WorldWideScience

Sample records for civil construction material

  1. Materials for construction and civil engineering science, processing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Margarido, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This expansive volume presents the essential topics related to construction materials composition and their practical application in structures and civil installations. The book's diverse slate of expert authors assemble invaluable case examples and performance data on the most important groups of materials used in construction, highlighting aspects such as nomenclature, the properties, the manufacturing processes, the selection criteria, the products/applications, the life cycle and recyclability, and the normalization. Civil Engineering Materials: Science, Processing, and Design is ideal for practicing architects; civil, construction, and structural engineers, and serves as a comprehensive reference for students of these disciplines. This book also: ·       Provides a substantial and detailed overview of traditional materials used in structures and civil infrastructure ·       Discusses properties of natural and synthetic materials in construction and materials' manufacturing processes ·  �...

  2. New eco-friendly hybrid composite materials for civil construction

    OpenAIRE

    Eires, R.; Nunes, J. P.; Fangueiro, Raúl; Jalali, Said; Camões, Aires

    2006-01-01

    This paper concerns the development of new hybrid composite materials using granulated cork, a by-product of cork industry, cellulose pulp, from recycling of paper residues, and hemp fibres. The binder used is either cellulose pulp or lime-pozzolan mixture. Such materials may be used as composite boards and mortars for non structural elements of construction, such as dry walls and ceiling or floor levelling and filling. The possibility of using these composites in conjugation with light st...

  3. New eco-friendly gypsum materials for civil construction

    OpenAIRE

    Eires, R.; Camões, Aires; Jalali, Said

    2007-01-01

    The sustainable world’s economic growth and people’s life improvement greatly depend on the use of alternative products in the architecture and construction, such as industrial wastes conventionally called “green materials”. This paper concerns the main results of an experimental work carried out with the objective of developing new composite materials based on gypsum and incorporating waste material as granulated cork, a by-product of cork industry, and cellulose fibres, a waste of pap...

  4. Characterization studies for the reuse of phosphogypsum as a raw material in the civil construction industry of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NORM stands for 'naturally occurring radioactive material', which is a material that naturally contains one or more radionuclides, mainly, uranium, thorium and potassium-40, and their radioactive decay products, such as radium and radon. An example of this material is the Phosphogypsum (PG), which results from the processing of phosphate ore into phosphoric acid for fertilizer production. In order to support regulation of the reuse of phosphogypsum as a raw material of the Brazilian civil construction industry, a characterization study was performed. The physical and chemical properties of PG and natural gypsum were determinate by evaluating the results of thermal (DTA and TG), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and laser granulometric analyses. The radioactivity concentration of each sample was measured by gamma spectrometry analyses. The results of thermal analyses demonstrated that phosphogypsum must be treated (initially heated in an electrical oven at 60 deg. C for 24 hours, then sieved and heated again at 160 deg. C for one hour) to obtain the same mineralogical properties of the gypsum used in the civil construction industry. The X- ray fluorescence analysis showed that PG and natural gypsum are similar with both being composed mainly of S, O, Ca, P and small quantities of trace elements (Ce, Ti, La, Sr, Zr, and Pr). The main crystalline compounds found in PG samples were gypsita (CaSO4.2H2O) and in natural gypsum were bassanite (CaSO4.0.5H2O). The concentration of Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210 present in PG samples was 467 Bq/kg, 224 Bq/kg and 395 Bq/kg, respectively. The levels of radioactivity in natural gypsum samples were much lower (around 3 Bq/kg). The same behavior was observed for the uranium and thorium content. The results of all the analyses showed that phosphogypsum can be a viable substitute for gypsum, after certain, beneficial processes. (authors)

  5. Effects of sea water environment on glass fiber reinforced plastic materials used for marine civil engineering constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Seawater environment over composite material that are suitable for civil applications. • Seawater intake is linked to tensile and flexural strength degradation in GFC. • Fatigue performance of glass composites is similar in seawater environment than in air. - Abstract: Glass fiber composites (GFRP) are common in civil engineering projects, but not in marine structures. One reason is that seawater effects degrade GFRP composites mechanical properties and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). Here, influence of seawater environment is studied to determine the best composite materials for marine civil engineer applications, studying the influence of several factors in their mechanical properties. This is to determine safety factors to use in the design of structural calculations for marine applications. Glass/epoxy composites are the safest materials to use in marine civil structures as mechanical properties degradation becomes stabilized after moisture saturation level. UV and water cyclic analysis must be done to determine affection to transversal strength. Only vinylester GFRP has problems with biodegradation. GFRP fatigue performance is not influenced by seawater environment

  6. Energy cogeneration contributions in the wood quality as civil construction material; Contribuicoes da cogeracao de energia na qualidade da madeira como material de construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Carlos Roberto de

    1993-07-01

    This work presents the practicable technical alternative for the improvement of solid wood quality used in the building construction. Through the reality of the solid wood Amazon Region's production and actual generation conception; cogeneration, economy and efficiency on the energy application; the alternative displayed proposes the modification on the lay-out production and production process seeking the best quality obtention of the solid wood; the replace of the petroleum derived energetics by biomass (residues) and the introduction on the production site, the solid wood drying process. The production alternatives proposed can contribute for the solid wood production cost reduction, through the fuel economy, the imperfect number piece reduction and transportation cost production reduction. Contributing significantly for the cost/benefit/quality wood relations, enabling its placement of the consuming market on the Northeast, Southeast, South and Middle west Regions and so on the international market with competitive costs. (author)

  7. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  8. Characterization of organic materials in civil engineering by chemical and physicochemical methods, chapter 25 In : Yves Mouton (Eds), Organic Materials for Sustainable Construction

    OpenAIRE

    FARCAS, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    From the domain of roads to the domain of construction, the organic materials used are very diverse (bitumens, paints, cements, etc), but studying their chemical structure and their composition generally uses the same analysis techniques. Without claiming to be exhaustive, this chapter completes and brings up to date the presentation of chemical, physicochemical, physicomechanical and thermomechanical properties previously offered through research studying the chemical structure of basic orga...

  9. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Antink, Allison L.

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  10. A new vision of the post-NIST civil infrastructure program: the challenges of next-generation construction materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. Felix; Wan, Yan

    2014-03-01

    , security, and safety of elements of critical infrastructure for the Nation's already deteriorating civil infrastructure. It is envisioned that the Nation should look far beyond: not only should we efficiently and effectively address current problems of the aging infrastructure, but we must also further develop next-generation construction materials and processes for new construction. To accomplish this ambitious goal, we must include process efficiency that will help select the most reliable and cost-effective materials in construction processes; performance and cost will be the prime consideration for selections construction materials based on life-cycle cost and materials performance; energy efficiency will drive reduced energy consumption from current levels by 50 % per unit of output; and environmental responsiveness will achieve net-zero waste from construction materials and its constituents. Should it be successfully implemented, we will transform the current 21st century infrastructure systems to enable the vital functioning of society and improve competitiveness of the economy to ensure that our quality of life remains high.

  11. Characterization of material for civil engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletto, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Materials are the heart of engineering, which can be defined as the creative and rational use of materials for practical purposes. Materials have had an essential role in the development of civil engineering: from the beginning of human evolution, man has used many different materials to build houses, bridges, roads and countless other structures to make his life easier. Ancient populations used the raw materials at their disposal, such as stone, clay and timber. Over the centuries, the searc...

  12. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gulghane; Prof P. V. Khandve

    2015-01-01

    In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different...

  13. Identification & Control of Special Processes in Civil Engineering Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡

    2009-01-01

    @@ A lot ot special processes exist in operation of construction enterprises. Construction enterprises are categorized as of high risks in certification under the quality management system. Taking civil engineering construction of building projects as an example, the writer analyzes how construction enterprises shall identify and control the special processes.

  14. Characterization of the natural radioactivity of materials used in civil construction or the Curitiba, Parana state, Brazil, metropolitan region; Caracterizacao da radioatividade natural de materiais utilizados na construcao civil da regiao metropolitana de Curitiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, Allan F.N.; Martins, Patricia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Claro, Flavia Del, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This paper performs an analysis of the natural radioactivity of construction materials (mainly the {sup 222}Rn) which are present in human environment. The main objective of the study is to characterize different building materials which come from the metropolitan region of the Curitiba related to the exhalation of {sup 222}Rn. The applied methodology analyse the samples of ceramic brick, plaster mortar, and fine lime from the concentration measurements of radon using CR-39 type detectors, and gamma spectrometry analysis

  15. Management for Construction Materials and Control of Construction Waste in Construction Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gulghane

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent treads a wide range of building materials is available for the construction of civil engineering structures. The total cost of materials may be up to 60% or more of the total cost incurred in construction project dependent upon the type of project. Effective construction materials management is a key to success for a construction project. Construction waste is another serious problem in construction industry. A large and various types of construction waste with different characteristics are created at all the stages of construction. Construction industries have a larger part in contributing environmental problems. The economic and environmental benefits must be gained from construction waste minimization. This paper presents a review on systematically investigation of the management of construction materials and construction waste, material management techniques, control of construction waste and existing situation of construction management and construction waste in the industry.

  16. Ideology and Poetics in Public Issue Construction: Thatcherism, Civil Liberties, and "Terrorism" in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry-Giles, Trevor

    1995-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of Margaret Thatcher, indicating how Thatcherism intensified existing ideological tensions within the British context; how Thatcherism constructed the public issue of "terrorism" in Northern Ireland as an "epic tragedy"; and how such a construction materially shifted and ensnared commitments to "freedom" and civil liberties.…

  17. Construction Site Environmental Impact in Civil Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jose M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    The environmental impact of construction activity has gained increasing importance in the last few years and become a key subject for civil engineering education. A survey of Portuguese higher education institutions shows that concern with this topic is mostly directed at the impact of large construction projects and especially focused on their…

  18. Evolutionary algorithms and metaheuristics in civil engineering and Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, David

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on civil and structural engineering and construction management applications. The contributions constitute modified, extended and improved versions of research presented at the  minisymposium organized by the editors at the ECCOMAS conference on this topic in Barcelona 2014.

  19. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  20. LHC Civil Engineering Construction Contracts Cost Monitoring and Budget Forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Skelton, K

    2000-01-01

    The Civil Engineering project for the LHC is estimated at 350 MCHF, of which about 316 MCHF is for the construction contracts. These contracts are based on a system of remeasurement whereby the consultant estimates the quantities required for the construction of each structure and the contractor commits himself to the unit price, which define the initial tender price. There are many factors that affect the final price for these contracts, from increases or decreases in quantities of the estimated amounts in the original bill of quantities to variations to the contract. This paper will look at how these factors change costs at the individual level of a structure to the overall costs of the contract. It will look at how the Civil Engineering Group monitors these changes to calculate cash flows and final costs and how this information is used as a basis for budget forecasts.

  1. The Research on the Construction of Extrude Teaching Material for Civil Engineering Major%土建类专业立体化教材建设的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德利; 任大鹏; 宋殿文

    2012-01-01

    高校土建类专业传统教材已无法适应当前我国高校创新型和技能型培养人才的需要,在教学实践中,应建立与之配套的广义教材,即立体化教材。它是基于一体化设计的教学系统,它以传统纸质教材为基础,以数字技术为平台,以项目课程为导向,以实践能力教育为目标,并将当前最新三维可视化控制技术与智能化网络技术应用于教学各环节中,形成融“教、学、练、考”为一体的理实一体化课程教学体系。立体化教材构建了土建类专业学生理论学习与生产实际相结合的教学平台,弥补了教学手段、实训条件及时间、空间上的限制,在课堂上实现教学项目与施工项目、教学过程与施工过程、在校学习与实际工作的一致性,达到事半功倍的效果。%The traditional teaching material for civil engineering major has not adapted to current requirement for creative and skilled talents, so the construction of matching extrude teaching material in practical teaching process is necessary. It is one kind of teaching system based on integrated designs, it is based on the traditional paper material. Makes digital techniques as platform, makes project curriculums as guidance, makes practical a- bility education as goal and then applies the latest three-dimensional visual control techniques and intelligent network techniques to each teaching link.Thereby form one type of integrated curriculums teaching system fusing teaching, learning, practicing, examining'together. Extrude teaching material builds one type of teaching plat- form that combines theoretical learning with production practice closely for the students majoring in civil engi- neering. Remedy the restrict existing in teaching methods, practical training condition, time and space. And real- ize the consistency between teaching project and construction project, between teaching process and construction process and

  2. Assessment and Countermeasures of Ecological Civilization Construction in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to assess the ecological civilization construction in urban agglomeration composed of Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan synthetically.[Method] By means of analytic hierarchy process,the assessment system of ecological civilization in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan was established firstly,and then the ecological civilization construction in Changsha,Zhuzhou and Xiangtan was evaluated comprehensively,and the existing problems and causes of ecological civilization construction were analyzed,...

  3. Utilization of washery waste as secondary raw materials in civil engineering and other industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhard, J.; Schieder, T.

    1990-02-01

    Specific demands are put on waste from hardcoal production when used as a substitute for scarcening conventional construction materials such as sand, gravel and road stone. Untreated washery refuse is not useful, in general, except as bulk material for subsoil improvement as well as for the construction of embankments and dikes. By subjecting minestone to appropriate mechanical or thermal treatment aggregates it to serve as construction materials in civil engineering and in other industries can be obtained. Face bricks, compact and perforated blocks as well as large hollow blocks either with a calcareous or a cement binder were manufactured for civil engineering. Crushed coarse minestone proved its usefulness as a concrete aggregate. Utilization of ashes from fluidized bed firing systems yielded construction materials whose low density made them particularly fit for thermal insulation pruposes.

  4. The Brazilian experience in the civil construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes and phases of technology absorption, together with the resultant Experience-Factor Model for civil Works, considering philosophy of operation of the civil contractor, design aspects and some structural influences for constructing nuclear power plants are presented. (Author)

  5. The potential of biobased materials in the civil engineering sector

    OpenAIRE

    Venema, Anne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Large quantities of materials are used in the Dutch civil engineering sector every year. Many of these materials have a significant impact on the environment because these materials are based on non-renewable resources and the production is often

  6. Construction of Evaluation System of Provincial Ecological Civilization - A Case of Shangong Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanjun; Zhang, Baohua; Cao, Jianrong; Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    According to the connotation of ecological civilization, construction principle of ecological civilization index system is expatiated, including integrity principle, applicability and feasibility principle, quantification principle and purposefulness principle. Based on this, a total of 23 single factors are selected from four aspects of ecological environmental protection, economic development, social progress and environmental protection consciousness. Ecological civilization index system i...

  7. Metal materials - a measure of civilization achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal materials are certainly the most important group of materials as from the aspect of the current production and application as well as according to tradition and development. In this paper are presented two metal materials, steel, Damascus steel, known for thousands years and Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) discovered in 1960's of the XX century. Both of them have great characteristics and in both cases the secret lie in phase transformation that materials undergo as a function of temperature and chemical composition. Once more the microstructure of metal materials proved to be an inexhaustible source of improvement of the metal materials properties. Damascus steels have high strength and high elasticity enough to absorb any blow without breaking. These outstanding features of Damascus steels are the result of phase transformation that steels undergo as a function of temperature and carbon content. SMA is a material that deforms at low temperature returns to shape prior deformation upon heating. This phenomenon is known as Shape Memory Effect, SME; and alloys having this effect are called Shape Memory Alloys. The base of this phenomenon is again phase transformation of the high temperature phase, austenite, upon cooling in low temperature phase, called thermo elastic martensite. The greater use of these alloys is in biomedical application (filters, orthodontic implants, guide wires, catheters, etc.) and it has been opened the new application fields like microactuator technology and smart materials. A lot of progress on these fields can be expected in the next five years. (author)

  8. Proposal for the increase of the contract amounts for LHC civil engineering construction and civil engineering consultancy contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the increase of the contract amounts for LHC civil engineering construction contracts and civil engineering consultancy contracts. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the increase of the contract amounts with: - the joint venture TEERAG-ASDAG (AT), C. BARESEL (DE) and LOCHER (CH) for civil engineering construction, package 1, for a revised total amount of 91 500 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision; - the joint venture EDF (FR) and KNIGHT&PIESOLD (GB) for the provision of civil engineering consultancy services, package 1, for a revised total amount of 14 400 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision; - the joint venture TAYLOR WOODROW (GB), AMEC (GB) and SPIE BATIGNOLLES (FR) for civil engineering construction, package 3a, for a revised total amount of 118 000 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision; - the joint venture BROWN&ROOT (GB), INTECSA (ES) and HIDROTECNICA (PT) for the provision of civil engineering consultancy services, package 3, for a revised total amount of 14 ...

  9. Benchmarking effective service delivery drivers in the South African civil construction industry / by Ernest Venter

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Ernest Nordin

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and prioritising effective service delivery drivers' in selected civil construction companies are more than merely satisfying customers' need. By successfully identifying and prioritising effective service delivery drivers within the selected civil construction companies, the companies will be able to achieve competitive advantage above their competitors. This study, by using a questionnaire as a measurement instrument, established that a gap currently exist betw...

  10. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  11. Increase of the contract amounts for LHC civil-engineering construction and civil-engineering consultancy contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the increase of the contract amounts for LHC civil-engineering construction and civil-engineering consultancy, Package 2. The Finance Committee is invited to take note of the increase of the contract amounts with: - the joint venture DRAGADOS (ES) and SELI (IT) for civil-engineering construction, LHC Package 2, for an amount of 28 087 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision, in the amount previously announced to Finance Committee (CERN/FC/4516) of 132 200 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision, bringing the total to a maximum amount of 160 287 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision. - the joint venture GIBB (GB), GEOCONSULT (AT) and SGI (CH) for the provision of civil-engineering consultancy services, LHC Package 2, for an amount of 900 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision, in the amount previously announced to Finance Committee of 13 800 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision, bringing the total to a maximum amount of 14 700 000 Swiss francs, subject to revision

  12. Construction site management and civil construction%施工现场管理与文明施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈作优

    2009-01-01

    Requirements on construction site management and civil construction are introduced as well as major supervision measures for civil construction control. Author points out in order to increase rnanagement level of civil construction "innovation" should be well studied to strengthen construction site management to realize investment return and ensure engineering quality.%介绍了施工现场管理和文明施工的要求,提出了文明施工控制的主要监理措施,指出提高文明施工管理水平关键要在创建两字上下功夫,以加强施工现场管理,达到提高投资效益和保证工程质量的目的.

  13. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  14. 78 FR 22798 - Hazardous Materials: Revision of Maximum and Minimum Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    .... 5101 et seq.). Section 5123(a) of that law provides civil penalties for knowing violations of Federal... Materials: Revision of Maximum and Minimum Civil Penalties AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... the maximum and minimum civil penalties for a knowing violation of the Federal hazardous...

  15. Introduction to the environmental impact of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    “Woodhead Publishing series in civil and structural engineering, nr. 49” Earth's natural resources are finite and face increasing human pressure. Over the last few decades, concern has been growing about resource efficiency and the environmental impact of material consumption. The construction industry is responsible for the consumption of a relevant part of all produced materials, however, only recently has this industry started to worry about its environmental impacts. This chapter highl...

  16. Design of a System for Monitoring Reliability of Structures and Constructions in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav S. Igić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of civil engineering structures and constructions requires techniques which can produce high precision and accuracy, reliable measurements and fast processing speed. The development of information and communication systems as well as of microprocessor controllers has enabled a creation of monitoring systems that can be used for tracking reliability of structures and constructions in civil engineering, with described key features. This paper describes in detail the architecture of the Civil Engineering Structures Reliability Monitoring (CERM system. The system has been designed for the purposes of the Technical Mechanics and Theory of Constructions Department at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis. Unlike general commercial monitoring systems, the CERM system has been specially designed for the purpose of reliability monitoring, and its potential will be further exploited in this paper. It is based on usage of universal microprocessor controllers Integraf of series 10X, along with specially designed software package. This system provides real time acquisition of measurements for observed civil engineering structures and analysis of received values based on developed mathematical models.

  17. Incorporating civil-defense shelter space in new underground construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, the population of the US is approximately ten times more vulnerable to nuclear weapons than the Soviet population. This vulnerability can be reduced rapidly by urban evacuation in a crisis. However, the need to keep the essential economy running in a crisis, as well as coping with attacks on short warning, makes the construction of shelter space where people live very desirable. This can be done most economically by slightly modifying underground construction intended for peacetime use. The designer must consider all elements of the emergency environment when designing the space. Provisions must be made for emergency egress, light and ventilation (without elecric power), blast closures, water, sanitation, and food. The option of upgrading the space in a crisis should be considered. An example is given

  18. Conceptual Design Report. Footprint Gallery Upgrade - Civil Construction, May 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-05-01

    The Footprint Gallery Complex will be enlarged and modified. The basic outline of the project will be to add 68,100 square feet of new construction, remodel 20,600 square feet of existing space, and retire by removal 17 ,500 square feet. The principal items to be addressed are: the creation of larger Main Control Rooms and Central Control Computer Rooms, the replacement of several temporary structures with permanent facilities, the provision for a growth in population of 132 people, and the creation of an intermediate sized meeting/lecture room facility. Disjointed second floor areas will be connected and made accessible to the handicapped, secure and informative viewing for visitors will be provided, and parking will be increased to match the expected growth. The new construction will provide for a more centralized concentration of systems and support personnel of the Fermilab Accelerator Division, reflecting the growth of these organizations during the last 15 years. Experiments, such as the D-Zero detector and antiproton deceleration (E760), have been assigned to the Accelerator Division for support. The associated physicists and experimenters make up the most significant component of the growth in population for which this construction will provide additional space.

  19. Teaching Students about Civil Rights Using Print Material and Photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmer, Denise

    2007-01-01

    The author describes teaching eighth-grade students about the civil rights movement. Teachers used photographs of students in the 1950s as a central theme of their unit about the U.S. civil rights movement. Using these photographs as a learning tool inspired the students to be engaged in history. At the end of the unit, students were able to…

  20. The role of CERN in the large construction contracts for LHC civil works

    CERN Document Server

    D'Aça-Castel-Branco, P

    1998-01-01

    The contracts for the civil engineering construction of the LHC are based upon the standard FIDIC (Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs Conseils) document entitled "Conditions of Contract for Works of Civil Engineering Construction". FIDIC is a reputable supra-national and world-wide Federation of Consulting Engineers focused on the definition and regulation of the role of many parties involved with the International Construction Industry. An overview of FIDIC's and other Organizations', such as the World Bank, standard documents is presented. The difference between standard Contract documents and standard Bidding documents is pointed out. In view of CERN's status as an intergovernmental Organization, the original FIDIC standard documents needed to be adapted. The modifications are identified and explained. A concise definition of the role of each party concerned by the LHC construction Contracts, i.e. the Contractor, the Engineer and the Client (CERN), is made. Finally, a brief cost-benefit analysis o...

  1. 某民用起爆器材建设项目职业病危害预评价分析%Pre- evaluation of Occupational Hazard in a Construction Project of Initiating Explosive Materials for Civil Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余志林; 杨乐华; 廖雍玲; 田国彬; 吴道溪

    2011-01-01

    目的 识别、评价该项目可能产生的职业病危害因素,为制定职业病预防措施提供依据.方法 按照《建设项目职业病危害预评价技术导则》GBZ/T196-2007[1]进行评价.结果 该项目生产过程中主要的职业病危害因素是铅及其无机化合物、奥克托金、四氯乙烯、叠氮化钠、氮氧化物、铝金属尘、硅尘、太安尘、噪声等.结论 该项目选址与总体布局、生产设备布局等基本符合国家有关规定,在各项职业病危害防护措施落实到位的情况下,该项目就职业卫生方面而言可行.%Objective To identify and assess the occurrence of possible occupational risk factors in this construction project, and to provide the evidence for proposing protection measures. Methods The construction project was evaluated according to "the Technical Guidelines for Pre - assessment for Occupational Hazard in Construction Project" (GBZ/T196 -2007). Results The mainly occupational risk factors in the process of the production were lead and its compounds, octo-gen, tetrachloroethylene, sodium azide, nitrogen oxides, aluminum dust, silicon dust, petn dust, noise, etc. Conclusions The items of selection of site, the overall layout, the arrangement and layout of the facilities accorded with the requirements of laws and regulations of occupational health. From the view of occupational health, this constructive project is feasible on the condition of all the hygiene measures.

  2. CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS FROM WASTE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тахира Далиевна Сидикова

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the physical and chemical processes occurring during the thermal treatment of ceramic masses on the basis of compositions of natural raw materials and waste processing facilities. The study of structures of ceramic samples species has shown different types of crystalline phases.The results have shown that the waste of Kaytashsky tungsten-molybdenum ores (KVMR may be used as the main raw material to develop new compositions for ceramic materials. The optimal compositions of ceramic tiles for the masses and technological parameters of obtaining sintered materials based on the compositions of kaolin fireclay KVMR have been developed.It has been found that the use of the waste of Kaytashskoy tungsten-molybdenum ore (KVMR in the composition of the ceramic material will expand the raw material base of ceramic production, reduce the roasting temperature and the cost of ceramic materials and products.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF PROJECTN MANAGEMENT IN CIVIL CONSTRUCTION AT SUGAR AND ALCOHOL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Parras Meleiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study case on performance of project management in civil construction at sugarcane and alcohol plants. The survey was conducted in sugarcane and alcohol plant in Barra Bonita, São Paulo state, Brazil, which is a joint venture formed by the world´s largest sugar cane processor as well as one of the largest world´s fuel distributors. Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer and the second one of bioethanol. São Paulo state is the biggest national producer with approximately 60% of production. This fact boosted the investment of foreign groups in this sector. Historically, civil projects were managed by employees themselves sometimes with no experience in project management and without the use of adequate criteria, tools and methods. With the arrival of investors, improvement projects have become indispensable, teams sought for improvement and project managers have gained strength. This paper aims at showing the performance of a management at sugarcane and alcohol plant in civil construction projects, demonstrating the relationship between involved parties and the benefits achieved with the implementation of established management methods for the conducting these projects.

  4. Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building.

  5. Propaganda and the construction of a war culture in Spain during the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco SEVILLANO CALERO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the war propaganda during the Civil War and the first years of the Francoist “New State». Recent work has addressed the construction of the image of the enemy on the basis of the prevailing stereotypes, and how General Franco’s persona was transfigured symbolically through the development of a charismatic image within the rhetoric, rites and liturgies of the ‘New State». This propaganda helped spread a culture of war from 1936 to 1939 and beyond.

  6. Infrared emissivity measurements of building and civil engineering materials: a new device for measuring emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such...

  7. Use of superabsorbent polymers in construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of some of the possibilities which are offered by the use of superabsorbent polymers in construction. Superabsorbent polymers, SAP, have some distinct properties that make them interesting to use in connection with construction materials. These properties include...

  8. Construction Material Waste: Recognition and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by long term observations of the construction industry in the Northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The observations showed that the construction waste is becoming a serious environmental, economical and safety issue that affects the suburbs of the KSA. The study utilizes Likert scaled responses through a two-part questionnaire distributed to 42 contractors located in the Northern region of KSA. The first part of the questionnaire aims at identifying causes of material waste in building construction projects from the contractors’ viewpoint. The second part seeks to rank the considered materials according to their level of importance from the contractors’ viewpoint. The collected data was analyzed through Minitab statistical software. It was found that the most significant factors causing construction waste are: (1 inaccuracy in quantity surveys leading to over-ordering or under-ordering; (2 the selection of low quality products; (3 detail errors in design and construction; (4 the order of supplies in loose form; (5 and the inefficiency in resource management. The results of this study show that construction material handling and managerial decisions have a critical impact on the cause and effect of the level of construction waste. The study findings demonstrate that the most important benefits for considering construction waste are to know the exact required quantities for a construction project and to plan and prepare an accurate schedule for material arriving supply. The study recommends employing Lean Manufacturing principles to eliminate the construction waste and to enhance the decision making process in construction management in the northern part of KSA.

  9. Study of reuse drill cuttings as aggregate in the civil construction industry; Estudo para reaproveitamento do cascalho de perfuracao como agregado na industria da construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neder, L.T.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Seguranca, Meio Ambiente e Saude; Santos, E.; Bezerra, M.T.A.; Farias, J.G.; Felizardo, A.; Santos, A.S.; Ribeiro, J.C. [PETROBRAS, Natal/Fortaleza, RN/CE (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio; Curti, R.; Suto, A.J. [Associacao Brasileira de Cimento Portland, Jaguare, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This study was conducted to verify technical feasibility in reusing drill cuttings originated in oil and gas exploration and production to produce concrete or mortar elements. It consisted of physical and chemical characterization of all items used to build field-cured cement samples - drill cuttings, cement and used aggregates; evaluation of resistance; environmental behavior and classification of the resultant materials. The results had demonstrated the reuse of drill cuttings is possible from both technical and environmental perspective and the ratio of concrete or mortar can be customized according to physical and mechanical needs of end products. In the civil construction elements can be built and used as road basis, ground-cement base, blocks and bricks and other non-structural elements. The application of these elements in E and P operations include containment walls for onshore wells, collecting stations, pipeline brackets, supports and hold-down anchors as well as road pavement and access. From the standpoint of chemical safety, the resultant elements made-up from drill cuttings had demonstrated no potential risk for hydrocarbon leaching (TPH), Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's), Volatile Organic Compounds (BTEX), Phenols nor Metals. From these results many improvements in the E and P waste management can be established, bringing both economy and greater environment protection measures for the Oil and Gas Exploration and Production operations. (author)

  10. Handling Low-Density LiDAR Data: Calculating the Heights of Civil Constructions and the Accuracy Expected

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Martínez Marín; Elena Lianes Revilla; Juan Carlos Ojeda Manrique; Miguel Marchamalo Sacristán

    2013-01-01

    During the last years, in many developed countries, administrations and private companies have devoted considerable amounts of money to obtain mapping data using airborne LiDAR. For many civil activities, we can take advantage of it, since those data are available with no cost. Some important questions arise: Are those data good enough to be used for determining the heights of the civil constructions with the accuracy we need in some civil work? What accuracy can we expect when using low-dens...

  11. Generating dam construction material from tailings sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, H. [Northgate Minerals Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Northgate Minerals is a leading gold and copper producer with mining operations, development projects and exploration properties in Canada and Australia. This presentation provided background information on the Northgate Minerals Corp. Kemess Mines and how to generate dam construction material from tailings sand. Specifically, the objectives of the program are to generate construction material from tailings sand and replace earth fill construction with tailings sand from which sulphur has been removed. This presentation reviewed environmental specifications such as producing a construction material that does not generate poor water quality. It also reviewed engineering specifications such as producing a material suitable for d/s buttress zone placement. The presentation discussed the evaluation of source material as well as analysis challenges. The evaluation of Kemess ore was also outlined. along with other topics such as environmental testing and verification of sand plant beta testing; criteria and communication; operational procedures including sand plant operation and fail safe procedures; placement of sulphur-free sand; and benefits. It was concluded that the tailings cyclone plant was constructed at a cost of 5.4 million dollars. tabs., figs.

  12. Material and construction of primary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of SNR's requires specific properties of the materials, i.e. high strength at temperatures of 6000C, adequate creep rupture strength, low long-time embrittlement. Aspects are given for optimalization of the mentioned properties with regard to safe manufacture especially good weldability. The austenitic material X6CrNil811 similar the type AISI 304 SS finally was chosen. Besides the fundamental analysis of the material properties it will be reported about the experiences gained during the manufacturing of the essential components. (author)

  13. Feasibility Study of Construction of Building Using Reusable Material

    OpenAIRE

    Darade M.M,; Waghmare A.P

    2016-01-01

    Civil structures made of steel reinforced concrete normally suffer from corrosion of the steel by the salt, which results in the failure of those structures. Constant maintenance and repairing is needed to enhance the life cycle of those civil structures. There are many ways to minimize the failure of the concrete structures made of steel reinforce concrete. The Project aims to optimize the construction resources with applications to reduce, reuse and recycle to achieve the motive...

  14. Study on the Construction of Eco-security System in China under the Ecological Civilization Concept——Based on the Ecological Civilization Construction in Qingzhen City of Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The construction of eco-security system was a complicated systematic project, included the comprehensive construction and collaborative propulsion of eco-environment system, eco-economy system, eco-culture system, eco-society system and eco-law system. The comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of ecology, economy and society only could be achieved under the guidance of ecological civilization concept by the integrated consideration, comprehensive planning and multi-coordination.

  15. 生态文明建设的科学内涵与基本路径%Ecological Civilization Construction:Scientific Connotation and Basic Paths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷树忠; 胡咏君; 周洪

    2013-01-01

    生态文明建设是我国今后发展的重要方向、重大领域和重大任务.在十八大报告提出“大力推进生态文明建设”的基础上,从人与自然的关系、生态文明与现代文明的关系、生态文明与时代发展的关系三个方面系统阐释了生态文明建设的科学内涵,并从建设主体、建设地域、建设内容、建设手段四个方面,构建生态文明建设的分类体系.对生态文明建设的基本路径进行设计,明确生态文明建设的目标和依据,提出生态文明建设的四条基本路径,其中资源保护与节约是生态文明建设的重中之重,环境保护与治理是生态文明建设的关键所在,生态保护与修复为生态文明建设提供重要载体,国土开发与保护是生态文明建设的空间规制.最后从全民参与、科学规划和制度创新三个方面针对基本路径提出生态文明建设的具体政策建议.%Ecological civilization construction is a major direction, a key field and an important mission of Chinese future development. Some academics studied on the concept, feature and status of ecological civilization, which are mainly surrounded the theory but provide few values for the practices. Under the background of the 18th (the Communist Party of China) CPC national Congress proposing "Promote the construction of ecological civilization", this paper systematically expounds the scientific connotation of ecological civilization from three kinds of relations: man and nature, ecological civilization and modern civilization, ecological civilization and development. Then it constructs the classification system of ecological civilization construction from four aspects: body, area, content and means. The body of ecological civilization construction includes the governments, the entrepreneurs, the families, NGOs and mixed bodies. The area of ecological civilization construction is divided into five levels: global scale, national scale, district

  16. An analysis on ecological civilization construction in Gansu based on a quantified SWOT framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLi Li; HongLang Xiao; SongBing Zou; Juan Ren

    2014-01-01

    Ecological civilization (EC) construction has become one of the key elements of China’s reform and development process, since it was put forward at the 17th National People’s Congress (NPC) in 2007 and improved at the 18th NPC in 2012, and stressed at the third plenary session of the 18th NPC. The provincial areas are the most important pilot units of EC strategy. Therefore, research on EC at the provincial level can meet the practical demand for EC in China. Based on the existing provincial circumstances in Gansu and its significant position as an ecological barrier in northwestern China, and aiming at the core issue of why and how to build EC in Gansu, this paper employs SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis, the Delphi method, and a combined quantitative analysis and coordinate method, and then calculates the relevant strategic orientation angle (θ=1.4605) and strength coefficient (ρ=0.53). The results show that Gansu should take an opportunities-dominated strategy, and choose opportunity-strength measures, so the province can increase its in-ternal strengths and decrease its weaknesses with external opportunities. Specific measures are recommended to actively promote an EC construction strategy.

  17. The introduction of teaching innovations into the traditional teaching of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Pozo, Encarnación; Gálvez Ruíz, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The traditional teaching methods used for training civil engineers are currently being called into question as a result of the new knowledge and skills now required by the labor market. In addition, the European Higher Education Area is requesting that students be given a greater say in their learning. In the subject called Construction and Building Materials at the Civil Engineering School of the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, a path was set three academic years ago to lead to an improve...

  18. Acting Smart: An Investigation of Assumptions and Principles Which Underpin Training and Assessment Within One Civil Construction Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jean; Kelly, Ann

    This report focuses on an investigation of assumptions and principles underpinning training and assessment programs offered by a civil construction company in Australia. Section 1 is an introduction. To conceptualize the new workplace and consider the role of literacy and numeracy in it, Section 2 addresses changing work conditions, features of a…

  19. Standard Practice for Evaluating Material Property Characteristic Values for Polymeric Composites for Civil Engineering Structural Applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedures for computing characteristic values of material properties of polymeric composite materials intended for use in civil engineering structural applications. The characteristic value is a statistically-based material property representing the 80 % lower confidence bound on the 5th-percentile value of a specified population. Characteristic values determined using this standard practice can be used to calculate structural member resistance values in design codes for composite civil engineering structures and for establishing limits upon which qualification and acceptance criteria can be based. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  1. The construction of irradiated material examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detail design of the examination process, the hot cell facility and the annexed facility of the irradiated material examination facility (IMEF) which will be utilized to examine and evaluate physical and mechanical properties of neutron-irradiated materials, has been performed. Also a start-up work of the underground structure construction has been launched out. The project management and tasks required for the license application were duly carried out. The resultant detail design data will be used for the next step. (author)

  2. 生态文明视域下公民的生态责任建设%Civil Construction of Ecological Responsibility from the View of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉明

    2014-01-01

    Since the 18th party congress of the communist party of China proposed strategic conception of“beautiful chi-na”,the central government has actively developed the construction of ecological civilization,which got height response and support from the whole society.Of course,we will face a question that is how to implement the central government's policy of ecological construction and realize rational utilization and protection of the ecological environment and natural re-sources.One of the keys is to promote ecological civilization construction of citizen consciousness and increase it as the bounden duty.However,based on the analysis of the current Chinese citizen ecological civilization construction practice situation,the paper points out that China’s citizens are lack of responsibility,such as responsibility cognition deficien-cy,responsibility behavior disorder and so on.To a certain extent,those are not conducive for promoting the construction of ecological civilization in China.Therefore,the paper comes up with four dimensions,including conceptual level,be-havior level,the legislative level and system level,in order to strengthen civil construction of ecological responsibility and have the important practical significance for constructing ecological “beautiful Chinese”.%自党的十八大提出建设“美丽中国”战略构想以来,中央积极部署推进生态文明建设,得到了全社会的高度拥护和响应。对于如何贯彻落实中央的生态建设方针,实现生态环境和自然资源的合理保护和利用,一个关键性的要素就是要提升社会公民的生态文明建设自觉,并上升为义不容辞的责任。然而,通过对当下中国公民生态文明建设践行情况的分析,得出我国公民存在着责任认知不足、履责能力不强以及生态行为失序等诸多责任缺失问题的结论,这些问题在一定程度上不利于我国生态文明建设的全面推进。为此,提出

  3. The Urban Sustainability From the Perspective of Civil Construction: A Study in the Construction Companies in Campina Grande, in the State of Paraíba

    OpenAIRE

    Arlan Teodódio Macêdo; Maria de Fatima Martins

    2015-01-01

    The present urban sustainability issues involve urban aspects that show the actual conditions of these spaces, from the quest for harmony between the natural and built environments. The civil construction as an active agent in an active way in urban areas, whose activity is focused on building projects, is a driver of impacts that may affect the quality of cities. This paper aims to analyze the aspects of urban sustainability considered by the construction companies in Campina Grande, in the ...

  4. Re-engineering organizations for optimal deployment of smart materials and intelligent devices in civil infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diraby, Tamer E.; Beheshti, Arzhang

    2002-06-01

    Smart materials and intelligent devices are promising to revolutionize data collection in civil infrastructure. However, their application has so far been very limited in scope. So far, there is no comprehensive mechanisms to integrate data generated by smart materials and intelligent devices into the overall IT systems of user organizations. This article outlines a framework for reengineering organizations for optimal utilization of smart materials and intelligent devices in the infrastructure development domain. The aim is to integrate data collection and management into the organizational culture. The framework includes three basic modules: assessing current practice, identifying level of deployment, and defining the needed actions.

  5. Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours

  6. TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS TO CREATE ESTHETICAL CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES USING THE GEOSYNTHETICS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally polymeric products used to solve some civil engineeringproblems. The term is generally regarded to encompass eight main product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets,geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, geofoam, geocells (cellular confinement and geocomposites. The syntheticpolymeric nature of these products makes them suitable for use in the ground where high levels of durability arerequired. Not only because, properly formulated, they can also be used in exposed applications. Geosynthetics areavailable in a wide range of forms and materials, each to suit a slightly different end use. These products have a widerange of applications and are currently used in many civil, geotechnical, transportation, geoenvironmental, hydraulic,and private development applications including roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, retaining structures,reservoirs, canals, dams, erosion control, sediment control, landfill liners, landfill covers, mining, aquaculture andagriculture. The paper presents basic aspects of geotextiles, drainage, geocomposite designissues and technicalsolutions of their use.

  7. Design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, J. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Murray, A. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Abes, J. [CC Technologies Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 4 discussed issues regarding recent technologies and practices in oil and gas pipeline design, material specification, qualification, construction and maintenance. The presentations raised awareness on emerging developments, issues and concerns, including the steps needed to implement an alternative integrity validation (AIV) process in lieu of a post-construction hydrotesting for pipeline construction. It was determined that before AIV can become an accepted practice for the entire oil and gas industry, additional research is needed to form criteria for acceptance by both regulators and the public. Issues regarding the rehabilitation of pipelines with reference to maintaining high safety standards were also reviewed. It was noted that the current labour shortage makes safety even more pertinent. Procedures should be written to ensure compliance by employees. The group discussed how operators should determine the required pressure decrease and margin of safety for integrity work in a ditch. The dangers of driver fatigue were also discussed along with proposed measures to reduce the risk of injuries to drivers. tabs., figs.

  8. Inquiry on civil construction technology points of building engineering%建筑工程土建施工技术要点探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵成学

    2015-01-01

    依照建筑工程土建的施工要求,简单的总结了建筑工程土建施工的关键技术要点,主要包括混凝土施工、钢筋施工、砖砌筑施工、防水施工、模板施工五方面内容,以期达到提升建筑工程土建施工技术性能的目的。%According to civil construction demands of building engineering,the paper briefly summarizes critical civil construction technology points of building engineering,which mainly includes concrete construction,steel construction,brick masonry construction,waterproofing construc-tion and template construction,with a view to achieve the goal of improving civil construction technology performance of building engineering.

  9. Infrared Emissivity Measurements of Building and Civil Engineering Materials: A New Device for Measuring Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchau, Jean-Pierre; Marchetti, Mario; Ibos, Laurent; Dumoulin, Jean; Feuillet, Vincent; Candau, Yves

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge of the infrared emissivity of materials used in buildings and civil engineering structures is useful for two specific approaches. First, quantitative diagnosis of buildings or civil engineering infrastructures by infrared thermography requires emissivity values in the spectral bandwidth of the camera used for measurements, in order to obtain accurate surface temperatures; for instance, emissivity in the band III domain is required when using cameras with uncooled detectors (such as micro-bolometer arrays). Second, setting up accurate thermal balances by numerical modeling requires the total emissivity value for a large wavelength domain; this is, for instance, the case for computing the road surface temperature to predict ice occurrence. Furthermore, periodical surveys of emissivity variations due to aging or soiling of surfaces could be useful in many situations such as thermal mapping of roads or building insulation diagnosis. The use of portable emissivity measurement devices is required for that purpose. A device using an indirect measurement method was previously developed in our lab; the method uses measurement of the reflectivity from a modulated IR source and requires calibration with a highly reflective surface. However, that device uses a low-frequency, thermal modulation well adapted to laboratory measurements but unfit for fast and in situ measurements. Therefore, a new, portable system which retains the principle of an indirect measurement but uses a faster-frequency, mechanical modulation more appropriate to outdoor measurements was developed. Both devices allow measurements in the broad m to m) and narrow m to m) bands. Experiments were performed on a large number of materials commonly used in buildings and civil engineering structures. The final objective of this work is to build a database of emissivity of these materials. A comparison of laboratory and on-site measurements of emissivity values obtained in both spectral bands will be

  10. Green Building Construction Thermal Isolation Materials (Rockwool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Itewi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Building insulation consisting roughly to anything in a structure that is utilizes as insulation for any reason. Thermal insulation in structures is a significant feature to attaining thermal comfort for its tenants. Approach: Insulation decreases unnecessary warmth loss or gain and can reduce the power burdens of heating and cooling structures. It does not automatically having anything to do with problems of sufficient exposure to air and might or might not influence the amount of sound insulation. Results: In a constricted way insulation can just mean the insulation substance used to reduce heat loss, such as: Glass wool, cellulose, polystyrene, rock wool, urethane foam, vermiculite and the earth, but it can also entail a variety of plans and methods used to deal with the chief forms of heat movement like transmission, emission and convection substances. The efficiency of insulation is normally assessed by its R-value. However, an R-value does not allow for the superiority of assembly or narrow green issues for each structure. Building superiority matters comprise insufficient vapor obstructions and troubles with draft-proofing. Additionally, the property and concentration of the insulation substance itself is vital. Fiberglass insulation materials, for example, made out of short fibers of glass covered on top of each other is not as long-lasting as insulation prepared from extended entwined fibers of glass. Conclusion/Recommendations: Rockwool insulation is a kind of insulation that is constructed out of real rocks and minerals. It furthermore is known by the names of mineral wool insulation, stone wool insulation or slag wool insulation. A broad collection of goods can be constructed from Rockwool, because of its outstanding capability to obstruct sound and heat. Rockwool insulation is normally utilized in building assembly, manufacturing plants and in automotive purposes. In this study i proposed to use

  11. Analysis on Construction Technologies of Concrete Structure in Civil Engineering Buildings%土木工程建筑中混凝土结构的施工技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段富振

    2015-01-01

    随着我国社会和经济的不断发展,土木工程建筑业也得到了飞速的发展与进步,土木工程建筑施工中最常采用的材料就是混凝土,为了保证土木工程施工质量,在对土木工程混凝土结构进行施工时对混凝土所具有的性能有了更高的要求.本文针对工程施工中混凝土产生裂缝的原因,对土木工程建筑混凝土结构的相关施工技术进行分析探究,提出笔者的思考和建议,仅供参考.%With the continuous development of society and economy in our country, civil engineering construction indus?try has also achievedrapid development and progress, and the material that is most commonly used in civil engineering construction is concrete, in order to ensure the quality of civil engineering construction, in the construction of concretes?tructure in civil engineering, there arehigher requirementson the performance of concrete. According to the cause of con?crete cracks in the construction, the construction technologies related to civil engineering construction concrete struc?tureareanalyzedandinvestigated, and the author's thinking and suggestions are put forward for your reference.

  12. In the Ruins of Civilizations: Narrative Structures, World Constructions, and Physical Realities in the Post-Apocalyptic Novel [Reseña de libro

    OpenAIRE

    Weidner, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Reseña de libro: Sibylle Machat, In the Ruins of Civilizations: Narrative Structures, World Constructions, and Physical Realities in the Post-Apocalyptic Novel (Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2013), 330pp.

  13. Radioactive materials in construction projects; Radioaktive Stoffe bei Baumassnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Ralf; Ohlendorf, Frank [Baugrund Dresden IGmbH, Dresden (Germany); Kaltz, Andrea Christine [Saechsisches Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Dresden (Germany). Ref. 53 (Strahlenschutz)

    2014-07-01

    Till 1990 residues often of the former uranium mining were partly used as building material for road construction, terrain compensation and house construction in Saxony. These recommendations for action are addressed to applicants, planners and building constructors in the engineering and construction sector. It provides information for planning, preliminary investigations, applications, construction supervision related to radiation protection measures and documentation of construction projects where radioactive materials are expected.

  14. Some Reflections on Contemporary Eco-civilization Construction in China%对当代中国生态文明建设的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广全

    2013-01-01

    建设生态文明是关系人民福祉、关乎民族未来的长远大计。“生态文明”理念是继中国特色社会主义“物质文明、精神文明、政治文明和社会文明”之后提出的第五个文明,是顺应人类社会文明进程、实现永续发展、传承马克思主义和弘扬华夏优秀传统的必然,也是中国特色社会主义文明体系中不可缺少的重要组成部分。党的十八大和十八届三中全会把生态文明建设提升到与经济、政治、文化、社会四大建设并列的高度,列入“五位一体”建设的总布局,凸显生态文明建设的地位。中国面对资源约束趋紧、环境污染严重、生态系统退化的严峻形势,用不到世界10%的耕地和6%的淡水养活了超过全球21%的人口,用不到30%的世界人均资源占有率创造了约世界10.0%的GDP ,为世界和平发展做出了杰出贡献,要维持中国社会经济快速稳步发展。到2020年实现 GDP比2000年的翻两番,全面建成小康社会,为实现这一目标,必须坚守“一个”目的,实现永续发展;尊重自然规律,推进“两个”转变;坚持“三项”原则,维护公平正义;做好顶层设计,实施“四大”战略;处好“五种”关系,统筹协调发展。最终实现天蓝、地绿、水净生态文明的繁荣富强美丽中国。%The ecological civilization construction in China is the relationship between the welfare of the people, in relation to the nation’s future long-term plan.“Ecological civilization”concept proposed is following the fifth civilization after“material civilization, spiritual civilization, political civilization and civilized society”with Chinese socialism characteristics;is inevitable to follow the progress of human civilization, to achieve sustainable development, to promote the heritage of Marxism, to raise excellent Chinese tradition, and also is indispensable important part of Chinese

  15. New Technological Charts for Concreting Operations on Site for Civil Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    René Antonio Puig Martínez; Juan José Howland Albear

    2014-01-01

    The on site concreting of constructions, require some regulations to guide the construction companiesto execute the concreting operations according to the status and potential of existing technologies.In Cuba were used for a long time many regulations and construction technical standards issued bythe Ministry of Construction and relating companies, and was published in 1990 the only one versionof Technological Charts for concreting operations on site, about the existing constructions in Cuba,...

  16. 我国生态文明建设中政府的职能%Research of Government Functions in the Construction of Ecological Civilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔小杰; 鲁敏

    2014-01-01

    s:Ecological civilization is a new stage in the development of civilization .Ecological civilization is a social mode of production and lifestyle revolutionary change .The ecological functions of our government are arising with the development of ecological civilization .This paper analyzes the important role of government in ecological civiliza-tion construction .Clarify the functions of government in the process of building ecological civilization and responsi -bilities.Explore an effective way for the government to build an ecological civilization ,and promote ecological civili-zation construction decision-making reference for the government .%生态文明是人类文明发展的一个新阶段,生态文明建设是社会生产方式、生活方式的革命性变革。我国政府的生态职能是随着我国生态文明建设的发展而产生的。分析了政府在生态文明建设中的重要作用,明确了政府在生态文明建设过程中的职能与责任,探索了政府建设生态文明的有效途径,为政府推进生态文明建设的决策提供参考。

  17. Early ceremonial constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the origins of lowland Maya civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Aoyama, Kazuo; Castillo, Victor; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2013-04-26

    The spread of plaza-pyramid complexes across southern Mesoamerica during the early Middle Preclassic period (1000 to 700 BCE) provides critical information regarding the origins of lowland Maya civilization and the role of the Gulf Coast Olmec. Recent excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, documented the growth of a formal ceremonial space into a plaza-pyramid complex that predated comparable buildings at other lowland Maya sites and major occupations at the Olmec center of La Venta. The development of lowland Maya civilization did not result from one-directional influence from La Venta, but from interregional interactions, involving groups in the southwestern Maya lowlands, Chiapas, the Pacific Coast, and the southern Gulf Coast.

  18. 探讨土建施工的现场管理及解决对策%Discussion on the Civil Construction Site Management and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊

    2014-01-01

    目前,我国土建工程在施工过程中,由于受原材料控制、管理、施工技术水平、施工工艺、地质条件等因素的影响,经常会发生一些问题,给群众的财产和生命安全造成了威胁。本文主要针对土建施工过程中的现场管理问题,探讨了相应的解决对策。%At present, in the construction process of civil eng-ineering in our country, because of suffering the effects of raw material control, management, the level of construction techn-ology, construction technology, geological conditions and oth-er factors, there are some problems posing a threat to people’s property and life safety. This paper mainly aimed at the prob-lems in the process of construction site management, discuss-ing the corresponding solving countermeasures.

  19. Feasibility Study of Construction of Building Using Reusable Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darade M.M,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil structures made of steel reinforced concrete normally suffer from corrosion of the steel by the salt, which results in the failure of those structures. Constant maintenance and repairing is needed to enhance the life cycle of those civil structures. There are many ways to minimize the failure of the concrete structures made of steel reinforce concrete. The Project aims to optimize the construction resources with applications to reduce, reuse and recycle to achieve the motive of saving planet, public and then profit. There is an unavoidable growth in the population for this, there is demand of urbanization. This consumes high amount of non-renewable resources and hence resources are getting exhausted creating a scarcity, which a major issue for present generation.

  20. Relacionamento interorganizacional na cadeia de suprimentos: um estudo de caso na indústria da construção civil The interorganizational relationship in the supply chain: a case study in the civil construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albergaria de Mello Bandeira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O escopo deste trabalho consiste em promover uma discussão sobre os mecanismos de coordenação das relações interorganizacionais - poder e cooperação - na cadeia de suprimentos da indústria da construção civil. O poder, como um construto de relações interorganizacionais, tem recebido um tratamento irregular e conflitante por parte dos analistas. No entanto, esta abordagem ignora relações existentes que são muito apropriadas para certos contextos do relacionamento interfirmas. Logo, foi desenvolvido um estudo de caso em um elo da indústria da construção civil com o intuito de identificar suas relações como sendo baseadas em dominação ou cooperação. São analisadas, ainda, as implicações dos resultados da pesquisa na gestão da cadeia de suprimentos da construção civil.The article discusses the relationship in the supplier chain in the civil construction industry. The main objective is to define if it is a cooperative relation among the intervenients or if the most powerful dictates the rules. Power as an interorganizational construct has been observed by analysts with an irregular and conflictive point of view. However, these analysts ignore completely existing relationships that are very appropriate in some existing relationships among enterprises. Due to that, it was verified het type of relationship developed by two intervenients in one step of the supply chain of a civil construction company to determine if it is cooperative or if, otherwise, the main actor uses its power to lead the chain. The researchers also analyze what are the implications of this study in the civil construction industry's supply management.

  1. Ethics review of the civil ecological personality missing and the construction of civil ecological personality%公民生态人格缺失的伦理审视与建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雁

    2015-01-01

    生态人格作为生态文明时代公民应该呈现出的伦理主体形态和生存范式,是对工业社会人与自然关系扭曲观念的反思,也是对生态危机下人类可持续生存发展困境以及传统人格精神危机的觉解与回应。当前公民生态人格缺失主要表现为:自然信仰的虚无、生命意义感迷失、受物欲的支配和生态利己主义倾向等方面。公民生态人格的建构需要从融合人与自然裂隙的角度实现价值观、伦理情感、生活方式和责任承担等方面的整体转向。%Ecological personality is the main ethical form and life paradigm of citizens which supposes to show in the era of ecological civilization .It is the reflection of the distorted concept on the relationship between man and nature in industrial society and also the awareness and response on the ecological crisis of sustainable survival and development dilemma and spiritual crisis of the traditional personality .The civil ecological personality deficiencies are shown as follows: natural faith nihility , life sense lost, material control and eco-egoism.The construction of ecological personality of citizens needs people to make adjustments and changes in the values , ethical emotion , life style and responsibility undertaken from the perspective of the integration of human and nature .

  2. Analysis of the Civil Servants' Professional Ethics Construction%浅析我国公务员职业伦理建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文婷

    2012-01-01

    Civil level of professional ethics is an important benchmark to measure the ethical standards of a society as a whole,and how to strengthen the civil servants professional ethics is a topic of great value.This article focuses on the connotation of the civil servants professional ethics,the difficulties faced by China's civil servants professional ethics construction,as well as explore the developed countries,civil servants professional ethics construction of useful experience and enlightenment for China's national conditions,to make some suggestions for the civil servants professional ethics construction,in order to be able to provide a reference.%公务员职业伦理水平是衡量一个社会整体道德水平的重要标杆,如何加强公务员职业伦理建设,是具有重要价值的课题。本文主要阐述公务员职业伦理的内涵,我国公务员职业伦理建设面临的困境,以及探讨发达国家公务员职业伦理建设对我国的有益经验和启示,从而针对中国国情,为公务员职业伦理建设的构建提出一些建议,以期能够提供参考。

  3. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.

  4. Construction of Civil and Public Facilities of Chinese Cities in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>In 2006, by adopting the Scientific View of Development to guide the urban con-struction, the municipal governments of different levels in China continued to carry out the policies and measures issued by the Central Government con-

  5. New Technological Charts for Concreting Operations on Site for Civil Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Antonio Puig Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The on site concreting of constructions, require some regulations to guide the construction companiesto execute the concreting operations according to the status and potential of existing technologies.In Cuba were used for a long time many regulations and construction technical standards issued bythe Ministry of Construction and relating companies, and was published in 1990 the only one versionof Technological Charts for concreting operations on site, about the existing constructions in Cuba,that are in obsolescence in this moment. During more than two decades, the country has experimentedvery rapidly develop of on site concreting technologies according with the development achieved bythe construction industry, importing or producing new efficient and productive equipments. The newtechnological charts are the result of the authors research project. They have proposed the suitableprocedures for the preparation, transportation, pouring, compaction and curing of the concrete mix incorrespondence with the country "state of the art", and the consumption normative of workers,equipments, time and costs of these activities, using the "concreting flow" as a regulator of theconcreting system.

  6. Nanostructured materials, production and application in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of water-soluble high module silicate systems: based on polysilicates of alkali element called liquid glasses and the chains of their transformations from the lowest oligomers into the highest ones with further formation colloid solutions – silica sol. The authors describe the potentialities of the use of such systems as binders or modifying additives to produce different nanostructured silicate polymer concretes. There are examples of prospective application of liquid glass and water solutions of high module silicates in industrial areas and construction. Quantum-chemical calculations of the structure and properties of tetraphenylarsonium are given and heterogeneity of its functional groups is shown.

  7. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  8. 论马克思的生态观与生态文明建设%Analyzing the ecological view of Marx and the construction of ecological civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高爽

    2013-01-01

    After the 18 times the national congress of the communist in China, the importance of construction of ecological civilization is highlighted, the construction of ecological civilization is people's well-being, concerns national future long term relationship. Faced with resource constraints tightening, the serious situation of serious environmental pollution, ecosystem degradation, must set up the respect for nature, comply with the nature, protect the natural ecological civilization concept, the ecological civilization construction in a prominent position, blend in economic construction, political construction, cultural construction, social construction and the whole process, all aspects in this article, through a review of the ecological view in marxist classic textbook, introduces the core content of marxist ecological view and the eighteenth big report related to the construction of ecological civilization of spirit, and analyzes the Marx's ecological view and ecological civilization construction of the internal relations, illustrates the ecological civilization construction thought is the inheritance and development of marxist ecological view.%  在党的十八大胜利召开之后,建设生态文明的重要性被重点提及,生态文明建设是关系人民福祉、关乎民族未来的长远大计。面对资源约束趋紧、环境污染严重、生态系统退化的严峻形势,必须树立尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然的生态文明理念,把生态文明建设放在突出地位,融入经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设各方面和全过程,文章通过对马克思经典巨著中生态观的回顾,介绍了马克思生态观的核心内容和十八大报告中关于生态文明建设的相关精神,并分析了马克思生态观与生态文明建设的内在关系,说明了生态文明建设思想是马克思生态观的继承和发展。

  9. 4th International Conference on Construction Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Oesterlee, C.; Denarié, E.; Brühwiler, E.

    2009-01-01

    The resistance as well as strain hardening and softening properties of UHPFRC depend on the type of matrix and mainly on the fibre dosage and final distribution and orientation in the element. The strength and deformability distribution in a thin UHPFRC panel was studied. Tensile and flexural specimens cut in different directions and at different positions in the panel were analysed in order to determine locally the mechanical material properties. The real fibre dosage, distribution and orien...

  10. Advanced spatio-temporal filtering techniques for photogrammetric image sequence analysis in civil engineering material testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, F.; Maas, H.-G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper shows advanced spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal filtering techniques which may be used to reduce noise effects in photogrammetric image sequence analysis tasks and tools. As a practical example, the techniques are validated in a photogrammetric spatio-temporal crack detection and analysis tool applied in load tests in civil engineering material testing. The load test technique is based on monocular image sequences of a test object under varying load conditions. The first image of a sequence is defined as a reference image under zero load, wherein interest points are determined and connected in a triangular irregular network structure. For each epoch, these triangles are compared to the reference image triangles to search for deformations. The result of the feature point tracking and triangle comparison process is a spatio-temporally resolved strain value field, wherein cracks can be detected, located and measured via local discrepancies. The strains can be visualized as a color-coded map. In order to improve the measuring system and to reduce noise, the strain values of each triangle must be treated in a filtering process. The paper shows the results of various filter techniques in the spatial and in the temporal domain as well as spatio-temporal filtering techniques applied to these data. The best results were obtained by a bilateral filter in the spatial domain and by a spatio-temporal EOF (empirical orthogonal function) filtering technique.

  11. Interactive Simulator Training in Civil Construction: Evaluation from the Trainer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichon, Jennifer; Diver, Phil

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of simulators to augment training programs for operators of heavy machinery has been growing across several industries including mining, rail and more recently construction. High-fidelity, interactive simulation is typically achieved through complete immersion in brief, stressful and complex VR scenarios. The use of simulation…

  12. Innovative Materials and Techniques in Concrete Construction : ACES Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen enormous advances in the technology of concrete as a material, through which its strength, compactness and ductility can reach levels never dreamed of before. Thanks to these improved material properties, the strength and durability of concrete structures is greatly improved, their weight and dimensions reduced, the scope of concrete as a structural material is widened and – despite the higher material costs – overall economy is possible, with positive impacts on sustainability as well. Similar advances are underway in reinforcing materials, notably high strength steel and fibre-reinforced polymers, and in the way they are combined with concrete into high performance structures. Developments in materials and equipment, as well as new concepts, have lead to innovative construction techniques, reducing cost and construction time and making possible the application of concrete under extreme conditions of construction or environment. All these advances will be highlighted in the book by...

  13. Values in Marx's Ecological Ethics Thought and Their Enlightenment to the Construction of Ecological Civilization%马克思生态伦理价值观对生态文明建设的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧芳

    2014-01-01

    Marx puts forward a series of thoughts of ecological ethics in his related works, which shed light on the construction of ecological civilization in aspects as the dialectical relationship between human and nature, the material transformation in the capitalist production process, the profit -driven nature of capitalism and the conse-quent capitalism dual crisis and moderate consumption patterns, etc.It can be seen that Marx's philosophy not only lays the theory foundation for the construction of ecological civilization, but also provides solution and methods.In today's construction of ecological civilization, Marx's ecological ethics thought plays the theory guide and forward -looking role to China's modernization and ecological civilization construction.%马克思相关著作中蕴含着一定的生态伦理思想,它对生态文明建设具有诸多启示,如人与自然的辩证关系,资本主义生产过程的物质变换,资本逐利性本质以及所造成的资本主义双重危机和适度消费模式等。由此观之,马克思哲学不但为生态文明建设奠定了理论根基,而且还提出了解决思路和方法。在当今生态文明建设中,马克思生态伦理思想对我国现代化建设和生态文明建设具有理论先导和前瞻性的作用。

  14. Construction of tailing dumps dams by using modern materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kostadinov, Ljubisa; Fidancev, Boris; Krstev, Boris; Golomeova, Mirjana; Golomeov, Blagoj

    2013-01-01

    During the construction of tailing dumps dams, modern materials can be used, which materials will improve the stability of dams and ensure high level of environmental protection. At tailing dumps where dams are built upstream or central it is possible the peripheral parts to be constructed by using geotubes. Thus improves the stability of the dam, prevents erosion and protects the air and surrounding area from fugitive emission of flotation sand with air currents. Also, to protect the ...

  15. UTILIZATION OF RECYCLED AND WASTE MATERIALS IN VARIOUS CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnny Bolden; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini

    2013-01-01

    More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nationâs landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take a...

  16. Dynamic response of structures constructed from smart materials

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, T. K.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of structures constructed of homogeneous smart materials is greatly simplified by the observation that the eigenfunctions of such structures are identical to those of the same structures constructed entirely of purely elastic materials. The dynamic analysis of such structures is thus reduced to the analysis of the temporal behaviour of the eigenmodes of the structure. The theory is illustrated for both continuous and discrete structures using the generalization of 'positi...

  17. Evaluation of environmental management resources (ISO 14001) at civil engineering construction worksites: a case study of the community of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gracia; Alegre, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Germán

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental

  18. Evaluation of environmental management resources (ISO 14001) at civil engineering construction worksites: a case study of the community of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gracia; Alegre, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Germán

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made in business organization and management. The growing demands of clients as well as the globalization of world markets are among the many factors that have led to the establishment of systems of quality control and environmental management as a competitive strategy for businesses. When compared to other professional sectors, the construction sector has been slower to respond to environmental problems and to adopt Environmental Management Systems (EMS). In the world today the ISO 14001 standard is currently the main frame of reference used by construction companies to implement this type of management system. This article presents the results of a general study regarding the evaluation of the application of the ISO 14001 standard at civil engineering construction worksites in the Community of Madrid (Spain), specifically pertaining to requirement 4.4.1, Resources, roles, responsibilities, and authority. According to requirement 4.4.1, company executives should appoint people responsible for implementing the EMS and also specify their responsibilities and functions. The personnel designated for supervising environmental work should also have sufficient authority to establish and maintain the EMS. The results obtained were the following: - EMS supervisors did not generally possess adequate training and solid experience in construction work and in the environment. Furthermore, supervisors were usually forced to combine their environmental work with other tasks, which made their job even more difficult. - Generally speaking, supervisors were not given sufficient authority and autonomy because productivity at the construction site had priority over environmental management. This was due to the fact that the company management did not have a respectful attitude toward the environment, nor was the management actively involved in the establishment of the EMS. - Insufficient resources were allocated to the Environmental

  19. Including the people with disabilities at work: a case study of the job of bricklayer in civil construction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, L B; Barkokébas Junior, B; Guimarães, B M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of the evaluation of the job of bricklayer in the construction industry to determine the profile of workers with disabilities who could perform this function and what adjustments are needed. The methods and techniques used in the field study were: direct observation of the activities and the environment, interviews with bricklayers on building sites, a video and photographic record of tasks being carried out to analyze the job of bricklayer, software resources were used. This study set out the disabilities most commonly caused by work accidents in the civil construction industry and simulated the conditions of the individuals to determine whether they could perform the activities of this function and what adaptations are needed. It was observed that workers with hearing impairments could perform activities without any change in the workplace and individuals who had had a leg or foot amputated need to use appropriate prostheses to perform the activities of the function. Thus, it was shown that the activity of professionals with experience in Ergonomics is essential since, by the activity of gathering data and analysing the physical, cognitive and organizational requirements of jobs and by collecting data on and analysing the functional capabilities of the worker with a disability, adaptations to jobs can be adequately defined. PMID:22317447

  20. Climate Change and Construction of Ecological Civilization%气候变化与生态文明建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 范广洲

    2015-01-01

    全球气候变化是当今世界的焦点问题。全球变暖导致极端天气和气候事件频发,威胁着人类生存发展。中国作为最大的发展中国家,国家与国民安全受到气候变化的严重影响。为了应对严峻的形势,需要社会和民众大力推进生态文明建设,树立生态文明理念,提高科学技术水平,科学应对气候变化,积极完成节能减排、环境保护等重要任务,使中华民族更加繁荣昌盛。%Nowadays, global climate change as a serious issue causes a lot of attention, bring a significant impact on society and people around the world.Global warming causes frequent extreme weather and climate events, threatening human survival and development.As the biggest developing country, China and its national security are seriously affected by the climate change.To face such a tense situation, Chinese society and people need to greatly promote the construction of ecological civilization, set up the concept of ecological civilization, improve the levels of science and technology, scientifically response to the climate change, positively complete the important tasks, such as, energy conservation, emissions reduction and protection for the environment etc., so as to make China more thriving and prosperous.

  1. 气候变化与生态文明建设%Climate Change and Construction of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 范广洲

    2015-01-01

    全球气候变化是当今世界的焦点问题。全球变暖导致极端天气和气候事件频发,威胁着人类生存发展。中国作为最大的发展中国家,国家与国民安全受到气候变化的严重影响。为了应对严峻的形势,需要社会和民众大力推进生态文明建设,树立生态文明理念,提高科学技术水平,科学应对气候变化,积极完成节能减排、环境保护等重要任务,使中华民族更加繁荣昌盛。%Nowadays, global climate change as a serious issue causes a lot of attention, bring a significant impact on society and people around the world.Global warming causes frequent extreme weather and climate events, threatening human survival and development.As the biggest developing country, China and its national security are seriously affected by the climate change.To face such a tense situation, Chinese society and people need to greatly promote the construction of ecological civilization, set up the concept of ecological civilization, improve the levels of science and technology, scientifically response to the climate change, positively complete the important tasks, such as, energy conservation, emissions reduction and protection for the environment etc., so as to make China more thriving and prosperous.

  2. Special sensors for deformation measurements of different construction materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, Branko; Inaudi, Daniele; Kronenberg, Pascal; LLoret, Sandra; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1999-05-01

    SOFO is a fiber optic sensor system that allows the monitoring of micrometer deformations over measurement bases up to a few meters. It is particularly adapted to measure civil structures built with conventional civil engineering materials (concrete, steel and timber). It has been successfully tested in different types of structures such as bridges, tunnels and piles. The application of the system is however limited in some case when unusual materials are used in the construction and in other cases by the dimensions of standard SOFO sensors. To extend the domain of application of the current system, special sensors have been developed. In this paper we present four special SOFO sensors: long, membrane, thin and stiff sensors. The long sensor has a measurement basis of several tenths of meters and its purpose is the measurement of deformations in massive and large structures (dames, tunnels). The membrane sensor is for use on laminated materials (e.g. membrane roofing) and it is easy to install by simply gluing it to the structure to be monitored. Since standard sensors can not be used for thin mortar layers because of their cross- section, a thin sensor has been developed, too. Finally, the aim of the stiff sensor is to determine the hardening (solidification) time of concrete. This time is determined by comparing the deformations of a stiff and a standard sensor, closely placed in the concrete at the very early age. The design of these sensors is presented along with significant application examples.

  3. 将生态文明贯穿于绿色矿山建设全过程%The ecological civilization throughout the green mine construction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔繁盛

    2013-01-01

    本文在阐明生态文明建设的重要内涵、意义及其在绿色矿业发展中的重要基础作用的基础上,围绕绿色矿山建设基本条件,提出了如何贯彻落实生态文明建设的一些意见和看法,以利于推进绿色矿山建设向深层次发展.%Based on the ecological civilization construction to clarify the important connotation, significance and the important basic role in the green mining development, on the basis of green mine construction around the basic conditions, puts forward how to implement the ecological civilization construction of the some opinions and views, in order to promote the construction of green mine to in-depth development.

  4. Relativization of the material “res judicata” in the brazilian civil suit Relativização da coisa julgada material no processo civil brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It also addresses the debate about the revitalization of the res judicata in the civil suit of the individual cognitive tutelage when the sentence goes against constitutional norms or principles. It highlights that only the existent sentences, which lead to res judicata unconstitutional or unjust, may be relativized. It sees the principle of proportionality as a method or criterion adequate to solve the conflict of values that arises when the law enforcer is faced with an unfair or unconstitutional sentence. Only the consideration upon values, in a true case, is able to determine whether the res judicata must be kept or not in the juridical order. To relativize the res judicata unconstitutional a de-constitutive action is proposed, with the same characteristics of a rescinding action, but not subject to terms of duration.Trata da polêmica sobre a relativização da coisa julgada no processo civil de tutela cognitiva individual, quando a sentença afronta normas ou princípios constitucionais. Enfoca que somente as sentenças existentes, que produzem coisa julgada inconstitucional ou injusta, podem ser relativizadas. Aponta o princípio da proporcionalidade como método ou critério adequado para resolver o conflito de valores. Somente a ponderação de valores, no caso concreto, é capaz de determinar se a coisa julgada deve ser mantida ou não na ordem jurídica. Para relativizar a coisa julgada inconstitucional propõe o cabimento de uma ação desconstitutiva, com as mesmas características da ação rescisória, mas não sujeita a prazo.

  5. Sociedade civil e construção democrática: do maniqueísmo essencialista à abordagem relacional Civil society and democratic construction: from essentialist manichaeism to the relational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kunrath Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo problematizar um "objeto" pouco abordado quando se analisam as características tradicionais e autoritárias que bloqueiam a construção democrática no Brasil: a "sociedade civil". A partir do suporte teórico-metodológico da "sociologia relacional" de Norbert Elias e da fundamentação empírica fornecida pela análise comparativa das relações entre sociedade civil e governos municipais em duas cidades da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre, questiona-se uma apreensão essencialista e unificadora dos atores sociais, que deixa de perceber a sociedade civil como um espaço de diversidade, de relações de poder e de conflitos, no qual se encontram e intervêm atores marcados por diversas orientações e mantendo diferentes relações com a democracia.This article aims at debating an "object" that has deserved little attention when traditional and authoritarian traits that block democratic construction in Brazil are examined: "civil society". Based on the theoretical-methodological support of Norbert Elias' "relational sociology" and the empirical foundation provided by comparative analysis between civil society and municipal governments in two cities of Porto Alegre's metropolitan area, we question an essentialist and unifying approach of social actors that sees civil society as a space for diversity, power relations and conflict, where actors marked by several orientations meet and keep distinct relations to democracy.

  6. 以制度创新推动生态文明建设%Promote Ecological Civilization Construction by System Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙忠英

    2016-01-01

    生态文明制度建设涉及到文化理念、价值观念、生活方式和生产方式等方面的深刻变革。从近几年的实践看,生态文明建设“硬件”投入较大,效果比较明显;而生态文明建设“软件”相对不足,主要表现为生态文明制度不完善,生态文明价值观不够强烈,决策程序不够科学民主,考核方法和制度滞后,生态文明制度体系不健全,环境执法监管不到位。建立和完善生态文明制度,应该从文化制度、决策制度、评价制度、考核制度、协调制度和监管制度等方面着手,以制度建设和创新发展推进生态文明建设。%The construction of ecological civilization system relates to the profound changes in the aspects of cultural idea, value idea, life style and production mode. From the practice in recent years, the "hardware" investment in ecological civilization construction was larger, the effect was more obvious, and the "software" investment in ecological civilization construction was relatively insufficient, the main ecological civilization system was not perfect. The values of ecological civilization was not strong enough, the decision-making process was not scientific and democratic, the assessment methods and system lagged, the system of ecological civilization was not perfect, environmental law enforcement supervision was not in place. Establishing and improving the system of ecological civilization should start from the cultural system, decision-making system, evaluation system, evaluation system, coordination system and regulatory system, to promote ecological civilization construction by system construction and innovating development.

  7. Enablers of innovation in the construction material industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Jacobsen, Alexia;

    2014-01-01

    , which creates a strong interdependence between the different supply network partners and can be seen as a hindrance for innovation. Innovation models must embrace such a contemporary business structures, where competition often takes place between supply chains rather than between individual companies......The construction material industry is often acknowledged as slightly more innovative than the overall construction industry and could hence serve as a valuable learning place for how innovation could flourish in the construction industry. Construction is viewed as network or supply chain based...

  8. 谈土建工程项目现场施工管理%On the On-site Construction Management of Civil Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宜旭

    2014-01-01

    The on-site construction management of civil engineering is an important content of the construction of building engineering. This paper describes several aspects of on-site construction management, and puts forward strategies to improve and strengthen on-site construction management.%土建工程项目的现场施工管理是建筑工程建设的重要内容。文章主要阐述了施工现场管理的几个方面,并在此基础上提出改进和加强施工现场管理的策略。

  9. Radiological impact of the application of phosphogypsum in civil construction: an overview of Brazilian studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Marcia P.; Nisti, Marcelo B.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Mazzilli, Barbara P., E-mail: mpcampos@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (lPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. In Brazil, four main industries (Ultrafertil, Copebras, Fosfertil and Bunge Fertilizantes) are responsible for the production of 1.2 x 10{sup 6} tons per year of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Phosphogypsum is the byproduct of the phosphoric acid industry, obtained by reacting phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. This waste is stockpiled in the surrounding environment of the facilities at a rate of 5.5 x 10{sup 6} tons per year. The level of radioactivity present in the phosphogypsum, among other impurities, prevents its reuse for a variety of purposes. All the countries that produce phosphate fertilizer by acid wet processing of phosphate rock are facing the same problem of finding solutions for the safe application of phosphogypsum, in order to minimize the impact caused by its disposal. This paper aims to present a review of the research carried out at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, focusing in the radiological implications of using Brazilian phosphogypsum as building material: bricks and plaster. The results and conclusions achieved can contribute to the development or national standards and guidelines concerning the safe use and management or phosphogypsum as a building material. (author)

  10. Applications of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ohama, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Titanium dioxide photocatalysis is based on the semiconducting nature of its anatase crystal type. Construction materials with titanium photocatalyst show performances of air purification, self-cleaning, water purification, antibacterial action. This book describes principles of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, its applications to cementitious and noncementitious materials, as well as an overview of standardization of testing methods.

  11. Time Delay Estimation algorithms adapted to dispersive media - Application to the NDT&E of civil engineering materials

    OpenAIRE

    CHAHINE, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Time delays are generally estimated for NDT&E purposes, under the assumption of dispersion free media. As opposed to the latter, this work intends to adapt the subspace and MPM family algorithms to the dispersive nature of civil engineering materials (hydraulic concrete, soils) for which the dispersion obeys to the Q-constant model (Jonscher). Two solutions are proposed to jointly estimate the time delay, T, and the Q factor attached to each layer. The performance of algorithms is assessed ag...

  12. Evaluation of natural radioactivity in some granitic rocks in the state of Parana, Brazil and its use in civil construction; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em algumas rochas graniticas do estado do Parana e sua utilizacao na construcao civil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ademar de Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Primordial, or terrestrial natural radionuclides, are found in different amounts in the environment. In dwellings, an important dose increment is due to building materials, which contribute for both the external gamma dose from the radionuclides of the {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 232}Th series and the natural {sup 40}K and the internal dose, due mainly to {sup 222}Rn inhalation. Once granitic rocks are widely used both as construction materials or structural flooring, those rocks can become an important dose source, depending on the content of concentrations of radioactivity, and the construction application. In this work, a database for granitic rocks of the crystalline shield of Parana (mainly in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, RMC), used in civil construction, was generated, evaluating in terms of radiological protection the external and internal dose increments, caused by the use of these materials. Also, possible correlations between the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration, the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate, density, porosity and chemical composition (oxide content) in these samples had been studied. The external dose was assessed by gamma-ray spectrometry with High-Purity Germanium detectors, where the activity concentration of the radionuclides {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 40}K are the parameters used in dosimetric models (Dosimetric Indexes), which established limits in accordance with the form, amount and application of material of construction. For the calculation of the annual effective external dose it was assumed a room model with dimensions of 4 m x 5 m x 2:8 m and all walls internally covered with 2 cm thickness of granite and an annual exposure time of 7000 h as suggested by the European Commission of Radiological Protection for internal superficial coating materials. The internal exposure was assessed from the radon concentration in the air of the room model, simulated from the superficial exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. The exhalation

  13. 生态文明建设中的企业责任%Enterprise Responsibility in Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周菡潇

    2014-01-01

    Enterprise responsibility in ecological civilization construction is an important part of enterprise social responsibility, which refers to the ecological obligations of environmental protection, social care a nd dialectical unity of man and nature in the construction of ecological civilization affordably undertaken by the enterprise. In recent years, the growth of pollutant emissions has basically been contained in China. However, due to the defect of administrative system and law enforcement as well as the lack of enterprise self-discipline, the pollution control situation is still grim. This article put forwa rd some reasonable suggestions respectively from three aspects of government, enterprise and public through learning from the advanced experience of the US and Japan, such as improving ecological environment protection laws and regulations system, building enterprise responsibility performance evaluation index system, strengthening enterprise's ecological responsibility training, developing new public responsibility and consumption concept, etc.%生态文明建设中的企业责任是企业社会责任的重要组成部分,是指企业力所能及地承担起环境保护、社会关爱、人与自然辩证统一的生态义务。近年来我国污染物排放增长态势基本得到遏制,但因行政体制与执法存在缺陷、企业自律性不足,污染治理形势依然严峻。通过借鉴美国、日本两国的先进经验,分别从政府、企业、公众层面提出完善生态环境保护法律法规体系,构建企业责任绩效评价指标体系,强化企业生态责任培训,树立公众新的责任感和消费观念等合理建议。

  14. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade. Main Injector. Technical Components and Civil Construction, January, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-01-12

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Collider. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to the Fermilab fixed target program. The Main Injector (MI) is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The MI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the MI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the MI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two to three. In addition the MI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  15. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade: Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, January 1990 (Rev. 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-01-10

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to both the Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The Main Injector (MI) is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The MI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the MI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the MI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two to three. In addition the MI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  16. Safety analysis report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, phase 1, supporting civil/structural construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy established the K Basins Spent Nuclear Fuel Project to address safety and environmental concerns associated with deteriorating spent nuclear fuel presently stored under water in the Hanford Site's K Basins, which are located near the Columbia River. Recommendations for a series of aggressive projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to manage the safe removal of K Basins fuel were made in WHC-EP-0830, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Recommended Path Forward,' and its subsequent update, WHC-SD-SNF-SP-005, Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Integrated Process Strategy for K Basins Fuel. The integrated process strategy recommendations include the following process steps: fuel preparation activities at the K Basins, including removing the fuel elements from their K Basin canisters, separating fuel particulate from fuel elements and fuel fragments greater than 0.6 cm (0.25 in.) in any dimension, removing excess sludge from the fuel and fuel fragments by means of flushing, as necessary, and packaging the fuel into multicanister overpacks; removal of free water by draining and vacuum drying at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), a new facility in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This report is contains the safety analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 1

  17. On management and control over construction progress in civil engineering programs%土建工程的施工进度管理和控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyzes the factors influencing the construction progress management of civil engineering projects,and points out some sug-gestions for the preparation before the construction,compilation progress plan,and improvement of management regulations,so as to promote the construction progress management level of the civil engineering projects.%分析了影响土建工程施工进度管理的各项因素,针对施工进度管理中存在的问题,提出了做好开工前的准备工作、编制进度计划、完善项目管理法规体系等建议,以有效提高土建工程施工进度管理水平。

  18. Construction of new media and civil society%新媒体与公民社会的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2013-01-01

      新媒体正以星星燎原之势迅速发展,现代快节奏的生活使许多人已经抛弃传统媒体,转身投向更加快节奏的新媒体时代。新媒体在构建公民社会中发挥的作用是不容小觑的,一方面新媒体与公民社会间正发生着日益紧密的双向互动联系,另一方面公民在新媒体中的议程设置功能正渐渐显著起来,新媒体也给了公民充分的话语表现权。%The new media are developing rapidly, the fast pace of modern life makes many people abandon the traditional media, and turn toward to accelerate the pace of new media era. The role of new media in constructing the civil society should not be underestimated, on the one hand, new media and citizen society is undergoing more closely linked, on the other hand, the agenda setting function of citizens in the new media is gradually obvious, new media also gives a full citizen discourse right.

  19. Embedded optical fiber sensors for continuous health monitoring of civil engineering structures in composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Chapeleau, Xavier; Drissi Habti, Monssef; Tomiyama, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    Embedding optical fibre-based sensors into composite structures in civil engineering is a promising alternative for structural health monitoring (SHM). This article is a review of the main sensing techniques based on optical fibres. Localized and multiplexed measurements as well as distributed measurements techniques are presented.

  20. "At the Head of the Aboriginal Remnant": Cherokee Construction of a "Civilized" Indian Identity during the Lakota Crisis of 1876

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In 1876 the bilingual Cherokee diplomat and lawyer William Penn Adair expressed great pride in the level of "civilization" that his nation had achieved. Defining civilization as commercial agriculture, literacy, Christianity, and republican government, Adair believed that his society has reached a sophistication that equaled and in certain areas…

  1. Biofabrication of multi-material anatomically shaped tissue constructs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additive manufacturing in the field of regenerative medicine aims to fabricate organized tissue-equivalents. However, the control over shape and composition of biofabricated constructs is still a challenge and needs to be improved. The current research aims to improve shape, by converging a number of biocompatible, quality construction materials into a single three-dimensional fiber deposition process. To demonstrate this, several models of complex anatomically shaped constructs were fabricated by combined deposition of poly(vinyl alcohol), poly(ε-caprolactone), gelatin methacrylamide/gellan gum and alginate hydrogel. Sacrificial components were co-deposited as temporary support for overhang geometries and were removed after fabrication by immersion in aqueous solutions. Embedding of chondrocytes in the gelatin methacrylamide/gellan component demonstrated that the fabrication and the sacrificing procedure did not affect cell viability. Further, it was shown that anatomically shaped constructs can be successfully fabricated, yielding advanced porous thermoplastic polymer scaffolds, layered porous hydrogel constructs, as well as reinforced cell-laden hydrogel structures. In conclusion, anatomically shaped tissue constructs of clinically relevant sizes can be generated when employing multiple building and sacrificial materials in a single biofabrication session. The current techniques offer improved control over both internal and external construct architecture underscoring its potential to generate customized implants for human tissue regeneration. (paper)

  2. Imagerie par résonance magnétique appliquée aux matériaux du génie civil Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applied to Civil Engineering Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coussot P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Un imageur par résonance magnétique dédié aux matériaux du génie civil et de la construction est actuellement en cours d'acquisition par le LCPC (Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées. Il sera géré par le LMSGC à Champs-sur-Marne et installé dans les locaux de l'IFI (Institut francilien d'Ingénierie. De nombreuses collaborations avec des laboratoires et des entreprises sont envisagées et certaines déjà mises en place. D'un point de vue général, les recherches concerneront les transferts et changements de phase dans les milieux granulaires et poreux. Une série de dispositifs de recherche complémentaire est à l'étude. Ceux-ci permettront de solliciter les échantillons (chauffage, refroidissement, écoulement, transfert, fissuration tout en réalisant des images de la structure interne. Ceci nous permettra de mettre en relation les propriétés macroscopiques des matériaux et leurs évolutions au niveau mésoscopique. A magnetic resonance imager for use with civil engineering and construction materials is being acquired by the LCPC (Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées. It will be managed by the LMSGC at Champs-sur-Marne and will be installed on the premises of the IFI (Institut francilien d'Ingénierie. Numerous joint projects between laboratories and industry are contemplated and some are already under way. The general outlook for these research projects is to study transfers and phase changes in granular porous media. A number of supplementary research devices are being studied. These devices will make it possible to submit samples to heating, cooling, flow, transfer and fissuring while recording images of their internal structure. This will allow us to discover the relationship between the macroscopic properties of materials and mesoscopic changes.

  3. 加强软土地基施工管理,提高土木工程施工质量%Enhancing Soft Soil Foundation Construction Management and Improving Civil Engineering Construction Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀娟

    2014-01-01

    在土木工程中,加强软土地基施工管理,能够对整个工程施工质量进行提高。其中在软土地基施工管理中,首先要对软土地地基加固处理技术进行管理。下面本文就对土木工程软土地基施工管理技术进行探讨。%In civil engineering, enhancing soft soil foundation construction management can be helpful for improving the construction quality of the whole project. In soft soil foundation construction management, the first thing to do is supervise and control the soft soil foundation reinforcement technology. This paper discusses the soft soil foundation construction management technology in civil engineering.

  4. Advantages and challenges of dissimilar materials in automotive lightweight construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberpals, Jan-Philipp; Schmidt, Philipp A.; Böhm, Daniel; Müller, Steffen

    2015-03-01

    The core of future automotive lightweight materials is the joining technology of various material mixes. The type of joining will be essential, particularly in electrified propulsion systems, especially as an improved electrical energy transmission leads to a higher total efficiency of the vehicle. The most evident parts to start the optimization process are the traction battery, the electrical performance modules and the engines. Consequently aluminum plays a very central role for lightweight construction applications. However, the physical-technical requirements of components often require the combination with other materials. Thus the joining of mixed material connections is an essential key technology for many of the current developments, for example in the areas E-Mobility, solar energy and lightweight construction. Due to these advantages mixed material joints are already established in the automotive industry and laser beam remote welding is now a focus technology for mixed material connections. The secret of the laser welding process with mixed materials lies within the different areas of the melting phase diagram depending on the mixing ratio and the cooling down rate. According to that areas with unwanted, prim, intermetallic phases arise in the fusion zone. Therefore, laser welding of mixed material connections can currently only be used with additional filler in the automotive industry.

  5. A review on smart self-sensing composite materials for civil engineering applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sohel Rana; Subramani P; Raul Fangueiro; Antonio Gomes Correia

    2016-01-01

    Self-sensing composites are becoming highly attractive for civil engineering applications to improve the safety and performance of structures. These smart composites show a detectable change in their electrical resistivity with applied stress or strain and this unique characteristic make them useful for health monitoring of structures. Till date, different forms of carbon composites, i.e. short fibre, continuous fibre, particles, nano fibres, nanotubes, etc. have been utilized for this purpos...

  6. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SCIENCE: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhdanok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on the beginning, state and prospects of nanotechnology application in the construction industry inBelarus. These technologies are based on the national carbon nano-materials, obtained at theInstituteofHeatand Mass Transfer of NAS of Belarus. 

  7. NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SCIENCE: REALITY AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zhdanok; Khroustalev, B.; E. Batyanowski; S. Leonovich

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents information on the beginning, state and prospects of nanotechnology application in the construction industry inBelarus. These technologies are based on the national carbon nano-materials, obtained at theInstituteofHeatand Mass Transfer of NAS of Belarus. 

  8. Costs Climb on Materials for Schools: Construction Projects Delayed, Scrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Joetta L.

    2004-01-01

    The rapidly rising cost of steel and other construction materials is forcing some districts that are building new schools to scramble for more money, delay work, or redesign projects. Nationwide, contractors and architects are finding it harder to give accurate estimates on projects, and some have even had to renegotiate contracts with districts.…

  9. Construction raw materials policy and supply practices in Northwestern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Koopmans, T.P.F.; Pietersen, H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present contribution is an inventory of the construction raw materials policy and supply practices in The Netherlands, Belgium, North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Great Britain, Norway and Denmark. The work has been commissioned by the Dutch government in order to benchmark its domestic provi

  10. Natural and construction materials and plant products. Raw materials, constructional physics, design and construction. 2. upd. and enl. ed.; Natuerliche und pflanzliche Baustoffe. Rohstoff - Bauphysik - Konstruktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzmann, Gerhard; Wangelin, Matthias; Bruns, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    The book discusses all relevant renewable constructional materials made from fibre or dyeing plants along with their physical and chemical fundamentals. Protection of resources, environmental protection, and pollutants in constructional materials are gone into as well. [German] Dieses Buch behandelt alle wichtige nachwachsenden, pflanzlichen Baustoffe aus Faser- und Faerberpflanzen sowie dazugehoerige physikalische und chemische Grundlagen. Angesprochen werden auch Ressourcen- und Umweltschutz sowie Schadstoffe aus Bauprodukten.

  11. Dynamic Comparison and Trend analysis of Southeast Guizhou's Experimental Area of Eco-civilization Construction and the National Eco-efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ting-feng; Zhao, Yong-Xu; Xu, Xiao-Chao

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the development level of eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou's experimental area of eco-civilization construction, we conduct dynamic comparison research of its eco-efficiency and the national eco-efficiency, using single ratio method based on the ecological footprint model, to grasp the gap between its eco-efficiency and the national eco-efficiency, so that we can take appropriate countermeasures to improve eco-efficiency. The results show that in the period 197...

  12. Dynamic Comparison and Trend analysis of Southeast Guizhou’s Experimental Area of Eco-civilization Construction and the National Eco-efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the development level of eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou’s experimental area of eco-civilization construction,we conduct dynamic comparison research of its eco-efficiency and the national eco-efficiency,using single ratio method based on the ecological footprint model,to grasp the gap between its eco-efficiency and the national eco-efficiency,so that we can take appropriate countermeasures to improve eco-efficiency. The results show that in the period 1978-2010,the eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou’s experimental area of eco-civilization construction was always lower than the national eco-efficiency; the long-time average annual value of its eco-efficiency was less than one half of that of the national eco-efficiency,with the absolute gap of 1 630. 095 yuan /hm 2 ,and the gap tended to widen year by year in the period 1978-2002 ( the gap increased from 276. 551 yuan /hm 2 in 1978 to peak of 3 227. 713 yuan /hm 2 in 2002,with an average annual increase of 118. 047 yuan /hm 2 ,and especially after 1992,the gap was particularly evident,with an average annual increase of 194.771 yuan/hm 2 ) ,but from 2003,the gap between the two tended to decrease. Based on the prediction results of grey system,in the period 2011-2025,the gap between the eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou’s experimental area of eco-civilization construction and the national eco-efficiency will gradually narrow,and from 2019, the eco-efficiency in Southeast Guizhou’s experimental area of eco-civilization construction will be higher than the national eco-efficiency.

  13. Radon exhalation rates from some building construction materials using SSNTDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion processes from the point of origin following α- decay of 226Ra in underground soil and building materials used. in the construction of floors, walls, and ceilings. In dwellings main source of radon are soil or rock underneath, building materials and portable water supplies. The major release of radon indoors is from building construction materials used. The radon measurements on the ground can give a clue about the hidden uranium. The exposure of population to high concentrations of radon and its daughters for a long period leads to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. In the present investigations radon exhalation rates from some soil and other building materials like fly ash, cement and sand collected from Panchkula, Ambala, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra, Karnal and Panipat districts of Haryana have been estimated. For the measurement of radon concentration in these samples we used α-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from these samples have also been calculated. The aim of study is the possible health risk assessment due to emission of radiation from building construction materials. (author)

  14. Radiation damage of the construction materials, Phase I, Part I- Radiation damage of the construction steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this task was testing the mechanical properties of stainless steels having different grain size. Being an important material used mainly for reactor vessel construction stainless steel will be exposed to neutron flux in the RA reactor for testing

  15. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf;

    2013-01-01

    Different corrosion resistant stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, pure nickel, Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L), niobium, platinum and gold rods were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature (200-400 °C) acidic water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance...... resistance and the anodic and cathodic limits were for the first time found for the electrolyte. Nickel, niobium, Inconel®625, Hastelloy®C-276 and Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L) demonstrated high corrosion stability and can be recommended as construction materials for bipolar plates. © (2013) Trans...

  16. Modern diaper performance: construction, materials, and safety review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Swatee; Kenneally, Dianna; Odio, Mauricio; Hatzopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    A review of the literature on diapers and diaper rash reveals that many clinicians are unfamiliar with modern diaper construction and materials as well as diaper safety testing methods. Typical modern diapers do not contain ingredients of concern such as latex and disperse dyes, but use ingredients such as spandex and pigments with a favorable safety profile. Today's disposable diaper is a high performance product whose carefully designed layers and liners provide optimal urine and feces absorption and an ever more clothing-like and comfortable fit. This is possible due to a variety of specialized polymer materials that provide optimal absorption of urine and feces, thereby minimizing skin exposure. PMID:27311782

  17. Challenges in treating earthen construction materials as unsaturated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augarde Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthen construction is a loosely defined term covering both the materials and methods for creating structural components from mixtures of subsoil, often with the addition of chemical or mechanical stabilisers. There is evidence of Man creating earthen structures for thousands of years, and there are many world heritage sites containing earthen structures, some of which present issues in terms of conservation. In some parts of the world there is a growing market for new-build earthen structures and a key issue here is the lack of design codes. Since these materials are composed mainly of particulates and water it is natural to regard them as geotechnical in nature, where friction and the presence of water have a key influence on material properties, however until very recently this was not the case, with earthen construction materials regarded as weak concrete or masonry. In this paper we examine these opposing views and discuss the issues associated with regarding these materials as unsaturated soils. The paper is illustrated with outcomes from research at Durham University carried out over the past ten years.

  18. Photocatalytic construction and building materials: From fundamentals to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-sun [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hum Hom (China)

    2009-09-15

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis has been intensively studied in recent decades because it only requires photonic energy to activate the chemical conversion contrasting with conventional catalysis which needs heat for thermo-activation. Over the years, the theories for photochemical activity of photocatalyst including photo-induced redox reaction and super-hydrophilic conversion of TiO{sub 2} itself have been established. The progress in academic research significantly promotes its practical applications, including the field of photocatalytic construction and building materials. TiO{sub 2} modified building materials are most popular because TiO{sub 2} has been traditionally used as a white pigment. The major applications of TiO{sub 2} based photocatalytic building materials include environmental pollution remediation, self-cleaning and self-disinfecting. The advantage of using solar light and rainwater as driving force has opened a new domain for environmentally friendly building materials. In this paper, the basic reaction mechanisms on photocatalyst surface under the irradiation of ultraviolet and their corresponding applications in building and construction materials are reviewed. The problems faced in practical applications and the trends for future development are also discussed. (author)

  19. Permeability of some building construction material for radon diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the radon diffusion coefficient and diffusion lengths for some building construction materials viz: soil, sand, cement, fly ash have been calculated. Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process and is affected by several factors. The diffusion of the radon through the ground is a complex process and is related to the porosity, permeability, which is dependent on grain size distribution, degree of compaction and the water content of the soil. The apparatus designed for the study of radon diffusion through different building construction materials consists of a hollow plastic cylinder of inner diameter 25 cm and length 50 cm deployed vertically. The radon source covered with latex membrane is fixed at the bottom of the cylinder in the cavity. Open-ended cylindrical tubes of diameter 1.5 cm and of length 15 and 25 cm are installed in hollow plastic cylinder. The top end of each diffusion tube holds LR-115 type-II plastic detector such that its sensitive side always faces the source of radon. The building construction materials under study in the pulverized form are filled in diffusion tubes and the system is left undisturbed for a period of 30 days. The detectors are chemically etched in NaOH solution. The alpha tracks are counted using an optical Olympus microscope

  20. “现实的个人”与生态文明建设%"Reality of the Individual"and Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浏

    2016-01-01

    生态文明不是脱离人的文明,以人为本是生态文明建设理应坚持的原则。马克思关于“现实的个人”的概念,从哲学角度详细阐述了人的本质问题,以此理论为出发点,深化对以人为本原则的认识,从而把握以人为本的生态文明建设的实质,生态文明建设实质就是对于人的本质的重塑,实现“现实的个人”的自然和社会双重属性的协调,彰显劳动自由自觉的特性。立足现实,生态文明建设就是要通过树立绿色消费理念、集体主义观念,通过全面深化改革实现人的本质的重塑。%Ecological civilization is not the one separated from human beings,but people-orientedness is the principle eco-logical civilization construction should adhere to.Marx concept on the"realistic individual"expounded the essence of human na-ture from a philosophical point of view.Based on this concept,deepening the understanding of the principle of people-orienta-tion and grasping the essence of the construction of ecological civilization.The essence of the construction of ecological civiliza-tion is the reconstruction of human nature,the coordination of the nature and the social nature of the"realistic individual",the formation of the characteristics of the free and conscious labor.Based on reality,the construction of ecological civilization is to establish the concept of green consumption,the concept of collectivism,through the comprehensive deepening of reform to a-chieve the essence of the remodeling.

  1. Costs and benefits of composite material applications to a civil STOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Costs and benefits of advanced composite primary airframe structure were studied to determine cost-effective applications to a civil STOL aircraft designed for introduction in the early 1980 time period. Applications were assessed by comparing costs and weights with a baseline metal aircraft which served as a basis of comparison throughout the study. Costs as well as weights were estimated from specific designs of principal airframe components, thus establishing a cost-data base for the study. Cost effectiveness was judged by an analysis that compared direct operating costs and return on investment of the composite and baseline aircraft. A systems operations analysis was performed to judge effects of the smaller, lighter composite aircraft. It was determined that broad applications of advanced composites to the airframe considered could be cost-effective, but this advantage is strongly influenced by structural configuration and several key cost categories.

  2. Study on Measures of Environmental Audit Promoting Ecological Civilization Construction%环境审计促进生态文明建设的措施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩德静

    2014-01-01

    加强和完善环境审计是促进生态文明建设,保障我国经济社会可持续发展的重要举措之一。本文以加强环境审计,服务生态文明建设为主旨,在对环境审计所面临的问题进行分析的基础上,从如何开展符合中国国情的环境审计、环境审计队伍建设、机制建设和服务意识等方面,探讨解决问题的对策。%To strengthen and improve the environmental audit is an important measure to promote the construction of ecological civilization and ensure our country's economic and social sustainable development. In this thesis, aiming to strengthen environmental auditing services for the subject construction of ecological civilization, the solutions based on the analysis of problems in environmental audit are discussed in respect of the environmental audit suited to China's national conditions, environmental audit team construction, mechanism construction and service awareness, etc.

  3. Neutron diffraction measurements of residual stresses in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction is one of the most powerful methods for condensed matter studies. This method is used for non-destructive determination of residual stresses in material. The fundamental aspects of neutron diffraction are discussed, together with a brief description of the experimental facility. The principal advantage of using neutrons rather than the more conventional X-rays is the fact that neutron can penetrate deeply (2-4 cm for steel and more than 10 cm for aluminium) into metals to determine internal parameters within the bulk of materials. We present results of measurements residual stresses in NPP construction material - austenitic stainless steel (Cr-18%, Ni-10%, Ti-1%) coated with high-nickel alloy. (authors)

  4. Influence of chemical composition of civil construction waste in the cement paste; Influencia da composicao quimica dos residuos da construcao civil a pasta de cimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, G.A.; Andrade, A.C.D.; Souza, J.M.M.; Evangelista, A.C.J.; Almeida, V.C., E-mail: valeria@eq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The construction and demolition waste when disposed inappropriately might cause serious public health problems. Its reutilization focusing on the development of new products using simple production techniques, assuring a new product life cycle and not damaging the environment is inserted in sustainable concept. The aim of this work was identifying the characteristics of types of waste generated in a residential reform (glassy ceramic and fill dirt leftovers) verifying separately its influence on cement pastes mechanical behavior. Cement pastes + wastes were prepared in 25% and 50% proportions with an approximately 0,35 water/cement relation and, glue time determination, water absorption, resistance to compression and X-ray fluorescence assays were taken. The results indicate that the chemical composition of the waste causes changes in the behavior of cement pastes, reflecting on their resistance to compression. (author)

  5. The "Material" and the "Mental" as Brain Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Roth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For most philosophers it is “inconceivable” that neural states could give rise to mind. However, as Nannini demonstrates, this argument is very weak, because modern physics is full of aspects that are radically opposed to conventional thinking. Furthermore, the qualia problem represents a pseudo-problem which arises, whenever we confound events in our phenomenal world (“actuality” with events in the consciousness-independent world (“reality”. Everything we identify and measure as “material” brain structures and functions is a mental construct of a “real” brain inaccessible to us, and as such a mental construct it cannot be the true origin of mind. We have to accept that the alleged fundamental property differences of the material and the mental world are conventions of our mind. At the same time, we may hypothesize that “in reality” mind and consciousness are mental fields as emergent properties of cortical electromagnetic fields.

  6. An Analysis of the Dual Dimension of Eco-civilization Construction%生态文明建设的双重维度探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜丽

    2014-01-01

    The Report of the 18th NCCPC proposes the five-in-one strategy,that is,the combination of eco-civilization construction,economic construction,political construction,cultural construction and social construction.However,the conscious lack of environmental protection impairs the sustainable develop-ment of China.Therefore,it is necessary to popularize the concept of eco-civilization construction,put it into practice,develop eco-protection tech in the mode of production,and establish a system of laws and regulations.%党的十八大报告把生态文明建设提到了前所未有的高度,与经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设共同构成了“五位一体”的总布局。然而,要真正实现“美丽中国,永续发展”的目标,就必须正视目前我国存在的环境保护意识缺失和狭隘的环境保护意识盛行的现象。因而,在宣传生态文明建设理念的同时,更要把这种理念付诸于实践,通过改变生产方式、研发生态保护技术、建立健全法律法规体系,使生态文明建设的理念和实践有机地结合。

  7. 高校精神文明建设与社会环境的关系研究%A Research on the Relationships of Spiritual Civilization Construction and Social Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖曦

    2012-01-01

    Spiritual civilization construction is an important benchmark measure of socialist spiritual civilization, is also an important area of socialist spiritual civifization. This paper describes the relationships of spiritual civilization construction and social environment, and proposed measures for spiritual civilization construction in the new era.%高校精神文明建设是衡量社会主义精神文明的重要标尺,也是社会主义精神文明建设的重要阵地。本文阐述了高校精神文明建设与社会环境的关系,并提出了新时期高校精神文明建设的措施。

  8. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature water electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey

    2010-01-01

    Different types of corrosion resistant stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as a possible metallic bipolar plate and construction material with respect to corrosion resistance under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high temperature...... and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results show that stainless steels are the most inclined to corrosion under high anodic polarization. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance under conditions, simulating HTPEMWE. In particular, Inconel625 is the most promising alloy...

  9. Improved Suction Technique for the Characterization of Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93%). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...... saturated ceramic disc or membrane. The pressure corresponding to a certain relative humidity level is established and moisture is expelled from the samples until moisture equilibrium is reached. This paper presents two adjustments to this method and their applicability. The first adjustment is a new...

  10. Improved suction technique for the characterization of construction materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2007-01-01

    The suction technique is a method from soil science that is used for the study of moisture storage capacity in porous construction materials at high relative humidity levels (above approximately 93 %). The samples to be studied are placed in a pressurized container (an extractor) on a water...... saturated ceramic disk or membrane. The pressure corresponding to a certain relative humidity level is established and moisture is expelled from the samples until moisture equilibrium is reached. This paper presents two adjustments to this method and their applicability. The first adjustment is a new...

  11. Dosimetry of radium equivalent in construction material of brick works in Sao Jose do Sabugi City - Paraiba, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Eduardo Eudes Nobrega de; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Spacov, Isabel Cristina Guerra; Fernandez, Zahily Herrero, E-mail: eduardo.eudes@ufpe.br, E-mail: jaraujo@ufpe.br, E-mail: romilton@ufpe.br, E-mail: neideden@hotmail.com, E-mail: isabelspacov@gmail.com, E-mail: zahily1985@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioecologia

    2015-07-01

    The earth's crust has in its composition the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) that may have increased concentration due to activities of exploration and extraction of environmental resources. The civil construction is an economic activity that requires the use of much of the natural resources, such as the raw material of brick works, like clays, mainly used for the production of bricks and tiles. These construction materials may contain high levels of natural radioactive elements, even with concentrations higher than the limits established, given that the levels vary according to the composition of rocks and soil, due to the geological formation and may result in increased exposure of humans to natural radioactive activities. In this context, the radioecological dosimetry is defined in terms of Radium Equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), that ensure radiometric conditions for the use of material derived from clays before its final application in housing construction, an initiative that ensures the radioecological safety of population. Thus, this study aimed to establish the calculation of Ra{sub eq} in the raw material of brick works located in Sao Jose do Sabugi city, state of Paraiba, in an area adjacent to the uranium deposits of Espinharas, to estimate the risks associated with primordial radionuclides attributed to TENORM activities (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) from the extraction and use of clay as a raw material in the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Analyses were performed by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry, with HPGe-Be detector, assuming the state of secular radioactive equilibrium. The results ranged from 183.2 to 747.78 Bq/kg, with an average of 494.6 Bq/kg which exceeded the limit of 370 Bq/kg established by UNSCEAR for construction materials. Some samples obtained values exceeded by up the double this limit, suggesting control and radiometric certification for application of this material

  12. Corrosion behaviour of construction materials for high temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Christensen, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    Different types of commercially available stainless steels, Ni-based alloys as well as titanium and tantalum were evaluated as possible metallic bipolar plates and construction materials. The corrosion resistance was measured under simulated conditions corresponding to the conditions in high...... to corrosion under strong anodic polarisation. Among alloys, Ni-based showed the highest corrosion resistance in the simulated PEM electrolyser medium. In particular, Inconel 625 was the most promising among the tested corrosion-resistant alloys for the anodic compartment in high temperature steam electrolysis....... Tantalum showed outstanding resistance to corrosion in selected media. On the contrary, passivation of titanium was weak, and the highest rate of corrosion among all tested materials was observed for titanium at 120 degrees C....

  13. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  14. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  15. A Brief Talk on Construction of Chinese Modern Civil Culture%中国现代性公民文化的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全家悦

    2012-01-01

    China' s practice in recent years shows that modern construction of civic culture is an urgent requirement of the construction of socialist political civilization with Chinese characteristics.Citizenship,diversity of cultural forms,ordering of political participation,is the contemporary practice of Chinese citizen culture built on value,form,scale of basic requirements.Citizens ' cultural is a long process of history,strengthening the construction of socialist market economy,making great efforts to train citizens,actively cultivating civil society,combining ideological and political education and civic culture construction,is the choice of constructing contemporary Chinese citizen's culture.%中国近几年的实践表明,现代性公民文化的构建是中国特色社会主义政治文明建设的迫切要求。对象的公民性,文化形式的多元性,政治参与的有序性,是当代中国公民文化构建在价值、形式、实践尺度方面的基本要求。公民文化的培养是一个长期的历史积淀过程,加强社会主义市场经济建设,努力培养公民性,积极培育公民社会,把思想政治教育和公民文化建设相结合,是构建当代中国公民文化的路径选择。

  16. Sheep Wool as a Construction Material for Energy Efficiency Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Korjenic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is responsible for 40% of the current CO2 emissions as well as energy consumption. Sustainability and energy efficiency of buildings are currently being evaluated, not only based on thermal insulation qualities and energy demands, but also based on primary energy demand, CO2 reductions and the ecological properties of the materials used. Therefore, in order to make buildings as sustainable as possible, it is crucial to maximize the use of ecological materials. This study explores alternative usage of sheep wool as a construction material beyond its traditional application in the textile industry. Another goal of this research was to study the feasibility of replacement of commonly used thermal insulations with natural and renewable materials which have better environmental and primary energy values. Building physics, energy and environmental characteristics were evaluated and compared based on hygrothermal simulation and ecological balance methods. The observations demonstrate that sheep wool, compared with mineral wool and calcium silicate, provides comparable thermal insulation characteristics, and in some applications even reveals better performance.

  17. Introducing Textiles as Material of Construction of Ethanol Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osagie A. Osadolor

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The conventional materials for constructing bioreactors for ethanol production are stainless and cladded carbon steel because of the corrosive behaviour of the fermenting media. As an alternative and cheaper material of construction, a novel textile bioreactor was developed and examined. The textile, coated with several layers to withstand the pressure, resist the chemicals inside the reactor and to be gas-proof was welded to form a 30 L lab reactor. The reactor had excellent performance for fermentative production of bioethanol from sugar using baker’s yeast. Experiments with temperature and mixing as process parameters were performed. No bacterial contamination was observed. Bioethanol was produced for all conditions considered with the optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 g/g sucrose. The need for mixing and temperature control can be eliminated. Using a textile bioreactor at room temperature of 22 °C without mixing required 2.5 times longer retention time to produce bioethanol than at 30 °C with mixing. This will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 26% for an ethanol plant with capacity of 100,000 m3 ethanol/y. Also, replacing one 1300 m3 stainless steel reactor with 1300 m3 of the textile bioreactor in this plant will reduce the fermentation investment cost by 19%.

  18. Recycling Of Concrete Waste Material from Construction Demolition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiyewalehinmi E.O1 and Adeoye T.E2

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the engineering properties of demolished concrete aggregates wastes along Arakale Road, Akure. The purpose is to recycle and reduce the amount of construction wastes materials going into landfills and dumping pits. The study identifies about 15% to 20% of construction waste materials go into landfill and dumping pits in Akure. Four different mixes at 0.5, 0.55, 0.60 and 0.65 water/cement ratios were performed and a total of 96 (48 each concrete cube samples were cast, cured and crushed. The results showed that at lower percentage water/cement ratios, the compressive strength of used aggregates at day 28 were much lower than virgin aggregates (16.89N/mm2 , 19.93N/mm2 while at higher percentage water/cement ratios, the compressive strength of used aggregates at day 28 was almost the same as Virgin aggregates (18.07, 18.37. It shows that the used aggregates can attain the same compressive strength as virgin aggregates at higher water/cement ratios

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING WITH REGARD TO THE USE OF ECO AND NANO MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC MILOS Z.; DJORIC-VELJKOVIC SNEZANA M.; KARAMARKOVIC JUGOSLAV P.

    2015-01-01

    The looks of any environment, the identity of which is expressed through its form, structure and color, is one of the most significant characteristics of any area. The first structures that catch the observer's eye are buildings and urban structures. People have always attached importance to the choice of building materials and interior design. Materials used have been specific for certain regions. In the era of modern technology and the expansion of new technical advances, the man and his en...

  20. THE DYNAMICS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS AND MATERIALS PROCESSING PRIDNEPROVSKAYA STATE ACADEMY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Bolshakov

    2010-01-01

    The main aspects of research activity of material science and material treatment department of PGASA are expounded, namely: scientific work assignments, terms of financing of research works, international issues of current importance, perspective directions of development of up-to-date matirials science, preparation of the scientifically-pedagogical changing, international activity of department.

  1. 人民群众是生态文明建设的主体--习近平关于生态文明建设的重要论述之启示%The People are the Main Body of Ecological Civilization Construction:Inspired by Xi Jinping’s Important Speech of Construction of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩风春

    2015-01-01

    党的十八大以来,习近平总书记就生态文明建设发表了一系列重要讲话,强调人民群众是社会实践的主体,是生态文明建设的驱动力和监督者;在生态文明建设的过程中,需要人民群众的智慧、力量和积极参与;充分发挥人民群众在生态文明建设中的主体作用,必须推动生态民主与生态法治建设,必须运用党的群众路线理论与方法及建立健全人民群众参与生态文明建设的机制,才能加快我国生态文明建设的步伐。%Xi Jinping has delivered series of important speech on ecological civilization since the 18th Na-tional Congress of CPC,which emphasizes the people are the main body of social practice,driving force and supervisors of ecological civilization construction.The ecological civilization construction calls for their intelligence,energy and participation.It is requested to exercise the role of main body,promote construc-tion of ecological democracy and rule of law,carry out the theories and practice of mass line and establish a sound mechanism of the people involvement so as to speed up the ecological civilization construction in China.

  2. 生态文明发展视阈下物质与精神文明协调性发展的实证分析%An Empirical Analysis of Ecological Civilization Development Perspective Material and Spiritual Civilization Coordination Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕雅清; 鞠秋云

    2014-01-01

    生态环境的发展是现代社会人们追求幸福的必要前提,而生态文明的进步则为精神幸福提供了重要标准。人们在不断追求幸福的过程中会有一个宏观折射,这就是生态文明,它分为物质环境、情感精神以及文化价值三部分。本文主要对物质保障和精神幸福两者之间的关系进行分析,使用主成分分析法对河北省廊坊市的物质文明建设和精神文明建设的协调发展现状进行分析,并以此提出了继承传统生态文明理念和意识及利用现代管理模式和有效的现实条件等生态文明的发展渠道和途径。%Development of ecological environment is the necessary prerequisite for a modern society, people pursue happiness, and spiritual progress of ecological civilization was happy to provide an important criteria. Ecological civilization is the pursuit of happiness macro refraction process, which includes the physical environment, emotional spiritual and cultural values. This article from the material and spiritual well-being of the relationship between the protection start using principal component analysis of the status of the coordinated development of material civilization in Langfang City, Hebei Province, and to analyze the construction of spiritual civilization, and thus proposed the concept of ecological civilization and the tradition of awareness and use of modern management model and effective real-world conditions, such as the development of ecological civilization channels and means.

  3. Ecological Civilization Construction of Beautiful China Dream%美丽中国的生态文明建设探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张硕; 高九江

    2014-01-01

    现实中国的环境生态状况面临较大挑战,而美丽中国的建设给中国人民以极大的动力和希望。美丽中国梦是建设中国特色社会主义的重要组成部分,是马克思主义中国化的最新成果的主要内容;生态马克思主义是一种以马克思主义自然观为基础探索生态危机形成的社会制度根源,探求既能解决生态危机又能走向社会主义道路的社会思潮。要实现“美丽中国”目标,首先须建设社会主义生态文明。马克思主义中国化应当关注马克思恩格斯生态文明思想的中国化问题,他们的生态文明思想博大精深,对中国的生态文明建设很有指导意义,另外中国传统文化中的自然生态意识对现代社会的生态文明建设也有启迪作用。%China's ecological state of the environment faces great challenges ,and building a beautiful China gives the Chinese people great power and hope .Beautiful China dream is an important part of constructing socialism with Chinese characteristics , and it's the main content of the latest achievements of the Sinicism of Marxism ;Ecological Marxism is the essence of social sys-tem based on Marxist natural view ,searching for ecological crisis and the way to solve the crisis and at the same time sticking to the socialist road .To build the "beautiful China",we must first build a socialist ecological civilization .Sinicism of Marxism must focus on Marx and Engels ecological civilization thought ,which is broad and profound ,and instructive to the construction of ecological civilization in China .In addition ,the natural ecological consciousness in China traditional culture also is inspiring to modern society's ecological civilization construction .

  4. Architectural control of construction materials with application of man-made wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeev, Ruslan; Abdrakhmanova, Layla

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the principles of construction materials formation based on non-organic and organic raw materials when material matrix is filled with particulate fillers from man-made wastes of various nature formed in different conditions. Qualitative and quantitative requirements for mineral, chemical and material composition of wastes to modify construction materials are detailed. The ways to use them as modifiers of construction materials are shown by the example of wastes group belonging to slags.

  5. Utilization of Construction Waste Composite Powder Materials as Cementitious Materials in Small-Scale Prefabricated Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuizhen Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and demolition wastes have increased rapidly due to the prosperity of infrastructure construction. For the sake of effectively reusing construction wastes, this paper studied the potential use of construction waste composite powder material (CWCPM as cementitious materials in small-scale prefabricated concretes. Three types of such concretes, namely, C20, C25, and C30, were selected to investigate the influences of CWCPM on their working performances, mechanical properties, and antipermeability and antifrost performances. Also the effects of CWCPM on the morphology, hydration products, and pore structure characteristics of the cement-based materials were analyzed. The results are encouraging. Although CWCPM slightly decreases the mechanical properties of the C20 concrete and the 7 d compressive strengths of the C25 and C30 concretes, the 28 d compressive strength and the 90 d flexural strength of the C25 and C30 concretes are improved when CWCPM has a dosage less than 30%; CWCPM improves the antipermeability and antifrost performances of the concretes due to its filling and pozzolanic effects; the best improvement is obtained at CWCPM dosage of 30%; CWCPM optimizes cement hydration products, refines concrete pore structure, and gives rise to reasonable pore size distribution, therefore significantly improving the durability of the concretes.

  6. Traditional Building Materials and Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites. A Sustainability Approach in Construction Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Maxineasa, Sebastian-George; Ţăranu, Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    It is well-known that the construction industry is among the largest consumers of material, energy and a significant polluter. From the extraction of raw materials to disposal and recycling, the entire life cycle of a construction has a significant environmental impact. The manufacturing/ processing of materials represents an important phase in the life cycle of constructions which has a negative effect on the environment. Accordingly, the construction materials industry has made tremendous p...

  7. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  8. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  9. 土木工程管理施工过程质量控制措施探究%Study on the Construction Process Quality Control Measures of Civil Engineering Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the quality control measures of civil engineering management in construction process from the fol owing two aspects:one is the existing problems of the civil engineering management quality control in construction process; the other is the measures for construction process quality control of civil engineering management. According to the construction quality control problem in civil engineering, adopt appropriate control strategy, to improve the civil engine-ering level of construction quality control.%本文从以下两个方面探讨土木工程管理施工过程质量控制措施:一是土木工程管理施工过程质量控制中存在的问题;二是土木工程管理施工过程质量控制的措施。根据土木工程施工质量控制中存在的问题,采取有针对性的控制策略,提高土木工程施工质量控制的水平。

  10. 论我国生态文明建设的政治制度优势%On the Advantage of Political System for the Ecological Civilization Construction of Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长生; 王雄青

    2012-01-01

    The Marxist theory of ecological repudiation against capitalism discloses that socialism has an advantage in political system for promoting ecological civilization construction,and this advantage is systematic and all-around.The political advantage of our country in ecological civilization construction is mainly embodied in the following aspects:the socialist system provides the institutional precondition for ecological civilization construction,the governance of the CPC provides the political guarantee for ecological civilization construction,and the socialist moral system provides the moral basis for ecological civilization construction.%马克思主义的生态资本主义制度批判理论昭示了社会主义对于推进生态文明建设的政治制度优势,且这种制度优势是系统而全面的。我国生态文明建设的政治制度优势主要体现在,社会主义制度为生态文明建设提供了制度前提,中国共产党执政为生态文明建设提供了政治保障,社会主义道德体系为生态文明建设提供了道德基础。

  11. CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A WATER TANK WITH RECYCLABLE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIANE FARINASSO RODRIGUES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of electric power became a factor of citizenship and quality of life, but most of this energy comes from energy sources that cause serious damage to the environment and its use depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of the population. The cost of energy offered by the utilities is still significant, and equipment used to capture alternative sources are still expensive. Therefore, many studies are being conducted in this area, seeking new technologies and alternative ways to reduce those costs. From this need, we developed a reservoir for hot water by using recycled materials in order to preserve the temperature of water heated by solar collectors, in order to achieve efficiency similar to equipment found in the market, but with an affordable cost to lowincome. Manual method was used to construct the reservoir, using materials easily found in our market. The tests were performed by comparing the thermal inertia between the reservoirs and proposed commercial and the results were presented in graphical and tabular. Proposals submitted with thermal efficiency exceeding 20% over the proposal without thermal insulation. Regarding the financial part of the proposed system represents an investment of one tenth of the trading system and the rate of return of the complete system (plate + tank is around 11 months.

  12. 企业生态文明建设的伦理视阈%The Ecological Civilization Construction of Enterprise from the Ethical View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长亮

    2015-01-01

    The construction of ecological civilization is to build environment friendly society on the basis of resource environmental bearing capacity, taking natural law as the criterion and sustainable development as the goal of resource saving. Enterprise, as the main polluters of the environment, the main consumption of resources and ecological destroyer, should bear the responsibility of the construction of ecological civilization. From the ethical perspective of enterprise ecology civilization construction, companies are required to establish a correct concept of production and operation philosophy and ecological ethics, in order to realize economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit optimization. It should adhere to the principle of ecological friendly, environment-friendly, and resource-conserving society, and to develop circular economy and clean production, to save resources, to protect the environment, and to set up the sustainable development.%建设生态文明,就是要建设以资源环境承载力为基础、以自然规律为准则、以可持续发展为目标的资源节约型、环境友好型社会。企业作为环境的主要污染者、资源的主要消耗者和生态的主要破坏者,理应承担起生态文明建设的责任。从伦理的视角审视企业生态文明建设,要求企业树立科学的生产经营理念和生态伦理观念,注重生态效益;坚持生态友好原则,建设环境友好型、资源节约型社会;发展循环经济,推行清洁生产;节约资源,保护环境,树立可持续发展观。

  13. From molecular design and materials construction to organic nanophotonic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Yan, Yongli; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Nanophotonics has recently received broad research interest, since it may provide an alternative opportunity to overcome the fundamental limitations in electronic circuits. Diverse optical materials down to the wavelength scale are required to develop nanophotonic devices, including functional components for light emission, transmission, and detection. During the past decade, the chemists have made their own contributions to this interdisciplinary field, especially from the controlled fabrication of nanophotonic molecules and materials. In this context, organic micro- or nanocrystals have been developed as a very promising kind of building block in the construction of novel units for integrated nanophotonics, mainly due to the great versatility in organic molecular structures and their flexibility for the subsequent processing. Following the pioneering works on organic nanolasers and optical waveguides, the organic nanophotonic materials and devices have attracted increasing interest and developed rapidly during the past few years. In this Account, we review our research on the photonic performance of molecular micro- or nanostructures and the latest breakthroughs toward organic nanophotonic devices. Overall, the versatile features of organic materials are highlighted, because they brings tunable optical properties based on molecular design, size-dependent light confinement in low-dimensional structures, and various device geometries for nanophotonic integration. The molecular diversity enables abundant optical transitions in conjugated π-electron systems, and thus brings specific photonic functions into molecular aggregates. The morphology of these micro- or nanostructures can be further controlled based on the weak intermolecular interactions during molecular assembly process, making the aggregates show photon confinement or light guiding properties as nanophotonic materials. By adoption of some active processes in the composite of two or more

  14. Development of construction materials using nano-silica and aggregates recycled from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukharjee, Bibhuti Bhusan; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2015-06-01

    The present work addresses the development of novel construction materials utilising commercial grade nano-silica and recycled aggregates retrieved from construction and demolition waste. For this, experimental work has been carried out to examine the influence of nano-silica and recycled aggregates on compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, density and volume of voids of concrete. Fully natural and recycled aggregate concrete mixes are designed by replacing cement with three levels (0.75%, 1.5% and 3%) of nano-silica. The results of the present investigation depict that improvement in early days compressive strength is achieved with the incorporation of nano-silica in addition to the restoration of reduction in compressive strength of recycled aggregate concrete mixes caused owing to the replacement of natural aggregates by recycled aggregates. Moreover, the increase in water absorption and volume of voids with a reduction of bulk density was detected with the incorporation of recycled aggregates in place of natural aggregates. However, enhancement in density and reduction in water absorption and volume of voids of recycled aggregate concrete resulted from the addition of nano-silica. In addition, the results of the study reveal that nano-silica has no significant effect on elastic modulus of concrete.

  15. 我国公务员职业伦理构建的路径分析%An Analysis of Professional Ethical Construction of Civil Servants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷宁

    2015-01-01

    文章基于职业伦理的概念,分析了目前我国公务员职业伦理失范的表现,从深层和具体两个角度分别阐释了其失范产生的原因,并在此基础上为我国公务员职业伦理的构建提出了三种路径:一是政治性的分权与自治;二是结构性的主观责任和客观责任的平衡;三是基于反思装置和伦理基因的制度性设计。%In this paper, based on the concept of professional ethics, we analyzed professional ethics anomie of civil servants in China at present and explained the cause of the anomie from deep and specific angles. Therefore, we put forward three paths to the construction of professional ethics of civil servants of our country. The first is the decentralization and autonomy of politics; the second is the balance of subjective and objective responsibility in structure; the third is institutional design with the reflection of structure and occupational habits.

  16. Analysis of the Soft Soil Foundation Construction Technology in Civil Construction%对房建中软土地基施工技术的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪勇军

    2014-01-01

    随着我国经济水平的全面提升,房屋建筑工程的管理水平也相对提高了。本文主要结合房屋建筑工程施工的需要,对房屋建筑施工工程中加强软土地基处理的施工技术进行了分析。%With the comprehensive level of Chinese economy, the management level housing construction project is relatively improved. This article mainly combines with the needs of the housing construction project construction and analyzes the housing construction project of strengthening the construction of soft soil foundation treatment technology.

  17. 生态文明建设主体因素分析--基于公共选择视角%Analysis on the main factors of ecological civilization construction from the perspective of public choice theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳

    2015-01-01

    公共选择理论使用分析经济活动的方法来分析政治过程为分析生态文明建设主体因素提供了新的视角。政府、企业、个人是生态文明的建设中最主要三个主体。文章以公共选择理论相关观点为理论支柱,认为在生态文明建设中,政府应充分发挥其主导作用,完善政府生态职能,避免“政府失灵”;企业应提高生态文明意识,落实文明生态责任,履行生态文明义务;公众应提高主人翁意识,积极参与生态文明建设,避免“搭便车”行为。%The theory of public choice uses the way of analyzing economic activities to analysis of the political process, which provide a new perspective for the analysis of main bodys of ecological civilization construction. Government, enterprise, individual are the most important body of the construction of ecological civilization. This article chooses the public choice as its theory, and think that the government should play its leading role in ecological civilization construction in order to avoid “government failure”; The enterprises should improve the consciousness of ecological civilization, carry out the responsibility of civilization ecological, fulfill the obligations of ecological civilization; The public should enhance the sense of ownership, participate in the the construction of ecological civilization, avoid the "free rider" behavior.

  18. The Development and Use of Economic Value concerning Urban Landscape Plants in Shijiazhuang City in the Context of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenxia; HAN

    2015-01-01

    Many landscape plants have edible,medicinal,forage,industrial and other economic value,which has not been fully exploited.Effective development and utilization of the economic value of city landscape plant,conforms to the need of sustainable development and economical society,which is of great significance to the development of urban ecological civilization construction. In this paper,the landscape plant species in Shijiazhuang City and their economic value are investigated and analyzed,the principle and scheme of economic development and utilization of landscape plants in Shijiazhuang city value are put forward,which provides the reference for full and sustainable utilization of landscape plant resources in Shijiazhuang City.

  19. Utilizing Repurposed Materials to Construct Utility Buildings and Small Animal Shelters

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, C. Kim

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes how to use repurposed materials such as shipping pallets, scraps from construction sites or other building projects, to construct utility buildings and small animal shelters.

  20. Career upgradation of Civil Engineers with respect to Training and Development in M/s URC Construction (p) Ltd., India

    OpenAIRE

    Udhayakumar, R; Karthikeyan, Dr.P.

    2014-01-01

    Training is a continuous learning process that brings a relatively permanent change in an individual which in turn improves the ability of the individual to perform on a particular job. It enhances the Skills, Attitude, and Knowledge of the individual undergoing the training process. It is a continuous educational process to all level of professionals in construction industry. People can learn new information, re-learn and reinforce existing knowledge and skills, and most importantly have ti...

  1. Design studies of interaction processes between melt reactor core material composition, coolant and construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This effort presents results of the design studies performed for correct conducting of out-of-pile experiments at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan facilities to study interaction processes between the melt fuel composition and core materials, which might take place during accidents at the nuclear power plants. The design methods are considered to determine electromagnetic parameters of the facility melting unit - an induction melting furnace, to determine temperature fields in furnace construction component materials during the experiment process and at the moment of melt discharge. The methods are presented to calculate temperature fields and thermal flows in experimental device modelling a reactor vessel bottom when it contacts with the melt fuel composition. The results of thermal electric and hydraulic calculations are presented validating the experimental device operability designed to study the interaction processes between the melt fuel composition and reactor vessel bottom in simulating a residual energy release in the melt by direct current transmitting

  2. Estudo da influência de cimentos na fluência em concretos para a construção civil Study of the influence of cements on creep in concretes used in civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Coimbra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em um estudo da influência de dois tipos diferentes de cimento Portland na propriedade fluência em concretos, em equipamento específico, uma propriedade viscoelástica que se origina na pasta endurecida de cimento e presume-se que esteja relacionada principalmente à remoção da água adsorvida. As causas da fluência no concreto são complexas. Normalmente concorda-se que, além dos movimentos da umidade, há outras causas que contribuem para o fenômeno de fluência. A não-linearidade da relação tensão-deformação no concreto, especialmente em níveis de tensão maiores do que 30 a 40 por cento da última tensão, mostra claramente a contribuição das microfissuras da zona de transição à fluência, um fenômeno bem conhecido nas engenharias civil e materiais. A técnica de formação de uma microestrutura controlada vem sendo apontada como uma promissora alternativa para o entendimento do mecanismo de fluência. A avaliação do estudo bibliográfico procurou apontar os principais parâmetros e variáveis envolvidas nesta propriedade, de maneira a incentivar o seu desenvolvimento e pesquisa.This paper reports on a study of the influence of two different types of Portland cement on the creep property of concretes, a viscous elastic property originating in the hardened cement paste and presumably related mainly to the removal of adsorbed water. The causes of creep in concrete are complex. It is a generally accepted fact that, in addition to the movement of moisture, other causes contribute to the creep phenomenon. The nonlinearity of the stress-deformation relation in concrete, especially at levels of stress exceeding 30 to 40 per cent of the ultimate stress, clearly indicates the contribution of transition zone microcracks to creep, a phenomenon well known in civil and materials engineering. The controlled microstructure formation technique has been indicated as a promising alternative for

  3. The research of constructing harmonious mining community in ecological civilization%生态文明视野下的和谐矿区建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚华军; 朱清

    2014-01-01

    Constructing harmonious mining community is not only the requirements of ecological civilization to mining industry ,but also the connotations to building a harmonious society .Interpersonal harmony in mine community depends the harmony between man and nature ,interpersonal conflict is due to unreasonable allocation of resources and the environment property rights .If we promote the harmonious mine construction from ecological civilization ,we should coordinate harmonious policy between man and nature ,to constructing interpersonal harmonious mechanisms in mining .It should mobilize the power of local government , relevant ministries and industry associations , using voluntary agreements , mining corporate social responsibility reporting system ,mineral resource development projects of social risk assessment that based on tools from Ministry of Land and Resource .%和谐矿区建设不仅是矿业走向生态文明的时代要求,也是我国构建和谐社会的重要内涵。本文从生态文明的视角分析指出,矿区人与自然的和谐是人与人和谐的基础,矿区人与人不和谐是由于矿区资源环境产权配置的不合理,因此,人与自然的和谐需要人与人和谐政策机制的调整来实现。从生态文明的角度推进和谐矿区建设,就要统筹完善人与自然和谐的政策,探索构建矿产资源开发人与人和谐的政策机制,并提出了统筹国土资源部内部政策,调动地方政府、相关部委、行业协会的积极性,使用自愿性协议、矿业企业社会责任报告制度和新开矿产资源开发项目社会风险评估,深入推进和谐矿区建设。

  4. Civil Drafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Karen; Kellum, Mary, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains a course in civil drafting to train entry-level workers for jobs in the field. The module contains 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to civil drafting; (2) map scales and measurement; (3) standard symbols and abbreviations; (4) interpretation of surveyor's notations; (5) legal…

  5. 生态文明背景下的生态社区建设模式研究%The Research of Construction Model in Ecological Community under the Background of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠超

    2015-01-01

    Ecological civilization is the trend of the construction of ecological community,and it creates a powerful external environment and historic opportunity for ecological community construction.Ecological community construction is an impor-tant foundation for the construction of ecological civilization,which provides a solid foundation in the micro level for the re-alization of the ambitious goals of ecological civilization.The ecological civilization theory research and practice mode of western countries have a big gap with the situation of our country,which should be corrected and improved based on the ac-tual situation of our country.At the same time,the construction mode of ecological community in the present stage in our country still has a larger gap with the requirements of the ecological civilization,because the ecological community construc-tion is still not really integrated into the category of the era of ecological civilization construction in our country,which inter-feres the scale and depth of the construction of ecological community development.In the new period of ecological commu-nity construction,guided by the concept of ecological civilization,we should set up the coordination mechanism of ecologi-cal civilization construction and the development of the ecological community construction,develop the evaluation model suitable to China's national conditions of ecological community construction,combine the process of ecological community construction and the organic combination of China's urbanization,realize the high degree of sharing ecological resources dur-ing the process of community construction,and create effective ecological community building model,which can meet the requirements of the ecological civilization.%生态文明是我国生态社区建设的时代背景,生态社区建设是生态文明建设的重要基石。我国新时期的生态社区建设必须以生态文明的理念为指导,构建生态文明建

  6. A Novel Material for In Situ Construction on Mars: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Lin; Wendner, Roman; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    A significant step in space exploration during the 21st century will be human settlement on Mars. Instead of transporting all the construction materials from Earth to the red planet with incredibly high cost, using Martian soil to construct a site on Mars is a superior choice. Knowing that Mars has long been considered a "sulfur-rich planet", a new construction material composed of simulated Martian soil and molten sulfur is developed. In addition to the raw material availability for producin...

  7. Imagerie par résonance magnétique appliquée aux matériaux du génie civil Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applied to Civil Engineering Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Coussot P.

    2006-01-01

    Un imageur par résonance magnétique dédié aux matériaux du génie civil et de la construction est actuellement en cours d'acquisition par le LCPC (Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées). Il sera géré par le LMSGC à Champs-sur-Marne et installé dans les locaux de l'IFI (Institut francilien d'Ingénierie). De nombreuses collaborations avec des laboratoires et des entreprises sont envisagées et certaines déjà mises en place. D'un point de vue général, les recherches concerneront les transfert...

  8. Construction and countermeasures on Guangxi civil administration e-government%广西民政电子政务建设及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦百兴

    2012-01-01

      电子政务方便快捷,能够随时随地向使用者提供服务,并且采用交互式的沟通方式。在过去的数年中,电子政务在世界各国蓬勃发展,改变了传统政务的工作模式。民政部门作为政府的重要组成部门,利用信息化这一先进科学技术手段,大力推行政务能极大的提高工作效率。通过近年来的努力,广西民政推行电子政务建设取得一定的成绩,但仍存在认识不足、整合度不够等问题,文章试探讨其中存在的问题,提出解决对策。%  In the past few years, the electronic government affairs had vigorously development in the countries all over the world, the traditional mode of government work had changed. Civil affairs department was an important component of the government departments, the use of information technology promoted the government work efficiency, through effort of in recent years, e-government construction that guangxi civil administration promoted had made some achievements, but there are still questions which were lack of consciousness and degree of integration and so on, the existing problems were tried to explore, and the solution countermeasure were proposed.

  9. 生态文明建设中不同行为主体的目标指标体系构建%Index systems of the different actors in eco-civilization construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪珊; 何佳; 牛冬杰; 包存宽; 王娟

    2013-01-01

    建立生态文明建设目标指标体系是量化生态文明建设水平最有效的手段,是保证生态文明各领域建设活动有效开展和落实的重要途径.以生态文明建设的基本内涵为基础,提出生态文明建设中的“利益相关方”概念,并指出政府、企业、公众是主要利益相关方.分析了各主要利益相关方的定位、驱动力、利益关注点、权利、义务、沟通机制以及3者之间形成的复杂关系网.最后,结合各自在生态文明建设中应有的表现行为,分别设计了包含生态意识文明、生态行为文明、生态制度文明3层内涵的生态文明建设目标指标体系,旨在促进各利益相关方之间的自查或评比,将生态文明建设落实到各主要利益相关方的具体行为上.%The establishment of the index system of eco-civilization construction is the most effective means to quantify eco-civilization construction. Besides,it is an important way to ensure the effective implementation of the various fields of eco-civilization construction activities. Based on the basic connotation of ecological civilization,the paper puts forward the concept of "stakeholders in eco-civilization construction" and analyzes multiple stakeholders,in which government,enterprise and the public are the main power sources to ensure the healthy development of the districts or cities. Then the paper makes a comprehensive explanation of position, interest, the driving force, the rights, obligations, and communication mechanisms of three major stakeholders, and describes the linkages and synergies among them. At last,different index systems of eco-civilization construction are designed according to stakeholders' different behavior, which reflects ecological awareness civilization,ecological behavior civilization,and ecological system civilization three connotations. The purpose is to organize the self-examination or competitions among the various actors, guide the behavior of

  10. Individual protection equipment for use in the construction civil sector - case study in the city of Medianeira in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Roberto Rockenbach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety at work is defined as a set of measures that are based on technical standards and aimed at accident prevention, in Brazil it is governed by Decree-Law No. 5,452 of May 1, 1943, approving the Consolidation of Labor Laws - CLT. The construction is the sector that suffers most from industrial accidents and is labeled as the champion as the rates of work accidents. This study aimed to carry out a survey of the works of the construction industry situation in the city of Medianeira in Brazil about using Security Personal Protective Equipment (PPE and relate to the use of such equipment with the occurrence of accidents. To carry out the research were used 40 works, and for the data used in the survey, a questionnaire was applied to each work, which was answered by the foreman. With this research found up those 50% of employers in this sector in the city are not complying with the legislation as the provision of PPE and only 10% of employees are using all PPE required for their safety.

  11. Environmentally Sustainable Construction Products and Materials – Assessment of release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Margareta; Laine-Yliijoki, Jutta; Järnström, helena;

    prevention and recycling / reuse play a key role by providing huge energy, water and materialsavings. These issues are also specifically addressed in the Construction Products Regulation (CPR2011), where health and safety aspects related to use of construction products cover the entire lifecycle. Meanwhile...... hardly any construction product is designed keeping recycling/reuse in mind, the “Design for theEnvironment” -concept is one of the key steps towards increased recycling and reuse and thereby towards minimal environmental impacts. This project has been carried out by VTT with cooperation with the Danish...

  12. 46 CFR 162.017-3 - Materials, construction, and workmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., locknuts, or other acceptable means. (r) Pressure-vacuum relief valves constructed in accordance with ISO 15364 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 162.017-1) meet the requirements of this subpart....

  13. Production of Construction Materials Using Advanced Recycling Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Waste reduction, material reuse, and use of recycle-content products can be focused on the management system somewhat. In contrast, material recycling is the technical issue how to create new materials using wastes. Thus, three advanced recycling technologies; 1) Synthetic Lightweight Aggregate technology (SLA), 2) Clean Coal Technology (CCT), and 3) RP-1 Polymer Identification System are introduced.

  14. The Small Helm Project: an academic activity addressing international corruption for undergraduate civil engineering and construction management students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzley, Steven E

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents an academic project that addresses the issue of international corruption in the engineering and construction industry, in a manner that effectively incorporates several learning experiences. The major objectives of the project are to provide the students a learning activity that will 1) make a meaningful contribution within the disciplines being studied; 2) teach by experience a significant principle that can be valuable in numerous situations during an individual's career, and 3) engage the minds, experiences, and enthusiasm of the participants in a real ethical challenge that is prevalent in all of their chosen professional fields. The paper describes the full details of the project, the actual implementation of it during Winter Semester 2005, the experiences gained during the initial trial, and the modifications and improvements incorporated for future implementation.

  15. Reuse of materials and byproducts in construction waste minimization and recycling

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the reuse of materials and byproducts in the construction industry. It investigates the main building materials and their use. The book also offers an overview of new green design guides that will encourage best practice.

  16. Use of composite materials, health monitoring and self-healing concepts to refurbish our civil and military infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Delong, Waylon Anthony; White, Scott (University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois); Yepez, Esteban; Rackow, Kirk A.; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack, corrosion, erosion and other flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging civil and military infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair and inspection methods. As a result of Homeland Security issues and these aging infrastructure concerns, increased attention has been focused on the rapid repair and preemptive reinforcement of structures such as buildings and bridges. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program established the viability of using bonded composite patches to repair metallic structures. High modulus fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) material may be used in lieu of mechanically fastened metallic patches or welds to reinforce or repair damaged structures. Their use produces a wide array of engineering and economic advantages. Current techniques for strengthening steel structures have several drawbacks including requiring heavy equipment for installation, poor fatigue performance, and the need for ongoing maintenance due to continued corrosion attack or crack growth. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are currently no rehabilitation options. Applications include such diverse structures as: buildings, bridges, railroad cars, trucks and other heavy machinery, steel power and communication towers, pipelines, factories, mining equipment, ships, tanks and other military vehicles. This LDRD also proved the concept of a living infrastructure by developing custom sensors and self-healing chemistry and linking this technology with the application of advanced composite materials. Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems and mountable, miniature sensors were designed to continuously or periodically assess structural integrity. Such systems are able to

  17. Modelo de requisitos e componentes técnicos para a formação e gerência de redes de cooperação entre empresas da construção civil Technician components and requirements model for the formation and management of cooperation networks among civil construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Vancim Frachone Neves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A indústria da Construção Civil possui um modo de operação semelhante ao das organizações virtuais, mas de forma não estruturada, deixando de proporcionar vantagens competitivas. Para tanto, o artigo propõe um Modelo de Requisitos e Componentes Técnicos, baseado na metodologia EKD (Enterprise Knwoledge Development, para auxiliar a formação e gerência de redes entre empresas da construção civil. Para a elaboração do modelo proposto, foi conduzida uma análise dos projetos internacionais mais relevantes no setor da construção além de estudo de casos contendo sete obras a fim de detectar seus objetivos e pontos falhos a serem reestruturados e adaptados para a indústria da construção civil brasileira. Não obstante, o modelo proposto baseou-se em uma adaptação das melhores práticas de uma arquitetura de referência para redes. Como resultado, a proposição viabiliza uma visão clara dos requisitos necessários, explora a necessidade de intensa comunicação e troca de informações, além de contribuir com pesquisas futuras no que tange a um futuro desenvolvimento de sistema de informação direcionado para este segmento econômico.The operational method of civil construction can be analyzed by the outlook of virtual organizations, however not yet structuralized, hence not providing competitive advantages. Thus, this article considers a Technical Components and Requirements Model, based on EKD methodology (Enterprise Knowledge Development, to assist in the formation and management of networks in civil construction companies. For the elaboration of the considered model, an analysis of the most important international construction projects was conducted, in addition to a case study from seven construction projects in order to detect their goals and defective points, to then be reorganized and adapted to the Brazilian civil construction industry. Moreover, the considered model was also based on an adaptation of reference

  18. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  19. Influence of the civil construction debris layer in heavy metals removal of the leachate submitted to recirculation in landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Rossmann

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the ability of stabilized organic matter (old MSW and construction waste (RCC to retain heavy metals from leachate generated in landfills. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of MSW to remove old heavy metals in MSW leachate produced by freshly collected, and the effect of RCC in the concentration of heavy metals in effluents from MSW old. In three columns (CR, put a layer of RCC and then MSW old and, on the other three (SR, only MSW old. Analyzed in the leachate and effluent pH, EC, BOD and metals Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb. There were similar and efficient removal of BOD and heavy metals in both treatments. The presence of the layer of RCC was considered important to the overall improvement in effluent quality, but did not influence the concentration of metals in the effluent. The order of retention of metals in the columns was: Cu ~ Pb> Cd> Zn. With the exception of Cd and Zn, all other variables assessed in the effluent were below the maximum standards set in DN 01.08 COPAM / CERH for release effluent into water bodies.

  20. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, April 1992 (Rev. 3.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-04-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI). The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to both the Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The FMI is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The FMI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the FMI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the FMI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two-tothree. In addition the FMI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  1. 7 CFR 1717.605 - Design standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... will be financed by RUS. These requirements are set forth in other RUS regulations, especially in 7 CFR..., construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. 1717.605 Section 1717.605 Agriculture Regulations of the... standards, plans and specifications, construction standards, and RUS accepted materials. All...

  2. Civilizing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Paddy

    2011-01-01

    The theory of “civilizing processes” was developed by Norbert Elias in the 1930s to describe and explain the generation of higher standards of various forms of conduct in the context of unplanned but structured changes in state formation and lengthening chains of social interdependencies (Elias 2000). The idea of civilized conduct may seem a strange companion to popular understandings of consumer culture, when the latter phrase is often associated with hedonism, individualism and excess. But ...

  3. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...... theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...

  4. 公民社会视域下我国社会建设之思考%Thinking on Social Construction in China from the View of Civil Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓丽

    2014-01-01

    一方面,社会建设离不开公民社会的参与;另一方面,社会建设活动也促进了公民社会的成长。在公民社会理念的推动下进行社会建设,必须培育社会组织,充分发挥其在社会建设中的作用;进行信任增量重建,促进社会建设中社会资本的积聚;重视公民参与,增强公众对社会建设的认同度;加强公民责任,注重法治与规则的建构。%On the one hand,social construction cannot carry on without the participation of the civil society;on the other hand,social construction will also promote the growth of the civil society.Under the promotion of the concept of civil society,our social construction must culti-vate social organizations and give full play to its role and strengthen the trust incremental re-construction to promote the accumulation of social capital and emphasis on citizen participation to enhance public awareness and strengthen civic responsibilities and pay more attention to the construction of the rule of law.

  5. 浅谈陕西航空物流综合信息平台建设%The Construction of Civil Aviation Logistics Information Platform in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁苏炜

    2014-01-01

    Considered the demand of Western Development, the construction of Aviation Logistics information platform is very important. This paper proposes a model of the platform include Architecture, standard, and the function. This platform will provide a stable environment for the development of Civil Aviation Logistics in Shaanxi.%按照国家西部大开发战略部署和“关中-天水经济区发展规划”,结合陕西经济发展和对外开放的需要,通过建设符合国际航空物流数据标准、融合电子口岸、电子商务功能,涵盖物流产业链和物流产业资金链、具备强大数据处理能力的航空物流信息平台体系,进一步提高内陆口岸通关能力,为陕西对外开放和经济社会发展做出贡献。

  6. Method for producing fabrication material for constructing micrometer-scaled machines, fabrication material for micrometer-scaled machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, F.J.

    1995-12-31

    A method for producing fabrication material for use in the construction of nanometer-scaled machines is provided whereby similar protein molecules are isolated and manipulated at predetermined residue positions so as to facilitate noncovalent interaction, but without compromising the folding configuration or native structure of the original protein biomodules. A fabrication material is also provided consisting of biomodules systematically constructed and arranged at specific solution parameters.

  7. Modern Technologies of Nondestructive Testing of Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the modern methods of research of building materials (such as styrofoam, cement, concrete admixtures, etc.), applied in the Far Eastern Federal University. The latest equipment described for these studies and modern methods of testing.

  8. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  9. Microscopic construction wood in laboratory exercising subject materials and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Filip, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is divided into theoretic and practical sections. The theoretic part, is based on study literature, representing the problematic microscopic wood construction, with the necessary graphics documentation and definition. Also including the technology of preparation and production samples of species for microscopical observation. The practical part includes a set of specimens for microscopical wood anatomy observation accordant to the fabrication and education needs in the subje...

  10. Alternatives to Conventional Construction Materials on Landfills. A Guide; Alternativa konstruktionsmaterial paa deponier. Vaegledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rihm, Thomas; Rogbeck, Yvonne; Svedberg, Bo; Eriksson, Maria

    2009-03-15

    Before a landfill can be sited, an application for a permit from the authorities is required. Already in the application process the consequences concerning impact on human health and on the environment must be described, including descriptions of e.g. bottom liners and capping constructions. Since there is a long period of time between when the permit is given and when the capping will be carried out, it is common practice, either to postpone decisions concerning capping details, or to delegate the decisions to the supervisory authorities to be made at a later stage. All constructions must however be approved by the authorities before they can be carried out. A construction must fulfil the demands for its function. For the capping this means that the percolation through it must be low, even in a long time perspective. A construction may not in itself cause adverse environmental effects, e.g. leaching of hazardous substances from the construction material. Thus, there are functional as well as environmental demands. Beside the functional demands given in the Swedish legislation, notably in the ordinance on landfilling, the construction must be physically stable, also in a long time perspective. The materials in the construction must have sufficient strength, and may not change over time, e.g. due to degradation, which could lead to malfunction. Demands on environmental behaviour can be divided into two parts. Humans and animals must be kept from direct contact with dangerous substances including dermal contact, inhalation of dust or gases and oral intake of soil, plants or berries. Secondly, dangerous substances may not be spread with surface or ground water to an extent that could lead to adverse effects on human health or on the environment. The impact on the environment is not only depending of the materials being used, but also on the construction design, where in the landfill the construction is situated and, not least, how the landfill is located. It is

  11. Constructing occasional toys from different materials in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Črnagoj, Andreja

    2012-01-01

    This diploma paper presents the building of everyday toys out of different types of materials in the kindergarten Ivančna Gorica. In the theoretical part I presented developmental features of children aged 4 to 6, the meaning of game for a child's development and some characteristics of toys and materials, which we used while creating toys in our kindergarten. I described the “active learning” or “research”, which helped encourage the children to start building toys. Within all these, I was f...

  12. Electric characterization of construction materials through radar data inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patriarca, C.

    2013-01-01

    The non-destructive evaluation with the aim of characterizing objects before or after treatment has taken place, and the monitoring of long-term performance is analyzed in this thesis. Generally, these test methods measure material properties or changes in these properties that decision makers are i

  13. Law nr 2015-588 of June 2, 2015 related to the strengthening of the protection of civil nuclear installations housing nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the official text of a law adopted by the French Parliament for the strengthening of civil nuclear installations housing nuclear materials. The first article of this law is made of modifications introduced in the Defence Code. The second article states that a report is to be submitted by the Government to the Parliament on the risk and threat assessment of illegal UAVs flyovers, and on technical solutions to improve the detection and neutralisation of these aircraft, as well as on necessary legal adaptations to punish such infringements

  14. Beyond the material grave: Life Cycle Impact Assessment of leaching from secondary materials in road and earth constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model environmental impacts of leaching from secondary construction material. • Industrial wastes in construction contain up to 45,000 t heavy metals per year (D). • In a scenario, 150 t are leached to the environment within 100 years after construction. • All heavy metals but As, Sb and Mo are adsorbed by 20 cm subsoil in this scenario. • Environmental impacts depend on material, pollutant, construction type, and geography. - Abstract: In industrialized countries, large amounts of mineral wastes are produced. They are re-used in various ways, particularly in road and earth constructions, substituting primary resources such as gravel. However, they may also contain pollutants, such as heavy metals, which may be leached to the groundwater. The toxic impacts of these emissions are so far often neglected within Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of products or waste treatment services and thus, potentially large environmental impacts are currently missed. This study aims at closing this gap by assessing the ecotoxic impacts of heavy metal leaching from industrial mineral wastes in road and earth constructions. The flows of metals such as Sb, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, V and Zn originating from three typical constructions to the environment are quantified, their fate in the environment is assessed and potential ecotoxic effects evaluated. For our reference country, Germany, the industrial wastes that are applied as Granular Secondary Construction Material (GSCM) carry more than 45,000 t of diverse heavy metals per year. Depending on the material quality and construction type applied, up to 150 t of heavy metals may leach to the environment within the first 100 years after construction. Heavy metal retardation in subsoil can potentially reduce the fate to groundwater by up to 100%. One major challenge of integrating leaching from constructions into macro-scale LCA frameworks is the high variability in micro-scale technical and geographical factors

  15. ZeroWaste BYG: Redesigning construction materials towards zero waste society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2014-01-01

    The ZeroWaste research group (www.zerowaste.byg.dtu.dk) at the Department of Civil Engineering was established in 2012 and covers the broad range of expertise required for turning waste materials into attractive, new materials. Members of the group have developed methods for removal of heavy metals...... and phosphorous from waste incineration, sewage sludge and other bio ashes [1], providing the basis to make these ash types an attractive, new material for the building sector.The amount of waste increases and it is both difficult and expensive to handle many waste types as e.g.different ashes. At the same time...... there are fewer natural resources and the general consumption increases. We wish to utilize alternative and new ash types as raw material in concrete, similarly to what was previously seen with fly ash from coal combustion and microsilica, which were both transformed from problematic waste to valuable raw...

  16. Biotechnologies and bioinspired materials for the construction industry : an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; J. A. Labrincha

    2014-01-01

    Published online: 16 Oct 2013 Looking back to less than three centuries of industrialization, responsible for alarming levels of pollution and consumption of non-renewable resources that has led to the exhaustion of the earth’s capacity, the humankind only now begins to grasp the overwhelming potential of natural systems. During almost 40 million centuries, Nature has developed materials and processes with optimal performance which are totally biodegradable. Analysis of bioinspire...

  17. Construction of irradiated material examination facility-basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic design of the hot cell facility which has the main purpose of doing mechanical and physical property tests of irradiated materials, the examination process, and the annexed facility has been made. Also basic and detall designs for the underground excavation work have been performed. The project management and tasks required for the license application have been carried out in due course. The facility is expected to be completed by the end of 1992, if the budgetary support is sufficient. (Author)

  18. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  19. Tritium interactions with steel and construction materials in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on the interactions of tritium and tritiated water with metals, glasses, ceramics, concrete, paints, polymers and other organic materials is reviewed in this report Some of the processes affecting the amount of tritium found on various materials, such as permeation, sorption and the conversion of tritium found on various materials, such as permeation, sorption and conversion of elemental tritium (T2) to tritiated water (HTO), are also briefly outlined. Tritium permeation in steels is fairly well understood, but effects of surface preparation and coatings on sorption are not yet clear. Permeation of T2 into other metals with cleaned surfaces has been studied thoroughly at high temperature, and the effect of surface oxidation has also been explored. The room-temperature permeation rates of low-permeability metals with cleaned surfaces are much faster than indicated by high-temperature results, because of grain-boundary diffusion. Elastomers have been studied to a certain extent, but some mechanisms of interaction with tritium gas and sorbed tritium are unclear. Ceramics have some of the lowest sorption and permeation rates, but ceramic coatings on stainless steels do not lower permeation or tritium as effectively as coatings obtained by oxidation of the steel, probably because of cracking caused by differences in thermal expansion coefficient. Studies on concrete are in their early stages; they show that sorption of tritiated water on concrete is a major concern in cleanup of releases of elemental tritium into air in tritium handling facilities. Some of the codes for modelling releases and sorption of T2 and HTO contain unproven assumptions about sorption and T2 → HTO conversion. Several experimental programs will be required in order to clear up ambiguities in previous work and to determine parameters for materials which have not yet been investigated. (146 refs., tab.)

  20. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  1. The distribution of common construction materials sensitive to atmospheric corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on about 1100 buildings including residential, commercial, industrial, and institutional types, derived from field surveys in four Northeastern cities, are presented and compared. The sampling was based on a stratified random sampling scheme, with strata defined on the basis of an urban spatial model imcorporating land-use and census data. A methodology is presented for extrapolating and findings to nonsampled areas, both within the same cities and within the region. For the regional extrapolation, a U.S. Department of Energy survey of primary residential wall materials is used, since the vast majority of buildings are residential

  2. The dose from radioactivity of covering construction materials in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indoor dose due to the radiation of ceramic and granite tiles, marble, granite and travertine plates, as well as some components of covering materials, produced in Serbia or imported from other countries, was estimated in the work. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were measured by the standard gamma-spectrometry system. The lowest content of the radionuclides was found in white marble (ARa = 2 Bq/kg, ATh < 2 Bq/kg, and AK < 3 Bq/kg, while the highest activities were in some granite samples (Balmoral red: ARa = 200 Bq/kg, ATh = 378 Bq/kg, and AK = 1679, and Madura Gold: ARa = 273 Bq/kg, ATh = 20 Bq/kg, and AK = 1456 Bq/kg. The indoor absorbed dose rate in air due to the gamma radiation from covering materials was determined based on the specific absorbed dose rate computed in this work. Concentration of 222Rn that emanated into the indoor space was also calculated from the known 226Ra content. The radiation hazard estimated from the usage of each sample was expressed through the evaluated effective dose. Almost all samples, except one, fulfil the dosimetric criterion for safe use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije br. 171021 i br. 171025

  3. Prepackaged polymer - modified mortar proves effective construction material - field and laboratory observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hi-Bond - prepackaged polymer - modified mortar described in this paper is a revolutionary, multifunctional, high-tech, high performance, sustainable, durability improving group of construction materials with a high cost - benefit ratio. Hi-Bond has been developed by Dadabhoy Construction Technologies (Pvt) Ltd., (DCTL), Karachi, after extensive studies and research both locally and abroad. It can be used in floorings and pavings, integral waterproofing, adhesive applications, protective and decorative coatings, repairs, renovation, rehabilitation, anti corrosive linings, deck coverings, durability and efficiency improvement of canal linings and other hydraulic structures. Hi-Bond has been applied in various projects of national importance with great success for their repairs, renovation and rehabilitation and has also been tested and evaluated at various laboratories with highly encouraging results. Some examples include: (i) earthquake damaged bridge at Lora Nallah on Brewery Road, Quetta, (ii) fire damaged building of the daily Business Recorder House, Karachi, (iii) 200 - year old main dome of the tomb of Hazrat Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, Bhitshah, Hyderabad, (iv) RCC shell roofs of Mehtab Biscuit and Wafers Factory, Sahiwal, (v) repair of newly built concrete floor on structural slab in a factory building at Karachi, (vi) Mohatta Palace, Clifton, Karachi, (vii) swimming pool at Okara Cantt, and (viii) numerous leaking basements, underground and overhead water reservoirs at and around Karachi including those of new vegetable market on super highway. Building Research Station, Government of the Punjab, Lahore also recommended the use of Hi-Bond in the applications mentioned above after testing and evaluation. The product was found easy in application and offered numerous technical and economical advantages, over conventional products, in variety of applications. It is important to note that shortly after the repairs and renovation of the building of the daily

  4. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  5. 工民建工程施工管理的现状问题与对策%Analysis of the Status Problems and Countermeasures of Civil Engineering Construction Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海滨

    2013-01-01

    笔者长期从事建筑工程现场施工管理工作,本文首先对我国目前工民建工程施工管理的现状进行了分析,并根据现状中存在的问题提出了相应的对策,以提高工程的施工管理质量。%In this article, the author engaged in site construct-ion management of engineering construction for a long time. This article first carries out the analysis of the status quo of Chinese current civil engineering construction management and put forward the corresponding countermeasures based on the problems in the current situation in order to improve the construction management quality of project.

  6. Exploration of Quality Control Measures in the Management of Civil Engineering Construction%土木工程管理施工过程质量控制措施探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzed some common loo- pholes and problems of quality control measures in the mana- gement of civil engineering construction and elaborated, in the current situation, the importance of strengthening the constru- ction quality control of civil engineering management. At the same time, the author studied the problems existing in the civil engineering construction management and hoped it to be he- lpful to the construction personnel.%本文主要分析了土木工程管理施工过程质量控制措施中常见的一些管理漏洞和存在问题,阐述了在当前形势下,加强土木工程管理施工质量控制的重要性。同时针对目前土木工程管理施工工作中存在的问题进行了研究,希望能对施工人员有所借鉴。

  7. The Historical Reviews and Lesson Enlightments of Ecological Civilization Construction in Yunnan Province%云南生态文明建设的历史回顾与经验启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琼

    2016-01-01

    The traditional ecological environmental protection thought and behavioral norms of the ethnic minorities of Yunnan is the early form and established mode of ecological civilization.The early pro-ecological civilization thoughts and folk law constitute the foundation for advancing and carrying out modern and contempo-rary ecological civilization construction in the frontier minority areas.Yunnan province started the construction of ecological civilization since the goal of constructing ecological civilization presented by the 17th CPC National Congress in 2007 .All levels of CPC parties and governments have taken a series constructive measures,and aca-demia has made many researches on the ecological civilization construction from different perspectives,so great theoretical and practical achievements have been obtained.After the 18th CPC National Congress,Yunnan'eco-logical civilization construction is in full swing.Therefore,the experience and lessons have important implica-tions for the strategies of promoting innovation and green development.But the construction mode of pacesetters of ecological civilization needs continuous exploration to advance from theoretical studies to the application in or-der to achieve effective results through summarizing and improving the past experience.%云南各民族具有的传统生态环境保护的思想和行为规范,是生态文明的早期形式及存在模式。这类前生态文明时代的思想及民间“法制”,是现当代生态文明建设在边疆民族地区推进及实施的基础。2007年,党的十七大提出生态文明建设目标后,云南开始了生态文明建设新的进程。各级党政部门采取了系列建设措施,学界也对云南生态文明的建设进行了不同视角的研究,从理论到实践取得了较大成就。十八大以后,云南生态文明的建设全面展开。其建设历程及经验教训对目前开拓创新、绿色发展战略具有极大的启示意义

  8. The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, A.; Bonaduce, I.; Sabatini, F.; Degano, I.; Blaensdorf, C.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Ma, L.; Colombini, M. P.

    2015-11-01

    The beiwusheng huiguan (`Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 ad) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 ad and representing scenes of the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the

  9. Material waste in the China construction industry: Minimization strategies and benefits of recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sulala M.Z.F. Al-Hamadani, ZENG Xiao-lan, M.M.Mian, Zhongchuang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Waste minimization strategies and the relative importance of benefits of material waste recognition were examined using a survey of construction companies operating in Chongqing city China. The results showed that a remarkable proportion of respondent companies have specific policies for minimizing construction waste. Amongst the strategies, minimizing waste at source of origin is practiced to a large degree by construction companies with specific waste minimization strategies. However, consi...

  10. 连片特困地区扶贫攻坚的战略选择%Strategic Choices of Poverty Alleviation in Contiguous Destitute Areas Under Background of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓龙; 徐鲲

    2014-01-01

    The report at 18th CPC National Congress points out that the construction of ecological civilization will be put into a prominent position,blending in economic,political,cultural and social construction and all aspects of the whole process to build a beautiful China and achieve sustainable development of China. In China,poverty and fragile ecological environment is often symbiotic. Most of rural poor population live in contiguous areas ,and thus, area poverty alleviation plays an extremely important role in the ecological civilization construction. Based on the background of ecological civilization construction and the analyses of challenges contiguous destitute areas face in ecological civilization construction,this paper expounds on strategic choices of poverty alleviation in contiguous destitute areas from such aspects as optimizing the spatial pattern,adjusting the industrial structure,improving production modes,improving lifestyle to provide useful references for the areas to promote poverty alleviation and ecological civilization construction.%党的十八大报告提出,把生态文明建设放在突出地位,融入经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设各方面和全过程,努力建设美丽中国,实现中华民族永续发展。在我国,贫困与生态环境脆弱往往是共生的。我国农村贫困人口大部分分布在连片特困地区,因而,片区扶贫攻坚在生态文明建设中处于极为重要的地位。本文通过分析连片特困地区生态文明建设面临的挑战,从优化空间格局、调整产业结构、改进生产方式、完善生活方式等四个方面论述了连片特困地区扶贫攻坚的战略选择,为该地区推进扶贫开发与生态文明建设提供一些有益的参考。

  11. Heat and moisture transport in durian fiber based lightweight construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charoenvai, S.; Khedari, J.; Hirunlabh, J.; Asasutjarit, C. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology, Building Scientific Research Center, Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Zeghmati, B. [Perpignan Univ., Centre d' Etudes Fondamentales, Groupe de Mecanique, Acoustique et Instrumentation, Perpignan, 66 (France); Quenard, D.; Pratintong, N. [Centre Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB), Grenoble (France)

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents result on heat and moisture transport in durian (Durio zibethinus) fiber based lightweight construction materials composed of cement, sand and waste fiber from durian peel and the performance of the material was simulated with the surface treatment by using a computational tool. The commercial research software (WUFI 2D) was used to calculate heat and moisture transfer through a durian fiber based lightweight construction material. The materials were exposed to a climate condition similar to the one in Bangkok and the hygrothermal characteristics of the materials were investigated. The investigation reveals that the weekly mean water content on the surface of material was quite low. The effect of moisture on the apparent thermal performance of the composite was found to be higher as water absorbed in the pore structure contributed to higher thermal conductivity than the air it replaced. However, the mean value of thermal conductivity in material is still rather low as the mean value of water content in material is low. Coating the surface reduced the flow of moisture to or from the structure considerably. The results of simulation confirmed that the manufactured composite satisfied the requirement of construction materials. It is then reasonable to conclude that the use of such materials in the design and construction of passive solar buildings is promising. Laboratory investigation is undergoing to validate the simulated performance. (Author)

  12. Sustainable material selection for construction industry - A hybrid multi criteria decision making approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Shankar, Madan; Kannan, Devika

    2016-01-01

    a hybrid multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methodology with a specific examination of the UAE. The indicators collected from existing literatures were used in evaluation of sustainable construction materials with the assistance of construction sector-based respondents. The proposed framework...

  13. The material problems connected with the construction of high temperature helium-cooled loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressure and very high temperature in the planned in IAE high temperature helium-cooled loop will be the input to using the new materials in this construction. In the future the advantage of experimental research will be taken in the construction of the reactor loop and of the high temperature gas cooled reactor. (author)

  14. Aspects of new material application for boilers construction; Aspekty wdrazania nowych materialow w budowie kotlow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, R. [RAFAKO S.A., Raciborz (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Review of steel types commonly used for energetic boilers construction has been done. The worldwide trends in new materials application for improvement of boilers quality have been discussed. The mechanical properties of boiler construction steels have been shown and compared. 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  15. Construction and commissioning of workrooms for handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements prescribed for planning, design and construction of type II and III workrooms for handling of unsealed sources are outlined. The 'Guide Concerning Construction and Equipment of Rooms for Handling of Radioactive Materials' is explained and supplemented in part. Furthermore, problems of radiation protection organization and measuring techniques are discussed. (author)

  16. Learning by Seeing: The TEMAS Multimedia Learning Objects for Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Ezio; Botturi, Luca; Forni, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    A goal of engineering and architecture bachelor and master's programs is to provide students with practical and technical preparation in the mechanical characterization of materials and structures: future architects and civil engineers should be able to recognize and describe different construction materials and their behavior when used for…

  17. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Dipankar; Pal, Manish; Sarkar, Ashoke K.

    2016-01-01

    There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46...

  18. An exploration of structural material choice processes in Irish residential construction

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Maurice W

    2000-01-01

    This study is important in terms of applying organisational buying behaviour theory to structural material choice processes in the Irish residential construction sector, at a time when as the construction industry is awakening to the benefits and necessity of marketing. Structural material choice processes are explored within a framework developed from the organisational buying behaviour literature including seminal such Robinson, Ferris and Wind (1967), Webster and Wind (1972) and Sheth ...

  19. A platform for communicating construction material information between e-commerce systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen C W Kong; LI Heng; SHEN Qi-ping

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce systems for construction material procurement are becoming increasingly important in Hong Kong. These E-commerce systems are non-interoperable and create problems for the buyers who use these systems to purchase construction materials. This paper presents the mobile agent-based approach and Web serv-ices-based approach for enabling interoperation of these systems in the E-Union environment.

  20. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    OpenAIRE

    Arman Hashemi; Heather Cruickshank; Ali Cheshmehzangi

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and defo...

  1. Development of shot-clay system to construct high-quality buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the result of an experiment of shot-clay method which has been developed to construct the high-quality buffer materials in a radioactive waste disposal facility. The shot-clay method is a construction method which is conducted by shooting particle-like bentonite material with the supplied energy of high-pressured air. This paper includes a basic idea of this method, features, and results of its key experiments. (authors)

  2. Oral health of building construction workers: an epidemiological approach Saúde bucal de trabalhadores da construção civil: abordagem epidemiológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce Emy Tomita

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study aimed at evaluating the oral health conditions of building construction workers from a city in the mid-west region of São Paulo, Brazil. This study involved 219 male subjects, aged 17 to 72. The definition of a random sample utilized the functional number of each worker as a criterion to the raffle, which took into account all 450 subjects registered in the Working Accidents Prevention Program. The examination of oral health conditions by DMFT index and need of treatment were carried out according to WHO criteria (1997. This paper reports the prevalence of caries according to age, occupation, and educational level. Among the 219 workers examined, the mean DMFT was 16.9. Amongst the younger workers (Este estudo transversal foi delineado para avaliar as condições de saúde bucal de trabalhadores da construção civil em município da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinados 219 indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idades entre 17 e 72 anos. O levantamento das condições bucais foi realizado em processo de amostragem aleatória simples, a partir do total de 450 inscritos na MEGA-SIPAT 2000 (Semana Interna de Prevenção de Acidentes do Trabalho. Foi utilizado o índice CPOD (cárie dentária e necessidade de tratamento odontológico, segundo metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (1997. Neste estudo, são descritas a prevalência de cárie segundo a idade, ocupação e escolaridade. Entre os 219 trabalhadores examinados, o valor CPOD apurado foi 16,9. Os trabalhadores mais jovens (<25 anos de idade apresentaram média de 21,3 dentes sem necessidade de tratamento, enquanto os mais velhos mostraram necessidades progressivas de tratamento restaurador e reabilitador (p<0,001. Verificou-se índice CPOD de 15,6 para os trabalhadores de áreas administrativas e 21,7 para os mestres-de-obras, sem significância estatística. Houve aumento do índice CPOD segundo a idade, para todos os

  3. Exploration and Reflections on Ecological Civilization Construction in Shiyan City, Hubei Province%湖北省十堰市生态文明建设探索与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华钢; 孔小丽; 陈霞

    2015-01-01

    As the core water source area of the Middle Route Scheme of South to North Water Division Project, Shiyan urgently needs to promote the construction of ecological civilization. In fact, there are great challenges, including the strong constraints of resources and environment, the relatively backward social and economic development, and the fragile ecological system, in the construction of ecological civilization in Shiyan. In this article, some correlative systems need to be set up, such as scientific and reasonable spatial layout system, natural and beautiful ecological environment system, green and low-carbon industrial development mode, intensive and efficient utilization of energy and resources system, low-carbon and circular urban-rural integration system, normal and systematic ecological civilization system, moderate ecological culture system, to strengthen the construction of ecological civilization.%十堰市是国家南水北调中线工程核心水源区,加快推进生态文明建设刻不容缓。但十堰生态文明建设面临巨大挑战,资源环境约束趋紧,经济社会发展水平相对落后,生态系统脆弱,因此需要从构建科学合理的空间布局体系、自然优美的生态环境体系、绿色低碳的产业发展体系、集约高效的资源能源利用体系、循环低碳的城乡一体化体系、系统规范的生态文明制度体系、节约适度的生态文化体系来推进生态文明建设。

  4. Case Study: LCA Methodology Applied to Materials Management in a Brazilian Residential Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Lassio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is increasingly concerned with improving the social, economic, and environmental indicators of sustainability. More than ever, the growing demand for construction materials reflects increased consumption of raw materials and energy, particularly during the phases of extraction, processing, and transportation of materials. This work aims to help decision-makers and to promote life cycle thinking in the construction industry. For this purpose, the life cycle assessment (LCA methodology was chosen to analyze the environmental impacts of building materials used in the construction of a residence project in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The LCA methodology, based on ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 guidelines, is applied with available databases and the SimaPro program. As a result, this work shows that there is a substantial waste of nonrenewable energy, increasing global warming and harm to human health in this type of construction. This study also points out that, for this type of Brazilian construction, ceramic materials account for a high percentage of the mass of a total building and are thus responsible for the majority of environmental impacts.

  5. Construction of a test embankment using a sand-tire shred mixture as fill material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sungmin; Prezzi, Monica; Siddiki, Nayyar Zia; Kim, Bumjoo

    2006-01-01

    Use of tire shreds in construction projects, such as highway embankments, is becoming an accepted way of beneficially recycling scrap tires. However, in the last decade there was a decline in the use of pure tire shreds as fill materials in embankment construction, as they are susceptible to fire hazards due to the development of exothermic reactions. Tire shred-sand mixtures, on the other hand, were found to be effective in inhibiting exothermic reactions. When compared with pure tire shreds, tire shred-sand mixtures are less compressible and have higher shear strength. However, the literature contains limited information on the use of tire shred-soil mixtures as a fill material. The objectives of this paper are to discuss and evaluate the feasibility of using tire shred-sand mixtures as a fill material in embankment construction. A test embankment constructed using a 50/50 mixture, by volume, of tire shreds and sand was instrumented and monitored to: (a) determine total and differential settlements; (b) evaluate the environmental impact of the embankment construction on the groundwater quality due to leaching of fill material; and (c) study the temperature variation inside the embankment. The findings in this research indicate that mixtures of tire shreds and sand are viable materials for embankment construction. PMID:16343890

  6. Fatores de sucesso no gerenciamento de múltiplos projetos na construção civil em Recife Success factors in multiple project management in the civil construction in Recife

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Asfora Frej; Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2010-01-01

    A indústria da construção civil tem um papel fundamental no desenvolvimento da economia do país. Muitas empresas do setor, entretanto, vêm enfrentando diversas dificuldades, muitas vezes devido a uma gestão de projetos deficiente. Este artigo ressalta a importância de um eficiente gerenciamento de múltiplos projetos nessas empresas, focando- se em analisar os fatores responsáveis pelo sucesso desse gerenciamento. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa exploratória com 30 empresas de construção...

  7. Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Views about Using Computer-Based Instructional Materials in Constructing Mathematical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukova-Guzel, Esra; Canturk-Gunhan, Berna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine prospective mathematics teachers' views about using computer-based instructional materials in constructing mathematical concepts and to reveal how the sample computer-based instructional materials for different mathematical concepts altered their views. This is a qualitative study involving twelve…

  8. Quality criteria for bottom ashes for civil construction. Part II Technical characteristics of bottom ashes; Kvalitetskriterier foer bottenaskor till vaegoch anlaeggningsbyggnad. Etapp II Bottenaskors tekniska egenskaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Bo von; Loorents, Karl-Johan; Ekvall, Annika; Arvidsson, Haakan [SP Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2006-01-15

    This report is the presentation of the second of two stages. This stage deals mainly with the testing of three different types of ashes and the evaluation and suitability of the chosen test methods. The project only relates to the technical aspects of ashes. The report is written in such a way that both ash owners (e.g. Energy companies) and those who build roads and constructions will find it meaningful. All test methods that are used for traditional materials (gravel and crushed rock) is not fitting for ashes. New test methods for some properties that will be tested must therefore be presented, tested practically and evaluated. The project encompasses both road and construction building but has a focus on road construction since there the highest and comprising demands are defined. Three bottom ashes of different types have been studied regarding some tenfold mechanical/physical parameters, essential for the functionality of the ash as a construction material. An important conclusion is that ash is from a functionality and characterisation point of view, an undefined concept that encloses materials with widely different properties. Despite that only three ashes have been looked into the range of results are varying large for some properties. This is especially true for the loose bulk density, water absorption and grain size distribution. It is also clear that some of the standard test methods for aggregates need to be exchanged by other methods, which are more adapted to alternative materials. One such example is water absorption, a property that further influences frost resistance, frost heave and such. All the proposed test methods that been used in the project is considered fitting for its purpose. The test methods can be divided into two categories the ones that yield easy assessable results and those that yield results hard to appraise. To the first group belong grain size distribution, loose bulk density, thermal conductivity, permeability and frost heave

  9. Law Absence and System Construction of Equal Material Assistance Rights of Farmers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Firstly,conception of farmers’ equal material assistance rights is introduced from the aspects of equal rights,material assistance rights,and farmers’ equal material assistance rights.Value function of farmers’ equal material assistance rights is pointed out,which can eliminate the partial policies with urban priority orientation.It is a necessary condition for maintaining the legal and institutional authority,as well as an inevitable choice to realize the social justice and harmony.Current status of the law absence of farmers’ equal material assistance rights in China is introduced,which is reflected in the lack of theoretical research on farmers’ equal material assistance rights in the law circle,the lack of procedural legal system of farmers’ equal material assistance rights at present,and the lack of actual law effectiveness of farmers’ equal material assistance rights at present.System construction is a turning point to change the law absence of farmers’ material assistance rights.Government should promote the economic development,provide material bases for the system construction of farmers’ material assistance rights,enhance the legal consciousness of farmers,cultivate the ability of farmers to participate in equal material assistance rights,strengthen the procedural legislation and judicial justice,and ensure the farmers’ material assistance rights.

  10. 非物质文化遗产保护与我国民间武术开发%Non-material Cultural Heritage Protection and Development of China's Civil Wushu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 陈永辉

    2012-01-01

    对非物质文化遗产进行保护,着重点在于对其进行开发,使其文化价值能得到新的实现。通过分析民间武术作为非物质文化遗产来保护的重要性,提出民间武术文化遗产应进行分级保护体系,以及民间武术开发应采取的对策:加强对民间武术传人的培植;加强对民间武术文化表现形式活动的开展;加强对学校民间武术教育的开展;加强媒体传播的利用。%The non-material cultural heritage protectionis the focus of its development, to new cultural values that can be realized. Analysis of the protection of civil martial art of the importance of non-material cultural heritage, Wushu to the civil protection of cultural heritage should be grading system and civil martial arts development should take the following measures:to strengthen the nurturing of civil martial arts person; to strengthen the cultural expressions of civil martial arts activities carried out; to strengthen civil martial arts school education carried out; to strengthen the use of mass media.

  11. Non-material cultural heritage protection and development of China's civil Wushu%非物质文化遗产保护与我国民间武术开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震; 陈永辉

    2012-01-01

    The non-material cultural heritage protection,Is the focus of its development,To new cultural values can be realized. Analysis of the protection of civil martial art of the importance of non-material cultural heritage, Wushu to the civil protection of cultural heritage should be grading system and civil martial arts development should take the following measures:to strengthen the nurturing of civil martial arts person;Strengthen the cultural expressions of civil martial arts activities carried out; To strengthen civil martial arts school education carried out; Strengthen the use of mass media.%对非物质文化遗产进行保护,着重点在于对其进行开发,使其文化价值能得到新的实现。分析了民间武术作为非物质文化遗产来保护的重要性,提出了民间武术文化遗产应进行分级保护体系以及民间武术开发应采取以下对策:加强对民间武术传人的培植;加强对民间武术文化表现形式活动的开展;加强对学校民间武术教育的开展;加强媒体传播的利用。

  12. Time-history simulation of civil architecture earthquake disaster relief- based on the three-dimensional dynamic finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system adopts the explicit central difference method. Strengthening characteristics of materials under high strain rate and damage characteristics of surrounding rock under the action of cyclic loading are considered. Then, dynamic constitutive model of rock mass suitable for civil building aseismic analysis is put forward. At the same time, through the earthquake disaster of time-history simulation of Shenzhen Children’s Palace, reliability and practicability of system program is verified in the analysis of practical engineering problems.

  13. Probability, statistics, and decision for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, Jack R

    2014-01-01

    Designed as a primary text for civil engineering courses, as a supplementary text for courses in other areas, or for self-study by practicing engineers, this text covers the development of decision theory and the applications of probability within the field. Extensive use of examples and illustrations helps readers develop an in-depth appreciation for the theory's applications, which include strength of materials, soil mechanics, construction planning, and water-resource design. A focus on fundamentals includes such subjects as Bayesian statistical decision theory, subjective probability, and

  14. Energy-Efficient Devices for Transporting and Feeding Bulk Materials in the Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Only in the construction industry millions of tons of bulk materials that need to be transported to the place of processing, storing and evenly or dosed feeding are recycled annually. Decreasing the costs of these processes will significantly reduce the cost of the finished product. The article presents a review of studies conducted in the field of storage, transport and feed bulk materials, and it describes the innovative design of energy-efficient disc vibrating feeder bulk materials.

  15. Shock-treated lunar soil simulant: Preliminary assessment as a construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boslough, Mark B.; Bernold, Leonhard E.; Horie, Yasuyuki

    In an effort to examine the feasibility of applying dynamic compaction techniques to fabricate construction materials from lunar regolith, preliminary explosive shock-loading experiments on lunar soil simulants were carried out. Analysis of our shock-treated samples suggests that binding additives, such as metallic aluminum powder, may provide the necessary characteristics to fabricate a strong and durable building material (lunar adobe) that takes advantage of a cheap base material available in abundance: lunar regolith.

  16. 乡村文明建设背景下的农村厕所改革问题研究%Study on Rural Toilet Transformation under the Background of Rural Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯克宁; 王卫东

    2011-01-01

    The toilet,as a basic sanitation facility in daily life,is an important symbol of social change and civilization progress.To accelerate rural toilet transformation is an important part of the rural civilization and the New Countryside Construction,it is thus necessary to strengthen and guide relevant work.%厕所是人们生活中不可缺少的基本卫生设施,是反映社会变迁和文明进步程度的一个重要标志。加快我国农村厕所改革是乡村文明和新农村建设的重要组成部分,因此要加强对农村改厕工作的重视和领导。

  17. Application of a moment tensor inversion code developed for mining-induced seismicity to fracture monitoring of civil engineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Lindsay; Mhamdi, Lassaad; Schumacher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A moment tensor inversion (MTI) code originally developed to compute source mechanisms from mining-induced seismicity data is now being used in the laboratory in a civil engineering research environment. Quantitative seismology methods designed for geological environments are being tested with the aim of developing techniques to assess and monitor fracture processes in structural concrete members such as bridge girders. In this paper, we highlight aspects of the MTI_Toolbox programme that make it applicable to performing inversions on acoustic emission (AE) data recorded by networks of uniaxial sensors. The influence of the configuration of a seismic network on the conditioning of the least-squares system and subsequent moment tensor results for a real, 3-D network are compared to a hypothetical 2-D version of the same network. This comparative analysis is undertaken for different cases: for networks consisting entirely of triaxial or uniaxial sensors; for both P and S-waves, and for P-waves only. The aim is to guide the optimal design of sensor configurations where only uniaxial sensors can be installed. Finally, the findings of recent laboratory experiments where the MTI_Toolbox has been applied to a concrete beam test are presented and discussed.

  18. Ecological Civilization. Self-conscious in University Pursuit of Cultural Construction Campus%生态文明是大学校园文化建设的自觉追求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2012-01-01

    The construction of ecological civilization, presented by the nation in this new era, is the impor- tant historic mission and the innovative connotation in educating college students. The 18th National Congress of Communist Party of China attaches equal importance to the construction of economy, politics, culture, society, and eco-civilization, proposing their integrated development. It is essential to nurture the perception of ecological civilization in college students~ moral education at this new age. The construction of new campus culture, based on ecological perception, is an important way to promote full-development of students and put into practice the scientific outlook on development. Through the construction of campus ecological culture colleges should first establish a well-preserved sub-ecosystem and play an essential role in the construction of socialism ecological civilization.%以培育生态文明理念为目标的校园文化建设是国家在新时期赋予大学思想品德与素质教育的历史重任,是大学生德育的新内涵。党的十八大将生态文明建设与经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设并重,五位一体,科学发展。以生态文明理念为指导,建设大学校园文化是促进大学生全面发展、落实科学发展观的重要举措。通过校园生态文化建设,大学首先应当建设好校园的生态子系统,继而在社会主义生态文明建设中发挥出“先行者”的作用。

  19. Analysis of Material Handling Safety in Construction Sites and Countermeasures for Effective Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar, C. N.; Sakthivel, M.; Elangovan, R. K.; Arularasu, M.

    2015-01-01

    One of many hazardous workplaces includes the construction sites as they involve several dangerous tasks. Many studies have revealed that material handling equipment is a major cause of accidents at these sites. Though safety measures are being followed and monitored continuously, accident rates are still high as either workers are unaware of hazards or the safety regulations are not being strictly followed. This paper analyses the safety management systems at construction sites through means...

  20. Nanotechnology : advantages and drawbacks in the field of construction and building materials

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology seems to hold the key that allows construction and building materials to replicate the features of natural systems improved until perfection during millions of years. This paper reviews current knowledge about nanotechnology and nanomaterials used by the construction industry. It covers the nanoscale analysis of Portland cement hydration products, the use of nanoparticles to increase the strength and durability of cimentitious composites, the photocatalytic capacity of nanomate...

  1. Research onthe Construction of Campus-based Innovative Practice Base for Civil Engineering Majors---Taking Civil Engineering Majors of Beijing City University as an Example%城建类专业校内创新实践基地建设初探--以北京城市学院城建类专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    城建类专业学生的创新精神和实践能力必须通过一系列高质量的实践性教育教学环节的训练,才能够得到有效的培养。本文以北京城市学院城建类校内创新实践基地建设为例,阐述了基地“三平台”功能定位,从基地的组织管理、基地资源的配置完善、“三平台”的建设成效等方面,对基地建设情况进行了分析总结。%Only by taking part in a series of practice can the civil engineering majors’innovative spirit and practical ability be effectively trained.Taking the construction of campus-based innovative practice base for civil engineering majors of Beijing City University as an example,this paper describes “three platforms”function of innovative practice base and analyzes the base construction situation through the organization management of innovative practice base,the improvement of resources allocation and the construction of“three platforms”.

  2. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  3. Utilization of stabilized municipal waste combustion ash residues as construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabilized municipal waste combustion (MWC) ash residues were investigated for their potential as construction material that can be beneficially used in terrestrial and marine environments. End-use products, such as patio stones, brick pavers, solid blocks, and reef units, were fabricated and tested for their engineering and chemical characteristics. engineering feasibility and environmental acceptability of using stabilized ash residues as construction material are discussed in this paper. Ash samples were collected from two mass-burn facilities and one refuse derived fuel (RDF) facility in Florida

  4. EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATION OF SALTSTONE MIXER AUGER/PADDLES MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR IMPROVED WEAR RESISTANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Torres, R.

    2012-08-15

    Wear and corrosion testing were conducted to evaluate alternate materials of construction for the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles. These components have been degraded by wear from the slurry processed in the mixer. Material test options included PVD coatings (TiN, TiCN, and ZrN), weld overlays (Stellite 12 and Ultimet) and higher hardness steels and carbides (D2 and tungsten carbide). The corrosion testing demonstrated that the slurry is not detrimental to the current materials of construction or the new candidates. The ASTM G75 Miller wear test showed that the high hardness materials and the Stellite 12 weld overlay provide superior wear relative to the Astralloy and CF8M stainless steel, which are the current materials of construction, as well as the PVD coatings and Ultimet. The following recommendations are made for selecting new material options and improving the overall wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer components: A Stellite 12 weld overlay or higher hardness steel (with toughness equivalent to Astralloy) be used to improve the wear resistance of the Saltstone mixer paddles; other manufacturing specifications for the mixer need to be considered in this selection. The current use of the Stellite 12 weld overlay be evaluated so that coverage of the 316 auger can be optimized for improved wear resistance of the auger. The wear surfaces of the Saltstone mixer auger and paddles be evaluated so that laboratory data can be better correlated to actual service. The 2-inch Saltstone mixer prototype be used to verify material performance.

  5. [Ecological civilization and schistosomiasis control in Yujiang County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dong-Yun; Liu, Bu-Yun

    2012-02-01

    This article describes the main approach of ecological civilization construction and great changes and achievements in the original schistosomiasis endemic areas, Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province. Ecological civilization is an important part of schistosomiasis control work. PMID:22590876

  6. 作为生态文明界标的徽州村镇人居环境建设%Construction of Human Habitat Environment in the Towns of Huizhou as a Landmark of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺为才

    2012-01-01

    This essay initially investigates the process and experience of long harmonious development between ecological civilization and human habitat environment construction in the towns of Huizhou through literature research and field investigation. By using relevant theories such as science of historical da- ta, ecology and science of human habitat environment as well as sample analysis, it puts forward that the ecological civilization is the essential core of the culture of Huizhou and the construction of human habitat environment in the towns o{ Huizhou conforms to ecological rules, protects the ecological environment and adapts to ecological changes. The construction has made remarkable achievements and posed influence till now. It can be regarded as the landmark of the ecological civilization in the development of the time, accumulation of ecological experience and upgrade of ecological perceptions, and is thus of great referential significance.%通过文献梳理与田野考察初步探讨了徽州生态文明与人居环境建设长期和谐发展的历程和经验,运用史料学、生态学、人居环境科学等相关理论,结合实例分析,认为:生态文明是徽州文化的基本内核,徽州村镇人居环境建设自觉遵从生态规律,保护生态环境,适应生态变迁,成效卓著,传承至今,在时代发展机遇、生态经验积淀与生态观念更新诸方面堪称生态文明的界标,具有独特的借鉴价值。

  7. On the Role of Environmental Movement and Environmental Organizations in the Ecological Civilization Construction%环境运动和环境组织在生态文明建设中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雷

    2013-01-01

    Environmental movements and organizations are important parts of social movements and organizations, which rose and grew closely with the environmental and ecological problems worldwide and the government and the market failures existing in the con-struction of ecological civilization. Environmental movements and organizations play a positive role in China ’s ecological civilization construction, with expanding public participation, reflecting the demands of the masses, strengthening the function of social autonomy. Environmental movements and environmental organizations are the weak links in China ’s ecological civilization construction. In order to promote the environmental movements and organizations grow healthy and orderly, we have to adhere to the unity of the Party ’s leader-ship,people as masters of the country and ruling the country by law.%  环境运动和环境组织的兴起与世界范围内日益凸显的环境和生态问题以及政府和市场在生态文明建设中存在的失灵现象紧密相连。环境运动和环境组织在我国生态文明建设中发挥着积极的作用,具有扩大群众参与、反映群众诉求、增强社会自治的功能。环境运动和环境组织是我国生态文明建设中的薄弱环节,要推动其健康有序发展,必须将党的领导、人民当家作主和依法治国有机统一起来。

  8. Research on Several Problems of Civil-military Integration Constructing Equipment Maintaining Support System%装备维修保障体系军民一体化建设若干问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中央党校第54期总装分部班课题组

    2011-01-01

    Civil-military integration of equipment maintaining support system is the important direction of equipment maintaining support system innovation. Basing on analyzing the significations of civil-military integration construction of equipment maintaining support system, this paper compares the measures of military powerful country and developed experience, and provides the basic idea. In the end, according to corresponding construction idea, countermeasures and suggestions on construction are put forward.%装备维修保障体系军民一体化,是装备维修保障体制改革的重要方向.在分析装备维修保障体系军民一体化建设内涵的基础上,对比主要军事强国的做法和我国的发展经验,给出了装备维修保障体系军民一体化的基本思路,并依据相应建设思路,提出了建设的对策建议.

  9. Discussion on the Low Carbon City Construction under the Perspective of Ecological Civilization%生态文明视域下的低碳城市建设探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑湘晖

    2013-01-01

    China is in a critical period of rapid development of city modernization and urbanization, destruction of human activities, climate change and a variety of factors, intensify the lack of natural resources. In order to realize the construction of ecological civilization, must have the awareness of low-carbo-n, low carbon city become the future trend of development al over the city. This paper analyzes the connotation of low carb-on city and the progress of low carbon city construction at pre-sent, analyzes the path of low carbon city construction from th-e perspective of ecological civilization.%  当前我国正处于现代化、城市化快速发展的关键时期,人类活动的破坏、气候的变化等多种因素加剧了自然资源的匮乏。要实现生态文明建设,必须具备低碳意识,低碳城市成为今后各国城市化发展道路的趋势。本文通过分析低碳城市的内涵、目前低碳城市建设的进展,从生态文明的视角下分析低碳城市建设路径。

  10. Civil Technology Applications. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Karen

    Teacher and student editions of Civil Technology Applications are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for drafting and civil technology programs. It includes the technical content and tasks necessary for a student to be employed as a drafter or civil technician in a civil engineering firm. Introductory pages in the teacher…

  11. 基于非营利组织困境的公民社会之建构%Construction of Civil Society Based on the Plight of Non -profit Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛

    2012-01-01

    In the end of last century,the theory of civil society has popularized all over the world ,and the academic researchers tried their best to made the theory localized in China . With the development and expansion of non - profit organizations, the civil society gradually come to the mature. How to promote the development of non - profit organizations and the construction of the domestication of the civil society has become a hot topic today.%上世纪末,公民社会理论在全球的风靡驱使各国学术界去吸收这一西方理论,加以本土化,并且随着非营利组织的发展壮大,公民社会理论的意义逐渐凸显,如何促进非营利组织的发展,构建本土化的公民社会成为了现今时代的一个理论热题。

  12. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  13. Um sistema de indicadores para comparação entre organizações: o caso das pequenas e médias empresas de construção civil Comparing small and medium-sized civil construction enterprises based on performance indicator systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Brasil de Brito Mello

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avalia o desempenho das médias e pequenas empresas (PME de construção civil que utilizam critérios de medição e sistemas de indicadores em relação àquelas que não utilizam, confrontando os resultados obtidos nas dimensões: finanças, recursos humanos, mercado e produção. Para tanto, partiu-se do pressuposto de que a implantação de indicadores e critérios de medição em PMEs da construção civil traz benefícios. Desta forma, foram aplicados os indicadores selecionados em uma amostra de pequenas e médias empresas da construção civil, certificadas e não certificadas, situadas no município do Rio de Janeiro. A pesquisa realizada demonstrou que as empresas que utilizam critérios de medição apresentam melhores resultados.This article evaluates how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the civil construction industry that utilize performance indicator systems perform when compared with similar companies that do not use such indicators. SMEs located in the region of Rio de Janeiro were selected, some certified with quality systems and others not. Various indicators (financial, human resources, market and production were applied to the companies and a comparison was made of the findings. Tests revealed that companies that use performance indicator systems show better results.

  14. 生态文明建设的结构形态与路径选择%Structure Morphology and Path Choose of Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳越飞

    2015-01-01

    Through research we find that the social development of our country into the underlying causes of the ecological dilemma is the development of industrial civilization, our only capital, technology and other outer strengthen environmental protection can only palliatives, awaken the public to build an ecological civilization society awareness is the inevitable choice for China’s development and fundamental way.%通过研究我们不难发现,我国社会发展陷入生态困境的内在根源就是工业文明的发展,我国仅从资金、技术等外层加强环保只能治标不治本,唤醒社会大众共同建设生态文明社会的意识才是中国发展的必然选择和根本出路。

  15. Cost effective manufacturing processes and materials used for the construction of the Superbus

    OpenAIRE

    Terzi, A; Ockels, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Superbus, rendered in Figure 1, is a new concept for public transportation. It is sustainable, fast, economic, and appealing and transports passengers and goods from point to point and drives at high speed (250 km/h) on its dedicated and relatively cheap infrastructure. In this paper the material used, the cost effective tooling and manufacturing processes for the construction of the Superbus are presented. First, the materials used for the achievement of the structural design targets in ...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment in construction industry: applications to structural materials and components.

    OpenAIRE

    Napolano, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    Material, energy, water use and occupation land related to construction industry activities represent a major contribution to the total environmental impact caused by society. In fact, it is estimated that the building sector is responsible for the 30–40% of the society’s total energy demand and approximately 44% of the total material use. Consequently, the building sector has to be prioritized to be able to reach a sustainable society within a reasonable period of time. The present wor...

  17. Assessment of electrophoresis and electroosmosis in construction materials: effect of enhancing electrolytes and heavy metals contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Castellote Armero, Marta Maria; Botija, S.; Andrade Perdrix, Maria del Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic effects are those that take place by application of an electric field to porous materials, with the zeta potential as the key parameter. Specifically, in the case of contaminated construction materials, the generation of an electroosmotic flux, with the corresponding dragging due to water transport, is a crucial mechanism to succeed in the treatment of decontamination. Therefore, it is of great interest trying to optimize the treatment by the addition of specific electrolytes e...

  18. The Construction of Civil Servant Rotation System for Non-leadership Positions%非领导职务公务员轮岗机制构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周清露

    2015-01-01

    轮岗机制包括领导职务的公务员轮岗和非领导职务公务员轮岗。当前,我国政府机关进行非领导职务公务员轮岗是必要的,也是可行的。非领导职务公务员轮岗机制的主要内容有轮岗原则设定、制度安排、政策设计和运行实践等。只有建立健全非领导职务公务员轮岗机制,才能增强机关工作的协同性和整体性,助推问题解决和效率提高的改革,培养复合型人才,激发队伍活力以及促进廉政建设。%Civil servant rotation system includes leadership positions rotation and non-leadership positions rotation in the civil service system. At present, non-leadership positions rotation in our government agencies is necessary and feasible. Non-leadership positions rotation system in the civil service mainly consists of rotation policy settings, institutional arrangements, policy designing and operational practices. Only by establishing and improving non-leadership positions rotation system in the civil service, can the cooperativity and integrity of government agencies work be enhanced, reforms of problem solving and efficiency improvement be boosted. Besides, such a system is also helpful in cultivating compound talents, stimulating the vitality of team members and promoting the building of a clean government.

  19. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  20. The Construction of Discipline System and Building of Leading Discipline in Civil Servants Training Institutions%公务员培训院校学科体系建设与优势学科打造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩东

    2015-01-01

    学科体系建设对于创建有特色、高水平的公务员培训院校具有重要支撑作用,加强学科体系建设是推进公务员教育培训事业发展的现实要求和内在动力。公务员培训院校学科体系建设主要体现出基础性、战略性、综合性、累积性和动态性等特征,从围绕中心明确优势学科建设重点与方向、着力强化科研咨询对学科建设的助推支撑作用、优化支持学科发展的人才队伍建设、构建有利于优势学科建设的保障机制、开发利用国际国内两种资源和发挥学科文化作用等层面,能够不断提高学科体系建设的科学化、规范化和制度化水平。%The construction of discipline system plays an important supportive role in creating a distinctive, high level of civil servants training institutions. Strengthening the construction of discipline system is the reality demands and intrinsic motivation of civil servants training career. The construction of discipline system in Civil servant train-ing institution mainly feature in basic, strategic, comprehensive, cumulative and dynamic characteristics. To constantly promote the scientific, systematic and standardized con-struction of the discipline system, it is suggested to focus on the central task to identify the priorities and trends of leading disciplines, strengthen scientific research and con-sulting work to support and further develop the discipline construction, build a mecha-nism to guarantee the positive development of discipline construction, utilize the domes-tic and international resource, and make full use of the influence of discipline cultures.

  1. Formulação de estratégias competitivas por meio de análise de cenários na construção civil Formulation of competitive strategies through analysis of scenarios for civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriele Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa consistiu em formular estratégias competitivas por meio de análise de cenários simulados no setor de construção civil. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, onde o instrumento de coleta de dados foi o questionário de avaliação qualitativa, com representantes das construtoras. A técnica adotada no trabalho foi a amostragem nãoprobabilística realizada por conveniência. O método utilizado foi o modelo de simulação de cenários de Rojo (2006. Com o desenvolvimento de cenários simulados pôde-se obter condições para que as empresas da construção civil possam preparar-se antecipadamente para eventuais mudanças futuras, reduzindo suas incertezas organizacionais. Pôde-se concluir que a ferramenta de simulação de cenários utilizada é apropriada para auxiliar de forma estratégica o setor da construção civil, a simulação de cenários pode ser uma das alternativas a serem utilizadas, tanto pelo governo como pelas próprias empresas do setor. O modelo de Rojo diferencia-se dos demais roteiros de diagnóstico estratégico por buscar as variáveis diretamente com os players do setor. O setor delimitado na pesquisa teve, como resultado para a empresa em questão, formatado o planejamento estratégico de forma lógica não linear, ampliando a análise de variáveis na linha do tempo. Tal procedimento característico do modelo colabora com a precisão do processo decisório, com as devidas análises de possíveis caminhos cognitivos para a formulação de estratégia competitiva especificamente no caso da concorrência entre empresas da construção civil atuantes na mesma região.The purpose of this research was to formulate competitive strategies through simulated analysis of scenarios for the civil construction industry. The data for this explanatory study was collected by means of qualitative assessment questionnaires applied to construction company representatives. The non-probabilistic sampling technique

  2. Formulação de estratégias competitivas por meio de análise de cenários na construção civil Formulation of competitive strategies through analysis of scenarios for civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriele Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa consistiu em formular estratégias competitivas por meio de análise de cenários simulados no setor de construção civil. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório, onde o instrumento de coleta de dados foi o questionário de avaliação qualitativa, com representantes das construtoras. A técnica adotada no trabalho foi a amostragem nãoprobabilística realizada por conveniência. O método utilizado foi o modelo de simulação de cenários de Rojo (2006. Com o desenvolvimento de cenários simulados pôde-se obter condições para que as empresas da construção civil possam preparar-se antecipadamente para eventuais mudanças futuras, reduzindo suas incertezas organizacionais. Pôde-se concluir que a ferramenta de simulação de cenários utilizada é apropriada para auxiliar de forma estratégica o setor da construção civil, a simulação de cenários pode ser uma das alternativas a serem utilizadas, tanto pelo governo como pelas próprias empresas do setor. O modelo de Rojo diferencia-se dos demais roteiros de diagnóstico estratégico por buscar as variáveis diretamente com os players do setor. O setor delimitado na pesquisa teve, como resultado para a empresa em questão, formatado o planejamento estratégico de forma lógica não linear, ampliando a análise de variáveis na linha do tempo. Tal procedimento característico do modelo colabora com a precisão do processo decisório, com as devidas análises de possíveis caminhos cognitivos para a formulação de estratégia competitiva especificamente no caso da concorrência entre empresas da construção civil atuantes na mesma região.The purpose of this research was to formulate competitive strategies through simulated analysis of scenarios for the civil construction industry. The data for this explanatory study was collected by means of qualitative assessment questionnaires applied to construction company representatives. The non-probabilistic sampling technique

  3. Radon diffusion through sandy construction materials: effect of temperature and grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon appears mainly by diffusion process from the point of origin, say, under ground soil and building materials used in construction of house following alpha decay of radium. The radon diffusion through different building construction materials can be compared by calculating radon diffusion coefficient for them. In the present work, we studied the effect of temperature and grain size on radon diffusion of coarse sand as construction material. The coarse sand was collected from Yamuna river bed, originated from Himalayas. For this study, a steel pipe of diameter 10 cm and length 30 cm., divided into four sectors of equal size, was filled in different sectors with different grain sized (800, 600 and 425 μm) sand as building construction material. A number LR-115 type-II particle track detectors were placed with inter-detector distance of 10 cm in the sectorial compartments. The bottom end of steel pipe assembly was fixed with a radon chamber containing radon source with upper end sealed with a cap. The whole arrangement was then placed into a sand-clay pipe wrapped around by a controlled heating filament, resulting into temperature variations from 25℃ to 60℃. After 100 days interval, the detectors were retrieved processed, and the α - tracks counted for the calculation of radon concentration. It is observed that the radon diffusion coefficient increases with the increase in temperature and decreases with decrease in grain size of the coarse sand. (author)

  4. Material waste in the China construction industry: Minimization strategies and benefits of recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulala M.Z.F. Al-Hamadani, ZENG Xiao-lan, M.M.Mian, Zhongchuang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste minimization strategies and the relative importance of benefits of material waste recognition were examined using a survey of construction companies operating in Chongqing city China. The results showed that a remarkable proportion of respondent companies have specific policies for minimizing construction waste. Amongst the strategies, minimizing waste at source of origin is practiced to a large degree by construction companies with specific waste minimization strategies. However, considerable quantities of construction waste are generated. These quantities need to be reused or recycled or combination of them. The study also revealed that recycling is not highly practiced because it needs a lot of capital and an area, except for those high scrap value recycling materials like steel, whereas other non-profitable will be sent to C-and-D landfills directly. Respondents’ perceptions towards the benefits of material waste recognition revealed that materials waste is primarily considered an environmental and financial problem and its minimization a cost cutting activity and protection of the environment. In contrast, the contractual benefits were considered less important by surveyed companies.

  5. Stimulating The Use Of Secondary Materials In The Construction Industry: The Role Of Certification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, van R.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction of secondary materials in the construction industry is quite difficult and has not always been successful, even when they satisfy all necessary product demands and environmental (leaching) conditions. Besides the financial and commercial aspects the main problem is convincing the user o

  6. Application of aging methods to estimate long term performance of secondary materials for road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarnejad, S.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Long term performance of secondary materials is becoming a challenging aspect in road construction since due to their benefits they are being used on a large scale, but on the other hand their future behaviors are difficult to estimate. In this study, aging is proposed as a means of exploring the lo

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7045 Balance of Payments... clause: Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material Under Trade Agreements (NOV 2009)...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7044 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance of Payments... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7044 Balance of Payments Program—Construction Material. As prescribed in 225.7503(a), use the following clause: Balance of Payments...

  9. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  10. Artificial Molecular Machine Immobilized Surfaces: A New Platform To Construct Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Qu, Da-Hui

    2016-06-17

    Artificial molecular machines have received significant attention from chemists because of their unique ability to mimic the behaviors of biological systems. Artificial molecular machines can be easily modified with functional groups to construct new types of functional molecular switches. However, practical applications of artificial molecular machines are still challenging, because the working platform of artificial molecular machines is mostly in solution. Artificial molecular machine immobilized surfaces (AMMISs) are considered a promising platform to construct functional materials. Herein, we provide a minireview of some recent advances of functional AMMISs. The functions of AMMISs are highlighted and strategies for their construction are also discussed. Furthermore, a brief perspective of the development of artificial molecular machines towards functional materials is given.

  11. A Construction System for CALL Materials from TV News with Captions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Mori, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    Many language learning materials have been published. In language learning, although repetition training is obviously necessary, it is difficult to maintain the learner's interest/motivation using existing learning materials, because those materials are limited in their scope and contents. In addition, we doubt whether the speech sounds used in most materials are natural in various situations. Nowadays, some TV news programs (CNN, ABC, PBS, NHK, etc.) have closed/open captions corresponding to the announcer's speech. We have developed a system that makes Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) materials for both English learning by Japanese and Japanese learning by foreign students from such captioned newscasts. This system computes the synchronization between captions and speech by using HMMs and a forced alignment algorithm. Materials made by the system have following functions: full/partial text caption display, repetition listening, consulting an electronic dictionary, display of the user's/announcer's sound waveform and pitch contour, and automatic construction of a dictation test. Materials have following advantages: materials present polite and natural speech, various and timely topics. Furthermore, the materials have the following possibility: automatic creation of listening/understanding tests, and storage/retrieval of the many materials. In this paper, firstly, we present the organization of the system. Then, we describe results of questionnaires on trial use of the materials. As the result, we got enough accuracy on the synchronization between captions and speech. Speaking totally, we encouraged to research this system.

  12. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  13. The Promotion Strategy of Green Construction Materials: A Path Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Fah Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As one of the major materials used in construction, cement can be very resource-consuming and polluting to produce and use. Compared with traditional cement processing methods, dry-mix mortar is more environmentally friendly by reducing waste production or carbon emissions. Despite the continuous development and promotion of green construction materials, only a few of them are accepted or widely used in the market. In addition, the majority of existing research on green construction materials focuses more on their physical or chemical characteristics than on their promotion. Without effective promotion, their benefits cannot be fully appreciated and realized. Therefore, this study is conducted to explore the promotion of dry-mix mortars, one of the green materials. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, through a case study, the potential of reducing carbon emission is verified. Then a path analysis is conducted to verify the validity and predictability of the samples based on the technology acceptance model (TAM in this study. According to the findings of this research, to ensure better promotion results and wider application of dry-mix mortar, it is suggested that more systematic efforts be invested in promoting the usefulness and benefits of dry-mix mortar. The model developed in this study can provide helpful references for future research and promotion of other green materials.

  14. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Maha; Grimaldi, Michel; Lerch, Thomas Z.; Pando, Anne; Gigon, Agnès; Blouin, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    There is no information on how organisms influence hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols and how such influence will be affected by the parent-material composition factor. In a laboratory experiment, parent materials, which were excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC), were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, but not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass, resulting in positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials positively affected the hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  15. Rehabilitation of Karst Rocky Desertification Land and Ecological Civilization Construction in Guizhou Province%贵州喀斯特石漠化治理与生态文明建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏迪

    2012-01-01

    石漠化治理是我国当前最大的生态建设项目之一,也是喀斯特生态重建历史的机遇期.回顾和总结了过去20年石漠化治理存在的重要问题,提出贵州石漠化治理工程应定位为“生态贵州、和谐贵州、绿色经济”这一主题,石漠化治理的实质就是“生态文明”,并指出走生态文明之路必须发展绿色经济,然后指出了今后重点要优先发展的方向.该研究为推动贵州的生态文明建设提供了参考.%Rehabilitation of Karst rocky desertification land is currently one of the largest ecological construction projects, and it is also the important opportunity of ecological reconstruction in Karst areas on the history. The main problems of Karst rocky desertification rehabilitation during the past 20 years were reviewed and summarized, the theme was put forward, namely "eco-Guizhou, Guizhou harmony, green economy" , the important view was proposed that the essence of Karst rocky desertification rehabilitation is " ecological civilization" , it was pointed out that it must develop green economy to ecological civilization, and future priorities direction was introduced. The study will provide reference for developing ecological civilization construction in Guizhou Province.

  16. China Characteristics Socialism for the Construction of Ecological Civilization Route Choice Countermeasures%中国特色社会主义生态文明建设路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2012-01-01

    党的"十七大"首次提出建设生态文明,并对其概念进行了解读,从而掀起了研究生态文明的热潮。对马克思主义生态文明理论的研究既有理论发展内在逻辑的演进,又有现实的动因。进行社会主义生态文明建设的科学路径,首先是科学发展观的指导是推进生态文明建设的思想保障。其次,转变经济发展方式是推进生态文明建设的重点工作,抓住科技创新这一关键环节,以建设"两型城市"作为推进生态文明建设的重要载体。%The party’s "17" first put forward the construction of ecological civilization,and the understanding of the concept to read,and it’s a boom.Ecological civilization of marxist theory research theory development intrinsic logic evolution,and the motive of the reality.Reform and opening up to more than 30 years,greatly liberating the our productivity,the economic development made brilliant achievement also brings a serious ecological problems,in order to solve the difficulties we will be in the scientific theoretical guidance to complete.So,scientific route choice to our country the construction of ecological civilization is particularly important.

  17. Spanish experiences with marginal and special materials on the construction of road embankments; Experiencias de utilizacion de materiales marginales y especiales en terraplenes viarios en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Linares, H.; Perucho Martinez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The use of existing materials along the alignment of a road is an essential problem within the Sustainable Development policies, which is being promoting worldwide since a long time. In the Word road Association (PIARC-AIPCR) this subject has being investigated by different Technical Committees during last decades. Additionally, the review of the article 330 Embankment of PG-3 (FOM 1382/2002) has opened the door to new non-conventional materials, as wastes and artificial materials, to be used on embankments. This could come to adequate solutions, technically, and environmentally, contributing with national legislation on valorisation policies. In this sense, the use of marginal materials and wastes con represent and important save on natural resources and dumping sites. In Spain, some experiences with marginal materials and wastes have being carried out. The work presented has consisted in compiling and analysing the experiences executed with marginal materials and wastes on Spanish road embankments. Although there are many other cases, 24 cases published with adequate information have being analysed, summarising aspects as: materials problems arrangement solutions or treatments employed. Analysing these experiences and making them public can be a way to transmit confidence, help to improve knowledge, and progress on the preparation of recommendations. This work has being carried out on the frame of the Project Geotechnical Engineering, Materials and Structures and Impact of Infrastructure in Civil engineering (TTIGEM), within the frame Program Border Cooperation Spain-External Borders (POCTEFEX); particularly in the Activity 2 related to Technology Transfer of Construction Materials, including marginal materials and wastes. (Author)

  18. Utilization of ashes as construction materials in landfills; Askanvaendning i deponier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Gustav [Telge AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Ifwer, Karin [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    Large amounts of material will be needed to cover landfill sites in Sweden and other EU states over the next ten years. It is estimated that more than one hundred million tons of material will be required in Sweden alone in order to comply with the EU Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC). Suitable natural materials to be used in landfill cover constructions are not available on site. This report summarises the present use of secondary construction material in waste management with a focus on incineration ash. Information from eleven landfill sites has been compiled and includes the practical experience of using ash as the primary material in landfill cover. Other applications of using ash on landfill sites are also discussed. According to Swedish law, a complete cover of a landfill site consists of five different layers, each having its own specific function. The permeability of the total cover should then satisfy the permeability requirements of 50 litres per square meter and year for non-hazardous waste landfill sites and 5 litres per square meter and year for those with hazardous waste. The main purpose of this report is to describe how ash is used in the different layers and discuss the advantages or disadvantages of the techniques applied. Various landfill sites have submitted information ranging from small test areas on a pilot scale to full scale application of techniques on several hectares. Each project is part of the general Vaermeforsk research program for 2003-2005, Environmentally proper use of ash. The overall results show that incineration ash is a suitable material for use in liner constructions, either alone, or mixed with sewage sludge. Data from water percolating below the liner has indicated that the liners can meet permeability requirements. Special techniques for applying the various layers have been described. It is important to have materials readily available for an area, in order to avoid long period of exposure to dry or wet weather. Some

  19. 试论基于生态文明理念下的林业生态建设%Research on Ecological Construction of Forestry Based on the Idea of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞婷

    2016-01-01

    现代林业的发展使人们对新环境赋予了更高的要求与期望,响应生态文明建设已经成为发展现代林业的首要话题。通过介绍生态文明理念下林业生态建设现状,对当前林业建设问题提出了相应的策略与方法,以期对相关从业者提供一定的借鉴。%In the process of modern forestry, people have higher demands and expectations of the new environment, in response to the construction of ecological civilization, which has become the primary topic of developing modern forestry. Under the concept of ecological civilization, this paper introduces the current situation of forestry ecological construction, puts forward the corresponding strategies and methods in order to provide a reference for the relevant practitioners.

  20. 环境伦理视角下的新型城镇化的生态文明建设%On the Ecological Civilization Construction of New Ur-banization from the Perspective of Environmental Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷

    2015-01-01

    我国经济的飞速发展,加速了城镇化的进程,然而在城镇化的进程中生态环境不断恶化。本文从环境伦理的角度对传统城镇化进程影响生态环境的弊端进行了分析,并指出了新型城镇化的生态文明建设措施以及重大意义,从环境伦理的视角对新型城镇化的生态文明建设进行分析。%The rapid development of China's economy has accel-erated the progress of urbanization, but ecological environment is worsening in the process of urbanization. This paper analyzes the negative influences of traditional urbanization on ecological envi-ronment from the perspective of environmental ethics, points out the measures of ecological civilization construction and the great significance in new urbanization, and analyzes ecological civi-lization construction of new urbanization from the perspective of environmental ethics.

  1. Strengthen the Construction of Ecological Civilization and Build a"Beautiful China"%加强生态文明建设共筑“美丽中国”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟光星; 姚乐芳

    2013-01-01

      Since 16th CPC National Congress, the construction of ecological civilization in our country has made a series of achievements, but are now facing a hitherto unknown contradictions and pressure. After the analysis of main reasons caused the predicament, the article discusses the factors of"changing the mode of economic growth, constantly enriching and developing the ecological ethics education and improving the whole nation's awareness of the ecological culture, for the purpose of to integrating ecological civilization construction.%  十六大以来我国的生态文明建设取得了一系列的成绩,但现在也面临前所未有的矛盾和压力,文章在指出造成这种困境的主要原因后,探求了“以全局观来统筹生态文明建设、从根本上转变经济增长方式、不断丰富和开展生态伦理教育的内容和方式来提高全民族的生态文化意识、将生态文明建设作为地方政府政绩考核的目标任务”等方面的出路。

  2. On Ethical Cognition and Practical Approaches on the Construction of Ecological Civilization%生态文明建设的伦理认知和实践路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁峥

    2016-01-01

    In integrated construction of ecological civilization,the cognition of values for ecological ethics has to be reinforced in the analysis and resolution of the problems related to the domain through a constructive approach with the cooperation between government,citizens and businesses. This will exhibit human beingˊs moral rationality toward ecologic environment in the harmonious symbiosis between human and nature.%全面推进生态文明建设,必须强化对生态伦理的价值认知,分析解决生态文明建设中的生态伦理问题,建构政府、公民和企业相互协同的生态文明建设路径,实现人与自然的和谐共生,彰显人之于生态环境的道德理性。

  3. Influence of Implementation of Composite Materials in Civil Aircraft Industry on reduction of Environmental Pollution and Greenhouse Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-based Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) models were carried out to compare lightweight composites with the traditional aluminium over their useful lifetime. The analysis included raw materials, production, useful life in operation and disposal at the end of the material's useful life. The carbon fibre epoxy resin composite could in some cases reduce the weight of a component by up to 40 % compared to aluminium. As the fuel consumption of an aircraft is strongly influenced by its total weight, the emissions can be significantly reduced by increasing the proportion of composites used in the aircraft structure. Higher emissions, compared to aluminium, produced during composites production meet their 'break even' point after certain number of time units when used in aircraft structures, and continue to save emissions over their long-term operation. The study highlighted the environmental benefits of using lightweight structures in aircraft design, and also showed that utilisation of composites in products without energy saving may lead to increased emissions in the environment.

  4. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  5. Application of Nanotechnology-Based Thermal Insulation Materials in Building Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozsaky, David

    2016-03-01

    Nanotechnology-based materials have previously been used by space research, pharmaceuticals and electronics, but in the last decade several nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials have appeared in building industry. Nowadays they only feature in a narrow range of practice, but they offer many potential applications. These options are unknown to most architects, who may simply be afraid of these materials owing to the incomplete and often contradictory special literature. Therefore, they are distrustful and prefer to apply the usual and conventional technologies. This article is intended to provide basic information about nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials for designers. It describes their most important material properties, functional principles, applications, and potential usage options in building construction.

  6. Expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material of low energy construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, P.; Spisakova, M.; Kyjakova, L.; Mandicak, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability of buildings is a really important issue for the construction industry. Sustainable buildings are characterized by the lower construction costs for energy consumption and operations, they are environmentally friendly, able to save natural resources and they are comfortable and healthy for their users. The European Union supports this trend through its Strategy 2020, respectively with document Energy Roadmap 2020. The strategy 2020 sets greenhouse gas emissions 20% lower than 1990, 20% of energy from renewable and 20% increase in energy efficiency. It manifests itself in introduction of modern technologies of house building. One potential for the energy saving is construction of low-energy buildings using modern materials. This paper focuses on the analysis of the low-energy buildings made by expanded polystyrene as the bearing building material. The paper analyzes their design and describes the benefits of this modern but unusual type of construction technology for houses. The examples from abroad clearly indicate that this technology has potential in modern architecture. The success and exploration of this technology potential in the conditions of Slovak construction sector is closely related to interest of investors and users of further sustainable houses which are design according the Strategy 2020 conditions.

  7. Material characteristics and construction methods for a typical research reactor concrete containment in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimia, Mahsa; Suha, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eghbalic, Rahman; Jahan, Farzaneh Asadi malek [School of Architecture and Urbanism, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Generally selecting an appropriate material and also construction style for a concrete containment due to its function and special geometry play an important role in applicability and also construction cost and duration decrease in a research reactor (RR) project. The reactor containment enclosing the reactor vessel comprises physical barriers reflecting the safety design and construction codes, regulations and standards so as to prevent the community and the environment from uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. It is the third and the last barrier against radioactivity release. It protects the reactor vessel from such external events as earthquake and aircraft crash as well. Thus, it should be designed and constructed in such a manner as to withstand dead and live loads, ground and seismic loads, missiles and aircraft loads, and thermal and shrinkage loads. This study aims to present a construction method for concrete containment of a typical RR in Iran. The work also presents an acceptable characteristic for concrete and reinforcing re bar of a typical concrete containment. The current study has evaluated the various types of the RR containments. The most proper type was selected in accordance with the current knowledge and technology of Iran.

  8. 促进公民社会成长推动法治中国建设%The Study of Promoting the Growth of Civil Society and China Law Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴恒波; 岳翠云

    2015-01-01

    “法治中国”已成为当下我国法治建设的宏大目标,然而,法治中国建设却需植根于一定的经济、政治、文化基础之上,也受制于社会环境等复杂外部因素。而从相互联系、相互作用的方式来看,良好的社会结构对法治中国建设的作用更为密切。综观世界法治发展史,法治状态的形成正是伴随着公民社会的逐步产生、成长而发展起来的。法治是人类文明进步的共同成果,推进法治中国建设,同样离不开公民社会的培育与成长。%“Legal China” has become the goal of rule of law in our country, however, the rule of law is rooted in China’s construction must be based on economy, politics, culture and is also subject to complex external factors such as social environment. And from the perspective of the way of interrelated interaction good social structure on the rule of law construction in China is more closely related. Therefore, on the analysis of the construction of rule and law in the new period of China’s civil society theory basis, the author tentatively proposes the traditional social structure to the path of modern social structure transformation, hopes to promote the growth of civil society and accelerates the process of the rule of law in China construction.

  9. Economic impact of using nonmetallic materials in low to intermediate temperature geothermal well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Four appendices are included. The first covers applications of low-temperature geothermal energy including industrial processes, agricultural and related processes, district heating and cooling, and miscellaneous. The second discusses hydrogeologic factors affecting the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells: water quality, withdrawal rate, water depth, water temperature, basic well designs, and hydrogeologic provinces. In the third appendix, properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials are described, including: specific gravity, mechanical strength properties, resistance to physical and biological attack, thermal properties of nonmetallics, fluid flow characteristics, corrosion resistance, scaling resistance, weathering resistance of nonmetallics, and hydrolysis resistance of nonmetallics. Finally, special considerations in the design and construction of low-temperature geothermal wells using nonmetallics materials are covered. These include; drilling methods, joining methods, methods of casing and screen installation, well cementing, and well development. (MHR)

  10. Characteristics of the magnetic control of separable ferrous impurities contained in raw construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Sandulyak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currency of using the method of magnetic control of ferrous impurities for construction materials was noted. Especially it is important because of magnetic separators which are widely used for elimination of these impurities. There were shown the necessity of upgrading the present approach in order to realize the method of magnetic control. For example, it is necessary to take into account not only the rest of ferrous impurities (that is inevitable after limited numbers of operations but also a factor of involving sand particles. The concrete proposal how to develop the existing system of magnetic control of ferrous impurities in construction materials subjected to magnetic separation, is stated. The experimental-calculation model for such control is also shown. The main parameters of such model were estimated on the example of quartz sand and feldspar. The errors of standard methods of magnetic control were revealed for the first time.

  11. History and Civility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  12. Systematic Study of Trace Radioactive Impurities in Candidate Construction Materials for EXO-200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, D.S.; Grinberg, P.; Weber, P.; Baussan, E.; Djurcic, Z.; Keefer, G.; Piepke, A.; Pocar, A.; Vuilleumier, J.-L.; Vuilleumier, J.-M.; Akimov, D.; Bellerive, A.; Bowcock, M.; Breidenbach, M.; Burenkov, A.; Conley, R.; Craddock, W.; Danilov, M.; DeVoe, R.; Dixit, M.; Dolgolenko, A.; /Alabama U. /NRC-INMS /Neuchatel U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Maryland U. /UC, Irvine

    2007-10-24

    The Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) will search for double beta decays of 136Xe. We report the results of a systematic study of trace concentrations of radioactive impurities in a wide range of raw materials and finished parts considered for use in the construction of EXO-200, the first stage of the EXO experimental program. Analysis techniques employed, and described here, include direct gamma counting, alpha counting, neutron activation analysis, and high-sensitivity mass spectrometry.

  13. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  14. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    OpenAIRE

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2016-01-01

    Problem statement: Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material a...

  15. On a new approach to the creation of construction materials of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceleration of the recombination of vacancies and interstitial atoms upon neutron irradiation is a decisive factor of an increase in the radiation resistance of construction materials of nuclear reactors. The highest efficiency of the implementation of these processes is achieved when distortions appearing under the synergetic action of neutron radiation and short-range ordering of the crystal lattice are used as traps of vacancies and interstitial atoms

  16. Leaching of additives from construction materials to urban storm water runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, Mike; Zuleeg, S.; Vonbank, R.;

    2011-01-01

    Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used in construct......Urban water management requires further clarification about pollutants in storm water. Little is known about the release of organic additives used in construction materials and the impact of these compounds to storm water runoff. We investigated sources and pathways of additives used...... the predicted no-effect concentrations values and the Swiss water quality standard of 0.1 μg/L. Under laboratory conditions maximum concentrations of additives were in the range of a few milligrams and a few hundred micrograms per litre in runoff of facades and bitumen membranes. Runoff from aged materials...... shows approximately one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations. Concentrations decreased also during individual runoff events. In storm water and receiving water the occurrence of additives did not follow the typical first flush model. This can be explained by the release lasting over the time...

  17. Research into Behaviour Patterns Typical for Consumers of Construction Material as the Mission of Ecological Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Zinaida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the co-authors is to study the motivation of purchasers of construction/finishing materials and the criteria that govern their selection. No systemic studies of consumer behavioral models and stereotypes in respect of residential housing have been performed so far. However, the environmentally determined management techniques, applicable to the production of building materials and construction of residential housing, are highly relevant both worldwide and in the Russian Federation. The co-authors have developed an original research methodology, drafted a questionnaire, and conducted a pilot survey. Its findings have proven that the price and quality of construction materials are the main factors that influence the decision making process in favor of particular items. Mere 14% of the respondents chose environmental friendliness as the decision making criterion. The findings of the focus group projects have also proven the trustworthiness of the stereotypes and behavioral models identified by the co-authors. The co-authors make a conclusion that further sociological surveys are needed to implement the patterns of environmentally determined management and to influence the value paradigms of the population.

  18. Study of capability of microorganisms to develop on construction materials used in space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Novikova, N.

    One of the most topical issues nowadays in the whole set of space research is the study of microbiological risks (medical, technical, technological). Experiments held onboard MIR station and International Space Station (ISS) clearly demonstrated capacity of microorganisms to contaminate the environment, equipment and belonging of habitual compartments of space objects. In this connection microorganisms-biodestructors play an important role. In their vital functioning they are capable of causing biological damage of different polymers, biocorrosion of metals which can lead to serious difficulties in performing long-term flights, namely the planned mission to Mars. Our purpose was to study capability of growth and reproduction of microorganisms on construction materials of various chemical composition as the first stage of biodestruction process. In our research we used "flight" strains of bacteria (Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas pumilus etc.) recovered from the ISS environment in several missions. For control we used "earth" bacteria species with typical properties. To model the environment of the ISS we took construction materials which are widely used in the interior and equipment of the ISS. The results we've obtained show that some microorganisms are capable of living and reproducing themselves on construction materials and their capability is more pronounced than that of the "earth" species. The best capability for growth and reproduction was characteristic of Bacillus subtilus.

  19. Reflections on Post Model Construction of Civil Engineering Speciahy in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职建筑工程技术专业“后示范”建设的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐广舒

    2012-01-01

    The model construction of Civil Engineering Specialty of higher vocational colleges is reviewed, which is followed by a discussion on the post model construction. Combined with the national medium and long-term educational reform and development planning as well as the twelfth Five-Year plan of the construction industry, the paper put forward strategies and specific ways to strengthen connotation construction of the specialty and ways to improve the quality of higher vocational talent training.%在总结高职建筑工程技术专业示范性建设的基础上,结合国家中长期教育改革和发展规划、建筑业"十二五规划",对专业的"后示范"建设问题进行了思考,提出了加强专业内涵建设,提高高职人才培养质量的具体建设策略和思路。

  20. Application of the Energy Saving Construction Technology in Architectural Engineering of Industrial and Civil Building%工民建建筑工程中节能施工技术的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of the construction industry has brought the huge consumption of energy for our country, serious impact on the development of our economical society. China is stil in the exploration stage in the industrial and civil construction energy saving technology field, so in reinforcing the application of energy saving construction technology at the same time also should actively learn from foreign advanced energy-saving construction techniques, to promote the develo-pment of China's economy society.%建筑业的高速发展给我国的能源带来了巨大的消耗,严重影响了我国节约型社会的发展理念。我国在工民建筑节能施工技术领域还处于探索的阶段,所以在加强节能施工技术应用的同时还要积极的借鉴国外先进的节能施工技术,促进我国节约型社会的发展。

  1. 40 CFR 35.925-9 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 35.925-9 Section 35.925-9... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-9 Civil rights. That if the... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and part 7 of this chapter have been met....

  2. Study on the Sports Communication for Promoting the Construction of Civil Society%体育传播对市民社会建设的助推作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武学军

    2012-01-01

    In a civil society,people have recourse to the media to express collective willingness and to gain benefits,which restricts the country's policy making,rule formulation and management of the social affairs.With the development of society,the sports media has taken more important role and has huge audience group who are potential strength of civil society.This article aims to explore how to play the function of sports media and to promote the construction of the civil society.%市民社会有表达团体意愿和获取利益的集体诉求,市民社会需要通过传媒空间表达观点影响从而制约国家政策、制度的制定和对社会事务的管理。而体育传媒随着社会的发展成为传播媒体的主要内容,有着庞大的受众群体,成为构成市民社会的潜在力量。要正确发挥体育传播的社会功能,充分发挥体育传播对市民社会成长的助推作用。体育传播要遵循主流价值观,媒体要增强社会公信力,还要避免不当传播给社会带来的负面影响。

  3. Measurement of color in different construction materials. The restoration in sandstone buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Pascua, N.

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of construction materials and their subsequent repair purposes include a search of knowledge and preservation of their original appearance. For this reason, the main aim of this study is to determine a color range which does not change with the possible actions on a building, both when restoration works which imply the use and repair of "ancient" materials are carried out, and when construction is carried out with new materials. It is necessary to obtain the quantification of this property in order to check its variation over the passage of time. Each construction material must be taken into account as an isolated problem, since the color is different in each case.

    El empleo de materiales de construcción y la aplicación sobre ellos de productos de reparación requiere un detallado estudio sobre su forma de actuación y la importancia de la conservación del aspecto original de los mismos. Por este motivo, el objetivo principal de este estudio es el determinar un intervalo de color que se conserve a pesar de todas las posibles intervenciones que se acometan en el edificio, tanto cuando se realizan trabajos de restauración, que implican el uso y reparación de materiales "viejos", o bien cuando se llevan a cabo trabajos de construcción con materiales nuevos. Es necesario cuantificar dicha propiedad para poder controlar el paso del tiempo. Cada material de construcción debe ser considerado como un problema aislado, ya que el color es distinto en cada caso.

  4. Laser welding of dissimilar materials for lightweight construction and special applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Mitja; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Against the background of climate objectives and the desired reduction of CO2-emissions, optimization of existing industrial products is needed. To counter rising raw material costs, currently used materials are substituted. This will places new requirements on joining technologies for dissimilar material classes. The main difficulty lies in joining these materials cohesively without changing the properties of the base materials. Current research work at the LZH on joining dissimilar materials is being carried out for the automotive sector and for solar absorbers. For the automotive industry, a laser welding process for joining steel and aluminum without using additives is being investigated, equipped with a spectroscopic welding depth control to increase tensile strength. With a specially constructed laser processing head, it is possible to regulate welding penetration depth in the aluminum sheet, reducing the formation of intermetallic phases. Flat plate solar collectors are favorable devices for generating heat from solar energy. The solar absorber is the central part of a collector, consisting of an aluminum sheet and a copper tube which is attached to the aluminum sheet. Research on new laser welding processes aims at reducing the amount of energy required for production of these solar absorbers. In the field of joining dissimilar materials, laser joining processes, especially for special applications, will complement established joining techniques.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL FLOW INFORMATION BASE OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degaltseva Z. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems of using indicators of material flow in the financial accounting management accounting system. The authors have created and described the classification of material costs in building units. It allows solving the problems of object of research specifying within a given material flow and inventory control within a given logistics systems. There are different approaches to the valuation of material costs in the article. An important aspect of measures for the integration development of accounting systems is the adoption of uniform valuation of building materials and structures. It is proved that the most rational combination of these types of records achieved by an adapted classification and measurement of building materials and structures to the conditions of formation of the budget for the project volume of construction works and the reflection of the actual volume of work in the financial accounting system. On the basis of the accounting policies and the organizational structure of the object of investigation of "Kubanstroykompleks" we have identified responsibility centers (sites for costs related to the material flow: Department of logistics and packaging and warehousing, which consists of a central and railroad warehouse

  6. Analysis on concrete structure construction technologies in civil engineering%土木工程中混凝土结构的施工技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰冰

    2016-01-01

    Starting from four aspects of concrete grade,construction time,construction supervision and post maintenance,the paper analyzes problems existing in concrete construction,and explores concrete structure construction points and mixing proportion design methods,so as to guarantee concrete structure stability and durability.%从混凝土标号、施工时间、施工监管、后期维护四方面,分析了混凝土施工中存在的问题,并探讨了混凝土结构的施工要点及配比设计方法,保证了混凝土结构的稳定性及耐久性。

  7. Importance of material evaluation prior to the construction of devices for in vitro techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rach, Jessica; Halter, Beat; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2013-11-01

    The development and validation of new in vitro methods in the field of toxicology have gained more importance in recent years due to stricter guidelines for animal testing, especially in the European Union. Consequently, advances in the construction of technical devices for the exposure of cell or tissue cultures to test substances are necessary. Here, to obtain reliable results, it is important to exclusively use materials that do not interfere with the cell viability. Thus, similar to the biomaterials testing of medical devices which is regulated in the Directive 93/42/EEC, the biocompatibility of the materials has to be verified prior to the construction of such devices. We present here a novel approach for biomaterials testing which allows the quantitative and qualitative assessment of cytotoxicity of material samples. Stainless steel and silicone are often used for laboratory equipment, due to their high chemical, thermal and mechanical resistance. However, our results highlight that some types of silicone may have adverse effects on cultured cells. Moreover, special methods for the surface treatment of metals may also be a critical factor for in vitro devices. Therefore, the testing of all materials coming in contact with cell cultures is highly recommended. PMID:23452617

  8. Analysis of chromium and sulphate origins in construction recycled materials based on leaching test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, I; Ayuso, J; Galvín, A P; Jiménez, J R; López, M; García-Garrido, M L

    2015-12-01

    Twenty samples of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste (CDW) with different compositions collected at six recycling plants in the Andalusia region (south of Spain) were characterised according to the Landfill Directive criteria. Chromium and sulphate were identified as the most critical compounds in the leachates. To detect the sources of these two pollutant constituents in recycled aggregate, environmental assessments were performed on eight construction materials (five unused ceramic materials, two old crushed concretes and one new mortar manufactured in the laboratory). The results confirmed that leached sulphate and Cr were mainly released by the ceramic materials (bricks and tiles). To predict the toxicological consequences, the oxidation states of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) were measured in the leachates of recycled aggregates and ceramic materials classified as non-hazardous. The bricks and tiles mainly released total Cr as Cr (III). However, the recycled aggregates classified as non-hazardous according to the Landfill Directive criteria mainly released Cr (VI), which is highly leachable and extremely toxic. The obtained results highlight the need for legislation that distinguishes the oxidative state in which chromium is released into the environment. Leaching level regulations must not be based solely on total Cr, which can lead to inaccurate predictions.

  9. Study on the Construction of Civil Aviation Flight Professional Sports Teaching Ideas and Methods In-troduction%民航飞行专业体育教学理念建构与方法引入研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭波; 姚健

    2015-01-01

    By means of literature survey,expert interview and field survey to research on the concept and teaching method of physical education in civil aviation flight. Re-sults show that:1 ) Civil aviation flight professional air quality mainly includes spatial and temporal perception, memory observation ability, thinking ability, control emo-tional ability,balance ability,cardiopulmonary endurance, quality and so on. 2 ) The construction of civil aviation flight professional sports teaching idea result is adhere to the “safety first” to promote the growth of aviation pilots quality;Adjusting the contents of courses and teaching methods,Pay attention to the dominant position of students and professional requirements;Pay attention to sports risk management and control. 3 ) Civil aviation flight profes-sional physical education should actively absorb the ad-vanced achievements of competitive sports such as to at-tempts to introduce the body function training;Plateaus;Altitude chamber training;sports recovery and nutritional supplements;Depending on the ability of sense and space training;emotion control training etc.%采用文献资料调研、专家访谈和实地调查法等方法对民航飞行专业体育教学理念与教学方法进行研究。结果表明:1)民航飞行专业航空素质主要包括时空感知能力、记忆观察能力、思维能力、控制情绪能力、平衡能力、心肺耐力等素质;2)对民航飞行专业体育教学理念的建构结果是坚持“安全第一”促进飞行员航空素质增长;调整课程内容和教学方式;重视学生的主体地位和专业需求;注重体育运动风险管理和控制。3)民航飞行专业体育教学中应积极吸收竞技体育先进成果,主动尝试引入身体功能性训练、高原和低压舱训练、运动恢复和营养补给、视能力和时空感觉训练、情绪控制训练等方法。

  10. An Overview of the Use of Absolute Dating Techniques in Ancient Construction Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sanjurjo-Sánchez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reconstruction of the chronology of historical buildings is a tricky issue, as usually there are not historical documents that allow the assessment of construction phases, and some materials are hardly reliable for the use of dating techniques (e.g., stone. However, in the last two decades, important advances on the use of absolute dating methods on building materials have increased the possibilities of reconstructing building chronologies, although some advances are still scarcely known among archaeologists and architects. Recent studies performed on several kinds of mortars, fired bricks, mud-bricks, and even stone surfaces have shown that it is possible to date them. Both radiocarbon and luminescence dating have been the most frequently used techniques but others such as archaeomagnetism can also be used in some cases. This paper intends to give an overview of the recent achievements on the use of absolute dating techniques for building materials.

  11. ON THE PHENOMENON OF HYPOTHETIC FUNCTION-CIVILIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Yazev, S.

    2006-01-01

    Extrapolation of tendencies of development of the terrestrial civilization into the field of nanotechnology and genetic engineering leads to a hypothesis of a principal possibility of creation of artificial civilizations with functions specified a priori. Existence of many artificial function-civilizations is assumed. Any spiritual values can be laid in their constructed genomes. When elaborating SETI programs it should be kept in mind that civilizations developing according to the programs o...

  12. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  13. 加强地质环境保护服务生态文明建设%Strengthening the Protection of Geological Environment and Serving the Construction of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关凤峻

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there is a good condition for the construction of ecological civilization based on the work for environmental protection in mines. On this basis, this paper focuses on some proposes for improving the construction of ecological civilization. These include: prevention and control of geological disaster must be contunually strengthened in the course of the construction of industrialization, informationization, urbanization and agricultural modernization. Accountability system, compensation for damages, and restoration with regard to mine geological environment should be established. Meanwhile, the functions for groundwater monitoring and supervision and protection should be earnestly carried out and continuously reinforced. Both investigation and evaluation and industrial development of shallow geothermal resource should be further promoted. And we should put great efforts on energy production and consumer revolution, as well as geological culture and boutique geological park construction for cultural construction and local economic and social development.%  地质环境友好是生态文明建设的基础,近年来我国的地质环境保护工作为生态文明建设提供了良好的基础。未来要不断加强新“四化”建设过程中的地质灾害防治工作;探索建立矿山地质环境责任追究制度、环境损害赔偿与恢复制度,积极履行不断强化地下水监测监督和保护职能;进一步推进地热浅层地温能调查评价和产业发展,推动能源生产和消费革命;推进地质文化、公园精品建设,更好地服务文化建设和地方经济社会发展。

  14. 社会主义生态文明建设的政治推进方略%The Political Way to Promote the Construction of Socialist Eco-civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林安云

    2015-01-01

    The present ecological situation in China asks the government to promote the construc-tion of eco-civilization.First,the government should promote the construction of a human-environ-ment ecological system,which needs the construction of a responsibility system and a relay system. Second,the government should formulate a five-dimensional synergistic development strategy which means the development of ecology,economy,society,life and spirit should go hand in hand,not the e-conomy goes first.Third,the government should promote the construction of eco-economy,eco-politics and eco-ideology.Fourth,the government should encourage the development of eco-tech-nology,promote an examination system in the aspect of ecology,construct an eco-admittance sys-tem and complete laws in the area of ecology.Last,it should establish an eco-ideology and promote the transformation of ideology towards eco-civilization.%当前中国的生态形势,要求加强生态文明建设的政治推进方略,即一是要进行人—境生态系统建设,实行人—境生态系统建设的生态责任制和生态接力制;二是要制定“生态—经济—社会—生活—精神”的五维协同发展战略,彻底克服单纯经济观点;三是要推行生态经济、生态政治和生态思想文化建设;四是要奖励生态科技,实行生态考核,构建生态准入和生态法律制度;五是要确立人天协调的生态思维方式,促进思想观念的生态文明转向。

  15. THE COMPLEX USE OF LOCAL TYPES OF FUEL IN THE POROUS CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Voronova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comprehensive low-waste technology is the use of local fuels, which can be used in the technology of some porous building materials. Also provides new methods of preparation of porous building materials based on aggloporite using local fuels and waste energy on the basis of milled peat, fuel briquettes and wood chips allow to replace expensive imported components that comprise the raw mixtures (coal, anthracite.On the basis of mathematical modeling of cooling in reheat furnaces pusher drive developed a method of engineering calculation mode batch hardening in agglomeration. Submitted constructive solution for the development of the cooling charge with thermophysical rational justification cooling modes. A study of the temperature distribution within the charge depending on the different speeds of the belt sintering machine, and hence on the cooling time.The characteristics of the raw material deposits "Fanipol" and the optimal composition of the charge which includes loam, coal, milled peat. In industrial research obtained aggloporite this formulation has shown positive results in strength and density. Established that by decreasing the particle size of the fuel increases the redox potential of the combustion products, which reduces the height of the oxidizing zone and the speed of the sintering raw mix. These processes increase the productivity of sinter machine.Technology is implemented on the "Minsk factory of building materials". The tests analyzed production technology porous construction materials using milled peat with the addition of sawdust. The study results recommend further use of sapropel, which cost significantly lower raw material mixture of submissions and in their physical and mechanical properties much closer to the properties of milled peat.

  16. The quality of Muntilan sand (Central Java) as construction material, a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endroyo, Bambang

    2016-04-01

    Muntilan sand is a volcanic sand generated by the volcanic activities of Mount Merapi which excavated from Muntilan district. Mount Merapi located at Central Java, Indonesia, is still active until now and erupts almost every 5-10 years. It's eruptions produced the form of lava which later get cold, perched around the peak, and forming lava domes. Furthermore, a part of lava dome avalanches will be slide down through the rivers on the the foot of the mountain. One of several districts which have rivers that containing volcanic materials is Muntilan. Muntilan sand has been used widely as a construction material. The prospects of thiruses were very good and may not be substituted by the other local sand. As a construction material, Muntilan sand must fulfill technical standard (durability number, fineness modulus, unit weight, silt content, organic content, and chemical content). But as a nature material, Muntilan sands also are influenced by circumstance of the environment. The research was conducted to describe the quality of Muntilan sand in a long term (the past until future). The method used was descriptive in longitudinal study and also a meta analysis. The result may useful for contractors and consultants (local, national and international/foreign) which will get a several projects in Central Java. The research conclusions are: (1) Until several years which will come, Muntilan sand was suitable for the construction works,(2) The durability, fineness modulus, unit weight, silt content, and organic content was in a constant rate, and have tend to increase for future, and (3) The chemical content was not in constant rate but varies in long term.

  17. Civil war, climate change and development: A scenario study for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Devitt, Conor; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2010-01-01

    We construct a model of development, civil war, and climate change. There are multiple interactions. Economic growth reduces the probability of civil war and the vulnerability to climate change. Climate change increases the probability of civil war. The impacts of climate change, civil war, and civil war in the neighbouring countries reduce economic growth. The model has two potential poverty traps ? a climate-change-induced one and a civil-war-induced one ? and the two poverty traps may rein...

  18. Gás natural: a construção de uma nova civilização Natural gas: the construction of a new civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Moutinho dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute o papel do gás natural no Brasil e no mundo, sugerindo que a humanidade está no caminho de construir o que se pode chamar de "Civilização do gás". Parte-se de um breve panorama da realidade energética internacional, comparando-se vários cenários, de instituições de reconhecida competência, que procuram descrever possibilidades para o futuro energético do planeta. Uma análise comparada desses cenários permite identificar o consumo crescente do gás natural como uma das tendências fortes para os próximos vinte a cinqüenta anos. Em seguida, introduz-se o conceito de "Civilização do gás", apresentando alguns elementos que o justificam. Oferece-se, então, uma perspectiva brasileira do problema. A partir de antecedentes históricos da indústria do gás no Brasil, apresenta-se uma visão crítica sobre o futuro dos gases combustíveis na matriz energética nacional.This work discusses the role of natural gas in Brazil and in the world, suggesting that the humanity is building up a kind of Gas Civilization. The text starts with a brief panorama of the international energy reality comparing several scenarios proposed by recognized institutions, and which try to describe possibilities for the future of energy in the planet. Such comparative analysis allows identifying the growing consumption of natural gas as a strong energy trend for the next 20 to 50 years. Then, the concept of Gas Civilization is introduced, presenting some elements justifying it. Following, the article offers a Brazilian perspective of the problem, starting from the historical antecedents of the gas industry in Brazil, and developing a critical vision regarding the future role of the combustible gases in the Brazilian energy mix.

  19. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M. [South China Agricultural University, Guangdong (China)

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  20. Feasibility for the use of coal tar as a new material for road surfaces (pavement) construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Farfán, M. A.; Murillo Vega, H. E.; Trujillo Pinto, F. A.

    2016-02-01

    The stabilization products often used to improve the support of granular layers in the construction of road surfaces may be expensive and difficult to get. Therefore, it is necessary to test different materials, which are cheap and easy to obtain, and which will enhance the physical and mechanical properties of pavement layers. This document evaluates the use of coal tar, as a stabilizer for granular subbase. Initially, with a description of tar properties, determining the optimal conditions for the granular subbase material compaction, by means of modified proctor tests and the calculation of the resistance of the unaltered material by using CBR lab tests (California Bearing Ratio). Afterwards, with the design and development of granular material mixes with different percentages of coal tar and determining its CBR as comparative parameter with that of the unaltered material. Finally, by calculating the optimal coal tar percentage in order to stabilize the subbase granular, the results showed an improvement in the resistance of the granular material and a decrease in its expansion due to the use of coal tar.

  1. Precarização do trabalho e risco de acidentes na construção civil: um estudo com base na Análise Coletiva do Trabalho (ACT Work precariousness and risk of accidents in civil construction: a study based on the Collective Work Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Alice Batista Conti Takahashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve a atividade e a percepção dos trabalhadores da construção civil sobre os riscos e a carga de trabalho. O estudo, com base na Análise Coletiva de Trabalho (ACT, é parte de pesquisa em políticas públicas para aprimoramento do Sistema de Vigilância em Acidentes de Trabalho (SIVAT de Piracicaba-SP. Priorizou-se a construção civil pela magnitude epidemiológica de ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho e a baixa eficácia das ações tradicionais de vigilância pelas características de informalidade, terceirização e rotatividade do setor. Os trabalhadores revelaram elevada percepção dos riscos de acidentes e que as medidas de segurança dificultam ou impedem a realização do trabalho. Os achados questionam a eficácia dos treinamentos para adesão às medidas de segurança e evidenciam a necessidade de uma pedagogia transformadora nas ações de promoção da saúde e prevenção dos acidentes de trabalho.This paper aims to describe the construction workers' activities, as well as their perceptions about risks and workload. The study, based on the Collective Work Analysis, is part of a broader public policies project for the improvement of SIVAT (Surveillance System of Work Accidents - in the city of Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil. Civil construction was prioritized given the epidemiological magnitude of the occurrence of work accidents and the limited efficacy of traditional surveillance initiatives in this sector due to informal employment practices, outsourcing, high staff turnover, etc. The workers have a high level of awareness concerning the risk of accidents, but they believe that the main preventive measures hinder or even make it impossible for them to carry out the tasks. Our findings question the efficacy of traditional training for adherence to safety practices, thus highlighting the need for a transformative pedagogy for preventive practices and the health promotion of workers.

  2. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  3. 和合文化:生态文明建设的生态智慧资源--第八届寒山寺文化论坛暨中国环境伦理学和环境哲学2014年年会述评%Concordance Culture:Ecological Intelligence Resources of Ecological Civilization Construction-The Review of The 8th Hanshan Temple Cultural Forum & The 2014 China's Environmental Ethics and Environmental Philosophy Annual Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包庆德; 杨丽杰

    2015-01-01

    2014年是中国伦理学会环境伦理学分会成立20周年。本次年会与第八届寒山寺文化论坛联袂围绕“生态文明与和合天下”主题,关涉生态文明建设的世界观和方法论的根本性重建,中国特色生态哲学的自觉性建构以及生态文明相关问题的前提性廓清等生态文明的前沿问题与基础理论;聚焦生态文明建设的顶层设计、制度安排和路径选择,规避独断理性主义的现代性物质主义价值导向的根本错误,实现美丽中国和中国梦应该包含的生态维度和生态内涵等生态文明的现实问题与应用方略;弘扬生态文明建设的中国传统环境保护理念、经典生态建设理念和人与自然和谐发展理念等生态文明建设的和合文化思想资源与和谐生存生态智慧。%The year of 2014 is the 20th anniversary of the establishment of Environmental Ethics Branch of China Association for Ethical Studies.This annual meeting and The 8th Hanshan Temple Cultural Forum centered on the subj ect of ecological civilization and concordance world,regarding such frontier problems and basic theory of ecological civilization like the world view of ecological civili-zation construction and fundamentality reestablishment of methodology,Chinese-style ecological philosophy's consciousness construction and the prerequisite clarification of ecological civilization's rel-ative questions.This meeting focused on the ecological civilization construction's top-level design,in-stitutional arrangement and path choice,and evaded the fundamental mistake in modern materialism value of arbitrary rationalism,achieved Beauty China and China Dream which should contain ecologi-cal civilization's realistic question and application strategy,such as ecological dimension and ecological connotation.This meeting also promoted ecological civilization construction's concordance culture thought resources and harmonious existence with ecological wisdom

  4. Preliminarily study ecological civilization construction under the guidance of Ecological ethics%生态伦理观指导下的生态文明建设初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖

    2014-01-01

    生态伦理学是一门新的伦理学,它超越了传统伦理学只关注人与人之间的关系,而是把焦点扩展到人与自然的关系。通过分析生态伦理学与传统伦理学的区别,可以提炼出生态伦理学“新”特点;并且结合党的最新方针政策,初步探讨生态伦理观指导生态文明建设的方法与建议。这对于中国特色社会主义生态文明建设有重要的指导意义。%Ecological ethics is a new ethics,which transcends the traditional ethics focusing on the relationship of people, but the focus is expanded to the relationship between human and nature.In this paper,by analyzing the difference between the ecological ethics and traditional ethics,extracting characteristics of “new”ecological ethics,and combining with the party's poli-cies,it can preliminarily study the methods and suggestions of the construction of ecological civilization which is under the guide of ecological ethic.In a word,this study has important guiding significance for the construction of the Chinese characteristic so-cialism ecological civilization.

  5. 生态文明视阈下高校师德建设的困境与出路%Plight and Way out of Teachers' Ethic Construction from the Perspective of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟杰

    2015-01-01

    生态文明强调弘扬生态价值观和生态道德观。生态文明视阈下加强高校教师师德建设是教师职业的本质要求,是实现教师个人成功的关键,是大学实现永续发展的必然。当前,高校教师存在着浮躁焦虑、追名逐利、言行失当等现实问题,实现师德建设与专业发展相结合,发挥团队合力,加强制度规范是解决这些问题,不断提高师德修养水平的出路。%Ecological civilization upholds ecological value and ecological ethics. Strengthening teachers' ethic construction under the framework of ecological civilization is the innate requirements of the teaching profession,the key to realize the personal success of teachers and a must for universities to achieve sustainable development. Currently,university teachers are faced with some realistic problems such as fickleness and anxiety,pursuit of fame and profit,misconduct. Integrating teachers' ethic construction into profession-al development,giving full play to the joint efforts of the team and strengthening regulations are the way out for solving these problems and continuously improving teachers' ethics.

  6. Teaching reform of civil engineering construction course in application- oriented colleges and universities%应用型本科院校土木工程施工技术课程教学改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂劲松; 戈海玉

    2012-01-01

    Civil engineering construction technology is a very practical professional course. Combing theoretical teaching with practical teaching is important to train students' application abilities. Based on the current situation and teaching practice of civil engineering construction course teaching, we proposed suggestions on teaching methods, teaching modes and teaching means. We also introduced the production practice, technical seminars of specific engineering topics, and video and pictures of cases into classroom teaching, which stimulated students' interest in learning, improved the teaching quality, and provided a reference for innovative teaching programs.%土木工程施工技术是一门实践性很强的专业课程,该课程在整个课程体系中起着承前启后的作用,因此把理论与实践教学相结合,使学生具备应用知识的能力成为值得深思的问题。文章从目前土木工程施工技术课程教学现状出发,结合当前土木工程应用型本科院校教学改革实践,对该课程教学方法、教学模式和教学手段等提出了一些改革建议,并把生产实习实践、具体工程专题技术讲座、视频图片案例教学等手段贯穿于课堂教学,这既激发了学生学习兴趣,提高了教学质量,也为该课程的创新教学模式提供参考。

  7. 企业生态文明建设参与行为形成机理——基于TPB和杠杆性资源意涵%Formation Mechanism of Enterprise Ecology Civilization Construction Participation———Based on TPB and Leveraged Resource Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉宽; 刘强; 张晓芬

    2015-01-01

    Based on nomological network, law relationship and causal relationship network, this study combines with planned beha-vior theory, integrates logical network of human reason-physical reason-matter reason to determine the relevant moderating variables, and further proposes corresponding law relationships, establishes enterprise ecology civilization construction participation behavior formation mechanism concept model. Concept model expounds enterprise ecology civilization construction participation behavior formation mechan-ism, which indicates that enterprise ecology civilization construction participation behavior intention has a significant positive prediction function to enterprise ecology civilization construction participation behavior, behavioral attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control are all prerequisite variables for enterprise ecology civilization construction participation behavior intention, moderating variables all play important buffer effects, regulating effects, slow-release reinforcement effects and boundary effects among enterprise ecology civilization construction participation behavior intention and enterprise ecology civilization construction participation behavior. The paper provides theoretical reference and practical guidance for the relevant study of enterprise ecology civilization construction.%文章在诺莫网络、法则关系、因果关系网络的基础上, 融合计划行为理论, 集成人理-物理-事理的逻辑脉络确定相关调节变量, 提出相应的法则关系, 构建企业生态文明建设参与行为形成机理的概念模型. 概念模型剖析了企业生态文明建设参与行为形成机理, 概念模型显示: 企业生态文明建设参与行为意向对企业生态文明建设参与行为有显著正向预测作用, 行为态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制三个变量均是企业生态文明建设参与意向的前置前因变量, 调节变量在生态文明建设参与行为

  8. Construction of the Media Society of Civilized Society%媒介化社会的社会文明建构研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董达

    2014-01-01

    The-concept-and-characteristics-of-the-media-society-were-analyzed-basing-on-the-cultural-and-creative-products-summed-up-in-the-media-of-the-role-of-social-civilization-building-,-problems-and-solu-tions.With-the-new-media-technology-as-the-core-of-the-media-oriented-society-coming-to-being-,the-cultur-al-and-creative-products-also-played-a-very-important-role-in-the-whole-of-the-process-of-social-media-,such-as-film,animation,advertising,art-design,etc.%简要分析媒介化社会概念和特点的基础上,总结了文化创意产品在媒介化社会文明构建中的作用、问题及其解决方法,以新媒体技术为核心的媒介化社会已经到来,而文化创意产品,例如电影、动漫、广告、艺术设计等,在整个社会媒体化的进程中,也扮演着非常重要的角色。

  9. 马克思生态伦理思想对中国生态文明建设的启示%Enlightenment of Marx’s Ecological Ethics Thought on the Construction of Ecological Civilization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩博

    2015-01-01

    T he report of the 18th Party Congress has developed “five‐in‐one” socialist modernization con‐struction model .It has put forward the concept that the construction of ecological civilization is related to the well‐being of the people ,and is a matter of national long‐term plan for the future .These all demon‐strate the importance of the construction of ecological civilization .Marx’s theory contains ecological ethics thoughts ,which has profoundly revealed the essential contradiction between the capitalist mode of produc‐tion and natural ecology and has illustrated the dialectical unity relationship between man and nature . Based on the research regarding the thought of Marx’s ecological ethics ,the ecological civilization con‐struction of China’s ecological ethics is discussed in this thesis .In addition ,it highlights the status of hu‐man subjectivity ,reflects the harmony and unity of man and nature relationship and emphasizes the neces‐sity of ecological legal norms .Marx’s ecological ethics thought not only promoted the process of building a moderately prosperous society in China ,but also accelerated the implementation of the scientific develop‐ment concept .%党的十八大报告制定了“五位一体”社会主义现代化建设总布局,并提出生态文明建设是关系人民福祉、关乎民族未来的长远大计,这充分说明生态文明建设的重要性。马克思的理论蕴含了丰富的生态伦理思想,深刻地揭露了资本主义生产方式与自然生态之间的本质矛盾,科学地阐明了人与自然之间的辩证统一关系。思考我国生态文明建设中所蕴含的生态伦理思想,体现出人与自然和谐统一的关系并凸显了人的主体性地位,以及生态法制规范的必要性。马克思生态伦理思想不仅推动了我国全面建成小康社会的进程,也进一步加快了科学发展观的贯彻和落实。

  10. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  11. Radon survey related to construction materials and soils in Zacatecas, Mexico using LR-115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon gas (222Rn), present in the air inside buildings, is one of the most important sources of radiation exposure to the population. This gas originates in the 238U radioactive decay chain, which is contained in rock and solid soil particles. Radon accumulation in confined spaces, inside buildings, depends on several factors such as the type of soils, type of constructions, building materials, and ventilation. The aim of this work is to present indoor and outdoor radon concentrations for 202 dwellings and indoor concentrations for 148 public clinics; and the radon concentrations relate to the type of predominant soils, the construction years; and building materials used in the ceilings, walls and floors, for cities and towns of the 57 municipalities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with a passive-type radon monitor, with LR-115 as detector material; and the radon survey was made during four stages of three months each throughout Zacatecas from 2001 to 2002. The indoor and outdoor radon concentration averages in dwellings were 55.6±4.9Bqm-3 and 46.5±5.3Bqm-3, respectively. The indoor radon concentration average in public clinics was 57.8±5.4Bqm-3. These values were lower than the US EPA action limit of 148Bqm-3

  12. ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF CONSTRUCTION OF A BIODIESEL MICRO PLANT USING SCRAP MATERIAL AND RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARA FERNANDES MARTINS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, which comes from renewable source, is suitable for usage in engines of internal combustion through ignition or compression or even to generate other king of energy such as electrical generators for instance when totally or partially substituting all fossil origin sources. Currently in Brazil there are few companies which have technological knowledge for developing and building bioldiesel plants and most of them have great production capacity and high value what makes them inaccessible for small producers, settlements and researchers. This paper aims at evaluating economical viability for constructing a micro biodiesel plant projected in a hypothetical scenario (according to Resolution 25 of Sept, 2, 2008 of ANP – National Petroleum Agency, producers are not authorized to sell their production directly to third, using scrap material and/or recycling, projecting costs for material purchasing, manpower, and raw material as well as defining balance production, return rate and payback. Within established conditions the construction of the micro plant showed viability of monthly balance of 1757 liters, monthly income of R$ 4.269,51 and monthly rentability of 3,39%, profit of 4,62% and payback of 2 to 6 years.

  13. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  14. Interactions between organisms and parent materials of a constructed Technosol shape its hydrostructural properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, M.; Grimaldi, M.; Lerch, T. Z.; Pando, A.; Gigon, A.; Blouin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed Technosols provide an opportunity to recycle urban waste, and are an alternative to the uptake of topsoil from the countryside. Despite potential problems of erosion, compaction or water holding capacity, their physical properties and the resulting water regulation services are poorly documented. In a laboratory experiment, excavated deep horizons of soils and green waste compost (GWC) were mixed at six levels of GWC (from 0 to 50 %). Each mixture was set up in the presence/absence of plants and/or earthworms, in a full factorial design (n = 96). After 21 weeks, hydrostructural properties of constructed Technosols were characterized by soil shrinkage curves. Organisms explained the variance of hydrostructural characteristics (19 %) a little better than parent-material composition (14 %). The interaction between the effects of organisms and parent-material composition explained the variance far better (39 %) than each single factor. To summarize, compost and plants played a positive role in increasing available water in macropores and micropores; plants were extending the positive effect of compost up to 40 and 50 % GWC. Earthworms affected the void ratio for mixtures from 0 to 30 % GWC and available water in micropores, not in macropores. Earthworms also acted synergistically with plants by increasing their root biomass and the resulting positive effects on available water in macropores. Organisms and their interaction with parent materials thus positively affected the hydro-structural properties of constructed Technosols, with potential positive consequences on resistance to drought or compaction. Considering organisms when creating Technosols could be a promising approach to improve their fertility.

  15. Measurement of the thermal conductivity from construction materials; Medicion de conductividad termica de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira Cortes, Leonel; Xaman Villasenor, Jesus P; Chavez Chena, Yvonne [CENIDET: Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to improve the calculation of thermal loads that allows to model the thermal behavior of constructions with aims of energy saving, it is necessary to count on the thermophysical properties of the materials used in the construction industry. Nevertheless at present in Mexico do not exist reported data of the materials that are made and used in our country, reason why it is chosen to take the results reported in the literature, whose values in their majority do not correspond to Mexican materials. In order to cover this necessity, at the CENIDET an instrument was developed to determine the thermal conductivity of insulating and construction materials. To date they have come with studies of different materials, which are provided by the manufacturers, with the intention of obtaining real data of thermal conductivity and to apply them with whole confidence in simulations of calculations of thermal loads. In this paper the results of measurement of the apparent thermal conductivity of two different materials from construction are presented, pumice stone block and block of tezontle (a porous volcanic rock).The measurement was made with an absolute and primary instrument according to norm ANSI/ASTM C-177-97. The operation principle of the apparatus is based on the technique of heat transference by conduction in permanent state between two plates, the experiment is carried out using an apparatus of hot plate with guard (APCG). Given the geographic zone where the studied materials are to be used, it is concluded that the obtained results show better properties for both with respect to reported values of similar materials, by virtue that these materials are intended to be applied in a humid climate as it is in the state of Puebla, Mexico. [Spanish] Para mejorar el calculo de cargas termicas que permita modelar el comportamiento termico de edificaciones con fines de ahorro de energia, es necesario contar con las propiedades termofisicas de los materiales utilizados

  16. Quality and safety of construction materials; Calidad y seguridad de materiales de construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodulfo Zabala, L.

    2015-07-01

    CEPCO represents 20 industrial sectors, which take charge of construction materials production, and whose expectations of European and Spanish legislation observance (specially the articles related to quality, security and environmental respect) reach a very high level. This performance is equally taken to their internal competitiveness and to their huge international enlargement produced on the recent years. In addition to this principle, the Confederation includes its own this principle, the Confederation includes its own doctrine of trying to consolidate important heights of quality related to the evolution of the product trough I+D+i. (Author)

  17. Impact of Relationship Marketing on Recommendation: Evidence from Retail Construction Materials Stores of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas da Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impact of relationship marketing initiatives, such as dependence, expertise, and relationship benefits and the impact they have on recommendation of a specific product category. To test the hypothesis we collected information about 1925 stores of construction materials (LMC. It was observed that dependence of LMC on the supplier has a positive impact on recommendation and that benefits offered by manufacturers increase this recommendation. It is concluded that to be present at point of sales is an important condition, but not enough to ensure recommendation.

  18. Social construction and materiality: the limits of indeterminacy in therapeutic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannamann, J W

    1998-01-01

    By drawing parallels between the courtroom testimony of a Christian Science practitioner and an intersession conversation between systemic family therapists, I critique the abstract idealism of language-centered social constructionism. I argue that social constructionist inquiry that highlights the indeterminacy of meaning without a corresponding emphasis on the responsive embodied practices of family members glosses over the material conditions shaping the politics of interaction. The implications of this problem are discussed as they relate to the setting of family therapy, where social construction theory is often used to guide practical interventions.

  19. Application of Idealized Materials Data for Calculation of Fire Exposed Concrete Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    The author has developed a system of methods for calculation of the load bearing capacity of concrete constructions at any time of any fully developed fire including the time of maximum temperature of a standard fire as a special case. The methods have been derived based on materials data from 180...... be applied for deriving reduced cross sections and for calculating the anchorage capacity of reinforcing bars. The paper does not intent to be a full reference for the methods, but to introduce the basis of them, indicating sources of further information and discussing the differences between these methods...

  20. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg-1, respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  1. The Use Potential of Traditional Building Materials for the Realization of Structures by Modern Methods of Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spišáková, Marcela; Mačková, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    The sustainable building has taken off in recent years with many investors looking for new and different methods of construction. The traditional building materials can be made out of natural materials, while others can help to lower energy costs of the occupant once built. Regardless of what the goal of the investor is, traditional building materials and their use is on the rise. The submitted paper provides an overview of natural building materials and possible modern building systems using these construction materials. Based on the questionnaire survey is defined the use potential of traditional building materials for the realization of the construction by methods of modern constructions and then are determined the drivers and barriers of traditional materials through using modern methods of construction. Considering the analysis of the achieved results, we can identify the gaps in the construction market in Slovakia and also to assess the perception of potential investors in the field of traditional building materials use, which is the purpose of submitted paper.

  2. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  3. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  4. Civil engineering applications of ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Pajewski, Lara

    2015-01-01

    This book, based on Transport and Urban Development COST Action TU1208, presents the most advanced applications of ground penetrating radar (GPR) in a civil engineering context, with documentation of instrumentation, methods, and results. It explains clearly how GPR can be employed for the surveying of critical transport infrastructure, such as roads, pavements, bridges, and tunnels, and for the sensing and mapping of underground utilities and voids. Detailed attention is also devoted to use of GPR in the inspection of geological structures and of construction materials and structures, including reinforced concrete, steel reinforcing bars, and pre/post-tensioned stressing ducts. Advanced methods for solution of electromagnetic scattering problems and new data processing techniques are also presented. Readers will come to appreciate that GPR is a safe, advanced, nondestructive, and noninvasive imaging technique that can be effectively used for the inspection of composite structures and the performance of diagn...

  5. Det civile samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement.......Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement....

  6. Lightweight Aggregate Made from Dredged Material in Green Roof Construction for Stormwater Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1.15 million cubic meters (1.5 million cubic yards of sediment require annual removal from harbors and ports along Ohio’s Lake Erie coast. Disposing of these materials into landfills depletes land resources, while open water placement of these materials deteriorates water quality. There are more than 14,000 acres of revitalizing brownfields in Cleveland, U.S., many containing up to 90% impervious surface, which does not allow “infiltration” based stormwater practices required by contemporary site-based stormwater regulation. This study investigates the potential of sintering the dredged material from the Harbor of Cleveland in Lake Erie to produce lightweight aggregate (LWA, and apply the LWA to green roof construction. Chemical and thermal analyses revealed the sintered material can serve for LWA production when preheated at 550 °C and sintered at a higher temperature. Through dewatering, drying, sieving, pellet making, preheating, and sintering with varying temperatures (900–1100 °C, LWAs with porous microstructures are produced with specific gravities ranging from 1.46 to 1.74, and water absorption capacities ranging from 11% to 23%. The water absorption capacity of the aggregate decreases as sintering temperature increases. The LWA was incorporated into the growing media of a green roof plot, which has higher water retention capacity than the conventional green roof system.

  7. Long term integrity of spent fuel and construction materials for dry storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, two dry storage facilities at reactor sites have already been operating since 1995 and 2002, respectively. Additionally, a large scale dry storage facility away from reactor sites is under safety examination for license near the coast and desired to start its operation in 2010. Its final storage capacity is 5,000tU. It is therefore necessary to obtain and evaluate the related data on integrity of spent fuels loaded into and construction materials of casks during long term dry storage. The objectives are: - Spent fuel rod: To evaluate hydrogen migration along axial fuel direction on irradiated claddings stored for twenty years in air; To evaluate pellet oxidation behaviour for high burn-up UO2 fuels; - Construction materials for dry storage facilities: To evaluate long term reliability of welded stainless steel canister under stress corrosion cracking (SCC) environment; To evaluate long term integrity of concrete cask under carbonation and salt attack environment; To evaluate integrity of sealability of metal gasket under long term storage and short term accidental impact force.

  8. Schiff's Bases and Crown Ethers as Supramolecular Sensing Materials in the Construction of Potentiometric Membrane Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Riahi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionophore incorporated PVC membrane sensors are well-established analyticaltools routinely used for the selective and direct measurement of a wide variety of differentions in complex biological and environmental samples. Potentiometric sensors have someoutstanding advantages including simple design and operation, wide linear dynamic range,relatively fast response and rational selectivity. The vital component of such plasticizedPVC members is the ionophore involved, defining the selectivity of the electrodes' complexformation. Molecular recognition causes the formation of many different supramolecules.Different types of supramolecules, like calixarenes, cyclodextrins and podands, have beenused as a sensing material in the construction of ion selective sensors. Schiff's bases andcrown ethers, which feature prominently in supramolecular chemistry, can be used assensing materials in the construction of potentiometric ion selective electrodes. Up to now,more than 200 potentiometric membrane sensors for cations and anions based on Schiff'sbases and crown ethers have been reported. In this review cation binding and anioncomplexes will be described. Liquid membrane sensors based on Schiff's bases and crownethers will then be discussed.

  9. Radiometric analysis of construction materials using HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M U; Jojo, P J; Kassim, H A; Amin, Y M

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of primordial radionuclides in common construction materials collected from the south-west coastal region of India were determined using a high-purity germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. Average specific activities (Bq kg(-1)) for (238)U((226)Ra) in cement, brick, soil and stone samples were obtained as 54 ± 13, 21 ± 4, 50 ± 12 and 46 ± 8, respectively. Respective values of (232)Th were obtained as 65 ± 10, 21 ± 3, 58 ± 10 and 57 ± 12. Concentrations of (40)K radionuclide in cement, brick, soil and stone samples were found to be 440 ± 91, 290 ± 20, 380 ± 61 and 432 ± 64, respectively. To evaluate the radiological hazards, radium equivalent activity, various hazard indices, absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose have been calculated, and compared with the literature values. Obtained data could be used as reference information to assess any radiological contamination due to construction materials in future. PMID:22887119

  10. Scientist in the field of construction materials and chemistry Kostyantin G. Dementyev: new information to biography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Tatarchuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on various written sources, the article presents the new biographic information about Kostyantin G. Dementyev (1864–1916, scientist who worked in the branch of construction materials and chemistry, Director of Kyiv Polytechnic Institute of Emperor Alexander II in 1908–1911. In particular, attention is drawn to activity of Kostyantin G. Dementyev after his discharge from KPI and leaving Kyiv. There is provided more detailed information regarding the terms and specific of his work in Don Polytechnic Institute of Tsesarevich Alexei (Novocherkassk, The Province (Oblast of the Don Cossack Host in 1911–1914, where his promising undertakings were not fulfilled because of his health problems that led to the conflict with the Institute administration and his dismissal. In the article the circumstances of activity of Kostyantin G. Dementyev in Sengiley (Simbirsk province in 1914–1916 – at the First district cement plant– are also reproduced. He was at the head of construction of the cement plant, where production of high quality cement was launched. He was also managing initial works on the plant on production of sulfuric acid, liquid chlorine, chloric lime in Sengiley The new materials that has not been known to researchers before are introduced into scientific circulation.

  11. ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS AS A SUBSOIL AND MATERIAL FOR BASIC HYDRO-TECHNICAL CONSTRUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej Wierzbicki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of geotechnical parameters of the alluvial deposit (the areas of the Vistula and Warta river valleys with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (cone penetration test and DMT (flat dilatometer test methods, as well as by the vane test (VT. The article includes the analysis of overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 4 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne’s formula (1995 was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefulness of the alluvial deposit as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterized by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition. On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  12. Concept Model of Ecological Civilization Regulated by Nature, Society and Government

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Jiang-ying; Wu, Bin

    2011-01-01

    We studied theoretic development of ecological civilization, and put forward the concept model of ecological civilization regulated by nature, society and government. In the construction of ecological civilization, the nature, society and government play different roles and have respective functions. Therefore, we should build a self-regulating network of ecological civilization through natural law, social law, as well as scientific outlook on development.

  13. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  14. On Necessity of Adhering to the West China Development Policy Regarding Synchronous Construction of Two Civilizations%西部大开发必须坚持两个文明建设同步

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树文

    2001-01-01

    All the accumulated experience and existing problems in the east China development has given us an inspiration that it is necessary that the spiritual civilization construction should be strengthened in the western region of china to be developed. However, at present the problems concerned with west China spiritual civilization are as follow: rigid ideology, outmoded notions, out-of date education and scientific knowledge, deficient brains of mind, complicated relationship among religions, Therefore, we can adopt the corresponding countermeasures for the problems above: to emancipate mind and to renew the sense, to speed up training talents, to formulate a favorable policy for intellectuals, to handle the problems carefully and skillfully involved with religion, to maintain the unity of all various nationalities, to catch the tide of know-how economy for a leap in west China development and its smooth implementation.%东部地区发展的经验教训告诉我们:西部开发必须加强精神文明建设。西部地区精神文明现状主要呈现为:观念陈旧;教育科学文化滞后;人才匮乏;民族宗教问题复杂。解决这些问题的主要对策是:更新观念;发展教育;制定优惠的人才政策;妥善处理民族宗教问题;追赶知识经济浪潮,实现跨越式发展。

  15. Application of Nanotechnology in Civil Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sabihuddin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, use of nanotechnology in building materials on behalf of a range of civil engineering mechanism is discussed. In view of the fact that the use of nanotechnology controls the topic at the minute level, the properties of matter are sincerely affected. Strength, durability and other properties of materials are dramatically affected under a scale of nano meter(10-9m.This article as well reveals how the use of nano technology makes concrete more stronger, durable and more easily placed. Different types of nano materials used are discussed with its wide applications. The properties like self-sensing, self- rehabilitation, self-structural health monitoring, self-vibration damping, self-cleaning and self-healing are studied. Following this the analysis were carried out in ductile structural composites along with its improved properties, low repairs coatings, better properties of cementitious materials, reduction of the thermal transfer rate of fire retardant and insulation, various nanosensors, smart materials, intellectual construction technology.

  16. ACCELERATED CARBONATION OF STEEL SLAG COMPACTS: DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH STRENGTH CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke eQuaghebeur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral carbonation involves the capture and storage of carbon dioxide in carbonate minerals. Mineral carbonation presents opportunities for the recycling of steel slags and other alkaline residues that are currently landfilled. The Carbstone process was initially developed to transform non-hydraulic steel slags (stainless steel slag and basic oxygen furnace slags in high quality construction materials. The process makes use of accelerated mineral carbonation by treating different types of steel slags with CO2 at elevated pressure (up to 2 MPa and temperatures (20 to 140°C. For stainless steel slags raising the temperature from 20 to 140°C had a positive effect on the CO2 uptake, strength development and the environmental properties (i.e. leaching of Cr and Mo of the carbonated slag compacts. For BOF slags raising the temperature was not beneficial for the carbonation process. Elevated CO2 pressure and CO2 concentration of the feed gas had a positive effect on the CO2 uptake and strength development for both types of steel slags. In addition also the compaction force had a positive effect on the strength development. The carbonates that are produced in-situ during the carbonation reaction act as a binder, cementing the slag particles together. The carbonated compacts (Carbstones have technical properties that are equivalent to conventional concrete products. An additional advantage is that the carbonated materials sequester 100 to 150 g CO2/kg slag. The technology was developed on lab scale by optimisation of process parameters with regard to compressive strength development, CO2 uptake and environmental properties of the carbonated construction materials. The Carbstone technology was validated using (semi-industrial equipment and process conditions.

  17. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing number and increase in size of civil engineering works and the growing need for protection measures of the sandy coasts have led to an ever increasing risk of adverse effects on the nature and lan...

  18. Swell Gels to Dumbbell Micelles: Construction of Materials and Nanostructure with Self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochan, Darrin

    2007-03-01

    Bionanotechnology, the emerging field of using biomolecular and biotechnological tools for nanostructure or nanotecnology development, provides exceptional opportunity in the design of new materials. Self-assembly of molecules is an attractive materials construction strategy due to its simplicity in application. By considering peptidic or charged synthetic polymer molecules in the bottom-up materials self-assembly design process, one can take advantage of inherently biomolecular attributes; intramolecular folding events, secondary structure, and electrostatic interactions; in addition to more traditional self-assembling molecular attributes such as amphiphilicty, to define hierarchical material structure and consequent properties. Several molecular systems will be discussed. Synthetic block copolymers with charged corona blocks can be assembled in dilute solution containing multivalent organic counterions to produce micelle structures such as toroids. These ring-like micelles are similar to the toroidal bundling of charged semiflexible biopolymers like DNA in the presence of multivalent counterions. Micelle structure can be tuned between toroids, cylinders, and disks simply by using different concentrations or molecular volumes of organic counterion. In addition, these charged blocks can consist of amino acids as monomers producing block copolypeptides. In addition to the above attributes, block copolypeptides provide the control of block secondary structure to further control self-assembly. Design strategies based on small (less than 24 amino acids) beta-hairpin peptides will be discussed. Self-assembly of the peptides is predicated on an intramolecular folding event caused by desired solution properties. Importantly, the intramolecular folding event impart a molecular-level mechanism for environmental responsiveness at the material level (e.g. infinite change in viscosity of a solution to a gel with changes in pH, ionic strength, temperature).

  19. Grey cast iron as construction material of bridges from the 18th and 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rabiega

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many bridges and railroad viaducts, which have been operated at the western and southern regions of Poland, were erected at the end ofthe 18th or beginning of the 19th century. In recent years they undergo overhauls and renovations requiring familiarity with the construction materials they have been made of. It is necessary for estimation of their load capacity (possible reinforcements and determining their suitability for further utilisation. Among the materials in the old bridges the puddled steels and cast irons predominate. Aim of the work is identification and documentation of microstructure and selected properties of the cast irons used for production of parts for the bridge in Łażany, the Old Mieszczański Bridge in Wrocław, the hanging bridge in Ozimek, as well as the columnar piers of the railroad viaduct in Wrocław. Using the methods of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as the results of hardness measurements and chemical analysis, it has been shown that the objects have been built of grey cast iron with flake graphite having the ferritic-pearlitic or pearlitic matrix. The diversification of their chemical analysis resulting from the type, size and geometry of the cast parts was indicated.The tested materials fulfil requirements of the contemporary standards related to grey cast irons of the EN-GJL-100 and EN-GJL-150grades.

  20. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed.

  1. Construction material properties of slag from the high temperature arc gasification of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Olivera, Fernando D; Wasman, Scott J; Townsend, Timothy G; McVay, Michael C; Ferraro, Christopher C; Blaisi, Nawaf I

    2016-06-01

    Slag from the high temperature arc gasification (HTAG) of municipal solid waste (MSW) was tested to evaluate its material properties with respect to use as a construction aggregate. These data were compared to previously compiled values for waste to energy bottom ash, the most commonly produced and beneficially used thermal treatment residue. The slag was tested using gradations representative of a base course and a course aggregate. Los Angeles (LA) abrasion testing demonstrated that the HTAG slag had a high resistance to fracture with a measured LA loss of 24%. Soundness testing indicated a low potential for reactivity and good weathering resistance with a mean soundness loss of 3.14%. The modified Proctor compaction testing found the slag to possess a maximum dry density (24.04kN/m(3)) greater than conventionally used aggregates and WTE BA. The LBR tests demonstrated a substantial bearing capacity (>200). Mineralogical analysis of the HTAG suggested the potential for self cementing character which supports the elevated LBR results. Preliminary material characterization of the HTAG slag establishes potential for beneficial use; larger and longer term studies focusing on the material's possibility for swelling and performance at the field scale level are needed. PMID:27020344

  2. Discussion on the Construction of Civil Medium and Small Transformer Substation%关于民用中小型变电站建设的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘赞功

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了从变电站的前期设计、设备招标采购、设备运输、施工安装到验收中应关注的问题。以塘东总部基地35 kV用户变电站、上海纽约大学10 kV用户变电站以例,重点关注了成套开关设备招标采购中的技术要求。%This paper introduces the problems of preliminary design, bidding and procurement of substation, equipment tra- nsportation, construction and instalation of equipment. The a- uthor took the users’ 35kv substation of Tangdong headquart- ers base and the users’ 10kv substation of the branch of New York University in Shanghai as cases, focusing on the techn- ical requirements of the biding of switchgear.

  3. 生态文明建设对我国矿政管理工作的启示%The New Ideas for the Administrative Management of Geology and Mineral Resources from Ecological Civilization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯聪; 王均模

    2013-01-01

      基于生态文明建设的科学内涵,矿产资源开发利用要求实现节约集约综合利用,转变资源利用方式,通过资源高效利用、资源合理开发和发展绿色矿业促进生态文明建设。生态文明建设条件下需要处理好几个关系:矿产资源开发与生态环境保护;资源效益与环境效益;矿产资源的有偿使用与生态环境补偿。完善我国矿政管理的建议:①持续推进矿产资源节约与综合利用工作;②夯实资源管理,强化资源产业管理;③突出矿政管理各环节的生态管控功能;④注重政府引导与市场调节手段相结合。%This paper argues that based on the scientific connotation of ecological civilization construction, the realization of economical and intensive utilization and transformation of the mode of resource utilization is required for mineral resources development and utilization. It also points out that promoting the construction of ecological civilization must utilize the resources with high efficiency, exploit rationally, and develop effectively green mining. Some relationships are needed to deal with such as mineral resources development and ecological environment protection, resources and environmental benefits, the paid use of mineral resources and ecological environment compensation. Suggestions for improving the administrative management of geology and mineral resources include:continuing to push saving and comprehensive utilization of mineral resources;tamping the management of resources and strengthening the management of resources industry;laying stress on ecological control function of each section of the administrative management of geology and mineral resources; and paying attention to combining government guidance and market regulation means.

  4. Fly ash utilization in constructions-materials production - on the basis of Polish experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatymowicz, H.

    1984-06-01

    Fossil-fueled power plants in India produce 600,000 tons of fly ash a year that takes up 6 hectares of land for storage. Poland uses its fly ash to make low-strength construction materials, with most going into the production of autoclaved cellular concrete. They further reduce the costs of storage and dumping by locating cellular concrete plants close to power stations to take advantage of direct pneumatic transport and the waste steam from the plant, which is used for processing the concrete. The author describes Poland's production techniques and the physical characteristics of the product. A note at the beginning of the article states that India's Ministry of Energy sees no present market demand for fly ash from the New Delhi plant, but suggests its use for soil improvement as an alternative. 3 tables.

  5. Physical properties and hydrological response of green roof substrates based on recycled construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Hayas, Antonio; Jiménez-Quiñones, Daniel; Peña, Adolfo; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs in urban areas improve the building's energy efficiency and provide a wide array of additional environmental benefits. Characterizing and predicting the physical properties and hydrological response of green roofs is necessary to understand the roof's heat balance, which is controlled to a large extent by the substrate's water content, to predict the runoff response and functioning as a part of sustainable urban drainage systems and to plan irrigation of the plants in drier climates. This study examines 10 different extensive green roof substrates, based on recycled construction materials. Green roof simulation decks were installed in boxes of 0,6 m x 0,4 m to a depth of 70 mm, 10 with and 10 without plants. Total water holding capacity of the substrates varied between 10,4 - 23,9 %, with an additional 19 % retained by the drainage layer and geotextiles used in the simulation deck. An important compaction of 30 % on average was observed after 1,5 months. Final bulk densities are between 1457 - 1993 kg m-3. In an evaporation experiment, it was shown that the water evaporated from the green roofs is controlled mainly by the relative moisture content. Substrate properties exerted only a secondary control, with the lowest evaporation rates from the substrates with highest coarse crushed aggregate content and with the highest clay content. The evaporation model proposed here was shown to work well to simulate the evolution of the water balance and therefore the specific unit weight over longer time periods in all substrates, with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.989. Finally, plants were found to grow satisfactorily in all substrates. Therefore, when regular irrigation is provided, it was concluded that green roofs based on recycled construction materials are a viable option. Future research will have to explore the long-term plant dynamics under water-limited conditions.

  6. 加快智能工厂进程,促进生态文明建设%Accelerate the process of smart plant, promote ecological civilization construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德芳; 索寒生

    2014-01-01

    中国石化通过实施资源战略、市场战略、一体化战略、国际化战略、差异化战略与绿色低碳战略,提出了用信息化支撑传统产业升级转型、绿色低碳与节能减排、推进智能工厂建设的战略目标。重点从建设思路、主要工作进展与应用成效三方面阐述了智能工厂对中国石化应用信息技术改造石油石化传统生产工艺、提高资源利用率、实现安全生产与清洁生产等方面的重要影响。最后,结合中国石化信息化的发展愿景与发展目标,给出了智能工厂的总体框架与行动蓝图。%By implementing resource strategy, market strategy, integration strategy, internationalization strategy, differentiation strategy and low-carbon strategy, strategic objective as using information technology was proposed to support the transformation from traditional industry, to promote environmentally friend, low-carbon develop, energy conservation and emissions reduction, and finally to establish smart plant. The important influences lead consequently was elaborated by smart plant in production engineering conversion, resources utilization, safe production and environmentally friend production. These achievements would mainly be done by using information technology and discussed from three aspects: construction method, main progress and expected achievements. In the end, taking SINOPEC’s informatization vision and destination into account, the smart plant overall framework and blueprint were concluded.

  7. UTILIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL BYPRODUCT AS RAW MATERIAL IN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY- A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAISHALI SAHU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A large quantity of sludge rich in nutrients and microorganisms is generated every year from water and wastewater treatment plants, the final destination of which affects the environment. Generally, dewatered sludge is disposed of by spreading on the land or by land filling. However, space limitations on existing landfill sites and problems of waste stabilization have prompted investigation into alternative reuse techniques and disposal routes for sludge. A more reasonable approach is to view the sludge as a resource that can be recycled or reused. Many researchers have exploited the reuse of lime sludge from water treatment plant and sewage sludge ash as an inexpensive source of soil stabilizer in sub grade stabilization and soft cohesive soil respectively. Sewage sludge pellets (SSP has replaced sand in concrete manufacturing for pavements. The use of SSP as substituting material in raw mix formulation in Portland cement manufacturing has been studied by many researchers. Experimental results showed the feasibility of the partial replacement (15 and 30% of cement by sewage sludge ash (SSA in mortars. This paper highlights the potential of dried sludge, sludge pellets and sludge ash in various building materials for construction.

  8. Gridshells in composite materials: Construction of a 300 m² forum for the solidays' festival in Paris

    OpenAIRE

    BAVEREL, Olivier; CARON, Jean-François; Tayeb, Frédéric; du Peloux, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials are well known for their low density, high strength and high resistance against corrosion and fatigue; but so far only few constructions have been built with these materials. This article shows how composite materials might be an original and profitable solution for lightweight structures called gridshells. In this paper, the principal characteristics of gridshells are recalled first and a demonstration that glass fiber reinforced polymers are suitable for these structures...

  9. 民诉法司法解释对建设工程施工合同纠纷处理产生的影响%Influences of the Judicial Interpretation on Civil Procedural Law for Construction Contract Disputes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨唐全

    2016-01-01

    《最高人民法院关于适用〈中华人民共和国民事诉讼法〉的解释》涉及管辖权、电子证据、专家辅助人制度、反诉、执行制度等多方面内容的变化,分析这些变化对建设工程施工合同纠纷处理产生的影响,提出依法应对措施。%The interpretation of the Supreme People's Court on the application of the Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China involves the changes of several aspects like jurisdiction,electronic evidence,the system of expert assessor,counter-claim,enforcement procedure,etc. The paper analyzes the influences of the changes on construction contract dispute,and puts forwardsome measures according to law.

  10. The basic construction materials industry and today’s vast housing shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oteiza, I.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents some of the aspects of the major challenge facing world-wide building: humanity's daunting shortage of basic housing, monographically focusing on what this means for the basic building materials industry. These needs have created the greatest demand ever for ex-novo solutions and an exponential increase in slum rehabilitation and improvement, translated here into the need for construction materials and more specifically, cement, as the emblematic component of buildings.El trabajo aborda en forma documentada, algunos aspectos del mayor de los retos que tiene planteado a nivel cosmopolita el sector de la edificación: las ingentes necesidades de habitabilidad básica que padece la humanidad, centrándose en forma monográfica en lo que ello supone para la industria de materiales básicos de edificación. Necesidades que se traducen en la mayor demanda histórica de soluciones ex-novo y en el aumento exponencial de rehabilitación y mejora de tugurios, que los autores traducen en necesidades de materiales de construcción, y de forma más concreta, de cemento, como material emblemático de la edificación.El trabajo, mediante el análisis de casos, muestra la muy diferente repercusión que tienen los materiales sobre los presupuestos finales de lo ejecutado, según se trate del mundo desarrollado (MD o de países en vías de desarrollo (PVD. Por otra parte, estudia la incidencia general del sector 'informal' de la construcción, concluyendo que éste, en muchos países, es el consumidor mayoritario de materiales -specialmente cemento-y que a nivel mundial los PVD lo son tanto en producción como en consumo.

  11. Kinetic Adsorption of Ammonium Nitrogen by Substrate Materials for Constructed Wetlands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-Ling; CUI Li-Hua; OUYANG Ying; LONG Cui-Fen; TANG Xiao-Dan

    2011-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) are engineered systems that utilize natural systems including wetland vegetations,soils,and their associated microbial assemblages to assist in treating wastewater.The kinetic adsorption of ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) by CW substrate materials such as blast furnace slag (BFS),zeolite,ceramsite,vermiculite,gravel,paddy soil,red soil,and turf,was investigated using batch experiments and kinetic adsorption isotherms.Both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms could adequately predict the NH4+-N adsorption process.The maximum adsorption capacities of NH4+-N,estimated from the Langmuir isotherm,ranked as:zeolite (33 333.33 mg kg-1) > turf (29274.01 mg kg-1) > BFS (5 000mg kg-1) > vermiculite (3333.33 mg kg-1) > gravel (769.23 mg kg-1) > paddy soil (588.24 mg kg-1) > red soil (555.56mg kg-1) > ceramsite (107.53 mg kg-1).Some properties of the substrate materials,including bulk density,specific gravity,hydraulic conductivity,uniformity coefficient (K60),curvature coefficient (Cc),organic matter,pH,exchangeable (or active) Cu,Fe,Zn and Mn,total Cu,and Fe,Mn,Zn,Cd,Pb and Ca,had negative correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.Other properties of the substrate materials like particle diameter values of D10,D30 and D60 (the diameters of particle sizes of a substrate material at which 10%,30% and 60%,respectively,of the particles pass through the sieve based on the accumulative frequency),cation exchange capacity (CEC),exchangeable (or active) Ca and Mg,and total K and Mg had positive correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.In addition,active K and Na as well as the total Na had significant positive correlations with NH4+-N adsorption.This information would be useful for selection of suitable substrate materials for CWs.

  12. 公民社会兴起背景下的政府公信力建设%Construction of Government Public Credibility in the Background of the Civil Society Booming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季燕霞

    2011-01-01

    随着我国公民社会的日益兴起,公众的主体意识、权利意识逐步增强,公共服务需求的内容及层次要求也相应地发生巨大变化,它们构成了政府公信力建设的外部环境与压力。如何将外部环境的要求与压力内化到政府管理制度及成员的行为规范之中,这是我国政府公信力建设需要研究的重要议题。确立以公民和社会为本位的价值理念,构建新型公共治理模式,在政治过程中实现与公民社会良性互动,是提升政府公信力的现实选择。%With the gradual booming of the civil society, the public consciousness of self and rights increase. Dramatic changes have correspondingly taken place in the requirements of public service content and level. The changes constitute the external environment and pressure to the construction of government public credibility. How to internalize the requests and pressures of external environment into the government administrative policies and its members' codes of conducts has become an important subject for discussion. To improve government public credibility, it' s a practical choice to establish the citizen and society oriented value concept, construct a new public administrative model, and realize the harmonious interaction with the public in the political process.

  13. Avaliação da importância relativa dos critérios para a seleção de Sistemas Integrados de Gestão (ERP para uso em empresas da construção civil Evaluation of the importance of criteria for the selection of Integrated Management Systems (ERP for use in civil construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Picinini Picinini Méxas

    2013-06-01

    survey of IT and civil construction areas was conducted on a sample of 79 respondents in order to investigate the relative importance of these criteria. The survey demonstrated that the Financial, Business, and Software criteria were considered by the respondents as the most important.

  14. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  15. Assessing the environmental performance of construction materials testing using EMS: An Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejkovski, Nick

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the audit findings of the waste management practices at 30 construction materials testing (CMT) laboratories (constituting 4.6% of total accredited CMT laboratories at the time of the audit) that operate in four Australian jurisdictions and assesses the organisation's Environmental Management System (EMS) for indicators of progress towards sustainable development (SD). In Australia, waste indicators are 'priority indicators' of environmental performance yet the quality and availability of waste data is poor. National construction and demolition waste (CDW) data estimates are not fully disaggregated and the contribution of CMT waste (classified as CDW) to the national total CDW landfill burden is difficult to quantify. The environmental and human impacts of anthropogenic release of hazardous substances contained in CMT waste into the ecosphere can be measured by construing waste indicators from the EMS. An analytical framework for evaluating the EMS is developed to elucidate CMT waste indicators and assess these indicators against the principle of proportionality. Assessing against this principle allows for: objective evaluations of whether the environmental measures prescribed in the EMS are 'proportionate' to the 'desired' (subjective) level of protection chosen by decision-makers; and benchmarking CMT waste indicators against aspirational CDW targets set by each Australian jurisdiction included in the audit. Construed together, the EMS derived waste indicators and benchmark data provide a composite indicator of environmental performance and progress towards SD. The key audit findings indicate: CMT laboratories have a 'poor' environmental performance (and overall progress towards SD) when EMS waste data are converted into indicator scores and assessed against the principle of proportionality; CMT waste recycling targets are lower when benchmarked against jurisdictional CDW waste recovery targets; and no significant difference in the average

  16. The "Three-Platform and Three-Module" Curriculum System Construction for Higher Vocational Civil Aviation Business Major:A Survey and Investigation Based on Qingdao Airline Company and Its Agency Enterprises%高职民航商务专业“三平台、三模块”课程体系构建--基于青岛市航空公司及代理企业调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超; 霍连才

    2014-01-01

    为调整专业建设目标,提升人才培养质量,民航商务专业成立了专业调研小组,走访了山东省周边地区有关的机场和航空公司及其航空代理机构,并充分以民航销售代理人培训为契机,向培训学员开展了问卷调查。本次调研采用现场调研法、查阅资料法、问卷法、访谈(座谈)法、电话访谈法等方式,共调研30多家行业企业,并抽样问卷调查了本专业近三年毕业生,查询了民航局和政治机关等权威部门公布的数据,获得了大量的基础性数据和资料,通过对这些数据分析,明确了我院民航商务专业的专业定位、服务面向、职业岗位群等问题,并以岗位调研为起点,建议构建“三平台、三模块”的课程体系。%In order to adjust professional construction objectives and improve talent cultivation quality, the civil aviation business major has established a professional survey group, and visited relevant airports, airline companies and airline agency institutes in Shandong Province and its surrounding areas, and by virtue of civil aviation marketing agent training, carried out a questionnaire survey on the trainees. On-the-spot survey, materials consulta-tion, questionnaire and interview were adopted in the survey, and over 30 enterprises were included.A sampling questionnaire sur-vey was made on the graduates of the major in recent three years, and the data released by authorized departments such as civil aviation administration and political organs was consulted, so a large number of fundamental data and resources have been ob-tained. Through the analysis on the data, we have clarified the professional orientation,service orientation,and occupation groups of the civil aviation business major in our college, and starting from occupation survey,we suggested that we should construct a "three-platform and three-module" curriculum system.

  17. 土木工程专业博士研究生模块化课程体系构建研究%Research on the construction of modular curriculum system for PhD of civil engineering specialty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈进; 刘元雪; 曾祥蓉; 王仲刚; 张力; 张蕾; 孙涛; 周凌

    2016-01-01

    文章以后勤工程学院为例,针对土木工程专业博士研究生普遍存在的“重论文研究,轻课程学习”的倾向,提出以未来岗位需求为牵引,以创新能力提高为主导,以人才培养为目标,改革传统层次化课程体系,采用模块化课程设计,形成基础课程模块、专业课程模块、拓展课程模块、研究课程模块等四大模块课程结构,加大教学内容创新力度,使模块化课程的教学内容凸显前沿性、动态性、实践性三种特性。同时探索“硬规定、活模块”的模块化课程教学实施模式,以及任课教师授课质量和博士研究生学习成绩两方面模块化课程评价体系的构建,为创建科学合理的土木工程专业博士研究生模块化课程体系打下基础。%Aiming at the tendency of emphasis on thesis research, ignoring courses for the current PhD in civil engineering of our university, we proposed that taking requirements of future job as traction, enhance of innovation capability as leading , and talent training as the goal, reform the traditional hierarchical course system by modular design, and form four modules structure including basis curriculum modules, specialty curriculum modules, expanding curriculum modules, research curriculum modules. And we increase innovation of teaching content which highlight three properties of cutting-edge, dynamic and practical, and explore the modular curriculum teaching implementation mode of hard stipulates living module, as well as construction of two modular curriculum evaluation system including classroom teaching quality and PhD students academic evaluation , so as to build a scientific and rational PhD modular curriculum system in civil engineering.

  18. Reform and Development of Shanghai's Civil Affairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINGLING

    2005-01-01

    The work of the Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau centers on social administration,democratic political construction at grass roots level, social relief and welfare,care and support of servicemen and their families, and national defense construction. It guarantees the people's basic rights, particularly those in difficulty,and maintains social stability. Effective management of civil affairs is crucial to the construction of a weft-off society.

  19. HPC in Computational Micromechanics of Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Blaheta, R. (Radim); Kolcun, A. (Alexej); Jakl, O. (Ondřej); Souček, K; Starý, J. (Jiří); Georgiev, J.

    2015-01-01

    By micromechanics we understand analysis of the macroscale response of materials through investigation of processes in their microstructure. Here by the macroscale, we mean the scale of applications, where we solve engineering problems involving materials. Examples could be analysis of aircraft constructions with different composite materials and analysis of rock behaviour and concrete properties in geo- and civil engineering applications. Analysis of bio-materials with many medicine...

  20. Ventilated Facades: Insulation Materials of Different Manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Shatornaya Alexandra; Chislova Maria; Chislova Anna; Drozdetskaya Marina; Trubina Daria

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the various manufacturers of thermal insulation materials that are used in hinged ventilated facades and there is a comparison them by the same criteria for identifying the advantages and disadvantages of their using in civil engineering. In the article there are the results of the carrying out calculations of wall construction with ventilated faсade to resistance of heat transfer by using materials from different manufacturers for identical wall construction. As a result...

  1. Segurança no trabalho e desenvolvimento de produto: diretrizes para integração na construção civil Safety and product development: guidelines for integration in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcisio Abreu Saurin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta diretrizes para a integração de requisitos de segurança no trabalho à etapa de desenvolvimento de produto (DP na construção civil. As diretrizes foram desenvolvidas a partir de entrevistas com um grupo de sete projetistas da construção civil, uma entrevista com a projetista de ar condicionado e um estudo exploratório de integração da segurança ao processo de DP. Embora as entrevistas tenham indicado que a integração ainda é uma prática pouco disseminada na construção, a preocupação com a segurança do usuário final, assim como a boa receptividade a uma futura lei que obrigue a integração da segurança aos projetos (como já existe na União Européia, são indícios da viabilidade da mudança desta realidade. Em termos operacionais, propõe-se que a integração esteja fundamentada na adoção do ciclo de gerenciamento de riscos em cada etapa do projeto, assim como em bancos de dados de medidas práticas de integração adequadas à realidade nacional. Além disso, há amplas oportunidades para que a segurança seja considerada como mais uma dimensão nas técnicas e modelos existentes de desenvolvimento de produto.This paper presents guidelines for integrating safety into the product development process in construction industry. As a basis for developing the guidelines the following data were collected: interviews with seven designers from construction industry; an interview with a designer of air conditioners; an exploratory study of integration of safety into product development. Even though the interviews have pointed out that the integration is still adopted to a minor extent in construction, there were evidences that this reality might be changed. Designers both usually took into account safety of end users and were likely to welcome a regulation that established safety into design as a mandatory requirement, similarly to what occurs in the European Union. For practical purposes, it is

  2. Design and Implementation of Civil Aviation Meteorological Network Security Construction Scheme%民航空管气象网络安全建设方案设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌

    2014-01-01

    aviation meteorological data from the server through the network gateway to Gigabit bandwidth efficient,real-time transmission,the optimization and adjustment to im-prove efficiency and promote the sustainable development of meteorological service. Investment in construction of IPS,firewalls and network security equipment,civil aviation meteorological network is strengthened,virus infection risks outside the network completely resolved.

  3. The Testing and Management of Construction Materials%工程建筑材料试验和管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝花红

    2013-01-01

    Construction materials testing and management is the key link of quality control and engineering project cons-truction completion acceptance evaluation, but also the core of building engineering construction management part. This pap-er discusses the importance of engineering construction materi-als testing and management, and how to strengthen the constr-uction materials testing and management measures.%  工程建筑材料试验与管理是工程建筑施工的质量控制、工程竣工验收评定的关键环节,也是工程建筑施工管理的核心组成环节。本文将对工程建筑材料试验和管理的重要性进行论述,同时对如何加强工程建筑材料试验和管理的措施进行探讨。

  4. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-09-30

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction.

  5. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...

  6. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  7. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  8. Studies on use of Copper Slag as Replacement Material for River Sand in Building Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Rajamane, N. P.

    2014-09-01

    This work focuses on the use of copper slag, as a partial replacement of sand for use in cement concrete and building construction. Cement mortar mixtures prepared with fine aggregate made up of different proportions of copper slag and sand were tested for use as masonry mortars and plastering. Three masonry wall panels of dimensions 1 × 1 m were plastered. The studies showed that although copper slag based mortar is suitable for plastering, with the increase in copper slag content, the wastage due to material rebounding from the plastered surfaces increases. It is therefore suggested that the copper slag can be used for plastering of floorings and horizontal up to 50 % by mass of the fine aggregate, and for vertical surfaces, such as, brick/block walls it can be used up to 25 %. In this study on concrete mixtures were prepared with two water cement ratios and different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0 % (for the control mix) to 100 % of fine aggregate. The Concrete mixes were evaluated for workability, density, and compressive strength.

  9. Construction Materials Used in the Historical Roman Era Bath in Myra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD, physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity, chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses, and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  10. Construction materials used in the historical Roman era bath in Myra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Cem; Turker, Fikret; Kockal, Niyazi Ugur

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of mortars and bricks used in the historical building that was erected at Myra within the boundaries of Antalya Province during the Roman time were investigated. The sample picked points were marked on the air photographs and plans of the buildings and samples were photographed. Then petrographic evaluation was made by stereo microscope on the polished surfaces of construction materials (mortar, brick) taken from such historical buildings in laboratory condition. Also, microstructural analyses (SEM/EDX, XRD), physical analyses (unit volume, water absorption by mass, water absorption by volume, specific mass, compacity, and porosity), chemical analyses (acid loss and sieve analysis, salt analyses, pH, protein, fat, pozzolanic activity, and conductivity analyses), and mechanical experiments (compressive strength, point loading test, and tensile strength at bending) were applied and the obtained results were evaluated. It was observed that good adherence was provided between the binder and the aggregate in mortars. It was also detected that bricks have preserved their originality against environmental, atmospheric, and physicochemical effects and their mechanical properties showed that they were produced by appropriate techniques.

  11. PAHs in leachates from thermal power plant wastes and ash-based construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irha, Natalya; Reinik, Janek; Jefimova, Jekaterina; Koroljova, Arina; Raado, Lembi-Merike; Hain, Tiina; Uibu, Mai; Kuusik, Rein

    2015-08-01

    The focus of the current study is to characterise the leaching behaviour of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil shale ashes (OSAs) of pulverised firing (PF) and circulating fluidised-bed (CFB) boilers from Estonian Thermal Power Plant (Estonia) as well as from mortars and concrete based on OSAs. The target substances were 16 PAHs from the EPA priority pollutant list. OSA samples and OSA-based mortars were tested for leaching, according to European standard EN 12457-2 (2002). European standard CEN/TC 15862(2012) for monolithic matter was used for OSA-based concrete. Water extracts were analysed by GC-MS for the concentration of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were detected. Still, the release of PAHs was below the threshold limit value for inert waste. The amount of the finest fraction (particle size <0.045 mm), the content of the Al-Si glass phase and the surface characteristics were the main factors, which could affect the accessibility of PAHs for leaching. The mobility of PAHs from OSA of CFB and PF boilers was 20.2 and 9.9%, respectively. Hardening of OSA-based materials did not lead to the immobilisation of soluble PAHs. Release of PAHs from the monolith samples did not exceed 0.5 μg/m(2). In terms of leaching of PAHs, OSA is safe to be used for construction purposes.

  12. Sulfate removal and sulfur transformation in constructed wetlands: The roles of filling material and plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Yue; Zhou, Qi; Huang, Jingang; Vymazal, Jan; Kuschk, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Sulfate in effluent is a challenging issue for wastewater reuse around the world. In this study, sulfur (S) removal and transformation in five batch constructed wetlands (CWs) treating secondary effluent were investigated. The results showed that the presence of the plant cattail (Typha latifolia) had little effect on sulfate removal, while the carbon-rich litter it generated greatly improved sulfate removal, but with limited sulfide accumulation in the pore-water. After sulfate removal, most of the S was deposited with the valence states S (-II) and S (0) on the iron-rich gravel surface, and acid volatile sulfide was the main S sink in the litter-added CWs. High-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e. Desulfobacter) and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (i.e. Thiobacillus) were dominant in the litter-added CWs, which led to a sustainable S cycle between sulfate and sulfide. Overall, this study suggests that recycling plant litter and iron-rich filling material in CWs gives an opportunity to utilize the S in the wastewater as both an electron acceptor for sulfate reduction and as an electron donor for nitrate reduction coupled with sulfide oxidation. This leads to the simultaneous removal of sulfate, nitrate, and organics without discharging toxic sulfide into the receiving water body. PMID:27423407

  13. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  14. USE OF CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTES AS RAW MATERIALS IN CEMENT CLINKER PRODUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christos-Triantafyllos Galbenis; Stamatis Tsimas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the possibility of utilizing Construction and Demolition(C&D) wastes as substitutes of Portland cement raw meal. The C&D wastes that were so used, were the Recycled Concrete Aggregates (RCA) and the Recycled Masonry Aggregates (RMA) derived from demolished buildings in Attica region, Greece. RCA and RMA samples were selected because of their calcareous and siliceous origin respectively,which conformed the composition of the ordinary Portland cement raw meal. For that reason, six samples of cement raw meals were prepared: one with ordinary raw materials, as a reference sample, and five by mixing the reference sample with RCA and RMA in appropriate proportions. The effect on the reactivity of the generated mixtures, was evaluated on the basis of the free lime content (fCaO) in the mixtures sintered at 1350℃, 1400℃ and 1450℃. Test showed that the added recycled aggregates improved the burnability of the cement raw meal without affecting negatively the cement clinker properties. Moreover, the formation of the major components (C3S, C2S, C3A and C4AF) of the produced clinkers(sintered at 1450℃) was corroborated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

  15. Properties of Schist Extracted in the City of Denizli Surroundings as Construction Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffet Yağız

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are various type of building stone extracted at stone quarries in the city of Denizli surroundings. Travertine, limestone and schist quarries are the most common in the area. Schist that is one of the units of Menderes massive is the main natural stone sources in Çal, Bekilli and Baklan Triangle in the northeast of the City. The aim of this study is to investigate the usability of schist stone as building stone quarried in the area. To obtain the aim, geological investigations were conducted in the field and representative samples were collected from the quarries. On the samples, petrograpical, mineralogical (XRD, chemical (XRF analysis and geomechanical test (i.e., uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, water absorption by weight, effective porosity, fullness ratio, flexural strength, sonic wave velocity, modulus of elasticity, natural and saturated unit weight were conducted and the usability of schist stone as building stone have been studied by evaluating obtained findings. Analysis and relevant tests were conducted in accordance with international standards and procedures. Concluding remark is that quarried schist stone in the area are acceptably good as building stone to be used for both interior and exterior of construction building and outdoors as coverage material.

  16. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journe...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time.......An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...

  17. Leightweight construction, a key technology for materials saving, energy efficiency and climate protection. Proceedings of the colloquium; Leichtbau, eine Schluesseltechnologie fuer Material-, Energieeffizienz und Klimaschutz. Tagungsband zum Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Otto; Bicker, Marc (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    At the fourth Landshut colloquium on lightweight construction, 24 papers were presented by experts of science and practice on the following subjects: 1. Composite structures; 2. Surface technology and coatings; 3. Foamed aluminium and magnesium; 4. Aluminium and foamed aluminium; 5. Joining techniques; 4. Bolted joints; 6. Metal composites and foamed materials; 7. Core materials for sandwich structures; 8. Fabrication technologies of fibre-reinforced composites; 9. Forming and efficient use of materials; 10. Aluminium moulds; 11. Simulation and optimisation; 12. Lightweight construction in aircraft and vehicle engineering. [German] Im vierten Landshuter Leichtbau-Colloquium-Band werden insgesamt 24 Beitraege von Experten aus Wissenschaft und Praxis aus folgenden Themengebieten vorgestellt: 1. Werkstoffverbundstrukturen, 2. Oberflaechentechnik und -beschichtungen, 3. Aluminiumschaeume und Magnesium, 4. Aluminium und Aluminiumschaeume, 5. Verbindungstechnik, 5. Schraubverbindungen, 6. Metallische Verbundwerkstoffe und Schaeume, 7. Kernmaterialien fuer Sandwichstrukturen, 8. Fertigungstechnologien Faserverbundstrukturen, 9. Umformen / Effizienter Materialeinsatz, 10. Urformen mit Aluminium, 11. Simulation und Optimierung und 12. Leichtbau im Luftfahrzeug- und Fahrzeugbau.

  18. 土木工程施工课程半自助式三阶段教学方法%Semi-self-help Three Period Teaching Method of Civil Engineering Construction Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尧鸿; 侯永利; 吴安利

    2016-01-01

    针对土木工程施工课程的特点,提出半自助式三阶段教学方法。该方法以学生半自助学习为主线,将每个授课内容单元分为3个阶段完成,重视实践环节,突出自主学习,注重培养学生的创新意识,教师由原来在讲台上单纯传道授业解惑的“演员”转变为教学活动的“导演”和学生身边的“教练”,而学生则由原来讲台下被动接受的“观众”转变为教学活动中积极主动的参与者,从而显著提高教学效果。%aiming at the characteristics of civil engineering construction course, this paper put forward semi-self-help three period teaching method. This teaching method takes the semi-self-help study of students as the main line and divides every teaching content unit into three period. The method pays great attention to the practice link, highlights autonomous learning and cultivates creative consciousness of students. The role of teacher is changed from the"actor"on the podium to the"director"of teaching activities and the"coach"around students. Meanwhile the role of students is changed from the passive"audiences"under platform to active participants in teaching activities. So this teaching method can signiifcantly improve the teaching effect.

  19. Empirical Study and Construction of Civil Ai rport Passenger Satisfaction Model%民用机场旅客满意度模型建构与实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君; 胡荣; 李天睿

    2014-01-01

    为了对国内民用机场旅客满意度研究提供理论支撑和实践指导,结合国内机场行业的自身特点,针对机场旅客,依据机场旅客满意度的企业形象、服务质量、安全因素等影响因子,构建了机场旅客满意度结构方程模型,形成了机场旅客满意度量表,并开展了实证研究。研究结果表明:服务质量和安全因素对旅客满意度有直接积极的影响,且旅客满意度对旅客忠诚度有直接显著的影响。%In order to provide theoretical support and practical guidance for the study of domestic civil air -port passenger satisfaction ,the paper combined with the domestic airport industry characteristics ,aimed at airport passengers ,and researched that the impact factor of airport passenger satisfaction was the corporate image ,service quality ,safety factors and so on .The paper constructed the structure equation model of air-port passenger satisfaction , formed airport passenger satisfaction scale , and carried on the empirical re-search .The results showed that the service quality and safety factors have a direct positive impact on pas-senger satisfaction ,and passenger satisfaction has a significant direct impact on passenger loyalty .

  20. Antenna Construction & Propagation of Radio Waves, 5-1. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps, Washington, DC.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of five individualized, self-paced chapters dealing with antenna construction and propagation of radio waves. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: basic electricity; antenna transmission-line fundamentals; quarter-wave antennas, half-wave antennas, and associated radio…

  1. 19 CFR 123.18 - Equipment and materials for constructing bridges or tunnels between the United States and Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equipment and materials for constructing bridges or tunnels between the United States and Canada or Mexico. 123.18 Section 123.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO...

  2. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 20-15:320-15, “Equal Employment Opportunity in Construction Financed with RUS Loans”; 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b and 45 CFR part 90. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17...

  3. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  4. Natural radioactivity in geological and processed materials used for construction and radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to determine natural radioactivity in geological and processed materials used for construction and radon in buildings within the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. This involved the measurement of 238U, 232Th, 40K, 222Rn, hazards indices, absorbed doses rate, effective doses, excess lifetime cancer risk estimated and correlation between NORMs and engineering properties. The building materials considered for this study were gravels, beach sand, rocks, soil, sand, tiles, clay bricks, sandcrete and concrete blocks. A brief description of the methods and instrumentation used is presented. Radiation hazards associated with building materials were found to be in the range; 238U (3.60 – 47.00 Bq/kg), 232Th (3.61 - 43.00 Bq/kg) and 40K (62.75 - 1222.21 Bq/kg), radium equivalent (15.72.66 Bq/kg to 174.32 Bq/kg), internal hazard index (0.05-0.52), external hazard index (0.02-0.23), activity concentration index (0.06 to 0.64 mSv/y) absorbed dose rate (9.46 to 77.81 nGy/h), outdoor effective doses (7.20 μSv/y to 95.49 μSv/y), indoor effective doses (7.20 μSv/y to 95.49 μSv/y) and excess lifetime cancer risk (0.03× 10-3 to 0.33× 10-3). The radon concentrations range from offices (11.152-537.050 Bq/m3), Laboratories (11.696 - 212 Bq/m3), conference rooms (110.623 - 229.363 Bq/m3), Bedroom (13.391- 41.989 Bq/m3), Hall (10.087 - 38.197 Bq/m3) and kitchen (11.878 - 36.00 Bq/m3). The experimental radon exhalation varied from (3.54 × 10-5 to 11.43 × 10-5 Bq/m2h) and theoretical values (4.56 × 10-5 to 13.9×10-5 Bq/m2 h). The engineering properties associated with rock aggregates were also found to vary in the following range from bulk density (2207 - 3006 g/cm3), apparent density (2001 – 3040 g/cm3), Los Angeles Abrasion Test (45.67- 79.89 %) and water absorption content (0.33-1.98 %). The correlation between NORMs and engineering properties are R2 (0.57-0.88) negative and R2 (0.18-0.81) positive. The highest exhalation rate was observed

  5. Compound soil-tyre chips modified by cement as a road construction material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Promputthangkoon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to overcome the two problems of low-quality soil and a growing number of discarded tyres bymixing low-CBR soil with recycled tyre chips. The compound soil-tyre chips was then stabilised by Portland cement with theaim of using them as a new material in road construction in order to reduce the occurrence of shrinkage cracks. To achievethe purposes of this research three standard geotechnical testing programmes were employed: (1 modified compaction tests,(2 California Bearing Ratio tests (CBR, and (3 unconfined compression tests. The modified compaction test results provedthat for the mixtures having very low tyre chips and cement content, the behaviour is very complex. It was also observed thatthe greater the percentage of rubber added the lower the global density. However, this is predictable as the specific gravityof the rubber is much lower than that of the soil. For the relationship between the optimum moisture content (OMC and thecement content, it was observed that there is no clear pattern.For the specimens having no cement added, the CBR for unsoaked specimens was observed to be greater than that forsoaked specimens. However, when the cement was introduced the CBR test showed that the resistance to penetration for thesoaked specimens was significantly greater, indicating the effects of cement added on the strength. In addition, it was foundthat the CBR values for both soaked and unsoaked specimens gradually increased with the increase of cement content.Lastly, the unconfined compressive strength progressively increased with the increased percentage of cement.

  6. Effect of three investing materials on tooth movement during flasking procedure for complete denture construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Alaa’a M.

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement Tooth movement has been shown to occur during and after the processing of complete dentures. An understanding of this phenomenon may permit one to construct functional complete dentures that require less occlusal adjustment in the articulator and in the patient’s mouth. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three different investing methods on tooth movement occurring during the processing of simulated maxillary complete dentures. Material and methods Forty-five similar maxillary dentures were made using heat-polymerized acrylic resin, and assigned randomly to three experimental groups (n = 15 each) according to investing method: plaster–plaster–plaster (P–P–P), plaster–stone–stone (P-S-S), and plaster–mix (P–M). Specimens in all experimental groups were compression molded with denture base resin. Transverse interincisor (I–I) and intermolar (M–M) distances, and anteroposterior incisor–molar (LI–LM and RI–RM) distances, were measured with digital calipers at the wax denture stage (pre-polymerization) and after denture decasting (post-polymerization). Analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to compare the results. Results M–M, LI–LM, and RI–RM movement was significantly greater in the P–P–P group than in the P–S–S and P–M groups; no significant difference in I–I movement was observed among groups. Transverse movement along M–M and I–I was significantly greater than anteroposterior movement in the P–P–P group; no significant difference among measurements was observed in the other two groups. Conclusion The study results indicate that the use of dental stone or a 50:50 mixture of plaster and stone for investing of dentures is an important factor in efforts to control the magnitude of tooth movement. PMID:26792971

  7. Construction of electron accelerator for studying secondary emission in dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An acelerator for the generation of low energy electrons (in the 0.4 to 20 keV range) was constructed. The accelerator is equipped with some devices especially designed for the investigation of the electrical properties of electron-irradiated dielectrics. In this work we have employed it for the study of the secondary electron emission of irradiated polymers. Reference is made to a method proposed by H. von Seggern (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-32, p.1503 (1985)] which was intended for the determination of the electron emission yield especially between the two cross-over points in a single run, here called the dynamical method. We have been able to prove that, contrary to expectation, this method does not give correct results over the entire emission curve. Rather it gives yield values which are too low by 25% in the region where the emission exhibits a maximum, due to the interaction between the electron emission process and the positive surface charge of the dielectric. However the method needs not to be dismissed entirely. As it is, it can be used advantageously for the precise determination of the energy of the second cross-over point. In addition, with the same set up, the method could be improved by replacing the continuous irradiation of the sample by a pulsed irradiation, leading to results essentially the same as those shown in the literature. Finally analysing the process of interaction between the positive charge of the dielectric and the mechanism of electron emission in several situations, we were able: I) to determine the maximum value and the average value of the escape depth of the emitted electrons; II) for a sample with a net positive charge, to show that the positive charge resides very near the surface of incidence; III) for a sample with a net negative charge, to show that the positive charge also resides near the surface while the (prevalent) negative charge resides in the bulk of the material. (author)

  8. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  9. EI Scale: an environmental impact assessment scale related to the construction materials used in the reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Morales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to create EI Scal, an environmental impact assessment scal, related to construction materials used in the reinforced concrete structure production. The main reason for that was based on the need to classify the environmental impact levels through indicators to assess the damage level process. The scale allowed converting information to estimate the environmental impact caused. Indicators were defined trough the requirements and classification criteria of impact aspects considering the eco-design theory. Moreover, the scale allowed classifying the materials and processes environmental impact through four score categories which resulted in a single final impact score. It was concluded that the EI scale could be cheap, accessible, and relevant tool for environmental impact controlling and reduction, allowing the planning and material specification to minimize the construction negative effects caused in the environment.

  10. [Constructing images and territories: thinking on the visuality and materiality of remote sensing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a reflection on the question of the image in science, thinking about how visual practices contribute towards the construction of knowledge and territories. The growing centrality of the visual in current scientific practices shows the need for reflection that goes beyond the image. The object of discussion will be the scientific images used in the monitoring and visualization of territory. The article looks into the relations between visuality and a number of other factors: the researchers that construct it; the infrastructure involved in the construction; and the institutions and policies that monitor the territory. It is argued that such image-relations do not just visualize but help to construct the territory based on specific forms. Exploring this process makes it possible to develop a more complex understanding of the forms through which sciences and technology help to construct realities.

  11. 奶牛鲜粪便转化民用燃料原料配方的筛选%Formula Screening of Civil Fuel Material Converted from Fresh Feces of Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广有

    2011-01-01

    Adopting orthogonal test, the cow's fresh dung, pulverized coal and deodorant absorption bond raw material were mixed together so as to screen the formula for civil fuel material. The results show that the fresh feces of diary cow with higher water content had a lowest utilization rate of 40% , the most proper additive rate of deodorant absorption bond was 11%, at this point it can absorb and fix the toxic gas in feces, and easily be made into various civil fuel material, which will be recycled and enviromental friendly. It also has a significant meaning to the sustainable development of cattle industry.%采用正交试验,将奶牛鲜粪便、煤粉、除臭吸附粘合剂原料均匀混合处理,对牛鲜粪便转化民用燃料的原料配方进行了筛选研究.结果表明:含水量较高的奶牛鲜粪便最低利用比率可达40%,除臭吸附粘合剂最适合添加比率为11%,就可及时将牛鲜粪便中大量粪水和挥发性污染大气有害气体吸附固定住,也便于加工成多种形状的民用燃料加以再利用,具有强大的环保功能和鲜粪便循环再利用特点,对推动养牛业健康可持续发展具有重大意义.

  12. Processo de empoderamento feminino mediado pela qualificação para o trabalho na construção civil El proceso de empoderamiento femenino mediado por la calificación para el trabajo en la construcción civil Female empowerment process mediated through qualification to work on civil construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Landerdahl

    2013-06-01

    mujeres y hombres a partir de los puntos de referencia de ciudadanía y empoderamiento. Se concluye que esta experiencia, desde lo que respecta a la Extensión hasta el estudio actual, constituye un tema actual y necesario en el área de salud de la mujer.Qualitative research, exploratory-descriptive study which aimed to know the repercussions of the University Extension Program of Women Gaining Citizenship in the daily life of participant women. It was developed in an inland town of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. There were 13 women that participated in the study which were egresses from the Program involved. The semi-structured interviews were carried out from January to August 2011. The thematic content analysis stood out the category: empowerment process from the participation in the Women Gaining Citizenship Program. It was identified the construction of confidence, significant change in attitude and thinking of women in relation to their self-perception, knowledge and power of decision. They expressed changes in the way of thinking at the social roles of women and men, from references of citizenship and empowerment. It's concluded that such experience, as much as regards the Extension as the current study, constitutes a necessary and current issues in the women's health area.

  13. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  14. The reasonable budget of construction engineering materials%建筑工程材料的合理预算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋蓉

    2014-01-01

    Starting from the importance of construction engineering materials budget, this paper elaborated the programming method of construc-tion engineering budget and the problems of construction engineering budget, put forward the strategy to ensure the reasonable budget of construc-tion engineering and the method of material price budget management, pointed out that scientific and reasonable construction engineering budget had important role to control engineering cost, improve enterprise management level.%从建筑工程材料预算的重要性入手,阐述了建筑工程预算的编制办法和建筑工程预算中出现的问题,提出了确保建筑工程合理预算的策略及材料价格预算管理的办法,指出科学合理的建筑工程预算对于控制工程成本,提升企业管理水平具有重要作用。

  15. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 1: Bottoming cycles and materials of construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, R. P.; Solomon, H. D.

    1976-01-01

    Energy conversion subsystems and components were evaluated in terms of advanced energy conversion systems. Results of the bottoming cycles and materials of construction studies are presented and discussed.

  16. Bio-inspired control of material properties in civil engineering: Current concept for corrsoion protection via the application of bacteria and bio-polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Koleva, D.A.; Jonkers, H.M.; van Breugel, K

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of material properties of cement-based materials e.g. reduced permeability, porosity, uniform distribution of hydration products, etc. is of a significant importance and related to durability and sustainability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. With this respect, a recent and novel approach is to "create" self-healing systems that will be able to recover at leastpartly their originally designed performance. Bio-based cement-based materials were already proven to ...

  17. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  18. THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIAL FLOW INFORMATION BASE OF MANAGEMENT AND ACCOUNTING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Degaltseva Z. V.; Shulepina S. A.; Ovsiyenko E. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of using indicators of material flow in the financial accounting management accounting system. The authors have created and described the classification of material costs in building units. It allows solving the problems of object of research specifying within a given material flow and inventory control within a given logistics systems. There are different approaches to the valuation of material costs in the article. An important aspect of measures for the ...

  19. Měření tepelně technických vlastností stavebních materiálů a konstrukcí

    OpenAIRE

    URBÁNKOVÁ, Vlasta

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is focused to the heat flow through the construction materials and building constructions. It contains selected list of representative examples of constructions and building insulating materials using in civil engineering. Thereafter is mentioned the Institute of testing of materials in Czech Republic, where the testing of building matarials is performed. Thesis describes physical principles and methods applied to measurements of selected thermal parameters of building materials a...

  20. Ecological Civilization:Road to Harmonious and Sustainable Development between Human and Nature%生态文明:人与自然和谐发展之路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国祺

    2014-01-01

    Ecological civilization is a new phase of the development for human civilization, and the ethical social world civilization after industrial civilization.The ecological civilization construction in a prominent position, to build beautiful China, implementation of the Chinese nation is of great significance.The core of ecoiogical civilization is the relationship between man and nature, this paper deliberately puts forward and expounds, in two kinds of production (material production, population production), the third production-environmental production, as the support for the construction of ecological civilization.The key to the construction of ecological civilization is to the harmonious coexistence of man and natural environment, the social benefits, ecomomic benefits, environmental benefits of consistency, the human society sustainable development of science.%生态文明是人类文明发展的一个新阶段,是工业文明以后的世界伦理社会化的文明形态。把生态文明建设放在突出地位,对建设美丽中国、实现中华民族永续发展具有重要意义。生态文明的核心是人与自然的关系;注重物质生产、人口生产以外的第三种生产---环境生产,是生态文明建设的本质;生态文明建设的关键应是人与自然环境和谐相处,取得社会效益、经济效益、环境效益的一致,使人类社会持续科学地发展。

  1. Report on the behalf of the Commission for Foreign Affairs, Defence and Armed Forces on the bill proposition adopted by the National Assembly, related on the strengthening of the protection of civil installations containing nuclear materials. Nr 446

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first part, this report presents the nuclear sector as a sensitive sector under strict surveillance: a sector of critical importance (safety policy with its actors and its multi-level planning, a safety arrangement for the nuclear energy sector), a regulation specific to the nuclear sector, and specialised protection forces. It also addresses the issues of intrusions and over-flights (overview of intrusions, unsuitable penal repression, and new dimension of air safety due to the development of civil uses of drones). The next part comments the content of the bill proposition, and addresses the lack of a suitable penal regime for the protection of nuclear materials and of areas regarding defence. The scope of application of the bill proposition is discussed, as well as the applicable and additional penalties. A list of hearings is provided as well as non adopted amendments and a table proposing a comparison between different versions of the text

  2. Bio-inspired control of material properties in civil engineering: Current concept for corrsoion protection via the application of bacteria and bio-polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, D.A.; Jonkers, H.M.; van Breugel, K.

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of material properties of cement-based materials e.g. reduced permeability, porosity, uniform distribution of hydration products, etc. is of a significant importance and related to durability and sustainability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. With this respect

  3. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T B; Morris, M

    1977-05-01

    We have argued that planning for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence should involve a minimum number of assumptions. In view of the feasibility (at our present level of understanding) of using nuclear fusion to effect interstellar travel at a speed of 0.1c, it appears unwarranted (at this time) to assume that it would not occur for at least some technologically advanced civilizations. One cannot even conclude that humans would not attempt this within the next few centuries. On the contrary, the most likely future situation, given the maintenance of technological growth and the absence of extraterrestrial interference, is that our civilization will explore and colonize our galactic neighborhood. A comparison of the time scales of galactic evolution and interstellar travel leads to the conclusion that the galaxy is either essentially empty with respect to technological civilizations or extensively colonized. In the former instance, a SETI would be unproductive. In the latter, a SETI could be fruitful if a signal has been deliberately directed at the earth or at an alien outpost, probe, or communication relay station in our solar system. In the former case, an existing antenna would probably be sufficient to detect the signal. In the latter case, success would depend on the way in which the communications were coded. Failure to detect a signal could permit any of the following conclusions: (i) the galaxy is devoid of technological civilizations, advanced beyond our own, (ii) such civilizations exist, but cannot (for some reason which is presently beyond our ken) engage in interstellar colonization, or (iii) such civilizations are not attempting overt contact with terrestrial civilizations and their intercommunications, if present, are not coded in a simple way. To plan at this time for a high-cost, large-array SETI based on the last two possibilities appears to be rather premature. PMID:17760037

  4. Construction and operation of a system for secure and precise medical material distribution in disaster areas after Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Xu, Jiankang; Ma, Jian; Cheng, Shusen; Shi, Yingkang

    2009-11-01

    After the Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12th , 2008, under the strong leadership of the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee, the People's Government of Sichuan Province, and the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Medical Security Team working at the Sichuan Provincial Headquarters for Wenchuan Earthquake and Disaster Relief Work constructed a secure medical material distribution system through coordination and interaction among and between regions, systems, and departments.

  5. Application of Nanotechnology-Based Thermal Insulation Materials in Building Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Bozsaky David

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based materials have previously been used by space research, pharmaceuticals and electronics, but in the last decade several nanotechnology-based thermal insulation materials have appeared in building industry. Nowadays they only feature in a narrow range of practice, but they offer many potential applications. These options are unknown to most architects, who may simply be afraid of these materials owing to the incomplete and often contradictory special literature. Therefore, ...

  6. On the Extract of Standard Expressions of Ecological Ethics Theory and the Current Development of Ecological Civilization Construction%论生态伦理规范用语的提炼与生态文明建设的当下性发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 李宪伦

    2015-01-01

    生态伦理的立规立范与生态文明建设是同一社会发展范畴下道德与文明依次递进的伦理哲学命题。而经济一体化进程中的低碳经济时代,推动着生态伦理与生态文明建设并行发展的同时,提示着生态伦理的建设就是经济社会发展中生态伦理的立规立范和教育用语研究发展,并经过生态伦理教育实施向生态法制伦理建设的强化,上升到生态文明建设当下性发展的逻辑命题。以《公民道德建设实施纲要》中的四个道德规范和个人品德规范为参照和思维对应,从日常社会生活中探寻生态伦理规范用语的提炼为基点,力求提出供学界探讨的生态道德用语研究及其加强生态文明建设的当下性发展论题。%Establishing rules of ecological ethics theory and ecological civilization construction are ethical philosophy propositions of gradual progression under the same scope of social development. And economic integration of the low carbon economy pushes the paral⁃lel development of the ecological ethics and ecological civilization construction,at the same time,prompts that the construction of ecologi⁃cal ethics is establishing rules of ecological ethics theory in the process of economic and social development and the research and develop⁃ment of education language,and realizes the strengthening of ecological ethics construction of legal system by ecological ethics education, which rises to the logic proposition of the current development of the ecological civilization construction. Taking four ethics moral norms from"The Citizen Morals Construction Implement Outline"and personal moral norms as references,this paper explores ecological ethics in terms of refining for basis points from social daily life striving to put forward the research of ecological moral language for academic cir⁃cles and strengthen the current development ecological civilization.

  7. Selection of construction materials for equipment in an experimental reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the most significant corrosion problems that may be present in different stages of the process in a spent fuel reprocessing plant. The influence of different variables is analyzed: concentration of nitric acid and other oxidizing species, temperature, etc., in corrosion of materials of most frequent use in pipings and equipment. The materials are austenitic stainless steels and refractory metals, especially zirconium and its alloys. Both general and localized corrosion phenomena are analyzed for these materials. Selection criteria for the use of adequate material in different components of the plant are also discussed. (author). 32 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Concept Model of Ecological Civilization Regulated by Nature,Society and Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    We studied theoretic development of ecological civilization,and put forward the concept model of ecological civilization regulated by nature,society and government.In the construction of ecological civilization,the nature,society and government play different roles and have respective functions.Therefore,we should build a self-regulating network of ecological civilization through natural law,social law,as well as scientific outlook on development.

  9. Medidas de prevenção contra câncer de pele em trabalhadores da construção civil: contribuição da enfermagem Trabajador de la construcción civil y las medidas de prevención contra cáncer da piel: contribución de la enfermería Building construction worker and preventive measures against skin cancer: nursing contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago do Carmo Simões

    2011-03-01

    informaciones y conocimientos sobre el cáncer de piel. Así, intervenciones de lo enfermero con la equipo de Salud do Trabajador pueden contribuir para intervenciones de medidas preventivas del cáncer ocupacional.The civil construction's workers are one of the most risk groups to the occupational cancer. The purpose was to identify these workers knowledge about skin cancer and describe protection/prevention measures adopted for them. Descriptive and qualitative nature research, developed with 50 workers of a great load building site firm at municipal district of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which the data was collected through a form. From descriptive and statistical analysis, the results showed that the protection measures adopted for the workers to skin cancer prevention are insufficient and the way that they are used are not lined with the literature. Important changes needed at daily of these workers are related to life styles and at access ease to informations and knowledges about skin cancer. Thus, nursing's interventions along the Worker's Health stuff can contribute to preventive's implementation of occupational cancer.

  10. Cultivation Strategy of Youth Eco - Responsibility Awareness from Perspective of Eco - Civilization Construction%生态文明建设视域下的青年生态责任意识培育策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建东; 邓倩

    2015-01-01

    The present young people will be involved in the process of the " Two One - hundred Years" con-struction,hence,it is the key to the ecological construction and activation of the wild China to cultivate their view of ecological responsibility,and internalizing it into an intense ecological sense of responsibility,and thus external-izing their ecological responsibility into a positive behavior,and also the basic conditions for achieving the great "China Dream" . This paper considers that:to foster the young people′s awareness of the ecological responsibility is not only the demands of adhering to the socialist road with Chinese characteristics and the ideological premise of their active participation in the ecological civilization construction,but also requirement of strengthening their awareness of social responsibility. Faced with the current situation that the young people′s weak sense of ecological responsibility,the cultivation of their ecological awareness not being attracted enough attention of the whole society, and the scarcity of the corresponding educational resources,to foster their ecological responsibility awareness should begin with education of national conditions,investment increase in education resources,and the design of strength-ening the social rules.%当代青年全程参与“两个一百年”的建设过程,培育他们的生态责任观,并将其内化为强烈的生态责任意识,进而外化为积极的生态责任行为,是全面推进生态文明建设、建成美丽中国的关键所在,也是实现伟大“中国梦”的基础条件之一。文章认为青年生态责任意识的培育不仅是坚持中国特色社会主义模式的需要和青年积极参与生态文明建设的思想前提,更是增强当代青年社会责任意识的要求。面对当下青年生态责任意识明显不强,青年生态意识培育问题尚未引起全社会足够重视,以及相应教育资源匮乏等现状,青年生态责

  11. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Supplement: Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the progress achieved over the past 6 to 12 months on four graduate student projects conducted within the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program. These studies were aimed specifically at light metallic alloy issues relevant to the High Speed Civil Transport. Research on Hydrogen-Enhanced Fracture of High-Strength Titanium Alloy Sheet refined successfully the high resolution R-curve method necessary to characterize initiation and growth fracture toughnesses. For solution treated and aged Low Cost Beta without hydrogen precharging, fracture is by ductile transgranular processes at 25 C, but standardized initiation toughnesses are somewhat low and crack extension is resolved at still lower K-levels. This fracture resistance is degraded substantially, by between 700 and 1000 wppm of dissolved hydrogen, and a fracture mode change is affected. The surface oxide on P-titanium alloys hinders hydrogen uptake and complicates the electrochemical introduction of low hydrogen concentrations that are critical to applications of these alloys. Ti-15-3 sheet was obtained for study during the next reporting period. Research on Mechanisms of deformation and Fracture in High-Strength Titanium Alloys is examining the microstructure and fatigue resistance of very thin sheet. Aging experiments on 0. 14 mm thick (0.0055 inch) foil show microstructural agility that may be used to enhance fatigue performance. Fatigue testing of Ti-15-3 sheet has begun. The effects of various thermo-mechanical processing regimens on mechanical properties will be examined and deformation modes identified. Research on the Effect of Texture and Precipitates on Mechanical Property Anisotropy of Al-Cu-Mg-X and Al-Cu alloys demonstrated that models predict a minor influence of stress-induced alignment of Phi, caused by the application of a tensile stress during aging, on the yield stress anisotropy of both modified AA2519 and a model Al-Cu binary alloy. This project

  12. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  13. Characterization of traditional raw materials used in housing construction in Huambo region - Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Elsa; Duarte, Isabel; Varum, Humberto; Pinho, António; Norman, Antónia

    2016-04-01

    The sustainability of buildings associated to the use of raw earth has motivated the studies and the development of techniques and methods in the context of this type of construction. In the region of Huambo, Angola, these construction techniques are widely used, especially for low-income families who represent the majority of the population. Much of the buildings in Huambo province are built with adobe. Due to the climate in this region, subtropical, hot and humid, with altitudes above 1000 meters and extensive river system, these buildings are particularly vulnerable to the action of water and develop, in many situations, early degradation. The Huambo Province is located in central Angola, has 36 km2 area and approximately 2 million inhabitants. This work aims to evaluate, by conducting in-situ tests, physical and mechanical properties of adobe blocks typically used in the construction of those buildings. The methodology is based on field campaigns where in-situ expeditious tests were performed in soils (smell test, color, touch, brightness, sedimentation, ball, hardness, etc.) and tests on adobes blocks made with traditional procedures, particularly in terms of durability and erodibility (erosion test at Geelong method; evaluation test of wet / dry cycle, applying the New Zealand standards 4297: 1998; 4297: 1998 and 4297: 1999). The results will contribute to the characterization of the geomaterials and methods used in construction with earth in Huambo Province, contributing to the improvement of these sustainable solutions, with a strong presence in this region. The results of this study will also contribute to the proposal of constructive solutions with improved performance characteristics, comfort, safety and durability.

  14. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  15. The potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers whether it may be possible to reduce the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning by careful attention to the specification of the elemental concentration of materials used in the reactor's construction. In particular, consideration is given to the potential for reduction of the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughter isotopes. Two particular areas are addressed, both applied to Sizewell 'B' PWR. The first is the choice of raw materials for the construction of the concrete bioshield to minimise future waste arisings. The second is the specification of some trace element concentrations in the steel pressure vessel and reactor internal structures to minimise personnel exposure at decommissioning time. The report presents extensive analyses of many of the candidate raw materials for Sizewell 'B' concrete, including PFA, and derives the radiological consequences for the eventual disposal of these materials to a hypothetical municipal land fill waste site. Data are also presented on the concentrations of important elements activating to gamma emitting daughters in type 304 stainless steels, leading to an assessment of likely dose equivalent rates at decommissioning time from the pressure vessel and from the internal components. (author)

  16. Time-history simulation of civil architecture earthquake disaster relief- based on the three-dimensional dynamic finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Bing; Qi Yaoguang; Du Jiyun

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system ...

  17. Functional Inorganic Materials with Complex Form: Construction, Self-assembly Principles and Property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shuhong; YANG Jian; LIU Biao; GUO Xiaohui; CUI Xianjin

    2011-01-01

    There is a rich and long history of gaining inspiration from the nature for the design of practical materials and systems.Biominerals are well-known composites of inorganic and organic materials in the form of fascinating shapes and highly ordered structures existing in the natural world, such as pearl, oyster shells, corals, ivory, sea urchin spines, cuttlefish bone, limpet teeth, magnetic crystals in bacteria and human bones that are created by living organisms.During the past few decades, it has become one of the most influencing subjects in materials proteins, which involve in all the processes of multicell organisms, such as fertilization, differentiation, development, immunity, infection, and cancer.chemistry to explore new bio-inspired strategies for selfassembling or surface-assembling molecules or colloids to generate materials with controlled morphologies,

  18. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... item brought to the site preassembled from articles, materials, or supplies. However, emergency life..., Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or... of a satisfactory quality. (c) Request for determination of inapplicability of the Buy American...

  19. Radiation damage of the construction materials, Phase I, Part II specializations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains three reports about the visits and training of the experts involved in VISA-2 project to Saclay. All the documents include technical description about methods for fabrication and testing the materials under different irradiation conditions

  20. Evaluation of possibilities of using tetra - pak waste as a material to plate production for construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Korniejenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tetra-pak is a popular packing material, which is using as aseptic packaging of liquid food products, especially: fruit juice, beverages and milk. After single use a packing are throw out. Carton could not be reuse because the material has contact with food and must be aseptic. The paper describes the way of recycling tetra-pak waste in the world. It is focus on possibilities to optimize the mechanical properties of composite material and modifications of its property depending on the type and amount of added polyethylene and method of manufacture. Main physic-mechanical properties of plate made from tetra – pak waste are presented. This property can be interesting for the construction industry.

  1. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY ON RECYCLING OF CONSTRUCTION SLUDGES AS GROUND MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazumi, Shinya; Ohtsu, Hiroyasu; Isoda, Takayuki; Shigematsu, Yuji

    Although waste recycling has been promoted in response to increasing environmental awareness in Japan, its marketability is being questioned due to the recycling cost. The ultimate goal of waste recycling is to reduce the environmental load. In this paper, we examined the evaluation method for social environmental efficiency to socially evaluate waste recycling, by incorporating environmental load as an environmental cost in addition to the direct cost. Specifically, by applying sensitivity analysis and Monte-Carlo Simulation, we conducted the social environmental efficiency evaluation including consideration of uncertainties, because waste recycling involves various uncertain elements. As a result, we were able to quantitatively evaluate the social environmental significance of construction sludge recycling while focusing on the particular construction sludge with a lower recycling rate.

  2. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction. PMID:23827538

  3. A construction of novel iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable scaffold material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhaohui; Zhang, Liming; Chen, Chao; Liu, Yibo; Wu, Changjun; Dai, Changsong

    2013-04-01

    Slow corrosion rate and poor bioactivity restrict iron-based implants in biomedical application. In this study, we design a new iron-foam-based calcium phosphate/chitosan coating biodegradable composites offering a priority mechanical and bioactive property for bone tissue engineering through electrophoretic deposition (EPD) followed by a conversion process into a phosphate buffer solution (PBS). Tensile test results showed that the mechanical property of iron foam could be regulated through altering the construction of polyurethane foam. The priority coatings were deposited from 40% nano hydroxyapatite (nHA)/ethanol suspension mixed with 60% nHA/chitosan-acetic acid aqueous solution. In vitro immersion test showed that oxidation-iron foam as the matrix decreased the amount of iron implanted and had not influence on the bioactivity of this implant, obviously. So, this method could also be a promising method for the preparation of a new calcium phosphate/chitosan coating on foam construction.

  4. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too

  5. Recent developments in centrifuge modelling of tectonic processes: equipment, model construction techniques and rheology of model materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John M.; Summers, John M.

    The Experimental Tectonics Laboratory at Queen's University is equipped with a large-capacity centrifuge that is capable of subjecting tectonic models measuring 127 × 76 mm in plan and up to 51 mm in depth to accelerations as high as 20,000 g. This high capacity greatly extends the range of potential model materials and permits the use of relatively stiff and/or brittle substances. A number of new techniques of model construction have been devised, that permit internal and surface strain patterns and kinematic evolution to be monitored in detail. One particularly useful technique, which will find application in non-centrifuged experiments as well, allows the preparation of highly uniform anisotropic multilayers composed of alternating layers of Plasticine and silicone putty, with individual layer thicknesses as low as 20 μm and with controllable ratio between thicknesses of the relatively competent and incompetent units. Examples of models constructed using these new techniques are illustrated. One particular type of the commonly used model material, silicone putty, has been subjected to a series of rheological test. The results indicate that at strain rates in the range 10 -6-10 -3s -1 (applicable to the centrifuge experiments) the silicone putty exhibits power-law rheology with n = 7 ± 2. At higher strain rates the material appears to tend towards linear behaviour. Available rheological data and dimensional analysis using standard scaling laws and appropriate model ratios suggest that the microlaminated Plasticine-silicone putty multilayer is a suitable analogue, in centrifuged experiments, for interbedded sequences of indurate limestone and incompetent shale. The excellent degree of dynamic similitude attained is demonstrated by the realistic form of fold and fault structures developed in models constructed of this material.

  6. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material

  7. Long term Integrity of Spent Fuel and Construction Materials and Behaviour of Components for Dry Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, two dry storage facilities at TEPCO and JAPCO sites have been in operation since 1995 and 2002 respectively. The TEPCO dry storage facility was damaged by a Tsunami attack on 11th March 2011. The casks stored in the facility have since been moved to an onsite temporary cask custody area; after confirmation of the integrity of casks. On the other hand, the Tsunami did not attack the dry storage facility at the JAPCO site. The integrity of the storage building and the casks were maintained. In addition, an off-site centralized dry storage facility has been constructed at Mutsu City. Operation of the storage facility is pending a safety re-examination against new safety regulations. Its final storage capacity will be 5000 t(U) and the storage period is up to 50 years. To support storage operations, it is therefore necessary to obtain and evaluate data on the integrity of spent fuels and cask construction materials during long term dry storage. Objectives: Construction materials for dry storage facilities: • To evaluate long-term reliability of welded stainless steel canisters under stress corrosion cracking (SCC) environment, including the critical salt density deposited on the canister to initiate SCC, monitoring, prevention, and the mitigation method of SCC; • To detect and analyze the cover gas leak from canisters; • To evaluate integrity of sealability of metal gasket under long term storage; • To evaluate influence of the vibration on sealing performance of the ageing gasket

  8. Civil Preparedness: Government Propaganda

    OpenAIRE

    Grieve, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The United States government used civil defense theater as a means to distract the U.S. public from the dangers of atomic weapons and the build up and testing of its nuclear stockpile. When defense theater failed, the government sought out other events as a means to continue the distraction.

  9. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  10. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  11. NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program (LA2ST). Research on Materials for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Kelly, Robert G.; Scully, John R.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Wert, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986, the NASA-Langley Research Center has sponsored the NASA-UVa Light Alloy and Structures Technology (LA2ST) Program at the University of Virginia (UVa). The fundamental objective of the LA2ST program is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light-weight aerospace alloys, composites and thermal gradient structures. The LA2ST program has aimed to product relevant data and basic understanding of material mechanical response, environmental/corrosion behavior, and microstructure; new monolithic and composite alloys; advanced processing methods; measurement and modeling advances; and a pool of educated graduate students for aerospace technologies. The scope of the LA2ST Program is broad. Research areas include: (1) Mechanical and Environmental Degradation Mechanisms in Advanced Light Metals and Composites, (2) Aerospace Materials Science, (3) Mechanics of materials for Aerospace Structures, and (4) Thermal Gradient Structures. A substantial series of semi-annual progress reports issued since 1987 documents the technical objectives, experimental or analytical procedures, and detailed results of graduate student research in these topical areas.

  12. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-06-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions. PMID:10347000

  13. 家庭、女性与美国早期公民道德建构——以《新英格兰故事》为例%Domesticity, Women and the Construction of the Civil Virtues in Early American Society: A Case Study of A New-England Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢敏

    2012-01-01

    The construction of civil virtues is a key issue in the American society with its roots reflected in the early literature of the republic. Catharine Maria Sedgwick, one of the founders of American literature, made domesticity, women and the construction of the civil virtues the core of her numerous works. Sedgwick's first novel A New-England Tale is regarded as the first domestic novel in the United States. The novel depicts and analyzes the character of the new citizen and the moral behavior of the new man under various influences of family, religion, education and people around. The moral focus of the novel has a positive influence on the construction of civil society in the United States.%美国社会注重公民道德的培养,其历史文化渊源在共和国早期的文学中就得到反映。美国文学奠基人之一凯瑟琳·塞齐威克的诸多作品以家庭、女性与公民道德建构为核心,产生了深远的社会影响。其处女作《新英格兰故事》被认为是美国第一部家庭小说。小说表达了新共和国知识女性对家庭、国家、民族身份及公民道德培养等问题的热切关注,对新公民的品格和新人的道德行为及其所受的家庭、宗教、学校教育和周围环境的各种影响做了细致的描述和分析。

  14. Women Civil Servants Career Development Factors:Based on the Construction of Grounded Theory%女性公务员职业发展影响因素:基于扎根理论的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁本荣

    2014-01-01

    借助扎根理论研究方法,从女性公务员个体在职业发展过程中的主观认识与感受出发,经过开放编码、主轴编码与选择编码三个步骤,归纳影响职业发展的因素,主要包括:职业发展的管理制度是女性公务员职业发展的基础与依据;职业文化氛围与社会性别导向决定女性公务员职业发展的精神动力与价值追求;个体社会性别意识与定位决定女性公务员职业发展的方向;职业发展的主观愿望与人力资本状态影响女性公务员职业发展的潜力;家庭支持资源是女性公务员职业发展的关键资源。促进女性公务员职业发展需要建立社会性别敏感的职业发展管理制度,建设社会性别平等的职业文化,激发女性公务员职业进取精神,提供女性公务员职业发展的托底服务。%Women civil servants are important forces in realizing the government’s functions. Exploring the factors influencing their career development are helpful for the cultivation of the women civil servants. According to grounded theory methods of basic requirements and processes, based on the feelings of women civil servants in the process of career development and through open coding, axial coding and selective encoding, three steps summarize the factors that have an effect on career development, including:career development management systems are the foundation and basis of woman civil servants’career development; vocational culture and gender-orientation decide women civil servants’spiritual power and pursuits; individual gender awareness and positioning determine the direction of the career development; subjective desire and human capital status affect the potential for career development; family support resources are key resources to female civil servants career development.

  15. 生态文明视域中的城市建设与环境保护——以云南昆明为例%On Urban Construction and Environmental Protection under the Perspective of Ecological Civilization:Taking Kunming of Yunnan as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张二朴; 申丽辉

    2015-01-01

    Urban and rural construction is the soul in the process of the modernization of engineering. In today's global emphasis on ecological civilization,the problem of our country's urban and rural construction and environmental protection has aroused people's wide concern. Taking Kunming of Yunnan as an example,from the perspective of ecological civilization,this paper discusses the protection of water resources,air pollution control,ecological environment problems such as urban construction and environmental protection.%城乡建设是现代化进程中的灵魂工程.在全球强调生态文明的今天,我国的城乡建设与环境保护问题已引起人们的广泛关注.以云南昆明为例,从生态文明的视域探讨了水资源保护、大气污染整治、生态环境改善等城市建设与环境保护问题.

  16. Precarização do trabalho e risco de acidentes na construção civil: um estudo com base na Análise Coletiva do Trabalho (ACT) Work precariousness and risk of accidents in civil construction: a study based on the Collective Work Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Alice Batista Conti Takahashi; Reginalice Cera da Silva; Luiz Eduardo Cobra Lacorte; Gislaine Cecília de Oliveira Ceverny; Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia Vilela

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo descreve a atividade e a percepção dos trabalhadores da construção civil sobre os riscos e a carga de trabalho. O estudo, com base na Análise Coletiva de Trabalho (ACT), é parte de pesquisa em políticas públicas para aprimoramento do Sistema de Vigilância em Acidentes de Trabalho (SIVAT) de Piracicaba-SP. Priorizou-se a construção civil pela magnitude epidemiológica de ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho e a baixa eficácia das ações tradicionais de vigilância pelas características...

  17. Radon Quantification and epidemiological assessment in room environments, according to construction material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the quantification of radon concentrations en the Ecuadorian region called 'Sierra', the contribution of building materials to the radioactive contamination and the rooms with greatest contents of radon and his daughters. The most representative zones are: Cuenca, Riobamba, San Gabriel and Puyango, this means that per m3 of air 429.14 radon atoms decay in a second to Po-218, the analyzed materials were: cement, black stone, bricks the rooms: bedroom, hall, dining room and bethroom. Knowing the biological damage that occurs by interaction of a particles with lung tissues. We suggest the follow research in order to get the average concentration for every province

  18. Application of Nanotechnology in Civil Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Sabihuddin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, use of nanotechnology in building materials on behalf of a range of civil engineering mechanism is discussed. In view of the fact that the use of nanotechnology controls the topic at the minute level, the properties of matter are sincerely affected. Strength, durability and other properties of materials are dramatically affected under a scale of nano meter(10-9m).This article as well reveals how the use of nano technology makes concrete more stronger, durable a...

  19. A dialogue regarding "The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David; Prain, Vaughan; Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-12-01

    Science fiction and the `technofantasies' of the future that it provides may attract some students to study physics. The details and assumptions informing these `imaginaries' may, on the other hand, be unattractive to other students, or imply that there is not a place for them. This forum discussion complements Cathrine Hasse's paper discussing the ways in which gender and other interests interact in the `entanglement' of physics and science fiction. The conversation interrogates some of the issues in Cathrine's paper, and brings in complementary literatures and perspectives. It discusses the possibility of a `successor science' and new, more inclusive ways of imagining and constructing our possible futures.

  20. Surface constructions of nano TiO_2 as the environmental and energy materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TiO_2 has attracted an increasing attention because of its variety of potential applications in environments and energies,such as gas sensing,self-cleaning,solar energy conversion, wettability and photo-catalysis applications.In this presentation,we summarize some progress in surface constructions of nano TiO_2 and its characterizations of physicochemistry and properties. (1)Superhydrophobic nanostructure TiO_2 films Superhydrophobic nanotube,nanopore and sponge-like structure TiO_2 films are fabricated ...

  1. 基于 CVM 的泉州生态文明城市建设民众支付意愿研究%Research on Residents’Willingness to Pay for Construction of Ecological Civilization City in Quanzhou Based on CVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玲; 李洪波

    2014-01-01

    运用 CVM 方法和 Logistic 模型对泉州市市民关于开展生态文明城市建设的支付意愿进行调查研究,结果表明:平均支付意愿为110.7元/年,并且户籍、居住年限、学历、收入、对泉州生态文明城市建设的了解程度以及市民认为生态文明城市对其自身生活的影响程度6个因素对支付意愿呈现显著性影响,性别、年龄与职业则对支付意愿影响不大。%Contingent valuation method(CVM)and Logistic Model were employed to investigate urban residents’willingness to pay for construction of ecological civilization city in Quanzhou.The research showed that:(a)Average willingness is 1 10.7 yuan/year;(b)Census register,time living in Quanzhou,education,income levels,understanding of the ecological civilization city,public awareness of ecological civilization city affect the willingness to pay significantly;(c)Gender,age and occupation are not sensitive to it.

  2. Modelling cohesive, frictional and viscoplastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehossein, Habib; Qin, Zongyi

    2016-06-01

    Most materials in mining and civil engineering construction are not only viscoplastic, but also cohesive frictional. Fresh concrete, fly ash and mining slurries are all granular-frictional-visco-plastic fluids, although solid concrete is normally considered as a cohesive frictional material. Presented here is both a formulation of the pipe and disc flow rates as a function of pressure and pressure gradient and the CFD application to fresh concrete flow in L-Box tests.

  3. Yugoslav Historiography and the Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlakovi?, Vjeran

    2015-01-01

    This article examines a national historiographic tradition relatively unknown in Spain. It differs from the mainstream tradition in former Soviet bloc countries. The author first discusses the number of Yugoslav volunteers in Spain (among whom Tito was never present) and explains to Spanish readers the meaning of the Spanish Civil War with regard to the construction of a new Yugoslav identity, in the wake of Tito’s victory after the second world war and the break with Stalin. Veterans of the ...

  4. The Representation of Leisure in Corporate Publicity Material: The Case of a Finnish Pine Construction Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Jokipii, Hilkka M.

    1998-01-01

    States that a video introducing a company to various audiences is a common genre of promotional material in Finland. Applies theories of both advertising and semiotics to analyze the first minute of a video produced for a Finnish company that manufactures log buildings and wraps its image around a concept of leisure. (PA)

  5. 30 CFR 717.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... material. 717.18 Section 717.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... demonstrated through appropriate engineering analysis, to have no adverse effect on stability. (2) Plans for... (cases II and III with seismic loading) 1.0 (iv) The dam, foundation, and abutment shall be stable...

  6. 30 CFR 715.18 - Dams constructed of or impounding waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... material. 715.18 Section 715.18 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... engineering analysis, to have no adverse effect on stability. (2) Plans for dams subject to this section, and... loading) 1.0 (iv) The dam, foundation, and abutments shall be stable under all conditions of...

  7. Corrosion rate of construction materials in hot phosphoric acid with the contribution of anodic polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouril, M.; Christensen, Erik; Eriksen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    ). Several grades of stainless steels were tested as well as tantalum, niobium, titanium, nickel alloys and silicon carbide. The corrosion rate was evaluated by means of mass loss at free corrosion potential as well as under various levels of polarization. The only corrosion resistant material in 85...

  8. Development of metal fuel and study of construction materials (I-IV), Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were devoted to problems related to application of metal uranium as fuel in heavy water reactors. Influence of thermal treatment on material texture and recrystallization of cast uranium was investigated. Structural changes of uranium alloys with molybdenum and niobium were tested during different heat treatments. A review of the possibilities for using metal uranium fuel in heavy water reactors is included

  9. 论我国民法典中债法总则的设立及其安排%On Construction and Arrangement of the General Part of Obligation Law in China's Civil Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长秋

    2012-01-01

    On the issue weather should we set the there are different opinions in academic circle, an general part of obligation law in our country's Civil Code, d targeted legislation advices were put foward separately. General part of obligation law as the leading and guiding part for obligation law should be incorporated in Chi- na's Civil Code. It's not only be determined by the function of general part of obligation law but it is also demanded by the position of civil law in risk society and at the same time it is also the wise choice to absorb other's experience. In the future, in the process of civil law legislation we shall try to amend the relations among general part of obligation law, contract law and tort law so as to make the latter 2 ones the function of the general partm,but also the result determined by orientation of civil law in the society of venture.What's more, it's the choice for China's Civil Code to learn from other countries or regions. During the future legislation of Chi- na's civil law, the relationship between the general part of obligation law and counterpart of Contract Law as well as Tort Liability Law should be revised so that the latter should adopt with the demand of the general part of obligation law. In the future days of civil legislation we shall coordinate the relations among general part of obligation law, general part of contract and tort law thus make the latter 2 ones adaptable to general law of obligation law and even make necessary amendment to meet the general part of obligation law's need.%就我国民法典应否设立债法总则的问题,学术界存在否定说与肯定说两种针锋相对的观点,并各自提出了有针对性的立法建议。债法总则作为统帅债法规则并指导债法适用的总纲,应当为我国民法典所确立。这既是债法总则的功能使然,也是由风险社会中的民法定位决定的,而且还是我国民法典借鉴域外同类立法经验的理

  10. 浅析建筑工程施工材料质量控制%Superficial Analysis of the Quality Control of Construction Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉红; 谢睿; 张秀玲

    2015-01-01

    Construction material is the main cost of construction project, and it is the key of cost management. Only good material procurement, transportation, storage, use and recycling, in order to ensure the construction period, construction quality, reduce engineering costs.%建筑工程材料是建设工程项目成本的主体,是成本管理的重点.只有做好材料的采购、运输、保管、使用和回收等工作,才能保证工程工期、施工质量,降低工程成本.

  11. Exploring Civilizations with 'Seven Wolves'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing - A farewell party for the CCTV (China Central Television) crew 'Road to Civilizations-Global Exploration Tour of World Major Civilizations' - the world's first TV series documenting the journey of exploring the 12 civilizations in the human world, was sponsored by Fujian Septwolves Industry Co., Ltd and held at the Beijing Landmark hotel on 16 January.

  12. 77 FR 70710 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... civil penalty policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10... action is taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as..., adjust penalties based on inflation at least every four years. DATES: This rule is effective December...

  13. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...) entitled ``Civil Penalties'' which proposed the adjustment of certain civil penalties for inflation. 74 FR.... See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997) (NHTSA's civil penalty policy under the Small Business Regulatory... Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act...

  14. 中国特色社会主义生态文明建设的时代背景与历史进程%The Background of the Times and the Historical Process of Ecological Civilization Construction of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范松仁

    2015-01-01

    The ecological civilization theory put forward a realistic background of profound international and domes-tic,international general ecological awareness of environmental protection and China bear external pressures un-precedented increase,the domestic economic and social development with the tight resource constraints,environ-mental serious pollution,ecosystem degradation profound contradictions. Great practice to conform to the tide of his-tory of the development of the world economy,the choice of the road of development of ecological civilization expe-rienced mainly to sustainable development by the Environmental Protection dominated mainly and then the construc-tion of ecological civilization gradually progressive stage of history,to China has basically realizing modernization, the basic formation of a new era of socialist ecological civilization.%生态文明建设理论的提出有着深刻的国际国内背景,国际上普遍出现的生态意识增强与中国承担环境保护的外在压力提升,国内出现了经济社会发展与资源约束趋紧、环境污染严重、生态系统退化的深刻矛盾.在顺应世界经济发展的历史洪流的伟大实践中,中国生态文明发展道路的选择也经历了由以环境保护为主到以可持续发展为主再到以生态文明建设为主的渐次提升的历史阶段,预计到本世纪50年代,中国特色社会主义生态文明的新时代目标将基本实现.

  15. 推进城市生态文明建设策略研究与实践--以武汉市蔡甸生态区创建为例%Research and Practice On Promoting Strategy for the construction of urban ecological civilization--taking Wuhan CaiDian eco-region as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海; 李兆华; 万信琼; 尹珩; 黄婧

    2014-01-01

    The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party has made the ecological civilization construction one of the five of socialism overall layout with Chinese characteristics, which becomes propulsive agent for improving the quality of people’s lives. Taking the establishment of Wuhan CaiDian eco-region as an example, this paper put forward the construction target of the national ecological civilization model area of CaiDian as " Blue Sky, Green Ground, Clean Water, Beautiful City, Rich People, kind Person ". The paper pointed out that the construction of ecological industry, ecological habitat, ecological security, ecological environment and ecological cultural should be focused. The paper also reviewed the construction planning and implementation of Wuhan CaiDian eco-region, combined with the new requirements of current ecological civilization construction in Wuhan city, the emphasis and important focus for developing the eco-region construction were proposed..%党的“十八大”把生态文明建设纳入中国特色社会主义“五位一体”的总体布局,生态文明建设成为提高人民生活质量的推进剂。本文以武汉市蔡甸区生态区创建为例,提出了“天蓝、地绿、水净、城美、民富、人和”这一蔡甸国家级生态文明示范区的建设目标,指出需重点建设生态产业、生态人居、生态安全、生态环境和生态文化等五大体系。本文还对武汉市蔡甸生态区建设规划及实施情况进行了回顾,结合当前武汉市建设生态文明的新要求,提出了开展生态区建设工作的重难点及重要关注点。

  16. ConMat'09 - 4th International Conference on Construction Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Switek, A.; Denarié, E.; Brühwiler, E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate experimentally the UHPFRC time-dependent behavior under sustained tensile loading and to determine the effect of the stress level on the creep response. Uniaxial tensile creep tests were performed at various stress levels by means of an optimized testing set-up. An Acoustic Emissions equipment was used in parallel to correlate the creep deformations with damage. From 29 % to 85 % stress level, the material exhibited a linear viscoelastic behavior. T...

  17. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K. F.

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building mater...

  18. Insulation Cork Boards—Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of an Organic Construction Material

    OpenAIRE

    José D. Silvestre; Nuno Pargana; Jorge Brito; Manuel D. Pinheiro; Vera Durão

    2016-01-01

    Envelope insulation is a relevant technical solution to cut energy consumption and reduce environmental impacts in buildings. Insulation Cork Boards (ICB) are a natural thermal insulation material whose production promotes the recycling of agricultural waste. The aim of this paper is to determine and evaluate the environmental impacts of the production, use, and end-of-life processing of ICB. A “cradle-to-cradle” environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was performed according to Internation...

  19. Design and construction of pavements and rail tracks : geotechnical aspects and processed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, A. Gomes; Momoya, Y.; Tatsuoka, F.

    2007-01-01

    The International Technical Committee, TC3 “Geotechnics of Pavements”, of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering–ISSMGE, started in 2001 under the proposal of the ISSMGE Board 2001–2005. It follows the previous activities of ETC 11 (1997–2001) during which an important dissemination work was done culminated with three important publications: “Unbound Granular Materials. Laboratory Testing, In Situ Testing and Modelling” (Gomes Correia, 2000), ...

  20. Ceramic Carbon/Polypyrrole Materials for the Construction of Bienzymatic Amperometric Biosensor for Glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was constructed by electrochemical formation of a polypyrrole (PPy) membrane in the presence of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the surface of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) modified ferrocenecarboxylic acid (FCA) mediated sol-gel derived ceramic carbon electrode. The amperometric detection of glucose was carried out at +0.16 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol/L phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.9) with a linear response range between 8.0×10-5 and 1.3×10-3 mol/L of glucose. The biosensor showed a good suppression of inter- ference and a negligible deviation in the amperometric detection.