makes use of conventionally cost-benefit analysis embedded within a wider multi-criteria analysis. The basic...

  15. Applying the Repertory Grid Method for Technology Forecasting: Civil Unmanned Aviation Systems for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimecke Jörgen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multistage expert surveys like the Delphi method are proven concepts for technology forecasting that enable the prediction of content-related and temporal development in fields of innovation (e.g., [1, 2]. Advantages of these qualitative multistage methods are a simple and easy to understand concept while still delivering valid results [3]. Nevertheless, the literature also points out certain disadvantages especially in large-scale technology forecasts in particularly abstract fields of innovation [4]. The proposed approach highlights the usefulness of the repertory grid method as an alternative for technology forecasting and as a first step for preference measurement. The basic approach from Baier and Kohler [5] is modified in-so-far that an online survey reduces the cognitive burden for the experts and simplifies the data collection process. Advantages over alternative approaches through its simple structure and through combining qualitative and quantitative methods are shown and an adaption on an actual field of innovation – civil drones in Germany – is done. The measurement of a common terminology for all experts minimizes misunderstandings during the interview and the achievement of an inter-individual comparable level of abstraction is forced by the laddering technique [6] during the interview.

  16. Vulnerability and Mitigation Studies for Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Morris, J

    2007-08-02

    The summary of this presentation is that: (1) We do end-to-end systems analysis for infrastructure protection; (2) LLNL brings interdisciplinary subject matter expertise to infrastructure and explosive analysis; (3) LLNL brings high-fidelity modeling capabilities to infrastructure analysis for use on high performance platforms; and (4) LLNL analysis of infrastructure provides information that customers and stakeholders act on.

  17. Security Policy and Infrastructure in the Context of a Multi-Centeric Information System Dedicated to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mohamed; Robel, Laurence; Golse, Bernard; Jais, Jean Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neuro-developmental disorders affecting children in their early age. The diagnosis of ASD relies on multidisciplinary investigations, in psychiatry, neurology, genetics, electrophysiology, neuro-imagery, audiology and ophthalmology. In order to support clinicians, researchers and public health decision makers, we designed an information system dedicated to ASD, called TEDIS. TEDIS was designed to manage systematic, exhaustive and continuous multi-centric patient data collection via secured Internet connections. In this paper, we present the security policy and security infrastructure we developed to protect ASD' patients' clinical data and patients' privacy. We tested our system on 359 ASD patient records in a local secured intranet environment and showed that the security system is functional, with a consistent, transparent and safe encrypting-decrypting behavior. It is ready for deployment in the nine ASD expert assessment centers in the Ile de France district.

  18. Subsonic Investigation of a Leading-Edge Boundary Layer Control Suction System on a High-Speed Civil Transport Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bryan A.; Applin, Zachary T.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Owens, D. Bruce; Gile, Brenda E.; Parikh, Pradip G.; Smith, Don

    1999-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of a leading edge boundary layer control system was conducted on a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configuration in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. Data were obtained over a Mach number range of 0.08 to 0.27, with corresponding chord Reynolds numbers of 1.79 x 10(exp 6) to 5.76 x 10(exp 6). Variations in the amount of suction, as well as the size and location of the suction area, were tested with outboard leading edge flaps deflected 0 and 30 deg and trailing-edge flaps deflected 0 and 20 deg. The longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic data are presented without analysis. A complete tabulated data listing is also presented herein.

  19. appraisal of key performance indicators on road infrastructure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    APPRAISAL OF KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ON ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE. FINANCED BY PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN NIGERIA. T. E. Oyigbo1,* and O. O. Ugwu2. 1, CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA. 2, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ...

  20. Risk and Reliability of Infrastructure Asset Management Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    A workshop was held August 15-18 in Alexandria, Virginia to begin the dialog on the methodologies available and the status of how the US Army Corps of Engineers assesses its Civil Works infrastructure...

  1. Online molecular image repository and analysis system: A multicenter collaborative open-source infrastructure for molecular imaging research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mahabubur; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Molecular imaging serves as an important tool for researchers and clinicians to visualize and investigate complex biochemical phenomena using specialized instruments; these instruments are either used individually or in combination with targeted imaging agents to obtain images related to specific diseases with high sensitivity, specificity, and signal-to-noise ratios. However, molecular imaging, which is a multidisciplinary research field, faces several challenges, including the integration of imaging informatics with bioinformatics and medical informatics, requirement of reliable and robust image analysis algorithms, effective quality control of imaging facilities, and those related to individualized disease mapping, data sharing, software architecture, and knowledge management. As a cost-effective and open-source approach to address these challenges related to molecular imaging, we develop a flexible, transparent, and secure infrastructure, named MIRA, which stands for Molecular Imaging Repository and Analysis, primarily using the Python programming language, and a MySQL relational database system deployed on a Linux server. MIRA is designed with a centralized image archiving infrastructure and information database so that a multicenter collaborative informatics platform can be built. The capability of dealing with metadata, image file format normalization, and storing and viewing different types of documents and multimedia files make MIRA considerably flexible. With features like logging, auditing, commenting, sharing, and searching, MIRA is useful as an Electronic Laboratory Notebook for effective knowledge management. In addition, the centralized approach for MIRA facilitates on-the-fly access to all its features remotely through any web browser. Furthermore, the open-source approach provides the opportunity for sustainable continued development. MIRA offers an infrastructure that can be used as cross-boundary collaborative MI research platform for the rapid

  2. THE SYSTEMIC CRISIS OF THE CIVILIZATION OF THE WEST IN UNDERSTANDING OF MODERN RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN SCIENTISTS – COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Leonidovich Morozov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the most characteristic of the concept of foreign (by J. Jacobs, C. Huntington, P. Buchanan, T. Sarrazin and Russian (by A.I. Utkin, A.S. Panarin, I.N. Panarin of political scientists, devoted to the identification and analysis of systemic problems of the West, leading its further development in the civilizational impasse and find ways of gathering the negative trend of further developments. Purpose: to reveal General and specific features in Russian and foreign political and futurological concepts, dedicated to understanding the crisis of modern Western civilization. Research methodology: when working with the texts analyzed was used the comparative method, system method. The results of the study: the similarity of understanding of both foreign and Russian scientists causality of the observed crisis of modern Western civilization, identified the key factors of the crisis: the rejection of the strategy of industrial production on its own territory, the loss of “national will” and the transition to a mass political psychological model of tolerance, understood as tolerance and compliance requirements by migrating to the West of the peoples, the mass psychology of consumerism, constant military operations in the Western countries in different regions of the world, the erroneous policy of confrontation with Russia. The negative trend of politicization and simplification in the study of the topic by Russian analysts, caused by market conditions of the moment. The scope of the results: the activity of institutions of the Russian state authorities responsible for the adoption and implementation of foreign policy decisions; the academic development of new concepts in the theory of politics and international relations.

  3. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  4. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Infrastructure Plastics with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Janke, Christopher J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Lewis, Samuel A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Keiser, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Gaston, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Bioenergy Center

    2017-12-22

    We report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with 18 plastic types was evaluated using neat diesel fuel as the baseline. The plastic materials included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), POM copolymer, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), polythiourea (PTU), four nylon grades, and four thermosetting resins. Specimens of each material were immersed in the test fuels for a period of 16 weeks to achieve full saturation. Except for PP and HDPE, the plastic materials underwent higher volume expansion in bio-oil than in the baseline diesel (which was negligible in most cases). This volume increase corresponds to the higher polarity of the bio-oil. PPS, PET, and PTFE were unaffected by bio-oil exposure, but modest swelling (between 2 and 5%) occurred for the two acetals (POM and POM copolymer), Nylon-12, PBT, PETG, and the four resin grades. More moderate swelling (8–15%) was noted for Nylon-6, Nylon-6/6, and Nylon-11, and excessive swell (>40%) occurred for PTU. The nonpolar nature of PP and HDPE matches that of diesel, leading to higher solubility (swell) in this fuel type. Finally, the relatively low volume expansion following exposure indicates that many of the existing infrastructure plastics (excluding PTU) should be suitable for use with bio-oil.

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INTEGRATED DATA ENVIRONMENTS AND ANALYSIS (IIDEA) FOR MINING AND PROCESSING SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, Sean

    2007-06-29

    Almost all the high-production businesses face a problem of having terabytes of data but very little information is extracted from them. Efforts are being made continuously to bring the raw data into a usable format so that the meaningful information can be inferred. Once the knowledge discovery is done, proper action can be taken accordingly. The data mining and process modeling approach are used in many business sectors to better understand the process interactions within production chains by analyzing huge data repositories. A decade of intense investment in information technology by mining companies as resulted in vast quantities of underutilized data. Other industries have undergone fundamental changes through the innovative application of IT and business intelligence. This project was to undertake the investigation of the tools and techniques that would bring such data mining and requisite business processes to the mining industry. Phase I of this project was to establish the research infrastructure for Phase II and to pilot the tools and techniques through the development of an Energy Consumption Model (ECM) to predict the energy consumption in the material handling processes based on the key input variables like distance, elevation, tons hauled etc. Data mining techniques that can extract meaningful information from a raw data is available. The model developed as part of this research is an example of how energy consumption can be estimated from fundamental data.

  6. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Infrastructure Plastics with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Lewis, Samuel Arthur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Keiser, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Gaston, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Bioenergy Center

    2017-12-05

    We report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with 18 plastic types was evaluated using neat diesel fuel as the baseline. The plastic materials included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), POM copolymer, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), polythiourea (PTU), four nylon grades, and four thermosetting resins. Specimens of each material were immersed in the test fuels for a period of 16 weeks to achieve full saturation. Except for PP and HDPE, the plastic materials underwent higher volume expansion in bio-oil than in the baseline diesel (which was negligible in most cases). This volume increase corresponds to the higher polarity of the bio-oil. PPS, PET, and PTFE were unaffected by bio-oil exposure, but modest swelling (between 2 and 5%) occurred for the two acetals (POM and POM copolymer), Nylon-12, PBT, PETG, and the four resin grades. More moderate swelling (8–15%) was noted for Nylon-6, Nylon-6/6, and Nylon-11, and excessive swell (>40%) occurred for PTU. The nonpolar nature of PP and HDPE matches that of diesel, leading to higher solubility (swell) in this fuel type. Finally, the relatively low volume expansion following exposure indicates that many of the existing infrastructure plastics (excluding PTU) should be suitable for use with bio-oil.

  7. Review of infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom for potential releases of radioactivity into the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Lochard, J.; Croueail, P. [Centre d' Etudes sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Nisbet, A.; Mercer, J.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    For the European SAGE-Project a review of the existing infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom concerning radiation protection with regard to a long term contamination after a nuclear accident was made. This review clearly shows that the infrastructure in all three countries regulates the situation during and shortly after a nuclear incident but not in case that a radioactive contamination will last for long time. For that situation it is necessary to install local information centres in the affected area with sufficient trained staff. To improve the confidence of the population in possible measures implemented by the authorities a copious and understandable information and education must be provided. Especially doctors, teachers, kindergarten teachers and mothers have to get the possibility to be educated in a reasonable way how to deal with a short, middle and long term contamination. The concerned population must be able to control the own radiological situation by measuring their environment and their food and by reducing food contamination by appropriate reasonable measures. (orig.)

  8. Review of infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom for potential releases of radioactivity into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G.; Lochard, J.; Croueail, P.; Nisbet, A.; Mercer, J.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B.

    2004-01-01

    For the European SAGE-Project a review of the existing infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom concerning radiation protection with regard to a long term contamination after a nuclear accident was made. This review clearly shows that the infrastructure in all three countries regulates the situation during and shortly after a nuclear incident but not in case that a radioactive contamination will last for long time. For that situation it is necessary to install local information centres in the affected area with sufficient trained staff. To improve the confidence of the population in possible measures implemented by the authorities a copious and understandable information and education must be provided. Especially doctors, teachers, kindergarten teachers and mothers have to get the possibility to be educated in a reasonable way how to deal with a short, middle and long term contamination. The concerned population must be able to control the own radiological situation by measuring their environment and their food and by reducing food contamination by appropriate reasonable measures. (orig.)

  9. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  10. Infrastructures for healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, Tue Odd; Amstrup, Mikkel Hvid; Mørck, Peter

    2018-01-01

    of classifications, on the entire Danish population. However, in the Autumn of 2014, the system was temporarily shut down due to a lawsuit filed by two general practitioners. In this article, we ask why and identify a political struggle concerning authority, control, and autonomy related to a transformation...... adding new actors or purposes to a system without due consideration to the nature of the infrastructure. We argue that while long-term information infrastructures are dynamic by nature and constantly impacted by actors joining or leaving the project, each activity of adding new actors must take reverse...... synergy into account, if not to risk breaking down the fragile nature of otherwise successful information infrastructures supporting research on healthcare....

  11. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  12. Smart and multifunctional concrete toward sustainable infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Baoguo; Ou, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research advances and findings in the field of smart/multifunctional concretes, focusing on the principles, design and fabrication, test and characterization, performance and mechanism, and their applications in infrastructures. It also discusses future challenges in the development and application of smart/multifunctional concretes, providing useful theory, ideas and principles, as well as insights and practical guidance for developing sustainable infrastructures. It is a valuable resource for researchers, scientists and engineers in the field of civil-engineering materials and infrastructures.

  13. A study on joint exhibition and establishment of the future knowledge infrastructure system between the IAEA and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. W.; Lee, E. J.; Lee, H. Y.

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of the project are to suggest a proposal for future cooperation of establishment of nuclear knowledge infrastructure system to the IAEA and to have a joint technical exhibition on nuclear knowledge management and future nuclear education training with the Agency on the occasion of the 47th General Conference of the Agency in 2003. In order to suggest a proposal for future cooperation of establishment of nuclear knowledge infrastructure system to the IAEA, firstly, Korea will seek to make a coordinator role in the establishment of Asian Network for Higher Education in Nuclear Technology(ANENT) which is sponsored by the Agency, secondly, Korea will participate in the project on the establishment of World Nuclear University sponsored by the Agency and World Nuclear Association, thirdly, Korea will host the IAEA training events on nuclear knowledge management to provide its technical capability for the IAEA member states. For the implementation of a joint technical exhibition which contain the above contexts, Korea will identify the exhibition topics and methods and will produce a video film in English, and will show several new education models such as cyber education system, simulator training using virtual reality technology, and education using network methodology. Futhermore, NTC/KAERI has conducted successfully a joint technical exhibition on nuclear knowledge management and future nuclear education training at the 47th IAEA General Conference in Vienna. Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Mohamed Elbaradei, commented that Korea's effort for preservation knowledge in the field of the nuclear field is a worthy endeavor which have the full support of the IAEA

  14. Post-Disaster Supply Chain Interdependent Critical Infrastructure System Restoration: A Review of Data Necessary and Available for Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national 'supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems' (SCICI. These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government

  15. Post-disaster supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure system restoration: A review of data necessary and available for modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Varun; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Corns, Steven; Carlo, Hector J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems (SCICI). These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation) is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government communities, a more

  16. Infrastructure Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2012-01-01

    It is the quest of every government to achieve universal Access and service of telecommunication services and ICTs. Unfortunately due to the high cost of deploying infrastructure in rural areas of developing countries due to non-significant or no economic activity, this dream of achieving Universal...... access and service of telecommunications/ICTs have been stalled. This paper throws light on a possible Public Private Partnership framework as a development path that will enable affordable network technologies to be deployed in rural areas at a cost that will translate to what the rural dweller...... in a developing country in Africa can afford. The paper is a conceptual paper...

  17. Soft-linking energy systems and GIS models to investigate spatial hydrogen infrastructure development in a low-carbon UK energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, Neil; Hughes, Nick; Balta-Ozkan, Nazmiye; McGeevor, Kate; Joffe, David

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative modelling approach focusing on linking spatial (GIS) modelling of hydrogen (H 2 ) supply, demands and infrastructures, anchored within a economy-wide energy systems model (MARKAL). The UK government is legislating a groundbreaking climate change mitigation target for a 60% CO 2 reduction by 2050, and has identified H 2 infrastructures and technologies as potentially playing a major role, notably in the transport sector. An exploratory set of linked GIS-MARKAL model scenarios generate a range of nuanced insights including spatial matching of supply and demand for optimal zero-carbon H 2 deployment, a crucial finding on successive clustering of demand centres to enable economies of scale in H 2 supply and distribution, the competitiveness of imported liquid H 2 and of liquid H 2 distribution, and sectoral competition for coal with carbon sequestration between electricity and H 2 production under economy-wide CO 2 constraints. (author)

  18. Design Considerations for the Electrical Power Supply of Future Civil Aircraft with Active High-Lift Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-K. Mueller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active high-lift systems of future civil aircraft allow noise reduction and the use of shorter runways. Powering high-lift systems electrically have a strong impact on the design requirements for the electrical power supply of the aircraft. The active high-lift system of the reference aircraft design considered in this paper consists of a flexible leading-edge device together with a combination of boundary-layer suction and Coanda-jet blowing. Electrically driven compressors distributed along the aircraft wings provide the required mass flow of pressurized air. Their additional loads significantly increase the electric power demand during take-off and landing, which is commonly provided by electric generators attached to the aircraft engines. The focus of the present study is a feasibility assessment of alternative electric power supply concepts to unburden or eliminate the generator coupled to the aircraft engine. For this purpose, two different concepts using either fuel cells or batteries are outlined and evaluated in terms of weight, efficiency, and technology availability. The most promising, but least developed alternative to the engine-powered electric generator is the usage of fuel cells. The advantages are high power density and short refueling time, compared to the battery storage concept.

  19. Engineering youth service system infrastructure: Hawaii's continued efforts at large-scale implementation through knowledge management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Brad J; Mueller, Charles W; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Okamura, Kelsie H; Chang, Jaime P; Slavin, Lesley; Shimabukuro, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Hawaii's Child and Adolescent Mental Health Division provides a unique illustration of a youth public mental health system with a long and successful history of large-scale quality improvement initiatives. Many advances are linked to flexibly organizing and applying knowledge gained from the scientific literature and move beyond installing a limited number of brand-named treatment approaches that might be directly relevant only to a small handful of system youth. This article takes a knowledge-to-action perspective and outlines five knowledge management strategies currently under way in Hawaii. Each strategy represents one component of a larger coordinated effort at engineering a service system focused on delivering both brand-named treatment approaches and complimentary strategies informed by the evidence base. The five knowledge management examples are (a) a set of modular-based professional training activities for currently practicing therapists, (b) an outreach initiative for supporting youth evidence-based practices training at Hawaii's mental health-related professional programs, (c) an effort to increase consumer knowledge of and demand for youth evidence-based practices, (d) a practice and progress agency performance feedback system, and (e) a sampling of system-level research studies focused on understanding treatment as usual. We end by outlining a small set of lessons learned and a longer term vision for embedding these efforts into the system's infrastructure.

  20. Configuration management in large scale infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, T.P.J. van; Belt, H. van de; Los, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Large Scale Infrastructure (LSI) development projects such as the construction of roads, rail-ways and other civil engineering (water)works is tendered differently today than a decade ago. Traditional workflow requested quotes from construction companies for construction works where the works to be

  1. Coding and encoding rights in internet infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milan, S.; ten Oever, N.

    This article explores bottom-up grassroots ordering in internet governance, investigating the efforts by a group of civil society actors to inscribe human rights in internet infrastructure, lobbying the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Adopting a Science and Technology Studies

  2. 78 FR 11737 - Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... critical infrastructure demonstrate the need for improved cybersecurity. The cyber threat to critical..., security, business confidentiality, privacy, and civil liberties. We can achieve these goals through a..., timeliness, and quality of cyber threat information shared with U.S. private sector entities so that these...

  3. The BIRN Project: Distributed Information Infrastructure and Multi-scale Imaging of the Nervous System (BIRN = Biomedical Informatics Research Network)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The grand goal in neuroscience research is to understand how the interplay of structural, chemical and electrical signals in nervous tissue gives rise to behavior. Experimental advances of the past decades have given the individual neuroscientist an increasingly powerful arsenal for obtaining data, from the level of molecules to nervous systems. Scientists have begun the arduous and challenging process of adapting and assembling neuroscience data at all scales of resolution and across disciplines into computerized databases and other easily accessed sources. These databases will complement the vast structural and sequence databases created to catalogue, organize and analyze gene sequences and protein products. The general premise of the neuroscience goal is simple; namely that with "complete" knowledge of the genome and protein structures accruing rapidly we next need to assemble an infrastructure that will facilitate acquisition of an understanding for how functional complexes operate in their ...

  4. The future of infrastructure security :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included in infrastructure problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions of secure and resilient infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  5. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one workshop......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  6. System Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using State Space and ARMAV Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the relations between an ambient excited structural system, represented by an innovation state space system, and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector (ARMAV) model are considered. It is shown how to obtain a multivariate estimate of the ARMAV model from output measurements, usi...

  7. Documentation of Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workspace

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the software infrastructure developed within the WorkSPACE  project, both from a software architectural point of view and from a user point of  view. We first give an overview of the system architecture, then go on to present the  more prominent features of the 3D graphical...

  8. Information system for data management of civil buildings instrumentation in generating power stations; Sistema de informacion para el manejo de datos de la instrumentacion de las obras civiles de las centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, Alonso; Escamilla, Juan Carlos; Alaniz, Felipe de Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Gonzalez, Francisco; Mena, Enrique [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A relevant task performed by Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is the analysis of the structural behavior and safety assessment of the country`s large electric energy generating stations. This task is performed capturing, revising an analyzing the information generated by measuring instruments installed in the power station civil structures. Such activity generates a large amount of data and the collection, analysis and assessment is a long and tiresome process; additionally, the generated information is kept in plain isolated files, that causes sluggishness in the process and delays in the access to the information. This article describes the characteristics of the Information System for Structure Measurements (Sistema de Informacion de Medicion de Estructuras) (SIME), developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) for CFE in order to enhance the opportunity for the information management. SIME captures, arranges, stores and reports the data obtained from the measurements at the works with great efficiency and flexibility. This system is part of another of greater scope with which CFE will ensure an optimum operation condition of its civil buildings. [Espanol] Una tarea relevante que realiza la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) es analizar el comportamiento estructural y evaluar la seguridad de las grandes obras generadoras de energia electrica del pais. Esta tarea la realiza capturando, revisando y analizando la informacion que generan instrumentos de medicion instalados en las estructuras civiles de las centrales. Tal actividad genera gran cantidad de datos y el proceso de recopilacion, analisis y evaluacion es tardado y tedioso; ademas, la informacion que se genera se guarda en archivos planos aislados, lo que ocasiona lentitud en el proceso y retraso en el acceso a la informacion. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas del Sistema de Informacion de Medicion de Estructuras (SIME) desarrollado por el Instituto de Investigaciones

  9. Scenario-based resilience assessment framework for critical infrastructure systems: Case study for seismic resilience of seaports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Ivey Burden, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    A number of metrics in the past have been proposed and numerically implemented to assess the overall performance of large systems during natural disasters and their recovery in the aftermath of the events. Among such performance measures, resilience is a reliable metric. This paper proposes a probabilistic framework for scenario-based resilience assessment of infrastructure systems. The method accounts for uncertainties in the process including the correlation of the earthquake intensity measures, fragility assessment of structural components, estimation of repair requirements, the repair process, and finally the service demands. The proposed method is applied to a hypothetical seaport terminal and the system level performance of the seaport is assessed using various performance metrics. Results of this analysis have shown that medium to large seismic events may significantly disrupt the operation of seaports right after the event and the recovery process may take months. The proposed framework will enable port stakeholders to systematically assess the most-likely performance of the system during expected future earthquake events. - Highlights: • A scenario-based framework for seismic resilience assessment of systems is presented. • Seismic resilience of a hypothetical seaport with realistic settings is studied. • Berth availability is found to govern seaport functionality following earthquakes

  10. A Study on the Data Compression Technology-Based Intelligent Data Acquisition (IDAQ) System for Structural Health Monitoring of Civil Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Gwanghee; Jeon, Joonryong

    2017-07-12

    In this paper, a data compression technology-based intelligent data acquisition (IDAQ) system was developed for structural health monitoring of civil structures, and its validity was tested using random signals (El-Centro seismic waveform). The IDAQ system was structured to include a high-performance CPU with large dynamic memory for multi-input and output in a radio frequency (RF) manner. In addition, the embedded software technology (EST) has been applied to it to implement diverse logics needed in the process of acquiring, processing and transmitting data. In order to utilize IDAQ system for the structural health monitoring of civil structures, this study developed an artificial filter bank by which structural dynamic responses (acceleration) were efficiently acquired, and also optimized it on the random El-Centro seismic waveform. All techniques developed in this study have been embedded to our system. The data compression technology-based IDAQ system was proven valid in acquiring valid signals in a compressed size.

  11. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  12. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  13. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  14. Stasis and Bellum Civile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Carsten Hjort

    2017-01-01

    David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach...... to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the concepts of stasis and bellum civile, and, finally, the question of what makes a civil war a civil war...

  15. Aero-Mechanical Design Methodology for Subsonic Civil Transport High-Lift Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDam, C. P.; Shaw, S. G.; VanderKam, J. C.; Brodeur, R. R.; Rudolph, P. K. C.; Kinney, D.

    2000-01-01

    In today's highly competitive and economically driven commercial aviation market, the trend is to make aircraft systems simpler and to shorten their design cycle which reduces recurring, non-recurring and operating costs. One such system is the high-lift system. A methodology has been developed which merges aerodynamic data with kinematic analysis of the trailing-edge flap mechanism with minimum mechanism definition required. This methodology provides quick and accurate aerodynamic performance prediction for a given flap deployment mechanism early on in the high-lift system preliminary design stage. Sample analysis results for four different deployment mechanisms are presented as well as descriptions of the aerodynamic and mechanism data required for evaluation. Extensions to interactive design capabilities are also discussed.

  16. Predicting Cost and Schedule Growth for Military and Civil Space Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rusnock, Christina F

    2008-01-01

    .... The study finds that, for military spaces systems, communications missions, ground equipment, firm-fixed price contracts, and increased program manager tenure are all predictive of lower cost growth...

  17. A Medium-Scale Distributed System for Computer Science Research: Infrastructure for the Long Term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Henri E.; Epema, Dick; de Laat, Cees; van Nieuwpoort, Rob V.; Romein, John; Seinstra, Frank J.; Snoek, Cees; Wijshoff, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch Advanced School for Computing and Imaging has built five generations of a 200-node distributed system over nearly two decades while remaining aligned with the shifting computer science research agenda. The system has supported years of award-winning research, underlining the benefits of

  18. A Medium-Scale Distributed System for Computer Science Research: Infrastructure for the Long Term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, H.; Epema, D.; de Laat, C.; van Nieuwpoort, R.; Romein, J.; Seinstra, F.; Snoek, C.; Wijshoff, H.

    The Dutch Advanced School for Computing and Imaging has built five generations of a 200-node distributed system over nearly two decades while remaining aligned with the shifting computer science research agenda. The system has supported years of award-winning research, underlining the benefits of

  19. Acceptance of Privacy-Sensitive Infrastructure Systems: A Case of Smart Metering in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alabdulkarim, A.; Lukszo, Z.; Fens, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years there have been several initiatives around the world that aim to roll out smart metering systems, especially within North America and member states of the European Union. Smart metering systems, giving essential conditions for smart grids in the energy sector, can offer services

  20. Green-blue multifunctional infrastructure : An urban landscape system design new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzniecow Bacchin, T.; Ashley, R.; Sijmons, D.F.; Zevenbergen, C.; Van Timmeren, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cities exhibit unique and ever-changing spatial layouts formed by nested natural and socio-economic systems, sub-systems and components resulting from exchange, interaction, and interdependency processes. In this context, managing surface water in urban areas requires new approaches that integrate

  1. Network Attack Detection and Defense: Securing Industrial Control Systems for Critical Infrastructures (Dagstuhl Seminar 14292)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dacer, Marc; Kargl, Frank; König, Hartmut; Valdes, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 14292 “Network Attack Detection and Defense: Securing Industrial Control Systems for Critical Infrastructures”. The main objective of the seminar was to discuss new approaches and ideas for securing industrial control systems. It

  2. Requirements for a systems-based research and development management process in transport infrastructure engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available , interviews, and an e-mail survey with responses from 42 significant international R&D programmes. The findings confirmed the need for a systems-based approach to R&D management. The study formulated twelve principles or tenets for a new, systems...

  3. SPECIAL AND MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS VITAL PART OF THE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES IN ROMANIA. SECURING THEIR PHYSICAL AND INFORMATIONAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MINCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several arguments on the need to study the critical infrastructure in Romania including various systems (networks and special military communications. It emphasizes the role and place of such systems and networks to provide national defense and security and the risks and vulnerabilities faced by these infrastructures, and some necessary measures to be taken for the physical and informational protection in the case of hostile military actions, natural disasters or other negative phenomena. Finally some conclusions and proposals are formulated.

  4. Evaluative Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Pflueger, Dane; Mouritsen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Platform organizations such as Uber, eBay and Airbnb represent a growing disruptive phenomenon in contemporary capitalism, transforming economic organization, the nature of work, and the distribution of wealth. This paper investigates the accounting practices that underpin this new form of organi......Platform organizations such as Uber, eBay and Airbnb represent a growing disruptive phenomenon in contemporary capitalism, transforming economic organization, the nature of work, and the distribution of wealth. This paper investigates the accounting practices that underpin this new form...... of organizing, and in doing so confronts a significant challenge within the accounting literature: the need to escape what Hopwood (1996) describes as its “hierarchical consciousness”. In order to do so, this paper develops the concept of evaluative infrastructure which describes accounting practices...

  5. Ritual Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjørslev, Inger

    2017-01-01

    This article compares the ways in which two different religions in Brazil generate roads to certainty through objectification, one through gods, the other through banknotes. The Afro-Brazilian religion Candomblé provides a road to certainty based on cosmological ideas about gods whose presence...... in ritual is made indubitable through performance and social consensus. Candomblé has historically gained its spiritual force by being both marginal to mainstream religion and spatially peripheral. In contrast, the Neo-Pentecostal Universal Church of the Kingdom of God is located in easily accessible places...... within urban life. There is a certain parallel between these different locations and the difference in ritual roads to certainty in the two religions. The article draws out connections between different levels of infrastructure – material, spatial and ritual. The comparison between the two religions...

  6. GeoCREV: veterinary geographical information system and the development of a practical sub-national spatial data infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV, defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability, development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i collection of data and information; (ii building a geodatabase; and (iii development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework. Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.

  7. GeoCREV: veterinary geographical information system and the development of a practical sub-national spatial data infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrè, Nicola; Mulatti, Paolo; Mazzucato, Matteo; Lorenzetto, Monica; Trolese, Matteo; Pandolfo, Dario; Vio, Piero; Sitta, Guido; Marangon, Stefano

    2011-05-01

    This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS) developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV), defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability), development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI) for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i) collection of data and information; (ii) building a geodatabase; and (iii) development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access) were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework). Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.

  8. Development of a secure and cost-effective infrastructure for the access of arbitrary web-based image distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacklaender, T.; Demabre, N.; Cramer, B.M.; Kleber, K.; Schneider, H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To build an infrastructure that enables radiologists on-call and external users a teleradiological access to the HTML-based image distribution system inside the hospital via internet. In addition, no investment costs should arise on the user side and the image data should be sent renamed using cryptographic techniques. Materials and Methods: A pure HTML-based system manages the image distribution inside the hospital, with an open source project extending this system through a secure gateway outside the firewall of the hospital. The gateway handles the communication between the external users and the HTML server within the network of the hospital. A second firewall is installed between the gateway and the external users and builds up a virtual private network (VPN). A connection between the gateway and the external user is only acknowledged if the computers involved authenticate each other via certificates and the external users authenticate via a multi-stage password system. All data are transferred encrypted. External users get only access to images that have been renamed to a pseudonym by means of automated processing before. Results: With an ADSL internet access, external users achieve an image load frequency of 0.4 CT images per second. More than 90% of the delay during image transfer results from security checks within the firewalls. Data passing the gateway induce no measurable delay. (orig.)

  9. METHODOLOGICAL SUBSTANTIATION OF PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT OF THE INVESTMENT AND CIVIL ENGINEERING INDUSTRY WITH ACCOUNT FOR ITS SYSTEMIC CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Svetlana Sergeevna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of research of organizational and economic drivers of development of the civil engineering industry represents a cluster of interrelated methods, techniques, procedures, algorithms and models that shape up the basis for the development and implementation of effective management actions impacted by intrinsic fluctuations of the civil engineering industry, the local legislation, national and global economies. The proposed method contributes to the improvement of sustainability of construction companies and the construction industry. It also facilitates an inflow of capital into the investment sector of the construction industry and accelerates the economic growth of Russia. The proposed methodology is based on a synthesis of several scientific theories, such as the evolutionary theory, the theory of self-organization (the synergetic theory, the theory of changes and the catastrophe theory, the theory of cyclical development, the systems theory, the organizational theory, the institutional theory, and the pricing theory. There are many potential patterns of the system development; however, the awareness of the resonant excitation, feedback and the cumulative effect make it possible to predict the most probable changes. Random fluctuations are also exposed to these effects. Implementation of the proposed methodology makes it possible to generate science-based management solutions that ensure the development and implementation of effective management procedures.

  10. Decision Support System (DSS) for MSMA Integrated Stormwater Management Ecohydrology for Sustainable Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Mohiyaden, H. A.; Haris, H.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization has known to have several adverse impacts towards hydrological cycle due to increasing impervious surface and degradation of water quality in stormwater runoff. In the past, urban waterways have been confined to narrow river corridors with the channels canalised and concrete and other synthetic materials forming the bed and banks of the river. Apart from that, stormwater pollutants such as litter, debris and sediments in drainage system are common problems that can lead to flooding and the degradation of water quality. To solve this problem, implementing stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) proves very promising due to its near natural characteristics and multiple effects on the drainage of stormwater runoff in urban areas. This judgment of using BMPs depends on not only relevant theoretical considerations, but also a large amount of practical experience and the availability of relevant data, as well. To fulfil this task, the so-called Decision Support System (DSS) in MSMA Design Aid and Database system are able to assist engineers and developers in management and improvement of water quantity and quality entering urban rivers from urban regions. This system is also helpful when an expert level judgment procure some repetitive and large amount of cases, like in the planning of stormwater BMPs systems for an entire city catchment. One of the advantages of an expert system is that it provides automation of expert-level judgement using availability of checking tools system.

  11. INFRASTRUCTURAL BACKBONE OF ENABLING AND CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES FOR MASS CUSTOMIZATION MANUFACTURING SYSTEM IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandkumar Gilke

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of Mass Customization can result in a challenging manufacturing environment with both high volume production and high product mix, where the customers expect individualized products at the same price they are paying for mass-produced items. Meeting this challenge requires changes in the manufacturing strategies, increase in the flexibility of the production equipments and the most importantly are the adaptable computer systems which make this possible in the manufacturing enterprise. The major requirement is to develop a system which can adapt quickly in order to start new production or to react quickly in failure scenario. Thus the system should have the ability of self improving, self-adaptable and self healing. Thus there is a need for technical migration from a well established flexible manufacturing system (FMS to intelligent and reconfigurable manufacturing system. This paper describes the major enabling and converging technologies facilitating mass customization manufacturing systems in automobile industries in Indian setting and also discusses the proposed architecture for Mass Customization Manufacturing System.

  12. The Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication and Control (ISAACC) System Concept: Infrastructure for ISHM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Briscoe, Jeri M.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) architectures for spacecraft will include hard real-time, critical subsystems and soft real-time monitoring subsystems. Interaction between these subsystems will be necessary and an architecture supporting multiple criticality levels will be required. Demonstration hardware for the Integrated Safety-Critical Advanced Avionics Communication & Control (ISAACC) system has been developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. It is a modular system using a commercially available time-triggered protocol, ?Tp/C, that supports hard real-time distributed control systems independent of the data transmission medium. The protocol is implemented in hardware and provides guaranteed low-latency messaging with inherent fault-tolerance and fault-containment. Interoperability between modules and systems of modules using the TTP/C is guaranteed through definition of messages and the precise message schedule implemented by the master-less Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communications protocol. "Plug-and-play" capability for sensors and actuators provides automatically configurable modules supporting sensor recalibration and control algorithm re-tuning without software modification. Modular components of controlled physical system(s) critical to control algorithm tuning, such as pumps or valve components in an engine, can be replaced or upgraded as "plug and play" components without modification to the ISAACC module hardware or software. ISAACC modules can communicate with other vehicle subsystems through time-triggered protocols or other communications protocols implemented over Ethernet, MIL-STD- 1553 and RS-485/422. Other communication bus physical layers and protocols can be included as required. In this way, the ISAACC modules can be part of a system-of-systems in a vehicle with multi-tier subsystems of varying criticality. The goal of the ISAACC architecture development is control and monitoring of safety critical systems of a

  13. Modular system for measuring a speech quality in the IP telephony infrastructures using autonomous probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Macura, Lukas; Rozhon, Jan; Gresak, Erik

    2017-05-01

    The paper deals with a speech quality monitoring system using probes placed on the individual network nodes operating VoIP services. Information on speech quality is measured periodically and the results are then stored on the central server which provides visualization in a form of graph respecting a topology of the probes. Article provides overall description of the technology and algorithms used in the speech quality monitoring system and results achieved in this applied research are verified in real operation. Contribution of the work lies in a proposal of the new multi-agent system enabling speech quality monitoring and in own implementation and its verification in Czech academic network.

  14. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  15. Conflict detection and resolution system architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles in civil airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; van Kampen, E.J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel architecture for a general Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) system, in the context of their integration into the civilian airspace, is proposed in this paper. The architecture consists of layers of safety approaches ,each representing a combination of

  16. The Impact of the Economic Downturn in the Spanish Civil Justice System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Carballo Pineiro (Laura); J. Nieva Fenoll (Jordi)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe Spanish justice system has been shaken by the econom- ic downturn as many other institutions have. This article addresses in the first place some statistical data that shed light as regards to the number of judges and the costs and length of the procedure in Spain. These figures help

  17. Procurement procedures and specifications for performance measure capable traffic infrastructure data collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Traffic signal systems represent a substantial component of the highway transportation network in the United : States. It is challenging for most agencies to find engineering resources to properly update signal policies and : timing plans to accommod...

  18. Procurement procedures and specifications for performance measure capable traffic infrastructure data collection systems : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Traffic signal systems represent a substantial component of the highway transportation network in the United States. Unfortunately, most agencies struggle to meet the challenge of finding enough resources to properly update signal policies and timing...

  19. Development of Mission Enabling Infrastructure — Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System (CAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, B. W.

    2017-10-01

    Advanced Space, LLC is developing the Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System (CAPS) which would provide a scalable and evolvable architecture for navigation to reduce ground congestion and improve operations for missions throughout cislunar space.

  20. ISBE – set out for a Systems Biology Infrastructure for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollmann, S.; Martins dos Santos, V.A.P.; Regierer, Babette

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology requires the availability, co-ordination and simultaneous interaction of a large number of diverse facilities and activities. These cover an entire spectrum, from mathematical modelling, through biological, biomedical and clinical experiments, to dedicated technology development. The