WorldWideScience

Sample records for civil construction material

  1. Materials for construction and civil engineering science, processing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Margarido, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This expansive volume presents the essential topics related to construction materials composition and their practical application in structures and civil installations. The book's diverse slate of expert authors assemble invaluable case examples and performance data on the most important groups of materials used in construction, highlighting aspects such as nomenclature, the properties, the manufacturing processes, the selection criteria, the products/applications, the life cycle and recyclability, and the normalization. Civil Engineering Materials: Science, Processing, and Design is ideal for practicing architects; civil, construction, and structural engineers, and serves as a comprehensive reference for students of these disciplines. This book also: ·       Provides a substantial and detailed overview of traditional materials used in structures and civil infrastructure ·       Discusses properties of natural and synthetic materials in construction and materials' manufacturing processes ·  �...

  2. Energy cogeneration contributions in the wood quality as civil construction material; Contribuicoes da cogeracao de energia na qualidade da madeira como material de construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto de

    1993-07-01

    This work presents the practicable technical alternative for the improvement of solid wood quality used in the building construction. Through the reality of the solid wood Amazon Region's production and actual generation conception; cogeneration, economy and efficiency on the energy application; the alternative displayed proposes the modification on the lay-out production and production process seeking the best quality obtention of the solid wood; the replace of the petroleum derived energetics by biomass (residues) and the introduction on the production site, the solid wood drying process. The production alternatives proposed can contribute for the solid wood production cost reduction, through the fuel economy, the imperfect number piece reduction and transportation cost production reduction. Contributing significantly for the cost/benefit/quality wood relations, enabling its placement of the consuming market on the Northeast, Southeast, South and Middle west Regions and so on the international market with competitive costs. (author)

  3. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  4. A new vision of the post-NIST civil infrastructure program: the challenges of next-generation construction materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. Felix; Wan, Yan

    2014-03-01

    , security, and safety of elements of critical infrastructure for the Nation's already deteriorating civil infrastructure. It is envisioned that the Nation should look far beyond: not only should we efficiently and effectively address current problems of the aging infrastructure, but we must also further develop next-generation construction materials and processes for new construction. To accomplish this ambitious goal, we must include process efficiency that will help select the most reliable and cost-effective materials in construction processes; performance and cost will be the prime consideration for selections construction materials based on life-cycle cost and materials performance; energy efficiency will drive reduced energy consumption from current levels by 50 % per unit of output; and environmental responsiveness will achieve net-zero waste from construction materials and its constituents. Should it be successfully implemented, we will transform the current 21st century infrastructure systems to enable the vital functioning of society and improve competitiveness of the economy to ensure that our quality of life remains high.

  5. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  6. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  7. Identification & Control of Special Processes in Civil Engineering Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡

    2009-01-01

    @@ A lot ot special processes exist in operation of construction enterprises. Construction enterprises are categorized as of high risks in certification under the quality management system. Taking civil engineering construction of building projects as an example, the writer analyzes how construction enterprises shall identify and control the special processes.

  8. Characterization of the natural radioactivity of materials used in civil construction or the Curitiba, Parana state, Brazil, metropolitan region; Caracterizacao da radioatividade natural de materiais utilizados na construcao civil da regiao metropolitana de Curitiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, Allan F.N.; Martins, Patricia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Claro, Flavia Del, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper performs an analysis of the natural radioactivity of construction materials (mainly the {sup 222}Rn) which are present in human environment. The main objective of the study is to characterize different building materials which come from the metropolitan region of the Curitiba related to the exhalation of {sup 222}Rn. The applied methodology analyse the samples of ceramic brick, plaster mortar, and fine lime from the concentration measurements of radon using CR-39 type detectors, and gamma spectrometry analysis

  9. 核电厂土建施工三大原材料质量控制%Quality control of three main materials for civil construction of nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锋

    2011-01-01

    核电厂的建造运行是一项系统工程。为了保证核电厂的质量安全,从设计立项到运行使用,每一个环节的工作都对质量安全产生不同程度影响。与之相关的每一步工作都必须做到质量受控。从核电厂建造过程中土建施工环节中的原材料质量控制入手,着重分析了土建施工中钢材、混凝土材料、模板材料三大主材如何实施质量控制和管理。%The construction and operation of nuclear power plant is a systematic engineering.To ensure quality and safety of nuclear power plants,each work from design to operation can have certain impact on the quality and safety of the project.The quality of each related work shall be controlled.Starting from the quality control over raw materials for the civil construction of nuclear power plant,this article mainly analyzes how to control the quality and manage the three main materials of steel,concrete and modular parts in the civil construction.

  10. Ideology and Poetics in Public Issue Construction: Thatcherism, Civil Liberties, and "Terrorism" in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Giles, Trevor

    1995-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of Margaret Thatcher, indicating how Thatcherism intensified existing ideological tensions within the British context; how Thatcherism constructed the public issue of "terrorism" in Northern Ireland as an "epic tragedy"; and how such a construction materially shifted and ensnared commitments to "freedom" and civil liberties.…

  11. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  12. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  13. Evolutionary algorithms and metaheuristics in civil engineering and Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, David

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on civil and structural engineering and construction management applications. The contributions constitute modified, extended and improved versions of research presented at the  minisymposium organized by the editors at the ECCOMAS conference on this topic in Barcelona 2014.

  14. Greenness: Pioneering a New Path of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    liang Yong; Gong Jianfei

    2015-01-01

    In May 2015,The Opinion on Accelerating Ecological Civilization Construction by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council for the first time conceives the concept of greenness,and requests the coordinate promotion of new-type industrialization,urbanization,informationization,cultural modernization and greenness.Greenness is a profound innovation from theory to practice,pioneers a new path of

  15. Ageing in civil engineering materials and structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Jean-Marc [SETEC TPI, Tour Gamma D 58, quai de la Rapee, 75583 Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    SETEC TPI will address the 'Aging' topic of the Dijon Symposium by talking about: aging in civil engineering materials and structures, prevention of aging phenomena, in-operation monitoring of degradations related to aging and compensatory measures required to maintain a good safety level. Works as the Millau viaduct, the EdF skyscraper at La Defense - Paris, the renovation of the Grand Palais of Paris and special structures with Monaco's floating dam as well as the 'number 10' shaped gateway boat at Marseilles are illustrations for the issues discussed. The durability of civil engineering structures has become a major concern for designers. The Millau viaduct is designed for a service life of 120 years, and the Monaco dam for 100 years. Calculation rules have been evolving toward the incorporation of the concept of life cycle, for example, the Eurocodes 2 rules (reinforced concrete). The talk will expose the factors which are being taken into account to delay aging versus structure types. This part will be focused towards materials and corresponding regulations: - Reinforced concrete (coating of reinforcements, opening of cracks, choice of reinforcement types), BAEL and Eurocodes 2 rules; - Frame steel (protection, sacrificial anode), CM66 and Eurocodes 3 rules. New materials will also be mentioned: - Ultra high-performance fiber/concrete, with the example of CERACEM applied at Millau for the covering of the toll area barrier; - Titanium, which is starting to appear in the building trades, as for instance for the Beijing China Opera House shell. The second part of the talk will be devoted to a specific case namely, the 'number 10' shaped gateway bridge, a prestressed concrete structure immersed in the Port of Marseilles, which will be used to illustrate the aging phenomenon in a corrosive environment. We will focus on the types of inspection series performed by the Autonomous Port Authority of Marseilles to check the behavior of

  16. LHC Civil Engineering Construction Contracts Cost Monitoring and Budget Forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Skelton, K

    2000-01-01

    The Civil Engineering project for the LHC is estimated at 350 MCHF, of which about 316 MCHF is for the construction contracts. These contracts are based on a system of remeasurement whereby the consultant estimates the quantities required for the construction of each structure and the contractor commits himself to the unit price, which define the initial tender price. There are many factors that affect the final price for these contracts, from increases or decreases in quantities of the estimated amounts in the original bill of quantities to variations to the contract. This paper will look at how these factors change costs at the individual level of a structure to the overall costs of the contract. It will look at how the Civil Engineering Group monitors these changes to calculate cash flows and final costs and how this information is used as a basis for budget forecasts.

  17. The Research on the Construction of Extrude Teaching Material for Civil Engineering Major%土建类专业立体化教材建设的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德利; 任大鹏; 宋殿文

    2012-01-01

    高校土建类专业传统教材已无法适应当前我国高校创新型和技能型培养人才的需要,在教学实践中,应建立与之配套的广义教材,即立体化教材。它是基于一体化设计的教学系统,它以传统纸质教材为基础,以数字技术为平台,以项目课程为导向,以实践能力教育为目标,并将当前最新三维可视化控制技术与智能化网络技术应用于教学各环节中,形成融“教、学、练、考”为一体的理实一体化课程教学体系。立体化教材构建了土建类专业学生理论学习与生产实际相结合的教学平台,弥补了教学手段、实训条件及时间、空间上的限制,在课堂上实现教学项目与施工项目、教学过程与施工过程、在校学习与实际工作的一致性,达到事半功倍的效果。%The traditional teaching material for civil engineering major has not adapted to current requirement for creative and skilled talents, so the construction of matching extrude teaching material in practical teaching process is necessary. It is one kind of teaching system based on integrated designs, it is based on the traditional paper material. Makes digital techniques as platform, makes project curriculums as guidance, makes practical a- bility education as goal and then applies the latest three-dimensional visual control techniques and intelligent network techniques to each teaching link.Thereby form one type of integrated curriculums teaching system fusing teaching, learning, practicing, examining'together. Extrude teaching material builds one type of teaching plat- form that combines theoretical learning with production practice closely for the students majoring in civil engi- neering. Remedy the restrict existing in teaching methods, practical training condition, time and space. And real- ize the consistency between teaching project and construction project, between teaching process and construction process and

  18. Assessment and Countermeasures of Ecological Civilization Construction in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to assess the ecological civilization construction in urban agglomeration composed of Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan synthetically.[Method] By means of analytic hierarchy process,the assessment system of ecological civilization in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan was established firstly,and then the ecological civilization construction in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan was evaluated comprehensively,and the existing problems and causes of ecological civilization construction were analyzed,...

  19. Utilization of washery waste as secondary raw materials in civil engineering and other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, J.; Schieder, T.

    1990-02-01

    Specific demands are put on waste from hardcoal production when used as a substitute for scarcening conventional construction materials such as sand, gravel and road stone. Untreated washery refuse is not useful, in general, except as bulk material for subsoil improvement as well as for the construction of embankments and dikes. By subjecting minestone to appropriate mechanical or thermal treatment aggregates it to serve as construction materials in civil engineering and in other industries can be obtained. Face bricks, compact and perforated blocks as well as large hollow blocks either with a calcareous or a cement binder were manufactured for civil engineering. Crushed coarse minestone proved its usefulness as a concrete aggregate. Utilization of ashes from fluidized bed firing systems yielded construction materials whose low density made them particularly fit for thermal insulation pruposes.

  20. The potential of biobased materials in the civil engineering sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, Anne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Large quantities of materials are used in the Dutch civil engineering sector every year. Many of these materials have a significant impact on the environment because these materials are based on non-renewable resources and the production is often

  1. Proposal for the increase of the contract amounts for LHC civil engineering construction and civil engineering consultancy contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the increase of the contract amounts for LHC civil engineering construction contracts and civil engineering consultancy contracts. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the increase of the contract amounts with: - the joint venture TEERAG-ASDAG (AT), C. BARESEL (DE) and LOCHER (CH) for civil engineering construction, package 1, for a revised total amount of 91 500 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision; - the joint venture EDF (FR) and KNIGHT&PIESOLD (GB) for the provision of civil engineering consultancy services, package 1, for a revised total amount of 14 400 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision; - the joint venture TAYLOR WOODROW (GB), AMEC (GB) and SPIE BATIGNOLLES (FR) for civil engineering construction, package 3a, for a revised total amount of 118 000 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision; - the joint venture BROWN&ROOT (GB), INTECSA (ES) and HIDROTECNICA (PT) for the provision of civil engineering consultancy services, package 3, for a revised total amount of 14 ...

  2. Proceedings of the 2009 annual general conference and associated specialty conferences of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering : on the leading edge[Includes the CSCE forum on professional practice and career development : 1. international engineering mechanics and materials specialty conference : 1. international/3. coastal, estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference : 2. international/8. construction specialty conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lye, L.; Burrell, B.; Snow, M.; Hussein, A.; Thomas, M.; Isgor, B.; Elliott, C.; Christian, J.; Rankin, J. [Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, Montreal, PQ (Canada)] (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    This 2009 international conference of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE) focused on the findings of the latest research and the emergence of the civil engineering profession. It was held in conjunction with the following specialty conferences: the first international and first engineering mechanics and materials (IEMM)specialty conference; the first international and third international hydrotechnical coastal estuarine and offshore engineering specialty conference (IHSC); the second international and eighth construction specialty (ICS) conference; and the forum on professional practice and career development (FPD). The conference and associated specialty conferences provided a forum to discuss recent developments in all areas of civil engineering. Delegates from industrial, research, and academic institutions presented innovative technologies in the different areas of civil engineering and identified future directions for sustainable development. The presentations addressed a broad range of issues, such as the need for sustainable infrastructure while improving the safety of roads, dams, water supply and sewage treatment systems. Technical sessions addressed infrastructure management issues, risk assessment, hydrotechnical engineering and transportation engineering. The conference featured 182 presentations, of which 19 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  4. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  5. Study on the Synchronous Propulsion of New Urbanization and Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonghua LUO; Yaqing WEN

    2016-01-01

    The construction of ecological civilization is the inevitable choice for implementing of the new urbanization strategy and is the objective requirement of promoting the new urbanization. It provides the power support for the new urbanization,and economic development has entered a new era in China. In order to better promote the new urbanization and the construction of ecological civilization,there is a need to optimize the use of land resources,provide space guarantee for new urbanization and the construction of ecological civilization; vigorously develop the financial sector to provide financial support for the new urbanization and the construction of ecological civilization; perfect information infrastructure to provide information support for the new urbanization and the construction of ecological civilization; stick to people-oriented principle and strive to build livable city of ecological civilization; establish ecological compensation mechanism to promote the coordinated development of regional new ecological town; make a blue map for cooperative promotion of new urbanization and ecological civilization construction through the establishment of a scientific and rational plan.

  6. Increase of the contract amounts for LHC civil-engineering construction and civil-engineering consultancy contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the increase of the contract amounts for LHC civil-engineering construction and civil-engineering consultancy, Package 2. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of the increase of the contract amounts with: - the joint venture DRAGADOS (ES) and SELI (IT) for civil-engineering construction, LHC Package 2, for an amount of 28 087 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision, in the amount previously announced to Finance Committee (CERN/FC/4516) of 132 200 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision, bringing the total to a maximum amount of 160 287 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision. - the joint venture GIBB (GB), GEOCONSULT (AT) and SGI (CH) for the provision of civil-engineering consultancy services, LHC Package 2, for an amount of 900 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision, in the amount previously announced to Finance Committee of 13 800 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision, bringing the total to a maximum amount of 14 700 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision

  7. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Particleboards for Civil Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Battistelle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the worldwide market of particleboard production, the use of alternative raw materials is increasing, due to high demand and lack of traditional raw material, despite efforts of reforestation. In Brazil, the main agricultural commodity is sugarcane due to the copious production of sugar and ethanol. In the state of São Paulo alone approximately 140 million tons of sugarcane bagasse are produced every year, from which around 70% is burned for energy production, not adding value to the residue and generating pollution to the environment; and the other 30% is sold for composting. The objective of this work is to add value to the sugarcane bagasse by using it as a raw material for particleboard production to be employed as flooring in the area of civil construction. To achieve this, the present research characterized the physical and mechanical characteristics of the particleboards with the following alternative raw materials: sugarcane bagasse and leaves of bamboo. Particleboards were produced to reach high density (0.8g/cm3 using the resin (bi-component polyurethane castor oil. Tests for abrasion, roughness and resistance to denting and wear (Janka hardness verified that the addition of leaves of bamboo in the mixtures, contrary to what was expected, did not confer a greater degree of resistance to the particleboards. Lastly, the results showed that sugarcane bagasse is a viable raw material alternative for the production of particleboards, intended to be used as products and flooring.

  8. Exhaust Nozzle Materials Development for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has embarked on a national effort to develop the technology necessary to produce a Mach 2.4 High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) for entry into service by the year 2005. The viability of this aircraft is contingent upon its meeting both economic and environmental requirements. Two engine components have been identified as critical to the environmental acceptability of the HSCT. These include a combustor with significantly lower emissions than are feasible with current technology, and a lightweight exhaust nozzle that meets community noise standards. The Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program will develop the advanced structural materials, materials fabrication processes, structural analysis and life prediction tools for the HSCT combustor and low noise exhaust nozzle. This is being accomplished through the coordinated efforts of the NASA Lewis Research Center, General Electric Aircraft Engines and Pratt & Whitney. The mission of the EPM Exhaust Nozzle Team is to develop and demonstrate this technology by the year 1999 to enable its timely incorporation into HSCT propulsion systems.

  9. Desenvolvimento de argamassas microporosas para a construção civil Development of microporous mortar for the civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Coimbra

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho consistiu na obtenção e estudo de uma argamassa de peso leve para o uso na construção civil através da adição combinada, de aditivos formadores de microporosidade, mais a utilização de cargas que incorporam resíduos industriais. A técnica vem sendo recentemente apontada como uma promissora alternativa para a construção de estruturas leves, onde o compromisso da resistência mecânica aliada às ações ambientais, tais como degradações físico-químicas provocadas por intemperismo, não representam pré-requisitos básicos da construção civil, que possam impedir a utilização de argamassas de baixa densidade, com micro porosidade controlada. Assim sendo, esse trabalho utilizou aditivos adequados para a formação de bolhas estáveis, e quando necessário, agentes promotores de resistência mecânica, tais que puderam compensar perdas de resistência devido a presença excessiva das bolhas. A avaliação da influência dos aditivos, bem como do método de preparação das argamassas leves que incluem o mecanismo de mistura, o desenvolvimento microestrutural e propriedades são correlacionados, visando a obtenção de uma composição adequada que possa ser utilizada na fabricação de estruturas leves.The purpose of that work was to obtain a lightweight mortar for use in the civil construction through the combined addition of micropore chemical formers and industrial residues. Recently, the lightweight mortar technique has been pointed out as an alternative for the construction of light structures, where the commitment of the mechanical resistance associated with the climate actions, such as physical-chemical degradation caused by environmental actions, do not represent basic requirements for civil construction that could restrain the use of low density mortar, with micropore controlled structure. The work analysed the influence of additives adapted for the formation of stable bubbles, and in some cases, the use of

  10. Design of a System for Monitoring Reliability of Structures and Constructions in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav S. Igić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of civil engineering structures and constructions requires techniques which can produce high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements and fast processing speed. The development of information and communication systems as well as of microprocessor controllers has enabled a creation of monitoring systems that can be used for tracking reliability of structures and constructions in civil engineering, with described key features. This paper describes in detail the architecture of the Civil Engineering Structures Reliability Monitoring (CERM system. The system has been designed for the purposes of the Technical Mechanics and Theory of Constructions Department at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis. Unlike general commercial monitoring systems, the CERM system has been specially designed for the purpose of reliability monitoring, and its potential will be further exploited in this paper. It is based on usage of universal microprocessor controllers Integraf of series 10X, along with specially designed software package. This system provides real time acquisition of measurements for observed civil engineering structures and analysis of received values based on developed mathematical models.

  11. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  12. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR) may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ce...

  13. 某民用起爆器材建设项目职业病危害预评价分析%Pre- evaluation of Occupational Hazard in a Construction Project of Initiating Explosive Materials for Civil Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余志林; 杨乐华; 廖雍玲; 田国彬; 吴道溪

    2011-01-01

    目的 识别、评价该项目可能产生的职业病危害因素,为制定职业病预防措施提供依据.方法 按照《建设项目职业病危害预评价技术导则》GBZ/T196-2007[1]进行评价.结果 该项目生产过程中主要的职业病危害因素是铅及其无机化合物、奥克托金、四氯乙烯、叠氮化钠、氮氧化物、铝金属尘、硅尘、太安尘、噪声等.结论 该项目选址与总体布局、生产设备布局等基本符合国家有关规定,在各项职业病危害防护措施落实到位的情况下,该项目就职业卫生方面而言可行.%Objective To identify and assess the occurrence of possible occupational risk factors in this construction project, and to provide the evidence for proposing protection measures. Methods The construction project was evaluated according to "the Technical Guidelines for Pre - assessment for Occupational Hazard in Construction Project" (GBZ/T196 -2007). Results The mainly occupational risk factors in the process of the production were lead and its compounds, octo-gen, tetrachloroethylene, sodium azide, nitrogen oxides, aluminum dust, silicon dust, petn dust, noise, etc. Conclusions The items of selection of site, the overall layout, the arrangement and layout of the facilities accorded with the requirements of laws and regulations of occupational health. From the view of occupational health, this constructive project is feasible on the condition of all the hygiene measures.

  14. Sustainable material selection for construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization and globalization has led to a rapid development in the construction industry. Many strategies have been proposed to improve cost effectiveness in this sector. Over the last decade, cost concerns have been balanced with a growing debate on the necessity for sustainable construction...... in particular, there is an ongoing demand to select the best sustainable construction materials because the industry is growing so rapidly in this nation. Thus, the main intent of this paper is to propose a model to evaluate the best sustainable construction material based on sustainable indicators through...... practices. Because of depleting resources and environmental concerns, researchers and practitioners have begun to explore sustainable construction strategies. Among these strategies is the selection of sustainable materials which play a vital role in a building's environmental footprint. In the UAE...

  15. Use of superabsorbent polymers in construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of some of the possibilities which are offered by the use of superabsorbent polymers in construction. Superabsorbent polymers, SAP, have some distinct properties that make them interesting to use in connection with construction materials. These properties include...

  16. Construction Material Waste: Recognition and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by long term observations of the construction industry in the Northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The observations showed that the construction waste is becoming a serious environmental, economical and safety issue that affects the suburbs of the KSA. The study utilizes Likert scaled responses through a two-part questionnaire distributed to 42 contractors located in the Northern region of KSA. The first part of the questionnaire aims at identifying causes of material waste in building construction projects from the contractors’ viewpoint. The second part seeks to rank the considered materials according to their level of importance from the contractors’ viewpoint. The collected data was analyzed through Minitab statistical software. It was found that the most significant factors causing construction waste are: (1 inaccuracy in quantity surveys leading to over-ordering or under-ordering; (2 the selection of low quality products; (3 detail errors in design and construction; (4 the order of supplies in loose form; (5 and the inefficiency in resource management. The results of this study show that construction material handling and managerial decisions have a critical impact on the cause and effect of the level of construction waste. The study findings demonstrate that the most important benefits for considering construction waste are to know the exact required quantities for a construction project and to plan and prepare an accurate schedule for material arriving supply. The study recommends employing Lean Manufacturing principles to eliminate the construction waste and to enhance the decision making process in construction management in the northern part of KSA.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF PROJECTN MANAGEMENT IN CIVIL CONSTRUCTION AT SUGAR AND ALCOHOL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Parras Meleiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study case on performance of project management in civil construction at sugarcane and alcohol plants. The survey was conducted in sugarcane and alcohol plant in Barra Bonita, São Paulo state, Brazil, which is a joint venture formed by the world´s largest sugar cane processor as well as one of the largest world´s fuel distributors. Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer and the second one of bioethanol. São Paulo state is the biggest national producer with approximately 60% of production. This fact boosted the investment of foreign groups in this sector. Historically, civil projects were managed by employees themselves sometimes with no experience in project management and without the use of adequate criteria, tools and methods. With the arrival of investors, improvement projects have become indispensable, teams sought for improvement and project managers have gained strength. This paper aims at showing the performance of a management at sugarcane and alcohol plant in civil construction projects, demonstrating the relationship between involved parties and the benefits achieved with the implementation of established management methods for the conducting these projects.

  18. Civil engineering project construction in the concrete construction technical analysis%土建施工中混凝土施工技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢超禄

    2014-01-01

    土建项目工程不同于其它项目工程的是,它涉及面广、专业多、工程复杂,在土建工程建设中,混凝土施工是被广泛应用的施工方式[1]。混凝土施工技术的好坏直接决定着土建工程项目质量。本文结合一线施工经验,对土建施工建设中的混凝土施工技术做出简要分析,以期待能够为一线土建混凝土有效施工提供参考。%Civil engineering is different from other projects,it is broad,more professional,engineering complex, in the construction of civil engineering,concrete construction is a widely used way of construction.Concrete construction technology is good or bad directly decides the quality of civil engineering projects.At this point,in this paper,the author combined with a line of construction experience,to make a brief analysis of civil engineering construction in the concrete construction technology,hoping to provide reference for civil engineering concrete construction.

  19. Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building.

  20. Propaganda and the construction of a war culture in Spain during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco SEVILLANO CALERO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the war propaganda during the Civil War and the first years of the Francoist “New State». Recent work has addressed the construction of the image of the enemy on the basis of the prevailing stereotypes, and how General Franco’s persona was transfigured symbolically through the development of a charismatic image within the rhetoric, rites and liturgies of the ‘New State». This propaganda helped spread a culture of war from 1936 to 1939 and beyond.

  1. Study of reuse drill cuttings as aggregate in the civil construction industry; Estudo para reaproveitamento do cascalho de perfuracao como agregado na industria da construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neder, L.T.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Santos, E.; Bezerra, M.T.A.; Farias, J.G.; Felizardo, A.; Santos, A.S.; Ribeiro, J.C. [PETROBRAS, Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio; Curti, R.; Suto, A.J. [Associacao Brasileira de Cimento Portland, Jaguare, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This study was conducted to verify technical feasibility in reusing drill cuttings originated in oil and gas exploration and production to produce concrete or mortar elements. It consisted of physical and chemical characterization of all items used to build field-cured cement samples - drill cuttings, cement and used aggregates; evaluation of resistance; environmental behavior and classification of the resultant materials. The results had demonstrated the reuse of drill cuttings is possible from both technical and environmental perspective and the ratio of concrete or mortar can be customized according to physical and mechanical needs of end products. In the civil construction elements can be built and used as road basis, ground-cement base, blocks and bricks and other non-structural elements. The application of these elements in E and P operations include containment walls for onshore wells, collecting stations, pipeline brackets, supports and hold-down anchors as well as road pavement and access. From the standpoint of chemical safety, the resultant elements made-up from drill cuttings had demonstrated no potential risk for hydrocarbon leaching (TPH), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's), Volatile Organic Compounds (BTEX), Phenols nor Metals. From these results many improvements in the E and P waste management can be established, bringing both economy and greater environment protection measures for the Oil and Gas Exploration and Production operations. (author)

  2. Ideology and Poetics in Public Issue Construction: Thatcherism, Civil Liberties, and "Terrorism" in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Giles, Trevor

    1995-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of Margaret Thatcher, indicating how Thatcherism intensified existing ideological tensions within the British context; how Thatcherism constructed the public issue of "terrorism" in Northern Ireland as an "epic tragedy"; and how such a construction materially shifted and ensnared commitments to…

  3. 土木工程中混凝土施工技术分析%Analysis of the Concrete Construction Technology in Civil Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平

    2013-01-01

    In the building construction process, the choice of materials is extremely strict. The material quality is good or bad is often directly determines the quality of construction wo-rk. The essay analyzes the construction technology of civil en-gineering concrete and summarizes some useful suggestions to improve the quality of construction.%  在建筑工程施工过程中,选用的材料是异常严格的。材料质量好坏往往直接决定了建筑工程的质量。本文对土木工程中混凝土施工技术进行分析,总结了一些提高建筑工程质量的有效建议。

  4. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  5. 生态文明建设的科学内涵与基本路径%Ecological Civilization Construction:Scientific Connotation and Basic Paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷树忠; 胡咏君; 周洪

    2013-01-01

    生态文明建设是我国今后发展的重要方向、重大领域和重大任务.在十八大报告提出“大力推进生态文明建设”的基础上,从人与自然的关系、生态文明与现代文明的关系、生态文明与时代发展的关系三个方面系统阐释了生态文明建设的科学内涵,并从建设主体、建设地域、建设内容、建设手段四个方面,构建生态文明建设的分类体系.对生态文明建设的基本路径进行设计,明确生态文明建设的目标和依据,提出生态文明建设的四条基本路径,其中资源保护与节约是生态文明建设的重中之重,环境保护与治理是生态文明建设的关键所在,生态保护与修复为生态文明建设提供重要载体,国土开发与保护是生态文明建设的空间规制.最后从全民参与、科学规划和制度创新三个方面针对基本路径提出生态文明建设的具体政策建议.%Ecological civilization construction is a major direction, a key field and an important mission of Chinese future development. Some academics studied on the concept, feature and status of ecological civilization, which are mainly surrounded the theory but provide few values for the practices. Under the background of the 18th (the Communist Party of China) CPC national Congress proposing "Promote the construction of ecological civilization", this paper systematically expounds the scientific connotation of ecological civilization from three kinds of relations: man and nature, ecological civilization and modern civilization, ecological civilization and development. Then it constructs the classification system of ecological civilization construction from four aspects: body, area, content and means. The body of ecological civilization construction includes the governments, the entrepreneurs, the families, NGOs and mixed bodies. The area of ecological civilization construction is divided into five levels: global scale, national scale, district

  6. Study on the Construction of Eco-security System in China under the Ecological Civilization Concept——Based on the Ecological Civilization Construction in Qingzhen City of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The construction of eco-security system was a complicated systematic project, included the comprehensive construction and collaborative propulsion of eco-environment system, eco-economy system, eco-culture system, eco-society system and eco-law system. The comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of ecology, economy and society only could be achieved under the guidance of ecological civilization concept by the integrated consideration, comprehensive planning and multi-coordination.

  7. Standard Practice for Evaluating Material Property Characteristic Values for Polymeric Composites for Civil Engineering Structural Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedures for computing characteristic values of material properties of polymeric composite materials intended for use in civil engineering structural applications. The characteristic value is a statistically-based material property representing the 80 % lower confidence bound on the 5th-percentile value of a specified population. Characteristic values determined using this standard practice can be used to calculate structural member resistance values in design codes for composite civil engineering structures and for establishing limits upon which qualification and acceptance criteria can be based. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. An analysis on ecological civilization construction in Gansu based on a quantified SWOT framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLi Li; HongLang Xiao; SongBing Zou; Juan Ren

    2014-01-01

    Ecological civilization (EC) construction has become one of the key elements of China’s reform and development process, since it was put forward at the 17th National People’s Congress (NPC) in 2007 and improved at the 18th NPC in 2012, and stressed at the third plenary session of the 18th NPC. The provincial areas are the most important pilot units of EC strategy. Therefore, research on EC at the provincial level can meet the practical demand for EC in China. Based on the existing provincial circumstances in Gansu and its significant position as an ecological barrier in northwestern China, and aiming at the core issue of why and how to build EC in Gansu, this paper employs SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis, the Delphi method, and a combined quantitative analysis and coordinate method, and then calculates the relevant strategic orientation angle (θ=1.4605) and strength coefficient (ρ=0.53). The results show that Gansu should take an opportunities-dominated strategy, and choose opportunity-strength measures, so the province can increase its in-ternal strengths and decrease its weaknesses with external opportunities. Specific measures are recommended to actively promote an EC construction strategy.

  9. Design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Murray, A. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Abes, J. [CC Technologies Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 4 discussed issues regarding recent technologies and practices in oil and gas pipeline design, material specification, qualification, construction and maintenance. The presentations raised awareness on emerging developments, issues and concerns, including the steps needed to implement an alternative integrity validation (AIV) process in lieu of a post-construction hydrotesting for pipeline construction. It was determined that before AIV can become an accepted practice for the entire oil and gas industry, additional research is needed to form criteria for acceptance by both regulators and the public. Issues regarding the rehabilitation of pipelines with reference to maintaining high safety standards were also reviewed. It was noted that the current labour shortage makes safety even more pertinent. Procedures should be written to ensure compliance by employees. The group discussed how operators should determine the required pressure decrease and margin of safety for integrity work in a ditch. The dangers of driver fatigue were also discussed along with proposed measures to reduce the risk of injuries to drivers. tabs., figs.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY INNOVATIVE OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION BASED ON INFORMATION MODELING OF INDUSTRIAL AND CIVIL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Владимирович Трофимов

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the implementation of the Russian construction industry innovative development strategies based on information modeling of industrial and civil objects with the use of information technology. The use of such technologies as the BIM: Building Information modeling - BIM, 4D modeling, Multi-D modeling, Product LiveCycle Management - PLM, allows to activate innovative processes and supports the basic condition for the realization of innovative strategy of development of the construction industry of the Russian Federation.

  11. Desenvolvimento de argamassas microporosas para a construção civil Development of microporous mortar for the civil construction

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Coimbra; Morelli,M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Esse trabalho consistiu na obtenção e estudo de uma argamassa de peso leve para o uso na construção civil através da adição combinada, de aditivos formadores de microporosidade, mais a utilização de cargas que incorporam resíduos industriais. A técnica vem sendo recentemente apontada como uma promissora alternativa para a construção de estruturas leves, onde o compromisso da resistência mecânica aliada às ações ambientais, tais como degradações físico-químicas provocadas por intemperismo, não...

  12. Re-engineering organizations for optimal deployment of smart materials and intelligent devices in civil infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diraby, Tamer E.; Beheshti, Arzhang

    2002-06-01

    Smart materials and intelligent devices are promising to revolutionize data collection in civil infrastructure. However, their application has so far been very limited in scope. So far, there is no comprehensive mechanisms to integrate data generated by smart materials and intelligent devices into the overall IT systems of user organizations. This article outlines a framework for reengineering organizations for optimal utilization of smart materials and intelligent devices in the infrastructure development domain. The aim is to integrate data collection and management into the organizational culture. The framework includes three basic modules: assessing current practice, identifying level of deployment, and defining the needed actions.

  13. Construction materials and construction influential factors in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Skribans, V.

    2000-01-01

    In work are analysed situation in Latvian building, building material producing, in real estate market. Show on building material producing influential factors. Analysed statistic about building material produce and using in Latvia. Work out matrix, which help to develop produces and building material branch.

  14. Green Building Construction Thermal Isolation Materials (Rockwool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Itewi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Building insulation consisting roughly to anything in a structure that is utilizes as insulation for any reason. Thermal insulation in structures is a significant feature to attaining thermal comfort for its tenants. Approach: Insulation decreases unnecessary warmth loss or gain and can reduce the power burdens of heating and cooling structures. It does not automatically having anything to do with problems of sufficient exposure to air and might or might not influence the amount of sound insulation. Results: In a constricted way insulation can just mean the insulation substance used to reduce heat loss, such as: Glass wool, cellulose, polystyrene, rock wool, urethane foam, vermiculite and the earth, but it can also entail a variety of plans and methods used to deal with the chief forms of heat movement like transmission, emission and convection substances. The efficiency of insulation is normally assessed by its R-value. However, an R-value does not allow for the superiority of assembly or narrow green issues for each structure. Building superiority matters comprise insufficient vapor obstructions and troubles with draft-proofing. Additionally, the property and concentration of the insulation substance itself is vital. Fiberglass insulation materials, for example, made out of short fibers of glass covered on top of each other is not as long-lasting as insulation prepared from extended entwined fibers of glass. Conclusion/Recommendations: Rockwool insulation is a kind of insulation that is constructed out of real rocks and minerals. It furthermore is known by the names of mineral wool insulation, stone wool insulation or slag wool insulation. A broad collection of goods can be constructed from Rockwool, because of its outstanding capability to obstruct sound and heat. Rockwool insulation is normally utilized in building assembly, manufacturing plants and in automotive purposes. In this study i proposed to use

  15. TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS TO CREATE ESTHETICAL CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES USING THE GEOSYNTHETICS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally polymeric products used to solve some civil engineeringproblems. The term is generally regarded to encompass eight main product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets,geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, geofoam, geocells (cellular confinement and geocomposites. The syntheticpolymeric nature of these products makes them suitable for use in the ground where high levels of durability arerequired. Not only because, properly formulated, they can also be used in exposed applications. Geosynthetics areavailable in a wide range of forms and materials, each to suit a slightly different end use. These products have a widerange of applications and are currently used in many civil, geotechnical, transportation, geoenvironmental, hydraulic,and private development applications including roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, retaining structures,reservoirs, canals, dams, erosion control, sediment control, landfill liners, landfill covers, mining, aquaculture andagriculture. The paper presents basic aspects of geotextiles, drainage, geocomposite designissues and technicalsolutions of their use.

  16. A composite construction material that solidifies in water

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyoshi, Akihiro; Fukai, Ichiro; Takeuchi, Mikio

    1990-01-01

    A flexible, waterproof material that will solidify in water has long been desired in civil engineering. We have developed a new class of material, called Aquaphalt, which has these and other desirable properties. Aquaphalt is composed of an asphalt emulsion, cement and a water-absorbing polymer. The components are liquid at ambient temperature and can therefore be pumped, but they form a gel almost instantly when mixed. The hardened mixture is similar to hard bitumen, and has very low water p...

  17. Inquiry on civil construction technology points of building engineering%建筑工程土建施工技术要点探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵成学

    2015-01-01

    依照建筑工程土建的施工要求,简单的总结了建筑工程土建施工的关键技术要点,主要包括混凝土施工、钢筋施工、砖砌筑施工、防水施工、模板施工五方面内容,以期达到提升建筑工程土建施工技术性能的目的。%According to civil construction demands of building engineering,the paper briefly summarizes critical civil construction technology points of building engineering,which mainly includes concrete construction,steel construction,brick masonry construction,waterproofing construc-tion and template construction,with a view to achieve the goal of improving civil construction technology performance of building engineering.

  18. Survey on educational material on sustainable constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Veljkovic, Milan; Koukkari, Heli; Braganca, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Higher education of professionals in the construction and real estate sector is in the process of “Greening curricula”. Pressures to educate environmentally literate workforce are increasing. Leading construction companies worldwide are becoming involved in green construction. “Green building, green project, green property, green procurement as well as green living and green citizenship” are concepts that are used in business like in voluntary organisations. The literature surv...

  19. Integrating Sustainable Construction Materials to Achieve Green Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajeed H. Kasassbeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green buildings integrate building materials and methods that promote environmental quality, economic vitality and social benefits through the design, construction and operation of the built environment. This study demonstrates potential actions including material selection that can be implemented to achieve green building. Also, we discuss the importance and environmental impact of sustainable material, the selection criteria of these materials and the different types of sustainable materials in the buildings construction in Jordan.

  20. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  1. Some Reflections on Contemporary Eco-civilization Construction in China%对当代中国生态文明建设的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广全

    2013-01-01

    建设生态文明是关系人民福祉、关乎民族未来的长远大计。“生态文明”理念是继中国特色社会主义“物质文明、精神文明、政治文明和社会文明”之后提出的第五个文明,是顺应人类社会文明进程、实现永续发展、传承马克思主义和弘扬华夏优秀传统的必然,也是中国特色社会主义文明体系中不可缺少的重要组成部分。党的十八大和十八届三中全会把生态文明建设提升到与经济、政治、文化、社会四大建设并列的高度,列入“五位一体”建设的总布局,凸显生态文明建设的地位。中国面对资源约束趋紧、环境污染严重、生态系统退化的严峻形势,用不到世界10%的耕地和6%的淡水养活了超过全球21%的人口,用不到30%的世界人均资源占有率创造了约世界10.0%的GDP ,为世界和平发展做出了杰出贡献,要维持中国社会经济快速稳步发展。到2020年实现 GDP比2000年的翻两番,全面建成小康社会,为实现这一目标,必须坚守“一个”目的,实现永续发展;尊重自然规律,推进“两个”转变;坚持“三项”原则,维护公平正义;做好顶层设计,实施“四大”战略;处好“五种”关系,统筹协调发展。最终实现天蓝、地绿、水净生态文明的繁荣富强美丽中国。%The ecological civilization construction in China is the relationship between the welfare of the people, in relation to the nation’s future long-term plan.“Ecological civilization”concept proposed is following the fifth civilization after“material civilization, spiritual civilization, political civilization and civilized society”with Chinese socialism characteristics;is inevitable to follow the progress of human civilization, to achieve sustainable development, to promote the heritage of Marxism, to raise excellent Chinese tradition, and also is indispensable important part of Chinese

  2. Feasibility Study of Construction of Building Using Reusable Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darade M.M,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil structures made of steel reinforced concrete normally suffer from corrosion of the steel by the salt, which results in the failure of those structures. Constant maintenance and repairing is needed to enhance the life cycle of those civil structures. There are many ways to minimize the failure of the concrete structures made of steel reinforce concrete. The Project aims to optimize the construction resources with applications to reduce, reuse and recycle to achieve the motive of saving planet, public and then profit. There is an unavoidable growth in the population for this, there is demand of urbanization. This consumes high amount of non-renewable resources and hence resources are getting exhausted creating a scarcity, which a major issue for present generation.

  3. Self-Organized Construction with Continuous Building Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Wahby, Mostafa; Divband Soorati, Mohammad;

    2016-01-01

    Self-organized construction with continuous, structured building material, as opposed to modular units, offers new challenges to the robot-based construction process and lends the opportunity for increased flexibility in constructed artifact properties, such as shape and deformation. As an exampl...

  4. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  5. Representações do trabalho entre trabalhadores informais da construção civil Representaciones del trabajo en trabajadores informales en la construcción civil The representation of work among irregular construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberval Passos de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo buscou compreender as representações do trabalho entre trabalhadores informais da construção civil. Foi adotada como referencial teórico a Teoria das Representações Sociais. Diante da complexidade do problema de pesquisa abordado, fez-se uso de múltiplas técnicas de coleta de dados: entrevistas em profundidade com oito trabalhadores e observação participante. Os resultados revelaram que o trabalho é representado como uma dimensão central na vida dos trabalhadores, subsidiando a sobrevivência material e social. Entretanto, o trabalho na construção civil foi descrito como pesado e desvalorizado, aparentando constituir-se como "último recurso" buscado para garantir a sobrevivência. Os trabalhadores reconhecem a precarização do trabalho gerada pela inserção informal, sentindo-se inferiorizados em relação aos trabalhadores formais. Tal quadro demonstra como os trabalhadores informais vivenciam um tipo de violência que lhes cerceia o usufruto de direitos constitucionalmente assegurados, excluindo-os do pleno gozo da cidadania.El presente estudio buscó comprender las representaciones sobre trabajo en trabajadores informales en la construcción civil. Fue adoptada como referencial teórico la Teoría de las Representaciones Sociales. Debido a la complejidad del problema de investigación abordado, se hizo uso de varias técnicas de colecta de datos: entrevistas en profundidad con ocho trabajadores, y observación participante. Los resultados muestran que el trabajo es representado como una dimensión central en la vida de los trabajadores, la cual subsidia la supervivencia material y social. De tal forma, el trabajo en la construcción civil fue descrito como pesado y desvalorizado, aparentando ser el "último recurso" buscado para garantizar la supervivencia. Los trabajadores reconocen una precarización del trabajo generada por la inserción en el sector informal, sintiéndose inferiores en relación a los

  6. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining.

  7. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.

  8. The Application of Deep Foundation Supporting Construction Technology in Civil Construction%关于深基坑支护施工技术在土建施工中应用的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽

    2013-01-01

    This paper comprehends the application of deep foundation supporting construction technology in civil construction through analyzing the characteristics of deep foundation supporting construction technology, and discusses the important role of deep foundation supporting construction technology in civil construction.%本文通过对深基坑支护施工技术的特点进行分析,了解深基坑支护技术在施工中的应用,并且探讨深基坑支护施工技术对土建施工中的重要作用。

  9. Early ceremonial constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the origins of lowland Maya civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Aoyama, Kazuo; Castillo, Victor; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2013-04-26

    The spread of plaza-pyramid complexes across southern Mesoamerica during the early Middle Preclassic period (1000 to 700 BCE) provides critical information regarding the origins of lowland Maya civilization and the role of the Gulf Coast Olmec. Recent excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, documented the growth of a formal ceremonial space into a plaza-pyramid complex that predated comparable buildings at other lowland Maya sites and major occupations at the Olmec center of La Venta. The development of lowland Maya civilization did not result from one-directional influence from La Venta, but from interregional interactions, involving groups in the southwestern Maya lowlands, Chiapas, the Pacific Coast, and the southern Gulf Coast.

  10. 探讨土建施工的现场管理及解决对策%Discussion on the Civil Construction Site Management and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊

    2014-01-01

    目前,我国土建工程在施工过程中,由于受原材料控制、管理、施工技术水平、施工工艺、地质条件等因素的影响,经常会发生一些问题,给群众的财产和生命安全造成了威胁。本文主要针对土建施工过程中的现场管理问题,探讨了相应的解决对策。%At present, in the construction process of civil eng-ineering in our country, because of suffering the effects of raw material control, management, the level of construction techn-ology, construction technology, geological conditions and oth-er factors, there are some problems posing a threat to people’s property and life safety. This paper mainly aimed at the prob-lems in the process of construction site management, discuss-ing the corresponding solving countermeasures.

  11. Nanostructured materials, production and application in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of water-soluble high module silicate systems: based on polysilicates of alkali element called liquid glasses and the chains of their transformations from the lowest oligomers into the highest ones with further formation colloid solutions – silica sol. The authors describe the potentialities of the use of such systems as binders or modifying additives to produce different nanostructured silicate polymer concretes. There are examples of prospective application of liquid glass and water solutions of high module silicates in industrial areas and construction. Quantum-chemical calculations of the structure and properties of tetraphenylarsonium are given and heterogeneity of its functional groups is shown.

  12. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  13. Innovative Materials and Techniques in Concrete Construction : ACES Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen enormous advances in the technology of concrete as a material, through which its strength, compactness and ductility can reach levels never dreamed of before. Thanks to these improved material properties, the strength and durability of concrete structures is greatly improved, their weight and dimensions reduced, the scope of concrete as a structural material is widened and – despite the higher material costs – overall economy is possible, with positive impacts on sustainability as well. Similar advances are underway in reinforcing materials, notably high strength steel and fibre-reinforced polymers, and in the way they are combined with concrete into high performance structures. Developments in materials and equipment, as well as new concepts, have lead to innovative construction techniques, reducing cost and construction time and making possible the application of concrete under extreme conditions of construction or environment. All these advances will be highlighted in the book by...

  14. Enablers of Innovation in the Construction Material Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Jacobsen, Alexia

    2014-01-01

    . By exploring case-based innovation processes the purpose is to discover enablers of innovation in the construction material industry. The research design is based on explorative case studies. By applying case study as method, the research is drawn towards inductive research, where we investigate patterns......The construction material industry is often acknowledged as slightly more innovative than the overall construction industry and could hence serve as a valuable learning place for how innovation could flourish in the construction industry. Construction is viewed as network or supply chain based...... suitable for generalization on enablers for innovation. In total, six cases of successful innovation are investigated. The conclusion of this research validates that open innovation in a network approach is a precondition for a successful innovation journey in the construction industry. In addition...

  15. Construction Schedule Risk Factors Analysis and Judgment of Civil Engineering%土木工程施工进度风险因素分析与判断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春安; 赵剑

    2013-01-01

    随着我国经济的飞速发展,土木工程施工建设占有的位置越来越重要。其中土木工程施工进度风险是土木工程施工的重要影响因素。本文通过对土木工程施工进度风险影响因素的分析,提出一些关于控制土木工程施工进度风险因素的意见。%With the rapid development of our economy, civil engineering construction occupies the more and more impor-tant position. The civil engineering construction schedule risk is an important factor in the civil engineering construction. Th-is paper through the analysis of affecting risk factors on civil engineering construction schedule puts forward some factors to control the risk of civil engineering construction schedule.

  16. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Bolden; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini

    2013-01-01

    More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nationâs landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take a...

  17. Analysis of the Civil Servants' Professional Ethics Construction%浅析我国公务员职业伦理建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文婷

    2012-01-01

    Civil level of professional ethics is an important benchmark to measure the ethical standards of a society as a whole,and how to strengthen the civil servants professional ethics is a topic of great value.This article focuses on the connotation of the civil servants professional ethics,the difficulties faced by China's civil servants professional ethics construction,as well as explore the developed countries,civil servants professional ethics construction of useful experience and enlightenment for China's national conditions,to make some suggestions for the civil servants professional ethics construction,in order to be able to provide a reference.%公务员职业伦理水平是衡量一个社会整体道德水平的重要标杆,如何加强公务员职业伦理建设,是具有重要价值的课题。本文主要阐述公务员职业伦理的内涵,我国公务员职业伦理建设面临的困境,以及探讨发达国家公务员职业伦理建设对我国的有益经验和启示,从而针对中国国情,为公务员职业伦理建设的构建提出一些建议,以期能够提供参考。

  18. Ethics review of the civil ecological personality missing and the construction of civil ecological personality%公民生态人格缺失的伦理审视与建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雁

    2015-01-01

    生态人格作为生态文明时代公民应该呈现出的伦理主体形态和生存范式,是对工业社会人与自然关系扭曲观念的反思,也是对生态危机下人类可持续生存发展困境以及传统人格精神危机的觉解与回应。当前公民生态人格缺失主要表现为:自然信仰的虚无、生命意义感迷失、受物欲的支配和生态利己主义倾向等方面。公民生态人格的建构需要从融合人与自然裂隙的角度实现价值观、伦理情感、生活方式和责任承担等方面的整体转向。%Ecological personality is the main ethical form and life paradigm of citizens which supposes to show in the era of ecological civilization .It is the reflection of the distorted concept on the relationship between man and nature in industrial society and also the awareness and response on the ecological crisis of sustainable survival and development dilemma and spiritual crisis of the traditional personality .The civil ecological personality deficiencies are shown as follows: natural faith nihility , life sense lost, material control and eco-egoism.The construction of ecological personality of citizens needs people to make adjustments and changes in the values , ethical emotion , life style and responsibility undertaken from the perspective of the integration of human and nature .

  19. Applications of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ohama, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysis is based on the semiconducting nature of its anatase crystal type. Construction materials with titanium photocatalyst show performances of air purification, self-cleaning, water purification, antibacterial action. This book describes principles of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, its applications to cementitious and noncementitious materials, as well as an overview of standardization of testing methods.

  20. Transport and handling of construction materials in the hard coal mining industry and tunnel construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, Stephan [Olko-Maschinentechnik GmbH, Olfen (Germany)

    2008-08-21

    In the German hard coal mining industry construction materials with the most diverse compositions are required for various applications. The largest proportion of the materials is required for the construction of roadside packs and for the backfilling of roadways because of the ever increasing depths and the resulting rock mechanical problems. Over the last 30 years handling, transport and processing systems have been developed to cope with these quantities of materials and to avoid further loads on the shaft hoisting installation. Nowadays these systems are standardised and are characterised by mobility, flexibility, small space requirement and the latest control engineering. This applies in particular to pneumatic and hydraulic transport and distribution of the construction materials. In future all mines will monitor and control all installations above and below ground from a central control room. The methods developed in the mining industry are also successfully used in tunnel and underground railway construction. (orig.)

  1. 论生态文明建设的四个纬度%On the Four Dimensions of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵光学

    2014-01-01

    党的十七大报告首次提出了建设生态文明的目标,十八大报告从关系人民福祉和民族未来的高度彰显了生态文明建设的重要性,十八届三中全会强调通过生态文明制度建设推动人与自然和谐发展。可见,生态文明建设日益受到党和国家的重视。文章从四个方面对生态文明建设进行解读:首先突出了生态文明建设的经济纬度,即转变经济发展方式,促进循环经济发展;其次论证了生态文明建设的制度纬度,即不断完善政策法规体系,建立健全资源环境生态保护体制机制;再次从技术纬度对生态文明建设进行解读,强调加大污染防治力度,促进自然生态修复;最后探讨了生态文明建设的思想文化纬度,即大力推进生态文化建设,树立生态文明理念。文章认为,只有从经济、制度、技术和思想文化四个方面加强生态文明建设,才能不断推进生态文明建设的深入开展。%On the report at 17th Party Congress, the goal of ecological civilization construction is first raised. On the report at the 18th Party Congress, the importance of ecological civilization construction is highlighted from the perspective of people's well-being and national future. On the Third Plenary Session of 18th CPC Central Committee, promoting harmonious development between human and nature by the building of ecological civilization system is stressed. It is obvious that ecological civilization construction is increasingly taken seriously by our party and our country. This paper interprets ecological civilization construction from four aspects. It first emphasizes the economic dimension of ecological civilization construction, which refers to changing the mode of economic development and promoting the development of circular economy. It then illustrates the systematic dimension of ecological civilization construction , which consists in perfecting policy and law

  2. Construction of Civil and Public Facilities of Chinese Cities in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>In 2006, by adopting the Scientific View of Development to guide the urban con-struction, the municipal governments of different levels in China continued to carry out the policies and measures issued by the Central Government con-

  3. Advanced spatio-temporal filtering techniques for photogrammetric image sequence analysis in civil engineering material testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper shows advanced spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal filtering techniques which may be used to reduce noise effects in photogrammetric image sequence analysis tasks and tools. As a practical example, the techniques are validated in a photogrammetric spatio-temporal crack detection and analysis tool applied in load tests in civil engineering material testing. The load test technique is based on monocular image sequences of a test object under varying load conditions. The first image of a sequence is defined as a reference image under zero load, wherein interest points are determined and connected in a triangular irregular network structure. For each epoch, these triangles are compared to the reference image triangles to search for deformations. The result of the feature point tracking and triangle comparison process is a spatio-temporally resolved strain value field, wherein cracks can be detected, located and measured via local discrepancies. The strains can be visualized as a color-coded map. In order to improve the measuring system and to reduce noise, the strain values of each triangle must be treated in a filtering process. The paper shows the results of various filter techniques in the spatial and in the temporal domain as well as spatio-temporal filtering techniques applied to these data. The best results were obtained by a bilateral filter in the spatial domain and by a spatio-temporal EOF (empirical orthogonal function) filtering technique.

  4. Values in Marx's Ecological Ethics Thought and Their Enlightenment to the Construction of Ecological Civilization%马克思生态伦理价值观对生态文明建设的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧芳

    2014-01-01

    Marx puts forward a series of thoughts of ecological ethics in his related works, which shed light on the construction of ecological civilization in aspects as the dialectical relationship between human and nature, the material transformation in the capitalist production process, the profit -driven nature of capitalism and the conse-quent capitalism dual crisis and moderate consumption patterns, etc.It can be seen that Marx's philosophy not only lays the theory foundation for the construction of ecological civilization, but also provides solution and methods.In today's construction of ecological civilization, Marx's ecological ethics thought plays the theory guide and forward -looking role to China's modernization and ecological civilization construction.%马克思相关著作中蕴含着一定的生态伦理思想,它对生态文明建设具有诸多启示,如人与自然的辩证关系,资本主义生产过程的物质变换,资本逐利性本质以及所造成的资本主义双重危机和适度消费模式等。由此观之,马克思哲学不但为生态文明建设奠定了理论根基,而且还提出了解决思路和方法。在当今生态文明建设中,马克思生态伦理思想对我国现代化建设和生态文明建设具有理论先导和前瞻性的作用。

  5. La introducción del material fáctico en el proceso civil

    OpenAIRE

    José OVALLE FAVELA

    2011-01-01

    El trabajo se basa en el análisis de las disposiciones del Código de Procedimientos Civiles para el Distrito Federal, el Código Federal de Procedimientos Civiles y el Código de Procedimientos Civiles para el Estado de Tabasco. Comprende fundamentalmente dos grandes partes. En la primera se analizan los requisitos de forma, tiempo y contenido que las partes deben cumplir para introducir los hechos objeto del proceso, a través de la demanda, la contestación a la demanda, la reconvención y la co...

  6. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade: Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, January, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1989-01-12

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to the Fermilab fixed target program.

  7. Safety Production Management Mode Innovation of Civil Construction Team%土木建筑施工班组安全生产管理模式创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焱; 周睿; 赵挺生; 杨西海

    2014-01-01

    在分析我国安全生产监督管理机制和土木建筑施工项目安全生产管理模式基础上,结合土木建筑行业安全生产过程特点,指出土木建筑行业必须发挥班组的重要作用。借鉴煤炭、电力等行业平安班组建设经验,建议了以联保、互保制度为核心的土木建筑施工作业班组模式。实践表明,尽管土木建筑施工班组稳定性差,但平安班组建设促进了班组人员安全意识的提高,班组人员发现、排解安全风险能力增强,促进了工程建设安全生产。%This paper analyses the production safety supervision and management mechanism of China and the safety pro-duction management mode of civil construction project ,then points out that the work team should play an important role in civil construction industry based on the characteristics of production safety process for civil construction .Reference to the safety team building experience in some industries such as the coal industry ,power industry and so on ,it is put forward the civil construction work team mode ,which is concentrated in joint guarantee system and mutual insurance system .The prac-tice proves that safety team building can promote the safety awareness of team members though civil construction team lacks stability and team members’ abilities to discover and eliminate safety risks are also improved ,which can promote the safety production in engineering construction .

  8. Construction and materials of airframe resisting severer fleight environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanbongi, Shigeo

    1988-07-01

    It is unavoidable for any spaceplane to encounter mechanically and thermally severe conditions regardless of the type when taking off and asecending or reentering the atmosphere. The nose part and other parts of smaller curvature are heated to about 1,500/sup 0/C by the friction between air and the airframe. The minimum temperature in the airframe is -253/sup 0/C in the liquid hydrogen tank and it is required for the construction to resist this larger temperature difference and severe mechanical outside load. For these reasons, the airframe side wall is constructed by thermal protection system(PTS), main construction material and insulating material; and suitable materials and constructions must be selected to respective parts. In addition to using different heat resistant materials for PTS, an active mean to cool heated parts with a coolant can be thought. There are much technical accumulations in the USA, and there is large technological gap between Japan and the USA but Japan may display the power with advanced materials. (9 figs, 6 refs)

  9. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Particleboards for Civil Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Rosane Battistelle; Danielle Fujino; Ana Luiza Silva; Barbara Bezerra; Ivaldo Valarelli

    2016-01-01

    In the worldwide market of particleboard production, the use of alternative raw materials is increasing, due to high demand and lack of traditional raw material, despite efforts of reforestation. In Brazil, the main agricultural commodity is sugarcane due to the copious production of sugar and ethanol. In the state of São Paulo alone approximately 140 million tons of sugarcane bagasse are produced every year, from which around 70% is burned for energy production, not adding value to th...

  10. Evaluation of environmental management resources (ISO 14001) at civil engineering construction worksites: a case study of the community of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gracia; Alegre, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Germán

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental

  11. 将生态文明贯穿于绿色矿山建设全过程%The ecological civilization throughout the green mine construction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔繁盛

    2013-01-01

    本文在阐明生态文明建设的重要内涵、意义及其在绿色矿业发展中的重要基础作用的基础上,围绕绿色矿山建设基本条件,提出了如何贯彻落实生态文明建设的一些意见和看法,以利于推进绿色矿山建设向深层次发展.%Based on the ecological civilization construction to clarify the important connotation, significance and the important basic role in the green mining development, on the basis of green mine construction around the basic conditions, puts forward how to implement the ecological civilization construction of the some opinions and views, in order to promote the construction of green mine to in-depth development.

  12. Climate Change and Construction of Ecological Civilization%气候变化与生态文明建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 范广洲

    2015-01-01

    全球气候变化是当今世界的焦点问题。全球变暖导致极端天气和气候事件频发,威胁着人类生存发展。中国作为最大的发展中国家,国家与国民安全受到气候变化的严重影响。为了应对严峻的形势,需要社会和民众大力推进生态文明建设,树立生态文明理念,提高科学技术水平,科学应对气候变化,积极完成节能减排、环境保护等重要任务,使中华民族更加繁荣昌盛。%Nowadays, global climate change as a serious issue causes a lot of attention, bring a significant impact on society and people around the world.Global warming causes frequent extreme weather and climate events, threatening human survival and development.As the biggest developing country, China and its national security are seriously affected by the climate change.To face such a tense situation, Chinese society and people need to greatly promote the construction of ecological civilization, set up the concept of ecological civilization, improve the levels of science and technology, scientifically response to the climate change, positively complete the important tasks, such as, energy conservation, emissions reduction and protection for the environment etc., so as to make China more thriving and prosperous.

  13. Old and Modern Construction Materials In Yemen: The Effect In Building Construction In Sana'a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA A.M. Al_Kahtani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sana’a city in Yemen is one of the oldest cities in the worlds, which has different forms of building built with different types of materials. In the present work, the old and new forms of building construction and the building materials used in Sana’a, the sources available for the new material, the effects of new material usage on building forms are all presented with the advantages and disadvantages of each material. The old shapes of buildings in Yemen and the classical and modern forms of construction using different types of materials are considered in the study. Survey is used to investigate the building forms and material types in Sana’a. Several conclusions are submitted showing that, the new building material, such as concrete block, is preferred in building comparing with old material, such as stone, which makes it the best choice for the low income people but sometimes the limited resources make old material the only available choice. Several steps needed to develop and encourage the use of new building materials are recommended.

  14. Relativization of the material “res judicata” in the brazilian civil suit Relativização da coisa julgada material no processo civil brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It also addresses the debate about the revitalization of the res judicata in the civil suit of the individual cognitive tutelage when the sentence goes against constitutional norms or principles. It highlights that only the existent sentences, which lead to res judicata unconstitutional or unjust, may be relativized. It sees the principle of proportionality as a method or criterion adequate to solve the conflict of values that arises when the law enforcer is faced with an unfair or unconstitutional sentence. Only the consideration upon values, in a true case, is able to determine whether the res judicata must be kept or not in the juridical order. To relativize the res judicata unconstitutional a de-constitutive action is proposed, with the same characteristics of a rescinding action, but not subject to terms of duration.Trata da polêmica sobre a relativização da coisa julgada no processo civil de tutela cognitiva individual, quando a sentença afronta normas ou princípios constitucionais. Enfoca que somente as sentenças existentes, que produzem coisa julgada inconstitucional ou injusta, podem ser relativizadas. Aponta o princípio da proporcionalidade como método ou critério adequado para resolver o conflito de valores. Somente a ponderação de valores, no caso concreto, é capaz de determinar se a coisa julgada deve ser mantida ou não na ordem jurídica. Para relativizar a coisa julgada inconstitucional propõe o cabimento de uma ação desconstitutiva, com as mesmas características da ação rescisória, mas não sujeita a prazo.

  15. Potential contribution of materials investigations in reducing the risks of unavailability of nuclear civil engineering infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goy, R.; Gaine, C.; Cornish-Bowden, I.; Auge, L.; Thillard, G.; Capra, B. [Oxand (France)

    2011-07-01

    Many consulting assignments undertaken by Oxand within the framework of life-cycle management of existing nuclear civil engineering structures, relied on taking into account the structure's level of deterioration, the quantitative estimate of its residual strength capacity and the future progression of this capacity over time. The developments of structure assessment techniques allow more and more the integration of the real state of the existing structure by enhancing the value of measures and investigations carried out on structures. On one hand, this information allows to take into account the structure's ageing and therefore estimate the residual resistance and reliability. On the other hand, by investigating the real properties of the structure and of its operation, refined calculations can sometimes highlight a resistance margin of the structure 'such as built' higher than the one considered during design. The precision on the 'real' reliability of the structure allows to refine its management and thus to optimize the infrastructure's performance. Developments of assessment methods are increasingly oriented toward probabilistic approaches. Although they go out of the 'classical regulatory' framework, they bring precision on the 'real' reliability of the structure. Using higher assessment levels needs to have more important and precise input data, what can lead to the need to carry out more detailed investigations. However, these methods offer interesting ways, which can provide, in certain cases, useful additional information for the decision-making of actions to be engaged. The methodology is illustrated with the case of a network of reinforced concrete beams, which are subjected to a rapid increase in their mechanical stresses. In particular this example shows that investigations on the real performances of materials can provided a significant contribution in managing the risks of unavailability

  16. Sociedade civil e construção democrática: do maniqueísmo essencialista à abordagem relacional Civil society and democratic construction: from essentialist manichaeism to the relational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kunrath Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo problematizar um "objeto" pouco abordado quando se analisam as características tradicionais e autoritárias que bloqueiam a construção democrática no Brasil: a "sociedade civil". A partir do suporte teórico-metodológico da "sociologia relacional" de Norbert Elias e da fundamentação empírica fornecida pela análise comparativa das relações entre sociedade civil e governos municipais em duas cidades da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre, questiona-se uma apreensão essencialista e unificadora dos atores sociais, que deixa de perceber a sociedade civil como um espaço de diversidade, de relações de poder e de conflitos, no qual se encontram e intervêm atores marcados por diversas orientações e mantendo diferentes relações com a democracia.This article aims at debating an "object" that has deserved little attention when traditional and authoritarian traits that block democratic construction in Brazil are examined: "civil society". Based on the theoretical-methodological support of Norbert Elias' "relational sociology" and the empirical foundation provided by comparative analysis between civil society and municipal governments in two cities of Porto Alegre's metropolitan area, we question an essentialist and unifying approach of social actors that sees civil society as a space for diversity, power relations and conflict, where actors marked by several orientations meet and keep distinct relations to democracy.

  17. 高校学生公寓文明建设的现状与对策研究%On Present Situation and Countermeasures of Dormitory Civilization Construction in Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天明

    2012-01-01

    文章指出了目前高校学生公寓文明建设存在的问题及原因,提出对策建议。%The article points out problems with dormitory civilization construction and analyses the cause, then puts forward strategies and effective ways to strengthen civilization construction of dormitory.

  18. Outgassing studies of materials for the TRT construction

    CERN Document Server

    Guarino, F; Romaniouk, A; Soutchkov, S; Tartarelli, F

    1999-01-01

    Systematic outgassing studies of 7 materials and 10 glues candidates to be used in the construction of the TRT are persented. Each sample has been tested before and after irradiation up to 50 Mrad dose. Some results on tests of the electrical and mechanical properties of the materals are also presented.

  19. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  20. Improved suction technique for the characterization of construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93 %). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water satur...

  1. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic provi

  2. 江宁区生态文明建设的实践与思考%Practice and Consideration of Ecological Civilization Construction in Jiangning Disrict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪新; 赵艳华; 王仕文; 张永军

    2014-01-01

    南京市江宁区通过优化产业结构、提升环境治理、构筑生态新城等举措,打牢生态文明建设的现实基础。但对照国家生态文明示范区标准,在经济、社会、制度方面仍存在诸多制约因素。为此需逐步确立以科学规划为先导,以制度建设为根本,以产业转型为抓手,以乡村建设为载体,以生态德育为基点的生态文明建设思路。%In order to build the practical basis of ecological civilization construction, the administ-ration in Jiangning District, Nanjing took some measures like optimizing the industrial structure, promoting environmental governance, constructing ecological new town. However, compared with the standard for national eco-civilization construction demonstration area, there are still many constr-aints in economy, society, system. Therefore, it need to gradually establish ecological civilization construction with the scientific planning as the guide, with the system construction as the basis, with the industry transformation as the aim, with the rural construction as the supporter, with the ecologi-cal moral education as the center.

  3. Natural and construction materials and plant products. Raw materials, constructional physics, design and construction. 2. upd. and enl. ed.; Natuerliche und pflanzliche Baustoffe. Rohstoff - Bauphysik - Konstruktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmann, Gerhard; Wangelin, Matthias; Bruns, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    The book discusses all relevant renewable constructional materials made from fibre or dyeing plants along with their physical and chemical fundamentals. Protection of resources, environmental protection, and pollutants in constructional materials are gone into as well. [German] Dieses Buch behandelt alle wichtige nachwachsenden, pflanzlichen Baustoffe aus Faser- und Faerberpflanzen sowie dazugehoerige physikalische und chemische Grundlagen. Angesprochen werden auch Ressourcen- und Umweltschutz sowie Schadstoffe aus Bauprodukten.

  4. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena

    hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish......The construction sector consumes yearly about half of all natural resourcesextracted in Europe and their transformation into building products has huge energy demands. Therefore the focus of today’s environmental policy is on the building end-of-life scenarios and material efficiency. Here waste...... prevention and recycling / reuse play a key role by providing huge energy, water and materialsavings. These issues are also specifically addressed in the Construction Products Regulation (CPR2011), where health and safety aspects related to use of construction products cover the entire lifecycle. Meanwhile...

  5. 乡风文明建设的社会责任研究%The Research on the Social Responsibility of Rural Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅琼; 吴全圣

    2012-01-01

    the rural civilization construction can improve the villagers' mental state,strengthen the rural economy energy,highlight the village social status.In recent years,rural civilization construction has already got a great progress,but there are still the problems of severe shortage of rural civilization infrastructure and main body of rural civilization management,the lower quality of the right subject of rural civilization,and the shortage of social value questions.The rural civilization improvement requires clear social responsibility,social forces mobilization,infrastructure construction of rural civilization,evaluation system perfection,education training reinforcement,urban and rural civilization coordination,civilized social value demonstration and so on.%乡风文明建设能够提升乡民的精神状态,增强乡村的经济能量,凸显乡村的社会地位。尽管近些年乡风文明建设已经获得长足进展,但由于社会责任不明确,导致了乡村文明基础设施严重不足,乡风文明管理主体时常缺位,乡风文明权利主体素质偏低,乡风文明社会价值缺少追问等等问题。明确社会责任,动员社会力量,加大乡风文明基础设施建设;完善评估体系,确保乡风文明管理主体到位;加强教育培训,提高乡风文明权利主体意识;统筹城乡文明,彰显乡风文明社会价值是推进乡风文明建设的有效途径。

  6. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation

  7. Radiological impact of the application of phosphogypsum in civil construction: an overview of Brazilian studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Marcia P.; Nisti, Marcelo B.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (lPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. In Brazil, four main industries (Ultrafertil, Copebras, Fosfertil and Bunge Fertilizantes) are responsible for the production of 1.2 x 10{sup 6} tons per year of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Phosphogypsum is the byproduct of the phosphoric acid industry, obtained by reacting phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. This waste is stockpiled in the surrounding environment of the facilities at a rate of 5.5 x 10{sup 6} tons per year. The level of radioactivity present in the phosphogypsum, among other impurities, prevents its reuse for a variety of purposes. All the countries that produce phosphate fertilizer by acid wet processing of phosphate rock are facing the same problem of finding solutions for the safe application of phosphogypsum, in order to minimize the impact caused by its disposal. This paper aims to present a review of the research carried out at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, focusing in the radiological implications of using Brazilian phosphogypsum as building material: bricks and plaster. The results and conclusions achieved can contribute to the development or national standards and guidelines concerning the safe use and management or phosphogypsum as a building material. (author)

  8. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. Currently, this research involves two aspects: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulants with various additives in a furnace so as to produce a construction material like an intermediate ceramic; and (2) cyclic loading of simulant with different initial vacuums and densities with respect to the theoretical maximum densities (TMD). In both cases, bending, triaxial compression, extension, and hydrostatic tests will be performed to define the stress-strain strength response of the resulting materials. In the case of the intermediate ceramic, bending and available multiaxial test devices will be used, while for the compacted case, tests will be performed directly in the new device. The tests will be performed by simulating in situ confining conditions. A preliminary review of high-purity metal is also conducted.

  9. Focusing on Sustainable Development Vigorously Promoting Ecological Civilization Construction%着眼永续发展大力推进生态文明建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The paper was deeply analyzed important exposition of construction of ecological civilization in report of the eigh-teenth National Congress of the CPC, and put forward that construction of ecological civilization conforms to development di-rection of human civilization, green development trend of international community and happy anticipation of people. Vigorous-ly promoting the construction of ecological civilization, improving ecological protection mechanisms, providing more ecological products, saving resources and energy, optimizing space development pattern achieved sustainable development of the Chinese nation.%  深入分析党的十八大报告中对生态文明建设的重要论述,指出生态文明顺应人类文明发展方向,契合国际社会绿色发展趋势,符合人民群众的期待,必须大力推进生态文明建设,完善生态保护机制,提供更多生态产品,节约资源能源,优化空间开发格局,才能实现中华民族永续发展。

  10. The Innovation and Application of Civil Construction Technology%工民建施工技术的创新和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠莲

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the civil engineering construction of new technology and economic development, study civil engineering construction for the innovation and application of high technology. Through the innovation and application of civil engineering technology, not only the construction unit of the construction technology has been greatly improved and the application level of the new technology of construction personnel is improved, the construction technical and economic relations and the construction work is connected, so the schedule and cost of the project has the most obvious effect, according to the characteristics of technology and economy of construction, strengthen the management of construction technology is the focus of construction enterprise technology progress.%介绍工民建工程施工的新技术经济发展,探讨工民建工程施工对于高新技术的创新和应用。通过对工民建工程技术的创新和应用,不仅使建设单位的施工技术有了大幅度的提高,施工人员新技术的应用水平也得到提高,建筑施工技术经济关系与施工工作的多个方面都存在联系,所以,工期进度和工程成本的影响最为明显,依据建筑施工的技术经济特点,加强建筑施工技术的管理是建筑企业技术进步的重点。

  11. On management and control over construction progress in civil engineering programs%土建工程的施工进度管理和控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the factors influencing the construction progress management of civil engineering projects,and points out some sug-gestions for the preparation before the construction,compilation progress plan,and improvement of management regulations,so as to promote the construction progress management level of the civil engineering projects.%分析了影响土建工程施工进度管理的各项因素,针对施工进度管理中存在的问题,提出了做好开工前的准备工作、编制进度计划、完善项目管理法规体系等建议,以有效提高土建工程施工进度管理水平。

  12. Analysis of the Electromechanical Installation Cooperate with the Civil Engineering Construction%机电安装与土建施工配合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖庆丰

    2014-01-01

    In the process of management the construction eng-ineering project, people must pay at ention to the management and coordination of electromechanical engineering cooperates with civil engineering construction. In this article, the author combines with the project example of green land square in a city and briefly analyzes and discusses to the coordination ma-nagement of electromechanical instal ation and civil enginee-ring construction.%在管理建筑工程项目的过程中,必须重视机电工程和土建施工配合的管理以及协调。本文结合某市绿地广场工程实例,对建筑工程机电安装与土建施工的协调管理进行了浅要的分析与探讨。

  13. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade. Main Injector. Technical Components and Civil Construction, January, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-01-12

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to the Fermilab fixed target program. The Main Injector (MI) is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The MI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the MI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the MI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two to three. In addition the MI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  14. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade: Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, January 1990 (Rev. 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-01-10

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to both the Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The Main Injector (MI) is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The MI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the MI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the MI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two to three. In addition the MI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  15. Construction of new media and civil society%新媒体与公民社会的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2013-01-01

      新媒体正以星星燎原之势迅速发展,现代快节奏的生活使许多人已经抛弃传统媒体,转身投向更加快节奏的新媒体时代。新媒体在构建公民社会中发挥的作用是不容小觑的,一方面新媒体与公民社会间正发生着日益紧密的双向互动联系,另一方面公民在新媒体中的议程设置功能正渐渐显著起来,新媒体也给了公民充分的话语表现权。%The new media are developing rapidly, the fast pace of modern life makes many people abandon the traditional media, and turn toward to accelerate the pace of new media era. The role of new media in constructing the civil society should not be underestimated, on the one hand, new media and citizen society is undergoing more closely linked, on the other hand, the agenda setting function of citizens in the new media is gradually obvious, new media also gives a full citizen discourse right.

  16. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for civil engineering superstructure and internal construction building work. Following a market survey carried out among 112 firms in fifteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2546/ST/Rev.) was sent on 12 April 2001 to eleven consortia, four consisting of four firms, three consisting of three firms and four consisting of two firms, in seven Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received tenders from eight consortia in six Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium SPIE CITRA SUD-EST(FR)-ANTIRUST TECHNOLOGY (GR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 January 2002 for an amount not exceeding 15 375 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this ...

  17. The Utilization of Graphene Oxide in Traditional Construction Materials: Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the advanced research fields of solar cell and energy storing materials, graphene and graphene oxide (GO are two of the most promising materials due to their high specific surface area, and excellent electrical and physical properties. However, they was seldom studied in the traditional materials because of their high cost. Nowadays, graphene and GO are much cheaper than before with the development of production technologies, which provides the possibility of using these extraordinary materials in the traditional construction industry. In this paper, GO was selected as a nano-material to modify two different asphalts. Then a thin film oven test and a pressure aging vessel test were applied to simulate the aging of GO-modified asphalts. After thermal aging, basic physical properties (softening point and penetration were tested for the samples which were introduced at different mass ratios of GO (1% and 3% to asphalt. In addition, rheological properties were tested to investigate how GO could influence the asphalts by dynamic shearing rheometer tests. Finally, some interesting findings and potential utilization (warm mixing and flame retardants of GO in asphalt pavement construction were explained.

  18. Photocatalytic construction and building materials: From fundamentals to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-sun [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hum Hom (China)

    2009-09-15

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been intensively studied in recent decades because it only requires photonic energy to activate the chemical conversion contrasting with conventional catalysis which needs heat for thermo-activation. Over the years, the theories for photochemical activity of photocatalyst including photo-induced redox reaction and super-hydrophilic conversion of TiO{sub 2} itself have been established. The progress in academic research significantly promotes its practical applications, including the field of photocatalytic construction and building materials. TiO{sub 2} modified building materials are most popular because TiO{sub 2} has been traditionally used as a white pigment. The major applications of TiO{sub 2} based photocatalytic building materials include environmental pollution remediation, self-cleaning and self-disinfecting. The advantage of using solar light and rainwater as driving force has opened a new domain for environmentally friendly building materials. In this paper, the basic reaction mechanisms on photocatalyst surface under the irradiation of ultraviolet and their corresponding applications in building and construction materials are reviewed. The problems faced in practical applications and the trends for future development are also discussed. (author)

  19. Challenges in treating earthen construction materials as unsaturated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augarde Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthen construction is a loosely defined term covering both the materials and methods for creating structural components from mixtures of subsoil, often with the addition of chemical or mechanical stabilisers. There is evidence of Man creating earthen structures for thousands of years, and there are many world heritage sites containing earthen structures, some of which present issues in terms of conservation. In some parts of the world there is a growing market for new-build earthen structures and a key issue here is the lack of design codes. Since these materials are composed mainly of particulates and water it is natural to regard them as geotechnical in nature, where friction and the presence of water have a key influence on material properties, however until very recently this was not the case, with earthen construction materials regarded as weak concrete or masonry. In this paper we examine these opposing views and discuss the issues associated with regarding these materials as unsaturated soils. The paper is illustrated with outcomes from research at Durham University carried out over the past ten years.

  20. Advanced Construction Material for Airfield Pavements and Rapid Runway Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS AND RAPID RUNWAY REPAIR by Vincent Maurice Saroni, B.S.C.E. and David W. Fowler, Ph.D., P.E. T. U. Taylor Professor in...to my family, Betsy and Mark. ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL FOR AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS AND RAPID RUNWAY REPAIR Vincent Maurice Saroni, B.S.C.E. THESIS...85 C.4 Calculation Results of Modulus of Rupture, Density and Percent Voids for Uncompacted Siliceous G ravel

  1. 高层建筑给排水与土建协同施工技术%Coordination Construction Technology of Water Supply and Drainage Construction with Civil Engineering in High-rise Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马全丽

    2016-01-01

    针对高层建筑给排水与土建协同施工技术解决了高层建筑给排水管道安装与土建施工时碰撞的问题,寻找了一套专业间的协同施工的施工方法,做到了施工质量一次成优,提高了施工工效,节约了施工成本,在工艺新颖的基础上,还保证了施工过程绿色环保。%The coordination construction technology of water supply and drainage construction with civil construction in high⁃rise building solves the collision problem during water supply and drainage pipeline installation and civil construction in high⁃rise building. A set of cooperative construction method between each professional construction was found to ensure the best construction quality, improve construction efficiency, save construction cost. On the basis of technological innovative, the method also guaranteed the construction process of green environmental protection.

  2. Evaluating the Readability of Radio Frequency Identification for Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghan Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID, which was originally introduced to improve material handling and speed production as part of supply chain management, has become a globally accepted technology that is now applied on many construction sites to facilitate real-time information visibility and traceability. This paper describes a senior undergraduate project for a Construction Management (CM program that was specifically designed to give the students a greater insight into technical research in the CM area. The students were asked to determine whether it would be possible to utilize an RFID system capable of tracking tagged equipment, personnel and materials across an entire construction site. This project required them to set up an experimental program, execute a series of experiments, analyze the results and summarize them in a report. The readability test was performed using an active Ultra-High frequency (UHF, 433.92 MHz RFID system with various construction materials, including metal, concrete, wood, plastic, and aluminum. The readability distance distances are measured for each of the six scenarios. The distance at which a tag was readable with no obstructions was found to be an average of 133.9m based on three measurements, with a standard deviation of 3.9m. This result confirms the manufacturer’s claimed distance of 137.2m. The RFID tag embedded under 50.8mm of concrete was readable for an average distance of only 12.2m, the shortest readable distance of any of the scenarios tested. At the end of the semester, faculty advisors held an open discussion session to gather feedback and elicit the students’ reflections on their research experiences, revealing that the students’ overall impressions of their undergraduate research had positively affected their postgraduate education plans.

  3. Dynamic Comparison and Trend analysis of Southeast Guizhou’s Experimental Area of Eco-civilization Construction and the National Eco-efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the development level of eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou’s experimental area of eco-civilization construction,we conduct dynamic comparison research of its eco-efficiency and the national eco-efficiency,using single ratio method based on the ecological footprint model,to grasp the gap between its eco-efficiency and the national eco-efficiency,so that we can take appropriate countermeasures to improve eco-efficiency. The results show that in the period 1978-2010,the eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou’s experimental area of eco-civilization construction was always lower than the national eco-efficiency; the long-time average annual value of its eco-efficiency was less than one half of that of the national eco-efficiency,with the absolute gap of 1 630. 095 yuan /hm 2 ,and the gap tended to widen year by year in the period 1978-2002 ( the gap increased from 276. 551 yuan /hm 2 in 1978 to peak of 3 227. 713 yuan /hm 2 in 2002,with an average annual increase of 118. 047 yuan /hm 2 ,and especially after 1992,the gap was particularly evident,with an average annual increase of 194.771 yuan/hm 2 ) ,but from 2003,the gap between the two tended to decrease. Based on the prediction results of grey system,in the period 2011-2025,the gap between the eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou’s experimental area of eco-civilization construction and the national eco-efficiency will gradually narrow,and from 2019, the eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou’s experimental area of eco-civilization construction will be higher than the national eco-efficiency.

  4. On PR General Sectary Xi Jinping's Ideology of Ecological Civilization Construction%习近平的生态文明建设思想探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明

    2015-01-01

    党的十八大以来,习近平通过一系列讲话形成了与时事进的生态文明建设思想. 首先,对我国生态文明建设现状表示出了强烈的忧患意识,主要包括两个"清醒认识"的重要论断. 其次,对生态文明建设的重要性予以全面阐释,指出生态文明建设是很大的政治,是最公平的公共产品和最普惠的民生福祉.再次,阐释了生态文明建设的方针与措施,主张生态文明建设要实行最严格的制度、最严密的法治,要构建社会主义生态文化,要完善体制机制并建立科学的政府绩效评估体系.%Since the 18th Party con gress,PR China General Sectary Xi Jinping has put forth a series of speeches about his advanced ideology about ecological civilization construction. In the speeches,Xi firstly expressed his strong suffering consciousness of ecological development,which mainly lies in two important judgments of "sober understanding of China's ecological civilization construction". Secondly,Xi also had a comprehensive interpretation of the importance of ecological civilization construction as a beneficial political policy being in favor with the general public. Again,principles and measures,stringent system,related strictest rules of law,improvement of the system mechanism and establishment of scientific system of government performance evaluation to guarantee the implement of ecological civilization construction had also been proposed by Xi.

  5. Constructing Ontology for Knowledge Sharing of Materials Failure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials failure indicates the fault with materials or components during their performance. To avoid the reoccurrence of similar failures, materials failure analysis is executed to investigate the reasons for the failure and to propose improved strategies. The whole procedure needs sufficient domain knowledge and also produces valuable new knowledge. However, the information about the materials failure analysis is usually retained by the domain expert, and its sharing is technically difficult. This phenomenon may seriously reduce the efficiency and decrease the veracity of the failure analysis. To solve this problem, this paper adopts ontology, a novel technology from the Semantic Web, as a tool for knowledge representation and sharing and describes the construction of the ontology to obtain information concerning the failure analysis, application area, materials, and failure cases. The ontology represented information is machine-understandable and can be easily shared through the Internet. At the same time, failure case intelligent retrieval, advanced statistics, and even automatic reasoning can be accomplished based on ontology represented knowledge. Obviously this can promote the knowledge sharing of materials service safety and improve the efficiency of failure analysis. The case of a nuclear power plant area is presented to show the details and benefits of this method.

  6. Characterization of porous construction materials using electromagnetic radar wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wallace Wai Lok

    This thesis reports the effort of characterizing three porous construction materials (i.e. concrete, asphalt and soils) and the establishment and formulation of novel unified constitutive models by utilizing electromagnetic (EM) radar wave. An important outcome of this research is that the studied materials were assigned successfully into their rightful positions corresponding to the different regimes governed by three EM wave properties and two engineering/geological properties of the materials. The former refers to the real part of complex dielectric permittivity (epsilon'), energy attenuation and peak-frequency drift. The latter refers to porosity and permeability determined with forward models or conventional testing techniques. In soil and asphalt, the material characterization was achieved by a novel inhouse developed method called Cyclic Moisture Variation Technique (CMVT). The technique is termed cyclic because the porous materials were subjected to change from partially saturated states to fully saturated state (i.e. permeation), and vice versa (i.e. de-watering). With CMVT, water was used as an enhancer or a tracer to differentiate the studied materials which are otherwise difficult when they are dry. Soils and asphalt with different textures were characterized by different curve families exhibited in the relationship between epsilon' and degrees of water saturation (SW). In particular, these curve families were divided into three regions: slow-climbing region in very low SW, fast-climbing region in intermediate SW and another slow-climbing region at high S W. When data obtained from the permeation and de-watering cycles was compared, dielectric hysteresis was observed, but rarely reported in the field of ground penetrating radar (GPR). Different curing histories affect both porosity and pore size distribution within mature concrete. By injecting pressurized water into concrete specimens, different concrete curing histories was back-tracked through the

  7. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysers (HTPEMWE). All samples were exposed to anodic polarisation in 85% phosphoric acid electrolyte solution. Platinum and gold plates were tested for the valid comparison. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy......Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...

  8. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  9. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis....... Tantalum showed outstanding resistance to corrosion in selected media. On the contrary, passivation of titanium was weak, and the highest rate of corrosion among all tested materials was observed for titanium at 120 degrees C....

  10. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  11. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  12. A comparative toxicity assessment of materials used in aquatic construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Julien, Gary; Jackman, Paula; Doe, Ken; Schaefer, Rebecca

    2011-10-01

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes treated with preservatives (e.g., chromated copper arsenate [CCA], creosote, alkaline copper quaternary [ACQ], zinc naphthenate, copper naphthenate, and Lifetime Wood Treatment); (4) epoxy-coated steel; (5) hot-rolled steel; (6) zinc-coated steel; and (7) concrete. Those materials were used in acute lethality tests with rainbow trout, Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and threespine stickleback. The results indicated the following general ranking of the materials (from the lowest to highest LC(50) values); ACQ > creosote > zinc naphthenate > copper naphthenate > CCA (treated at 22.4 kg/m(3)) > concrete > red pine > western red cedar > red oak > zinc-coated steel > epoxy-coated steel > CCA (6.4 kg/m(3)). Furthermore, the toxicity results indicated that plastic wood, certain untreated wood species (hemlock, tamarack, Douglas fir, and red oak), hot-rolled steel, Ecothermo wood, and wood treated with Lifetime Wood Treatment were generally nontoxic to the test species.

  13. Recycling Of Concrete Waste Material from Construction Demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyewalehinmi E.O1 and Adeoye T.E2

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the engineering properties of demolished concrete aggregates wastes along Arakale Road, Akure. The purpose is to recycle and reduce the amount of construction wastes materials going into landfills and dumping pits. The study identifies about 15% to 20% of construction waste materials go into landfill and dumping pits in Akure. Four different mixes at 0.5, 0.55, 0.60 and 0.65 water/cement ratios were performed and a total of 96 (48 each concrete cube samples were cast, cured and crushed. The results showed that at lower percentage water/cement ratios, the compressive strength of used aggregates at day 28 were much lower than virgin aggregates (16.89N/mm2 , 19.93N/mm2 while at higher percentage water/cement ratios, the compressive strength of used aggregates at day 28 was almost the same as Virgin aggregates (18.07, 18.37. It shows that the used aggregates can attain the same compressive strength as virgin aggregates at higher water/cement ratios

  14. Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie A. Osadolor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.

  15. “现实的个人”与生态文明建设%"Reality of the Individual"and Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浏

    2016-01-01

    生态文明不是脱离人的文明,以人为本是生态文明建设理应坚持的原则。马克思关于“现实的个人”的概念,从哲学角度详细阐述了人的本质问题,以此理论为出发点,深化对以人为本原则的认识,从而把握以人为本的生态文明建设的实质,生态文明建设实质就是对于人的本质的重塑,实现“现实的个人”的自然和社会双重属性的协调,彰显劳动自由自觉的特性。立足现实,生态文明建设就是要通过树立绿色消费理念、集体主义观念,通过全面深化改革实现人的本质的重塑。%Ecological civilization is not the one separated from human beings,but people-orientedness is the principle eco-logical civilization construction should adhere to.Marx concept on the"realistic individual"expounded the essence of human na-ture from a philosophical point of view.Based on this concept,deepening the understanding of the principle of people-orienta-tion and grasping the essence of the construction of ecological civilization.The essence of the construction of ecological civiliza-tion is the reconstruction of human nature,the coordination of the nature and the social nature of the"realistic individual",the formation of the characteristics of the free and conscious labor.Based on reality,the construction of ecological civilization is to establish the concept of green consumption,the concept of collectivism,through the comprehensive deepening of reform to a-chieve the essence of the remodeling.

  16. Development of Rapid, Continuous Calibration Techniques and Implementation as a Prototype System for Civil Engineering Materials Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M. L.; Gagarin, N.; Mekemson, J. R.; Chintakunta, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Until recently, civil engineering material calibration data could only be obtained from material sample cores or via time consuming, stationary calibration measurements in a limited number of locations. Calibration data are used to determine material propagation velocities of electromagnetic waves in test materials for use in layer thickness measurements and subsurface imaging. Limitations these calibration methods impose have been a significant impediment to broader use of nondestructive evaluation methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In 2006, a new rapid, continuous calibration approach was designed using simulation software to address these measurement limitations during a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research and development effort. This continuous calibration method combines a digitally-synthesized step-frequency (SF)-GPR array and a data collection protocol sequence for the common midpoint (CMP) method. Modeling and laboratory test results for various data collection protocols and materials are presented in this paper. The continuous-CMP concept was finally implemented for FHWA in a prototype demonstration system called the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system in 2009. Data from the continuous-CMP protocol is processed using a semblance/coherency analysis to determine material propagation velocities. Continuously calibrated pavement thicknesses measured with the APE system in 2009 are presented. This method is efficient, accurate, and cost-effective.

  17. Study on Measures of Environmental Audit Promoting Ecological Civilization Construction%环境审计促进生态文明建设的措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德静

    2014-01-01

    加强和完善环境审计是促进生态文明建设,保障我国经济社会可持续发展的重要举措之一。本文以加强环境审计,服务生态文明建设为主旨,在对环境审计所面临的问题进行分析的基础上,从如何开展符合中国国情的环境审计、环境审计队伍建设、机制建设和服务意识等方面,探讨解决问题的对策。%To strengthen and improve the environmental audit is an important measure to promote the construction of ecological civilization and ensure our country's economic and social sustainable development. In this thesis, aiming to strengthen environmental auditing services for the subject construction of ecological civilization, the solutions based on the analysis of problems in environmental audit are discussed in respect of the environmental audit suited to China's national conditions, environmental audit team construction, mechanism construction and service awareness, etc.

  18. The Influence and Strategy of Transmission to the Civil Moral Construction%论传播对公民道德建设的影响与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢鸿雁

    2011-01-01

    在全国人民大力加强公民道德建设之际,作为为社会服务的新闻媒体,理当充分发挥其在社会意识形态形成中的影响力和渗透力,为公民道德建设服务。但是,目前传播领域确存在一些严重的问题,如有偿新闻、虚假新闻、传播内容的媚俗化等,给公民道德建设带来不少负面影响。这些问题的产生原因故然很多.但新闻工作者的职业道德素质好坏是其关键。所以,如何提高新闻工作者的职业道德素质以提高媒体传播质量.更好地为公民道德建设服务,应是传播领域应关注的关键所在。%Under the condition of strengthening the civil moral construction, as the media for social service, it is necessary to give full play of the influence and seepage force in the social ideology and give service to the moral construction. However, transmission field exist some problems, such as the paid news, fake news and the obsequiousness of news, bring some bad influence to the civil moral construction. Many reasons are contributed to the problems, but the key reason is the quality of the worker. Therefore, improving the working quality of the worker and the quality of media transmission and giving a better service to the civil moral construction should be the key of the transmission field.

  19. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, and antipermeability and antifrost performances. Also the effects of CWCPM on the morphology, hydration products, and pore structure characteristics of the cement-based materials were analyzed. The results are encouraging. Although CWCPM slightly decreases the mechanical properties of the C20 concrete and the 7 d compressive strengths of the C25 and C30 concretes, the 28 d compressive strength and the 90 d flexural strength of the C25 and C30 concretes are improved when CWCPM has a dosage less than 30%; CWCPM improves the antipermeability and antifrost performances of the concretes due to its filling and pozzolanic effects; the best improvement is obtained at CWCPM dosage of 30%; CWCPM optimizes cement hydration products, refines concrete pore structure, and gives rise to reasonable pore size distribution, therefore significantly improving the durability of the concretes.

  20. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for ionic liquid hydrogen compressor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arjomand Kermani, Nasrin; Petrushina, Irina; Nikiforov, Aleksey Valerievich

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of various commercially available stainless steels and nickel-based alloys as possible construction materials for components which are in direct contact with one of five different ionic liquids was evaluated. The ionic liquids, namely: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate, 1...... liquid hydrogen compressor. An electrochemical cell was specially designed, and steady-state cyclic voltammetry was used to measure the corrosion resistance of the alloys in the ionic liquids at 23 °C, under atmospheric pressure. The results showed a very high corrosion resistance and high stability...... for all the alloys tested. The two stainless steels, AISI 316L and AISI 347 showed higher corrosion resistance compared to AISI 321 in all the ionic liquids tested. It was observed that small addition of molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium to the alloys increased the corrosion stability in the ionic liquids...

  1. Improved Suction Technique for the Characterization of Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93%). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...... procedure for determining the equilibrium moisture content of samples during the experiment. The method (refered to as the balance method) is to simply keep track of all water entering and leaving the system and use these data to estimate the moisture content of the samples. The advantage of this approach...... is that the experiment does not need to be stopped and restarted for each relative humidity level tested. The main disadvantage of the method is that the estimation of the moisture content in the samples depends on a correct estimation of the moisture content of the ceramic disc. The second adjustment is the development...

  2. Interspecific variation in beeswax as a biological construction material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Robert; Breed, Michael D; Greenberg, Alan R; Otis, Gard

    2006-10-01

    Beeswax is a multicomponent material used by bees in the genus Apis to house larvae and store honey and pollen. We characterized the mechanical properties of waxes from four honeybee species: Apis mellifera L., Apis andreniformis L., Apis dorsata L. and two subspecies of Apis cerana L. In order to isolate the material effects from the architectural properties of nest comb, we formed raw wax in to right, circular cylindrical samples, and compressed them in an electromechanical tensometer. From the resulting stress-strain curves, values for yield stress, yield strain, stress and strain at the proportional limit, stiffness, and resilience were obtained. Apis dorsata wax was stiffer and had a higher yield stress and stress at the proportional limit than all of the other waxes. The waxes of A. cerana and A. mellifera had intermediate strength and stiffness, and A. andreniformis wax was the least strong, stiff and resilient. All of the waxes had similar strain values at the proportional limit and yield point. The observed differences in wax mechanical properties correlate with the nesting ecology of these species. A. mellifera and A. cerana nest in cavities that protect the nest from environmental stresses, whereas the species with the strongest and stiffest wax, A. dorsata, constructs relatively heavy nests attached to branches of tall trees, exposing them to substantially greater mechanical forces. The wax of A. andreniformis was the least strong, stiff and resilient, and their nests have low masses relative to other species in the genus and, although not built in cavities, are constructed on lower, often shielded branches that can absorb the forces of wind and rain.

  3. Modelo de la estructura administrativa para la fiscalización de obras civiles en Quito-Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Briones, Rafael Ignacio; Salas Gómez, Fabián Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The audit of civil works is a consulting activity that demands the participation of professional civil engineering and architecture for the execution of civil works requires professional support in all areas of construction as well as laboratories for testing of materials used and complies with the technical specifications in construction contracts. Currently the foc does not have a management model for the efficient performance of its business, which is why this thesis focuses on proposin...

  4. 高校精神文明建设与社会环境的关系研究%A Research on the Relationships of Spiritual Civilization Construction and Social Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖曦

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual civilization construction is an important benchmark measure of socialist spiritual civilization, is also an important area of socialist spiritual civifization. This paper describes the relationships of spiritual civilization construction and social environment, and proposed measures for spiritual civilization construction in the new era.%高校精神文明建设是衡量社会主义精神文明的重要标尺,也是社会主义精神文明建设的重要阵地。本文阐述了高校精神文明建设与社会环境的关系,并提出了新时期高校精神文明建设的措施。

  5. Toward self-constructing materials: a systems chemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2012-12-18

    To design the next generation of so-called "smart" materials, researchers will need to develop chemical systems that respond, adapt, and multitask. Because many of these features occur in living systems, we expect that such advanced artificial systems will be inspired by nature. In particular, these new materials should ultimately combine three key properties of life: metabolism, mutation, and self-replication. In this Account, we discuss our endeavors toward the design of such advanced functional materials. First, we focus on dynamic molecular libraries. These molecular and supramolecular chemical systems are based on mixtures of reversibly interacting molecules that are coupled within networks of thermodynamic equilibria. We will explain how the superimposition of combinatorial networks at different length scales of structural organization can provide valuable hierarchical dynamics for producing complex functional systems. In particular, our experimental results highlight why these libraries are of interest for the design of responsive materials and how their functional properties can be modulated by various chemical and physical stimuli. Then, we introduce examples in which these dynamic combinatorial systems can be coupled to kinetic feedback loops to produce self-replicating pathways that amplify a selected component from the equilibrated libraries. Finally, we discuss the discovery of highly functional self-replicating supramolecular assemblies that can transfer an electric signal in space and time. We show how these wires can be directly incorporated within an electronic nanocircuit by self-organization and functional feedback loops. Because the network topologies act as complex algorithms to process information, we present these systems in this order to provide context for their potential for extending the current generation of responsive materials. We propose a general description for a potential autonomous (self-constructing) material. Such a system

  6. An Analysis of the Dual Dimension of Eco-civilization Construction%生态文明建设的双重维度探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜丽

    2014-01-01

    The Report of the 18th NCCPC proposes the five-in-one strategy,that is,the combination of eco-civilization construction,economic construction,political construction,cultural construction and social construction.However,the conscious lack of environmental protection impairs the sustainable develop-ment of China.Therefore,it is necessary to popularize the concept of eco-civilization construction,put it into practice,develop eco-protection tech in the mode of production,and establish a system of laws and regulations.%党的十八大报告把生态文明建设提到了前所未有的高度,与经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设共同构成了“五位一体”的总布局。然而,要真正实现“美丽中国,永续发展”的目标,就必须正视目前我国存在的环境保护意识缺失和狭隘的环境保护意识盛行的现象。因而,在宣传生态文明建设理念的同时,更要把这种理念付诸于实践,通过改变生产方式、研发生态保护技术、建立健全法律法规体系,使生态文明建设的理念和实践有机地结合。

  7. Influence of chemical composition of civil construction waste in the cement paste; Influencia da composicao quimica dos residuos da construcao civil a pasta de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The construction and demolition waste when disposed inappropriately might cause serious public health problems. Its reutilization focusing on the development of new products using simple production techniques, assuring a new product life cycle and not damaging the environment is inserted in sustainable concept. The aim of this work was identifying the characteristics of types of waste generated in a residential reform (glassy ceramic and fill dirt leftovers) verifying separately its influence on cement pastes mechanical behavior. Cement pastes + wastes were prepared in 25% and 50% proportions with an approximately 0,35 water/cement relation and, glue time determination, water absorption, resistance to compression and X-ray fluorescence assays were taken. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the waste causes changes in the behavior of cement pastes, reflecting on their resistance to compression. (author)

  8. Constructing and Application of Intelligent Call Center of Civil Air Defence%人防智能化呼叫中心的构建及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 王海阔

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,analysis the necessity and feasibility of the intelligence call center used in civil air defence,and thorough discuss the working principle and the function used in civil air defence actions.Based on the research construct an intelligence call center system which adapt to civil air defence characters and focused on the soft-switch technology,then forecast the foreground in the evacuate and conceal actions in wartime and the emergency rescue actions in peacetime.%本文分析了呼叫中心在人防中应用的必要性和可行性,对其工作原理和在人防行动中的作用进行了深入探讨,在此基础上构建了基于软交换技术并适合人防特点的智能化呼叫中心系统,并对其在战时疏散掩蔽行动和平时的应急救援行动中应用前景进行了预测。

  9. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  10. A Brief Talk on Construction of Chinese Modern Civil Culture%中国现代性公民文化的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全家悦

    2012-01-01

    China' s practice in recent years shows that modern construction of civic culture is an urgent requirement of the construction of socialist political civilization with Chinese characteristics.Citizenship,diversity of cultural forms,ordering of political participation,is the contemporary practice of Chinese citizen culture built on value,form,scale of basic requirements.Citizens ' cultural is a long process of history,strengthening the construction of socialist market economy,making great efforts to train citizens,actively cultivating civil society,combining ideological and political education and civic culture construction,is the choice of constructing contemporary Chinese citizen's culture.%中国近几年的实践表明,现代性公民文化的构建是中国特色社会主义政治文明建设的迫切要求。对象的公民性,文化形式的多元性,政治参与的有序性,是当代中国公民文化构建在价值、形式、实践尺度方面的基本要求。公民文化的培养是一个长期的历史积淀过程,加强社会主义市场经济建设,努力培养公民性,积极培育公民社会,把思想政治教育和公民文化建设相结合,是构建当代中国公民文化的路径选择。

  11. Final Environmental Assessment: Addressing Construction of a New Civil Engineering Workshop at Bellows Air Force Station, O’ahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE Environmental Program Manager, 515 Tinker Road, Waimanalo, Hawai?i 96795-1903. Requests can also be made by addressing...this document should be directed to Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE, Environmental Program Manager, 515 Tinker Road, Waimanalo, Hawai‘i 96795-1903...be conducted to rul611 Sect. 106, and CZMA requirements. 5. Please provide comments directly to Mr. Craig Gorsuch , Det 2, 18 FSS/CEE, Civil

  12. Factors that Influence Female Folk to engage in Building and Civil Engineering Construction Site Work in Nigeria – a case Study of Isoko Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Osubor (Fniqs, Rqs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From early times, building and civil engineering construction has been a male dominated industry. But in today’s contemporary times, the women folk have broken this monotony of male domination. This is evident in the building and engineering industry. Isoko land in the south of Delta State, although women have broken from the stereotype of home keeping into construction, their level of engagement is at the lowest ebb as casual and unskilled workers. This study looks at the factors that encourage female to engage in construction especially at the lowest ebb and the implications for the woman, society, and construction industry. Oral interview methodology was adopted in this study. The response of five local contractors/employers and 60 women interviewed at construction site formed the data for this study. A simple percentage was used to analyze data generated. Findings reveal that poverty and unemployment, lack of education and skill, family responsibility and environmental factors top the reasons. Policies that encourage and make it mandatory for women to progress in education and skill acquisition, provide a future for women in construction and stop discrimination against women will be a step in the right direction. Such policies are recommended.

  13. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete.

  14. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loading) 1.0 (iv) The dam, foundation, and abutments shall be stable under all conditions of construction...) of this section and for all increments of construction. (v) Seepage through the dam, foundation, and...) constructed of waste materials, in accordance with the requirements of this section. (b) Construction of...

  15. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  16. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  17. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 6. Aircraft. Civil and Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Materials 6.3.1 Transport Aircraft The United States commercial aircraft manufacturing industry dominates the world market for commercial transport...r S a> oo o z O OC E U OC QC 5 5^2 z < o "• > 8 ? 5 < E 1X1 z UJ o z "■ K 2 io 8 iy 9 E 2 2 251

  18. 论我国生态文明建设的政治制度优势%On the Advantage of Political System for the Ecological Civilization Construction of Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长生; 王雄青

    2012-01-01

    The Marxist theory of ecological repudiation against capitalism discloses that socialism has an advantage in political system for promoting ecological civilization construction,and this advantage is systematic and all-around.The political advantage of our country in ecological civilization construction is mainly embodied in the following aspects:the socialist system provides the institutional precondition for ecological civilization construction,the governance of the CPC provides the political guarantee for ecological civilization construction,and the socialist moral system provides the moral basis for ecological civilization construction.%马克思主义的生态资本主义制度批判理论昭示了社会主义对于推进生态文明建设的政治制度优势,且这种制度优势是系统而全面的。我国生态文明建设的政治制度优势主要体现在,社会主义制度为生态文明建设提供了制度前提,中国共产党执政为生态文明建设提供了政治保障,社会主义道德体系为生态文明建设提供了道德基础。

  19. Analysis of the thought of Xi Jinping’s ecological civilization construction%习近平生态文明建设思想探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚平; 宋泽亮

    2014-01-01

    Ecological environment protection has become a global consensus, ecological problems become more and more serious. The development of the militaristic style make our ecological environment overwhelmed, we are already in the midst of the ecological crisis. In current dire circumstances, only pay more attention to the construction of ecological civilization, change the traditional ecological idea, only by thoroughly applying the scientific outlook on development can we achieve sound and rapid economic and social development and build a beautiful China, then our Chinese dream is not just a dream. General Secretary Xi Jinping attaches great importance to the protection of the ecological environment, under the socialist economic, political, cultural, social, and ecological construction, put the ecological civilization construction into an important position, and strengthen the system of ecological civilization construction to promote the modernization of ecological management.%愈演愈烈的生态问题,近似于穷兵黩武式的发展使人们的生态环境不堪重负,人们身陷生态危机中不能自拔。在如此严峻的形势下,全球多数国家已达成生态文明建设的共识,共同保护人类赖以生存的生态环境。以习近平同志为核心的党中央高度重视生态文明建设,并将其提升到“五位一体”的战略高度,充分证明了其对社会主义现代化建设的规律的深刻把握。通过转变传统生态文明建设理念、加强政府职能建设、构建生态文化、严格依法执政等一系列的手段和措施,才能真正实现建设美丽中国,实现中华民族的伟大复兴的中国梦。

  20. Permittivity Investigations of the Road Construction Raw Materials for Purposes of GPR Data Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiński, Lech

    2014-05-01

    Permittivity is the major material property governing the formation of GPR response signal in diagnostic measurements. Every quantitative interpretation refers explicitly or implicitly to discussion of permittivity values. Thus, the recognition of permittivity for materials typical of the given technological area is necessary to make use of diagnostic measurements. Collection of several tens of stone cores representing different outcrops was investigated in order to obtain cross-sectional view of permittivity for stone materials being in use in Polish road construction industry as components of stone-asphalt mixtures. The main task was to estimate the typical permittivity values for stone materials treated as representation of several major petrological types. The capacimetry (at 50 MHz) was used as major and very efficient method of permittivity assessment and formation of the samples was subordinated to demands of this method. This method allows for determination of permittivity variability on the lateral surface of the cylindrical sample, giving the insight into the major features of the permittivity spatial distribution characteristic for the given rock. For the most homogeneous samples (in terms of permittivity distribution) the permittivity was measured also on the core top at frequency 2 GHz using impulse GPR reflectometry. No clear proofs for considerable permittivity frequency dependence were found (in the frame of the two methods precision) for these rocks. This conclusion can be related generally to major rock-forming minerals at least in dry igneous rocks. Only solid rocks obtained from regular massive outcrops were included to this first cross-sectional sampling, while artificial synthetic materials and natural gravels of postglacial origin were omitted since additional problems occur in these cases. This first experience allowed to recognize practical problems related to the sampling procedure. The collected data allow for provisional identification

  1. Leaching characteristics of construction materials and stabilization products containing waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; De Groot, G.J.; Wijkstra, J.

    1987-06-01

    Construction materials prepared with an admixture of waste material(s) and various stabilized waste products have been subjected to leaching studies. Static and dynamic leach tests are applied, in which the specimen to be studied is fully submerged in demineralized water or in seawater. At increasing time intervals the contact solution is renewed and the flux of elements into solution is measured. By studying a wide range of products containing waste materials attempts have been made to find common leaching characteristics. Materials studied to date comprise mortar specimen with a 20% cement replacement by pulverized coal ash, phosphate slag, light weight concrete with 50% of pulverized coal ash, stabilized phosphogypsum and stabilized products prepared from combinations of pulverized coal ash, phosphogypsum, incinerator ash, blast furnace slag, lime or cement. The alkalinity of the material, the open porosity of the product and the surface to volume ratio prove to be important factors in controlling the release of potential hazardous elements from materials containing waste products. In these studies leach parameters on (trace) elements are related to those of sodium. Since the interaction of sodium with the solid phase is usually small, sodium can be used as an indicator for the tortuosity of the product. Elements leached from cement-based waste products are mainly anionic species, like Mo, B, V, F and SO/sub 4/-ions, whereas leaching of metals, like Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb, is limited due to the high pH in the pore solution. The leaching experiments have been verified by scanning electron microscopy for major components on field samples and by measuring depth profiles in waste products for trace constituents using apparatus developed for this purpose.

  2. A Study of Driving Mechanism of Ecological Civilization Construction in China%生态文明建设驱动机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴守蓉; 王华荣

    2012-01-01

    生态文明建设驱动机制是生态文明建设的重要组成部分,也是我国现阶段开展生态文明建设的关键之一。本文运用网络治理理论和一般系统论的基本观点构建了政府、企业、学术机构和社会民众的“四位一体”驱动主体模式、驱动机制系统模型以及其内生机理,并分析了主体驱动力特点,提出了政策与法律驱动、市场与利益驱动、科技成果与人才驱动、文化与教育驱动四个要素层次及其结构功能特点。最后对驱动机制存在的问题和改善途径进行了探讨。%The ecological civilization construction is an important strategic task in the new era of China. The driving mechanism is one of the main components of ecological civilization construction at the present stage. Based on the network governance theory and general system theory, this paper put forward a four - in - one driving mechanism model of ecological civilization construction whose subjects consisted of the government, enterprises, academic organizations and the public, and the driving mechanism system included the links of input, process, output, and feedback. We analyzed the composition of subjects, and features of driving powers of each subject, and refined mechanism elements, summarized structural function by which the structure was divided into four levels including the policy and law driver, market and interest driver, technology achieve-ment and talent driver, and culture and education driver respectively. Then the existing problems and approaches of the driving mechanism were pointed out and discussed.

  3. 企业生态文明建设的伦理视阈%The Ecological Civilization Construction of Enterprise from the Ethical View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长亮

    2015-01-01

    The construction of ecological civilization is to build environment friendly society on the basis of resource environmental bearing capacity, taking natural law as the criterion and sustainable development as the goal of resource saving. Enterprise, as the main polluters of the environment, the main consumption of resources and ecological destroyer, should bear the responsibility of the construction of ecological civilization. From the ethical perspective of enterprise ecology civilization construction, companies are required to establish a correct concept of production and operation philosophy and ecological ethics, in order to realize economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit optimization. It should adhere to the principle of ecological friendly, environment-friendly, and resource-conserving society, and to develop circular economy and clean production, to save resources, to protect the environment, and to set up the sustainable development.%建设生态文明,就是要建设以资源环境承载力为基础、以自然规律为准则、以可持续发展为目标的资源节约型、环境友好型社会。企业作为环境的主要污染者、资源的主要消耗者和生态的主要破坏者,理应承担起生态文明建设的责任。从伦理的视角审视企业生态文明建设,要求企业树立科学的生产经营理念和生态伦理观念,注重生态效益;坚持生态友好原则,建设环境友好型、资源节约型社会;发展循环经济,推行清洁生产;节约资源,保护环境,树立可持续发展观。

  4. 广州市水生态文明城市建设试点实施方案浅析%Brief Introduction on the Construction Pilot Scheme of Guangzhou Municipal Water Ecological Civilization City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓鹏; 范立柱

    2014-01-01

    生态问题是当今世界关注的主题,作为生态文明的核心组成部分,水生态文明建设是实现经济社会可持续发展的重要保障。广州市大力推进水生态文明城市试点建设,探索符合我国水资源、水生态条件的水生态文明建设模式,发挥示范带动作用,为全面推进水生态文明建设提供经验借鉴。%Ecological problems in today's world is a topic of concern , as the core of ecological civilization , the construction of water ecological civilization is an important guarantee to achieve sustainable economic and social development .In Guangzhou City , pilot construction of water ecological civilization city has been vigorously promoted; water ecological civilization construction mode with the water ecological conditions of our country has been explored;all of these play a demonstration effect to provide experience and reference for the comprehensive promotion of water ecological civilization construction .

  5. Proximal Detection of Traces of Energetic Materials with an Eye-Safe UV Raman Prototype Developed for Civil Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Roberto; Almaviva, Salvatore; Colao, Francesco; Fiorani, Luca; Nuvoli, Marcello; Schweikert, Wenka; Schnürer, Frank; Cassioli, Luigi; Grossi, Silvana; Murra, Daniele; Menicucci, Ivano; Angelini, Federico; Palucci, Antonio

    2015-12-22

    A new Raman-based apparatus for proximal detection of energetic materials on people, was developed and tested for the first time. All the optical and optoelectronics components of the apparatus, as well as their optical matching, were carefully chosen and designed to respect international eye-safety regulations. In this way, the apparatus is suitable for civil applications on people in public areas such as airports and metro or railway stations. The acquisition software performs the data analysis in real-time to provide a fast response to the operator. Moreover, it allows for deployment of the apparatus either as a stand alone device or as part of a more sophisticated warning system architecture made up of several sensors. Using polyamide as substrate, the apparatus was able to detect surface densities of ammonium nitrate (AN), 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT), 3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethyl)propyl] nitrate (PETN) and urea nitrate (UN) in the range of 100-1000 μg/cm² at a distance of 6.4 m using each time a single laser pulse of 3 mJ/cm². The limit of detection calculated for AN is 289 μg/cm². AN and UN provided the highest percentages of true positives (>82% for surface densities of 100-400 μg/cm² and fingerprints) followed by TNT and PETN (17%-70% for surface densities of 400-1000 μg/cm² and fingerprints).

  6. Proximal Detection of Traces of Energetic Materials with an Eye-Safe UV Raman Prototype Developed for Civil Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chirico

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new Raman-based apparatus for proximal detection of energetic materials on people, was developed and tested for the first time. All the optical and optoelectronics components of the apparatus, as well as their optical matching, were carefully chosen and designed to respect international eye-safety regulations. In this way, the apparatus is suitable for civil applications on people in public areas such as airports and metro or railway stations. The acquisition software performs the data analysis in real-time to provide a fast response to the operator. Moreover, it allows for deployment of the apparatus either as a stand alone device or as part of a more sophisticated warning system architecture made up of several sensors. Using polyamide as substrate, the apparatus was able to detect surface densities of ammonium nitrate (AN, 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT, 3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethylpropyl] nitrate (PETN and urea nitrate (UN in the range of 100–1000 μg/cm2 at a distance of 6.4 m using each time a single laser pulse of 3 mJ/cm2. The limit of detection calculated for AN is 289 μg/cm2. AN and UN provided the highest percentages of true positives (>82% for surface densities of 100–400 μg/cm2 and fingerprints followed by TNT and PETN (17%–70% for surface densities of 400–1000 μg/cm2 and fingerprints.

  7. 我国公务员职业伦理构建的路径分析%An Analysis of Professional Ethical Construction of Civil Servants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷宁

    2015-01-01

    文章基于职业伦理的概念,分析了目前我国公务员职业伦理失范的表现,从深层和具体两个角度分别阐释了其失范产生的原因,并在此基础上为我国公务员职业伦理的构建提出了三种路径:一是政治性的分权与自治;二是结构性的主观责任和客观责任的平衡;三是基于反思装置和伦理基因的制度性设计。%In this paper, based on the concept of professional ethics, we analyzed professional ethics anomie of civil servants in China at present and explained the cause of the anomie from deep and specific angles. Therefore, we put forward three paths to the construction of professional ethics of civil servants of our country. The first is the decentralization and autonomy of politics; the second is the balance of subjective and objective responsibility in structure; the third is institutional design with the reflection of structure and occupational habits.

  8. Reuse of materials and byproducts in construction waste minimization and recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the reuse of materials and byproducts in the construction industry. It investigates the main building materials and their use. The book also offers an overview of new green design guides that will encourage best practice.

  9. 46 CFR 162.017-3 - Materials, construction, and workmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., locknuts, or other acceptable means. (r) Pressure-vacuum relief valves constructed in accordance with ISO 15364 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 162.017-1) meet the requirements of this subpart....

  10. The Development and Use of Economic Value concerning Urban Landscape Plants in Shijiazhuang City in the Context of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenxia; HAN

    2015-01-01

    Many landscape plants have edible,medicinal,forage,industrial and other economic value,which has not been fully exploited.Effective development and utilization of the economic value of city landscape plant,conforms to the need of sustainable development and economical society,which is of great significance to the development of urban ecological civilization construction. In this paper,the landscape plant species in Shijiazhuang City and their economic value are investigated and analyzed,the principle and scheme of economic development and utilization of landscape plants in Shijiazhuang city value are put forward,which provides the reference for full and sustainable utilization of landscape plant resources in Shijiazhuang City.

  11. RECOMMENDED FOUNDATION FILL MATERIALS CONSTRUCTION STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a recommended foundation fill materials standard for new construction houses in Florida. he radon-control construction standard was developed by the Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP). ill material standards are formulated for: (1)...

  12. A plastic micropump constructed with conventional techniques and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohm, Sebastian; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, P.

    1999-01-01

    A plastic micropump which can be produced using conventional production techniques and materials is presented. By applying well-known techniques and materials, economic fabrication of micropumps for various applications is feasible even at low production volumes. The micropump is capable of pumping

  13. Method for producing fabrication material for constructing micrometer-scaled machines, fabrication material for micrometer-scaled machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    A method for producing fabrication material for use in the construction of nanometer-scaled machines is provided whereby similar protein molecules are isolated and manipulated at predetermined residue positions so as to facilitate noncovalent interaction, but without compromising the folding configuration or native structure of the original protein biomodules. A fabrication material is also provided consisting of biomodules systematically constructed and arranged at specific solution parameters.

  14. Construction Material-Based Methodology for Military Contingency Base Construction: Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Nigerians believe that the initial feasibility work was improperly conducted. One of the main feasibility studies was conducted with the in- tent to import...Military Contingency Base Construction Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry...Case Study of Maiduguri, Nigeria Patrick J. Guertin, George W. Calfas, Michael K. Valentino, and Ghassan K. Al-Chaar Construction Engineering

  15. 专业培养视野下高职文明寝室建设研究--以酒店管理专业为例%On Construction of Civilized Dormitory in Vocational Colleges Under Specialty Cultivation Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易红燕

    2015-01-01

    专业培养是高职教育的重点,文明寝室建设是高职院校管理的一项常规工作。利用学生寝室这一阵地,扩大和深化学生专业知识的学习,将专业培养融入到高职文明寝室建设中,实证研究专业培养视野下高职文明寝室建设,经过基础建设期、关键建设期、补充建设期和完善建设期,完成整个文明寝室的建设。通过文明寝室建设,培养学生专业学习兴趣和能力,提高专业知识的应用能力,有助于实现专业培养的目标。%Specialty cultivation is the main task of technical college education;construction of civilized dormitory is a routine task in vocational college management. Making use of student dormitory as a battle field to enlarge and deepen student specialty knowl⁃edge with the combination of specialty cultivation with construction of civilized dormitory, this paper carries out a case study on the construction of civilized dormitory in vocational college under specialty cultivation vision which goes through a whole construction process including basic construction period, key construction period, complementary construction period and perfection construction period. The construction of civilized dormitory, helps cultivate students'interest and capability in specialty, raise their ability to ap⁃ply specialty knowledge, and realize the objective of specialty cultivation.

  16. Characterization of materials formed by rice husk for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo-Rodríguez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    This review article delves into the use of agro-industrial wastes, which in construction field provides alternatives for environmental problems with the use of them. This fact enables development and lower costs for new options in the brick, cluster, mortar and concrete industry, what represents benefits for environment, housing and generally everything related to construction, looking for sustainability. For that reason a literature review is made to support the theme focusing on the use of rice husk in its natural, ground or ash state for manufacturing elements with clay masonry, precast and optimization of concrete and mortars. The technique used is based on scientific articles and researches found in reliable databases that were analyzed and integrated into a synthesized structure, which summarized the objectives, analysis processes, the physical and mechanical properties and finally the results. The conclusions are focused on potentiality of elements production in the construction development based on the high effectiveness like thermal insulation, low density and various benefits offered by high silica content pozzolanic properties, etc.

  17. 生态文明建设中不同行为主体的目标指标体系构建%Index systems of the different actors in eco-civilization construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪珊; 何佳; 牛冬杰; 包存宽; 王娟

    2013-01-01

    建立生态文明建设目标指标体系是量化生态文明建设水平最有效的手段,是保证生态文明各领域建设活动有效开展和落实的重要途径.以生态文明建设的基本内涵为基础,提出生态文明建设中的“利益相关方”概念,并指出政府、企业、公众是主要利益相关方.分析了各主要利益相关方的定位、驱动力、利益关注点、权利、义务、沟通机制以及3者之间形成的复杂关系网.最后,结合各自在生态文明建设中应有的表现行为,分别设计了包含生态意识文明、生态行为文明、生态制度文明3层内涵的生态文明建设目标指标体系,旨在促进各利益相关方之间的自查或评比,将生态文明建设落实到各主要利益相关方的具体行为上.%The establishment of the index system of eco-civilization construction is the most effective means to quantify eco-civilization construction. Besides,it is an important way to ensure the effective implementation of the various fields of eco-civilization construction activities. Based on the basic connotation of ecological civilization,the paper puts forward the concept of "stakeholders in eco-civilization construction" and analyzes multiple stakeholders,in which government,enterprise and the public are the main power sources to ensure the healthy development of the districts or cities. Then the paper makes a comprehensive explanation of position, interest, the driving force, the rights, obligations, and communication mechanisms of three major stakeholders, and describes the linkages and synergies among them. At last,different index systems of eco-civilization construction are designed according to stakeholders' different behavior, which reflects ecological awareness civilization,ecological behavior civilization,and ecological system civilization three connotations. The purpose is to organize the self-examination or competitions among the various actors, guide the behavior of

  18. The research of constructing harmonious mining community in ecological civilization%生态文明视野下的和谐矿区建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚华军; 朱清

    2014-01-01

    Constructing harmonious mining community is not only the requirements of ecological civilization to mining industry ,but also the connotations to building a harmonious society .Interpersonal harmony in mine community depends the harmony between man and nature ,interpersonal conflict is due to unreasonable allocation of resources and the environment property rights .If we promote the harmonious mine construction from ecological civilization ,we should coordinate harmonious policy between man and nature ,to constructing interpersonal harmonious mechanisms in mining .It should mobilize the power of local government , relevant ministries and industry associations , using voluntary agreements , mining corporate social responsibility reporting system ,mineral resource development projects of social risk assessment that based on tools from Ministry of Land and Resource .%和谐矿区建设不仅是矿业走向生态文明的时代要求,也是我国构建和谐社会的重要内涵。本文从生态文明的视角分析指出,矿区人与自然的和谐是人与人和谐的基础,矿区人与人不和谐是由于矿区资源环境产权配置的不合理,因此,人与自然的和谐需要人与人和谐政策机制的调整来实现。从生态文明的角度推进和谐矿区建设,就要统筹完善人与自然和谐的政策,探索构建矿产资源开发人与人和谐的政策机制,并提出了统筹国土资源部内部政策,调动地方政府、相关部委、行业协会的积极性,使用自愿性协议、矿业企业社会责任报告制度和新开矿产资源开发项目社会风险评估,深入推进和谐矿区建设。

  19. Alternatives to Conventional Construction Materials on Landfills. A Guide; Alternativa konstruktionsmaterial paa deponier. Vaegledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihm, Thomas; Rogbeck, Yvonne; Svedberg, Bo; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-03-15

    Before a landfill can be sited, an application for a permit from the authorities is required. Already in the application process the consequences concerning impact on human health and on the environment must be described, including descriptions of e.g. bottom liners and capping constructions. Since there is a long period of time between when the permit is given and when the capping will be carried out, it is common practice, either to postpone decisions concerning capping details, or to delegate the decisions to the supervisory authorities to be made at a later stage. All constructions must however be approved by the authorities before they can be carried out. A construction must fulfil the demands for its function. For the capping this means that the percolation through it must be low, even in a long time perspective. A construction may not in itself cause adverse environmental effects, e.g. leaching of hazardous substances from the construction material. Thus, there are functional as well as environmental demands. Beside the functional demands given in the Swedish legislation, notably in the ordinance on landfilling, the construction must be physically stable, also in a long time perspective. The materials in the construction must have sufficient strength, and may not change over time, e.g. due to degradation, which could lead to malfunction. Demands on environmental behaviour can be divided into two parts. Humans and animals must be kept from direct contact with dangerous substances including dermal contact, inhalation of dust or gases and oral intake of soil, plants or berries. Secondly, dangerous substances may not be spread with surface or ground water to an extent that could lead to adverse effects on human health or on the environment. The impact on the environment is not only depending of the materials being used, but also on the construction design, where in the landfill the construction is situated and, not least, how the landfill is located. It is

  20. 新形势下我国生态文明建设的科学指南--学习习近平总书记加强生态文明建设重要讲话%The Scientific Guide on China’s Ecological Civilization Construction under the New Situation--Study on General Secretary Xi Jinping’s Important Speech of Strengthening Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新市

    2015-01-01

    Ecological civilization construction is the credit for contemporary and the interests for thousands of years in the future. Ecological civilization construction is closely related to the democratic politics. A good ecological environment is the well-being of the people’s livelihood. We shall implement measures to strengthen the construction of ecological civilization: We shall set up and strengthen new concept of ecological civilization construction, use the system construction achievements to guarantee the construction of ecological civilization, realize more policies and stimulate more joint-action in the whole society, put on efforts to create a good production and living environment for the people, take active measures to leave nature more space to be improved, and take effective measures to maintain marine natural regeneration.%生态文明建设是功在当代利在千秋的事业,生态文明建设与民主政治密切相关,良好生态环境是最普惠的民生福祉。因此,要落实好加强生态文明建设的各项措施:要树立和强化崭新的生态文明建设理念,用制度建设成果保障生态文明建设,要多策并举多地联动全社会共同行动,努力为人民创造良好生产生活环境,积极采取措施给自然留下更多修复空间,采取有效措施维护海洋自然再生能力。

  1. Applications of Nanostructured Carbon Materials in Constructions: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent studies on the applications of nanostructured carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene oxides, in constructions are presented. First, the preparation of nanostructured carbon/infrastructure material composites is summarized. This part is mainly focused on how the nanostructured carbon materials were mixed with cementitious or asphalt matrix to realize a good dispersion condition. Several methods, including high speed melting mixing, surface treatment, and aqueous solution with surfactants and sonication, were introduced. Second, the applications of the carbon nanostructured materials in constructions such as mechanical reinforcement, self-sensing detectors, self-heating element for deicing, and electromagnetic shielding component were systematically reviewed. This paper not only helps the readers understand the preparation process of the carbon nanostructured materials/infrastructure material composites but also sheds some light on the state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanostructured materials in constructions.

  2. CISBAT 2007 - Environmental impacts of construction (ecological materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the eighth part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of Environmental impacts of construction the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Nanostructured coatings for active solar facades' and 'Sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrids as binders for TISS paints'. Further groups of presentations at the conference are reported on in separate database records. An index of authors completes the proceedings.

  3. Electric characterization of construction materials through radar data inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriarca, C.

    2013-01-01

    The non-destructive evaluation with the aim of characterizing objects before or after treatment has taken place, and the monitoring of long-term performance is analyzed in this thesis. Generally, these test methods measure material properties or changes in these properties that decision makers are i

  4. Individual protection equipment for use in the construction civil sector - case study in the city of Medianeira in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Roberto Rockenbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety at work is defined as a set of measures that are based on technical standards and aimed at accident prevention, in Brazil it is governed by Decree-Law No. 5,452 of May 1, 1943, approving the Consolidation of Labor Laws - CLT. The construction is the sector that suffers most from industrial accidents and is labeled as the champion as the rates of work accidents. This study aimed to carry out a survey of the works of the construction industry situation in the city of Medianeira in Brazil about using Security Personal Protective Equipment (PPE and relate to the use of such equipment with the occurrence of accidents. To carry out the research were used 40 works, and for the data used in the survey, a questionnaire was applied to each work, which was answered by the foreman. With this research found up those 50% of employers in this sector in the city are not complying with the legislation as the provision of PPE and only 10% of employees are using all PPE required for their safety.

  5. Environmental Management of Waste Based on Road Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Koletnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the European Council adopted a revised framework for waste management in the EU, with an objective to encourage recycling and reuse of waste, in order to reduce landfills and potential environmental emissions. This framework also sets new recycling targets for construction and demolition waste by 2020, suggesting that at least 70 % of the waste should be recycled. Nigrad d.d. is a utility company providing services to several municipalities in North-East Slovenia. These services include repairs to public roads and pavements. This paper examines the origin, amount and fraction of construction waste produced, identifying current waste management practices. Based on the state-of-the art study new approaches are to be proposed, which will make it possible to decrease environmental impacts and costs, when providing public services and establishing sustainable service systems. To reach this objective a life-cycle analysis of the existing service has been carried out, which will help identify the system parts that have the most significant impact on the environment.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.59.1.681

  6. Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Delong, Waylon Anthony; White, Scott (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois); Yepez, Esteban; Rackow, Kirk A.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack, corrosion, erosion and other flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging civil and military infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair and inspection methods. As a result of Homeland Security issues and these aging infrastructure concerns, increased attention has been focused on the rapid repair and preemptive reinforcement of structures such as buildings and bridges. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program established the viability of using bonded composite patches to repair metallic structures. High modulus fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material may be used in lieu of mechanically fastened metallic patches or welds to reinforce or repair damaged structures. Their use produces a wide array of engineering and economic advantages. Current techniques for strengthening steel structures have several drawbacks including requiring heavy equipment for installation, poor fatigue performance, and the need for ongoing maintenance due to continued corrosion attack or crack growth. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are currently no rehabilitation options. Applications include such diverse structures as: buildings, bridges, railroad cars, trucks and other heavy machinery, steel power and communication towers, pipelines, factories, mining equipment, ships, tanks and other military vehicles. This LDRD also proved the concept of a living infrastructure by developing custom sensors and self-healing chemistry and linking this technology with the application of advanced composite materials. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems and mountable, miniature sensors were designed to continuously or periodically assess structural integrity. Such systems are able to

  7. 从主体性到主体间性:关于生态文明建设的哲学思考%From Subjectivity to Intersubjectivity:Philosophical Reflections on Construction of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷扬

    2011-01-01

    Ecological civilization is a new civilization concept proposed when our country faced problems in the industrial civilization construction. Subjectivity philosophy of subject and object is the basic philosophy for in dustry civilization, which causes isolation and ecological crisis of human relations. Therefore, the ecological civilization construction must change to a new kind of guiding philosophy, called intersubjectivity philosophy, which is the philosophy about subjects with equal status, such as one and another, human and nature. The ecological civilization construction in China, guided by intersubjectivity philosophy, enriches and develops the theory of Marxism and also reinforces international dialogues and cooperation in this field.%生态文明是我国面对工业文明建设中的问题而提出的一个全新的文明理念。主客体二分的主体性哲学是工业文明的哲学基础,它导致了人际关系的疏离和生态危机。因此,生态文明建设必须转向一种新的指导哲学——主体间性哲学,即我与他者之间、人与自然之间是平等主体的哲学。以主体间性哲学为指导进行我国的生态文明建设,既是对马克思主义理论的丰富和发展,又有着丰富的本土资源,还可加强此方面的国际对话与合作。

  8. Construção Civil e a Degradação Ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline das Graças Roth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The civil construction industry is important activity in economy of Brazil, but, is a major generator of environmental impacts and these factors result in the formation of degraded areas. These areas end up generating perilous situations with relevant consequences such as augmentation of the vulnerability of nearby water tables, rivers and streams, damages to adjacent edifications, streets and roads , air quality loss because of noises or pollution, unhealthiness resulting from residues depositation and damages to the neighboring population. In Brazil, degraded areas by civil construction occurred in three moments: in extracting and production of materials, in edifications construction and residues disposition. Therefore, it becomes inevitable the development of civil construction activities more adequate to sustainable principles and that do not cause so many degrading acts, searching for materials and constructive process that are integrated the man and ambient, with a good destination of residues.

  9. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  10. The Small Helm Project: an academic activity addressing international corruption for undergraduate civil engineering and construction management students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzley, Steven E

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents an academic project that addresses the issue of international corruption in the engineering and construction industry, in a manner that effectively incorporates several learning experiences. The major objectives of the project are to provide the students a learning activity that will 1) make a meaningful contribution within the disciplines being studied; 2) teach by experience a significant principle that can be valuable in numerous situations during an individual's career, and 3) engage the minds, experiences, and enthusiasm of the participants in a real ethical challenge that is prevalent in all of their chosen professional fields. The paper describes the full details of the project, the actual implementation of it during Winter Semester 2005, the experiences gained during the initial trial, and the modifications and improvements incorporated for future implementation.

  11. 贷款人环境民事责任建构研究%The Construction of Environmental Civil Liability of Lender in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈娅云

    2015-01-01

    The legal liability of lender in credit and loan industry derives from the equator principle and it im‐plicates the legislative concept which means that environment law requests legal subject to transfer from “e‐conomic man” to“ecological man” .At present ,the credit environmental liability of lender is mainly shown as a kind of enterprise social responsibility ,w hich is based on lenders'voluntary .T hen ,it is necessary to up‐grade the responsibility to the aspect of legal liability .Environmental civil liability of lender is not only re‐stricted to the liability of polluter but also related to the person w ho possesses the pollutant source or the person w hose identity is the administrator .How ever ,the“lender” ,w hich is a specialized subject concept ,is not appropriate to be singed into the civil law or the environmental basic law .Therefore ,the basic ideas of constructing the environmental civil liability of lender are as follow :on the one hand ,the commercial bank is considered as ordinary polluter ;on the other hand ,the possessor's liability in lender's liability abroad should be borrowed .As the administrator or possessor of the pollutant source ,the lender should be introduced into subject range of environmental civil liability through the polluter identity .%指出了贷款人在信贷领域的法律责任来源于赤道原则,蕴含了环境法要求法律主体从“经济人”向“生态人”转变的立法理念。目前贷款人信贷环保责任多体现为一种企业社会责任,以贷款人的自愿履行为基础,有必要将此种责任上升至法律责任层面。贷款人环境民事责任不仅局限在作为污染行为人的责任,还可能是污染源的占有人或管理人这一污染关系人身份,但是要将“贷款人”这一十分特定化的主体概念写入民事或环境基本法显然并不合理,因此,贷款人环境民事责任建构的基本思路是,一方面,在现有的

  12. 公民社会视域下我国社会建设之思考%Thinking on Social Construction in China from the View of Civil Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓丽

    2014-01-01

    一方面,社会建设离不开公民社会的参与;另一方面,社会建设活动也促进了公民社会的成长。在公民社会理念的推动下进行社会建设,必须培育社会组织,充分发挥其在社会建设中的作用;进行信任增量重建,促进社会建设中社会资本的积聚;重视公民参与,增强公众对社会建设的认同度;加强公民责任,注重法治与规则的建构。%On the one hand,social construction cannot carry on without the participation of the civil society;on the other hand,social construction will also promote the growth of the civil society.Under the promotion of the concept of civil society,our social construction must culti-vate social organizations and give full play to its role and strengthen the trust incremental re-construction to promote the accumulation of social capital and emphasis on citizen participation to enhance public awareness and strengthen civic responsibilities and pay more attention to the construction of the rule of law.

  13. The dose from radioactivity of covering construction materials in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor dose due to the radiation of ceramic and granite tiles, marble, granite and travertine plates, as well as some components of covering materials, produced in Serbia or imported from other countries, was estimated in the work. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were measured by the standard gamma-spectrometry system. The lowest content of the radionuclides was found in white marble (ARa = 2 Bq/kg, ATh < 2 Bq/kg, and AK < 3 Bq/kg, while the highest activities were in some granite samples (Balmoral red: ARa = 200 Bq/kg, ATh = 378 Bq/kg, and AK = 1679, and Madura Gold: ARa = 273 Bq/kg, ATh = 20 Bq/kg, and AK = 1456 Bq/kg. The indoor absorbed dose rate in air due to the gamma radiation from covering materials was determined based on the specific absorbed dose rate computed in this work. Concentration of 222Rn that emanated into the indoor space was also calculated from the known 226Ra content. The radiation hazard estimated from the usage of each sample was expressed through the evaluated effective dose. Almost all samples, except one, fulfil the dosimetric criterion for safe use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. 171021 i br. 171025

  14. COMPATIBILITY OF NAPLS AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH MATERIALS UED IN WELL CONSTRUCTION, SAMPLING, AND REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Structural integrity of well construction, sampling, and remediation materials may be compromised at many hazardous sites by nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and their dissolved constituents. A literature review of compatibility theory and qualitative field experiences are provid...

  15. Influence of the civil construction debris layer in heavy metals removal of the leachate submitted to recirculation in landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Rossmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the ability of stabilized organic matter (old MSW and construction waste (RCC to retain heavy metals from leachate generated in landfills. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of MSW to remove old heavy metals in MSW leachate produced by freshly collected, and the effect of RCC in the concentration of heavy metals in effluents from MSW old. In three columns (CR, put a layer of RCC and then MSW old and, on the other three (SR, only MSW old. Analyzed in the leachate and effluent pH, EC, BOD and metals Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb. There were similar and efficient removal of BOD and heavy metals in both treatments. The presence of the layer of RCC was considered important to the overall improvement in effluent quality, but did not influence the concentration of metals in the effluent. The order of retention of metals in the columns was: Cu ~ Pb> Cd> Zn. With the exception of Cd and Zn, all other variables assessed in the effluent were below the maximum standards set in DN 01.08 COPAM / CERH for release effluent into water bodies.

  16. 论生态文明发展与廉政建设的契合%Research on the Integration of Ecological Civilization and An-ti-corruption Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杰

    2015-01-01

    党的十八大提出生态文明建设的发展新理念,要求全面落实经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设五位一体总体布局。生态文明建设需要廉洁的政治体系作保障,廉政建设也需要生态文明发展的支撑,生态文明建设与廉政建设在发展过程中形成契合。实现生态文明发展与廉政建设契合的合理路径,首先需要构建以廉政建设为保证的生态文明发展环境,其次是使生态文明的理念在廉政建设过程中得到有效渗透,从而使生态文明建设和廉政建设形成合力促进社会的全面发展。%The 18t h National Congress of the CPC puts forward a new development concept of the construction of ecological civilization, which calls for a comprehensive implementation of an overall layout which integrates economic, political, cultural, social and ideological civilization construction. The construction of ideological civilization requires the safeguard of a clean po-litical system. Meanwhile, anti-corruption construction needs the support of ecological civilization development. The two corre-sponds with each other during the process of development. To find out a proper path to unite the two, we should first construct an atmosphere of ideological civilization development with the guarantee of anti-corruption construction. Then, we should let the concept of ideological civilization effectively penetrate into the course of anti-corruption construction. In this way, the two forces can unite together so as to promote the overall social development.

  17. Heat and moisture transport in durian fiber based lightweight construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenvai, S.; Khedari, J.; Hirunlabh, J.; Asasutjarit, C. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology, Building Scientific Research Center, Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Zeghmati, B. [Perpignan Univ., Centre d' Etudes Fondamentales, Groupe de Mecanique, Acoustique et Instrumentation, Perpignan, 66 (France); Quenard, D.; Pratintong, N. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB), Grenoble (France)

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents result on heat and moisture transport in durian (Durio zibethinus) fiber based lightweight construction materials composed of cement, sand and waste fiber from durian peel and the performance of the material was simulated with the surface treatment by using a computational tool. The commercial research software (WUFI 2D) was used to calculate heat and moisture transfer through a durian fiber based lightweight construction material. The materials were exposed to a climate condition similar to the one in Bangkok and the hygrothermal characteristics of the materials were investigated. The investigation reveals that the weekly mean water content on the surface of material was quite low. The effect of moisture on the apparent thermal performance of the composite was found to be higher as water absorbed in the pore structure contributed to higher thermal conductivity than the air it replaced. However, the mean value of thermal conductivity in material is still rather low as the mean value of water content in material is low. Coating the surface reduced the flow of moisture to or from the structure considerably. The results of simulation confirmed that the manufactured composite satisfied the requirement of construction materials. It is then reasonable to conclude that the use of such materials in the design and construction of passive solar buildings is promising. Laboratory investigation is undergoing to validate the simulated performance. (Author)

  18. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction; Aspekty wdrazania nowych materialow w budowie kotlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, R. [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  19. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property... construction, maintenance or repair of commercial property or any other property not excepted in section 3(n... business for the construction, maintenance or repair of commercial property or any other property...

  20. A platform for communicating construction material information between e-commerce systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen C W Kong; LI Heng; SHEN Qi-ping

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce systems for construction material procurement are becoming increasingly important in Hong Kong. These E-commerce systems are non-interoperable and create problems for the buyers who use these systems to purchase construction materials. This paper presents the mobile agent-based approach and Web serv-ices-based approach for enabling interoperation of these systems in the E-Union environment.

  1. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Dipankar Sarkar; Manish Pal; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  2. 浅谈陕西航空物流综合信息平台建设%The Construction of Civil Aviation Logistics Information Platform in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁苏炜

    2014-01-01

    Considered the demand of Western Development, the construction of Aviation Logistics information platform is very important. This paper proposes a model of the platform include Architecture, standard, and the function. This platform will provide a stable environment for the development of Civil Aviation Logistics in Shaanxi.%按照国家西部大开发战略部署和“关中-天水经济区发展规划”,结合陕西经济发展和对外开放的需要,通过建设符合国际航空物流数据标准、融合电子口岸、电子商务功能,涵盖物流产业链和物流产业资金链、具备强大数据处理能力的航空物流信息平台体系,进一步提高内陆口岸通关能力,为陕西对外开放和经济社会发展做出贡献。

  3. 土木工程投标报价模型研究(英)%An Offer Model for Civil Engineering Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢德林; 章祥荪; 糜莺英

    2001-01-01

    本文主要研究单一不可分土木工程的n人投标报价模型.报价高低不是是否中标的唯一决定性因素,施工方案和工程报价为赢得工程施工合同共同发挥组合效应,并且在一定条件下,通过工程竞标,中标价会趋于Nash平衡.%In this paper,we consider an offer model in which one indivisible civil-engineering project of unknown construction cost is tendered to n tenders.The offer is not the sole decisive factor which decides who will get the contract,the tendering plan and the offer can play an important combinatorial role in the competition,and the winner's final offer via the procedure of competitive bidding tends to the symmetric Nash equilibrium in both the probabilistic sense and the economic sense.

  4. Characterizing of steel used in the construction of civil works in Almeria; Caracterizacion mecanica de aceros empleados en el sector de la construccion de Almeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senobua, A. J.; Garzon, E.; Ayuso, J.; Perez, F.; Caballero, A.

    2003-07-01

    Various tests have been conducted on the steel bars used in the construction of civil works in Almeria (Spain) during the period 18 January 2000-7May 2001, with the aim of mechanically characterizing the different types of steel (weldable; B400S, B500S and ductile weldable: B400SD) to determine whether there is a technical reason for the increase in the use of ductile weldable steel. For this, we have used a hydraulic machine to break by traction all the test samples that arrived to the laboratory, following the specifications of the UNE 7474-1:1992 and the UNE 7474-2:1992. The results indicate that only in 86% of the cases does the steel B400SD satisfy the limits specified by the UNE 36065:1999-EX, as opposed to 95 and 94% of the B400S and B500S steels. In addition the ductile weldable steel registered mean values lower than those of B400S. This findings disagrees with expectations set by the specifications. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. 军民融合区域协同医疗信息化平台的建设与应用%Construction and Application of Regional Health Information Platform for Civil-military Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应可满; 王继伟; 许树根

    2011-01-01

    军民融合区域协同医疗信息化平台的主要功能包括公众服务、医疗机构协同、社区卫生保健、妇幼保健、政府管理决策支持及第三方服务等.信息化平台的应用有效缓解了"看病难、看病贵"的矛盾,推动了医疗卫生机构的发展,强化了卫生行政部门的监管职能,促进了军队卫生事业的发展.%Main functions of regional health information platform for civil-military integration are described, which are public service, medical institutes' coordination, health care in community, material and child hygiene, support of government management policy and the third-party service, etc.Meanwhile, the application of information platform easing the contradictions of the “medical treatment is difficult and expensive” promotes the development of health care institutions, strengthens the regulatory functions of the health administration department, and promotes construction and development of the military health.

  6. Construction materials as a waste management solution for cellulose sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modolo, R; Ferreira, V M; Machado, L M; Rodrigues, M; Coelho, I

    2011-02-01

    Sustainable waste management system for effluents treatment sludge has been a pressing issue for pulp and paper sector. Recycling is always recommended in terms of environmental sustainability. Following an approach of waste valorisation, this work aims to demonstrate the technical viability of producing fiber-cement roof sheets incorporating cellulose primary sludge generated on paper and pulp mills. From the results obtained with preliminary studies it was possible to verify the possibility of producing fiber-cement sheets by replacing 25% of the conventional used virgin long fiber by primary effluent treatment cellulose sludge. This amount of incorporation was tested on an industrial scale. Environmental parameters related to water and waste, as well as tests for checking the quality of the final product was performed. These control parameters involved total solids in suspension, dissolved salts, chlorides, sulphates, COD, metals content. In the product, parameters like moisture, density and strength were controlled. The results showed that it is possible to replace the virgin long fibers pulp by primary sludge without impacts in final product characteristics and on the environment. This work ensures the elimination of significant waste amounts, which are nowadays sent to landfill, as well as reduces costs associated with the standard raw materials use in the fiber-cement industrial sector.

  7. To Do Big City:On the First Strategy of Ecological Civilization Construction---Taking Wuhan Ecological Civilization Construction for Example%做大城市:论生态文明建设的首位战略--以武汉市生态文明建设为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫东

    2014-01-01

    Urban development and construction of ecological civilization is not entirely antagonistic, but complementary.City is a good area to promote the construction of ecological civilization.For those ar-eas with obvious geographical advantages,with a strong regional environmental carrying capacity,to do bigger,better cities should be regarded as the first strategy of ecological civilization construction.To do Big Wuhan,we must adjust the established land space planning,change the existing restrictive provi-sions,highlighting the characteristics of ultra-mega-cities,plan the layout around the requirements of na-tional central cities.Our long-term development strategy of that to restrict big cities is very unfavorable to China’s economic development.Big cities are not positively correlated to “urban disease”.As long as we can really transform the economic development mode,to accelerate industrial upgrading,to thaw the large-scale growth of urban population with good industrial structure,to really solve the household con-trol,to realistically plan different urban development,may we cure China’s urban disease,so that the ecological civilization construction may be implemented.%城市发展与生态文明建设并不完全对立,而是相辅相成的,城市是促进生态文明建设的上佳区域。对区位优势明显、环境承载力强的地区,应把做大、做好城市作为生态文明建设的首位战略。做大武汉必须调整既定的国土空间规划,改变现有的限制性规定,突出超特大城市特点,围绕国家中心城市的要求布局。我国长期奉行的限制大城市发展战略对中国经济的发展是十分不利的。大城市与“城市病”没有正相关关系,只要我们能真正转变经济发展模式,加快产业升级,以良好的产业结构来统摄城市人口的规模化增长,同时真正解决户籍管制问题,实事求是地制定不同地区的城市发展规划,我们就有可

  8. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Views about Using Computer-Based Instructional Materials in Constructing Mathematical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukova-Guzel, Esra; Canturk-Gunhan, Berna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine prospective mathematics teachers' views about using computer-based instructional materials in constructing mathematical concepts and to reveal how the sample computer-based instructional materials for different mathematical concepts altered their views. This is a qualitative study involving twelve…

  9. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  10. Law Absence and System Construction of Equal Material Assistance Rights of Farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,conception of farmers’ equal material assistance rights is introduced from the aspects of equal rights,material assistance rights,and farmers’ equal material assistance rights.Value function of farmers’ equal material assistance rights is pointed out,which can eliminate the partial policies with urban priority orientation.It is a necessary condition for maintaining the legal and institutional authority,as well as an inevitable choice to realize the social justice and harmony.Current status of the law absence of farmers’ equal material assistance rights in China is introduced,which is reflected in the lack of theoretical research on farmers’ equal material assistance rights in the law circle,the lack of procedural legal system of farmers’ equal material assistance rights at present,and the lack of actual law effectiveness of farmers’ equal material assistance rights at present.System construction is a turning point to change the law absence of farmers’ material assistance rights.Government should promote the economic development,provide material bases for the system construction of farmers’ material assistance rights,enhance the legal consciousness of farmers,cultivate the ability of farmers to participate in equal material assistance rights,strengthen the procedural legislation and judicial justice,and ensure the farmers’ material assistance rights.

  11. Energy-Efficient Devices for Transporting and Feeding Bulk Materials in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only in the construction industry millions of tons of bulk materials that need to be transported to the place of processing, storing and evenly or dosed feeding are recycled annually. Decreasing the costs of these processes will significantly reduce the cost of the finished product. The article presents a review of studies conducted in the field of storage, transport and feed bulk materials, and it describes the innovative design of energy-efficient disc vibrating feeder bulk materials.

  12. Learning by Seeing: The TEMAS Multimedia Learning Objects for Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio; Botturi, Luca; Forni, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    A goal of engineering and architecture bachelor and master's programs is to provide students with practical and technical preparation in the mechanical characterization of materials and structures: future architects and civil engineers should be able to recognize and describe different construction materials and their behavior when used for…

  13. Study of the Causes and Magnitude of Wastage of Materials on Construction Sites in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanim A. Bekr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to study the causes and magnitude of wastage of construction materials on construction projects sites in Jordan. To achieve the research aim, the researcher had prepared a questionnaire form included questions about the causes of wastage and the estimated percentages of wastage of ten most popular kinds of materials used on construction sites in Jordan. Prior to the final formulation of the questionnaire form, a pilot survey was conducted. The form was revised in accordance with the feedback received. The number of causes adopted was 60 distributed on the six major categories. The form was distributed to 240 participants (clients, contractors, and consultants. The study revealed that the most important causes of wastage of materials on construction sites in Jordan are frequent design and client’s changes; rework due to workers mistakes; poor contract documents; wrong and lack of storage of materials; poor strategy for waste minimization; shortage and lack of experience of skilled workers; poor site conditions; damage during transportation; theft and vandalism; and mistakes in quantity surveying and over allowance. In addition the study concluded that the percentage of wastage materials is accounted for by values between 15% and 21% on Jordanian construction sites.

  14. 工民建工程施工管理的现状问题与对策%Analysis of the Status Problems and Countermeasures of Civil Engineering Construction Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海滨

    2013-01-01

    笔者长期从事建筑工程现场施工管理工作,本文首先对我国目前工民建工程施工管理的现状进行了分析,并根据现状中存在的问题提出了相应的对策,以提高工程的施工管理质量。%In this article, the author engaged in site construct-ion management of engineering construction for a long time. This article first carries out the analysis of the status quo of Chinese current civil engineering construction management and put forward the corresponding countermeasures based on the problems in the current situation in order to improve the construction management quality of project.

  15. The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, A.; Bonaduce, I.; Sabatini, F.; Degano, I.; Blaensdorf, C.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Ma, L.; Colombini, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    The beiwusheng huiguan (`Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 ad) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 ad and representing scenes of the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the

  16. The Historical Reviews and Lesson Enlightments of Ecological Civilization Construction in Yunnan Province%云南生态文明建设的历史回顾与经验启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琼

    2016-01-01

    The traditional ecological environmental protection thought and behavioral norms of the ethnic minorities of Yunnan is the early form and established mode of ecological civilization.The early pro-ecological civilization thoughts and folk law constitute the foundation for advancing and carrying out modern and contempo-rary ecological civilization construction in the frontier minority areas.Yunnan province started the construction of ecological civilization since the goal of constructing ecological civilization presented by the 17th CPC National Congress in 2007 .All levels of CPC parties and governments have taken a series constructive measures,and aca-demia has made many researches on the ecological civilization construction from different perspectives,so great theoretical and practical achievements have been obtained.After the 18th CPC National Congress,Yunnan'eco-logical civilization construction is in full swing.Therefore,the experience and lessons have important implica-tions for the strategies of promoting innovation and green development.But the construction mode of pacesetters of ecological civilization needs continuous exploration to advance from theoretical studies to the application in or-der to achieve effective results through summarizing and improving the past experience.%云南各民族具有的传统生态环境保护的思想和行为规范,是生态文明的早期形式及存在模式。这类前生态文明时代的思想及民间“法制”,是现当代生态文明建设在边疆民族地区推进及实施的基础。2007年,党的十七大提出生态文明建设目标后,云南开始了生态文明建设新的进程。各级党政部门采取了系列建设措施,学界也对云南生态文明的建设进行了不同视角的研究,从理论到实践取得了较大成就。十八大以后,云南生态文明的建设全面展开。其建设历程及经验教训对目前开拓创新、绿色发展战略具有极大的启示意义

  17. 连片特困地区扶贫攻坚的战略选择%Strategic Choices of Poverty Alleviation in Contiguous Destitute Areas Under Background of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓龙; 徐鲲

    2014-01-01

    The report at 18th CPC National Congress points out that the construction of ecological civilization will be put into a prominent position,blending in economic,political,cultural and social construction and all aspects of the whole process to build a beautiful China and achieve sustainable development of China. In China,poverty and fragile ecological environment is often symbiotic. Most of rural poor population live in contiguous areas ,and thus, area poverty alleviation plays an extremely important role in the ecological civilization construction. Based on the background of ecological civilization construction and the analyses of challenges contiguous destitute areas face in ecological civilization construction,this paper expounds on strategic choices of poverty alleviation in contiguous destitute areas from such aspects as optimizing the spatial pattern,adjusting the industrial structure,improving production modes,improving lifestyle to provide useful references for the areas to promote poverty alleviation and ecological civilization construction.%党的十八大报告提出,把生态文明建设放在突出地位,融入经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设各方面和全过程,努力建设美丽中国,实现中华民族永续发展。在我国,贫困与生态环境脆弱往往是共生的。我国农村贫困人口大部分分布在连片特困地区,因而,片区扶贫攻坚在生态文明建设中处于极为重要的地位。本文通过分析连片特困地区生态文明建设面临的挑战,从优化空间格局、调整产业结构、改进生产方式、完善生活方式等四个方面论述了连片特困地区扶贫攻坚的战略选择,为该地区推进扶贫开发与生态文明建设提供一些有益的参考。

  18. Challenges of UK/Irish Contractors regarding Material Management and Logistics in Confined Site Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spillane, John P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the various managerial issues encountered by UK/Irish contractors in the management of materials in confined urban construction sites. Through extensive literature review, detailed interviews, case studies, cognitive mapping, causal loop diagrams, questionnaire survey and documenting severity indices, a comprehensive insight into the materials management concerns within a confined construction site environment is envisaged and portrayed. The leading issues highlighted are: that contractors’ material spatial requirements exceed available space, it is difficult to coordinate the storage of materials in line with the programme, location of the site entrance makes delivery of materials particularly difficult, it is difficult to store materials on-site due to the lack of space, and difficult to coordinate the storage requirements of the various sub-contractors. With the continued development of confined urban centres and the increasing high cost of materials, any marginal savings made on-site would translate into significant monetary savings at project completion. Such savings would give developers a distinct competitive advantage in this challenging economic climate. As on-site management professionals successfully identify, acknowledge and counteract the numerous issues illustrated, the successful management of materials on a confined urban construction site becomes attainable.

  19. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  20. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  1. 生态文明建设视域下生态消费模式的构建%Constructing Ecological Consumption Pattern from the Perspective of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱高会

    2015-01-01

    生态消费是一种勤俭节约、绿色低碳、环保健康的消费模式,构建生态消费模式是加快推进生态文明建设、转变经济发展方式、构筑绿色和谐美丽人生的内在要求和现实需要。构建生态消费模式,必须由示范型政府、绿色环保型企业、生态自觉的公众三个主体协调推进,同时还要强化生态消费观的宣传教育,大力开展生态消费活动,健全生态消费制度体系。%Ecological consumption is a healthy consumption pattern with advantages of thrift, green, low carbon, environmental protection. Constructing this pattern is the inner requirement and the realistic need for accelerating advancing ecological civilization construction, changing economic development pattern, building harmonious and beautiful life. The building of the pattern must be coordinated and pushed forward by three subjects: the demonstration type government, green and environment-friendly enterprise, and self-conscious public with ecological sense. Meanwhile, lay stress on strengthening propaganda and education of the ecological consumption idea, energetically developing ecological consumption activities, and perfecting the institutional system of ecological consumption.

  2. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  3. Exploration and Reflections on Ecological Civilization Construction in Shiyan City, Hubei Province%湖北省十堰市生态文明建设探索与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华钢; 孔小丽; 陈霞

    2015-01-01

    As the core water source area of the Middle Route Scheme of South to North Water Division Project, Shiyan urgently needs to promote the construction of ecological civilization. In fact, there are great challenges, including the strong constraints of resources and environment, the relatively backward social and economic development, and the fragile ecological system, in the construction of ecological civilization in Shiyan. In this article, some correlative systems need to be set up, such as scientific and reasonable spatial layout system, natural and beautiful ecological environment system, green and low-carbon industrial development mode, intensive and efficient utilization of energy and resources system, low-carbon and circular urban-rural integration system, normal and systematic ecological civilization system, moderate ecological culture system, to strengthen the construction of ecological civilization.%十堰市是国家南水北调中线工程核心水源区,加快推进生态文明建设刻不容缓。但十堰生态文明建设面临巨大挑战,资源环境约束趋紧,经济社会发展水平相对落后,生态系统脆弱,因此需要从构建科学合理的空间布局体系、自然优美的生态环境体系、绿色低碳的产业发展体系、集约高效的资源能源利用体系、循环低碳的城乡一体化体系、系统规范的生态文明制度体系、节约适度的生态文化体系来推进生态文明建设。

  4. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  5. Oral health of building construction workers: an epidemiological approach Saúde bucal de trabalhadores da construção civil: abordagem epidemiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Emy Tomita

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the oral health conditions of building construction workers from a city in the mid-west region of São Paulo, Brazil. This study involved 219 male subjects, aged 17 to 72. The definition of a random sample utilized the functional number of each worker as a criterion to the raffle, which took into account all 450 subjects registered in the Working Accidents Prevention Program. The examination of oral health conditions by DMFT index and need of treatment were carried out according to WHO criteria (1997. This paper reports the prevalence of caries according to age, occupation, and educational level. Among the 219 workers examined, the mean DMFT was 16.9. Amongst the younger workers (Este estudo transversal foi delineado para avaliar as condições de saúde bucal de trabalhadores da construção civil em município da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinados 219 indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idades entre 17 e 72 anos. O levantamento das condições bucais foi realizado em processo de amostragem aleatória simples, a partir do total de 450 inscritos na MEGA-SIPAT 2000 (Semana Interna de Prevenção de Acidentes do Trabalho. Foi utilizado o índice CPOD (cárie dentária e necessidade de tratamento odontológico, segundo metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997. Neste estudo, são descritas a prevalência de cárie segundo a idade, ocupação e escolaridade. Entre os 219 trabalhadores examinados, o valor CPOD apurado foi 16,9. Os trabalhadores mais jovens (<25 anos de idade apresentaram média de 21,3 dentes sem necessidade de tratamento, enquanto os mais velhos mostraram necessidades progressivas de tratamento restaurador e reabilitador (p<0,001. Verificou-se índice CPOD de 15,6 para os trabalhadores de áreas administrativas e 21,7 para os mestres-de-obras, sem significância estatística. Houve aumento do índice CPOD segundo a idade, para todos os

  6. Time-history simulation of civil architecture earthquake disaster relief- based on the three-dimensional dynamic finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system adopts the explicit central difference method. Strengthening characteristics of materials under high strain rate and damage characteristics of surrounding rock under the action of cyclic loading are considered. Then, dynamic constitutive model of rock mass suitable for civil building aseismic analysis is put forward. At the same time, through the earthquake disaster of time-history simulation of Shenzhen Children’s Palace, reliability and practicability of system program is verified in the analysis of practical engineering problems.

  7. Leaching behaviour of rock materials and a comparison with slag used in road construction

    OpenAIRE

    Tossavainen, Mia

    2000-01-01

    Leaching characteristics are used for the evaluation of secondary materials used in road construction. In order to form a basis for comparison of the leachability, Swedish rock material have been investigated using the availability test NT ENVIR 003. Microscopic studies of the mineral composition, Acid-Base-Accounting and pH-measurements have been used to explain the leaching results. Overall, the content of identified opaque minerals is low and the leachable amounts of the heavy metal elemen...

  8. 非物质文化遗产保护与我国民间武术开发%Non-material Cultural Heritage Protection and Development of China's Civil Wushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 陈永辉

    2012-01-01

    对非物质文化遗产进行保护,着重点在于对其进行开发,使其文化价值能得到新的实现。通过分析民间武术作为非物质文化遗产来保护的重要性,提出民间武术文化遗产应进行分级保护体系,以及民间武术开发应采取的对策:加强对民间武术传人的培植;加强对民间武术文化表现形式活动的开展;加强对学校民间武术教育的开展;加强媒体传播的利用。%The non-material cultural heritage protectionis the focus of its development, to new cultural values that can be realized. Analysis of the protection of civil martial art of the importance of non-material cultural heritage, Wushu to the civil protection of cultural heritage should be grading system and civil martial arts development should take the following measures:to strengthen the nurturing of civil martial arts person; to strengthen the cultural expressions of civil martial arts activities carried out; to strengthen civil martial arts school education carried out; to strengthen the use of mass media.

  9. Non-material cultural heritage protection and development of China's civil Wushu%非物质文化遗产保护与我国民间武术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 陈永辉

    2012-01-01

    The non-material cultural heritage protection,Is the focus of its development,To new cultural values can be realized. Analysis of the protection of civil martial art of the importance of non-material cultural heritage, Wushu to the civil protection of cultural heritage should be grading system and civil martial arts development should take the following measures:to strengthen the nurturing of civil martial arts person;Strengthen the cultural expressions of civil martial arts activities carried out; To strengthen civil martial arts school education carried out; Strengthen the use of mass media.%对非物质文化遗产进行保护,着重点在于对其进行开发,使其文化价值能得到新的实现。分析了民间武术作为非物质文化遗产来保护的重要性,提出了民间武术文化遗产应进行分级保护体系以及民间武术开发应采取以下对策:加强对民间武术传人的培植;加强对民间武术文化表现形式活动的开展;加强对学校民间武术教育的开展;加强媒体传播的利用。

  10. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  11. Quality criteria for bottom ashes for civil construction. Part II Technical characteristics of bottom ashes; Kvalitetskriterier foer bottenaskor till vaegoch anlaeggningsbyggnad. Etapp II Bottenaskors tekniska egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Bo von; Loorents, Karl-Johan; Ekvall, Annika; Arvidsson, Haakan [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    This report is the presentation of the second of two stages. This stage deals mainly with the testing of three different types of ashes and the evaluation and suitability of the chosen test methods. The project only relates to the technical aspects of ashes. The report is written in such a way that both ash owners (e.g. Energy companies) and those who build roads and constructions will find it meaningful. All test methods that are used for traditional materials (gravel and crushed rock) is not fitting for ashes. New test methods for some properties that will be tested must therefore be presented, tested practically and evaluated. The project encompasses both road and construction building but has a focus on road construction since there the highest and comprising demands are defined. Three bottom ashes of different types have been studied regarding some tenfold mechanical/physical parameters, essential for the functionality of the ash as a construction material. An important conclusion is that ash is from a functionality and characterisation point of view, an undefined concept that encloses materials with widely different properties. Despite that only three ashes have been looked into the range of results are varying large for some properties. This is especially true for the loose bulk density, water absorption and grain size distribution. It is also clear that some of the standard test methods for aggregates need to be exchanged by other methods, which are more adapted to alternative materials. One such example is water absorption, a property that further influences frost resistance, frost heave and such. All the proposed test methods that been used in the project is considered fitting for its purpose. The test methods can be divided into two categories the ones that yield easy assessable results and those that yield results hard to appraise. To the first group belong grain size distribution, loose bulk density, thermal conductivity, permeability and frost heave

  12. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7044 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7044 Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material. As prescribed in 225.7503(a), use the following clause: Balance of Payments...

  14. Application of aging methods to estimate long term performance of secondary materials for road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarnejad, S.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Long term performance of secondary materials is becoming a challenging aspect in road construction since due to their benefits they are being used on a large scale, but on the other hand their future behaviors are difficult to estimate. In this study, aging is proposed as a means of exploring the lo

  15. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The results are presented of an exhaustive literature search and evaluation concerning the properties and economics of commercially available nonmetallic well casing and screens. These materials were studied in terms of their use in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction.

  16. Construction and testing of simple airfoils to demonstrate structural design, materials choice, and composite concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, L. Roy; Piippo, Steven W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this educational exercise is to have students build and evaluate simple wing structures, and in doing so, learn about materials choices and lightweight construction methods. A list of equipment and supplies and the procedure for the experiment are presented.

  17. Construction Surveying, 3-27. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This short course on construction surveying was developed from military curriculum materials for use in technical and vocational education programs. Students completing the course should be able to perform engineering surveys related to area and route surveying (knowledge of basic survey techniques is a prerequisite). The course is divided into…

  18. Artificial Molecular Machine Immobilized Surfaces: A New Platform To Construct Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Qu, Da-Hui

    2016-06-17

    Artificial molecular machines have received significant attention from chemists because of their unique ability to mimic the behaviors of biological systems. Artificial molecular machines can be easily modified with functional groups to construct new types of functional molecular switches. However, practical applications of artificial molecular machines are still challenging, because the working platform of artificial molecular machines is mostly in solution. Artificial molecular machine immobilized surfaces (AMMISs) are considered a promising platform to construct functional materials. Herein, we provide a minireview of some recent advances of functional AMMISs. The functions of AMMISs are highlighted and strategies for their construction are also discussed. Furthermore, a brief perspective of the development of artificial molecular machines towards functional materials is given.

  19. Stereogeneous construction – fabric-formed concrete as material and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    På engelsk: This paper contributes to studies of architectural potentials of fabric formwork for concrete by seeking to establish a theoretical concept that evaluates qualities of materials and principles of construction as well as aspects of the expression of concrete construction. Through...... planning and teaching workshops with students, categorizing and interpreting experimental data, and reflecting and communicating knowledge, the concept Stereogeneity developed as a response to questions about the nature of concrete cast in fabric forms and the relation between the molded and the mold....... The word describes concrete as material and process. Fabric Formwork is the pivotal formwork-tectonic topic of investigation in the experimental and analytical parts of the thesis work on which this paper is based. The youth of the architectural application of construction methods for fabric formwork...

  20. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  1. Micro-encapsulated phase-change materials integrated into construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schossig, P.; Henning, H.-M.; Gschwander, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Haussmann, T. [PSE GmbH-Forschung, Entwicklung, Marketing Solar Info Center, 79072 Freiburg (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    The idea of improving the thermal comfort of lightweight buildings by integrating phase-change materials (PCMs) into the building structure has been investigated in various research projects over several decades. Most of these attempts applied macro-capsules or direct immersion processes, which both turned out to present several drawbacks. Due to these problems, none of these PCM products was successful in the wider market. The new option to micro-encapsulate PCMs, a key technology which overcomes many of these problems, may make PCM products accessible for the building industry. This paper describes the work done at Fraunhofer ISE within a German government-funded project over the last 5 years, extending from building simulations to first measurements of full-size rooms equipped with PCM. The first products are now available on the market. (author) [Phase change material; Passive cooling; Energy efficient building; Microencapsulation].

  2. USE OF MIRROR PATTERN CUTTING OF NETTING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF LAKE BEACH SEINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nazarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Justification and calculation of a new methodological approach to the construction of a standard beach seine (502 / 302 х 3.75 with the use of the properties of mirror netting ensuring the saving of the netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance. Methodology. The carp age group selectivity of the constructed seine was assessed within fish fauna monitoring based on the catch analysis of monitoring gill nets with mesh sizes of 30-130 mm according to generally accepted methods [9, 10]. Calculation of netting materials and ropes was carried out according to generally accepted methods [12-14]. Seine resistance was calculated according to N. T. Senin formula for different netting materials and the angles of the movement of different seine parts in water [2]. The gear reliability and data processing were carried out according to standard methods [11, 14, 15]. Findings. A variant of the construction of the maximum lightweight beach lake seines made of mirror pattern netting taking into account the properties of the mirror pattern netting material, reduction of weight, price and drag resistance has been proposed. The provided recalculation of the properties of a serial seine made of rhombic mesh for the mirror netting seine taking into account netting properties allowed: 1 reducing the seine drag resistance value by 1,4 times; 2 reducing the weight of netting materials by 16.3% compared to the prototype; 3 increasing the seine selectivity when fishing older age groups of carp in non-drainable ponds. Originality. We presented the method of the calculation and construction of lake beach seines made of mirror netting, analyzed the technological stages of the construction of mirror netting, determined main qualitative and technological parameters, which had effect on the conditions of the construction and reliability of such fishing gears. A new method of the use of an insert of the combined netting material cutting ensuring

  3. Probability, statistics, and decision for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Jack R

    2014-01-01

    Designed as a primary text for civil engineering courses, as a supplementary text for courses in other areas, or for self-study by practicing engineers, this text covers the development of decision theory and the applications of probability within the field. Extensive use of examples and illustrations helps readers develop an in-depth appreciation for the theory's applications, which include strength of materials, soil mechanics, construction planning, and water-resource design. A focus on fundamentals includes such subjects as Bayesian statistical decision theory, subjective probability, and

  4. 乡村文明建设背景下的农村厕所改革问题研究%Study on Rural Toilet Transformation under the Background of Rural Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯克宁; 王卫东

    2011-01-01

    The toilet,as a basic sanitation facility in daily life,is an important symbol of social change and civilization progress.To accelerate rural toilet transformation is an important part of the rural civilization and the New Countryside Construction,it is thus necessary to strengthen and guide relevant work.%厕所是人们生活中不可缺少的基本卫生设施,是反映社会变迁和文明进步程度的一个重要标志。加快我国农村厕所改革是乡村文明和新农村建设的重要组成部分,因此要加强对农村改厕工作的重视和领导。

  5. Comparing material wastage levels between conventional in-situ and prefabrication construction in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivian W Y Tam; C M Tam; L Y Shen

    2004-01-01

    Generation of construction wastes constitutes a major impact to the environment. Studies have beend directed toward reducing wastes of the various construction processes. However, contractors in Hong Kong are rather conservative and lack motivation to develop new technology for waste minimization. This paper examines the benefits of using prefabrication in reducing material wastage levels for some traditional in-situ trades such as concreting, rebar fixing, bricklaying, drywall, plastering, screeding and tiling in Hong Kong. By measuring thirty construction projects, it is been found that waste levels of all major construction trades can be effectively reduced. This is particularly significant in the trade of plastering where 100% saving can be achieved after adopting prefabrication. The standardized design of the building can also be useful in the adoption of prefabrication for private housing projects.

  6. 刍议节能施工技术在工民建建筑工程中的应用%Application of the Energy Saving Construction Technology in Civil Architecture Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘伟斌

    2014-01-01

    随着时代的发展,我国建筑事业得到了快速的发展。尤其在工民建工程中,作为新时期背景下的建筑施工企业,要想在竞争日益激烈的市场中谋求生存和发展,就必须在工民建工程建设过程中加强节能施工技术的应用,提高建筑的节能环保功效。%With the development of the times, China's constr-uction industry has been rapid developed. Especial y in the ci-vil engineering, the construction enterprises under the backgr-ound of new era, to seek survival and development in the inc-reasingly fierce market competition, must strengthen the appl-ication of energy-saving construction technology in the process of civil engineering construction, improve the efficiency of bu-ilding energy saving and environmental protection.

  7. A Construction System for CALL Materials from TV News with Captions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Mori, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    Many language learning materials have been published. In language learning, although repetition training is obviously necessary, it is difficult to maintain the learner's interest/motivation using existing learning materials, because those materials are limited in their scope and contents. In addition, we doubt whether the speech sounds used in most materials are natural in various situations. Nowadays, some TV news programs (CNN, ABC, PBS, NHK, etc.) have closed/open captions corresponding to the announcer's speech. We have developed a system that makes Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) materials for both English learning by Japanese and Japanese learning by foreign students from such captioned newscasts. This system computes the synchronization between captions and speech by using HMMs and a forced alignment algorithm. Materials made by the system have following functions: full/partial text caption display, repetition listening, consulting an electronic dictionary, display of the user's/announcer's sound waveform and pitch contour, and automatic construction of a dictation test. Materials have following advantages: materials present polite and natural speech, various and timely topics. Furthermore, the materials have the following possibility: automatic creation of listening/understanding tests, and storage/retrieval of the many materials. In this paper, firstly, we present the organization of the system. Then, we describe results of questionnaires on trial use of the materials. As the result, we got enough accuracy on the synchronization between captions and speech. Speaking totally, we encouraged to research this system.

  8. Titanium oxo-clusters: precursors for a Lego-like construction of nanostructured hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2011-02-01

    Titanium oxo-clusters, well-defined monodispersed nano-objects, are appropriate nano-building blocks for the preparation of organic-inorganic materials by a bottom up approach. This critical review proposes to present the different structures of titanium oxo-clusters referenced in the literature and the different strategies followed to build up hybrid materials with these versatile building units. In particular, this critical review cites and reports on the most important papers in the literature, concentrating on recent developments in the field of synthesis, characterization, and the use of titanium oxo-clusters for the construction of advanced hybrid materials (137 references).

  9. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  10. 民用建筑外保温材料应用问题探讨%Discussion on application problems of external insulation materials of civil building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范平安

    2012-01-01

    从建筑外保温材料的开发、安全、效果、造价、应用和国家规范、标准以及管理过程和工作程序等方面入手,阐述民用建筑外保温装饰材料的特点、技术、应用现状及火灾原因,并提出解决问题的方法与对策,为民用建筑外保温装饰材料的应用提供参考.%Based on analysis of development, safety, effective-ness, cost, application, codes and standards and management of external insulation materials of building, features, technology, application situation and fire cause of external insulation materi-als were described, measurement was proposed, giving refer-ence for the application of external insulation materials of civil building.

  11. The Promotion Strategy of Green Construction Materials: A Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Fah Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction materials focuses more on their physical or chemical characteristics than on their promotion. Without effective promotion, their benefits cannot be fully appreciated and realized. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the promotion of dry-mix mortars, one of the green materials. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, through a case study, the potential of reducing carbon emission is verified. Then a path analysis is conducted to verify the validity and predictability of the samples based on the technology acceptance model (TAM in this study. According to the findings of this research, to ensure better promotion results and wider application of dry-mix mortar, it is suggested that more systematic efforts be invested in promoting the usefulness and benefits of dry-mix mortar. The model developed in this study can provide helpful references for future research and promotion of other green materials.

  12. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Maha; Grimaldi, Michel; Lerch, Thomas Z.; Pando, Anne; Gigon, Agnès; Blouin, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    There is no information on how organisms influence hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols and how such influence will be affected by the parent-material composition factor. In a laboratory experiment, parent materials, which were excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC), were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, but not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass, resulting in positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials positively affected the hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  13. Analysis on the Effect of Eco-consumption Patterns in the Construction of Ecological Civilization in Rural Areas%农村生态消费模式在农村生态文明建设中的作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴迎华; 张春梅

    2011-01-01

    With the start of the effective implementation of policies on expanding domestic demand, rural consumption in China enlarged gradually. The party's seventeenth conference has referred to ecological civilization construction has been becoming one of the most important development strategies. Through analyzing the connotation and characteristics of the ecological consumption patterns and rural ecological civilization, problems in rural consumption in China were discussed, and strategic goals for building a moderately prosperous society in all aspects were pointed out, it was necessary to change pattern of consumption. Moreover, the construction of rural ecological consumption model was the internal demand for the construction of rural ecological civilization. Rural ecological consumption model could provide effective support for the construction of rural ecological civilization. Therefore, it was necessary to popularize the idea of ecological consumption model, to lay the thought foundation for the construction of rural ecological civilization; to rapid develop rural economy to provide material base for rural ecological civilization; perfect relevant policies and regulations, apply law methods to protect the consumption methods to provide system basis and legal protection for sustainable development and ecological consumption as well as green consumption.%随着国家拉动内需政策的启动,我国农村消费量逐步扩大.十七大报告将生态文明建设作为我国全面建设小康社会的重要战略目标之一.通过分析生态消费模式和农村生态文明的内涵及特征,探讨当前我国农村消费中存在的问题,指出为实现全面建设小康社会的战略目标,需要转变农村消费方式.而构建农村生态消费模式,是建设农村生态文明的内在要求,在农村发展生态消费模式,可以为建设农村生态文明提供有利支撑.因此,需要在农村普及生态消费模式的理念,奠定农村生态文明

  14. Application of a moment tensor inversion code developed for mining-induced seismicity to fracture monitoring of civil engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Lindsay; Mhamdi, Lassaad; Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A moment tensor inversion (MTI) code originally developed to compute source mechanisms from mining-induced seismicity data is now being used in the laboratory in a civil engineering research environment. Quantitative seismology methods designed for geological environments are being tested with the aim of developing techniques to assess and monitor fracture processes in structural concrete members such as bridge girders. In this paper, we highlight aspects of the MTI_Toolbox programme that make it applicable to performing inversions on acoustic emission (AE) data recorded by networks of uniaxial sensors. The influence of the configuration of a seismic network on the conditioning of the least-squares system and subsequent moment tensor results for a real, 3-D network are compared to a hypothetical 2-D version of the same network. This comparative analysis is undertaken for different cases: for networks consisting entirely of triaxial or uniaxial sensors; for both P and S-waves, and for P-waves only. The aim is to guide the optimal design of sensor configurations where only uniaxial sensors can be installed. Finally, the findings of recent laboratory experiments where the MTI_Toolbox has been applied to a concrete beam test are presented and discussed.

  15. Determination of radon exhalation from construction materials using VOC emission test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M; Jann, O; Kemski, J; Schneider, U; Krocker, C; Hoffmann, B

    2013-10-01

    The inhalation of (222) Rn (radon) decay products is one of the most important reasons for lung cancer after smoking. Stony building materials are an important source of indoor radon. This article describes the determination of the exhalation rate of stony construction materials by the use of commercially available measuring devices in combination with VOC emission test chambers. Five materials - two types of clay brick, clinker brick, light-weight concrete brick, and honeycomb brick - generally used for wall constructions were used for the experiments. Their contribution to real room concentrations was estimated by applying room model parameters given in ISO 16000-9, RP 112, and AgBB. This knowledge can be relevant, if for instance indoor radon concentration is limited by law. The test set-up used here is well suited for application in test laboratories dealing with VOC emission testing.

  16. Spanish experiences with marginal and special materials on the construction of road embankments; Experiencias de utilizacion de materiales marginales y especiales en terraplenes viarios en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Linares, H.; Perucho Martinez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The use of existing materials along the alignment of a road is an essential problem within the Sustainable Development policies, which is being promoting worldwide since a long time. In the Word road Association (PIARC-AIPCR) this subject has being investigated by different Technical Committees during last decades. Additionally, the review of the article 330 Embankment of PG-3 (FOM 1382/2002) has opened the door to new non-conventional materials, as wastes and artificial materials, to be used on embankments. This could come to adequate solutions, technically, and environmentally, contributing with national legislation on valorisation policies. In this sense, the use of marginal materials and wastes con represent and important save on natural resources and dumping sites. In Spain, some experiences with marginal materials and wastes have being carried out. The work presented has consisted in compiling and analysing the experiences executed with marginal materials and wastes on Spanish road embankments. Although there are many other cases, 24 cases published with adequate information have being analysed, summarising aspects as: materials problems arrangement solutions or treatments employed. Analysing these experiences and making them public can be a way to transmit confidence, help to improve knowledge, and progress on the preparation of recommendations. This work has being carried out on the frame of the Project Geotechnical Engineering, Materials and Structures and Impact of Infrastructure in Civil engineering (TTIGEM), within the frame Program Border Cooperation Spain-External Borders (POCTEFEX); particularly in the Activity 2 related to Technology Transfer of Construction Materials, including marginal materials and wastes. (Author)

  17. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  18. Expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material of low energy construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, P.; Spisakova, M.; Kyjakova, L.; Mandicak, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of buildings is a really important issue for the construction industry. Sustainable buildings are characterized by the lower construction costs for energy consumption and operations, they are environmentally friendly, able to save natural resources and they are comfortable and healthy for their users. The European Union supports this trend through its Strategy 2020, respectively with document Energy Roadmap 2020. The strategy 2020 sets greenhouse gas emissions 20% lower than 1990, 20% of energy from renewable and 20% increase in energy efficiency. It manifests itself in introduction of modern technologies of house building. One potential for the energy saving is construction of low-energy buildings using modern materials. This paper focuses on the analysis of the low-energy buildings made by expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material. The paper analyzes their design and describes the benefits of this modern but unusual type of construction technology for houses. The examples from abroad clearly indicate that this technology has potential in modern architecture. The success and exploration of this technology potential in the conditions of Slovak construction sector is closely related to interest of investors and users of further sustainable houses which are design according the Strategy 2020 conditions.

  19. Study of improving the thermal response of a construction material containing a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaouatni, A.; Martaj, N.; Bennacer, R.; Elomari, M.; El Ganaoui, M.

    2016-09-01

    The use of phase change materials (PCMs) for improving the thermal comfort in buildings has become an attractive application. This solution contributes to increasing the thermal inertia of the building envelope and reducing power consumption. A building element filled with a PCM and equipped with ventilation tubes is proposed, both for increasing inertia and contributing to refreshing building envelope. A numerical simulation is conducted by the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics, which aims to test the thermal behaviour of the developed solution. An experimental study is carried out on a concrete block containing a PCM with ventilation tubes. The objective is to see the effect of PCM coupled with ventilation on increasing the inertia of the block. The results show the ability of this new solution to ensure an important thermal inertia of a building.

  20. From "Producing Waste" to "Eliminating Waste": the Approach Options of the Urban Waste Disposal on the Ecological Civilization Construction%从“生废”走向“消废”——生态文明建设中城市垃圾处理的路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洪波

    2011-01-01

    人类为了生存和发展,始终离不开物质资料的生产和消费.但从生态文明视角来看,无论是生产还是消费,人类都无法摆脱“生废”问题,而生产和消费带来的与日俱增的“垃圾围城”正日益成为困扰城市生态文明建设的重大问题之一.如何从“生废”走向“消废”是城市生态文明建设的一个重要内容.在分析当前我国城市垃圾处理存在困境的同时,借鉴德国垃圾处理的成功经验,指出垃圾处理的减量化、无害化和资源化将成为垃圾处理的一种必然趋势;“垃圾要分类,资源要回收”势在必行,为促进城市的生态文明建设,我国城市垃圾处理的路径选择在具体的制度安排上应体现为源头减量化、处理无害化和利用资源化.%Human can't survive and develop without the production and the consumption of material. However, from the ecological civilization perspective, human is unable to get rid of "producing waste" problem, regardless of the production or the consumption. The "waste besieged city" which caused by the production and the consumption is becoming increasingly one of major issues on the urban ecological civilization construction. How to from "producing waste" to "eliminating waste" is an important content for the urban ecological civilization construction. After the analysis of the current plight of the urban waste disposal, learning from the successful experience of the German waste disposal, the paper points that the reduction, detoxification and resources' conversion of the waste would become an inevitable trend; "waste must be classified, the resources must be recycled" is imperative, to promote the urban ecological civilization construction, the options of contemporary approach on our urban waste disposal in the specific institutional arrangements should be reflected in: the root source reduction, the disposal detoxification and the resources' conversion of the waste.

  1. On the Role of Environmental Movement and Environmental Organizations in the Ecological Civilization Construction%环境运动和环境组织在生态文明建设中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雷

    2013-01-01

    Environmental movements and organizations are important parts of social movements and organizations, which rose and grew closely with the environmental and ecological problems worldwide and the government and the market failures existing in the con-struction of ecological civilization. Environmental movements and organizations play a positive role in China ’s ecological civilization construction, with expanding public participation, reflecting the demands of the masses, strengthening the function of social autonomy. Environmental movements and environmental organizations are the weak links in China ’s ecological civilization construction. In order to promote the environmental movements and organizations grow healthy and orderly, we have to adhere to the unity of the Party ’s leader-ship,people as masters of the country and ruling the country by law.%  环境运动和环境组织的兴起与世界范围内日益凸显的环境和生态问题以及政府和市场在生态文明建设中存在的失灵现象紧密相连。环境运动和环境组织在我国生态文明建设中发挥着积极的作用,具有扩大群众参与、反映群众诉求、增强社会自治的功能。环境运动和环境组织是我国生态文明建设中的薄弱环节,要推动其健康有序发展,必须将党的领导、人民当家作主和依法治国有机统一起来。

  2. Research on constructing semantic model of emergency decision-making plan for civil aviation%民航应急决策方案语义模型构建方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文涛; 王红; 王静; 朱悦莉; 潘振杰

    2013-01-01

    为解决民航应对突发事件时无法快速生成应急决策方案的问题,采用语义业务流程管理(SBPM)的思想,运用语义标注的方法,给出了民航应急救援过程的结构约束定义方法和语义模型的建立过程,实现了民航应急救援业务流程的语义化.该模型在有效规范应急救援行为、协调组织救援单位关系的同时,为应急救援方案的自动生成提供了方法支撑.%In order to solve the problem that the existed rescuing system of civil aviation cannot generate a reasonable emergency decision-making plan according to the specific kind of emergency, to which this paper applied the idea of semantic business process management (SBPM) , presenting the method of how to construct the structural rules of emergency rescue process for civil aviation and the process of semantic model building, and realized the semantization of business process for civil aviation by means of semantic annotation, which not only normalize the rescuing actions, coordinate the relationship among rescuing units, but offer decision-making plan auto-generation a methodological support.

  3. New Construction and Catalyst Support Materials for Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    4 reports results of testing dierent types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials for HTPEMEC. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions of high temperature PEM...... steam electrolyzer. Steady-state voltammetry was used in combination with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to evaluate the stability of the mentioned materials. It was found that stainless steels were the least resistant to corrosion under strong anodic...... stainless steel showed outstanding resistance to corrosion in selected media, while passivation of titanium was weak, and the highest rate of corrosion among all tested materials was observed for titanium at 120 °C. Today, there is a high interest in the eld towards investigation of new catalyst materials...

  4. Characteristics of the magnetic control of separable ferrous impurities contained in raw construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Sandulyak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency of using the method of magnetic control of ferrous impurities for construction materials was noted. Especially it is important because of magnetic separators which are widely used for elimination of these impurities. There were shown the necessity of upgrading the present approach in order to realize the method of magnetic control. For example, it is necessary to take into account not only the rest of ferrous impurities (that is inevitable after limited numbers of operations but also a factor of involving sand particles. The concrete proposal how to develop the existing system of magnetic control of ferrous impurities in construction materials subjected to magnetic separation, is stated. The experimental-calculation model for such control is also shown. The main parameters of such model were estimated on the example of quartz sand and feldspar. The errors of standard methods of magnetic control were revealed for the first time.

  5. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Four appendices are included. The first covers applications of low-temperature geothermal energy including industrial processes, agricultural and related processes, district heating and cooling, and miscellaneous. The second discusses hydrogeologic factors affecting the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells: water quality, withdrawal rate, water depth, water temperature, basic well designs, and hydrogeologic provinces. In the third appendix, properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials are described, including: specific gravity, mechanical strength properties, resistance to physical and biological attack, thermal properties of nonmetallics, fluid flow characteristics, corrosion resistance, scaling resistance, weathering resistance of nonmetallics, and hydrolysis resistance of nonmetallics. Finally, special considerations in the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells using nonmetallics materials are covered. These include; drilling methods, joining methods, methods of casing and screen installation, well cementing, and well development. (MHR)

  6. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.; Vonbank, R.;

    2011-01-01

    in construction materials, i.e., biocides in facades’ render as well as root protection products in bitumen membranes for rooftops. Under wet-weather conditions, the concentrations of diuron, terbutryn, carbendazim, irgarol®1051 (all from facades) and mecoprop in storm water and receiving water exceeded...... the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 μg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials...

  7. Identification of construction material pathologies in historical buildings using infrared thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Lerma Elvira, Carlos; Mas Tomas, Maria De Los Angeles; Gil Benso, Enrique; VERCHER SANCHIS, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2013-01-01

    [en] Study of historic buildings requires a pathology analysis of the construction materials used in order to define their conservation state. Usually we can find capillary moisture, salt crystallization or density differences by deterioration. Sometimes this issue is carried out by destructive testing which determine materials’ physical and chemical characteristics. However, they are unfavorable regarding the building’s integrity, and they are sometimes difficult to implement. This paper pre...

  8. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  9. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  10. Mold Susceptibility of Rapidly Renewable Building Materials Used in Wall Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    from outside the home can be introduced through moisture absorption from the exterior, facility cracks and penetrations, and leaky windows or roofs...from clay, cement, steel , fiberglass and gypsum. If so, rapidly renewable materials may not be desirable as long- term sustainable construction...through the court adding additional 23 23 costs to the claims, which only exacerbates the media craze and lawsuit frenzy that is taking place

  11. The Construction of Discipline System and Building of Leading Discipline in Civil Servants Training Institutions%公务员培训院校学科体系建设与优势学科打造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩东

    2015-01-01

    学科体系建设对于创建有特色、高水平的公务员培训院校具有重要支撑作用,加强学科体系建设是推进公务员教育培训事业发展的现实要求和内在动力。公务员培训院校学科体系建设主要体现出基础性、战略性、综合性、累积性和动态性等特征,从围绕中心明确优势学科建设重点与方向、着力强化科研咨询对学科建设的助推支撑作用、优化支持学科发展的人才队伍建设、构建有利于优势学科建设的保障机制、开发利用国际国内两种资源和发挥学科文化作用等层面,能够不断提高学科体系建设的科学化、规范化和制度化水平。%The construction of discipline system plays an important supportive role in creating a distinctive, high level of civil servants training institutions. Strengthening the construction of discipline system is the reality demands and intrinsic motivation of civil servants training career. The construction of discipline system in Civil servant train-ing institution mainly feature in basic, strategic, comprehensive, cumulative and dynamic characteristics. To constantly promote the scientific, systematic and standardized con-struction of the discipline system, it is suggested to focus on the central task to identify the priorities and trends of leading disciplines, strengthen scientific research and con-sulting work to support and further develop the discipline construction, build a mecha-nism to guarantee the positive development of discipline construction, utilize the domes-tic and international resource, and make full use of the influence of discipline cultures.

  12. Research into Behaviour Patterns Typical for Consumers of Construction Material as the Mission of Ecological Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Zinaida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the co-authors is to study the motivation of purchasers of construction/finishing materials and the criteria that govern their selection. No systemic studies of consumer behavioral models and stereotypes in respect of residential housing have been performed so far. However, the environmentally determined management techniques, applicable to the production of building materials and construction of residential housing, are highly relevant both worldwide and in the Russian Federation. The co-authors have developed an original research methodology, drafted a questionnaire, and conducted a pilot survey. Its findings have proven that the price and quality of construction materials are the main factors that influence the decision making process in favor of particular items. Mere 14% of the respondents chose environmental friendliness as the decision making criterion. The findings of the focus group projects have also proven the trustworthiness of the stereotypes and behavioral models identified by the co-authors. The co-authors make a conclusion that further sociological surveys are needed to implement the patterns of environmentally determined management and to influence the value paradigms of the population.

  13. Study of capability of microorganisms to develop on construction materials used in space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Novikova, N.

    One of the most topical issues nowadays in the whole set of space research is the study of microbiological risks (medical, technical, technological). Experiments held onboard MIR station and International Space Station (ISS) clearly demonstrated capacity of microorganisms to contaminate the environment, equipment and belonging of habitual compartments of space objects. In this connection microorganisms-biodestructors play an important role. In their vital functioning they are capable of causing biological damage of different polymers, biocorrosion of metals which can lead to serious difficulties in performing long-term flights, namely the planned mission to Mars. Our purpose was to study capability of growth and reproduction of microorganisms on construction materials of various chemical composition as the first stage of biodestruction process. In our research we used "flight" strains of bacteria (Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas pumilus etc.) recovered from the ISS environment in several missions. For control we used "earth" bacteria species with typical properties. To model the environment of the ISS we took construction materials which are widely used in the interior and equipment of the ISS. The results we've obtained show that some microorganisms are capable of living and reproducing themselves on construction materials and their capability is more pronounced than that of the "earth" species. The best capability for growth and reproduction was characteristic of Bacillus subtilus.

  14. 生态文明建设的结构形态与路径选择%Structure Morphology and Path Choose of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳越飞

    2015-01-01

    Through research we find that the social development of our country into the underlying causes of the ecological dilemma is the development of industrial civilization, our only capital, technology and other outer strengthen environmental protection can only palliatives, awaken the public to build an ecological civilization society awareness is the inevitable choice for China’s development and fundamental way.%通过研究我们不难发现,我国社会发展陷入生态困境的内在根源就是工业文明的发展,我国仅从资金、技术等外层加强环保只能治标不治本,唤醒社会大众共同建设生态文明社会的意识才是中国发展的必然选择和根本出路。

  15. The Construction of Civil Servant Rotation System for Non-leadership Positions%非领导职务公务员轮岗机制构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周清露

    2015-01-01

    轮岗机制包括领导职务的公务员轮岗和非领导职务公务员轮岗。当前,我国政府机关进行非领导职务公务员轮岗是必要的,也是可行的。非领导职务公务员轮岗机制的主要内容有轮岗原则设定、制度安排、政策设计和运行实践等。只有建立健全非领导职务公务员轮岗机制,才能增强机关工作的协同性和整体性,助推问题解决和效率提高的改革,培养复合型人才,激发队伍活力以及促进廉政建设。%Civil servant rotation system includes leadership positions rotation and non-leadership positions rotation in the civil service system. At present, non-leadership positions rotation in our government agencies is necessary and feasible. Non-leadership positions rotation system in the civil service mainly consists of rotation policy settings, institutional arrangements, policy designing and operational practices. Only by establishing and improving non-leadership positions rotation system in the civil service, can the cooperativity and integrity of government agencies work be enhanced, reforms of problem solving and efficiency improvement be boosted. Besides, such a system is also helpful in cultivating compound talents, stimulating the vitality of team members and promoting the building of a clean government.

  16. 社会主义新农村乡风文明建设探索%On the Construction of Socialism New Countryside Local Custom Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫琴

    2012-01-01

    Rural custom civilization is the development of a new socialist countryside in the context of rural spiritual civilization. The main body is the farmers; object is characteristic of the times advanced the whole of moral philosophy, a good mental outlook, higher literacy, healthy lifestyle civilization must adhere to the socialist core value system of value - oriented and behavior tant part of building a new socialist countryside. Rural put the truth, persist in taking economic development of farmers. village culture, including and so on. Rural custom guidelines, it is an impor- custom civilization must be based on rural as the backing to achieve a good safeguard realities, the vital we must interests%乡风文明建设是社会主义新农村发展背景下的农村精神文明建设,其主体是农民,客体是体现时代特征的先进村庄文化,内容包括正确的道德观念、良好的精神面貌、较高的文化素养、健康的生活风尚等。乡风文明建设必须坚持以社会主义核心价值体系为价值导向和行为指南。乡风文明是建设社会主义新农村的重要内容和有效途径。乡风文明建设必须立足于农村实际,真情投入,坚持以经济发展为后盾、切实维护农民的利益。

  17. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  18. Responsabilidade civil

    OpenAIRE

    Dalanhol, André

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. 1. INTRODUÇÃO - aborda o tema Responsabilidade Civil - Reparação do Dano Moral Ambiental, de forma sucinta, justificando sua aplicabilidade no direito brasileiro, discorrendo acerca de cada etapa do trabalho; 2. MEIO AMBIENTE - CONCEITO - proposta de um conceito mais amplo de meio ambiente, que melhor se coadune com a realidade atual, uma vez que os con...

  19. Measurement of color in different construction materials. The restoration in sandstone buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Pascua, N.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of construction materials and their subsequent repair purposes include a search of knowledge and preservation of their original appearance. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to determine a color range which does not change with the possible actions on a building, both when restoration works which imply the use and repair of "ancient" materials are carried out, and when construction is carried out with new materials. It is necessary to obtain the quantification of this property in order to check its variation over the passage of time. Each construction material must be taken into account as an isolated problem, since the color is different in each case.

    El empleo de materiales de construcción y la aplicación sobre ellos de productos de reparación requiere un detallado estudio sobre su forma de actuación y la importancia de la conservación del aspecto original de los mismos. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es el determinar un intervalo de color que se conserve a pesar de todas las posibles intervenciones que se acometan en el edificio, tanto cuando se realizan trabajos de restauración, que implican el uso y reparación de materiales "viejos", o bien cuando se llevan a cabo trabajos de construcción con materiales nuevos. Es necesario cuantificar dicha propiedad para poder controlar el paso del tiempo. Cada material de construcción debe ser considerado como un problema aislado, ya que el color es distinto en cada caso.

  20. Formulação de estratégias competitivas por meio de análise de cenários na construção civil Formulation of competitive strategies through analysis of scenarios for civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriele Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa consistiu em formular estratégias competitivas por meio de análise de cenários simulados no setor de construção civil. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, onde o instrumento de coleta de dados foi o questionário de avaliação qualitativa, com representantes das construtoras. A técnica adotada no trabalho foi a amostragem nãoprobabilística realizada por conveniência. O método utilizado foi o modelo de simulação de cenários de Rojo (2006. Com o desenvolvimento de cenários simulados pôde-se obter condições para que as empresas da construção civil possam preparar-se antecipadamente para eventuais mudanças futuras, reduzindo suas incertezas organizacionais. Pôde-se concluir que a ferramenta de simulação de cenários utilizada é apropriada para auxiliar de forma estratégica o setor da construção civil, a simulação de cenários pode ser uma das alternativas a serem utilizadas, tanto pelo governo como pelas próprias empresas do setor. O modelo de Rojo diferencia-se dos demais roteiros de diagnóstico estratégico por buscar as variáveis diretamente com os players do setor. O setor delimitado na pesquisa teve, como resultado para a empresa em questão, formatado o planejamento estratégico de forma lógica não linear, ampliando a análise de variáveis na linha do tempo. Tal procedimento característico do modelo colabora com a precisão do processo decisório, com as devidas análises de possíveis caminhos cognitivos para a formulação de estratégia competitiva especificamente no caso da concorrência entre empresas da construção civil atuantes na mesma região.The purpose of this research was to formulate competitive strategies through simulated analysis of scenarios for the civil construction industry. The data for this explanatory study was collected by means of qualitative assessment questionnaires applied to construction company representatives. The non-probabilistic sampling technique

  1. Formulação de estratégias competitivas por meio de análise de cenários na construção civil Formulation of competitive strategies through analysis of scenarios for civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriele Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa consistiu em formular estratégias competitivas por meio de análise de cenários simulados no setor de construção civil. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, onde o instrumento de coleta de dados foi o questionário de avaliação qualitativa, com representantes das construtoras. A técnica adotada no trabalho foi a amostragem nãoprobabilística realizada por conveniência. O método utilizado foi o modelo de simulação de cenários de Rojo (2006. Com o desenvolvimento de cenários simulados pôde-se obter condições para que as empresas da construção civil possam preparar-se antecipadamente para eventuais mudanças futuras, reduzindo suas incertezas organizacionais. Pôde-se concluir que a ferramenta de simulação de cenários utilizada é apropriada para auxiliar de forma estratégica o setor da construção civil, a simulação de cenários pode ser uma das alternativas a serem utilizadas, tanto pelo governo como pelas próprias empresas do setor. O modelo de Rojo diferencia-se dos demais roteiros de diagnóstico estratégico por buscar as variáveis diretamente com os players do setor. O setor delimitado na pesquisa teve, como resultado para a empresa em questão, formatado o planejamento estratégico de forma lógica não linear, ampliando a análise de variáveis na linha do tempo. Tal procedimento característico do modelo colabora com a precisão do processo decisório, com as devidas análises de possíveis caminhos cognitivos para a formulação de estratégia competitiva especificamente no caso da concorrência entre empresas da construção civil atuantes na mesma região.The purpose of this research was to formulate competitive strategies through simulated analysis of scenarios for the civil construction industry. The data for this explanatory study was collected by means of qualitative assessment questionnaires applied to construction company representatives. The non-probabilistic sampling technique

  2. Material Waste Minimisation Strategies among Construction Firms in South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Olubanwo Adewuyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined material waste minimisation strategies practiced by construction firms in the study area, the amount of waste generated and the relationship between them. The data collected were analysed using mean score, Spearman Rank Correlation, Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests. It is revealed that the most commonly employed strategies are “ensuring that storage facilities are properly secured before staff leave on a daily basis”; “checking of deliveries for any shortages and/or damages”; and “using materials before expiry date” with mean scores of 4.46, 4.22, 4.20 respectively. A significant variation in the level of material waste generated by different category of firms was confirmed. There is also a significant relationship between the level of minimisation strategies adopted and the waste generated. Based on the R2 values, 18.8% to 49.4% of the material waste generated for all the material types studied could be explained by the material minimisation strategies adopted on site except for stone base with 9.4%. %. The study recommends that the players in the industry should step up efforts towards introducing incentives to motivate labour to minimise material wastage on site and the use of modular design system.

  3. Laser welding of dissimilar materials for lightweight construction and special applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Mitja; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Against the background of climate objectives and the desired reduction of CO2-emissions, optimization of existing industrial products is needed. To counter rising raw material costs, currently used materials are substituted. This will places new requirements on joining technologies for dissimilar material classes. The main difficulty lies in joining these materials cohesively without changing the properties of the base materials. Current research work at the LZH on joining dissimilar materials is being carried out for the automotive sector and for solar absorbers. For the automotive industry, a laser welding process for joining steel and aluminum without using additives is being investigated, equipped with a spectroscopic welding depth control to increase tensile strength. With a specially constructed laser processing head, it is possible to regulate welding penetration depth in the aluminum sheet, reducing the formation of intermetallic phases. Flat plate solar collectors are favorable devices for generating heat from solar energy. The solar absorber is the central part of a collector, consisting of an aluminum sheet and a copper tube which is attached to the aluminum sheet. Research on new laser welding processes aims at reducing the amount of energy required for production of these solar absorbers. In the field of joining dissimilar materials, laser joining processes, especially for special applications, will complement established joining techniques.

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL FLOW INFORMATION BASE OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degaltseva Z. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems of using indicators of material flow in the financial accounting management accounting system. The authors have created and described the classification of material costs in building units. It allows solving the problems of object of research specifying within a given material flow and inventory control within a given logistics systems. There are different approaches to the valuation of material costs in the article. An important aspect of measures for the integration development of accounting systems is the adoption of uniform valuation of building materials and structures. It is proved that the most rational combination of these types of records achieved by an adapted classification and measurement of building materials and structures to the conditions of formation of the budget for the project volume of construction works and the reflection of the actual volume of work in the financial accounting system. On the basis of the accounting policies and the organizational structure of the object of investigation of "Kubanstroykompleks" we have identified responsibility centers (sites for costs related to the material flow: Department of logistics and packaging and warehousing, which consists of a central and railroad warehouse

  5. A religião civil americana na construção de Superman e dos super-heróis = The american civil religion in the Superman and super heroes construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor, Ricardo Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa verificar e explicar a influência da religião civil americana, como entendida por Catroga e Bellah, sobre o processo que originou os super-heróis, mais especificamente o personagem Superman; focando-se em como a crença na frontier (enquanto articulação da crença no manifest destiny ajudou a construir as características excepcionais do personagem marcando os super-heróis a partir dele. São abordados, tanto na literatura americana como em suas histórias em quadrinhos (tirinhas e revistas, os gêneros western, policial-detetivesco e aventura (aventura espacial, selvagem e outras variações, bem como os peculiares personagens pré-super-heroicos e as primeiras histórias do próprio Superman. O objetivo é mostrar como as características dos super-heróis e do próprio Superman foram inseridas e mantidas nesses gêneros ficcionais pela influência da crença na frontier, explicando a origem do personagem (e dos super-heróis como uma construção gradual

  6. Dynamic Calculation Technology of Construction Project Based on Autodesk Civil 3d%基于Autodesk Civil 3d的土建项目工程量“动态”计算技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云峰

    2012-01-01

    计算工程量是土木工程建设中的重要内容,贯穿于项目的可行性研究、工程概预算、招投标、工程实施全过程,工程量计算的是否准确关乎到项目整体造价规模.而利用现代BIM(Building Information Modeling)技术缩短计算时间、提高计算精度已经成为工程人员关注的热点.通过介绍Civil 3d几种土方量计算方法实例,展示其计算快速、结果-要素“动态”关联的应用特性,为从业人员提高土方计算效率、实现工程方案快速比选拓展思路.

  7. Analysis of chromium and sulphate origins in construction recycled materials based on leaching test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, I; Ayuso, J; Galvín, A P; Jiménez, J R; López, M; García-Garrido, M L

    2015-12-01

    Twenty samples of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) with different compositions collected at six recycling plants in the Andalusia region (south of Spain) were characterised according to the Landfill Directive criteria. Chromium and sulphate were identified as the most critical compounds in the leachates. To detect the sources of these two pollutant constituents in recycled aggregate, environmental assessments were performed on eight construction materials (five unused ceramic materials, two old crushed concretes and one new mortar manufactured in the laboratory). The results confirmed that leached sulphate and Cr were mainly released by the ceramic materials (bricks and tiles). To predict the toxicological consequences, the oxidation states of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were measured in the leachates of recycled aggregates and ceramic materials classified as non-hazardous. The bricks and tiles mainly released total Cr as Cr (III). However, the recycled aggregates classified as non-hazardous according to the Landfill Directive criteria mainly released Cr (VI), which is highly leachable and extremely toxic. The obtained results highlight the need for legislation that distinguishes the oxidative state in which chromium is released into the environment. Leaching level regulations must not be based solely on total Cr, which can lead to inaccurate predictions.

  8. Experimental study on the performance of insulation materials in Mediterranean construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, L.F.; Castell, A.; Medrano, M.; Martorell, I.; Perez, G. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Fernandez, I. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    It is well known that it is necessary to insulate the buildings to decrease the thermal demand and to decrease the use of heating and cooling. Due to the high cost of fossil fuels and to the necessity to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, and also due to the new building regulations more attention is paid to the insulation of buildings. Different insulation materials are available in the market. Usually, they are compared by their thermal conductivity and with theoretical calculations, but there are no experimental comparisons available, where the behavior of such insulation materials in a building is compared over time. This is why the authors started a comparison of three typical insulation materials, polyurethane, polystyrene, and mineral wool. For this purpose, four house-like cubicles were constructed (with a size of 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 2.4 m) and their thermal performance throughout the time was measured. The cubicles were built under a conventional Mediterranean construction system, differing only in the insulation material used. During 2008 and the first months of 2009 the performance of these cubicles was evaluated, and the results are presented in this paper. (author)

  9. An Overview of the Use of Absolute Dating Techniques in Ancient Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the chronology of historical buildings is a tricky issue, as usually there are not historical documents that allow the assessment of construction phases, and some materials are hardly reliable for the use of dating techniques (e.g., stone. However, in the last two decades, important advances on the use of absolute dating methods on building materials have increased the possibilities of reconstructing building chronologies, although some advances are still scarcely known among archaeologists and architects. Recent studies performed on several kinds of mortars, fired bricks, mud-bricks, and even stone surfaces have shown that it is possible to date them. Both radiocarbon and luminescence dating have been the most frequently used techniques but others such as archaeomagnetism can also be used in some cases. This paper intends to give an overview of the recent achievements on the use of absolute dating techniques for building materials.

  10. Development of construction materials using sulfite-rich scrubber sludge and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoginder Chugh; Amit Patwardhan; Santosh Munish; Francois Botha [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Department of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2006-11-15

    Construction materials with characteristics suitable for a variety of applications have been developed using up to 95% of coal combustion by-products comprising of sulfite-rich scrubber sludge and fly ash. These materials can be produced as soil-like mixes that can be prepared at the power plant, transported to the deployment site and compacted using conventional road building equipment without a need for forms. These developed materials provide an early strength of 5.8-8.3 MPa after 7-14 d and are environmentally benign. For a cattle feeding pad application, which is the focus of this paper, the cost is estimated be about 25-30% of the cost of developing a conventional concrete feeding pad. Following mix development and establishment of quality assurance/quality control protocols, a commercial cattle feeding pad has been designed and demonstrated using the developed mix. 15 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. On Ethical Cognition and Practical Approaches on the Construction of Ecological Civilization%生态文明建设的伦理认知和实践路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峥

    2016-01-01

    In integrated construction of ecological civilization,the cognition of values for ecological ethics has to be reinforced in the analysis and resolution of the problems related to the domain through a constructive approach with the cooperation between government,citizens and businesses. This will exhibit human beingˊs moral rationality toward ecologic environment in the harmonious symbiosis between human and nature.%全面推进生态文明建设,必须强化对生态伦理的价值认知,分析解决生态文明建设中的生态伦理问题,建构政府、公民和企业相互协同的生态文明建设路径,实现人与自然的和谐共生,彰显人之于生态环境的道德理性。

  12. 环境伦理视角下的新型城镇化的生态文明建设%On the Ecological Civilization Construction of New Ur-banization from the Perspective of Environmental Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷

    2015-01-01

    我国经济的飞速发展,加速了城镇化的进程,然而在城镇化的进程中生态环境不断恶化。本文从环境伦理的角度对传统城镇化进程影响生态环境的弊端进行了分析,并指出了新型城镇化的生态文明建设措施以及重大意义,从环境伦理的视角对新型城镇化的生态文明建设进行分析。%The rapid development of China's economy has accel-erated the progress of urbanization, but ecological environment is worsening in the process of urbanization. This paper analyzes the negative influences of traditional urbanization on ecological envi-ronment from the perspective of environmental ethics, points out the measures of ecological civilization construction and the great significance in new urbanization, and analyzes ecological civi-lization construction of new urbanization from the perspective of environmental ethics.

  13. Study of effect of temperature on burning of textile sludge for use as alternative material on civil building; Estudo do efeito da temperatura na queima de lodo textil para uso como material alternativo na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, B.F.R.; Morais, C.R.S.; Altidis, M.E.D.; Lira, B.S.; Morais, S.R.A., E-mail: crislene@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The waste generated by textile industries has been the target of numerous challenges due to their release to the environment without proper treatment. These problems have led many researchers to seek solutions that enable the use of waste as building materials. This study aimed to heat-treat the textile sludge, and evaluate their chemical, mineralogical and structural properties. The textile sludge was calcined in a muffle furnace, a heating rate of 10°C/min and 2 hours stabilization by the following temperatures 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, 550°C and 600°C. It was observed a reduction between 88 and 90% weight, indicating the presence of a large amount of formation water and organic matter. The sludge after calcinations was characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction, infrared and chemical analysis. The x-ray spectra showed predominant peaks of silica, which were confirmed by chemical analysis (86% silica). (author)

  14. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  15. THE COMPLEX USE OF LOCAL TYPES OF FUEL IN THE POROUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Voronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive low-waste technology is the use of local fuels, which can be used in the technology of some porous building materials. Also provides new methods of preparation of porous building materials based on aggloporite using local fuels and waste energy on the basis of milled peat, fuel briquettes and wood chips allow to replace expensive imported components that comprise the raw mixtures (coal, anthracite.On the basis of mathematical modeling of cooling in reheat furnaces pusher drive developed a method of engineering calculation mode batch hardening in agglomeration. Submitted constructive solution for the development of the cooling charge with thermophysical rational justification cooling modes. A study of the temperature distribution within the charge depending on the different speeds of the belt sintering machine, and hence on the cooling time.The characteristics of the raw material deposits "Fanipol" and the optimal composition of the charge which includes loam, coal, milled peat. In industrial research obtained aggloporite this formulation has shown positive results in strength and density. Established that by decreasing the particle size of the fuel increases the redox potential of the combustion products, which reduces the height of the oxidizing zone and the speed of the sintering raw mix. These processes increase the productivity of sinter machine.Technology is implemented on the "Minsk factory of building materials". The tests analyzed production technology porous construction materials using milled peat with the addition of sawdust. The study results recommend further use of sapropel, which cost significantly lower raw material mixture of submissions and in their physical and mechanical properties much closer to the properties of milled peat.

  16. Abstracts of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering annual conference including the general conference, the 1. international structural specialty conference, the 1. international construction specialty conference, and the 1. specialty conference on disaster mitigation : towards a sustainable future[General Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, M.; Loov, R.E.; Ruwanpura, J.; El-Hacha, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Kroman, J. [City of Calgary, AB (Canada); Rankin, J. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Dunaszegi, L. [Earth Tech Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for national and international practicing engineers, researchers and technical experts to discuss sustainable solutions to infrastructure development. Discussions focused on recent developments in new technologies for building more economic and sustainable infrastructure, while improving the safety of buildings, bridges, roads, water supply and sewage treatment systems. The conference was held in conjunction with associated specialty conferences, including a first international structures specialty conference, a first international construction specialty conference, and a first specialty conference on disaster mitigation. This book of abstracts highlights all the specialty conferences and accompanies a CD-ROM that has the full text of all the papers. Manuscripts of the full papers submitted to the specialty conferences were peer-reviewed by international scientific committees. The general conference provided a forum to learn about new technologies and future directions in various areas of civil engineering. It included a special theme session on sustainable development and a special session on innovation and information technology. Other technical sessions focused on topics such as civil engineering history and education; infrastructure management and renewal; asset management; risk assessment and management; engineering materials and mechanics; environmental engineering and science; hydrotechnical engineering; cold region engineering; and, transportation engineering. The general conference featured 88 presentations, of which 15 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  17. 促进公民社会成长推动法治中国建设%The Study of Promoting the Growth of Civil Society and China Law Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴恒波; 岳翠云

    2015-01-01

    “法治中国”已成为当下我国法治建设的宏大目标,然而,法治中国建设却需植根于一定的经济、政治、文化基础之上,也受制于社会环境等复杂外部因素。而从相互联系、相互作用的方式来看,良好的社会结构对法治中国建设的作用更为密切。综观世界法治发展史,法治状态的形成正是伴随着公民社会的逐步产生、成长而发展起来的。法治是人类文明进步的共同成果,推进法治中国建设,同样离不开公民社会的培育与成长。%“Legal China” has become the goal of rule of law in our country, however, the rule of law is rooted in China’s construction must be based on economy, politics, culture and is also subject to complex external factors such as social environment. And from the perspective of the way of interrelated interaction good social structure on the rule of law construction in China is more closely related. Therefore, on the analysis of the construction of rule and law in the new period of China’s civil society theory basis, the author tentatively proposes the traditional social structure to the path of modern social structure transformation, hopes to promote the growth of civil society and accelerates the process of the rule of law in China construction.

  18. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  19. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  20. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  1. Use of macrophyte plants, sand & gravel materials in constructed wetlands for greywater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, S.; Ramelan, AH; Sobriyah; Setyono, P.

    2017-02-01

    Greywater discharged without any treatments into drainage channels or natural water bodies will lead to environmental degradation and health risk. Local macrophyte plants combined with natural materials of sand and gravel have been used in a system of constructed wetland for the treatment of the greywater. This paper presents the results of some studies of the system carried out in Indonesia, Thailand, and Costa Rica. The studies demonstrate the success of the constructed wetland systems in removing some pollutants of BOD, COD, TSS, pathogen, and detergent. The studies resulted in the treated water in a level of treatment that fulfils the requirement of the local standards for wastewater reuse as irrigation water, fishery, or other outdoor needs.

  2. By what means should nanoscaled materials be constructed: molecule, medium, or human?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hu, Xianluo; Mandal, Saikat; Hill, Jonathan P.

    2010-02-01

    There is great potential in nanoscale science and technology, and construction of macrosized materials and systems possessing nanoscale structural features is a crucial factor in the everyday application of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Because nanoscale substances are often constructed through self-assembly of unit molecules and nanomaterials, control of the self-assembly process is required. In order to establish general guidelines for the fabrication of materials with nanoscale structural characteristics, i.e., nanoscaled materials, we introduce here examples of recent research in related fields categorised as: (i) self-assembled structures with forms generally determined by intrinsic interactions between molecules and/or unit nanomaterials, (ii) self-assemblies influenced by their surrounding media, especially interfacial environments, (iii) modulation of self-assembly by artificial operation or external stimuli. Examples are not limited to organic molecules, which are often regarded as the archetypal species in self-assembly chemistry, and many examples of inorganic assemblies and hybrid structures are included in this review.

  3. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  4. Thought of"Greening" and the Construction of Ecological Civilization in China%中国"绿色化"思想与生态文明建设思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世民; 陈敏

    2015-01-01

    On March 24th, 2015, the word ″Greening″appeared in the documents of the Central Committee of the Party for the first time ,which marked the start of a new sailing of green governing philosophy of ecological civiliza -tion in China .The idea of constructing ″Greening″with Chinese characteristics is the political choice of ecological governance in China and the necessity of the construction of ecological civilization .Faced with a variety of Western political ideas and clash of views ,the Chinese ecological civilization road must be guided by the ″Greening″thought with Chinese characteristics , pay attention to the complementation and integration of the Chinese and Western ″Greening″thoughts ,and take the ″Greening″thought into the basic dimension of the global ″ecological destiny com-munity″.The construction of ″Greening″thought in China can show the perfect ecological civilization idea for the construction of ″beautiful China″.%2015年3月24日,首次出现在党中央文件中的"绿色化"一词,标志着中国生态文明的绿色治国理念的再起航. 构建中国特色的"绿色化"思想是中国生态治理的政治选择,也是生态文明建设的必然要求. 面对西方各种各样的绿色政治思想以及观点的交锋,中国生态文明道路行进,必须以具有中国特色的"绿色化"思想为指导;必须注重中西"绿色化"思想的互补与融合;必须将地球"生态命运共同体"思维纳入"绿色化"思想的基本维度. 中国"绿色化"思想的构建,能为"美丽中国"的建设展现完美的生态文明思路.

  5. 公平正义与当代中国市民社会的构建%The Value Orientation of Equality is Above Liberty and the Construction of Fairness and Justice Civil Society in Contemporary China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙百亮

    2013-01-01

    平等优位于自由的传统,社会主义的本质要求,公平问题的凸显,决定了当代中国必须构建公平正义的市民社会。公平正义的市民社会是民主、自由、和谐等价值实现的社会根基。构建公平正义的市民社会的基本方略是:规范政府行为,建立服务型政府,提升政策的公共性;培育公民文化,发挥公共媒体和知识分子在多元利益表达中的积极作用;公平合理地配置教育资源,推行针对弱势群体的“差别化”的教育政策;明晰权力与市场的边界,限制市场垄断,塑造公平合理的市场竞争环境;拓宽社会保障范围,建立针对社会弱势群体“底线公平”的社会保障制度;积极推动弱势群体的社会组织建设,提升弱势群体的利益博弈能力。%The tradition of equality is above liberty , the essential requirement of socialism and the highlights of fair problem in contemporary China , which demand China to construct civil society of fairness and justice .The civil society of fairness and justice is instrumental in the value realization of democracy , liberty and harmony .The basic strategy to construct the civil society of fairness and justice:standardize government behavior , construct service gov-ernment , improve public nature of policy , cultivate the citizen culture , make the media and public intellectuals to play the positive role in the expression of interests , dispose educational resources fairly , promote different education policy directed the vulnerable groups , clear the boundary between power and market , limit the monopoly , create fair and reasonable market competition environment , enlarge social security for vulnerable groups , establish social security system of fairness , promote construction of organization for the vulnerable groups actively , improve the ability of vul-nerable groups in the game of interests .

  6. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  7. 基于行政层级构建“橄榄型”生态文明建设指标框架%“Olive Shape” Indicators System Framework of Ecological Civilization Construction Based on Administrative Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周芳; 包存宽; 牛冬杰; 王娟

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the current problems in the study and practice of indicator system of ecological civilization, starting from its connotation, according to the administrative organization and management principles, this paper build the "olive shape" indicators system framework of ecological civilization construction. The indicator system emphasizes the country's top-level macro-guiding role, and bases on the city and county level indicator system of ecological civilization construction, up to refine the provincial level indicator system and down to filter the township-level indicator system. The indicator system reflects integrity, compliance coordination of indicators among the national level, the provincial level, the city and county level and the township level, and truly reflects ecological civilization construction is the result of top-down guiding force and bottom-up impetus to work together. The indicator system is purposed to serve the ongoing sustainable development and long effective management of ecological civilization construction.%当前生态文明指标体系研究和实践中,一方面生态文明指标体系和生态文明指数构建方法不尽相同,另一方面刻意追求统一的指标体系而忽视了不同行政层级间的差异性,对层级间指标衔接等问题缺乏考虑。依照生态文明内涵以及十八大尤其是十八届三中全会关于生态文明建设尤其是生态文明考核指标要求,提出各行政层级构建“橄榄型”生态文明建设指标框架体系。该指标体系强调国家的顶层宏观引导作用,并以市县级生态文明建设指标体系为基础,向上构建省级生态文明建设指标体系,向下构建乡镇级生态文明建设指标体系,体现“国家—省—市县—乡镇”之间的整体性、衔接性、协调性,真正反映生态文明建设是“自上而下引导力”和“自下而上推动力”的合力作用的结果,服务于我国生态

  8. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, M.; Grimaldi, M.; Lerch, T. Z.; Pando, A.; Gigon, A.; Blouin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed Technosols provide an opportunity to recycle urban waste, and are an alternative to the uptake of topsoil from the countryside. Despite potential problems of erosion, compaction or water holding capacity, their physical properties and the resulting water regulation services are poorly documented. In a laboratory experiment, excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC) were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass and the resulting positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials thus positively affected the hydro-structural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  9. Measurement of the thermal conductivity from construction materials; Medicion de conductividad termica de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Cortes, Leonel; Xaman Villasenor, Jesus P; Chavez Chena, Yvonne [CENIDET: Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to improve the calculation of thermal loads that allows to model the thermal behavior of constructions with aims of energy saving, it is necessary to count on the thermophysical properties of the materials used in the construction industry. Nevertheless at present in Mexico do not exist reported data of the materials that are made and used in our country, reason why it is chosen to take the results reported in the literature, whose values in their majority do not correspond to Mexican materials. In order to cover this necessity, at the CENIDET an instrument was developed to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating and construction materials. To date they have come with studies of different materials, which are provided by the manufacturers, with the intention of obtaining real data of thermal conductivity and to apply them with whole confidence in simulations of calculations of thermal loads. In this paper the results of measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two different materials from construction are presented, pumice stone block and block of tezontle (a porous volcanic rock).The measurement was made with an absolute and primary instrument according to norm ANSI/ASTM C-177-97. The operation principle of the apparatus is based on the technique of heat transference by conduction in permanent state between two plates, the experiment is carried out using an apparatus of hot plate with guard (APCG). Given the geographic zone where the studied materials are to be used, it is concluded that the obtained results show better properties for both with respect to reported values of similar materials, by virtue that these materials are intended to be applied in a humid climate as it is in the state of Puebla, Mexico. [Spanish] Para mejorar el calculo de cargas termicas que permita modelar el comportamiento termico de edificaciones con fines de ahorro de energia, es necesario contar con las propiedades termofisicas de los materiales utilizados

  10. Proposal for Construction/Demonstration/Implementation of A Material Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jim Jnatt

    2001-08-24

    Vortec Corporation, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) and DOE/Paducah propose to complete the technology demonstration and the implementation of the Material Handling System developed under Contract Number DE-AC21-92MC29120. The demonstration testing and operational implementation will be done at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The scope of work, schedule and cost for the activities are included in this proposal. A description of the facility to be constructed and tested is provided in Exhibit 1, attached. The USEC proposal for implementation at Paducah is presented in Exhibit 2, and the commitment letters from the site are included in Exhibit 3. Under our agreements with USEC, Bechtel Jacobs Corporation and DOE/Paducah, Vortec will be responsible for the construction of the demonstration facility as documented in the engineering design package submitted under Phase 4 of this contract on August 9, 2001. USEC will have responsibility for the demonstration testing and commercial implementation of the plant. The demonstration testing and initial commercial implementation of the technology will be achieved by means of a USEC work authorization task with the Bechtel Jacobs Corporation. The initial processing activities will include the processing of approximately 4,250 drums of LLW. Subsequent processing of LLW and TSCA/LLW will be done under a separate contract or work authorization task. To meet the schedule for commercial implementation, it is important that the execution of the Phase 4 project option for construction of the demonstration system be executed as soon as possible. The schedule we have presented herein assumes initiation of the construction phase by the end of September 2001. Vortec proposes to complete construction of the demonstration test system for an estimated cost of $3,254,422. This price is based on the design submitted to DOE/NETL under the Phase 4 engineering design deliverable (9 august 2001). The cost is subject to the

  11. Quality and safety of construction materials; Calidad y seguridad de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodulfo Zabala, L.

    2015-07-01

    CEPCO represents 20 industrial sectors, which take charge of construction materials production, and whose expectations of European and Spanish legislation observance (specially the articles related to quality, security and environmental respect) reach a very high level. This performance is equally taken to their internal competitiveness and to their huge international enlargement produced on the recent years. In addition to this principle, the Confederation includes its own this principle, the Confederation includes its own doctrine of trying to consolidate important heights of quality related to the evolution of the product trough I+D+i. (Author)

  12. Social construction and materiality: the limits of indeterminacy in therapeutic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannamann, J W

    1998-01-01

    By drawing parallels between the courtroom testimony of a Christian Science practitioner and an intersession conversation between systemic family therapists, I critique the abstract idealism of language-centered social constructionism. I argue that social constructionist inquiry that highlights the indeterminacy of meaning without a corresponding emphasis on the responsive embodied practices of family members glosses over the material conditions shaping the politics of interaction. The implications of this problem are discussed as they relate to the setting of family therapy, where social construction theory is often used to guide practical interventions.

  13. Microbial community structure of different electrode materials in constructed wetland incorporating microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Abayneh, Befkadu; Ding, Yi; Yan, Denghua; Bai, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    The microbial fuel cell coupled with constructed wetland (CW-MFC) microcosms were operated under fed-batch mode for evaluating the effect of electrode materials on bioelectricity generation and microbial community composition. Experimental results indicated that the bioenergy output in CW-MFC increased with the substrate concentration; maximum average voltage (177mV) was observed in CW-MFC with carbon fiber felt (CFF). In addition, the four different materials resulted in the formation of significantly different microbial community distribution around the anode electrode. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria in CFF and foamed nickel (FN) was significantly higher than that in stainless steel mesh (SSM) and graphite rod (GR) samples. Notably, the findings indicate that CW-MFC utilizing FN anode electrode could apparently improve relative abundance of Dechloromonas, which has been regarded as a denitrifying and phosphate accumulating microorganism.

  14. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  15. Application of the Energy Saving Construction Technology in Architectural Engineering of Industrial and Civil Building%工民建建筑工程中节能施工技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of the construction industry has brought the huge consumption of energy for our country, serious impact on the development of our economical society. China is stil in the exploration stage in the industrial and civil construction energy saving technology field, so in reinforcing the application of energy saving construction technology at the same time also should actively learn from foreign advanced energy-saving construction techniques, to promote the develo-pment of China's economy society.%建筑业的高速发展给我国的能源带来了巨大的消耗,严重影响了我国节约型社会的发展理念。我国在工民建筑节能施工技术领域还处于探索的阶段,所以在加强节能施工技术应用的同时还要积极的借鉴国外先进的节能施工技术,促进我国节约型社会的发展。

  16. The Necessity to Strengthen the Construction Materials Management of Construction Engineering%加强建筑工程施工材料管理的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with people’s increasing demand for construction, the construction industry has become a pilar industry of Chinese economy. No mater what kind of constr-uction projects, it requires the use of building materials for construction. Whether the construction materials management measures properly or not, it not only affects the overall con-struction quality, but also affects the project construction cost and time of the next phase ofwork.%近年来,随着人们对建筑的需求增多,建筑行业已经成为我国经济产业中支柱性产业。不论何种建筑工程,都需要使用建筑材料来进行施工,施工材料管理措施是否得当,不仅影响到整体施工质量,也会影响到工程施工成本及下一期工作的开展时间。

  17. 40 CFR 35.925-9 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 35.925-9 Section 35.925-9... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-9 Civil rights. That if the... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and part 7 of this chapter have been met....

  18. AMS method for depth profiling of trace elements concentration in materialsConstruction and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.

    2015-10-15

    The need to investigate the behavior of solid state materials on the impact/retention/repulsion/contamination/impregnation with special trace elements or radioactive elements has driven us to develop a modified Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analyzing method that is able to perform the measurement of the concentration depth profile of an element in a host material. This upgraded method that we call AMS-depth profiling method (AMS-DP) measures continuously the concentration of a trace element in a given sample material as a function of the depth from the surface (e.g., tritium in carbon, deuterium in tungsten, etc.). However, in order to perform depth profiling, common AMS facilities have to undergo several changes: a new replaceable sample target-holder has to be constructed to accept small plates of solid material as samples; their position has to be adjusted in the focus point of the sputter beam; crater rim effects of the produced hole in the sample have to be avoided or removed from the registered events in the detector; suitable reference samples have to be prepared and used for calibration. All procedures are presented in the paper together with several applications.

  19. AMS method for depth profiling of trace elements concentration in materials - Construction and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Enachescu, M.

    2015-10-01

    The need to investigate the behavior of solid state materials on the impact/retention/repulsion/contamination/impregnation with special trace elements or radioactive elements has driven us to develop a modified Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) analyzing method that is able to perform the measurement of the concentration depth profile of an element in a host material. This upgraded method that we call AMS-depth profiling method (AMS-DP) measures continuously the concentration of a trace element in a given sample material as a function of the depth from the surface (e.g., tritium in carbon, deuterium in tungsten, etc.). However, in order to perform depth profiling, common AMS facilities have to undergo several changes: a new replaceable sample target-holder has to be constructed to accept small plates of solid material as samples; their position has to be adjusted in the focus point of the sputter beam; crater rim effects of the produced hole in the sample have to be avoided or removed from the registered events in the detector; suitable reference samples have to be prepared and used for calibration. All procedures are presented in the paper together with several applications.

  20. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA, and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C, LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  1. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Norouzi, Parviz; Riahi, Siavash

    2008-03-11

    Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analyticaltools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of differentions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have someoutstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range,relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticizedPVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complexformation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules.Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have beenused as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases andcrown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used assensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now,more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff's bases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anioncomplexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crownethers will then be discussed.

  2. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Riahi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analyticaltools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of differentions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have someoutstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range,relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticizedPVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complexformation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules.Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have beenused as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases andcrown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used assensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now,more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff'sbases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anioncomplexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crownethers will then be discussed.

  3. Discussion on circulation material management of construction project construction cost management%论建设项目施工成本管理之周材管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍明华

    2016-01-01

    简述了建筑施工企业管理周转材料的常用方式,以材料现场积压、材料浪费、损失等方面,分析了目前周转材料管理中常见的问题,并提出了具体的解决方案,有利于降低企业施工成本,提高企业的成本管理水平。%The paper briefly describes common circulation material management methods of building construction enterprises,analyzes common circulation material management problems from aspects of material field overstocking,material waste and loss,and puts forward specific solving schemes,which will be good for reducing construction cost and improving cost management level.

  4. A Martian Fractionation Line Constructed from Oxygen Isotope Analyses of Bulk Material and Minerals from SNC Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Ali, A.; Jabeen, I.; Osinski, G.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Nasir, S.; Flemming, R.; Shivak, J.; Gregory, D.

    2013-09-01

    Precise triple oxygen isotope data of SNC Martian meteorites are obtained by laser-assisted fluorination technique. Martian fractionation line is constructed using bulk material and mineral separates of SNC meteorites.

  5. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  6. USAGE OF FILTERS FROM FIBROUS MATERIALS IN AMELIORATIVE AND HYDRO-TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Klimkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of first drainage tubular systems has been facing such problem as their protection against silting-up by soil particles penetrating through input openings. Searches and investigations have led to usage of various fibrous materials which are playing the role of filters. At the beginning glass-fibre mats have been widely applied for this purpose. However, the mats possessing good filtration properties have had a number of fundamental disadvantages. Works executed at the Institute of Mechanics of Metal Polymeric Systems (Gomel, Republic of Belarus have played a big role in usage of plastic materials. A new technology has been developed with the purpose to obtain thermally-bonded fibres from thermoplastic material. The fibres have been called as polyethylene mats. Investigation of their properties has been carried out under load and it has revealed that their lateral and longitudinal permeability becomes equal at specified pressures, in other words the material takes an isotropic state. The considered interactions of filtrating material and skeleton frame have shown that the main water filtration occurs directly above perforation holes while the material above blind frame sections does not participate in the process. Due to this a new design of the filtrating element has been developed and it can be used in water intake systems for surface and underground water. The filtrating element consists of the skeleton frame with openings and a filtration covering which is installed on the frame. Water-feeding groove cavities are located on the skeleton frame and they are dispersing from perforation holes in the form of beams. These grooves can have side branches of the second, third and other orders. As beam-like arrangement of grooves creates the shortest flow paths for filtrated water from periphery to frame holes and area of groove cross section exceeds the area of poral holes in water in-take covering by a factor of hundreds, it is possible

  7. 和合文化:生态文明建设的生态智慧资源--第八届寒山寺文化论坛暨中国环境伦理学和环境哲学2014年年会述评%Concordance Culture:Ecological Intelligence Resources of Ecological Civilization Construction-The Review of The 8th Hanshan Temple Cultural Forum & The 2014 China's Environmental Ethics and Environmental Philosophy Annual Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包庆德; 杨丽杰

    2015-01-01

    2014年是中国伦理学会环境伦理学分会成立20周年。本次年会与第八届寒山寺文化论坛联袂围绕“生态文明与和合天下”主题,关涉生态文明建设的世界观和方法论的根本性重建,中国特色生态哲学的自觉性建构以及生态文明相关问题的前提性廓清等生态文明的前沿问题与基础理论;聚焦生态文明建设的顶层设计、制度安排和路径选择,规避独断理性主义的现代性物质主义价值导向的根本错误,实现美丽中国和中国梦应该包含的生态维度和生态内涵等生态文明的现实问题与应用方略;弘扬生态文明建设的中国传统环境保护理念、经典生态建设理念和人与自然和谐发展理念等生态文明建设的和合文化思想资源与和谐生存生态智慧。%The year of 2014 is the 20th anniversary of the establishment of Environmental Ethics Branch of China Association for Ethical Studies.This annual meeting and The 8th Hanshan Temple Cultural Forum centered on the subj ect of ecological civilization and concordance world,regarding such frontier problems and basic theory of ecological civilization like the world view of ecological civili-zation construction and fundamentality reestablishment of methodology,Chinese-style ecological philosophy's consciousness construction and the prerequisite clarification of ecological civilization's rel-ative questions.This meeting focused on the ecological civilization construction's top-level design,in-stitutional arrangement and path choice,and evaded the fundamental mistake in modern materialism value of arbitrary rationalism,achieved Beauty China and China Dream which should contain ecologi-cal civilization's realistic question and application strategy,such as ecological dimension and ecological connotation.This meeting also promoted ecological civilization construction's concordance culture thought resources and harmonious existence with ecological wisdom

  8. 加强地质环境保护服务生态文明建设%Strengthening the Protection of Geological Environment and Serving the Construction of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关凤峻

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there is a good condition for the construction of ecological civilization based on the work for environmental protection in mines. On this basis, this paper focuses on some proposes for improving the construction of ecological civilization. These include: prevention and control of geological disaster must be contunually strengthened in the course of the construction of industrialization, informationization, urbanization and agricultural modernization. Accountability system, compensation for damages, and restoration with regard to mine geological environment should be established. Meanwhile, the functions for groundwater monitoring and supervision and protection should be earnestly carried out and continuously reinforced. Both investigation and evaluation and industrial development of shallow geothermal resource should be further promoted. And we should put great efforts on energy production and consumer revolution, as well as geological culture and boutique geological park construction for cultural construction and local economic and social development.%  地质环境友好是生态文明建设的基础,近年来我国的地质环境保护工作为生态文明建设提供了良好的基础。未来要不断加强新“四化”建设过程中的地质灾害防治工作;探索建立矿山地质环境责任追究制度、环境损害赔偿与恢复制度,积极履行不断强化地下水监测监督和保护职能;进一步推进地热浅层地温能调查评价和产业发展,推动能源生产和消费革命;推进地质文化、公园精品建设,更好地服务文化建设和地方经济社会发展。

  9. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...... related to sustainability – a Workshop on Traffic. The workshop discussed traffic prognoses and the way they are used in the preparation of urban transport and traffic strategies. Civil engineer Jonas Eliasson spoke about the experience in Sweden of developing a database for traffic prognoses. The main...... to develop a technically advanced form of aesthetics. The Master Class in low energy buildings was led by civil engineer, Svend Svendsen, a Professor at DTU Byg. Together with colleagues and students, he has achieved an extensive knowledge of Integrated Design. In fact, the situation is that our knowledge...

  10. Teaching reform of civil engineering construction course in application- oriented colleges and universities%应用型本科院校土木工程施工技术课程教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂劲松; 戈海玉

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering construction technology is a very practical professional course. Combing theoretical teaching with practical teaching is important to train students' application abilities. Based on the current situation and teaching practice of civil engineering construction course teaching, we proposed suggestions on teaching methods, teaching modes and teaching means. We also introduced the production practice, technical seminars of specific engineering topics, and video and pictures of cases into classroom teaching, which stimulated students' interest in learning, improved the teaching quality, and provided a reference for innovative teaching programs.%土木工程施工技术是一门实践性很强的专业课程,该课程在整个课程体系中起着承前启后的作用,因此把理论与实践教学相结合,使学生具备应用知识的能力成为值得深思的问题。文章从目前土木工程施工技术课程教学现状出发,结合当前土木工程应用型本科院校教学改革实践,对该课程教学方法、教学模式和教学手段等提出了一些改革建议,并把生产实习实践、具体工程专题技术讲座、视频图片案例教学等手段贯穿于课堂教学,这既激发了学生学习兴趣,提高了教学质量,也为该课程的创新教学模式提供参考。

  11. Preliminarily study ecological civilization construction under the guidance of Ecological ethics%生态伦理观指导下的生态文明建设初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖

    2014-01-01

    生态伦理学是一门新的伦理学,它超越了传统伦理学只关注人与人之间的关系,而是把焦点扩展到人与自然的关系。通过分析生态伦理学与传统伦理学的区别,可以提炼出生态伦理学“新”特点;并且结合党的最新方针政策,初步探讨生态伦理观指导生态文明建设的方法与建议。这对于中国特色社会主义生态文明建设有重要的指导意义。%Ecological ethics is a new ethics,which transcends the traditional ethics focusing on the relationship of people, but the focus is expanded to the relationship between human and nature.In this paper,by analyzing the difference between the ecological ethics and traditional ethics,extracting characteristics of “new”ecological ethics,and combining with the party's poli-cies,it can preliminarily study the methods and suggestions of the construction of ecological civilization which is under the guide of ecological ethic.In a word,this study has important guiding significance for the construction of the Chinese characteristic so-cialism ecological civilization.

  12. 生态文明视阈下高校师德建设的困境与出路%Plight and Way out of Teachers' Ethic Construction from the Perspective of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟杰

    2015-01-01

    生态文明强调弘扬生态价值观和生态道德观。生态文明视阈下加强高校教师师德建设是教师职业的本质要求,是实现教师个人成功的关键,是大学实现永续发展的必然。当前,高校教师存在着浮躁焦虑、追名逐利、言行失当等现实问题,实现师德建设与专业发展相结合,发挥团队合力,加强制度规范是解决这些问题,不断提高师德修养水平的出路。%Ecological civilization upholds ecological value and ecological ethics. Strengthening teachers' ethic construction under the framework of ecological civilization is the innate requirements of the teaching profession,the key to realize the personal success of teachers and a must for universities to achieve sustainable development. Currently,university teachers are faced with some realistic problems such as fickleness and anxiety,pursuit of fame and profit,misconduct. Integrating teachers' ethic construction into profession-al development,giving full play to the joint efforts of the team and strengthening regulations are the way out for solving these problems and continuously improving teachers' ethics.

  13. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed.

  14. Empirical Evaluation of Construction Material Waste Generated on Sites in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi, T.O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the level of construction material waste generated on building sites in South-South, Nigeria. The objective is to empirically establish the level of waste generated on building sites and compare such with the allowable value in estimates. Data were collected from 30 on-going public building projects for six months. The level of material waste was calculated in percentages while one way ANOVA was employed to compare the waste values among the States in the zone. The significant difference between actual and allowable values of waste was tested using paired t-test. The level of material waste was found to be 11.69, 12.10, 10.45, 14.54, and 12.07 for concrete blocks, steel reinforcement, timber, and tiles respectively. It was concluded that these values are significantly different, with p-values < 0.05, from the allowable waste. The study recommends that the values of waste derived by this study be adopted in estimates

  15. Application of Simulation Technology in Higher Vocational Civil Engineering Construction Technology Teaching%仿真技术在高职土木工程施工技术课程教学中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱显鸽

    2014-01-01

    土木工程施工技术是安全技术管理专业的核心专业课程,由于本课程内容丰富、量大面广,与实践紧密结合,而学生又缺乏对实物的认识与想象,故传统的以教材为主的教学方法已经不适应,经过十多年的施工技术课程教学方法探索与实践后发现应用仿真技术可以有效地解决以往施工技术学习中的弊端。%Civil Engineering Construction Technology is the core course of security technology management professional courses, as the course content is rich, wide range of large, closely integrated with practice, and students lack of real under-standing and imagination, traditional textbook-based teaching methods are not suited, after ten years of teaching techniques and construction methods exploration, the practical application of simulation techniques can be found to effectively solve the problems of construction technology learning disadvantages.

  16. Gás natural: a construção de uma nova civilização Natural gas: the construction of a new civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Moutinho dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute o papel do gás natural no Brasil e no mundo, sugerindo que a humanidade está no caminho de construir o que se pode chamar de "Civilização do gás". Parte-se de um breve panorama da realidade energética internacional, comparando-se vários cenários, de instituições de reconhecida competência, que procuram descrever possibilidades para o futuro energético do planeta. Uma análise comparada desses cenários permite identificar o consumo crescente do gás natural como uma das tendências fortes para os próximos vinte a cinqüenta anos. Em seguida, introduz-se o conceito de "Civilização do gás", apresentando alguns elementos que o justificam. Oferece-se, então, uma perspectiva brasileira do problema. A partir de antecedentes históricos da indústria do gás no Brasil, apresenta-se uma visão crítica sobre o futuro dos gases combustíveis na matriz energética nacional.This work discusses the role of natural gas in Brazil and in the world, suggesting that the humanity is building up a kind of Gas Civilization. The text starts with a brief panorama of the international energy reality comparing several scenarios proposed by recognized institutions, and which try to describe possibilities for the future of energy in the planet. Such comparative analysis allows identifying the growing consumption of natural gas as a strong energy trend for the next 20 to 50 years. Then, the concept of Gas Civilization is introduced, presenting some elements justifying it. Following, the article offers a Brazilian perspective of the problem, starting from the historical antecedents of the gas industry in Brazil, and developing a critical vision regarding the future role of the combustible gases in the Brazilian energy mix.

  17. 马克思生态伦理思想对中国生态文明建设的启示%Enlightenment of Marx’s Ecological Ethics Thought on the Construction of Ecological Civilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩博

    2015-01-01

    T he report of the 18th Party Congress has developed “five‐in‐one” socialist modernization con‐struction model .It has put forward the concept that the construction of ecological civilization is related to the well‐being of the people ,and is a matter of national long‐term plan for the future .These all demon‐strate the importance of the construction of ecological civilization .Marx’s theory contains ecological ethics thoughts ,which has profoundly revealed the essential contradiction between the capitalist mode of produc‐tion and natural ecology and has illustrated the dialectical unity relationship between man and nature . Based on the research regarding the thought of Marx’s ecological ethics ,the ecological civilization con‐struction of China’s ecological ethics is discussed in this thesis .In addition ,it highlights the status of hu‐man subjectivity ,reflects the harmony and unity of man and nature relationship and emphasizes the neces‐sity of ecological legal norms .Marx’s ecological ethics thought not only promoted the process of building a moderately prosperous society in China ,but also accelerated the implementation of the scientific develop‐ment concept .%党的十八大报告制定了“五位一体”社会主义现代化建设总布局,并提出生态文明建设是关系人民福祉、关乎民族未来的长远大计,这充分说明生态文明建设的重要性。马克思的理论蕴含了丰富的生态伦理思想,深刻地揭露了资本主义生产方式与自然生态之间的本质矛盾,科学地阐明了人与自然之间的辩证统一关系。思考我国生态文明建设中所蕴含的生态伦理思想,体现出人与自然和谐统一的关系并凸显了人的主体性地位,以及生态法制规范的必要性。马克思生态伦理思想不仅推动了我国全面建成小康社会的进程,也进一步加快了科学发展观的贯彻和落实。

  18. Construction of the Media Society of Civilized Society%媒介化社会的社会文明建构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董达

    2014-01-01

    The-concept-and-characteristics-of-the-media-society-were-analyzed-basing-on-the-cultural-and-creative-products-summed-up-in-the-media-of-the-role-of-social-civilization-building-,-problems-and-solu-tions.With-the-new-media-technology-as-the-core-of-the-media-oriented-society-coming-to-being-,the-cultur-al-and-creative-products-also-played-a-very-important-role-in-the-whole-of-the-process-of-social-media-,such-as-film,animation,advertising,art-design,etc.%简要分析媒介化社会概念和特点的基础上,总结了文化创意产品在媒介化社会文明构建中的作用、问题及其解决方法,以新媒体技术为核心的媒介化社会已经到来,而文化创意产品,例如电影、动漫、广告、艺术设计等,在整个社会媒体化的进程中,也扮演着非常重要的角色。

  19. 新型城镇化建设管理的水生态文明路径%Water Ecological Civilization Concept of New Urbanization Construction and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建明; 周萍

    2015-01-01

    笔者分析了城镇化过程对水生态系统纵向、横向与垂向连通性及时间维度上自然动态性的干扰破坏作用,提出了基于水生态文明理念的城镇化建设管理新路径。城镇发展决策源头要注重预防,守住红线,城镇发展过程要注重补偿严格监管,城镇发展成果要注意科学评价、加大奖惩力度。%Based on the four-dimensional nature of water ecological system, which refers to the longitudinal, transverse and vertical connectivity as well as the natural dynamics in the time dimension, impacts of rapid urbanization on water ecological system were analyzed. Some urbanization management countermeasures, based on the concept of water ecological civilization, were put forward. Urban development decisions should pay attention to eco-damage prevention measures and hold the red line. Urban development process should focus on the adoption of effective compensation measures and the implementation of strict supervision. Urban development results should be given a scientific evaluation and set up a strict system of rewards and penalties.

  20. New steel-materials for bridge-construction; Kyoryo yoto no shinkozai oyobi shinkenzai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Takagi, M.; Nishiumi, K.; Kusunoki, T.; Tsuzuki, T.; Usami, A. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-31

    Nippon Steel Corporation is exerting endeavors for the development of various technologies which concern materials, designing, and execution in the field of bridges. Outlined in this report are the merits and effects of some fruits of such endeavors, which involve a new weather-resistant steel to reduce the maintenance cost, longitudinally profiled steel plates to reduce the manufacturing cost, rectangular steel tubes using a high-tenacity steel, long-span-conscious grating slabs and steel elements to save labor in bridge construction, etc. For instance, the newly developed weather-resistant steel is a product intended for use for Japan`s big cities and trunk lines near the seashore, and is so designed as to contain 5% Ni to withstand seashore climate after studies and tests. This steel will contribute to the reduction in the cost for maintaining bridges in seashore belts where the conventional weather-resistant steel does not work effectively or in snowy regions where the use of snow-melting agents is inevitable. In another example, the steel is used for the construction of Nippon Steel Corporation`s Minami-Ohashi Bridge situated in the sea-facing zone of Nagoya Works of the corporation, where tests are still under way. 18 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Material selection for a constructed wetroof receiving pre-treated high strength domestic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapater-Pereyra, M; van Dien, F; van Bruggen, J J A; Lens, P N L

    2013-01-01

    A constructed wetroof (CWR) is defined in this study as the combination of a green roof and a constructed wetland: a shallow wastewater treatment system placed on the roof of a building. The foremost challenge of such CWRs, and the main aim of this investigation, is the selection of an appropriate matrix capable of assuring the required hydraulic retention time, the long-term stability and the roof load-bearing capacity. Six substrata were subjected to water dynamics and destructive tests in two testing-tables. Among all the materials tested, the substratum configuration composed of sand, light expanded clay aggregates, biodegradable polylactic acid beads together with stabilization plates and a turf mat is capable of retaining the water for approximately 3.8 days and of providing stability (stabilization plates) and an immediate protection (turf mat) to the system. Based on those results, a full-scale CWR was built, which did not show any physical deterioration after 1 year of operation. Preliminary wastewater treatment results on the full-scale CWR suggest that it can highly remove main wastewater pollutants (e.g. chemical oxygen demand, PO4(3-)-P and NH4(+)-N). The results of these tests and practical design considerations of the CWR are discussed in this paper.

  2. Physical properties and hydrological response of green roof substrates based on recycled construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Hayas, Antonio; Jiménez-Quiñones, Daniel; Peña, Adolfo; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs in urban areas improve the building's energy efficiency and provide a wide array of additional environmental benefits. Characterizing and predicting the physical properties and hydrological response of green roofs is necessary to understand the roof's heat balance, which is controlled to a large extent by the substrate's water content, to predict the runoff response and functioning as a part of sustainable urban drainage systems and to plan irrigation of the plants in drier climates. This study examines 10 different extensive green roof substrates, based on recycled construction materials. Green roof simulation decks were installed in boxes of 0,6 m x 0,4 m to a depth of 70 mm, 10 with and 10 without plants. Total water holding capacity of the substrates varied between 10,4 - 23,9 %, with an additional 19 % retained by the drainage layer and geotextiles used in the simulation deck. An important compaction of 30 % on average was observed after 1,5 months. Final bulk densities are between 1457 - 1993 kg m-3. In an evaporation experiment, it was shown that the water evaporated from the green roofs is controlled mainly by the relative moisture content. Substrate properties exerted only a secondary control, with the lowest evaporation rates from the substrates with highest coarse crushed aggregate content and with the highest clay content. The evaporation model proposed here was shown to work well to simulate the evolution of the water balance and therefore the specific unit weight over longer time periods in all substrates, with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.989. Finally, plants were found to grow satisfactorily in all substrates. Therefore, when regular irrigation is provided, it was concluded that green roofs based on recycled construction materials are a viable option. Future research will have to explore the long-term plant dynamics under water-limited conditions.

  3. 民事审前调解程序的构建%Construction of Civil Pre-trial Mediation Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳丽

    2011-01-01

    法院调解历来是解决民事纠纷的重要途径,针对我国传统法院调解中"调审合一"、"调解与审判功能混淆"的弊端,民事审判制度的改革提出了"调审分离"的改革方案。审前调解就是实现调解程序和审判程序分离,是在立案后开庭审理之前,由法院专门调解人员主持下进行的调解。审前调解程序具有当事人处分权优先性、独立性、契约性、职业化和专业化的特征,具有不同于审判程序的调解原则和程序设置。%Court mediation has always been an important way to resolve civil disputes.In view of the shortcoming of the traditional court mediation in the "transfer trial-one","mediation and trial functions confusion ",the reform program proposed is a "trial separation adjustment".Pre-trial mediation is to achieve separation of the mediation process and trial procedures,the mediation chaired by special mediator of the court before the trail after the filing.Pre-trial mediation has the priority,independence,contractual and professional characteristics on disposition of the parties and it has the principles and procedures set unlike trail proceeding.

  4. EVALUATION OF THERMAL INSULATION FOR THREE DIFFERENT MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION OF EXTERNAL WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carlos Navroski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Summers increasingly hot are bringing large thermal problems within homes and businesses, leading to increased demand for installation of air conditioners and the consequent high energy consumption. Constructions with thermal insulation on its external walls thatcould reduce energy use or even supply the use of such equipment. Due to these factors the present study was to evaluate the insulation in three boxes built with different materials, one made of wooden boards with plain walls, and two built with plywood, wall insulation andinterior walls filled with rice husk and Styrofoam®. The boxes were built after placed in drying oven at 40 °C, then noted the temperature inside the same interval every five minutes using a digital thermometer. The box with inner Styrofoam® showed the lowest variation among the three evaluated, followed by the box of rice husk. These two materials also showed good thermal initial, unlike the box built only with wood, which showed a large interiorheating, lay in a drying oven.

  5. Recycling waste brick from construction and demolition of buildings as pozzolanic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Wu, Hsiu-Hsien; Shie, Je-Lueng; Hwang, Chao-Lung; An Cheng

    2010-07-01

    This investigation elucidates the pozzolic characteristics of pastes that contain waste brick from building construction and demolition wastes. The TCLP leaching concentrations of waste brick for the target cations or heavy metals were all lower than the current regulatory thresholds of the Taiwan EPA. Waste brick had a pozzolanic strength activity index of 107% after 28 days. It can be regarded as a strong pozzolanic material. The compressive strengths of waste brick blended cement (WBBC) that contain 10% waste brick increased from 71.2 MPa at 28 days to 75.1 MPa at 60 days, an increase of approximately 5% over that period. At 28 days, the pozzolanic reaction began, reducing the amount of Ca(OH)(2) and increasing the densification. The intensity of the peak at 3640 cm(- 1) associated with Ca(OH)(2) is approximately the same for ordinary Portland cement (OPC) pastes. The hydration products of all the samples yield characteristics peaks at 978 cm(-1) associated with C-S-H, and at ~3011 cm(-1) and 1640 cm(-1) associated with water. The samples yield peaks at 1112 cm(-1), revealing the formation of ettringite. In WBBC pastes, the ratio Q(2)/Q(1) increases with curing time. These results demonstrate that increasing the curing time increases the number of linear polysilicate anions in C-S-H. Experimental results reveal that waste brick has potential as a pozzolanic material in the partial replacement of cement.

  6. UTILIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL BYPRODUCT AS RAW MATERIAL IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY- A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAISHALI SAHU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A large quantity of sludge rich in nutrients and microorganisms is generated every year from water and wastewater treatment plants, the final destination of which affects the environment. Generally, dewatered sludge is disposed of by spreading on the land or by land filling. However, space limitations on existing landfill sites and problems of waste stabilization have prompted investigation into alternative reuse techniques and disposal routes for sludge. A more reasonable approach is to view the sludge as a resource that can be recycled or reused. Many researchers have exploited the reuse of lime sludge from water treatment plant and sewage sludge ash as an inexpensive source of soil stabilizer in sub grade stabilization and soft cohesive soil respectively. Sewage sludge pellets (SSP has replaced sand in concrete manufacturing for pavements. The use of SSP as substituting material in raw mix formulation in Portland cement manufacturing has been studied by many researchers. Experimental results showed the feasibility of the partial replacement (15 and 30% of cement by sewage sludge ash (SSA in mortars. This paper highlights the potential of dried sludge, sludge pellets and sludge ash in various building materials for construction.

  7. 30 CFR 717.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all conditions of construction and operation of the impoundment. Sufficient foundation investigations... section. (b) Construction of dams. (1) Waste shall not be used in the construction of dams unless... of § 77.216(a) of this title, shall be approved by the regulatory authority before construction...

  8. The basic construction materials industry and today’s vast housing shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the aspects of the major challenge facing world-wide building: humanity's daunting shortage of basic housing, monographically focusing on what this means for the basic building materials industry. These needs have created the greatest demand ever for ex-novo solutions and an exponential increase in slum rehabilitation and improvement, translated here into the need for construction materials and more specifically, cement, as the emblematic component of buildings.El trabajo aborda en forma documentada, algunos aspectos del mayor de los retos que tiene planteado a nivel cosmopolita el sector de la edificación: las ingentes necesidades de habitabilidad básica que padece la humanidad, centrándose en forma monográfica en lo que ello supone para la industria de materiales básicos de edificación. Necesidades que se traducen en la mayor demanda histórica de soluciones ex-novo y en el aumento exponencial de rehabilitación y mejora de tugurios, que los autores traducen en necesidades de materiales de construcción, y de forma más concreta, de cemento, como material emblemático de la edificación.El trabajo, mediante el análisis de casos, muestra la muy diferente repercusión que tienen los materiales sobre los presupuestos finales de lo ejecutado, según se trate del mundo desarrollado (MD o de países en vías de desarrollo (PVD. Por otra parte, estudia la incidencia general del sector 'informal' de la construcción, concluyendo que éste, en muchos países, es el consumidor mayoritario de materiales -specialmente cemento-y que a nivel mundial los PVD lo son tanto en producción como en consumo.

  9. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pajewski, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  10. Civil Works Budget Details of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for Construction. Volume 2: SAD - SWD. Fiscal Year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    other benefits to south Florida . Under SFER, numerous C&SF projects— including West Palm Beach Canal, C-111 ( South Dade), Comprehensive Everglades...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 South Atlantic Division 28 March 2014 CONSTRUCTION SAD - 128 March 2014 FLORIDA ...through which the sponsor, South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), commits to items of local cooperation. This consists of Resolutions 12

  11. Kinetic Adsorption of Ammonium Nitrogen by Substrate Materials for Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-Ling; CUI Li-Hua; OUYANG Ying; LONG Cui-Fen; TANG Xiao-Dan

    2011-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are engineered systems that utilize natural systems including wetland vegetations,soils,and their associated microbial assemblages to assist in treating wastewater.The kinetic adsorption of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) by CW substrate materials such as blast furnace slag (BFS),zeolite,ceramsite,vermiculite,gravel,paddy soil,red soil,and turf,was investigated using batch experiments and kinetic adsorption isotherms.Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms could adequately predict the NH4+-N adsorption process.The maximum adsorption capacities of NH4+-N,estimated from the Langmuir isotherm,ranked as:zeolite (33 333.33 mg kg-1) > turf (29274.01 mg kg-1) > BFS (5 000mg kg-1) > vermiculite (3333.33 mg kg-1) > gravel (769.23 mg kg-1) > paddy soil (588.24 mg kg-1) > red soil (555.56mg kg-1) > ceramsite (107.53 mg kg-1).Some properties of the substrate materials,including bulk density,specific gravity,hydraulic conductivity,uniformity coefficient (K60),curvature coefficient (Cc),organic matter,pH,exchangeable (or active) Cu,Fe,Zn and Mn,total Cu,and Fe,Mn,Zn,Cd,Pb and Ca,had negative correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.Other properties of the substrate materials like particle diameter values of D10,D30 and D60 (the diameters of particle sizes of a substrate material at which 10%,30% and 60%,respectively,of the particles pass through the sieve based on the accumulative frequency),cation exchange capacity (CEC),exchangeable (or active) Ca and Mg,and total K and Mg had positive correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.In addition,active K and Na as well as the total Na had significant positive correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.This information would be useful for selection of suitable substrate materials for CWs.

  12. 土木工程建筑中绿色节能措施研究%Research of Green Energy Saving Measures in Civil Engineering Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠

    2014-01-01

    Energy crisis has intensified with the rapid dev-elopment of economy. Energy consumption of the construction industry occupies a large proportion in the total energy cons-umption. A lot of natural resources are consumed in the pro-cess of building’s construction and use. Therefore, green and energy saving in the construction industry can ease the global energy crisis and has important significance to realizing green environmental protection idea.%随着经济的飞速发展,能源危机逐渐加剧。建筑行业的能源消耗在总的能耗中占据着很大比例,它在建造和使用过程中,都需要消耗大量的自然资源。因此,建筑行业的绿色节能对于缓解全球能源危机,实现绿色环保理念有着重大意义。

  13. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  14. Application of Nanotechnology in Civil Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sabihuddin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, use of nanotechnology in building materials on behalf of a range of civil engineering mechanism is discussed. In view of the fact that the use of nanotechnology controls the topic at the minute level, the properties of matter are sincerely affected. Strength, durability and other properties of materials are dramatically affected under a scale of nano meter(10-9m.This article as well reveals how the use of nano technology makes concrete more stronger, durable and more easily placed. Different types of nano materials used are discussed with its wide applications. The properties like self-sensing, self- rehabilitation, self-structural health monitoring, self-vibration damping, self-cleaning and self-healing are studied. Following this the analysis were carried out in ductile structural composites along with its improved properties, low repairs coatings, better properties of cementitious materials, reduction of the thermal transfer rate of fire retardant and insulation, various nanosensors, smart materials, intellectual construction technology.

  15. 探析生态文明视野下的水文化建设%Analysis of Water Culture Construction in the View of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盛文

    2012-01-01

    在世界可持续发展大趋势和社会主义文化大发展大繁荣背景下,借鉴水文化优秀成果,通过抓好五大工程,增强水精神文化、水行为文化、水制度文化、水安全文化和水物态文化建设,积极构筑"人水和谐"的水文化,促进水利的可持续发展,实现生态建设战略。%Against the background of the trend of world's sustainable development and vigorous development and prosperity of socialist culture,learned from outstanding achievement of water culture and on the basis of the Five Projects,some culture constructions are strengthened,such as spiritual culture of water,behavioral culture of water,institutional culture of water,safety culture of water and state culture of water.The water culture of "Harmony between Human and Water" should be built actively so as to promote sustainable development of water conservancy and to carry out the strategy of ecological construction.

  16. Natural radioactivity of materials used in industry and construction in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Dragana J; Janković, Marija M

    2011-01-01

    Four different kinds of materials (feldspar, gypsum, clay and kaolin) commonly used in building construction and industry in Serbia were analyzed for their natural radioactivity, using gamma spectrometry. The radium equivalent activity, Ra(eq), the absorbed dose rate, D, the annual effective dose, D(E), and the external hazard index, H(ex), were evaluated to assess the radiation hazard for people living in dwellings made of the materials studied. The radium equivalent activities calculated in all samples are lower than the maximum admissible value 370 Bq kg(-1) set in the UNSCEAR report. The absorbed dose rate in air was found to vary from 0.02 to 0.19 μGy h(-1). Considering the fact that the average gamma dose rate indoors in Europe is 0.07 μGy h(-1), gamma dose rate calculated for feldspar, clay and kaolin samples exceed this limit. The obtained results for annual effective dose exceed limits of 0.41 mSv for feldspar, clay and kaolin samples. If the H(ex) exceeds unity, we might conclude that the potential external dose(s) to exposed individual(s) will exceed the acceptable level, and some action may be required. The obtained values of H(ex) are lower than unity for all investigated samples. All samples were measured immediately after preparation, except 10 samples of feldspar, because a comparative analysis were made between 215 samples which were measured immediately after preparation and 10 samples which were measured after radioactive equilibrium was reached in order to detect differences in the obtained concentrations.

  17. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  18. Construction Materials Used in the Historical Roman Era Bath in Myra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD, physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity, chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses, and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  19. Construction materials used in the historical Roman era bath in Myra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Cem; Turker, Fikret; Kockal, Niyazi Ugur

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick) taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD), physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity), chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses), and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending) were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  20. PAHs in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein

    2015-08-01

    The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 PAHs from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of PAHs was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size <0.045 mm), the content of the Al-Si glass phase and the surface characteristics were the main factors, which could affect the accessibility of PAHs for leaching. The mobility of PAHs from OSA of CFB and PF boilers was 20.2 and 9.9%, respectively. Hardening of OSA-based materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble PAHs. Release of PAHs from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of PAHs, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes.

  1. Studies on use of Copper Slag as Replacement Material for River Sand in Building Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Rajamane, N. P.

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the use of copper slag, as a partial replacement of sand for use in cement concrete and building construction. Cement mortar mixtures prepared with fine aggregate made up of different proportions of copper slag and sand were tested for use as masonry mortars and plastering. Three masonry wall panels of dimensions 1 × 1 m were plastered. The studies showed that although copper slag based mortar is suitable for plastering, with the increase in copper slag content, the wastage due to material rebounding from the plastered surfaces increases. It is therefore suggested that the copper slag can be used for plastering of floorings and horizontal up to 50 % by mass of the fine aggregate, and for vertical surfaces, such as, brick/block walls it can be used up to 25 %. In this study on concrete mixtures were prepared with two water cement ratios and different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0 % (for the control mix) to 100 % of fine aggregate. The Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, and compressive strength.

  2. USE OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES AS RAW MATERIALS IN CEMENT CLINKER PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos-Triantafyllos Galbenis; Stamatis Tsimas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the possibility of utilizing Construction and Demolition(C&D) wastes as substitutes of Portland cement raw meal. The C&D wastes that were so used, were the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and the Recycled Masonry Aggregates (RMA) derived from demolished buildings in Attica region, Greece. RCA and RMA samples were selected because of their calcareous and siliceous origin respectively,which conformed the composition of the ordinary Portland cement raw meal. For that reason, six samples of cement raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample, and five by mixing the reference sample with RCA and RMA in appropriate proportions. The effect on the reactivity of the generated mixtures, was evaluated on the basis of the free lime content (fCaO) in the mixtures sintered at 1350℃, 1400℃ and 1450℃. Test showed that the added recycled aggregates improved the burnability of the cement raw meal without affecting negatively the cement clinker properties. Moreover, the formation of the major components (C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF) of the produced clinkers(sintered at 1450℃) was corroborated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

  3. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  4. On management of construction documents for civil architectural projects%谈民用建筑工程施工资料管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常彦妮

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the complexity of the formation process for the engineering documents,the paper points out the demands for the management and compilation,and indicates the documents of inspection tests in the process of the document management and the problems documents in the acceptance in the middle and the complete inspection,as well as the effective management,so as to provide better construction service.%针对工程资料形成过程的复杂性,提出管理和编制上的要求,同时阐述了资料管理过程中检验试验资料及中间验收和竣工验收资料形成存在的问题及进行的有效管理,以期更好的为工程施工服务。

  5. Discussion on the Construction of Civil Medium and Small Transformer Substation%关于民用中小型变电站建设的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赞功

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了从变电站的前期设计、设备招标采购、设备运输、施工安装到验收中应关注的问题。以塘东总部基地35 kV用户变电站、上海纽约大学10 kV用户变电站以例,重点关注了成套开关设备招标采购中的技术要求。%This paper introduces the problems of preliminary design, bidding and procurement of substation, equipment tra- nsportation, construction and instalation of equipment. The a- uthor took the users’ 35kv substation of Tangdong headquart- ers base and the users’ 10kv substation of the branch of New York University in Shanghai as cases, focusing on the techn- ical requirements of the biding of switchgear.

  6. The construction materials used in highway design%建筑材料在公路设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂震丽

    2015-01-01

    随着社会的发展和文明进步,公路建设取得了辉煌的成就,这对我国的现代化发展起到了举足轻重的作用。路上的车辆越来越多,道路交通安全问题成为当今社会面临的重要问题。道路交通安全的影响因素很多,公路设计就是其中的一个,而设计中又大量使用各种建筑材料。本文对公路设计中影响道路交通安全的因素进行分析。%With the development of society and the progress of civilization,the highway construction has made brilliant achievements,the modernization of our country development has played a pivotal role.More and more vehicles on the road, the road traffic security problem has become an important issue facing today’s society.Many factors affect the road traffic safety,a highway design is one of the,and design and the extensive use of all kinds of building materials.In this paper,through the analysis of factors influencing factors of road traffic safety of highway design,can further improve the effect of traffic safety in highway design related factors measures appropriate choice of building materials.

  7. Leightweight construction, a key technology for materials saving, energy efficiency and climate protection. Proceedings of the colloquium; Leichtbau, eine Schluesseltechnologie fuer Material-, Energieeffizienz und Klimaschutz. Tagungsband zum Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Otto; Bicker, Marc (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    At the fourth Landshut colloquium on lightweight construction, 24 papers were presented by experts of science and practice on the following subjects: 1. Composite structures; 2. Surface technology and coatings; 3. Foamed aluminium and magnesium; 4. Aluminium and foamed aluminium; 5. Joining techniques; 4. Bolted joints; 6. Metal composites and foamed materials; 7. Core materials for sandwich structures; 8. Fabrication technologies of fibre-reinforced composites; 9. Forming and efficient use of materials; 10. Aluminium moulds; 11. Simulation and optimisation; 12. Lightweight construction in aircraft and vehicle engineering. [German] Im vierten Landshuter Leichtbau-Colloquium-Band werden insgesamt 24 Beitraege von Experten aus Wissenschaft und Praxis aus folgenden Themengebieten vorgestellt: 1. Werkstoffverbundstrukturen, 2. Oberflaechentechnik und -beschichtungen, 3. Aluminiumschaeume und Magnesium, 4. Aluminium und Aluminiumschaeume, 5. Verbindungstechnik, 5. Schraubverbindungen, 6. Metallische Verbundwerkstoffe und Schaeume, 7. Kernmaterialien fuer Sandwichstrukturen, 8. Fertigungstechnologien Faserverbundstrukturen, 9. Umformen / Effizienter Materialeinsatz, 10. Urformen mit Aluminium, 11. Simulation und Optimierung und 12. Leichtbau im Luftfahrzeug- und Fahrzeugbau.

  8. Antenna Construction & Propagation of Radio Waves, 5-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps, Washington, DC.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of five individualized, self-paced chapters dealing with antenna construction and propagation of radio waves. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: basic electricity; antenna transmission-line fundamentals; quarter-wave antennas, half-wave antennas, and associated radio…

  9. 加快智能工厂进程,促进生态文明建设%Accelerate the process of smart plant, promote ecological civilization construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德芳; 索寒生

    2014-01-01

    中国石化通过实施资源战略、市场战略、一体化战略、国际化战略、差异化战略与绿色低碳战略,提出了用信息化支撑传统产业升级转型、绿色低碳与节能减排、推进智能工厂建设的战略目标。重点从建设思路、主要工作进展与应用成效三方面阐述了智能工厂对中国石化应用信息技术改造石油石化传统生产工艺、提高资源利用率、实现安全生产与清洁生产等方面的重要影响。最后,结合中国石化信息化的发展愿景与发展目标,给出了智能工厂的总体框架与行动蓝图。%By implementing resource strategy, market strategy, integration strategy, internationalization strategy, differentiation strategy and low-carbon strategy, strategic objective as using information technology was proposed to support the transformation from traditional industry, to promote environmentally friend, low-carbon develop, energy conservation and emissions reduction, and finally to establish smart plant. The important influences lead consequently was elaborated by smart plant in production engineering conversion, resources utilization, safe production and environmentally friend production. These achievements would mainly be done by using information technology and discussed from three aspects: construction method, main progress and expected achievements. In the end, taking SINOPEC’s informatization vision and destination into account, the smart plant overall framework and blueprint were concluded.

  10. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material and methods Forty-five similar maxillary dentures were made using heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and assigned randomly to three experimental groups (n = 15 each) according to investing method: plaster–plaster–plaster (P–P–P), plaster–stone–stone (P-S-S), and plaster–mix (P–M). Specimens in all experimental groups were compression molded with denture base resin. Transverse interincisor (I–I) and intermolar (M–M) distances, and anteroposterior incisor–molar (LI–LM and RI–RM) distances, were measured with digital calipers at the wax denture stage (pre-polymerization) and after denture decasting (post-polymerization). Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to compare the results. Results M–M, LI–LM, and RI–RM movement was significantly greater in the P–P–P group than in the P–S–S and P–M groups; no significant difference in I–I movement was observed among groups. Transverse movement along M–M and I–I was significantly greater than anteroposterior movement in the P–P–P group; no significant difference among measurements was observed in the other two groups. Conclusion The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement. PMID:26792971

  11. Compound soil-tyre chips modified by cement as a road construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Promputthangkoon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to overcome the two problems of low-quality soil and a growing number of discarded tyres bymixing low-CBR soil with recycled tyre chips. The compound soil-tyre chips was then stabilised by Portland cement with theaim of using them as a new material in road construction in order to reduce the occurrence of shrinkage cracks. To achievethe purposes of this research three standard geotechnical testing programmes were employed: (1 modified compaction tests,(2 California Bearing Ratio tests (CBR, and (3 unconfined compression tests. The modified compaction test results provedthat for the mixtures having very low tyre chips and cement content, the behaviour is very complex. It was also observed thatthe greater the percentage of rubber added the lower the global density. However, this is predictable as the specific gravityof the rubber is much lower than that of the soil. For the relationship between the optimum moisture content (OMC and thecement content, it was observed that there is no clear pattern.For the specimens having no cement added, the CBR for unsoaked specimens was observed to be greater than that forsoaked specimens. However, when the cement was introduced the CBR test showed that the resistance to penetration for thesoaked specimens was significantly greater, indicating the effects of cement added on the strength. In addition, it was foundthat the CBR values for both soaked and unsoaked specimens gradually increased with the increase of cement content.Lastly, the unconfined compressive strength progressively increased with the increased percentage of cement.

  12. ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN PUTTING SOCIAL MANAGEMENT ON A LEGAL BASIS%论社会管理法治化中的公民社会建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广辉

    2015-01-01

    社会管理法治化是我国社会转型过程中法治国家建设的内在要求,也是市场经济的内在要求,而要实现社会管理的法治化,必须实现治理模式由善政向善治的转变,将政府的单一管制转变为政府与社会的共同治理,将治理的目标定位于为个人实现自由发展创造适宜的空间上. 认为实现社会管理由政府主导向政府与社会的合作甚至是社会主导的转变,根本的途径就是加强公民社会的建设,培养公民的公共意识.%Putting social management on a legal basis is the inherent requirement of constructing a country un-der the rule of law in the process of social transformation in China and is the inherent requirement of market e-conomy as well.Realizing the legalization of social management involves transforming the mode of governance from good administration to good management and from the government′s single control to the joint governance of the government and society, positioning the goal of governance in order to create a suitable space for person-al freedom.The article moves that to realize the transformation of social management from the mode of govern-ment-dominating to the cooperation of government and society and even to that of society-dominating,the fun-damental way is to strengthen the construction of civil society and to cultivate the public awareness of citizens.

  13. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  14. Avaliação da importância relativa dos critérios para a seleção de Sistemas Integrados de Gestão (ERP para uso em empresas da construção civil Evaluation of the importance of criteria for the selection of Integrated Management Systems (ERP for use in civil construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Picinini Picinini Méxas

    2013-06-01

    survey of IT and civil construction areas was conducted on a sample of 79 respondents in order to investigate the relative importance of these criteria. The survey demonstrated that the Financial, Business, and Software criteria were considered by the respondents as the most important.

  15. [Constructing images and territories: thinking on the visuality and materiality of remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the question of the image in science, thinking about how visual practices contribute towards the construction of knowledge and territories. The growing centrality of the visual in current scientific practices shows the need for reflection that goes beyond the image. The object of discussion will be the scientific images used in the monitoring and visualization of territory. The article looks into the relations between visuality and a number of other factors: the researchers that construct it; the infrastructure involved in the construction; and the institutions and policies that monitor the territory. It is argued that such image-relations do not just visualize but help to construct the territory based on specific forms. Exploring this process makes it possible to develop a more complex understanding of the forms through which sciences and technology help to construct realities.

  16. Reform and Development of Shanghai's Civil Affairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINGLING

    2005-01-01

    The work of the Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau centers on social administration,democratic political construction at grass roots level, social relief and welfare,care and support of servicemen and their families, and national defense construction. It guarantees the people's basic rights, particularly those in difficulty,and maintains social stability. Effective management of civil affairs is crucial to the construction of a weft-off society.

  17. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  18. 维修器材军民一体化联合保障储备费用研究%Research on Store Cost of Military-civil Integrate Joint Support Maintenance Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 杨宝强; 荣丽卿

    2016-01-01

    For military maintenance material stock cost is much too high and its usage efficiency is still low, military-civil integrate maintenance support provides a good method for resolving this problem. In this paper, it firstly put forwards a way of analyzing the structure and cost of maintenance material store by introducing the producing enterprise in maintenance material stock, then a model store cost of military-civil integrate joint support maintenance material is established, which is validated by a calculation case. The result shows that the model can improve support maintenance pertinence, avoid material stagnant and waste.%为解决军方维修器材库存资金占用过大、维修器材使用效率较低等问题,构建维修器材军民一体化联合保障储备费用模型。以军民一体化维修保障为研究背景,在维修器材储备中引入器材生产企业,分析军民一体化联合保障储备的结构和费用变化,提出对维修器材实施军民一体化联合保障的思路,并运用算例对军民一体化联合保障储备费用模型进行演示验证。结果表明:该模型能提高器材保障的针对性,避免维修器材的呆滞和浪费。

  19. Design and Implementation of Civil Aviation Meteorological Network Security Construction Scheme%民航空管气象网络安全建设方案设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌

    2014-01-01

    aviation meteorological data from the server through the network gateway to Gigabit bandwidth efficient,real-time transmission,the optimization and adjustment to im-prove efficiency and promote the sustainable development of meteorological service. Investment in construction of IPS,firewalls and network security equipment,civil aviation meteorological network is strengthened,virus infection risks outside the network completely resolved.

  20. The new mining technology using pneumatic constructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poliakov, S.V.; Rahutin, V.S.; Salli, V.I. [Administration of Donetsk Region, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    In this article a new technology of underground coal extraction with the use of stowing material and mechanized protection including pneumatic constructions made from soft casings is considered. The proposed technology permits the working of deposits located under industrial and civil objects. It enables an increase in the ratio of coal extraction, as well keeping rock and waste from coal preparation in the mine workings. 1 fig.

  1. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  2. Měření tepelně technických vlastností stavebních materiálů a konstrukcí

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is focused to the heat flow through the construction materials and building constructions. It contains selected list of representative examples of constructions and building insulating materials using in civil engineering. Thereafter is mentioned the Institute of testing of materials in Czech Republic, where the testing of building matarials is performed. Thesis describes physical principles and methods applied to measurements of selected thermal parameters of building materials a...

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL FLOW INFORMATION BASE OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Degaltseva Z. V.; Shulepina S. A.; Ovsiyenko E. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of using indicators of material flow in the financial accounting management accounting system. The authors have created and described the classification of material costs in building units. It allows solving the problems of object of research specifying within a given material flow and inventory control within a given logistics systems. There are different approaches to the valuation of material costs in the article. An important aspect of measures for the ...

  4. Materialising Bodies: There Is Nothing More Material than a Socially Constructed Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Over the last one of two decades, researchers within the physical education (PE) and sport pedagogy research frequently use the concept "the material body". An initial purpose of this article is to explore what a concept of a "material body" might mean. What other bodies are there? Who would dispute the materiality of bodies? I…

  5. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  6. Bricolage as Institutional Maintenance Work: integrating new construction materials into heritage buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Colombero, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Listed-buildings refers to buildings that are protected by the state because of their recognized status as national patrimony. Many listed buildings are currently undergoing various construction works, such as renovation or extension, to preserve them while keeping intact the function for which they were originally built. Increased use of construction practices pertaining to Sustainable Development is calling for insight into the process through which these kinds of bu...

  7. 土木工程施工课程半自助式三阶段教学方法%Semi-self-help Three Period Teaching Method of Civil Engineering Construction Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尧鸿; 侯永利; 吴安利

    2016-01-01

    针对土木工程施工课程的特点,提出半自助式三阶段教学方法。该方法以学生半自助学习为主线,将每个授课内容单元分为3个阶段完成,重视实践环节,突出自主学习,注重培养学生的创新意识,教师由原来在讲台上单纯传道授业解惑的“演员”转变为教学活动的“导演”和学生身边的“教练”,而学生则由原来讲台下被动接受的“观众”转变为教学活动中积极主动的参与者,从而显著提高教学效果。%aiming at the characteristics of civil engineering construction course, this paper put forward semi-self-help three period teaching method. This teaching method takes the semi-self-help study of students as the main line and divides every teaching content unit into three period. The method pays great attention to the practice link, highlights autonomous learning and cultivates creative consciousness of students. The role of teacher is changed from the"actor"on the podium to the"director"of teaching activities and the"coach"around students. Meanwhile the role of students is changed from the passive"audiences"under platform to active participants in teaching activities. So this teaching method can signiifcantly improve the teaching effect.

  8. The prosperity of Harbin cultural market and promoting the civilization city construction%繁荣哈尔滨文化市场助力文明城市创建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀宇; 宋东宁; 刁菲

    2013-01-01

      以哈尔滨市创建全国文明城市为切入点,从5个方面阐述了哈尔滨市文化市场的现状,指出了哈尔滨市文化市场主要存在发展规模小、文化消费水平低、供需矛盾突出、管理人才缺乏以及文化产业的发展存在体制性障碍等问题并且分析了原因,从而提出了以壮大特色文化市场主体为核心、以打造文化精品为突破口、以引导市民树立文明文化消费意识为保障加强队伍建设等方面的对策建议。%Taking Harbin city to create a national civilized city as the breakthrough point, the present situation of Harbin city cultural market is expounded from 5 aspects, and points out that the Harbin city cultural market mainly exist in the development of small scale, low level of cultural consumption, the contradiction between supply and demand, lack of management personnel development and culture industry in institutional obstacles and problems analysis of the causes, and put forward to strengthen the main characteristics of cultural market as the core, to create a culture of quality as a breakthrough, to guide the public to establish a culture of consumer awareness of strategies to ensure the team construction.

  9. The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2017-01-01

    Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world. Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival. The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely. On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors. In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance.

  10. A preliminary report on the use of cane and bamboo as basic construction materials for orthotic and prosthetic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, B; Banerji, J B

    1984-08-01

    Cane and bamboo have been found to be viable and alternative basic construction materials for orthotic/prosthetic appliances and rehabilitation aids. Amongst the appliances made, the night splint and the upper limb splints have proved effective in field trials. The lower limb orthoses and prosthesis however are still at an experimental stage. Of the rehabilitation aids, walkers, crutches and wheelchairs have been found to be remarkably useful, cheap and light.

  11. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Morales; Antonio Edésio Jungles; Sheila Elisa Scheidemantel Klein; Juliana Guarda

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects consid...

  12. Construction and operation of a system for secure and precise medical material distribution in disaster areas after Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Xu, Jiankang; Ma, Jian; Cheng, Shusen; Shi, Yingkang

    2009-11-01

    After the Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12th , 2008, under the strong leadership of the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee, the People's Government of Sichuan Province, and the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Medical Security Team working at the Sichuan Provincial Headquarters for Wenchuan Earthquake and Disaster Relief Work constructed a secure medical material distribution system through coordination and interaction among and between regions, systems, and departments.

  13. Research on the Construction of University Civilized Dor-mitories Based on the Perspective of Ideological and Po-litical Education%基于思想政治教育视角的高校文明寝室建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐惠如; 王韡韡

    2015-01-01

    推进高校文明寝室建设是加强和改进大学生思想政治教育的有效途径。要充分发挥文明寝室建设在大学生思想政治教育中的作用,需要在分析当前文明寝室建设存在问题的基础上提出相应的解决思路,包括凝练和提升寝室文化、修订和完善寝室制度、发扬和注入人文关怀。%To promote the construction of university civilized dor-mitories is an effective way of enhancing and improving the ideo-logical and political education of university students. In order to give full play to the role of civilized dormitory construction in the ideological and political education of university students, we should analyze the problems existing in the current civilized dor-mitory construction and propose corresponding solutions, includ-ing condensing and improving dormitory culture, revising and improving dormitory system, highlighting and providing human-istic care.

  14. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  15. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera...

  16. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  17. Construction of material and life science experimental facility under high intensity proton accelerator project

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Y

    2002-01-01

    The outline of construction of 1MW pulse spallation neutron source in the MLF experimental facility is explained in this paper. The object, project activities, project team and construction of group are stated. 1MW pulse nuclear spallation neutron source, neutron source design and technical problems, Hg target, the basic parameters, neutron source station, moderator, reflector, shield, shutter, low temperature system, facility, spectrometer, and neutron experimental device are explained. The nuclear calculation code and nuclear data used as technical support and computer environment are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  18. Aluminium building and civil engineering structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Mennink, J.

    1999-01-01

    The design of aluminium structures in building and civil engineering applications is different from designing in traditional materials. This difference is based on the physical and mechanical properties of the material and the freedom of cross-sectional shape provided by the extrusion manufacturing

  19. Sofrimento psíquico no trabalho e estratégias defensivas dos operários terceirizados da construção civil Psychic suffering at work and defensive strategies of outsourced worker at building constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Castro da Rocha Barros

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga as estratégias defensivas contra o sofrimento utilizadas pelos trabalhadores terceirizados de uma construtora em Brasília, utilizando como referencial teórico-metodológico a Psicodinâmica do Trabalho. Realizam-se entrevistas coletivas semi-estruturadas com 20 trabalhadores, distribuídos em quatro grupos com cinco participantes cada um, submetidas à análise de conteúdo. Os resultados apontam que os trabalhadores encontram-se vulneráveis e inseguros diante do modelo de produção terceirizado, que negligencia seus direitos e exige alta produtividade. O sofrimento torna-se visível por meio de indicadores de mal-estar tais como desgaste físico e mental e falta de reconhecimento, que é enfrentado mediante estratégias de mediação defensivas de negação e controle. O pressuposto inicial de que o modelo de produção baseado nos princípios tayloristas e na acumulação flexível de capital, preponderante no setor da construção civil, potencializa o sofrimento no contexto de produção é, então, confirmado.This paper investigated defensive strategies to confront suffering used by outsourced workers of building constructions builders in Brasília, having as theoretic-methodological reference the Psychodynamics of Work. Semi structured collective interview were undertaken with 20 workers, distributed in four groups with five participants each one. The interview was submitted to content analysis. The results show the workers presenting vulnerability and insecurity to face outsourced production models that would disregard their rights and demand high productivity. The suffering becomes visible by mal-being symptoms indicated as physic and mental stress and lack of recognition, that is copping by negation and control as defensive mediation strategies. The results confirm the initial presuppositions that the production model based on Taylorist principles and flexible accumulation of capital, predominant at the

  20. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  1. EUROPEIZAREA DREPTULUI PROCESUAL CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union increases the judiciary cooperation in civil and comercial cases with trans-border incidence, based on the principle of mutual recognition of judiciary rulings. The aim of adopting frame-legislation is to ensure the developement of civil procedures. The Council Regulations no. 44/2001 on the competence, the recognition and the enforcement of judiciary rulings in civil and commercial cases is a “real” Code of civil procedure in this matter, to be applied in the member states, thus ensuring the free circulation of the judiciary rulings according to the principles of mutual recognition, mutual trust and reinforcement of juridical security in the union. The community civil procedural code prevails over the national procedural code. The Regulations ensure the administration of the community justice and through their rules avoid the pronunciation, in the member states, of rulings that are irreconcilable with each other, the direct beneficiaries being legal and natural persons.

  2. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version......Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  3. Growing grass: a smart material interactive display, design and construction history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minuto, Andrea; Nijholt, Anton

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we will present the design process and development of 'Follow the Grass', our smart material interactive pervasive display, with related technical detailed explanation. We will present the design steps and prototypes with instructions for the use of smart materials (NiTiNOL) to create

  4. Risk and social construction of nuclear power development in China: local people’s participation in civil nuclear issues in China at the start of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    China’s civil nuclear power programme is a sensitive topic which has seldom been researched by social or political scientists inside or outside of China. In the past, public participation activities in relation to nuclear power issues in China were rare. However, in 2005, when the central government decided to promote civil nuclear development and build 40 more nuclear reactors within the next 20 years, the public started to become aware of the potential environmental risks tha...

  5. 奶牛鲜粪便转化民用燃料原料配方的筛选%Formula Screening of Civil Fuel Material Converted from Fresh Feces of Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广有

    2011-01-01

    Adopting orthogonal test, the cow's fresh dung, pulverized coal and deodorant absorption bond raw material were mixed together so as to screen the formula for civil fuel material. The results show that the fresh feces of diary cow with higher water content had a lowest utilization rate of 40% , the most proper additive rate of deodorant absorption bond was 11%, at this point it can absorb and fix the toxic gas in feces, and easily be made into various civil fuel material, which will be recycled and enviromental friendly. It also has a significant meaning to the sustainable development of cattle industry.%采用正交试验,将奶牛鲜粪便、煤粉、除臭吸附粘合剂原料均匀混合处理,对牛鲜粪便转化民用燃料的原料配方进行了筛选研究.结果表明:含水量较高的奶牛鲜粪便最低利用比率可达40%,除臭吸附粘合剂最适合添加比率为11%,就可及时将牛鲜粪便中大量粪水和挥发性污染大气有害气体吸附固定住,也便于加工成多种形状的民用燃料加以再利用,具有强大的环保功能和鲜粪便循环再利用特点,对推动养牛业健康可持续发展具有重大意义.

  6. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  7. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 20-15:320-15, “Equal Employment Opportunity in Construction Financed with RUS Loans”; 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b and 45 CFR part 90. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17...

  8. Characterization of traditional raw materials used in housing construction in Huambo region - Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Elsa; Duarte, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; Pinho, António; Norman, Antónia

    2016-04-01

    The sustainability of buildings associated to the use of raw earth has motivated the studies and the development of techniques and methods in the context of this type of construction. In the region of Huambo, Angola, these construction techniques are widely used, especially for low-income families who represent the majority of the population. Much of the buildings in Huambo province are built with adobe. Due to the climate in this region, subtropical, hot and humid, with altitudes above 1000 meters and extensive river system, these buildings are particularly vulnerable to the action of water and develop, in many situations, early degradation. The Huambo Province is located in central Angola, has 36 km2 area and approximately 2 million inhabitants. This work aims to evaluate, by conducting in-situ tests, physical and mechanical properties of adobe blocks typically used in the construction of those buildings. The methodology is based on field campaigns where in-situ expeditious tests were performed in soils (smell test, color, touch, brightness, sedimentation, ball, hardness, etc.) and tests on adobes blocks made with traditional procedures, particularly in terms of durability and erodibility (erosion test at Geelong method; evaluation test of wet / dry cycle, applying the New Zealand standards 4297: 1998; 4297: 1998 and 4297: 1999). The results will contribute to the characterization of the geomaterials and methods used in construction with earth in Huambo Province, contributing to the improvement of these sustainable solutions, with a strong presence in this region. The results of this study will also contribute to the proposal of constructive solutions with improved performance characteristics, comfort, safety and durability.

  9. Clay raw materials from the Triassic Red Beds (Northern JaéUy Spain for making ceramic construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of Triassic Red Beds from northern Jaén in the production of structural clay products has been evaluated. These materials have high phyllosilicate contents (36-69%, although some samples are enriched in quartz (<8-54% and feldspars (<5-2I%. Dolomite (<5-20% and calcite (< 7% are present. Illite is the main phyllosilicate (96-74%, kaolinite values are rather low (<17% and chlorite is present in low content (<14%. The studied samples have high silica (39.2-74.8% and alumina (6.9-18.3% content. K4ost of the samples have low CaO and MgO concentrations (<6%. <2 pm (64-36% and 2-20 pm (68-36% are the predominant grain size fraction of the studied samples. Low plasticity for extrusion process of the Triassic Red Beds is not appropriated for making bricks and roofing tiles by themselves. However, water absorption and linear shrinkage values are often suitable for manufacturing bricks. A small number of samples are appropriated for making roofing tiles, due to the its high firing shrinkage. Mixing of these materials with different proportions of complementary raw materials would allow to make porous bodies.

    En este trabajo se ha evaluado el uso de las Capas Rojas Triásicas de la Cobertera Tabular del Macizo Ibérico del norte de la provincia de Jaén para elaborar materiales cerámicos. Estos materiales tienen altos contenidos en filosilicatos (36-69%, aunque algunas muestras son ricas en cuarzo (hasta 54% y feldespatos (hasta 21%. Los carbonatos presentes en las muestras son dolomita (<5-20% y calcita (<7%. La illita es el principal filosilicato (96-74%, mientras que la caolinita y la clorita están presentes en bajos contenidos (< 17%. Las muestras estudiadas tienen altos contenidos en sílice (39,2-74,8% y alúmina (6,9-18,3%. La mayoría de estas arcillas tienen bajas concentraciones de CaO y MgO (<6%. Las fracciones granulométricas predominantes son la< 2 pm (64-36% y la situada entre 2 y 20 pm (68-36%. La baja plasticidad

  10. Ecological Civilization:Road to Harmonious and Sustainable Development between Human and Nature%生态文明:人与自然和谐发展之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国祺

    2014-01-01

    Ecological civilization is a new phase of the development for human civilization, and the ethical social world civilization after industrial civilization.The ecological civilization construction in a prominent position, to build beautiful China, implementation of the Chinese nation is of great significance.The core of ecoiogical civilization is the relationship between man and nature, this paper deliberately puts forward and expounds, in two kinds of production (material production, population production), the third production-environmental production, as the support for the construction of ecological civilization.The key to the construction of ecological civilization is to the harmonious coexistence of man and natural environment, the social benefits, ecomomic benefits, environmental benefits of consistency, the human society sustainable development of science.%生态文明是人类文明发展的一个新阶段,是工业文明以后的世界伦理社会化的文明形态。把生态文明建设放在突出地位,对建设美丽中国、实现中华民族永续发展具有重要意义。生态文明的核心是人与自然的关系;注重物质生产、人口生产以外的第三种生产---环境生产,是生态文明建设的本质;生态文明建设的关键应是人与自然环境和谐相处,取得社会效益、经济效益、环境效益的一致,使人类社会持续科学地发展。

  11. 75 FR 62181 - Annual Materials Report on New Bridge Construction and Bridge Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... the NBI: steel, concrete, pre-stressed concrete, and other. The category ``other'' includes wood, timber, masonry, aluminum, wrought iron, cast iron, and other. Material type is the predominate type...

  12. Functional Inorganic Materials with Complex Form: Construction, Self-assembly Principles and Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuhong; YANG Jian; LIU Biao; GUO Xiaohui; CUI Xianjin

    2011-01-01

    There is a rich and long history of gaining inspiration from the nature for the design of practical materials and systems.Biominerals are well-known composites of inorganic and organic materials in the form of fascinating shapes and highly ordered structures existing in the natural world, such as pearl, oyster shells, corals, ivory, sea urchin spines, cuttlefish bone, limpet teeth, magnetic crystals in bacteria and human bones that are created by living organisms.During the past few decades, it has become one of the most influencing subjects in materials proteins, which involve in all the processes of multicell organisms, such as fertilization, differentiation, development, immunity, infection, and cancer.chemistry to explore new bio-inspired strategies for selfassembling or surface-assembling molecules or colloids to generate materials with controlled morphologies,

  13. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction.

  14. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material

  15. Thoroughly Implementing the Spirit of the 18th CPC National Congress to Promote Ecological Civilization Construction to a New Level in Suzhou%深入贯彻党的十八大精神努力推动苏州生态文明建设再上新台阶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宏坤

    2014-01-01

    切实加强生态文明建设,是党的十八大从中国特色社会主义“五位一体”总体布局高度明确的重大战略任务;是苏州经济社会发展到一定阶段,满足人民群众更高层次期待的迫切要求;更是苏州率先基本实现现代化,继续走在全省、全国前列的重要保障。在新的发展阶段,苏州要加快推进全面转型,努力形成生态文明与产业升级、城乡发展协调共进局面;要抓住重大工程建设,把握关键环节,努力提升生态文明建设层次,寻求生态文明建设重点突破;要切实加强制度创新,努力构建生态文明建设长效机制;要积极弘扬绿色环保理念,努力营造生态文明共建共享的良好氛围。苏州要努力推进生态文明建设再上新台阶,率先走出一条具有苏州特色的生产发展、生活富裕、生态良好的可持续发展之路。%Substantially strengthening the construction of ecological civilization is a highly specific and major strate-gic task of the“five one”overall layout of socialism with Chinese characteristics defined by the 18th CPC National Congress. It is an urgent requirement to meet the people’s higher expectations when the economic and social devel-opment is enhanced to a certain stage in Suzhou. It is also an important guarantee for Suzhou’s taking the lead in realizing the basic modernization and its being ranked in the forefront of the province and the whole country as well. In the new stage of development, Suzhou should accelerate its efforts to form a comprehensive transformation, upgrade ecological civilization and industry, harmonize urban and rural development, seize the major engineering construction, grasp the key link, promote the level of the construction of ecological civilization, achieve a signifi-cant breakthrough in the construction of ecological civilization, strengthen the institutional innovation, strive to build a long-term mechanism

  16. Processo de empoderamento feminino mediado pela qualificação para o trabalho na construção civil El proceso de empoderamiento femenino mediado por la calificación para el trabajo en la construcción civil Female empowerment process mediated through qualification to work on civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Landerdahl

    2013-06-01

    mujeres y hombres a partir de los puntos de referencia de ciudadanía y empoderamiento. Se concluye que esta experiencia, desde lo que respecta a la Extensión hasta el estudio actual, constituye un tema actual y necesario en el área de salud de la mujer.Qualitative research, exploratory-descriptive study which aimed to know the repercussions of the University Extension Program of Women Gaining Citizenship in the daily life of participant women. It was developed in an inland town of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. There were 13 women that participated in the study which were egresses from the Program involved. The semi-structured interviews were carried out from January to August 2011. The thematic content analysis stood out the category: empowerment process from the participation in the Women Gaining Citizenship Program. It was identified the construction of confidence, significant change in attitude and thinking of women in relation to their self-perception, knowledge and power of decision. They expressed changes in the way of thinking at the social roles of women and men, from references of citizenship and empowerment. It's concluded that such experience, as much as regards the Extension as the current study, constitutes a necessary and current issues in the women's health area.

  17. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  18. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-06-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions.

  19. Bio-inspired control of material properties in civil engineering: Current concept for corrsoion protection via the application of bacteria and bio-polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Jonkers, H.M.; van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of material properties of cement-based materials e.g. reduced permeability, porosity, uniform distribution of hydration products, etc. is of a significant importance and related to durability and sustainability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. With this respect

  20. Nondestructive indication of fatigue damage and residual lifetime in ferromagnetic construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kovářík, Ondřej; Vértesy, Gábor; Kadlecová, Jana

    2014-06-01

    A new revolutionary attitude toward investigation of fatigue damage in cyclically loaded steel samples is reported. The measurement is based on the method of magnetic adaptive testing, which--in contrast to traditional magnetic hysteresis investigations--picks up the relevant information from systematic measurement and evaluation of whole minor magnetic hysteresis loops and their derivatives. Satisfactory correlations between nondestructively measured magnetic descriptors and actual lifetime of the fatigued material were found. The presented method is able to serve as a powerful tool for indication of changes, which occur in the structure of the inspected objects during their industrial service lifetime, as long as they are manufactured from ferromagnetic materials.

  1. Modelling cohesive, frictional and viscoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehossein, Habib; Qin, Zongyi

    2016-06-01

    Most materials in mining and civil engineering construction are not only viscoplastic, but also cohesive frictional. Fresh concrete, fly ash and mining slurries are all granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids, although solid concrete is normally considered as a cohesive frictional material. Presented here is both a formulation of the pipe and disc flow rates as a function of pressure and pressure gradient and the CFD application to fresh concrete flow in L-Box tests.

  2. A dialogue regarding "The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David; Prain, Vaughan; Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-12-01

    Science fiction and the `technofantasies' of the future that it provides may attract some students to study physics. The details and assumptions informing these `imaginaries' may, on the other hand, be unattractive to other students, or imply that there is not a place for them. This forum discussion complements Cathrine Hasse's paper discussing the ways in which gender and other interests interact in the `entanglement' of physics and science fiction. The conversation interrogates some of the issues in Cathrine's paper, and brings in complementary literatures and perspectives. It discusses the possibility of a `successor science' and new, more inclusive ways of imagining and constructing our possible futures.

  3. Surface constructions of nano TiO_2 as the environmental and energy materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TiO_2 has attracted an increasing attention because of its variety of potential applications in environments and energies,such as gas sensing,self-cleaning,solar energy conversion, wettability and photo-catalysis applications.In this presentation,we summarize some progress in surface constructions of nano TiO_2 and its characterizations of physicochemistry and properties. (1)Superhydrophobic nanostructure TiO_2 films Superhydrophobic nanotube,nanopore and sponge-like structure TiO_2 films are fabricated ...

  4. Diagnosis Research of Changzhou Leisure Tourism Development Based on Model Construction--In the Perspective of Ecological Civilization Construction%基于模型构建的常州休闲旅游发展的诊断研究--以生态文明建设的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张保伟

    2016-01-01

    休闲旅游和生态文明都是社会发展和进步的产物,在生态文明建设的社会背景下,对休闲旅游的诊断研究意义格外重大。通过国内外相关研究的对比分析,在大量发放问卷的前期调研基础上,借助休闲旅游目的地评价体系和评价模型,采用7分制对常州休闲旅游发展的8个评价项目27个评价因子进行了详细的诊断研究,得出了各因子的诊断结果:气候适宜度、植被覆盖率和外部交通便利等优越条件以及旅游购物和住宿种类较少,规模较小等问题。在此基础上,提出了通过政府主导、动静结合、设施建设、人才培养、目标实现和“互联网+”等手段不断提升和完善常州休闲旅游发展。%Both leisure tourism and ecological civilization are the products of social development and progress, therefore, it is particularly important and significant to research and diagnose leisure tourism in the social background of ecological civilization construction. Through comparative analysis of domestic and foreign research, on the basis of preliminary investigation by a large number of questionnaires, the paper makes detailed diagnostic study on Changzhou leisure tourism development by 8 evaluation items and 27 evaluation factors using 7-point scale with the help of leisure tourism destination evaluation system and evaluation model, The results of the diagnosis of the factors: advantages of favorable conditions such as climate suitability, vegetation coverage and external transport facilities, on the contrary, there are problems such as the types of tourism shopping and accommodation is few and the scale is small. In addition, the paper proposes some strategies such as government-led, static and dynamic binding, infrastructure construction, personnel training, achievement of objectives and the“Internet +”, in order to upgrade and improve Changzhou’s leisure tourism continuously.

  5. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    ). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85...

  6. ZeroWaste BYG: Redesigning construction materials towards zero waste society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    to change the status of different ashes from waste to raw material and that export for disposal will be no longer be allowed. We wish to influence the consequences from this new situation. In principle some of the ashes can be used already, but the huge variation in ash characteristics and lack of knowledge...

  7. Verification of Design and Construction Techniques for Gaillard Island Dredged Material Disposal Area, Mobile, Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    34turbidity plume study" was conducted by Timothy Sullivan, of the MDO. The purpose of the study was to determine the thickness and aerial ex- tent of a...actual velume cut from the channel would be only 7.2 million cubic yards. 92. The Lenel Bean dredge excavated about 5.3 million cubic yards of material

  8. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  9. Civil Surgeon Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  10. On the Extract of Standard Expressions of Ecological Ethics Theory and the Current Development of Ecological Civilization Construction%论生态伦理规范用语的提炼与生态文明建设的当下性发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 李宪伦

    2015-01-01

    生态伦理的立规立范与生态文明建设是同一社会发展范畴下道德与文明依次递进的伦理哲学命题。而经济一体化进程中的低碳经济时代,推动着生态伦理与生态文明建设并行发展的同时,提示着生态伦理的建设就是经济社会发展中生态伦理的立规立范和教育用语研究发展,并经过生态伦理教育实施向生态法制伦理建设的强化,上升到生态文明建设当下性发展的逻辑命题。以《公民道德建设实施纲要》中的四个道德规范和个人品德规范为参照和思维对应,从日常社会生活中探寻生态伦理规范用语的提炼为基点,力求提出供学界探讨的生态道德用语研究及其加强生态文明建设的当下性发展论题。%Establishing rules of ecological ethics theory and ecological civilization construction are ethical philosophy propositions of gradual progression under the same scope of social development. And economic integration of the low carbon economy pushes the paral⁃lel development of the ecological ethics and ecological civilization construction,at the same time,prompts that the construction of ecologi⁃cal ethics is establishing rules of ecological ethics theory in the process of economic and social development and the research and develop⁃ment of education language,and realizes the strengthening of ecological ethics construction of legal system by ecological ethics education, which rises to the logic proposition of the current development of the ecological civilization construction. Taking four ethics moral norms from"The Citizen Morals Construction Implement Outline"and personal moral norms as references,this paper explores ecological ethics in terms of refining for basis points from social daily life striving to put forward the research of ecological moral language for academic cir⁃cles and strengthen the current development ecological civilization.

  11. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and citiz......The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...

  12. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  13. Concept Model of Ecological Civilization Regulated by Nature,Society and Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    We studied theoretic development of ecological civilization,and put forward the concept model of ecological civilization regulated by nature,society and government.In the construction of ecological civilization,the nature,society and government play different roles and have respective functions.Therefore,we should build a self-regulating network of ecological civilization through natural law,social law,as well as scientific outlook on development.

  14. Use of non-standardised micro-destructive techniques in the characterization of traditional construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Theodoridou, Magdalini; Modestou, Sevasti; Fournari, Revecca; Dagrain, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    The characterization of material properties and the diagnosis of their state of weathering and conservation are three of the most important steps in the field of cultural heritage preservation. Several standardised experimental methods exist, especially for determining the material properties and their durability. However, they are limited in their application by the required size of test specimens and the controlled laboratory conditions needed to undertake the tests; this is especially true when the materials under study constitute immovable parts of heritage structures. The current use of other advanced methods of analysis, such as imaging techniques, in the aforementioned field of research offers invaluable results. However, these techniques may not always be accessible to the wider research community due to their complex nature and relatively high cost of application. This study presents innovative applications of two recently developed cutting techniques; the portable Drilling Resistance Measuring System (DRMS) and the scratch tool. Both methods are defined as micro-destructive, since they only destroy a very small portion of sample material. The general concept of both methods lies within the forces needed to cut a material by linear (scratch tool) or rotational (DRMS) cutting action; these forces are related to the mechanical properties of the material and the technological parameters applied on the tool. Therefore, for a given testing configuration, the only parameter influencing the forces applied is the strength of the material. These two techniques have been used alongside a series of standardised laboratory tests aiming at the correlation of various stone properties (density, porosity, dynamic elastic modulus and uniaxial compressive strength). The results prove the potential of both techniques in assessing the uniaxial compressive strength of stones. The scratch tool has also been used effectively to estimate the compressive strength of mud bricks. It

  15. Materiality, Technology, and Constructing Social Knowledge through Bodily Representation: A View from Prehistoric Guernsey, Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, Sheila

    2015-04-22

    The role of the human body in the creation of social knowledge-as an ontological and/or aesthetic category-has been applied across social theory. In all these approaches, the body is viewed as a locus for experience and knowledge. If the body is a source of subjective knowledge, then it can also become an important means of creating ontological categories of self and society. The materiality of human representations within art traditions, then, can be interpreted as providing a means for contextualizing and aestheticizing the body in order to produce a symbolic and structural knowledge category. This paper explores the effect of material choices and techniques of production when representing the human body on how societies order and categorize the world.

  16. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative amount of water absorption by various types of structural core materials when immersed or in a high relative humidity environment. This test method is intended to apply to only structural core materials; honeycomb, foam, and balsa wood. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Technology Transfer Opportunities for the Construction Engineering Community: Materials and Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-27

    34 .. CC .0 clj 0 C.C. -" C 4)4) 0 C.27 ROOF BLISTER VALVE Charles Korhonen U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Annually, the Army...7122 (within Illinois). REFERENCES 1. A. Kumar, E. C. Segan, and J. Bukowski , "Ceramic Coated Anodes for Cathodic Protection," Materials Performance...Chief of Engineers. References: (Available from the author) 1. "Roof Moisture Surveys: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow," by Wayne Tobiasson and Charles

  18. Constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling can twist materials to create spiral structures in optical vortex illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barada, Daisuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Juman, Guzhaliayi; Yoshida, Itsuki [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige, E-mail: omatsu@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Molecular Chirality Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kawata, Shigeo [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Ohno, Seigo [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    It was discovered that optical vortices twist isotropic and homogenous materials, e.g., azo-polymer films to form spiral structures on a nano- or micro-scale. However, the formation mechanism has not yet been established theoretically. To understand the mechanism of the spiral surface relief formation in the azo-polymer film, we theoretically investigate the optical radiation force induced in an isotropic and homogeneous material under irradiation using a continuous-wave optical vortex with arbitrary topological charge and polarization. It is revealed that the spiral surface relief formation in azo-polymer films requires the irradiation of optical vortices with a positive (negative) spin angular momentum and a positive (negative) orbital angular momentum (constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling), i.e., the degeneracy among the optical vortices with the same total angular momentum is resolved.

  19. Construction and Application of a National Data-Sharing Service Network of Material Environmental Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the key features of a newly developed national data-sharing online network for material environmental corrosion. Written in Java language and based on Oracle database technology, the central database in the network is supported with two unique series of corrosion failure data, both of which were accumulated during a long period of time. The first category of data, provided by national environment corrosion test sites, is corrosion failure data for different materials in typical environments (atmosphere, seawater and soil. The other category is corrosion data in production environments, provided by a variety of firms. This network system enables standardized management of environmental corrosion data, an effective data sharing process, and research and development support for new products and after-sale services. Moreover this network system provides a firm base and data-service platform for the evaluation of project bids, safety, and service life. This article also discusses issues including data quality management and evaluation in the material corrosion data sharing process, access authority of different users, compensation for providers of shared historical data, and finally, the related policy and law legal processes, which are required to protect the intellectual property rights of the database.

  20. Ceramic Carbon/Polypyrrole Materials for the Construction of Bienzymatic Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was constructed by electrochemical formation of a polypyrrole (PPy) membrane in the presence of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the surface of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) mediated sol-gel derived ceramic carbon electrode. The amperometric detection of glucose was carried out at +0.16 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) with a linear response range between 8.0×10-5 and 1.3×10-3 mol/L of glucose. The biosensor showed a good suppression of inter- ference and a negligible deviation in the amperometric detection.

  1. Usage of Local Raw Material in the Construction of Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18, Bujang Valley, Kedah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliskandar Ramli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether the ancient bricks from Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 are made from local raw material or not. Candi Pengkalan Bujang (Site 18 which is located in the cemetery area of Pengkalan Bujang Mosque, Kedah has unearthed various interesting artefacts; among them are the Sung Dynasty celadon findings and also kala carvings made from granite. The main construction materials used to build the temple consisted of laterite, slates, bricks and also granite. Laterite and bricks were used to build the lower part (foot of the temple while granite stones were used as the pillar bases, door sills, stone hem and also kala. The upper part of the temple is believed to have been built using wooden structures and the roof used palm leaves. Natural rock resources used to build this temple were local resources based on the distribution of the rocks that are aplenty in Bujang Valley. Scientific analysis on the bricks also showed that local raw material was used to produce these bricks. Scientific analysis using the X-ray fluorescence technique and X-ray diffraction technique can determine the chemical composition of the bricks, among others the mineral content of the bricks as well as the major element and trace element content. The analysis showed that open burning technique was used in the process of producing the bricks while the major and trace element content analysis showed the clay used was obtained from the Muda River and Bujang River basin. This usage of local raw material also demonstrated the local wisdom in temple construction technology and also technique in producing bricks that had existed since the 5th century AD.

  2. Medidas de prevenção contra câncer de pele em trabalhadores da construção civil: contribuição da enfermagem Trabajador de la construcción civil y las medidas de prevención contra cáncer da piel: contribución de la enfermería Building construction worker and preventive measures against skin cancer: nursing contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago do Carmo Simões

    2011-03-01

    informaciones y conocimientos sobre el cáncer de piel. Así, intervenciones de lo enfermero con la equipo de Salud do Trabajador pueden contribuir para intervenciones de medidas preventivas del cáncer ocupacional.The civil construction's workers are one of the most risk groups to the occupational cancer. The purpose was to identify these workers knowledge about skin cancer and describe protection/prevention measures adopted for them. Descriptive and qualitative nature research, developed with 50 workers of a great load building site firm at municipal district of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which the data was collected through a form. From descriptive and statistical analysis, the results showed that the protection measures adopted for the workers to skin cancer prevention are insufficient and the way that they are used are not lined with the literature. Important changes needed at daily of these workers are related to life styles and at access ease to informations and knowledges about skin cancer. Thus, nursing's interventions along the Worker's Health stuff can contribute to preventive's implementation of occupational cancer.

  3. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Supplement: Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the progress achieved over the past 6 to 12 months on four graduate student projects conducted within the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program. These studies were aimed specifically at light metallic alloy issues relevant to the High Speed Civil Transport. Research on Hydrogen-Enhanced Fracture of High-Strength Titanium Alloy Sheet refined successfully the high resolution R-curve method necessary to characterize initiation and growth fracture toughnesses. For solution treated and aged Low Cost Beta without hydrogen precharging, fracture is by ductile transgranular processes at 25 C, but standardized initiation toughnesses are somewhat low and crack extension is resolved at still lower K-levels. This fracture resistance is degraded substantially, by between 700 and 1000 wppm of dissolved hydrogen, and a fracture mode change is affected. The surface oxide on P-titanium alloys hinders hydrogen uptake and complicates the electrochemical introduction of low hydrogen concentrations that are critical to applications of these alloys. Ti-15-3 sheet was obtained for study during the next reporting period. Research on Mechanisms of deformation and Fracture in High-Strength Titanium Alloys is examining the microstructure and fatigue resistance of very thin sheet. Aging experiments on 0. 14 mm thick (0.0055 inch) foil show microstructural agility that may be used to enhance fatigue performance. Fatigue testing of Ti-15-3 sheet has begun. The effects of various thermo-mechanical processing regimens on mechanical properties will be examined and deformation modes identified. Research on the Effect of Texture and Precipitates on Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Al-Cu-Mg-X and Al-Cu alloys demonstrated that models predict a minor influence of stress-induced alignment of Phi, caused by the application of a tensile stress during aging, on the yield stress anisotropy of both modified AA2519 and a model Al-Cu binary alloy. This project

  4. The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of doing science. There are many kinds of fiction within the science fiction genre. In the presented empirical exploration physics students seem particularly fond of what is called `hard science fiction': a particular type of science fiction dealing with technological developments (Hartwell and Cramer in The hard SF renaissance, Orb/TOR, New York, 2002). Especially hard science fiction as a motivating fantasy may, however, also come with a gender bias. The locally materialized techno-fantasies spurring dreams of the terraforming of planets like Mars and travels in time and space may not be shared by all physics students. Especially female students express a need for other concerns in science. The entanglement of physics with hard science fiction may thus help develop some students' interest in learning school physics and help create an interest for studying physics at university level. But research indicates that especially female students are not captured by the hard techno-fantasies to the same extent as some of their male colleagues. Other visions (e.g. inspired by soft science fiction) are not materialized as a resource in the local educational culture. It calls for an argument of how teaching science is also teaching cultural values, ethics and concerns, which may be gendered. Teaching materials, like the use of hard science fiction in education, may not just be (yet another) gender bias in science education but also carrier of particular visions for scientific endeavours.

  5. Radioactivity concentration measurement and analysis in construction floor materials of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, H. K.; Cho, J. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the radioactive concentrations contained in samples of commonly used building floor materials were measured. This result can be used as basic information for public health and the environment. Among building floor materials, samples of induction blocks, cement bricks, artificial granite blocks and compact high-pressure blocks were chosen and used. A detailed gamma nuclide analysis was performed with a multichannel analyzer by putting these samples on a high-purity germanium detector which is a semiconductor detector. In order to measure the concentration of radionuclides, a spectrum file was obtained by analyzing the concentration of gamma radionuclides and setting the measurement time as 1000, 4000, 7000 and 10,000 s. According to the study results, K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ra-226 and U-235 were detected in the induction blocks measured at 10,000 s and K-40, Th-230, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ra-226 and Na-22 were detected in the cement bricks measured at 10,000 s. K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Th-234, U-235 and Ra-223 were detected in the artificial granite blocks measured at 10,000 s and K-40, Bi-214, Pb-214, Th-234, Ra-226, Ra-223 and Mn-54 were detected in the compact high-pressure blocks. In conclusion, low-level radioactivity was detected in building floor materials, so it is thought that measures to reduce radioactivity and further studies on this will be needed.

  6. Thermal-vacuum facility with in-situ mechanical loading. [for testing space construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.; Holzer, R. P.; Uffen, B.; Mabson, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a thermal-vacuum space simulator used to assess property changes of fiber-reinforced polymer composite systems. The facility can achieve a vacuum of approximately .0000001 torr with temperatures ranging from -200 to +300 F. Some preliminary experimental results are presented for materials subjected to thermal loading up to 200 F. The tests conducted include the evaluation of matrix modulus and strength, coefficients of thermal expansion, and fracture toughness. Though the experimental program is at an early stage, the data appear to indicate that these parameters are influenced by hard vacuum.

  7. Scientific basis for creation of construction materials based on titanium and alumina minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O.; Shmakova, A.; Ponaryadov, A.

    2017-02-01

    Currently there is a need in affordable and accessible materials with specific physical and chemical properties. Al- and Ti-minerals are excellent test objects for correlation between structure and physical properties of mineral. For example, corundum and ilmenite are related to the same structural type (rhombohedral lattice R3) and possess various physical properties. With the help of modern equipment we studied titanium- and aluminum-containing concentrates of natural raw and also products of various kinds of influences on them, which showed signs of nanostructuring. We observed methods of directional change of physical and chemical characteristics of Al- and Ti-minerals and creation of new commercial products.

  8. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zea Escamilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI. All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount into mass (kg units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road and international (freight ship, which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article “Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs”[5

  9. Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea Escamilla, E; Habert, G

    2015-09-01

    This data article presents the life cycle inventories of 20 transitional shelter solutions. The data was gathered from the reports 8 shelter designs [1]; 10 post-disaster shelter designs [2]; the environmental impact of brick production outside of Europe [3]; and the optimization of bamboo-based post-disaster housing units for tropical and subtropical regions using LCA methodologies [4]. These reports include bill of quantities, plans, performance analysis, and lifespan of the studied shelters. The data from these reports was used to develop the Life Cycle Inventories (LCI). All the amounts were converted from their original units (length, volume and amount) into mass (kg) units and the transport distance into ton×km. These LCIs represent the production phases of each shelter and the transportation distances for the construction materials. Two types of distances were included, local (road) and international (freight ship), which were estimated based on the area of the country of study. Furthermore, the digital visualization of the shelters is presented for each of the 20 designs. Moreover, this data article presents a summary of the results for the categories Environment, Cost and Risk and the contribution to the environmental impact from the different building components of each shelter. These results are related to the article "Global or local construction materials for post-disaster reconstruction? Sustainability assessment of 20 post-disaster shelter designs"[5].

  10. Hospital construction materials: poor shielding capacity with respect to signals transmitted by mobile telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, E; Watanabe, Y; Antoku, Y; Kenjo, Y; Nutahara, H; Nose, Y

    1998-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) with electronic medical equipment by the handsets of mobile telephones is a well documented problem in hospitals. To gain information about how to build an EMI-free hospital and how to make rooms safe for mobile telephone handset use in the hospital building the authors measured the shielding capacities of a concrete wall, concrete blocks, a steel door, and steel-surfaced partition panels. The shielding capacities of these materials were 2-7 dB for the concrete wall, 6-8 dB for the concrete blocks, 19-27 dB for the steel door, and 20-37 dB for the steel-surfaced partition panels. These results indicate that care should be taken to shield electronic equipment from signals coming from neighboring rooms and from those under and above any patient room in which such equipment is in use. Electricity-conductive paint, electricity-conductive wallpaper, and electricity-conductive cloth are examples of inexpensive materials that can increase shielding capacity.

  11. Physical Characterization of Natural Straw Fibers as Aggregates for Construction Materials Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwen Bouasker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to find out new alternative materials that respond to sustainable development criteria. For this purpose, an original utilization of straw for the design of lightweight aggregate concretes is proposed. Four types of straw were used: three wheat straws and a barley straw. In the present study, the morphology and the porosity of the different straw aggregates was studied by SEM in order to understand their effects on the capillary structure and the hygroscopic behavior. The physical properties such as sorption-desorption isotherms, water absorption coefficient, pH, electrical conductivity and thermo-gravimetric analysis were also studied. As a result, it has been found that this new vegetable material has a very low bulk density, a high water absorption capacity and an excellent hydric regulator. The introduction of the straw in the water tends to make the environment more basic; this observation can slow carbonation of the binder matrix in the presence of the straw.

  12. Controlled mechanical buckling for origami-inspired construction of 3D microstructures in advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Jiechen; Liu, Fei; Guo, Xuelin; Nan, Kewang; Lin, Qing; Gao, Mingye; Xiao, Dongqing; Shi, Yan; Qiu, Yitao; Luan, Haiwen; Kim, Jung Hwan; Wang, Yiqi; Luo, Hongying; Han, Mengdi; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A

    2016-04-25

    Origami is a topic of rapidly growing interest in both the scientific and engineering research communities due to its promising potential in a broad range of applications. Previous assembly approaches of origami structures at the micro/nanoscale are constrained by the applicable classes of materials, topologies and/or capability of control over the transformation. Here, we introduce an approach that exploits controlled mechanical buckling for autonomic origami assembly of 3D structures across material classes from soft polymers to brittle inorganic semiconductors, and length scales from nanometers to centimeters. This approach relies on a spatial variation of thickness in the initial 2D structures as an effective strategy to produce engineered folding creases during the compressive buckling process. The elastic nature of the assembly scheme enables active, deterministic control over intermediate states in the 2D to 3D transformation in a continuous and reversible manner. Demonstrations include a broad set of 3D structures formed through unidirectional, bidirectional, and even hierarchical folding, with examples ranging from half cylindrical columns and fish scales, to cubic boxes, pyramids, starfish, paper fans, skew tooth structures, and to amusing system-level examples of soccer balls, model houses, cars, and multi-floor textured buildings.

  13. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. Silvestre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA was performed according to International LCA standards and the European standards on the environmental evaluation of buildings. These results were based on site-specific data and resulted from a consistent methodology, fully described in the paper for each life cycle stage: Cork oak tree growth, ICB production, and end-of-life processing-modeling of the carbon flows (i.e., uptakes and emissions, including sensitivity analysis of this procedure; at the production stage—the modeling of energy processes and a sensitivity analysis of the allocation procedures; during building operation—the expected service life of ICB; an analysis concerning the need to consider the thermal diffusivity of ICB in the comparison of the performance of insulation materials. This paper presents the up-to-date “cradle-to-cradle” environmental performance of ICB for the environmental categories and life-cycle stages defined in European standards.

  14. Source Maps and the Social Studies: Essays, Lesson Plans, and Materials from Cartographic Traditions in Western Civilization. The University of Illinois at Chicago World History Project, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, Gerald A., Ed.; Wolf, Jacqueline, Ed.

    This resource book results from a National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute for 30 teachers conducted in 1992 at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Curriculum materials developed were field-tested the following school year. Divided into three sections, part 1, "Essays," contains the following chapters: (1) "Maps in…

  15. A brief review of the construction aggregates market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Jason Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey defines the construction aggregates industry as those companies that mine and process crushed stone and/or construction sand and gravel. Aggregates have been used from the earliest times of our civilization for a variety of purposes - construction being the major use. As construction aggregates, crushed stone and construction sand and gravel are the basic raw materials used to build the foundation for modern society. The widespread use of construction aggregates is the result of their general availability throughout the country and around the world along with their relatively low cost. Although construction aggregates have a low unit value, their widespread use makes them major contributors to, and indicators of, the economic well-being of the nation.

  16. 生态文明视域中的城市建设与环境保护——以云南昆明为例%On Urban Construction and Environmental Protection under the Perspective of Ecological Civilization:Taking Kunming of Yunnan as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张二朴; 申丽辉

    2015-01-01

    Urban and rural construction is the soul in the process of the modernization of engineering. In today's global emphasis on ecological civilization,the problem of our country's urban and rural construction and environmental protection has aroused people's wide concern. Taking Kunming of Yunnan as an example,from the perspective of ecological civilization,this paper discusses the protection of water resources,air pollution control,ecological environment problems such as urban construction and environmental protection.%城乡建设是现代化进程中的灵魂工程.在全球强调生态文明的今天,我国的城乡建设与环境保护问题已引起人们的广泛关注.以云南昆明为例,从生态文明的视域探讨了水资源保护、大气污染整治、生态环境改善等城市建设与环境保护问题.

  17. ELWIRA "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials": University meets school - science meets high school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Kalny, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    The research project "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials" (ELWIRA) is in the framework of the Sparkling Science programme performed by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences together with the Billroth Gymnasium in Vienna. The targets of a Sparkling Science project are twofold (a) research and scientific activities should already be transferred in the education methods of schools in order to fascinate high school students for scientific methods and to spark young people's interest in research, and (b) exciting research questions not solved and innovative findings should be addressed. The high school students work together with the scientists on their existing research questions improve the school's profile and the high school student knowledge in the investigated Sparkling Science topic and can lead to a more diverse viewing by the involvement of the high school students. In the project ELWIRA scientists collaborate with the school to quantify and evaluate the properties of classical building materials like concrete and natural materials like plants and woodlogs in terms of their life cycle through the use of different laboratory and field methods. The collaboration with the high school students is structured in workshops, laboratory work and fieldworks. For an efficient coordination/communication, learning and research progress new advanced electronic media like "Moodle classes/courses" have been used and utilized by the high school students with great interest. The Moodle classes are of high importance in the knowledge transfer in the dialogue with the high school students. The research project is structured into four main areas associated with the efficiencies of building materials: (a) the aesthetic feeling of people in terms of the appearance of materials and associated structures will be evaluated by means of jointly developed and collected questionnaires. The analysis, interpretation and evaluation are carried

  18. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986, the NASA-Langley Research Center has sponsored the NASA-UVa Light Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program at the University of Virginia (UVa). The fundamental objective of the LA2ST program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures. The LA2ST program has aimed to product relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The scope of the LA2ST Program is broad. Research areas include: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, (3) Mechanics of materials for Aerospace Structures, and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures. A substantial series of semi-annual progress reports issued since 1987 documents the technical objectives, experimental or analytical procedures, and detailed results of graduate student research in these topical areas.

  19. 基于 CVM 的泉州生态文明城市建设民众支付意愿研究%Research on Residents’Willingness to Pay for Construction of Ecological Civilization City in Quanzhou Based on CVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玲; 李洪波

    2014-01-01

    运用 CVM 方法和 Logistic 模型对泉州市市民关于开展生态文明城市建设的支付意愿进行调查研究,结果表明:平均支付意愿为110.7元/年,并且户籍、居住年限、学历、收入、对泉州生态文明城市建设的了解程度以及市民认为生态文明城市对其自身生活的影响程度6个因素对支付意愿呈现显著性影响,性别、年龄与职业则对支付意愿影响不大。%Contingent valuation method(CVM)and Logistic Model were employed to investigate urban residents’willingness to pay for construction of ecological civilization city in Quanzhou.The research showed that:(a)Average willingness is 1 10.7 yuan/year;(b)Census register,time living in Quanzhou,education,income levels,understanding of the ecological civilization city,public awareness of ecological civilization city affect the willingness to pay significantly;(c)Gender,age and occupation are not sensitive to it.

  20. Facile construction of 3D graphene/MoS2 composites as advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianhua; Li, Zhangpeng; Liu, Xiaohong; Ma, Limin; Wang, Jinqing; Yang, Shengrong

    2016-11-01

    Flower-like molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) microstructures are synthesized based on three-dimensional graphene (3DG) skeleton via a simple and facile one-step hydrothermal method, aiming at constructing series of novel composite electrode materials of 3DG/MoS2 with high electrochemical performances for supercapacitors. The electrochemical properties of the samples are evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. Specifically, the optimal 3DG/MoS2 composite exhibits remarkable performances with a high specific capacitance of 410 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and an excellent cycling stability with ca. 80.3% capacitance retention after 10,000 continuous charge-discharge cycles at a high current density of 2 A g-1, making it adaptive for high-performance supercapacitors. The enhanced electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the combination of 3DG and flower-like MoS2, which provides excellent charge transfer network and electrolyte diffusion channels while effectively prevents the collapse, aggregation and morphology change of active materials during charge-discharge process. The results demonstrate that 3DG/MoS2 composite is one of the attractive electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  1. Recycling of agroindustrial solid wastes as additives in brick manufacturing for development of sustainable construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisset Maritza Luna-Cañas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La acumulación de residuos sólidos agroindustriales no administ rados especialmente en los países en vías de desarrollo ha dado lugar a una creciente preocupación ambiental. El reciclaje de tales res iduos como un material de construcción sostenible parece ser un a solución viable no sólo al problema de la contaminación, sino también un a opción económica para diseñar edificios verdes. El presente t rabajo estudia la aplicación de varios residuos agroindustriales en la fabricación de ladrillos, que incluyen cáscara de cacao, aserr ín, cáscara de arroz y caña de azúcar. En primer lugar, se determinó la compos ición mineralógica y química de los residuos y del suelo arcill oso. A continuación, los ladrillos se fabricaron con diferentes cantid ades de residuos (5%, 10% y 20%. El efecto de la adición de es tos residuos en el comportamiento tecnológico del ladrillo se evaluó mediant e ensayos de resistencia a la compresión, resistencia a la flex ión y durabilidad. Con base en los resultados obtenidos, las cantidad es óptimas de residuos agroindustriales para obtener ladrillos fueron mezclando 10% de cáscara de cacao y 90% de suelo arcilloso. Est os porcentajes producen ladrillos cuyas propiedades mecánicas e ran adecuadas para su uso como materias primas secundarias en la pr oducción de ladrillos.

  2. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  3. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too

  4. 推进城市生态文明建设策略研究与实践--以武汉市蔡甸生态区创建为例%Research and Practice On Promoting Strategy for the construction of urban ecological civilization--taking Wuhan CaiDian eco-region as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 李兆华; 万信琼; 尹珩; 黄婧

    2014-01-01

    The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party has made the ecological civilization construction one of the five of socialism overall layout with Chinese characteristics, which becomes propulsive agent for improving the quality of people’s lives. Taking the establishment of Wuhan CaiDian eco-region as an example, this paper put forward the construction target of the national ecological civilization model area of CaiDian as " Blue Sky, Green Ground, Clean Water, Beautiful City, Rich People, kind Person ". The paper pointed out that the construction of ecological industry, ecological habitat, ecological security, ecological environment and ecological cultural should be focused. The paper also reviewed the construction planning and implementation of Wuhan CaiDian eco-region, combined with the new requirements of current ecological civilization construction in Wuhan city, the emphasis and important focus for developing the eco-region construction were proposed..%党的“十八大”把生态文明建设纳入中国特色社会主义“五位一体”的总体布局,生态文明建设成为提高人民生活质量的推进剂。本文以武汉市蔡甸区生态区创建为例,提出了“天蓝、地绿、水净、城美、民富、人和”这一蔡甸国家级生态文明示范区的建设目标,指出需重点建设生态产业、生态人居、生态安全、生态环境和生态文化等五大体系。本文还对武汉市蔡甸生态区建设规划及实施情况进行了回顾,结合当前武汉市建设生态文明的新要求,提出了开展生态区建设工作的重难点及重要关注点。

  5. Shield construction methods. Recent status and examples of development of material transportation systems; Shirudo koho. Saikin no shizai hanso system kaihatsu genkyo to jirei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, M.; Tazaki, A.; Makigami, S. [Tomoe Electric Manufacturing Company, Limited, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-25

    Material transportation in a shield construction is assigned to transporting segments, aggregates, and pipes, particularly the segment transportation being the major assignment. Other materials are transported in spare moments between the segment transportation as required. The other materials can often be transported by utilizing segment transporting vehicles. Thus, for a transportation system in the shield construction, a segment transportation system which can synchronize with construction cycles based on those for a shield excavation machine is considered most importantly, and developed as the main force. The segment transportation system is classified into a rail type transportation system and a tire type transportation system. A high-speed transportation system of the former type transports materials at as high speed as 8 to 15 km/h. An Abt-system railway type steep-slope transportation system operates on slopes as steep as 20 to 40%. The tire transportation system is advantageous from an environmental preservation viewpoint. This paper introduces examples of constructions using a high-speed construction system for long tunnel construction, a steep-slope material transportation system, and an automatic trackless system. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. 略论公路施工项目材料管理模式%Discuss the Material Management Mode of Highway Construction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕希军

    2014-01-01

    公路施工项目中,材料费用占总支出的比重较大。对于现如今企业管理的模式,如何加强施工单位的材料管理,达到降低工程施工成本的目的,成为企业发展的关键。本文通过对施工中材料的管理做出了讨论。%In the highway construction project, material costs account for the proportion of total spending is bigger. For today's enterprise management mode, how to strengthen the management of construction materials and achieve the goal of reducing construction cost so as to become the key of the enterprises development. This article mainly discusses the material management in highway engineering construction.

  7. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  8. Improved tunable filter-based multispectral imaging system for detection of blood stains on construction material substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janchaysang, Suwatwong; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2013-06-01

    We present the improved tunable filter based multispectral imaging system for detecting blood stains on construction materials. Based upon the reflectance and Kubelka Munk absorbance spectra stocked from our previous work, we modify the blood discrimination criteria to make the system more efficient by replacing the old criteria which make use of polynomial fitting with new criteria associated with a few wavelengths images. The newly established criteria are tested to be able to detect blood against other stains almost as efficient as the old criteria, while the number of spectral images required for detecting blood stains are reduced significantly from 64 to 9 spectral images. The reduction of required spectral images will reduce the time needed for image capturing and blood detection criteria application with little sacrificing of the specificity and sensitivity of the system.

  9. Using expanded real options analysis to evaluate capacity expansion decisions under uncertainty in the construction material industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momani, Amer Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Capacity expansion generally requires large capital expenditure on illiquid assets. Therefore, decisions to enlarge capacity must support the organisation’s strategic objectives and provide valuable input for the budgeting process. This paper applies an expanded form of Real Options Analysis (ROA to generate and evaluate capacity expansion strategies under uncertainty in the construction material industry. ROA is applied to different expansion strategies associated with different demand scenarios. Evaluating a wider variety of strategies can reduce risk and sponsor decisions that maximise the firm’s value. The case study shows that the execution of a lead expansion strategy with 10-year intervals under a 50 per cent demand satisfaction scenario produces superior results.

  10. Antifriction and Construction Materials Based on Modified Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Reinforced with Mineral and Synthetic Fibrous Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistr, M. V.; Boiko, V. S.; Lipko, E. O.; Gerasimenko, K. O.; Gomza, Yu. P.; Vesnin, R. L.; Chernyayev, A. V.; Ananchenko, B. A.; Kovalenko, V. L.

    2014-05-01

    Novel polymer composite materials (PCM) based on resole phenol-formaldehyde resins modified with polyamide and reinforced with a combination of organic and inorganic fibrous fillers have been developed. PCM are characterized by a Charpy impact strength of up to 250 kJ/m2, an ultimate strength in static bending of up to 468 MPa, an ultimate strength in compression of up to 178 MPa, a Martens thermal stability of up to 300 °C, a friction coefficient of up to 0.12, and mass wear of up to 0.76 mg/(cm2 · km). They can be used for the fabrication of products intended for antifriction and constructional purposes.

  11. Honeycomb core material for sandwich construction - with common hexagonal walls bonded by thermoplastic resin and free walls carrying layer of resin and masking agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    unknown

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of NL 8902116 (A) In a honeycomb core material for a sandwich construction, the common hexagonal walls are bonded together by a thermoplastic resin, and the free hexagonal walls carry a layer of the same resin and also a masking agent. - A number of plates of raw material are given strips

  12. Fostering Student Sense Making in Elementary Science Learning Environments: Elementary Teachers' Use of Science Curriculum Materials to Promote Explanation Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.; Biggers, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    While research has shown that elementary (K-5) students are capable of engaging in the scientific practice of explanation construction, commonly-used elementary science curriculum materials may not always afford them opportunities to do so. As a result, elementary teachers must often adapt their science curriculum materials to better support…

  13. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  14. CONSTRUCTION OF DOUBLE CHAMBERED MICROBIAL FUEL CELL (MFC USING HOUSEHOLD MATERIALS AND BACILLUS MEGATERIUM ISOLATE FROM TEA GARDEN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajit Borah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out for the isolation and screening of potential bioelectricity generating bacteria from tea garden soil samples and also to construct an indigenous microbial fuel cell (MFC using house hold materials. Bacillus megaterium was found to the best isolate for the production of bioelectricity, out of a total of 25 bacterial isolates from soil samples of Lepetkata Tea Estate of Dibrugarh district of Assam. The isolate was identified on the basis of staining techniques and biochemical characteristics. Double chambered MFC was constructed by using two poly acrylic containers of 500 ml volume each. The two chambers were connected using an agar salt bridge and carbon rods were used as electrodes. The electricity generated by the isolate was compared using glucose and fructose as sole carbon source in minimal media. The maximum voltage was found to be 440 mV in presence of glucose as sole carbon source after 84 hrs of incubation at room temperature. The voltage was further increased up to 698 mV after the media was supplemented with 1.5 % (w/v yeast extract, which would have served as additional source of vitamin to the bacteria to proliferate. During the entire study, the experimental set up was allowed to incubate at room temperature and occasional shaking was done manually, hence no external electricity was required. With all the above features the isolate Bacillus megaterium was found to be a good source of bioelectricity.

  15. Environmental impact of highway construction and repair materials on surface and ground waters. Case study: crumb rubber asphalt concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mohammad F; Nelson, Peter O; Thayumanavan, Pugazhendhi; Williamson, Kenneth J

    2003-01-01

    The practice of incorporating certain waste products into highway construction and repair materials (CRMs) has become more popular. These practices have prompted the National Academy of Science, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) to research the possible impacts of these CRMs on the quality of surface and ground waters. State department of transportations (DOTs) are currently experimenting with use of ground tire rubber ( crumb rubber) in bituminous construction and as a crack sealer. Crumb rubber asphalt concrete (CR-AC) leachates contain a mixture of organic and metallic contaminants. Benzothiazole and 2(3H)-benzothiazolone (organic compounds used in tire rubber manufacturing) and the metals mercury and aluminum were leached in potentially harmful concentrations (exceeding toxic concentrations for aquatic toxicity tests). CR-AC leachate exhibited moderate to high toxicity for algae ( Selenastrum capriconutum) and moderate toxicity for water fleas ( Daphnia magna). Benzothiazole was readily removed from CR-AC leachate by the environmental processes of soil sorption, volatilization, and biodegradation. Metals, which do not volatilize or photochemically or biologically degrade, were removed from the leachate by soil sorption. Contaminants from CR-AC leachates are thus degraded or retarded in their transport through nearby soils and ground waters.

  16. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash and Rice Husks in Unfired Bricks for Sustainable Construction Materials Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh A.M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of sustainable construction component could prevent and control the pollution and environmental degradation in Malaysia. This is a key area in Malaysia’s Green Strategies (Ministry of Science, Technology and the environment, 2002. This paper reports on the laboratory investigation to establish the potential of utilizing Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA and Rice Husk (RH in developing green construction components. Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC reported that currently Malaysia’s contribution to world palm oil production is 39% and has taken 44% of world exports. Consequently it will increase the POFA production in palm oil manufacturing and this waste sometimes dispose in open area near the factory. On the other hand Malaysia also producing more 300k hectares of paddy production, thus rice husk is also a concern as an agricultural waste. The research objective is to study on the potential of utilizing of agricultural waste in developing of green bricks. This research involved laboratory investigations. In this research 2% - 10% of POFA and 1% - 5% RH were used in the mix composition of the brick’s weight. Addition of POFA was aimed to reduce the cement usage and RH was added to reduce sand in the bricks. The bricks were manually pressed in Materials Laboratory in Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, UiTM Shah Alam. The result showed that the addition of POFA and RH are able to reduce the density but in contrast the compressive strength were decrease compare to the control unit.

  17. Processing of ash and slag waste of heating plants by arc plasma to produce construction materials and nanomodifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Kondratenko, A. S.; Shishulkin, S. Yu; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Khmelev, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    simultaneously to receive a condensed product in the form of carbon sublimated nanoparticles, which can be found further use in construction materials, in particular in high-strength concrete and other materials.

  18. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  19. History and Undergraduate Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Peter

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that a traditional, historically-oriented course in 17th- and 18th-century French civilization continues to be an appropriate and effective approach for undergraduate French study, in preparation for later, more sophisticated cultural analysis. Four course components are discussed: class lectures; literary text selection; textbook…

  20. Re-thinking civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.

  1. On the Rural Residents Civil Rights in China: —— A Case Study of New Rural Construction in Ganzhou%论农民的公民权问题——以赣州市新农村建设为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴岚

    2012-01-01

    农村居民与城市居民都是宪法基本主体,理所当然地享有我国宪法赋予的公民权,并不存在一个不同的农民的公民权,问题是如何落实农民的公民权。新农村建设的实质,就是从实践层面不断落实宪法赋予农民的公民权,使农村居民变成享有"国民待遇"的公民。赣州市的新农村建设为农民公民权的实现和落实进行了有价值的实践与探索。%From the perspective of the constitution, the rural residents are part of our citizens. The rural residents and urban resi- dents are supposed to be equal citizens, and they are the basic subjects of our constitution. Of course, the rural residents enjoy civil rights entitled by our constitution. So, there is not a different rural residents" citizenship, but how to implement their civil rights. Therefore, the essence of the new rural construction is to implement rural residents'civil rights entitled by constitution from a practical level, making them become citizens enjoying national treatment. Taking new rural construction in Ganzhou for example, the paper is to offer a new path to overcome the difficulties from the perspective of implementing rural residents'citizenship.

  2. Evaluating the Performance of Absolute RSSI Positioning Algorithm-Based Microzoning and RFID in Construction Materials Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Truijens

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High accuracy of construction materials tracking with radio frequency identification technology (RFID is challenging to achieve. The microzoning method consists essentially of an absolute received signal strength indication (RSSI positioning algorithm on the basis of measuring the distance of tag from antennas base. In this paper, we analyse and examine the effects of microzoning method on the performance of RFID tags. A system was set up whereby RFID tags and antennas with the microzoning method were developed and studied. The performance of the tag antennas was studied with the practical read-range measurements. The study results showed that this absolute algorithm worked reliably and was suitable for RFID applications requiring identification of positions of onsite materials and components. The results also showed that the algorithm achieved a large read range and high accuracy. The study investigates the RFID solutions for Australian LNG (liquefied natural gas industry and was initiated by the collaboration between Woodside Energy, Curtin University, and Industrial Automation Group Pty Ltd.

  3. The barbarism of civilization: cultural genocide and the 'stolen generations'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krieken, R

    1999-06-01

    Norbert Elias suggested that 'civilization' involves the transformation of human habitus so that violence of all sorts is gradually subjected to greater and more sophisticated forms of management and control, whereas 'decivilization' encompasses processes which produce an increase in violence and a breakdown in the stability and consistency of on-going social relations. What remains unexplored is the extent to which 'civilizing offensives', the self-conscious attempts to bring about 'civilization', have revolved around essentially violent policies and practices. This paper examines the systematic removal of indigenous Australian children from their families, largely for the social engineering purpose of the gradual and systematic annihilation of Aboriginal cultural identity. At the time, these policies and practices were constructed by most observers as contributing to the 'welfare' of Australian Aborigines, and this intersection of welfare and violence raises the possibility that civilization and decivilization, rather than being different processes which may or may not run alongside each other, interpenetrate each other so that, under certain circumstances, societies are 'barbaric' precisely in their movement towards increasing civilization. It may also be possible to describe the move away from the systematic removal of Aboriginal children since the 1970s as itself part of a civilizing process, an increasing recognition of the human rights of Australian Aborigines and of the inhumanity of those policies and practices. The paper concludes by addressing the implications for theories of civilization and decivilization, as well as more generally for our contemporary understanding of what it means to be a 'civilized' modern citizen.

  4. Civility in Classes and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  5. Exploring Civilizations with 'Seven Wolves'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing - A farewell party for the CCTV (China Central Television) crew 'Road to Civilizations-Global Exploration Tour of World Major Civilizations' - the world's first TV series documenting the journey of exploring the 12 civilizations in the human world, was sponsored by Fujian Septwolves Industry Co., Ltd and held at the Beijing Landmark hotel on 16 January.

  6. An attempt to elaborate a construct to measure the degree of explicitness and implicitness in ELT materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Cantos Gómez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of explicit and implicit (knowledge are at the core of SLA studies. We take explicit as conscious and declarative (knowledge; implicit as unconscious, automatic and procedural (knowledge (DeKeyser, 2003; R. Ellis, 2005a, 2005b, 2009; Hulstjin, 2005; Robinson, 1996; Schmidt, 1990, 1994. The importance of those concepts and components, we believe, must also be acknowledged in language teaching, and consequently in language teaching materials. However, explicitness and implicitness are rather complex constructs; such complexity allows for multiple nuances and perspectives in their analysis, and this fact poses a real challenge for their identification in the learning and teaching process and materials. We focus here on ELT materials and aim at the building of a reliable construct which may help in the identification of their potential for promoting implicit and explicit components. We first determined the features to identify the construct for implicitness and explicitness; next, we validated it and then we applied it to the analysis of the activities included in three sample units of three textbooks. The results were computed along a continuum ranging from 0 to 10 in each activity. The systematization and computation of results will hopefully offer a reliable figure regarding the identification of the degree of explicitness and/or implicitness in the materials analysed.Los conceptos de (conocimiento explícito e implícito constituyen uno de los puntos centrales en los estudios sobre la adquisición de lenguas extranjeras. Por explícito se entiende (conocimiento consciente o declarativo; por implícito, (conocimiento no consciente, automático y procedimentalizado (DeKeyser, 2003; R. Ellis, 2005a, 2005b, 2009; Hulstjin, 2005; Robinson, 1996; Schmidt, 1990, 1994. La importancia de ambos conceptos debe trasladarse también al campo de la enseñanza de idiomas y por lo tanto a los materiales docentes. Sin embargo, lo explícito e impl

  7. 牛鲜粪转化为民用燃料的原料配方筛选%The Screening of for Formula of Fresh Faces of Dairy Cow Transformation into Civil Fuel Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明生; 李广有

    2012-01-01

    为开发一种实用、便于普及的鲜牛粪环保处理新技术,明确原料最佳配合比例,实现其资源循环再利用.采用正交试验,把奶牛鲜粪、煤粉、除臭吸附粘合剂为原料均匀混合处理,对牛鲜粪转化民用燃料技术的环保再利用进行了研究.结果表明:含水量较高的奶牛鲜粪最低利用比率可达40%,除臭吸附粘合剂最适合添加比率为11%时,将牛鲜粪中大量粪水和挥发性污染大气有害气体吸附固定,便于加工成多种形状的民用燃料加以再利用,具有强大的环保功能和鲜粪便循环再利用特点,对推动养牛业健康可持续发展具有重大意义.%In order to development a practical and convenient popularization fresh cow dung environmental protection treatment of new technologies, to make clear material optimal proportion, realization of the resource recycling. Blending the fresh cattle feces, pulverized and deodorant adsorption adhesive in the orthogonal test, the mixing environmental protection reuse transformation technology that transformation fresh cattle feces into civil fuel was studied. The studying showed that the using ratio of higher water content fresh cattle feces could reached at least 40%. The most suitable adding ration of deodorant adsorption adhesive was 11%, which could timely adsorbed the water in the feces and volatile atmospheric that would harmfully polluted the environment. The method facilitates the procession and recycle of multi-shape civil fuel, had strong environmental protection function and recycle feature which would be important to the sustain development of the cattle industry.

  8. The Limitation of Western Civilization And the Revival of Oriental Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Hao

    2014-01-01

    <正>In the distribution of modem world civilizations,the Oriental civilization and Western civilization are the two major civilization systems.Western civilization is often represented by the Christian civilization in Europe and North America on both sides across the North Atlantic.Oriental civilization appears more diversified,among which the Chinese civilization,India civilization and Islamic civilization are the most influential

  9. Constructed ILs coated porous magnetic nickel cobaltate hexagonal nanoplates sensing materials for the simultaneous detection of cumulative toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-03-18

    The different morphologies of magnetic nickel cobaltate (NiCo2O4) electrocatalysts, consisting of nanoparticles (NiCo2O4-N), nanoplates (NiCo2O4-P) and microspheres (NiCo2O4-S) were fabricated. It was found that the electrocatalytic properties of the sensing materials were strongly dependent on morphology and specific surface area. The porous NiCo2O4 hexagonal nanoplates coupled with ILs as modified materials (ILs@NiCo2O4-P) for the simultaneous determination of thallium (Tl(+)), lead (Pb(2+)) and copper (Cu(2+)), exhibited high sensitivity, long-time stability and good repeatability. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity was attributed to relatively large specific surface area, excellent electronic conductivity, and unique porous nanostructure. The analytical performance of the constructed electrode on detection of Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) was examined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Under optimal conditions, the electrode showed a good linear response to Tl(+), Pb(2+)and Cu(2+) in the concentration range of 0.1-100.0, 0.1-100.0 and 0.05-100.0μg/L, respectively. The detection limits (S/N=3) were 0.046, 0.034 and 0.029μg/L for Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied to detect trace Tl(+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) in various water and soil samples with satisfactory results. Hence, this work provided a promising material for electrochemical determination of cumulative toxic metals individually and simultaneously.

  10. Research on moral construction of double-professionally-titled teachers in civil engineering of vocational colleges%高职院校土木类“双师型”教师队伍师德师风建设问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓琳

    2016-01-01

    社会主义荣辱观对高校师德师风建设有着极其重要的意义,因此要从社会主义荣辱观的角度来认识和理解师德师风建设。针对高职院校土木类双师型教师队伍建设,重点研究了土木类双师型教师队伍师德师风建设问题,始终坚持树立社会主义荣辱观,不断地去探索推进师德师风建设。%The socialist concept of honor has extremely importance for college teachers' morality construction, so we should recognize and understand teachers' morality construction from the perspective of the socialist concept of honor and disgrace. Aiming at the construction of double-professionally-titled teaching staff, this paper focused on the issues of teachers' morality construction in major of civil engineering, proposed that we should always adhere to establish the socialist concept of honor and disgrace, and continuously advance teachers' morality construction.

  11. Shaping of Panel Materials in Light Direction Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urzędowski A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology of the analysis of the materials used in solar energy conversion, and an elaborated example with simulations of obtained results. Material properties are selected in relation to the need of sunlight illumination applications in civil constructions. This process is presented , starting from the analysis of some aspects of solar radiation, through the calculations of lens curvature and leading to the execution of simulations in different conditions. Graphical presentation of the phenomenon, it can visualize the process of shaping curves. The materials such as glass, polymers, metals, and gases have been discussed. Particular attention was paid to the results of the transmission of materials, their reflection and absorption of solar radiation. Moreover, the research problems of illumination and reflection in multi-layer structures used for civil constructions have been presented.

  12. Chemical characterisation of dredged sediments in relation to their potential use in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Tea; Mladenovič, Ana; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2016-04-01

    During capital and/or maintenance dredging operations, large amounts of material are produced. Instead of their discharge, dredged sediments may be a valuable natural resource if not contaminated. One of the possible areas of application is civil engineering. In the present work, the environmental status of seaport dredged sediment was evaluated in order to investigate its potential applicability as a secondary raw material. Sediments were analysed for element concentrations in digested samples, aqueous extracts and fractions from sequential extraction; for fluoride, chloride and sulphate concentrations in aqueous extracts; and for tributyltin (TBT). Granulometric and mineralogical compositions were also analysed. The elemental impact was evaluated by calculation of the enrichment factors. The total element concentrations determined showed moderate contamination of the dredged sediments as was confirmed also by their moderate enrichment factors, presumably as a result of industrial and port activities. Elemental concentrations in the aqueous extract were very low and therefore do not represent any hazard for the environment. The water-soluble element concentrations were under the threshold levels set by the EU Directive on the landfill of waste, on the basis of which the applicability of dredged sediments in civil engineering is evaluated, while the content of chloride and sulphate were above the threshold levels. It was found out that due to the large amounts of sediment available, civil engineering applications such as the construction of embankments and backfilling is the most beneficial recycling solution at present.

  13. CIVIL ENGINEERS' ROLES IN PUBLIC WORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Teruaki

    Recently, the public interests are becoming high in the way of executing public works and the future direction of infrastructure development, which raises nation-wide discussion on these issues. How should we make our country's growth strategy for sustainable development? How should we realize the grand design of infrastructure needed for the implementation of such a strategy? It is obvious that further discussions are needed for these challenging questions. With an aim to promote such discussions, this paper reviews the history of public works and the professional practices (or accomplishments) of our great civil engineers, and discusses the future of public works and the roles of civil engineers based on their origin. Further, in this paper, the author, as the chairman of the Public Works Committee of Japan Civil Engineering Contractors Association, introduces the Association's proposal of "realization of an attractive construction industry." However, for its realization, sustainable institutional arrangements under social consensus are indispensable. Also, individual engineer must establish his/her own identity based on sense of social ethics. It is the author's hope that, through these journals, the professional practices of civil engineers will be widely known to the public with objective logics and discussed to achieve social consensus.

  14. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  15. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.

  16. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the communicative practice of a Tanzanian NGO, Femina. Based on a tripartite model of engagement (Madianou, 2012) integrating speech, action and understanding, and drawing on fieldwork on the communication practices of Femina, I critically assess the forms of civic engagement...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  17. Recycling construction materials by multi-agent based coordination assistant system; Recycle suishin no tame no kensetsu fukusanbutsu yuzu chosei shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, t.; Hagihara, J. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Akiyoshi, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports on the coordination assistant system for recycling construction materials. We deal with planning coordination among many people or organizations. It is difficult to design an assistant system for such a job by top-down approach because generally coordination is made asynchronously and relevant members are not fixed. So we applied `multi-agent technique` to design the system. We studied a planning method based on `maximum flow and minimum cost algorithm` for recycling construction materials among many sites, and studied planning data management in asynchronous negotiations. The prototype system was implemented in Java. We expect to increase recycling materials through the planning simulation between many construction sites, and also expect to make this system a good platform on evaluating the recycling policy by changing relevant rules and parameters such as transportation and recycling costs. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  18. 复合材料在桥梁建设中的应用%Applications of composite materials in bridge construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐莹; 郭添悦

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the use of composite materials in bridge construction was described from the points of new bridge and bridge reinforcement.The potential application of composite materials in the future was also proposed on the field of bridge construction .%从新建桥梁和桥梁加固两个方面阐述了复合材料的在桥梁工程中的应用,并针对未来复合材料在桥梁中的应用做了展望。

  19. 普通高校基于翻转课堂的研讨式教学改革与实践——以"土木工程材料"课程为例%Discussion Teaching Reform and Practice Based on Flipped Classroom in General Universities: Taking the Course of "Civil Engineering Materials" as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高英力; 李友云

    2016-01-01

    将翻转课堂与研讨式教学两种模式结合起来,以"土木工程材料"课程为教改对象,在本科课堂教学中构建了基于翻转课堂的研讨式课堂教学模式.以学生课外视频学习、老师课堂组织研讨互动为主要教学模式,引导学生自主学习,通过实际工程案例的分析讨论,加深学生理论知识体系.教学实践结果表明,学生的学习兴趣得到了显著提升,创新能力得到了较好的培养,为其他课程的教学改革起到了一种较好的示范作用.%With the course of"Civil Engineering Materials" as a teaching reform object, the discussion teaching model based on flipped classroom has been constructed in undergraduate course teaching. In the process of teaching, students study by video out-side class and teachers organize interactive seminar in class. Stu-dents are guided to independent learning, so their theoretical knowledge system is reinforced by the analysis and discussion of the actual project cases. The teaching practice shows that stu-dents' learning interest is significantly improved and innovation ability is developed well. Therefore, this teaching model plays a good demonstration effect for other courses' teaching reform.

  20. Seepage and stress analysis of anti-seepage structures constructed with different concrete materials in an RCC gravity dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-chao Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used the finite element method (FEM to analyze the stress field and seepage field of a roller-compacted concrete (RCC dam, with an upstream impervious layer constructed with different types of concrete materials, including three-graded RCC, two-graded RCC, conventional vibrated concrete (CVC, and grout-enriched vibrated RCC (GEVR, corresponding to the design schemes S1 through S4. It also evaluated the anti-seepage performance of the imperious layer in the four design schemes under the normal water level and flood-check level. Stress field analysis of a retaining section and discharge section shows that the maximum tensile stress occurs near the dam heel, the maximum compressive stress occurs near the dam toe, and the stress distributions in the four schemes can satisfy the stress control criteria. Seepage field analysis shows that the uplift pressure heads in schemes S3 and S4 descend rapidly in the anti-seepage region, and that the calculated results of daily seepage flow under the steady seepage condition in these two schemes are about 30% to 50% lower than those in the other two schemes, demonstrating that CVC and GEVR show better anti-seepage performance. The results provide essential parameters such as the uplift pressure head and seepage flow for physical model tests and anti-seepage structure selection in RCC dams.