Sample records for civil aviation organization

  1. An International Civil Aviation and Space Organization (United States)

    Jakhu, R.; Sgobba, T.; Trujillo, M.


    The human adventure in space is now more than a half century old. A total of about 6000 lift-offs have taken place and some 500 people have flown into space, but in the process a number of fatalities have occurred--both in space and on the ground. Furthermore, space traffic is becoming chaotic and the orbital environment is increasingly polluted by debris. There is a need for an international body to address current and future space operations, its sustainability, safety and the adequate consideration of the potential risk for the environment and the people that populates our planet. This idea of an international regulatory body for space was first proposed some years ago by FAA-AST with the name of International Space Flight Organization(ISFO). At the time, the envisaged scope of the organization was focused on futuristic international traffic of commercial hypersonic space planes, and on the launch of space vehicles from one country which, during its return to Earth, would land in a foreign country. Clearly, potential interest in such operations, and therefore for the ISFO concept, was limited to very few countries. In 2001, Dr. Assad Kotaite, President of the International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) Council, launched the idea of extending the ICAO mandate to space. With the increase of space operations and the rapid emergence of ventures interested in commercial exploitation of space assets, the need of an international organization that will fill this gap is to be seriously considered. Within this framework, this paper will present the rationale behind the “ICAO for Space” vision within the current structure of the ICAO, it will provide an overview of emerging areas(e.g.: integration of aviation / space infrastructure, traffic management, space debris, etc) and it will propose the benefits of extending its mandate to the region of space up to and including the geostationary orbits, an area of realistic commercial interest and developments for the

  2. English with Flying Colors: The Aviation English and the International Civil Aviation Organization

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    Kraśnicka Izabela


    Full Text Available There are several reasons for the English language to become lingua franca of aviation including some historical turning points for the world aviation and some specific linguistic features of the language itself. This paper aims to firstly present a short, yet interesting history of implementation of English as standardized language for aviation. It will provide introductory historical background, establishment of arguments necessary for standardization and leading to the implementation of the Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs within the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It will then provide an overview of the ICAO’s actions to support its members states in implementation of the English language standards for aviation and try to evaluate the effects based on the powers granted to the Organization. Such evaluation will be presented in the comparative perspective with the powers and instruments used within the European Union to achieve the same goal - standardization of the aviation English.

  3. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) Working... proposals, if necessary, for amendments to Annex 18--The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air Agenda...

  4. 77 FR 53250 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) Working Group of the Whole 12..., for amendments to Annex 18--The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air Agenda Item 2: Development of...

  5. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) 24th Panel Meeting. The agenda for the Working Group is as... Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air Agenda Item 2: Development of recommendations for amendments to the...

  6. 76 FR 46351 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting (United States)


    ... Dangerous Goods by Air and related documents. The Department of Transportation seeks to harmonize domestic... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) to be held October 11-21, 2011, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada...


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    Volodymyr Kharchenko


    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  8. Cyber threats within civil aviation (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  9. Alcohol and civil aviation. (United States)

    Holdener, F


    In aviation medicine until the early 1960s the idea that pilots would fly while under the influence of alcohol was taboo. In the United States of America, the taboo was broken when it became known that 30% of fatally injured pilots in general aviation had been under the influence of alcohol. Since then the rate has declined to 10%. No fatal accidents involving alcohol have been recorded in airline passenger transport. The prevalence of pilots flying under the influence of alcohol is unknown. The lowest studied blood alcohol concentration (BAC) with impaired flying skill today is 0.025%, effectively suggesting that the permitted level should be zero, but many aviation authorities have not yet translated such findings into rules and regulations. In the early 1970s the US Federal Air Surgeon began to re-issue licences for rehabilitated alcoholic pilots. Previously alcoholism had been a reason for mandatory permanent grounding. The possibility of returning to the cockpit first opened the way to early recognition of alcoholic pilots on a larger scale. Today many airlines have their own alcohol programmes. This paper gives a brief account of the Swissair programme with its four phases: observation, intervention, treatment and follow-up.

  10. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

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    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  11. Civil Aviation GALILEO E5 receivers architecture


    Bastide, Frédéric; Roturier, Benoit; Julien, Olivier; Macabiau, Christophe; Rebeyrol, Emilie; Raimondi, Mathieu; Ouzeau, Christophe; Kubrak, Damien


    International audience; The Galileo E5 signal is of particular interest to the civil aviation community. Indeed, it will be broadcast in an Aeronautical Radio Navigation Services (ARNS). Moreover, combined with the Galileo E1 signal, Galileo E5 will allow dual-frequency ionosheric-free pseudoranges combinations supporting a dramatic increase of accuracy. In addition, one of its components, E5b, will carry the Galileo integrity message needed by the user to benefit from the Safety-of-Life serv...

  12. Civil aviation in Ukraine: problems of state regulation


    Малярчук, Назар Вікторович; Хом'яченко, Світлана Іванівна


    The article deals with a government regulation of activities in the aviation sphere, aviation security, the interests of the state, national security and the needs of society and economy in air transport and air operations. English abstractN. Malyarchuk, S. Homyachenko Civil aviation in Ukraine: problems of state regulation The article deals with a government regulation of activities in the aviation sphere, aviation security, the interests of the state, national security and the needs of soci...

  13. Global civil aviation black carbon emissions. (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H


    Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by fuel burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil aviation estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to aviation BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to aviation CO2 emissions.

  14. Characteristics of civil aviation atmospheric hazards (United States)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Montoya, J.; Richards, Mark A.; Galliano, J.


    Clear air turbulence, wake vortices, dry hail, and volcanic ash are hazards to civil aviation that have not been brought to the forefront of public attention by a catastrophic accident. However, these four hazards are responsible for major and minor injuries, emotional trauma, significant aircraft damage, and in route and terminal area inefficiency. Most injuries occur during clear air turbulence. There is significant aircraft damage for any volcanic ash encounter. Rolls induced by wake vortices occur near the ground. Dry hail often appears as an area of weak echo on the weather radar. This paper will present the meteorological, electromagnetic, and spatiotemporal characteristics of each hazard. A description of a typical aircraft encounter with each hazard will be given. Analyzed microwave and millimeter wave sensor systems to detect each hazard will be presented.

  15. Human Factors Directions for Civil Aviation (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.


    Despite considerable progress in understanding human capabilities and limitations, incorporating human factors into aircraft design, operation, and certification, and the emergence of new technologies designed to reduce workload and enhance human performance in the system, most aviation accidents still involve human errors. Such errors occur as a direct or indirect result of untimely, inappropriate, or erroneous actions (or inactions) by apparently well-trained and experienced pilots, controllers, and maintainers. The field of human factors has solved many of the more tractable problems related to simple ergonomics, cockpit layout, symbology, and so on. We have learned much about the relationships between people and machines, but know less about how to form successful partnerships between humans and the information technologies that are beginning to play a central role in aviation. Significant changes envisioned in the structure of the airspace, pilots and controllers' roles and responsibilities, and air/ground technologies will require a similarly significant investment in human factors during the next few decades to ensure the effective integration of pilots, controllers, dispatchers, and maintainers into the new system. Many of the topics that will be addressed are not new because progress in crucial areas, such as eliminating human error, has been slow. A multidisciplinary approach that capitalizes upon human studies and new classes of information, computational models, intelligent analytical tools, and close collaborations with organizations that build, operate, and regulate aviation technology will ensure that the field of human factors meets the challenge.


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    Yevgen Yeryashov


    Full Text Available Purpose: the purpose of our research is an analysis the norms of the Air Code of Ukraine concerning aviation safety and academic literature with aim to give definition administrative-law regulation safety of civil aviation. Methods: using the methods of comparison and analysis in conjunction with formal legal determined by the nature are given definitions environmental safety, economic safety and information safety. Also is given definition administrative-law regulation safety of civil aviation. Results: in the context of analysis the norms of the Air Code of Ukraine and academic literature the author considers an aviation safety as a complex legal phenomenon that, on the one hand is a relatively stable condition, and on another consists of five elements. Аn environmental safety, economic safety and information safety should be given a definition and included in the Article 1 of the Air Code of Ukraine. The article provided the following definition of administrative-law regulation safety of civil aviation: it is carried out by the State overbearing influence on the operators of aircraft and other aviation activities by adopting regulations varying legal force (as well as authorization in to national legislation regional and international agreements regarding a safe usage of aviation objectives in order to ensure of a safety of civil aviation. Discussion: in this article the author to consider of a concept of aviation safety and its elements. Also presents own definition of some elements of a safety of civil aviation and a concept of administrative-law regulation safety of civil aviation.



    Золотар, О.О.


    In the article problems concerning understanding of the main point of information security of civil aviation field are investigated, and also suggestions for the field's law improvement are worked out.

  18. The development of human factors research objectives for civil aviation (United States)

    Post, T. J.


    Human factors research programs which would support civil aviation and be suitable for accomplishment by NASA research centers are identified. Aviation problems formed the basis for the research program recommendations and, accordingly, problems were identified, ranked and briefly defined in an informal report to the project monitor and other cognizant NASA personnel. The sources for this problem foundation were literature reviews and extensive interviews with NASA and non-NASA personnel. An overview of these findings is presented.

  19. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions (United States)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.


    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  20. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit IV. (United States)

    Elmer, James D.

    This publication accompanies the textbook entitled "Civil Aviation and Facilities," published in the Aerospace Education II series. It provides teacher guidelines with regard to objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outlines, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching, instructional aids, projects, and…

  1. Representativenesss of the European social partner organisations: civil aviation - Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.


    The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the respective national and supranational actors (i.e. trade unions and employer organisations) in the field of industrial relations in the civil aviation industry in the Netherlands. In order to determine their relative importance in the

  2. Social dumping and the politics of scale in civil aviation


    Dougherty, Charles Laurence


    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the scalar nature of social dumping in civil aviation. Through the use of documents and interviews, this thesis investigates the labor strategies of Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA. This thesis has two goals. The first is to create a deeper understanding of the concept of social dumping, a concept which lacks a common definition or understanding in the literature. This thesis provides an overview of the concept, and also provides a scalar framework of so...

  3. Evolution of civil aeromedical helicopter aviation. (United States)

    Meier, D R; Samper, E R


    The rapid increase in the use of helicopters for hospital transport during the 1980s is the culmination of several hundred years of military medical innovation. Mass battefield casualties spurred both technologic and medical changes necessary for today's sophisticated helicopter systems in use worldwide, particularly in the United States. The Napoleonic Era and the American Civil War provided the framework for the evolution of today's state-of-the-art emergency medical techniques. The use of airplanes to evacuate the wounded eventually led to using helicopters for rescue missions in World War II. The combat experiences of the United States in Korea, the British in Malaya, and the French in Indochina proved that rotary-wing aircraft were invaluable in reducing battlefield death rates. Any skepticism about the efficacy of helicopter medical evacuation was erased during the Vietnam conflict. As an integral part of the modern battlefield, these specialized aircraft became a necessity. The observations and experience of American servicemen and medical personnel in Vietnam established the foundation for the acceptance of helicopter transport in modern hospital systems.


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    Full Text Available Polish accession to the EU and which consequently adapt Polish law to EU standards drew attention to the aviation community on the need for training and improvement of the quality of work people employed at the airport. Similarly, the subject was developed in the protection of civil aviation. Here, however, the direct stimulus for the formation of all kinds of regulations were the events in the USA 11.09.2001 r. It was then that apart from the obvious need to introduce more restrictive rules related to the security control of passengers and their luggage, it was also noted for staff training, their skills, threat detection and appropriate response to all types of custom passenger behavior. Then also placed special emphasis on quality control work, which is reflected in even the National Training Programme and the National Quality Control Programme, which are designed, on the one hand, professional prepare of the screeners for the implementation of the their statutory tasks, on the other hand, has created a tool to supervise the quality of the work done by this group of workers. Awareness of the human factor as an element that could significantly affect the level of airport security makes this factor is particularly treated in the protection of civil aviation. The consequences of human error, resulting from an act of conscious or unintentional, may in fact be catastrophic for the airport, the carrier and passengers.

  5. Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Fleet Aviation Maintenance Organic Support (FAMOS) Laboratory at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, NJ provides rapid engineering...


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    K. S. Ermakov


    Full Text Available Distance education based on modern information technology as a tool for interaction between universities and enterprises of civil aviation. The introduction of the learning process real needs of civil aviation, enabling an airline to use scientific potential of educational institutions for the successful implementation of scientific research aimed at solving urgent problems.

  7. Bayesian Network Assessment Method for Civil Aviation Safety Based on Flight Delays

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    Huawei Wang


    Full Text Available Flight delays and safety are the principal contradictions in the sound development of civil aviation. Flight delays often come up and induce civil aviation safety risk simultaneously. Based on flight delays, the random characteristics of civil aviation safety risk are analyzed. Flight delays have been deemed to a potential safety hazard. The change rules and characteristics of civil aviation safety risk based on flight delays have been analyzed. Bayesian networks (BN have been used to build the aviation operation safety assessment model based on flight delay. The structure and parameters learning of the model have been researched. By using BN model, some airline in China has been selected to assess safety risk of civil aviation. The civil aviation safety risk of BN model has been assessed by GeNIe software. The research results show that flight delay, which increases the safety risk of civil aviation, can be seen as incremental safety risk. The effectiveness and correctness of the model have been tested and verified.

  8. The Idea to Promote the Development of E-Government in the Civil Aviation System (United States)

    Renliang, Jiang

    E-government has a significant impact on the organizational structure, working mechanism, operating methods and behavior patterns of the civil aviation administration department.The purpose of this research is to find some countermeasures propelling the electronization, network and office automation of the civil aviation system.The method used in the study was field and literature research.The studies showed that government departments in the civil aviation system could promote the development of e-government further by promoting open administration and implementing democratic and scientific decision-making, strengthening the popularization of information technology and information technology training on civil servants, paying attention to the integration and sharing of information resources, formulating a standard e-government system for the civil aviation system, developing the legal security system for the e-government and strengthening the network security.

  9. [Estimating the morbidity profile amongst Colombian civil aviation personnel]. (United States)

    Salamanca, María A; Fajardo, Hugo A


    Describing main morbidity rate amongst Colombian civil aviation cockpit and air traffic control personnel. This was a cross-sectional study. A random sample of 1,059 records (pilots, flight attendants, air traffic controllers) was taken from Colombian aeronautical authority files. Identification, background, morbidity and limitation data was reviewed for each one. 68,2 % of the records concerned males. Average age was 37. 22,9 % of the sample had some medical antecedent recorded on their first certification. Alcohol consumption (occasional) was recorded for 17,1 % of the sample and 11,9 % were smokers. The main diagnoses made were: vision disorders (52,2 %), dyslipidemias (40,6 %), being overweight (37,5 %), having hearing loss (22,0 %), being healthy (14,0 %) and suffering from hypertension (8,1 %). Each group had the same diagnoses, but occurring in a different order. Others studies have found cardiovascular disease to be the main cause of morbidity amongst cockpit and air traffic control personnel. Vision disorders were the main disorder occurring in Colombia. We do not know if there is a predisposition amongst Colombians to suffer such morbidity. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in second place in Colombia, meaning that public health prevention and promotion countermeasures should be taken.


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    A. V. Neradyiko


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the prerequisite for the development and adoption of the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944. There are given the appreciation of the contents of the convention, it is shown its place and importance in the field of international air law. There is shown the current importance of the Chicago Convention for the development of international civil aviation.

  11. Tricyclic Antidepressants Found in Pilots Fatally Injured in Civil Aviation Accidents. (United States)

    Dulkadir, Zeki; Chaturvedi, Arvind K; Craft, Kristi J; Hickerson, Jeffery S; Cliburn, Kacey D


    Prevalence of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has not been explored in pilots. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) aviation accident and the Federal Aviation Administration's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) toxicology and medical certification databases were searched for pilots fatally injured in aviation accidents. During 1990-2012, CAMI received bio-samples of pilots from 7037 aviation accidents. Of these, 2644 cases were positive for drugs. TCAs were present in 31. TCA blood concentrations ranged from therapeutic to toxic levels. The NTSB determined that the use of drugs and ethanol as the probable cause or contributing factor in 35% (11 of 31) of the accidents. None of the 31 pilots reported the use of TCAs during their aviation medical examination. The prevalence of TCAs in aviators was less than 0.5% (31 of 7037 cases). There is a need for aviators to fully disclose the use of medications at the time of their medical examination. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. The identification of factors contributing to self-reported anomalies in civil aviation. (United States)

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Thompson, William


    The main objective of this study was to analyze anomalies voluntarily reported by pilots in civil aviation sector and identify factors leading to such anomalies. Experimental data were obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) database. These data contained a range of text records spanning 30 years of civilian aviation, both commercial (airline operations) and general aviation (private aircraft). Narrative data as well as categorical data were used. The associations between incident contributing factors and self-reported anomalies were investigated using data mining and correspondence analysis. The results revealed that a broadly defined human factors category and weather conditions were the main contributors to self-reported civil aviation anomalies. New associations between identified factors and reported anomaly conditions were also reported.


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    Anastasiya Sergeyevna Stepanenko


    Full Text Available The article describes the history of navigation systems formation, such as "Cicada" system, which at that time could compete with the US "Transit", European, Chinese Beidou navigation system and the Japanese Quasi-Zenit.The detailed information about improving the American GPS system, launched in 1978 and working till now is provided. The characteristics of GPS-III counterpart "Transit", which became the platform for creating such modern globalnavigation systems as GLONASS and GPS. The process of implementation of the GLONASS system in civil aviation, itssegments, functions and features are considered. The stages of GLONASS satellite system orbital grouping formation are analyzed. The author draws the analogy with the American GPS system, the GALILEO system, which has a number of additional advantages, are given. The author remarks the features of the European counterpart of the GALILEO global nav- igation system. One of the goals of this system is to provide a high-precision positioning system, which Europe can rely on regardless of the Russian GLONASS system, the US - GPS and the Chinese Beidou. GALILEO offers a unique global search and rescue function called SAR, with an important feedback function. The peculiarities of Chinese scientists’ navi- gation system, the Beidou satellite system, and the Japanese global Quasi-Zenith Satellite System are described.Global navigation systems development tendencies are considered. The author dwells upon the path to world satel- lite systems globalization, a good example of which is the trend towards GLONASS and Beidou unification. Most attention was paid to the latest development of Russian scientists’ autonomous navigation system SINS 2015, which is a strap-down inertial navigation system and allows you to navigate the aircraft without being connected to a global satellite system. The ways of navigation systems further development in Russia are determined. The two naturally opposite directions are

  14. Keratoconus in Civil Aviation Pilots in a Report of Six Cases. (United States)

    Rebello, Albert; Rodrigues, Bênesson; Pereira, Marcos


    Keratoconus is a progressive noninflammatory ectatic corneal dystrophy, characterized by corneal thinning and increased curvature with central or paracentral tapered protrusion. Such changes in corneal morphology induce irregular astigmatism and myopia, resulting in visual acuity impairment. This report assesses cases in which keratoconus is not an absolute disabling condition for civil aviation pilots. Six cases of keratoconus in active pilots are presented. This report includes cases which were treated with crosslinking therapy and even corneal transplantation. In such cases, the civil aviation medical authority considered four aspects in the medical assessment: best corrected visual acuity, condition stability, risk of sudden incapacitation, and pilot category. Six civil pilots with ages between 19 and 45 yr of age presented with keratoconus in different stages. Using the Snellen scale, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured in 12 eyes, all of them having equal or better than 20/30 (20/20, N = 9; 20/25, N = 2; 20/30, N = 1). All of them are currently fit for aviation activity and have been given an aviation medical certificate with limitation of use of corrective lenses by the Brazilian Civil Aviation Authority (ANAC in Portuguese). Among these cases, there is a pilot who had undergone treatment with crosslinking therapy and another that had undergone corneal transplantation. These cases demonstrate that keratoconus is not always a disabling condition for civil aviation pilots. Nevertheless, it has to be analyzed on a case-by-case basis.Rebello A, Rodrigues B, Pereira M. Keratoconus in civil aviation pilots in a report of six cases. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):574-578.

  15. Study of causality between civil aviation sector and economic development in Saudi Arabia

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    Meshaal Alshammary


    Full Text Available Recently, Saudi Arabia is undergoing major privatization and Public Private Partnership (PPP projects, as guided by the Saudi National Transformation Program (NTP 2020 and the Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030, attempting to shift the oil-based economy toward more diverse and sustainable economy. The main purpose of the paper is to empirically examine the aviation-led growth hypothesis for Saudi Arabia by testing causality between civil aviation and economic development, applying econometric tests such as Granger causality tests for the time period from 1975 to 2011. Empirical results reveal the existence of the Civil aviation Led-Economic growth hypothesis (economic expansion causing the civil aviation sector to grow for a developing country like Saudi Arabia. As guided by both the NTP 2020 and Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030, policy makers should consider updating civil aviation infrastructure, nation-wide airport privatization programs, increase the number of airports in major cities and establish long term partnerships with international airlines and carriers. This will strengthen the private sector and diversify the oil-based economy toward a sustainable economy.

  16. Present and potential security threats posed to civil aviation

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    Stanislav SZABO


    Full Text Available Aircraft presents ideal object for terrorist attack. Apart from the risks posed by possible terrorist attacks on airborne aircraft, air terrorism includes the threats to general aviation on the ground, including airports and surrounding infrastructure. Air oriented terrorism in all of its forms can undermine public confidence in the safety of air travel, which could result in negative effects for certain airlines and other firms in aviation industry due to decline in passenger travel and cargo shipment. This article is giving an overview about the redoubtable present and potential future threats posed to in-flight security, and possibilities and solutions how to mitigate the risks on acceptable level.

  17. Civil Aviation: U.S. Efforts Improved Afghan Capabilities, but the Afghan Government Did Not Assume Airspace Management as Planned (United States)


    counselor; seven FAA aviation advisors; and seven surface transportation advisors to support rail , transit, and highway development. The office, which...concluded the agreement with the Ministry of Civil Aviation and Tourism in August 2003. This ministry merged with the Ministry of Transport to form...Administration (FAA), has spent about $562.2 million to support reconstruction of Afghanistan’s civil aviation system. The Ministry of Transport and

  18. Short-term and long-term forecasting of ecological capacity of civil aviation airports

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    К.І. Кажан


    Full Text Available  Impact of the main environmental factors – noise and air pollution – on the environmental capacity of civil aviation airports was investigated in the article. The method of environmental capacity forecasting taking into account opportunity of definition of optimal aircraft fleet and airport development scenarios was proposed.

  19. Advanced Software V&V for Civil Aviation and Autonomy (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume P.


    With the advances in high-computing platform (e.g., advanced graphical processing units or multi-core processors), computationally-intensive software techniques such as the ones used in artificial intelligence or formal methods have provided us with an opportunity to further increase safety in the aviation industry. Some of these techniques have facilitated building safety at design time, like in aircraft engines or software verification and validation, and others can introduce safety benefits during operations as long as we adapt our processes. In this talk, I will present how NASA is taking advantage of these new software techniques to build in safety at design time through advanced software verification and validation, which can be applied earlier and earlier in the design life cycle and thus help also reduce the cost of aviation assurance. I will then show how run-time techniques (such as runtime assurance or data analytics) offer us a chance to catch even more complex problems, even in the face of changing and unpredictable environments. These new techniques will be extremely useful as our aviation systems become more complex and more autonomous.

  20. A study on the critical factors of human error in civil aviation: An early warning management perspective in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Salah Uddin Rajib


    Full Text Available The safety of civil aviation will be more secured if the errors in all the facets can be reduced. Like the other industrial sectors, human resource is one of the most complex and sensitive resources for the civil aviation. The error of human resources can cause fatal disasters. In these days, a good volume of researches have been conducted on the disaster of civil aviation. The researchers have identified the causes of the civil aviation disasters from various perspectives. They identified the areas where more concern is needed to reduce the disastrous impacts. This paper aims to find out the critical factors of human error in civil aviation in a developing country (Bangladesh as it is accepted that human error is one of main causes of civil aviation disasters. The paper reviews the previous research to find out the critical factors conceptually. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP has been used to find out the critical factors systematically. Analyses indicate that the concentration on precondition for unsafe acts (including sub-factors is required to ensure the aviation safety.

  1. Europeanizing civil society: how the EU shapes civil society organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez Salgado, R.


    The European Union (EU) has clearly made a difference for Civil Society Organizations (CSOs). EU officials and European political entrepreneurs have been crucial in the promotion of funding and access opportunities, but they have been proven to have little capacity to create CSOs from scratch or to

  2. CERTIFICATION - The final and critical stage of every civil or military aviation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile STEFAN


    Full Text Available As a general rule the final step in every aviation program is the certification of the airplane, an important step in which the airplane, the engins and the equipments are checked by an authority or commission according to the airworthiness rules. The main scope of the certification is to promote a safe aviation product and to protect the general public from unnecessary risk. In all the contries the national authorieties require a civil certificability for all the parts or equipments and a full aircraft certification for a new or wholly modified airplane. The military aircrafts must pased and respond to a specific way of certification and many actual efforts are done in order to unify the diffrent national rules in this field. This paper presents the existing situation in the certification of civil and military airplans and the actual measures done for the unification of certification procedures in the world.

  3. EU Accession and Civil Aviation Regimes: Malta and Cyprus as a Case Study (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Andreas; Busuttil, Louis


    Aviation deregulation is usually a challenging and demanding task and accession to the European Union requires that all candidate states should harmonize their legislation in the context of the European Common Aviation Area. Malta and Cyprus, the small Mediterranean island-states to join the EU in 2004, will have to abandon any protectionist policies in favour of their flag-carriers and let them survive in a liberal framework. The paper discusses the implications of this regime change for civil aviation in Malta and Cyprus and in addition to the airline industry, it examines the impacts on the complementary tourism sector. Unless carrying capacity limits are understood, the islands may become victims of successful airline liberalisation. The paper concludes by stressing the need for sustainable development and active policy making. Keywords: carrying capacity, Cyprus, air transport deregulation, Malta, tourism

  4. Epidemiological Survey of Dyslipidemia in Civil Aviators in China from 2006 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfu Zhao


    Full Text Available Aim. This study aimed to analyze blood lipid levels, temporal trend, and age distribution of dyslipidemia in civil aviators in China. Methods. The 305 Chinese aviators were selected randomly and followed up from 2006 to 2011. Their total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were evaluated annually. Mean values for each parameter by year were compared using a linear mixed-effects model. The temporal trend of borderline high, high, and low status for each index and of overall borderline high, hyperlipidemia, and dyslipidemia by year was tested using a generalized linear mixed model. Results. The aviators' TC (F=4.33, P<0.01, HDL-C (F=23.25, P<0.01, and LDL-C (F=6.13, P<0.01 values differed across years. The prevalence of dyslipidemia (F=5.53, P<0.01, borderline high (F=6.52, P<0.01, and hyperlipidemia (F=3.90, P<0.01 also differed across years. The prevalence rates for hyperlipidemia and dyslipidemia were the highest in the 41–50-year-old and 31–40-year-old groups. Conclusions. Civil aviators in China were in high dyslipidemia and borderline high level and presented with dyslipidemia younger than other Chinese populations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Baran


    Full Text Available The purpose of reforming the air transport in Ukraine is the implementation of market economic transformations in economic and financial methods of the management of civil aviation operational firms, which were still formed on the basis of Soviet plan-army management principles. The author suggests the mechanism of formation of financial supply paradigm for reformed air transport firm because these reformations are to be carried out when the elaborated optimal economic-legal, investment-innovation, and (what is the most important organizational-financial complex unified methodical principles of the interaction of air transport (АТ subjects are absent (which becomes clear in the course of re-structuring them. Vital problems of formation of investment-innovation re-structuring mechanism for functioning the air transport firms are described in this article. New results of subsequent scientific research concerning financial scheme development of enterprising and commercial activities of airlines in today’s economic stabilization and growth, formation of new paradigm of economic theory and reformation of managing practice are suggested to the participants of the Conference in the course of prolonging the author’s discussion; a possible approach to the solution of financing problems for their re-structuring by means of creating new aviationtransport consortia is also suggested. The aim of creating a new consortium is to improve the economic efficiency of activity of airlines, their competitiveness in internal markets of transport services as well as to reform the system of air transport subjects in Ukraine. This is one of the complex trends for solving the problems of creating national air carrier, the organization of optimal forms and methods of financial schemes formation for measures aimed at improving the competitiveness.

  6. Civil aviation management during explosive volcanic eruptions: A survey on the stakeholders' perspective on the use of tephra dispersal models (United States)

    Scaini, Chiara; Bolić, Tatjana; Folch, Arnau; Castelli, Lorenzo


    Impacts of explosive volcanic eruptions on civil aviation were reconsidered after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption in Iceland, which caused unprecedented disruptions of air traffic operations in Europe. During and after the aviation breakdown of April-May 2010, communication between the involved stakeholders was recognized as a major concern. Due to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of the topic, a great number of actors are involved, which often have little interaction outside these exceptional events. In this work, we aim at identifying the relationships between the stakeholders involved in aviation management during eruptions, as well as their needs and priorities. We perform an anonymous on-line survey, focused mainly on the use of tephra dispersal models for civil aviation purposes. We collect feedback on recent developments including our current impact assessment research, which produced a GIS-based software tool to estimate impacts on aviation based on tephra dispersal forecasts. Answers allow identifying stakeholders' requirements on ash dispersal forecasts and their use for aviation management purposes. We underline the main differences between three homogeneous groups (aviation managers and employees, modellers and field scientists, other stakeholders) and identify main end-user requirements for developing tools similar to ours. This work provides useful insights for the development of tools to support aviation stakeholders during volcanic eruptions.

  7. R/S analysis of reaction time in Neuron Type Test for human activity in civil aviation (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Yan; Kang, Ming-Cui; Li, Jing-Qiang; Liu, Hai-Tao


    Human factors become the most serious problem leading to accidents of civil aviation, which stimulates the design and analysis of Neuron Type Test (NTT) system to explore the intrinsic properties and patterns behind the behaviors of professionals and students in civil aviation. In the experiment, normal practitioners' reaction time sequences, collected from NTT, exhibit log-normal distribution approximately. We apply the χ2 test to compute the goodness-of-fit by transforming the time sequence with Box-Cox transformation to cluster practitioners. The long-term correlation of different individual practitioner's time sequence is represented by the Hurst exponent via Rescaled Range Analysis, also named by Range/Standard deviation (R/S) Analysis. The different Hurst exponent suggests the existence of different collective behavior and different intrinsic patterns of human factors in civil aviation.

  8. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program, July 1-December 31, 1982. (United States)


    Federal Aviation Act of 1958. ’ ~ 16. Abstract ~The report includes an analysis of the current threat against civil aviation along with information...Effectiveness 10. Airline Passenger Screening Results 11. Weapon Detection Devices 12. X-ray Baggage Inspection Systems 13. Basic Policies 14...PF40GW OPERATION. 2. U.S. SECURITY REQUJIR4ENMTS DVER OVER 250 U.S. AND FORIGN AIRLINES OPERATING OVER 14,600 FLIGITS DAILY FR OVER 675 U.S. AND FCREIGN

  9. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.


    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  10. An epidemiological study of reproductive health in female civil aviation employees. (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Zhang, Weiyuan; Chan, Ada; Li, Chunling; He, Xiaoyan; Cui, Lei; Lv, Yuren; Liu, Juan; Guo, Xiuhua


    To investigate the correlations between occupational risk factors and reproductive health and to provide targeted healthcare services to female civil aviation employees based on surveys about menstrual and reproductive health status. Subjects were selected from flight attendants working for China Southern Airlines, Air China, and other airlines; employees of China Aviation Oil Limited, China TravelSky, and China Aviation Supplies Holding Company; and airport ground service crews. Data were collected using anonymous questionnaires. A total of 1175 valid questionnaires were recovered. The subjects were categorized into a flight attendant group and a ground service group, which contained 563 and 612 women, respectively. The prevalence of irregular menstruation, including abnormal cycles, severe dysmenorrhea, and hypomenorrhea or menorrhagia, was significantly higher in the flight attendant group (30.55%) than in the ground service group (13.40%); in concordance, the fertility rate was significantly lower in the flight attendant group (36.59%) than in the ground service group (43.95%). The spontaneous abortion rate in the flight attendant group (6.80%) was significantly higher than in the ground service group (2.97%). The rate of life-threatening abortions, preterm births, and low birth weight was significantly lower in the flight attendant group than in the ground service group. The impact of occupational risk factors on the reproductive health of female aviation workers should be evaluated and examined more thoroughly. Additional healthcare services such as routine menstruation healthcare and policies for workers planning to have a pregnancy are beneficial in monitoring reproductive health, reducing harmful exposures during early pregnancy, and preventing incapacitating gynecologic events.

  11. Prevalence of drugs and alcohol in fatal civil aviation accidents between 1994 and 1998. (United States)

    Canfield, D V; Hordinsky, J; Millett, D P; Endecott, B; Smith, D


    The use of drugs and alcohol in aviation is closely monitored by the FAA Office of Aviation Medicine's (OAM's) Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) through the toxicological analysis of specimens from pilots who have died in aviation accidents. Frozen specimens received from local pathologists were tested and the results entered into a computer database for future analysis. The data were sorted based on the class of drug, controlled dangerous substance schedules II, and I controlled dangerous substance schedules III-V, prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, and alcohol. Specimens from 1683 pilots were analyzed between 1994 to 1998. Controlled dangerous substances, CDS, (schedules I and II) were found in 89 of the pilots analyzed. Controlled dangerous substances (schedules III-V) were found in 49 of the pilots tested. Prescription drugs were found in 240 of the pilots analyzed. Over-the-counter drugs were found in 301 of the pilots analyzed. Alcohol at or above the legal limit of 0.04% was found in 124 pilots. No abused drugs were found in Class 1 air transport fatal pilots. This research supports the very low incidence rate of drugs found in the FAA random drug-testing program. Over-the-counter medications are the most frequently found drugs in fatal aviation accidents and many of these drugs could impair a pilot's ability to safely fly an aircraft. This data is helpful to the FAA in developing programs to reduce the usage of dangerous drugs and identify potentially incapacitating medical conditions that may cause an accident. Data collected from this research can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the FAA drug-testing program.

  12. Radar tracking with an interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter for civil aviation applications. (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Kao, Yu-Chun


    The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC) system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM) system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS) technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF), is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF), is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods.

  13. Radar Tracking with an Interacting Multiple Model and Probabilistic Data Association Filter for Civil Aviation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan


    Full Text Available The current trend of the civil aviation technology is to modernize the legacy air traffic control (ATC system that is mainly supported by many ground based navigation aids to be the new air traffic management (ATM system that is enabled by global positioning system (GPS technology. Due to the low receiving power of GPS signal, it is a major concern to aviation authorities that the operation of the ATM system might experience service interruption when the GPS signal is jammed by either intentional or unintentional radio-frequency interference. To maintain the normal operation of the ATM system during the period of GPS outage, the use of the current radar system is proposed in this paper. However, the tracking performance of the current radar system could not meet the required performance of the ATM system, and an enhanced tracking algorithm, the interacting multiple model and probabilistic data association filter (IMMPDAF, is therefore developed to support the navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system. The conventional radar tracking algorithm, the nearest neighbor Kalman filter (NNKF, is used as the baseline to evaluate the proposed radar tracking algorithm, and the real flight data is used to validate the IMMPDAF algorithm. As shown in the results, the proposed IMMPDAF algorithm could enhance the tracking performance of the current aviation radar system and meets the required performance of the new ATM system. Thus, the current radar system with the IMMPDAF algorithm could be used as an alternative system to continue aviation navigation and surveillance services of the ATM system during GPS outage periods.

  14. Celebrating a history of excellence : Federal Aviation Administration/Civil Aviation Administration of China executive level cooperation and the agreement process. (United States)


    The Federal Aviation Administrations (FAA) predecessor organization, the Department of : Commerce Aeronautics Branch took an early interest in China, as it did with other nations. As : early as November 1931, the Aeronautics Branch published pr...

  15. Social impacts of civil aviation and implications for R and D policy (United States)

    Mayo, L. H.


    An attempt was made to identify social impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, which would or could flow from the introduction of advanced civil aviation systems. A broad range of social impact areas was investigated which included economic, environmental, political, sociological, psychological, legal, and urban/regional developmental factors. Data are arranged into two major parts. In the first part, a series of Major Policy Issues are identified and discussed which appear, on the basis of the social impact study, to merit serious consideration. The discussion of each "Issue' is presented both to explain its relevance and to raise considerations which will bear on its satisfactory resolution. The second part views the same overall body of information in a different manner: a series of "Findings' are pointed out from which more concrete guidance for R and D policy can be derived, and a set of "Candidate Basic Federal Undertakings' thus derived are presented.

  16. A New Quantitative Method for Studying the Vulnerability of Civil Aviation Network System to Spatially Localized Hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.; Hu, Xiao Bing; Guo, Xiaomei; Xu, Z.; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.


    As an important infrastructure system, civil aviation network system can be severely affected by natural hazards. Although a natural hazard is usually local, its impact, through the network topology, can become global. Inspired by Wilkinson’s work in 2012, this article proposes a new quantitative

  17. Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management: Importance for Aviation Companies, Aerospace Industry Organizations and Relevant Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Szabo


    Full Text Available The paper in the introductory part underlines some aspects concerning the importance of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management and informs on basic international standards for the processes and stages of life cycle. The second part is focused on definition and main objectives of system life cycle management. The authors subsequently inform on system life cycle stages (in general and system life cycle processes according to ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288:2015 standard. Following the fact, that life cycle cost (LCC is inseparable part and has direct connection to the life cycle management, the paper contains brief information regarding to LCC (cost categories, cost breakdown structure, cost estimation a.o.. Recently was issued the first part of Aviation Technology Life Cycle Management monograph (in Slovak: ”Manažment životného cyklu leteckej techniky I”, written by I.Koblen and S.Szabo. Following this fact and direct relation to the topic of article it is a part of article briefly introduced the content of two parts of this monograph (the 2nd part of monograph it has been prepared for the print. The last part of article is focused on issue concerning main assumptions and conditions for successful application of aviation technology life cycle management in aviation companies, aerospace industry organizations as well as from the relevant stakeholders side.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko


    Full Text Available Objective: The problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control systems is a complicated issue which requires consideration of the tasks and applications of unmanned aerial vehicles. The typology of control systems combination for civil unmanned aerial vehicle is suggested and justified. Methods: The methodology of the research was based on application of the varieties of the experts method for rationale of the variants of control system combinations for a specific type of unmanned aerial vehicle and the morphological analysis was used to generate the variants of control system combinations. Results: The causes that lead to discrepancies in types of control systems for civil unmanned aerial vehicle are revealed. Compliance between remote radio control application and type of feedback signal are considered. Based on morphological analysis method, 25 variants of combined unmanned aerial vehicle control systems are suggested. Discussion: Regulatory, substantive and technical components of basic unmanned aerial vehicle control systems are considered. The practical experience of the development by Scientific Production Center of Unmanned Aviation “Virazh” is used to demonstrate the applicability of findings.

  19. Aviation. (United States)

    Karl, Richard C


    An increased awareness of the need for safety in medicine in general and in surgery in particular has prompted comparisons between the cockpit and the operating room. These comparisons seem to make sense but tend to be oversimplified. Attempts in healthcare to mimic programs that have been credited for the safety of commercial aviation have met with varying results. The risk here is that oversimplified application of an aviation model may result in the abandonment of good ideas in medicine. This paper describes in more depth the differences between medicine and commercial aviation: from the hiring process, through initial operating experience, recurrent training, and the management of emergencies. These programs add up to a cultural difference. Aviation assumes that personnel are subject to mistake making and that systems and culture need to be constructed to catch and mitigate error; medicine is still focused on the perfection of each individual's performance. The implications of these differences are explored.

  20. The main effect of dominant eye on phoria examination results of civil aviation cadet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Liang Meng


    Full Text Available AIM:To explore impact of portable phoria meter placed whether in front of dominant or non-dominant eye on phoria results during phoria inspection in physical examination of cadet candidate.METHODS:Totally 650 candidates had passed the first round of ophthalmology check of China Southern 2012 Annual civil aviation cadet in Guangdong province. We picked out their dominant eyes by card-hole method, then respectively placed in front of the dominant eye(the dominant eye groupand non-dominant eye(non-dominant eye groupto measure phoria value. Von Graefe measurement value was as a control, exophoria was negative, esophoria was positive, vertical phoria was absolute value. Chi-square test was applied to analyze the phoria values respectively in the phoria group between dominant eye group and non-dominant eye group, dominant eye and Von Graefe law group, non-dominant eye group and Von Graefe law group.RESULTS: Von Graefe group: average exophoria value was -2.21±0.35△, average esophoria value was +3.87±1.20△, hyperphoria value was +0.44±0.12△. Average exophoria value of dominant eye group was -2.68±0.55△, average esophoria value was +6.22±2.55△, average hyperphoria value was +0.46±0.15△; average exophoria value of non-dominant eye group was -2.16±0.40△, average esophoria value was +3.22±1.65△, hyperphoria value was +0.45±0.14△. As for horizontal heterophoria(exophoria and esophoria, there was significant difference between dominant eye group and non-dominant eye group(PPP>0.05; As for vertical heterophoria, there was non-significant difference among the Von Graefe group, the dominant eye group and non-dominant eye groups(P>0.05.CONCLUSION:The results are more reliable when portable phoria meter placed in front of dominant eye during the phoria check for civil aviation cadet.

  1. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform (United States)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  2. The Impact of Civil Society Organizations on Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil society groups are agents of development in any nation. Civil society organizations appear to play important role in social, political and economic development activities. The transformation of any society or system, particularly the developing societies like Nigeria depend on the effectiveness and efficiency of its civil ...

  3. Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Planning and Evaluation by Canadian Civil Society Organizations : Bridging Gaps between Methodologies. In the current global context, Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) are finding it increasingly difficult to assess their efficiency and effectiveness, and report to external stakeholders, both donor agencies and ...

  4. Organizations And Services In The System Of International Aviation Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I. Travnikov


    Full Text Available In the present article author reveals the order of creation, structure, aims and objectives of national and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations, governing procedure for flight operations and providing direct air traffic control over sovereign territory and abroad. In this article, author notes that in the world there are three main organizational and legal forms of air traffic control systems to ensure coordination between civil and military air navigation services (agencies. In the Russian Federation, author notes that air navigation services on behalf of the State are made by the State Corporation for Air Traffic Management that has the legal status of the commercial organization - the Federal State Unitary Enterprise. Author analyzes the work of the Organization for the Civil Air Navigation Services (CANSO, the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers (IFATCA. During the study author also concludes that in the past decade, there is the steady trend of transferring functions of air navigation from the State to commercial organizations (joint stock companies and limited liability companies, which are financed from the funds received as payment for air traffic services. The responsibility for the improper maintenance of international air navigation, of course, is borne by the State. Author notes that regional and international intergovernmental aeronautical organizations operate in respect of all aircraft (public, civil, experimental, i.e., perform general air navigation, unlike ICAO, which takes standards and recommended practices, rules and procedures for safety and air traffic services only to civil aircraft, that does not ensure the creation of a regulatory framework for the global unification of aeronautical processes.

  5. Liquid explosives. The threat to civil aviation and the European response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, C.J. de; Lemmens, O.M.E.J.


    This paper deals with the specific group of homemade liquid high explosives in relation to aviation security. The sudden and irrefutable focus on homemade explosives and liquid explosives in particular after the 2006 defeated attacks in London, made the aviation security community realize that the

  6. Clearing the Air: Applied Linguistic Perspectives on Aviation Communication (United States)

    Read, John; Knoch, Ute


    As a result of investigations showing that communication problems can be a significant contributing factor to major aviation accidents, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has established a set of Language Proficiency Requirements. All pilots and air traffic controllers engaged in international aviation must be certified by their…

  7. The Impact of Civil Society Organizations on Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    wing organizations promote wartime militarism and racism through propagated public campaigns. Hirata (2002) concluded that these groups are by no means part of Japanese civil society (p. 19). On this premise, groups such as Odua Peoples' ...

  8. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program. (United States)


    hours of negotiations, and no one was injured. The secor- incident involved the hijacking and subsequent theft of a nine-seat general aviation...Eldorado International Airport at Bogota , Colcmbia. The results of the survey have provided a foundation for a multiyear improvement program for Colombia

  9. Integrated system for training of aviation specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stankunas


    Full Text Available Co-operation between university and industrial potential is one of the most effective ways of organizing expensive studies in a small country. Co-operation between civil universities and military schools and structures is expedient in preparing reserve military specialist. An integrated system for the preparation of the specialists of civil and military aviation is precondition for the development of integrated management system of aviation and air space

  10. Office fédéral de l'aviation civile OFAC bases légales : législation suisse et internationale

    CERN Document Server

    Les bases légales applicables en Suisse en matière d'aviation civile se fondent d'une part sur une réglementation suisse et d'autre part sur des accords, traités et conventions conclus au niveau international. Le droit international prime le droit interne.

  11. The Competitive status of the U.S. civil aviation manufacturing industry: a study of the influences of technology in determining international industrial competitive advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seitz, Frederick; Steele, Lowell W


    ... A Study of the Influences of Technology in Determining International Industrial Competitive Advantage Prepared by the U.S. Civil Aviation Manufacturing Industry Panel, Committee on Technology and International Economic and Trade Issues of the Office of the Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering and the Commission on Engineering and Techni...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Kolokolnikov


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the automated educational systems as means of theoretical education of civil aircraft personnel. The author considers different types of AES, handles the problem of actuality of such systems today and of the necessity of their development and possible availability.

  13. Understanding Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: Perceptions of Korean Aviation Personnel (United States)

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine


    Researchers exploring the use of language use in radiotelephony communication have tended to focus on the limitations of the non-native English user and the threats which their limited control of English may pose for aviation safety (e.g. Atsushi, 2003, 2004). Hence the recent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) policy places the onus…

  14. Epidemiology of Toxicological Factors in Civil Aviation Accident Pilot Fatalities, 1999-2003 (United States)


    a wide range of task performance and mood measures (9,10). Studies such as the presence of methamphetamine in toxic con- centration in a civil...United States, autopsied biological samples (blood, urine , liver, kidney, vitreous fl uid, and other body specimens) collected from pilot...Fatalities† Schedules I and II Drugs‡ Amphetamine/ Methamphetamine 1 5 5 11 Barbiturates§ 0 2 8 10 Cocaine/Metabolite(s) 3 4 8 16 Codeine/Morphine 4 13

  15. The Engagement of Older People in Civil Society Organizations (United States)

    Principi, Andrea; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Frerichs, Frerich


    This article reviews recent international literature on the opportunities and restrictions experienced by older people to act as volunteers in civil society organizations. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework applicable to the European ageing society. This aim was pursued through a computerized database search focused on studies analyzing…

  16. Canadian Civil Society Organizations and Human Rights and Global ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to strengthen the capacity of Canadian civil society organizations (CSOs) to inform Canadian policy on human rights and global justice. The Canadian Council for International Co-operation (CCIC) receives core funding from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). This grant will provide ...

  17. The European Union, Europe Direct Centres and Civil Society Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara


    This chapter presents and discusses the activities for civil society organizations developed by the Europe Direct centres of one member state, Italy. Specifically it explores the diverse range of activities that Italian Europe Direct centres put in place during 2007 and it identifies the extent...... to which these activities have contributed to the EU envisaged role of constructing a stronger civil society and enhancing citizens' interest and national debate for European issues. This study of the Italian European Direct activities is based on the findings of a project conducted in 2007 for the Italian...

  18. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013: Burden, Fatal Risk Factors, and Evaluation of a Risk Index for Aviation Crashes. (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B


    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA's General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board's data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P score's ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI = 0.64 to 0.78). Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes.

  19. Relationship between Security and Human Rights in Counter-Terrorism: A Case of Introducing Body Scanners in Civil Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prezelj Iztok


    Full Text Available Changes in security environment after the end of Cold War and 9/11 have strongly affected our security concepts and paradigms. In the field of counter-terrorism, a serious conceptual and practical debate on the relationship between security and human rights and freedoms has begun. The goal of this paper is to reflect on this complex relationship at the conceptual level and introduce the empirical debate on this relationship in the field of civil aviation (case of introducing body scanners. The paper’s results show that the concept of human security usefully integrates the care for human rights and security of individuals. The debate on the potential introduction of body scanners on the European airports was actually a debate on the ways of providing individual human security on the airports with simultaneous concern for other human rights. The output of this debate was a compromise: body scanners can be used at the discretion of individual airports and member states, but are not an obligatory measure on all European airports.

  20. Civil Society Organizations and the Functions of Global Health Governance: What Role within Intergovernmental Organizations?


    Lee, Kelley


    Amid discussion of how global health governance should and could be strengthened, the potential role of civil society organizations has been frequently raised. This paper considers the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in four health governance instruments under the auspices of the World Health Organization – the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations and Codex Alimentarius - and maps th...

  1. Organization and management of the LHC civil-engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, T


    Since July 1994, the CERN Civil Engineering group within the ST division has been preparing and engaging contracts related to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Several of these contracts have values in excess of 10 MCHF and will be executed over a number of years; as such they represent an important part of the infrastructure works required for the LHC. To date, in excess of two hundred and fifty companies have been consulted in relation to these contracts. Contracts or orders have been placed with over thirty companies or joint ventures of companies from nearly all the CERN Member States. This paper aims to show the inter-relationships between these contracts and how the Civil Engineering group is carrying out the management of these important LHC contracts. The organization of the group will be explained along with the roles of individual members within the group.

  2. Development Paths, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Civil Society Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao YE


    Full Text Available Although the process of reform and opening-up accelerates continually in China, the speed of development for Chinese Civil Society Organizations (CSOs is still slow; most organizations still operate under the government shadow and it is very difficult to cut relations with government. The autonomy of Chinese CSOs, to a large extent, is affected by the constraints from government. Overall, Chinese CSOs are still in their infancy, and they need to be further perfected and developed. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the field, with issues and promise identified. Specifically, the paper focuses on the internal management of these organizations and their existing problems in the development process, and some potential solutions for CSOs’ future development.

  3. Civil Society Organizations and the Functions of Global Health Governance: What Role within Intergovernmental Organizations? (United States)

    Lee, Kelley


    Amid discussion of how global health governance should and could be strengthened, the potential role of civil society organizations has been frequently raised. This paper considers the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in four health governance instruments under the auspices of the World Health Organization - the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations and Codex Alimentarius - and maps the functions they have contributed to. The paper draws conclusions about the opportunities and limitations CSOs represent for strengthening global health governance (GHG).

  4. Probabilistic hazard assessment of tephra dispersal from the Ochre Pumice Plinian eruption at Popocatepetl, Mexico and implications for civil aviation (United States)

    Scaini, C.; Bonasia, R.; Capra, L.; Nathenson, M.; Araña-Salinas, L.; Siebe, C.; Folch, A.


    . We present probabilistic hazard maps and discuss their implications for Mexican civil aviation at regional scale. Results show that Benito Juarez and Puebla international airports have a substantial probability of being disrupted by the eruptive scenario modeled. Moreover, the National and International air traffic may suffer reductions and several strategical airports such as Toluca, Ciudad del Carmen and Queretaro may suffer strong disruptions. Results of tephra dispersal hazard assessment complement the existing multi-hazard assessment of Popocatepetl volcano. Hazard maps of tephra dispersal at relevant flying level are particularly important for long-term risk management of Mexican air traffic network.

  5. Determining the Optimum Aviation Organization for the Operational Level of War (United States)


    into their respective aviation groups. % Surveillance and drone aircraft were organized into a surveillance company at corps level and into a...unarmed (Super Frelon ) S3A-330 FR 2 16 150 kts 630 km 3.0 hrs unarmed (Puma) ..-. F’-342 FR 2 5 170 Kts 375 km 2.0 hrs lx20mm cannon Szell.) or

  6. Aviation Squadron Organization Development of the Navy’s Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) Mk III (United States)


    NPS-54-81-017 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California rI THESIS 7AV-IATION SQUADRON ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT OF THE NAVY’S LIGHT AIR40RNE...81-017 jUT -,_ ________"__ is, TitL (ad Swbefi~e) V TvrPg OF FIRPO"T 0 S COV9INO Aviation Squadron Organization Development of Master’s Th,ýsis the...1473Uncas~sfie J&IO’N.3n14-66 0 11 Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Aviation Squadron Organization Development of the Navy’s Light

  7. Does membership in civil society organizations foster social integration?: the case of Danish voluntary sport organizations


    Østerlund, Karste; Seippel, Ørnulf


    Voluntary organizations are generally perceived as important arenas in which social integration can be fostered. There is, however, no consensus on the meaning of such integration, and the empirical evidence for the claim is lacking. This article studies social integration within voluntary sport organizations, which make up a significant element of civil society in most Western societies. The article provides a theoretical framework well suited for the study of social integration, which diffe...

  8. Hazard assessment of far-range volcanic ash dispersal from a violent Strombolian eruption at Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Naples, Italy: implications on civil aviation (United States)

    Sulpizio, Roberto; Folch, Arnau; Costa, Antonio; Scaini, Chiara; Dellino, Pierfrancesco


    Long-range dispersal of volcanic ash can disrupt civil aviation over large areas, as occurred during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland. Here we assess the hazard for civil aviation posed by volcanic ash from a potential violent Strombolian eruption of Somma-Vesuvius, the most likely scenario if eruptive activity resumed at this volcano. A Somma-Vesuvius eruption is of concern for two main reasons: (1) there is a high probability (38 %) that the eruption will be violent Strombolian, as this activity has been common in the most recent period of activity (between AD 1631 and 1944); and (2) violent Strombolian eruptions typically last longer than higher-magnitude events (from 3 to 7 days for the climactic phases) and, consequently, are likely to cause prolonged air traffic disruption (even at large distances if a substantial amount of fine ash is produced such as is typical during Vesuvius eruptions). We compute probabilistic hazard maps for airborne ash concentration at relevant flight levels using the FALL3D ash dispersal model and a statistically representative set of meteorological conditions. Probabilistic hazard maps are computed for two different ash concentration thresholds, 2 and 0.2 mg/m3, which correspond, respectively, to the no-fly and enhanced procedure conditions defined in Europe during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. The seasonal influence of ash dispersal is also analysed by computing seasonal maps. We define the persistence of ash in the atmosphere as the time that a concentration threshold is exceeded divided by the total duration of the eruption (here the eruption phase producing a sustained eruption column). The maps of averaged persistence give additional information on the expected duration of the conditions leading to flight disruption at a given location. We assess the impact that a violent Strombolian eruption would have on the main airports and aerial corridors of the Central Mediterranean area, and this assessment

  9. Organized Civil Society, Participation and Citizenship in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.


    The growth in research on civil society, civic cultures and citizenship has been marked by considerable disagreements about how to define and articulate the concepts, and how to apply them. Several perspectives are at stake in current European research on the inter-relation between civil society,...

  10. Air safety, language assessment policy and policy implementation : the case of aviation English.


    Alderson, J. Charles


    The language of international aviation communication is English, but numerous aviation incidents and accidents have involved miscommunication between pilots and air traffic controllers, many of whom are not native speakers of the language. In 2004 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) published a set of Language Proficiency Requirements and a Proficiency Rating Scale, and by 5 March 2008, air traffic controllers and pilots were required by the ICAO to have a certificate attesti...

  11. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety (United States)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chiara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau


    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico's most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene-Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl's reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the "Ochre Pumice" Plinian eruption (4965 14C yr BP

  12. Long-range hazard assessment of volcanic ash dispersal for a Plinian eruptive scenario at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico): implications for civil aviation safety (United States)

    Bonasia, Rosanna; Scaini, Chirara; Capra, Lucia; Nathenson, Manuel; Siebe, Claus; Arana-Salinas, Lilia; Folch, Arnau


    Popocatépetl is one of Mexico’s most active volcanoes threatening a densely populated area that includes Mexico City with more than 20 million inhabitants. The destructive potential of this volcano is demonstrated by its Late Pleistocene–Holocene eruptive activity, which has been characterized by recurrent Plinian eruptions of large magnitude, the last two of which destroyed human settlements in pre-Hispanic times. Popocatépetl’s reawakening in 1994 produced a crisis that culminated with the evacuation of two villages on the northeastern flank of the volcano. Shortly after, a monitoring system and a civil protection contingency plan based on a hazard zone map were implemented. The current volcanic hazards map considers the potential occurrence of different volcanic phenomena, including pyroclastic density currents and lahars. However, no quantitative assessment of the tephra hazard, especially related to atmospheric dispersal, has been performed. The presence of airborne volcanic ash at low and jet-cruise atmospheric levels compromises the safety of aircraft operations and forces re-routing of aircraft to prevent encounters with volcanic ash clouds. Given the high number of important airports in the surroundings of Popocatépetl volcano and considering the potential threat posed to civil aviation in Mexico and adjacent regions in case of a Plinian eruption, a hazard assessment for tephra dispersal is required. In this work, we present the first probabilistic tephra dispersal hazard assessment for Popocatépetl volcano. We compute probabilistic hazard maps for critical thresholds of airborne ash concentrations at different flight levels, corresponding to the situation defined in Europe during 2010, and still under discussion. Tephra dispersal mode is performed using the FALL3D numerical model. Probabilistic hazard maps are built for a Plinian eruptive scenario defined on the basis of geological field data for the “Ochre Pumice” Plinian eruption (4965 14C

  13. Cosmic Radiation and Aircrew Exposure: Implementation of European Requirements in Civil Aviation, Dublin, 1-3 July 1998 (United States)

    Talbot, Lee


    was entitled, `Ionising Radiations and Cabin Crew Concerns'. The main concerns of cabin crews were as follows: uncertainty in the quality factor for neutrons, heavy ions are not taken into account when calculating radiation doses, 25-60% of some routes if flown for a standard working year could exceed the 6 mSv level, European crew flying on non-European airlines, solar flares, which give relatively high radiation exposures. The next speaker was Wallace Friedberg of the Civil Aeromedical Institute, USA, who gave a talk on the guidelines provided by the FAA to promote radiation safety for Air Carrier Crewmembers. Wallace recalled the information the FAA has provided, including: (a) guidelines for air carrier training programmes on in-flight radiation exposure, including recommended radiation exposure limits; (b) estimates of the galactic radiation dose received on a wide variety of air carrier flights; (c) tables for estimating healthy risks from galactic radiation exposure; and (d) support for research on the effects of irradiation during pregnancy, including possible galactic radiation effects on the reproductive health of female flight attendants. The speaker highlighted the availability of a computer program (CARI) available to the general public, which can be used for estimating the galactic radiation dose received from a non-stop flight between any two locations in the world. Sandy Mitchell of the European Cockpit Association was the next speaker. He gave a talk on the concept of `As Low as Reasonably Achievable' in relation to cosmic radiation. The speaker began by saying that aviation activity was increasing by 5% per annum and flights below 25 000 ft pose no radiation exposure problem. The speaker then drew attention to the strategies that could be employed to reduce radiation exposure, which include restriction of altitude to 31 000 ft, restriction of annual flying hours to 500 hours, increased aircraft shielding, fitting all aircraft with active monitoring

  14. Aviation Noise Impacts: State of the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner


    Full Text Available Noise is defined as “unwanted sound.” Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in the vicinity of airports. In some airports, noise constrains air traffic growth. This consensus paper was prepared by the Impacts of Science Group of the Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization and summarizes the state of the science of noise effects research in the areas of noise measurement and prediction, community annoyance, children’s learning, sleep disturbance, and health. It also briefly discusses civilian supersonic aircraft as a future source of aviation noise.

  15. Aviation Noise Impacts: State of the Science (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Clark, Charlotte; Hansell, Anna; Hileman, James I.; Janssen, Sabine; Shepherd, Kevin; Sparrow, Victor


    Noise is defined as “unwanted sound.” Aircraft noise is one, if not the most detrimental environmental effect of aviation. It can cause community annoyance, disrupt sleep, adversely affect academic performance of children, and could increase the risk for cardiovascular disease of people living in the vicinity of airports. In some airports, noise constrains air traffic growth. This consensus paper was prepared by the Impacts of Science Group of the Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil Aviation Organization and summarizes the state of the science of noise effects research in the areas of noise measurement and prediction, community annoyance, children’s learning, sleep disturbance, and health. It also briefly discusses civilian supersonic aircraft as a future source of aviation noise. PMID:29192612

  16. The Impact of Civil Society Organizations on Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of the widely acclaimed 2011 elections. First, they embarked on vigorous voter education using both the traditional and social media for their campaigns. Some other CSOs deployed thousands of observers to follow through and report on the electoral process. Problems affecting the effectiveness of civil society in Nigeria.

  17. Reality Checks: The state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regarding the history of CSOs in Ethiopia, Jeffrey Clark (2000:4) stated that civil associations began to emerge in Ethiopia around the 1930s and a law to regulate these groups was passed in 1960 but during this period both national and international NGOs began to appear. The 1973-74 and 1984-1985 famines increased ...

  18. Reality checks: the state of civil society organizations in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general literature on the state of civil society organisations (CSOs) in Ethiopia gives the impression that CSOs have been rendered dysfunctional by the restrictive law passed in 2009. While considerable attention has been given to the devastating effects of the CSO law on human rights groups, the successful stories of ...

  19. Crowding-in: how Indian civil society organizations began mobilizing around climate change. (United States)

    Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Swarnakar, Pradip


    This paper argues that periodic waves of crowding-in to 'hot' issue fields are a recurring feature of how globally networked civil society organizations operate, especially in countries of the Global South. We elaborate on this argument through a study of Indian civil society mobilization around climate change. Five key mechanisms contribute to crowding-in processes: (1) the expansion of discursive opportunities; (2) the event effects of global climate change conferences; (3) the network effects created by expanding global civil society networks; (4) the adoption and innovation of action repertoires; and (5) global pressure effects creating new opportunities for civil society. Our findings contribute to the world society literature, with an account of the social mechanisms through which global institutions and political events affect national civil societies, and to the social movements literature by showing that developments in world society are essential contributors to national mobilization processes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  20. The Egyptian Civil Calendar: a Masterpiece to Organize the Cosmos (United States)

    Belmonte, J. A.


    The ancient Egyptians had just one calendar in operation, the civil one, during most of their history and before the overwhelming influence of Hellenic culture. This calendar may have been invented for a specific purpose in the first half of the third millennium B.C., when the previous local Nile-based lunar calendars were rendered useless, as the result of the unification of the country and new social, economic and administrative requirements. The civil calendar always started at the feast of Wepet Renpet in the first day of the first month of the Inundation season (I Akhet 1). Its peculiar length of only 365 days (without leap years) might have been established from simple astronomical (presumably solar) observations. Consequently, Wepet Renpet wandered throughout the seasons in a period close to 15 centuries. Our research has shown that this phenomenology was reflected in the Egyptian worldview by the orientation of most important sacred structures accordingly.

  1. 76 FR 72967 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting (United States)


    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation... matters affecting civil aviation security. This meeting is open to the public, but participation is...

  2. Evaluating long-range volcanic ash hazard using supercomputing facilities: application to Somma-Vesuvius (Italy), and consequences for civil aviation over the Central Mediterranean Area (United States)

    Folch, A.; Sulpizio, R.


    Volcanic ash causes multiple hazards. One hazard of increasing importance is the threat posed to civil aviation, which occurs over proximal to long-range distances. Ash fallout disrupts airport operations, while the presence of airborne ash at low altitudes near airports affects visibility and the safety of landing and take-off operations. Low concentrations of ash at airplane cruise levels are sufficient to force re-routing of in-flight aircrafts. Volcanic fallout deposits spanning large distances have been recognized from the Somma-Vesuvius volcano for several Holocene explosive eruptions. Here we develop hazard and isochron maps for distal ash fallout from the Somma-Vesuvius, as well as hazard maps for critical ash concentrations at relevant flight levels. Maps are computed by coupling a meteorological model with a fully numeric tephra dispersal model that can account for ash aggregation processes, which are relevant to the dispersion dynamics of fine ash. The simulations were carried out using supercomputing facilities, spanning on entire meteorological year that is statistically representative of the local meteorology during the last few decades. Seasonal influences are also analyzed. The eruptive scenario is based on a Subplinian I-type eruption, which is within the range of the maximum expected event for this volcano. Results allow us to quantify the impact that an event of this magnitude and intensity would have on the main airports and aerial corridors of the Central Mediterranean Area.

  3. Future developments in modelling and monitoring of volcanic ash clouds: outcomes from the first IAVCEI-WMO workshop on Ash Dispersal Forecast and Civil Aviation (United States)

    Bonadonna, Costanza; Folch, Arnau; Loughlin, Susan; Puempel, Herbert


    As a result of the serious consequences of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) on civil aviation, 52 volcanologists, meteorologists, atmospheric dispersion modellers and space and ground-based monitoring specialists from 12 different countries (including representatives from 6 Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres and related institutions) gathered to discuss the needs of the ash dispersal modelling community, investigate new data-acquisition strategies (i.e. quantitative measurements and observations) and discuss how to improve communication between the research community and institutions with an operational mandate. Based on a dedicated benchmark exercise and on 3 days of in-depth discussion, recommendations have been made for future model improvements, new strategies of ash cloud forecasting, multidisciplinary data acquisition and more efficient communication between different communities. Issues addressed in the workshop include ash dispersal modelling, uncertainty, ensemble forecasting, combining dispersal models and observations, sensitivity analysis, model variability, data acquisition, pre-eruption forecasting, first simulation and data assimilation, research priorities and new communication strategies to improve information flow and operational routines. As a main conclusion, model developers, meteorologists, volcanologists and stakeholders need to work closely together to develop new and improved strategies for ash dispersal forecasting and, in particular, to: (1) improve the definition of the source term, (2) design models and forecasting strategies that can better characterize uncertainties, (3) explore and identify the best ensemble strategies that can be adapted to ash dispersal forecasting, (4) identify optimized strategies for the combination of models and observations and (5) implement new critical operational strategies.

  4. Civil society in a divided society: Linking legitimacy and ethnicness of civil society organizations in Bosnia-Herzegovina. (United States)

    Puljek-Shank, Randall; Verkoren, Willemijn


    Civil society (CS) strengthening is central to peacebuilding policies for divided, post-war societies. However, it has been criticized for creating internationalized organizations without local backing, unable to represent citizens' interests. Based on in-depth empirical research in Bosnia-Herzegovina, this article focuses on the legitimacy of CS organizations (CSOs). It explores why legitimacy for donors rarely accompanies legitimacy for local actors. We hypothesized that whilst donors avoid supporting mono-ethnic organizations, seen as problematic for peacebuilding, 'ethnicness' may provide local legitimacy. However, our analysis of CSOs' ethnicness nuances research characterizing organizations as either inclusive or divisive. Moreover, local legitimacy is not based on ethnicness per se, but CSOs' ability to skilfully interact with ethnically divided constituencies and political structures. In addition, we offer novel explanations why few organizations enjoy both donor and local legitimacy, including local mistrust of donors' normative frameworks and perceived lack of results. However, we also show that a combination of local and donor legitimacy is possible, and explore this rare but interesting category of organizations.

  5. Aviation safety courses available through the FAA. (United States)


    The FAA Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) offers a 1-day training course to familiarize U.S. civil aviation pilots and flight crews with the physiological and psychological stresses of flight. Pilots who are knowledgeable about physiological p...

  6. Military Aviation in Ireland 1921- 1945


    O'Malley, Michael


    This thesis initially sets out to examine the context of the purchase of two aircraft, on the authority of Michael Collins and funded by the second Dail, during the Treaty negotiations of 1921. The subsequent development of civil aviation policy including the regulation of civil aviation, the management of a civil aerodrome and the possible start of a state sponsored civil air service to Britain or elsewhere is also explained. Michael Collins’ leading role in the establishment ...

  7. The Contribution of Civil Society Organizations in Achieving Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global gaps in health care The World Health Organization's Health for All declaration in 1978 called for addressing global public health challenges by incorporating a people-centered approach to national health systems. ... Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive Health and Rights in Pakistan.

  8. Program of financial support of civil society organizations in Tijuana: Building a relationship between civil society and municipal government from a political change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Delhumeau Rivera


    Full Text Available This document analyzes the relations between society and government that took place with the Financial Aid to Civil Society Organizations Program in Tijuana. The decentralization process of social policy in Mexico is revised as the context in which new programs and initiatives are developed promoting a stronger participation of the society in the policy process. The reflection on the social policy of the National Action Party in Baja California since 1989, has lead us to see the new challenges that the Financial Aid to Civil Society Organizations Program presents to the local and state government and the social organizations.

  9. Defense Support of Civil Authorities - Are We Organized Right?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Joseph


    .... However, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina and the Tsunami in the south Pacific, it is appropriate to ask whether the DoD is effectively organized to handle these disasters, either natural or manmade? This project will examine the roles, missions, and capabilities of the DoD as it pertains to its statutory authority, responsibilities, and capabilities when responding with regard to catastrophic incidents.

  10. COPRA Aviation Security Research Roadmap


    Hasberg, M.P.; Leisman, L.; Van De Voorde, I; Weissbrodt, J.


    The EU funded project COPRA (Comprehensive European Approach to the Protection of Civil Aviation) developed a roadmap for future research activities, which could lead to a more resilient, flexible and comprehensive approach. Tackling 70 existing and potential threats to aviation (security) identified during the COPRA project, the research roadmap supports the drafting of national and European research agendas that intend to create the knowledge and the technologies to ensure secure aviation i...

  11. COPRA Aviation Security Research Roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasberg, M.P.; Leisman, L.; Voorde, I. van de; Weissbrodt, J.


    The EU funded project COPRA (Comprehensive European Approach to the Protection of Civil Aviation) developed a roadmap for future research activities, which could lead to a more resilient, flexible and comprehensive approach. Tackling 70 existing and potential threats to aviation (security)

  12. Reassessing the position of Aviation English: from a special language to English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Aiguo


    Full Text Available “Aviation English” is not only confined to pilots and air traffic controllers (ATC, it also refers to English on general terms in aeronautical and/or aviation universities. It can be designed as integrated ESP (English for Specific Purposes curricula for students in the fields of aeronautics and/or aviation. Learners of ESP are supposed to master the vocabulary in their specific discipline as well as the English language skills. This paper explores the possibility of establishing Aviation English as an ESP specialty in aeronautical and/or aviation colleges and universities. Needs analysis has been made and curricula designed for an integrated course of study in the Chinese context, so that learners of ESP can learn the target language more effectively and meet the standards set by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. It reconsiders the ESP theories and aims to develop a possible approach to ESP teaching more suitable for the Chinese learners.

  13. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY, (United States)


  14. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... SECURITY Aviation Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee...-governmental organizations (NGOs) and stakeholder representatives concerning potential risks to aviation...

  15. International Organizations as an Instrument of Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E


    ...) and its affiliates, international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, or functional bodies such as the Universal Postal Union or the International Civil Aviation Organization...

  16. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne


    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  17. Improving Aviation Safety in Indonesia: How Many More Accidents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridha Aditya Nugraha


    Full Text Available Numerous and consecutive aircraft accidents combined with a consistent failure to meet international safety standards in Indonesia, namely from the International Civil Aviation Organization and the European Aviation Safety Agency have proven a nightmare for the country’s aviation safety reputation. There is an urgent need for bureaucracy reform, harmonization of legislation, and especially ensuring legal enforcement, to bring Indonesian aviation safety back to world standards. The Indonesian Aviation Law of 2009 was enacted to reform the situation in Indonesia. The law has become the ground for drafting legal framework under decrees of the Minister of Transportation, which have allowed the government to perform follow-up actions such as establishing a single air navigation service provider and guaranteeing the independency of the Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee. A comparison with Thailand is made to enrich the perspective. Finally, foreign aviation entities have a role to assist states, in this case Indonesia, in improving its aviation safety, considering the global nature of air travel.

  18. "The Lord's Will Be Done": A Study of Organization in the U.S. Army Chaplaincy During the Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weddle, Donna


    This paper examines the background, organization, and duties of U.S. Army chaplains during the Civil War to determine factors which helped or hindered their efforts to provide religious support to soldiers...

  19. Civil society organizations, the implementing partners of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. (United States)

    Thacker, Naveen; Vashishtha, Vipin M; Awunyo-Akaba, Joan; Mistry, Rozina Farhad


    The authors illustrate by way of civil society (CS) experiences in Pakistan, India, and Ghana how the guiding principles of CS and civil society organizations (CSOs) align with those of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP); (i.e., country ownership, shared responsibility and partnership, equity, integration, sustainability, and innovation). These experiences show how CS is contributing to GVAP goals such as global polio eradication and improving vaccination coverage by removing barriers and ultimately working toward achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4-reducing child mortality. A number of CSOs working in the field of child health share some of the objectives enlisted in GVAP: that immunization becomes a national health priority; individuals, families, communities understand the importance of immunization; benefits of immunization are equitably extended to all people; and vaccination systems are part of an integrated health system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nobody Seems to Speak English Here Today: Enhancing Assessment and Training in Aviation English (United States)

    Douglas, Dan


    In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and…

  1. Generally civilized context of governing the social organization of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Gaievska


    Full Text Available Analyzing the contemporary global mechanisms of governing relationships between peoples represented both in procedural and institutional aspects the author notes their fundamental and globally civilized meanings in the historical progress of mankind to a higher level of social system organization. Therefore, the actual European process and principles of creating the efficient ordering system, according to which certain international institutional structures function, should be considered in the context of today’s total sovereignty and at the same time ensuring the safety of international relations. This trend suggests that the presence of some basic concepts of self-governance aimed at creating mechanisms for intergovernmental governance in the global community should remove the possibility of destabilization of international cooperation. Thus, generally civilized pillars of social governance, including international relations, lie in the understanding that people have to base their relationships on principles of the highest administrative feasibility, which should embrace economic, political and spiritual energy of any nation. This interpretation of general issues of international relations seems quite logical and well grounded in the light of recent developments in Ukraine. Therefore, the expression “reason rules the world” should be viewed as an objective opportunity of any institution through the energy of its own organization and by management to achieve a holistic level of the system which is too important for humanity, which in its historical development has always longed for a high level of organization, and consequently reached in its civilization development a level where management has become the most productive type of production. In this view management as a science can be perceived as the most lucrative and prudent source of allocating capital. Biological organizational evolution appears to have been locked: in its highest

  2. From spectators to implementers: civil society organizations involved in AIDS programmes in China. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kuo, Nana Taona; Liu, Hui; Korhonen, Christine; Pond, Ellenie; Guo, Haoyan; Smith, Liz; Xue, Hui; Sun, Jiangping


    Over the past 20 years, civil society organizations (CSOs) in China have significantly increased their involvement in the AIDS response. This article aims to review the extent of civil society participation in China AIDS programmes over the past two decades. A desk review was conducted to collect Chinese government policies, project documents and published articles on civil society participation of HIV/AIDS programmes in China over the past two decades. Assessment focused on five aspects: (i) the political environment; (ii) access to financial resources; (iii) the number of CSOs working on HIV/AIDS; (iv) the scope of work; and (v) the impact of CSO involvement on programmes. The number of CSOs specificly working on HIV/AIDS increased from 0 before 1988 to over 400 in 2009. Among a sample of 368 CSOs, 135 (36.7%) were registered. CSOs were primarily supported by international programmes. Government financial support to CSOs has increased from USD248 000 in 2002 to USD1.46 million in 2008. Initially, civil society played a minimal role. It is now widely involved in nearly all aspects of HIV/AIDS-related prevention, treatment and care efforts, and has had a positive impact; for example, increased adherence of anti-retroviral treatment and HIV testing among hard-to-reach groups. The main challenges faced by CSOs include registration, capacity and long-term financial support. CSOs have significantly increased their participation and contribution to HIV/AIDS programmes in China. Policies for registration and financial support to CSOs need to be developed to enable them to play an even greater role in AIDS programmes.

  3. Aviation Neuropsychiatry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, David


    .... A few of the specific objectives include: Elucidating the use of the Adaptability Rating for Military Aviation, providing a general understanding of human factors in aviation, examining concepts regarding pilot personality, covering...

  4. Wind energy and aviation interests - interim guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The impact on aviation of increasing the number of wind farms in the United Kingdom is discussed by the Wind Energy, Defence and Civil Aviation Interests Working Group, comprising the Department of Trade and Industry, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Ministry of Defence, and the British Wind Energy Association. The report offers guidance to wind farm developers, local authorities and statutory consultees within the aviation community: the main thrust of the guidelines is to support the UK Government's wind energy targets. Although the document does not contain in-depth technical discussions, it does provide references to such information.

  5. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. (United States)

    Babis, Deby


    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Empirical Study of IT Use in Pakistani Civil Society Organizations (United States)

    Saeed, Saqib; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker

    As voulantary organizations are differnt from business and governmental organizations in terms of structure, working methodologies and decision making, we are interested in the specific IT requirements and technology use in this sector. In this paper we investigate the Pakistani civil society sector to analyze the involvement of technology in their work settings. The paper also discusses two successful virtual voulantary organizations to highlight the potential of new media. The findings suggest that lack of technological and financial resources hinder them to adopt innovative solutions. The technological use is mostly limited, but the realization of its importance and urge to establish ICT infrastructures exist. So there is need for appropriating technology so that this sector in collaboration with government institutions can serve the public in a better way in new knowledge society.

  7. New Refractive Surgery Procedures and Their Implications for Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawara, Van B; Wood, Kathryn J; Montgomery, Ron W


    ...., myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) with corrective surgery. Prior Federal Aviation Administration research studies have shown that the number of civil airmen with refractive surgery continues to increase...

  8. A Novel Implementation of Nature-inspired Optimization for Civil Engineering: A Comparative Study of Symbiotic Organisms Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Prayogo


    Full Text Available The increasing numbers of design variables and constraints have made many civil engineering problems significantly more complex and difficult for engineers to resolve in a timely manner. Various optimization models have been developed to address this problem. The present paper introduces Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS, a new nature-inspired algorithm for solving civil engineering problems. SOS simulates mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism, which are the symbiotic interaction mechanisms that organisms often adopt for survival in the ecosystem. The proposed algorithm is compared with other algorithms recently developed with regard to their respective effectiveness in solving benchmark problems and three civil engineering problems. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SOS algorithm is significantly more effective and efficient than the other algorithms tested. The proposed model is a promising tool for assisting civil engineers to make decisions to minimize the expenditure of material and financial resources.

  9. [Factors influencing Central America's civil society organization's capacity to provide AIDS related care]. (United States)

    Gómez-Jáuregui, Jesica; Caballero, Marta; Infante, César; Cruz, Rosibel; Cuadra, Rosario; González, Tonatiuh


    To analyze the capacities of Central American civil society organizations (CSOs) to implement HIV prevention and care strategies in mobile groups within the HIV Mesoamerican Project. During the year 2008, 14 key actors of nine Central American civil society organizations participating in the Mesoamerican Project were interviewed. The information collected was systematized using Atlas-TI software, and content analysis was performed according to its categories and dimensions. These items were a contribution to capacity: the previous work of CSOs allowed the sensibilization of population and authorities to STD-HIV and to the implemented program; the coordination with government and other involved actors. a good but informal coordination with the government; the worsening economic situation reduced available resources; attended communities are isolated and unsecure. To improve the capacities of CSOs in developing this type of project, it is recommended: that an initial community diagnosis be performed in order to better adapt the proposed interventions; to improve administrative efficiency; to formalize collaborative links with the government; and to seek counseling in the development of HIV prevention strategies that consider population mobility.

  10. What role can civil society organizations have in European health policy? (United States)

    Zeegers Paget, Dineke; Renshaw, Nina; Droogers, Maaike


    Over the years, the main European institutions active in health [European Union, and the Regional Office for Europe of the World Health Organization (WHO)] have played active roles in policy for public health in Europe. Yet, more recent developments have called into question the place of public health on the European political agenda. In this article, we reflect on how European health policy is set and what the role of civil society organizations (CSOs) can or should be, by showcasing two European associations as examples of how to influence European health policy development and implementation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. Volcanic ash hazards and aviation risk: Chapter 4 (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne C.; Tupper, Andrew C.


    The risks to safe and efficient air travel from volcanic-ash hazards are well documented and widely recognized. Under the aegis of the International Civil Aviation Organization, globally coordinated mitigation procedures are in place to report explosive eruptions, detect airborne ash clouds and forecast their expected movement, and issue specialized messages to warn aircraft away from hazardous airspace. This mitigation framework is based on the integration of scientific and technical capabilities worldwide in volcanology, meteorology, and atmospheric physics and chemistry. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland, which led to a nearly week-long shutdown of air travel into and out of Europe, has prompted the aviation industry, regulators, and scientists to work more closely together to improve how hazardous airspace is defined and communicated. Volcanic ash will continue to threaten aviation and scientific research will continue to influence the risk-mitigation framework.

  12. New materials in civil aviation; Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Long Beach, CA, Oct. 13-16, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The present conference discusses an evaluation of the Bell 206L and Sikorsky S-76 helicopters' composite components, the application of advanced composites to civil aircraft primary structures, and the experiences obtained over the course of a decade with the DC-10's composite rudders. Also discussed are the lessons learned in the DC-10 carbon/epoxy rudder development program and the cost effectiveness of weight reduction measures involving advanced materials substitution.

  13. Aviation and externalities : the accomplishments and problems


    Janić, Milan


    Civil aviation has become a major industry and in one of the fastest growing sectors of the world economy. The growth of civil aviation has advantages and disadvantages for the society. The advantages include the direct and indirect generation of new jobs within and around the sector as well as providing a strong stimulus to the globalisation of the industry, business and long distance tourism. Disadvantages include its negative impacts on the environment. This paper presents an overview of t...

  14. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any aircraft.... More severe penalties are provided in 19 U.S.C. 1590 if the smuggled merchandise is a controlled...

  15. Corporation as Civil Organization in a CSR Campaign: The Challenge of Maintaining Credibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Leila


    reveals that if a corporate CSR campaign fosters and enacts a blurring, or even elimination, of sector boundaries to reach campaign aims, important inherent distinctions between business, government, and civil organizations ultimately remain salient to the public. Unless these sector distinctions....... (2000). Creating the partnership society: Understanding the rhetoric and reality of cross-sectoral partnerships. Business and Society Review, 105(1), 127-144. Stohl, C., Stohl, M. & Popova, L. (2009). A new generation of corporate codes of ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(4), 607-622. Van...... Marrewijk, M. (2003). Concepts and definitions of CSR and corporate sustainability: between agency and communion. Journal of Business Ethics, 44(2), 95-105....

  16. The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Monitoring the Global AIDS Response. (United States)

    Smith, Julia; Mallouris, Christoforos; Lee, Kelley; Alfvén, Tobias


    Civil society organizations (CSOs) are recognized as playing an exceptional role in the global AIDS response. However, there is little detailed research to date on how they contribute to specific governance functions. This article uses Haas' framework on global governance functions to map CSO's participation in the monitoring of global commitments to the AIDS response by institutions and states. Drawing on key informant interviews and primary documents, it focuses specifically on CSO participation in Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting and in Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria processes. It argues that the AIDS response is unique within global health governance, in that CSOs fulfill both formal and informal monitoring functions, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of these contributions. It concludes that future global health governance arrangements should include provisions and resources for monitoring by CSOs because their participation creates more inclusive global health governance and contributes to strengthening commitments to human rights.

  17. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion (United States)


    ..., supersonic flight over land by civil aircraft has been prohibited in the United States. The Concorde was the... Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation... persons that the FAA is participating in a panel session on civil supersonic aircraft research. The...

  18. 78 FR 3908 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting (United States)


    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation... Administrator of TSA on matters affecting civil aviation security. This meeting is open to the public, but...

  19. The role of organized civil society in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean. (United States)

    Champagne, Beatriz Marcet; Sebrié, Ernesto; Schoj, Verónica


    Civil society has been the engine that has permitted many of the accomplishments seen in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the role of civil society is not clearly understood. Civil society plays five main roles: advocate, coalition builder, provider of evidence-based information, watchdog and service provider. Some of these roles are played weakly by civil society in the region and should be encouraged to support beneficial societal change. Civil society working in tobacco control has evolved over the years to now become more professionalized. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use have brought about significant change with positive and negative consequences. Strengthening civil society not only supports the tobacco control movement but it provides competencies that may be used in many ways to promote change in democratic societies.

  20. An Analysis of Factors that Influence the Success of Expeditionary Civil Engineer Hub-and-spoke Organizations (United States)


    x I. Introduction ...HUB-AND-SPOKE ORGANIZATIONS I. Introduction Background Since the 1960s, expeditionary Air Force civil engineer (CE) capabilities have been...of the wide spectrum of CE capability can be high. For this reason, it is possible that a new multi-criteria decision making ( MCDM ) tool could be of

  1. A importância do inglês e do espanhol para a capacitação na aviação civil = The importance of the English and Spanish languages in civil aviation training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Adriana Teixeira de


    Full Text Available Este artigo fala da importância da proficiência em inglês e espanhol para a capacitação de profissionais da aviação, em específico dos servidores da Agência Nacional de Aviação Civil – ANAC/Brasil. Destaca-se o inglês como língua da aviação, a importância do inglês e do espanhol para eventos de capacitação na área – sendo a língua inglesa mais representativa – e a importância estratégica do espanhol para o Brasil, em especial devido à estreita relação entre ANAC e CLAC (Comissão Latino-americana de Aviação Civil. São mencionadas as ações da Agência relativas a idiomas, tendo como público-alvo seus servidores e também o público externo

  2. 75 FR 52807 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issues-New Task (United States)


    ... airplanes. This initiative originated in response to a request by aviation industry organizations who... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issues--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task...

  3. An Analysis of the Structural Organization of the Venezuelan Naval Aviation. (United States)


    research. Also, official and unofficial documents from the Venezuelan Navy, such as organizational manuals , written reports, official resolutions, and...ORGANIZATION A. PURPOSE In accordance with the Venezuelan Navy Organizational Manual [Ref. 9] established in compliance with Defense Ministry...Submarine Warfare, and Air Transportation Support. "Alistar y conducir sus unidades con el fin de contribuir a la conduccion y ejecucion de operaciones

  4. Civil society organizations: capacity to address the needs of the urban poor in Nairobi. (United States)

    Ekirapa, Akaco; Mgomella, George S; Kyobutungi, Catherine


    We conducted a needs assessment that describes the landscape of civil society organizations (CSOs) in three informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya. The numbers of CSOs have rapidly increased in areas underserved by governments including poor urban neighbourhoods but little is known about CSOs capacity to meet the priority health needs of the urban poor. It is also unclear why, despite a proliferation of CSOs, residents still experience unimproved health outcomes. We collected data on core activities, financial management, and governance structures. Of the 952 CSOs assessed, 47 per cent reported HIV/AIDS counselling, prevention, and treatment as their core activity. Most CSOs reported good financial management systems and governance structures but responses were not validated. Representation in district health stakeholder fora was low; most CSOs did not have the capacity to effectively deliver services that would have impact. For CSOs to realize the desired goal to improve the well-being of low-income populations, programmes to build their management capacity are essential.

  5. Fuel composition and secondary organic aerosol formation: gas-turbine exhaust and alternative aviation fuels. (United States)

    Miracolo, Marissa A; Drozd, Greg T; Jathar, Shantanu H; Presto, Albert A; Lipsky, Eric M; Corporan, Edwin; Robinson, Allen L


    A series of smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the effects of fuel composition on secondary particulate matter (PM) formation from dilute exhaust from a T63 gas-turbine engine. Tests were performed at idle and cruise loads with the engine fueled on conventional military jet fuel (JP-8), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic jet fuel (FT), and a 50/50 blend of the two fuels. Emissions were sampled into a portable smog chamber and exposed to sunlight or artificial UV light to initiate photo-oxidation. Similar to previous studies, neat FT fuel and a 50/50 FT/JP-8 blend reduced the primary particulate matter emissions compared to neat JP-8. After only one hour of photo-oxidation at typical atmospheric OH levels, the secondary PM production in dilute exhaust exceeded primary PM emissions, except when operating the engine at high load on FT fuel. Therefore, accounting for secondary PM production should be considered when assessing the contribution of gas-turbine engine emissions to ambient PM levels. FT fuel substantially reduced secondary PM formation in dilute exhaust compared to neat JP-8 at both idle and cruise loads. At idle load, the secondary PM formation was reduced by a factor of 20 with the use of neat FT fuel, and a factor of 2 with the use of the blend fuel. At cruise load, the use of FT fuel resulted in no measured formation of secondary PM. In every experiment, the secondary PM was dominated by organics with minor contributions from sulfate when the engine was operated on JP-8 fuel. At both loads, FT fuel produces less secondary organic aerosol than JP-8 because of differences in the composition of the fuels and the resultant emissions. This work indicates that fuel reformulation may be a viable strategy to reduce the contribution of emissions from combustion systems to secondary organic aerosol production and ultimately ambient PM levels.

  6. The Politics of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs Post-Reformation 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Perdana


    Full Text Available After the Reformation (reformasi in 1998, some civil society organizations (CSOs have endorsed policy changes from outside the government and have involved in many ministries’ assistance team to implement government’s development programs. These CSOs’political action changes from outside to become inside the government are caused by the openness of political opportunity from political regime after Reformasi. Even though CSOs have used these political opportunities, these organizations faced seriously challenges in political field such as the fragmented of CSOs to endorse many policy reform and changes. In addition, there is lack of supporting changes in political culture structures which are still continuing patronage relations legacies among political actors. This study strengthens Aspinall (2013a and Mietzner (2013 arguments about how the CSOs take political opportunity after Reformasi and their challenges and response in order to adapt in Suharto’s political legacy in two political arenas: the policy making process and electoral politics. Moreover, Indonesian CSOs are fragmented and weakened for endorsing some progressive issues in law making process in the House and their weakness to gain electoral support for winning the CSOs candidates in election. To gather relevant data about CSOs political activities in these arenas, this study applies process tracing method. The study’s findings confirm that even though there is more openness on political opportunity to participate in political arena, however, it seems that there are no supporting changes in political structures which are patronage relations among political actors. Therefore, Indonesian CSOs are fragmented and weakened for endorsing some progressive issues in law making process in the House and their weakness to gain electoral support for winning the CSOs candidates in election.

  7. Civil Sciety Organisations and peacebuilding in Northern Ghana. Understanding the factors that have facilitated the successful entry of Civil Society Organizations in conflict zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Awonnatey Ateng


    Full Text Available Civil Society Organizations (CSOs in the Northern Region of Ghana have played significant roles in peacebuilding processes, resulting in the peaceful settlement of disputes. This paper examined the factors that have facilitated the successful entry of CSOs in peacebuilding processes in northern Ghana. Employing qualitative and quantitative research approaches, the study revealed that, the neutrality and impartiality of CSOs have made conflicting parties to trust their work. Again, the capacity of CSOs, method of delivery and visibility has made their work more acceptable by all. Finally, the idea of coordination and networking has shaped the concept of peacebuilding and the avoidance of the duplication of efforts. This research concludes that CSOs are more recognized, respected and preferred by communities experiencing conflicts, than state institutions.

  8. Human Error and General Aviation Accidents: A Comprehensive, Fine-Grained Analysis Using HFACS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiegmann, Douglas; Faaborg, Troy; Boquet, Albert; Detwiler, Cristy; Holcomb, Kali; Shappell, Scott


    ... of both commercial and general aviation (GA) accidents. These analyses have helped to identify general trends in the types of human factors issues and aircrew errors that have contributed to civil aviation accidents...

  9. [Strategies by civil society organizations for access to breast cancer drugs in the Brazilian Unified National Health System]. (United States)

    Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia


    This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS.

  10. Modelling climate impacts on the aviation sector (United States)

    Williams, Paul


    The climate is changing, not just where we live at ground level, but also where we fly at 35,000 feet. We have long known that air travel contributes to climate change through its emissions. However, we have only recently become aware that climate change could have significant consequences for air travel. This presentation will give an overview of the possible impacts of climate change on the aviation sector. The presentation will describe how the impacts are modelled and how their social and economic costs are estimated. The impacts are discussed in the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) latest Environmental Report (Puempel and Williams 2016). Some of the possible impacts are as follows. Rising sea levels and storm surges threaten coastal airports, such as La Guardia in New York, which was flooded by the remnants of Hurricane Sandy in 2012. Warmer air at ground level reduces the lift force and makes it more difficult for planes to take-off (Coffel and Horton 2015). More extreme weather may cause flight disruptions and delays. Clear-air turbulence is expected to become up to 40% stronger and twice as common (Williams and Joshi 2013). Transatlantic flights may collectively be airborne for an extra 2,000 hours each year because of changes to the jet stream, burning an extra 7.2 million gallons of jet fuel at a cost of US 22 million, and emitting an extra 70 million kg of carbon dioxide (Williams 2016). These modelled impacts provide further evidence of the two-way interaction between aviation and climate change. References Coffel E and Horton R (2015) Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation. Weather, Climate, and Society, 7, 94-102. Puempel H and Williams PD (2016) The impacts of climate change on aviation: Scientific challenges and adaptation pathways. ICAO Environmental Report 2016: On Board A Sustainable Future, pp 205-207. http

  11. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.


    While transportation fueling can accommodate a broad range of alternate fuels, aviation fueling needs are specific, such as the fuel not freezing at altitude or become too viscous to flow properly or of low bulk energy density that shortens range. The fuel must also be compatible with legacy aircraft, some of which are more than 50 years old. Worldwide, the aviation industry alone uses some 85-95 billion gallons of hydrocarbon-based fossil fuel each year, which is about 10% of the transportation industry. US civil aviation alone consumes nearly 14 billion gallons. The enormity of the problem becomes overwhelming, and the aviation industry is taking alternate fueling issues very seriously. Biofuels (algae, cyanobacteria, halophytes, weeds that use wastelands, wastewater and seatwater), when properly sourced, have the capacity to be drop-in fuel replacements for petroleum fuels. As such, biojet from such sources solves the aviation CO2 emissions issue without the downsides of 'conventional' biofuels, such as competing with food and fresh water resources. Of the many current fundamental problems, the major biofuel problem is cost. Both research and development and creative engineering are required to reduce these biofuels costs. Research is also ongoing in several 'improvement' areas including refining/processing and biologics with greater disease resistance, greater bio-oil productivity, reduced water/nutrient requirements, etc. The authors' current research is aimed at aiding industry efforts in several areas. They are considering different modeling approaches, growth media and refining approaches, different biologic feedstocks, methods of sequestering carbon in the processes, fuel certification for aviation use and, overall, ensuring that biofuels are feasible from all aspects - operability, capacity, carbon cycle and financial. The authors are also providing common discussion grounds/opportunities for the various parties, disciplines and concerned organization to

  12. The ICAO Assembly Resolutions on international aviation and climate change: Historic agreement, breakthrough deal and the Cancun effect


    Truxal, S.


    In what the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) heralds as a 'historic agreement' and the European Union (EU) calls a 'breakthrough deal', the recent ICAO Assembly Resolutions A37-18 and 19 mark the end of the Assembly Resolution A36-22 'mutual agreement' stalemate on emissions trading, which represents a significant achievement with respect to aviation and climate change. Although Assembly Resolutions A37-18 and 19 are non-binding, the as yet 'aspirational' goals that they set o...

  13. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program. (United States)


    chartered by 2 men. During the flight, 1 of the men pointed a gun at the pilot and directed him to fly to Nogales , Mexico. The pilot was held captive but...had the weapon. Further inquiry determined that the man had Just been released from a hospital where he had received treatment for diabetes . " A man

  14. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program. (United States)


    DISENCHANTED AND HOMESICK CUBAN REFUGEES CONSIDERED POTENTIAL HIJACKERS. 10. 724 BOMB THREATS AGAINST AIRCRAFT AND AIRPORTS. -2- 11. SIGNIFICANT CRIMINAL the reason for the low level of activity. However, there is concern that some of these refugees may become homesick and disenchanted in the United

  15. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program. (United States)


    in a speeding car. Finally, in Guatemala, members of the Popular Front of January 31 seized the Brazilian Embassy. They denounced the Guatemalan ...arrested after placing a bomb at the office of Air Canada’s cargo facility in Los Anqeles. The Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG) claimed

  16. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program. (United States)


    June 22. He was sentenced to 20 years on a previous conviction for transportation of explosives and conspiracy to commit murder. In addition, he has been...checked baggage exploded while sitting with several other bags on a baggage cart in the Trans World Airlines (TWA) baggage makeup area at JFK . The

  17. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program. (United States)


    there were four hijackings of foreign aircraft. One of these occurred on a Cubana Aviacion flight from Cuba to the United States on which the hijacker...Cubana Aviacion flight from Cuba to the United States on which the hijacker was killed by a Cuban law enforcement officer on board. We continued to

  18. [Who is who in Brazilian environmental health? Identification and characterization of academic groups and civil society organizations]. (United States)

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Tambellini, Ana Maria Testa; Schultz, Gabriel Eduardo; Bertolini, Valéria Andrade; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu


    In this paper we present the results of the first phase of the project Who is Who in Brazilian Environmental Health. The aim of this project is to identify and characterize the Academic Groups and Civil Society Organizations acting on the field of environmental health that are able to contribute both to the strengthening of its technical and scientific basis, and to the dialogue with organized civil society. The identification took place through the data source available at CNPq (Research Groups Directory), ABONG (Brazilian Association of Non-Governmental Organizations), FBOMS (Brazilian Forum of NGOs and Social Movements for Environment and Sustainable Development) and RBJA (Brazilian Network for Environmental Justice). The results were presented and discussed based on time evolution, geographic distribution and areas of research and action. Final considerations point to the great potential for dialogue between experts and non experts, governmental and non-governmental, in order to create the foundation for a extended peer community capable of combining policies, knowledge, technologies and actions, seeking the comprehension and search of solutions to the establishment of health as a prerequisite and X a result of well being and full life.

  19. Investigation of aviation emission impacts on global tropospheric chemistry and climate using a size-resolved aerosol-chemistry model (United States)

    Kapadia, Zarashpe; Spracklen, Dominick; Arnold, Stephen; Borman, Duncan; Mann, Graham; Pringle, Kirsty; Monks, Sarah; Reddington, Carly; Rap, Alexandru; Scott, Catherine


    Aviation is responsible for 3% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but 2-14% of anthropogenic induced climate warming due to contributions from short lived climate forcers. The global civil aviation fleet is projected to double by 2026 in relation to a 2006 baseline and so will play a substantial role in future climate change. Uncertainty in the net impact of aviation on climate is largely due to uncertainty in the impacts of aviation emissions on ozone and aerosol. To study the impact of aviation emissions we use the GLOMAP-mode global aerosol microphysics model coupled to the 3-D chemical transport model TOMCAT. GLOMAP-mode has been extended to include treatment of nitrate aerosol. We include a full suite of non-CO2 aviation emissions (including NOX, SO2, HCs, BC and OC) in the model. We combined the simulated changes in ozone and aerosol with a 3D radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effect due to aviation non-CO2 emissions. We find that aviation emissions increase O3 concentrations by up to 5.3% in the upper troposphere (UT), broadly matching previous studies. Black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations increase by 26.5% and 14.6% respectively in the UT, whereas nitrate aerosol is reduced in some regions due to co-emission of NOX and SO2 In the UT, aviation emissions increase both total aerosol number as well as the concentration of particles greater than 70 nm diameter (N70). Entrainment of these particles into the free troposphere results in aviation emissions also increasing N70 in the boundary layer, causing a cooling through the first aerosol indirect effect. We explore differences in these responses compared with those simulated when using the recommended aviation emissions from CMIP5 (5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project), which only include NOX and BC emissions. Our results suggest that aviation emissions of SO2 and HCs neglected by CMIP5 produce important effects on ozone, aerosol number, and N70. We suggest CMIP5


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The traditional and current approach to business models in business aviation is based only on aircraft ownership and does not describe the business aviation segment of civil aviation sufficiently. In this paper, we apply a two-dimensional approach analysing the product of companies competing in the business aviation segment of civil aviation. Our analysis combines two product-related components: fleet attributes and portfolio of services to confirm a diversity of business aviation companies and their business models. Using data of thirty business aviation companies from world regions, we reveal a diversity of business models in business aviation that is contradicting with a traditional approach to business models in business aviation.

  1. 78 FR 9798 - Airworthiness Directives; Dassault Aviation Airplanes (United States)


    ... Mystere-Falcon 50 airplanes. This AD was prompted by a manufacturer revision to the airplane maintenance... requirements for the Myst re-Falcon 50 (MF50) type design are included in Dassault Aviation Myst re-Falcon 50... de l'Aviation Civile] France AD F-2004-162 (EASA approval number 2004-10117). A new CPCP approach is...

  2. A comparative study of the use of the Istanbul Protocol amongst civil society organizations in low-income countries. (United States)

    Kelly, Toby; Jensen, Steffen; Koch Andersen, Morten; Christiansen, Catrine; Sharma, Jeevan Raj


    The Istanbul Protocol (IP) is one of the great success stories of the global anti-torture movement, setting out universal guidelines for the production of rigorous, objective and reliable evidence about allegations of torture and ill-treatment. The IP is explicitly designed to outline 'minimum standards for States'. However, it is all too often left to civil society organizations to investigate allegations of torture and ill-treatment. In this context, important questions remain as to how and where the IP can be used best by such organizations. These questions are particularly acute in situations where human rights groups may have limited institutional capacity. This paper explores the practical challenges faced by civil society in using the IP in Low-Income Countries. It is based on qualitative research in three case studies: Nepal, Kenya and Bangladesh. This research involved over 80 interviews with human rights practitioners. The conclusions of the paper are that the Istanbul Protocol provides a useful framework for documentation, but more comprehensive forms of documentation will often be limited to a very small - albeit important - number of legal cases. In many cases, the creation of precise and standardized forms of evidence is not necessarily the most effective form of documentation for redress or accountability. In the absence of legal systems willing and able to respond effectively to allegations of torture and ill-treatment, there are severe limitations on the practical effectiveness of detailed and technical forms of documentation.

  3. 76 FR 52231 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors (United States)


    ... Convention on International Civil Aviation, it is FAA policy to conform to International Civil Aviation... will have greater knowledge about that office (as well as be better acquainted with the people in that... inspectors who left FAA employment, 103 voluntarily retired, 5 retired due to disability, 17 resigned, 1 was...

  4. Aviation Flight Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... This regulation covers aircraft operations, crew requirements and flight rules. It also covers Army aviation general provisions, training, standardization, and management of aviation resources...



    Rehman Safdar


    Research interest in the area of performance measurement (PM) in public sector organizations is increasing. The main purpose of the paper is to explore the research interest in the area of performance measurement (PM) in the public sector organizations. Recently, literature on this topic recognized the relevant critique of public sector organizations pivoting around its view of managers and organizations as primarily passive adaptors to change. This paper also explores how the public sector o...

  6. Building Civil Society in Authoritarian China: Importance of Leadership Connections for Establishing Effective Nongovernmental Organizations in a Non-Democracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tai, John W


    How is modern civil society created? There are few contemporary studies on this important question and when it is addressed, scholars tend to emphasize the institutional environment that facilitates a modern civil society...

  7. Methodology for Measuring the Efficient Use of Available Resources in Air Force Civil Engineering Organizations. (United States)


    number one goal stressed by managers in the future ( Bryne , 1978). Even though organizational effectiveness is a relatively new field of study in...describing the performance of an organization often proves more difficult and costly than managers expect ( Bryne , 1978). Xerox executive Vincent Bryne (1978...efficiency? Limitations of Ratio Analysis Ratio analysis is a popular method of comparing the performance of similar organizations. Ratio analysis is a

  8. Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yundong


    Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.

  9. National and transnational strategies of LGBT civil society organizations in different political environments : Modes of interaction in Western and Eastern Europe for equality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    This article focuses on the national and transnational strategies of five European Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender civil society organizations (CSOs) pressing for equality and non-discrimination. We present three modes of interaction between CSOs and their political environment. The first

  10. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake (United States)

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald


    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  11. Control of the population growth and women in Mexico: international organizations, civil society and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ileana García Gossio


    subjects of the public demographic policies. For their part, the international organizations considered them, at first, as the key factor in birth control, but also as a beginning of development. Later, women were identified in public discourse according to feminist demands: as subjects with rights and with positions with a generic perspective.

  12. Neoliberal drivers in hybrid civil society organizations: Critical readings of civicness and social entrepreneurism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard


    of practices that facilitates from a distance. In this way, neoliberalism deeply influ-ences the everyday lives of both professionals and individuals. I identify two themes, which represent significant neoliberal organizing principles and, drawing upon one illustrative single case, I provide insight...

  13. Widespread Effects on Aviation of the 2008 Eruption of Chaiten Volcano, Chile (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Benitez, C.; Andrioli, M.; Romero, R.; Casadevall, T. J.


    The 2008 eruption of Chaiten in southern Chile was the first eruption to pose widespread hazards to aviation in southern South America since the VEI 5 eruption of Chile's Cerro Hudson in 1991. Five encounters of aircraft with volcanic-ash clouds occurred in the week following the start of the eruption on 2 May 2008; three of these encounters occurred at low altitudes (less than 2 km) near the airport in Bariloche about 225 km from the volcano and involved significant engine damage. An airline company in Argentina reported that turbine damage from one encounter cost USD 2.5 million to repair. Operations at 16 airports in Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay at distances up to 2300 km from Chaiten were disrupted by flight cancellations or airport closures. The airport in the town of Chaiten, located about 15 kilometers from the eruptive vent, was severely damaged by ash fall and secondary lahars and is closed for the duration. Bariloche airport was closed for nearly four weeks in May and June 2008, during the start of the region's busy ski season, because of continuing concerns about the possible presence of ash in the surrounding airspace. Cancellation of 158 flights to Bariloche in May resulted in loss to an airline of USD 0.7 million. From the beginning of the eruption, advisories to aviation about the presence of ash in the atmosphere were issued by the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), one of nine VAAC worldwide established by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Aviation meteorological offices and civil aviation agencies used the VAAC advisories as the basis for formal volcanic-ash warnings to airline operations centers, pilots, and air-traffic control centers. The Buenos Aires VAAC worked to improve its operational capabilities for ash-dispersion forecasting and also coordinated its advisories with the adjacent Toulouse VAAC when ash clouds moved into airspace over the Atlantic Ocean.

  14. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma (United States)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  15. Youth’s employment training from civil society organizations in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Girardo


    Full Text Available The study of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs is undertaken in this article. They are understood as innovative agents for the design and implementation of specific vocational training programs for young people within the changes in the National vocational education and training policies that took place in Latin America an the Caribbean in the last decade, which are briefly described in this text. The importance of local space and decentralization policies, resulting from the reforms of the Latin American Estate, and the innovation in the management of local governments is the context in which NGOs develop and function. NGOs are part of the idea of a new public space created by the interaction between private and estate spheres. Selected Mexican NGOs operating in a local space and training young people, who otherwise have no other training opportunities are described: their general characteristics, their institutional profile, the population they serve, the approaches, strategies and instruments of their intervention.

  16. Securing General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart


    General aviation (GA) -- a catch-all category that includes about 57% of all civilian aviation activity within the United States -- encompasses a wide range of airports, aircraft, and flight operations...

  17. What can the World Health Organization learn from EU lessons in civil society engagement and participation for health? (United States)

    Battams, Samantha


    This article explores challenges for and the development of civil society engagement and stakeholder representation, transparency, and accountability measures in the European Union, with a specific focus on health policy. The stance of the European Union on stakeholder participation within reform debates of the World Health Organization (WHO) is also considered, along with EU lessons for multi-stakeholders at the WHO. The European Commission has developed a number of measures for stakeholder engagement and transparency; however, the European Union has been prone to lobbying interests and has found difficulty in leading and making accountable the private sector when it comes to achieving its own health policy goals. The strong influence of corporate lobbyists on the European Union has come to light, with concerns about a lack of transparency and accountability in decision-making processes. While the WHO could learn from the European Union in terms of its strategies for stakeholder engagement, it could also heed some of the important lessons for the European Union when it comes to working with a broad range of stakeholders.

  18. Nobody seems to speak English here today: Enhancing assessment and training in aviation English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Douglas


    Full Text Available In 2003 the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO strengthened the provisions that English be made available for international radiotelephony communication. ICAO also developed standards for English proficiency for international pilots and air traffic controllers. However, these standards are applied variably from country to country and in no country are native speakers of English tested for their ability to employ what has been termed "interactional competence" when using English for intercultural communication. Problems with this situation are reviewed and suggestions made for improving English assessment and training.

  19. Responsabilidade Social na Visão de Organizações da Sociedade CivilSocial responsibility under the view of Civil Social OrganizationsResponsabilidad Social en la Visión de Organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Dirceu da Silva


    Full Text Available RESUMOEste estudo apresenta-se como uma reflexão em relação à prática da responsabilidade social na sociedade nos dias atuais. Busca-se identificar na visão das organizações da Sociedade Civil qual é o papel do indivíduo, das empresas e da formação destes indivíduos como agentes transformadores das empresas nas atividades sociais desenvolvidas por estas empresas.O estudo busca identificar além destas percepções, pontos importantes na relação entre as empresas e as organizações da Sociedade Civil e da formação dos executivos que estarão desenvolvendo as políticas dentro das empresas. Identificar a responsabilidade social sob a ótica das organizações da sociedade civil, possibilita uma nova visão que venha a facilitar a compreensão de como cada ator social têm desempenhado o seu papel.ABSTRACTThis paper shows itself as a reflection on the social responsibility nowadays. It tries to identity in the non-profit institutions view the people’s role, enterprise’s role and the preparation of these people to be the subject of change in the social activities developed by the enterprises. The paper tries to go beyond these perceptions, identifying the most important points between the enterprise and non-profit institution’s relationship, and the executive’s preparation to develop the enterprise policies. The social responsibility identification under the non-profit institutions view permits a new vision that should make easier the understanding on how each social actor is performing his role.RESUMENEste estudio expone una reflexión sobre la práctica de la responsabilidad social en la sociedad contemporánea. Se busca identificar en la visión de las organizaciones de la Sociedad Civil cuál es la función del individuo, de las empresas y de la formación de estos individuos como agentes transformadores de las empresas en las actividades sociales que ellas desarrollan. Además de estas percepciones, el estudio busca


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BALCERZAK


    Full Text Available The sole purpose of air accident investigations should be the prevention of accidents and other incidents in the future, without apportioning blame or liability. A civil aviation safety system is based on feedback and lessons learned from accidents and incidents, while requiring the strict application of rules on confidentiality in order to ensure the availability of valuable sources of information in the future. Therefore, related data, especially sensitive safety information, should be protected in an appropriate manner. Information provided by an individual in the framework of a safety investigation should not be used against them, in full respect of constitutional principles, and national and international law. Each “involved person” who knows about an accident or serious incident should promptly notify the competent state authority for carrying out an investigation of the event. “Involved person” refers to one of the following: the owner; a member of the crew; the operator of the aircraft involved in an accident or serious incident; any person involved in the maintenance, design, manufacture of that aircraft or in the training of its crew; any person involved in air traffic control, providing flight information or providing airport services, which provided services for the aircraft concerned; staff of the national civil aviation authority; or staff of the European Aviation Safety Agency. In terms of the protection level of the organization (employer, employees who report an event or submit an application to the investigation cannot bear any prejudice from their employer because of information provided by the applicant. The protection does not cover (exclusions: infringement with wilful misconduct (direct intent, recklessness infringement; infringement committed by a clear and serious disregard of the obvious risks; and serious professional negligence, i.e., the failure to provide unquestionably duty of care required under the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko


    Full Text Available In the article we represent the basic principles of municipal air transport within the metropolis. The main tasks of creating municipal transport are defined to further develop of aviation technologies for municipal economy and life support of the city and its air-transport system. In order to further development of aviation technology in the interests of the urban economy and life of the city, its air transportation system is necessary to decide three main objectives: development of aviation equipment and saturation of City Aviation park by light helicopters which will ensure solving of special tasks for the benefit of urban services, commercial transportation and air operations; development of urban aviation infrastructure, including heliports and helipads; the organization of safe use of the airspace over the city. The use of technology in aviation can be done while ensuring sanitary and environmental standards of environmental protection.

  2. Mapping of Norwegian civil society organizations working on energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    energy solutions at a local level; Norwegian CSOs generally possess high and quite specialized levels of competence for this purpose, covering the most relevant technologies (bio-energy, micro and pico hydropower, solar, clean cook-stoves, energy efficiency). Although some CSOs act as 'watchdogs' in Norway, the watchdog role does not seem to be very prominent for Norwegian CSOs engaged in clean energy and development related work outside Norway (FIVAS is the only clear watchdog organization in its activities abroad). This study also shows that several Norwegian CSOs have a high competence level related to policy. development at the international, regional and the national development country level which can be utilized in a Clean Energy for Development Initiative context. Norwegian CSO experience can play an important role not only in strengthening CSOs in developing countries through organizational capacity building, but also through facilitating access to and experience with best practices in OECD countries and global policy work. The different focus of primarily environmental and social CSOs potentially opens avenues for complimentary cooperation in projects that fit under a Clean Energy for Development Initiative umbrella, as is already exemplified in the cooperation between Kirkens Noedhjelp and Zero in Brazil and Kenya. There are likely significant unreleased synergies and potential for cooperation between the often professional and quite specialized milieus in different CSOs with regards to clean energy topics, and between Norwegian CSOs and other Norwegian stakeholders (government institutions private companies etc.) involved in clean energy for development activities.(auth)

  3. Development of a model for the calculation of energy inputs and emissions of the civil aviation. TREMOD AV; Entwicklung eines Modells zur Berechnung der Energieeinsaetze und Emissionen des zivilen Flugverkehrs. TREMOD AV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoerr, Wolfram; Schacht, Alexander [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Gores, Sabine [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany)


    Due to the Climate Change Convention and the Air Pollution protocols (Geneva, Switzerland) Germany is obliged to establish emission inventories of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. The emission model TREMOD determines annually transport emissions in Germany. The contribution under consideration reports on an extension of this model to the aviation, so that current and differentiated emission results can be produced in future in order to meet the requirements of the reporting. The updated emission values are transferred to the Central System of Emissions (CSE).

  4. Improving Fuel Statistics for Danish Aviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, M.

    This report contains fuel use figures for Danish civil aviation broken down into domestic and international numbers from 1985 to 2000, using a refined fuel split procedure and official fuel sale totals. The results from two different models are used. The NERI (National Environmental Research Inst......, which facilitates the further summing of fuel according to different requirements. Methods on how to allocate the fuel use for passenger and cargo transportation are also discussed...

  5. The lawyer civil liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionaş, D.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the lawyer civil liability, with its two forms, namely the tort and the contractual liability, a question of real interest as the civil liability cases are much more numerous than many other criminal or disciplinary cases. We focused on the regulation and content of the lawyer civil liability, analyzing the provisions of Law no 51/1995 regarding the organization and exercise of advocacy in Romania and also on the provisions of the Statute of advocacy and that of the Code of Ethics.

  6. International Civil Aviation Organization Helicopter Noise Measurement Repeatability Program: U.S. Test Report, Bell 206L-1, Noise Measurement Flight Test, (United States)


    unclassified unclassified 421 Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized ,0-.% ACKNOWLEDGEDENTS The authors would like to thank...118 0 990 0.3 9.22 87 118 0 98) M3 19:22 83 118 0 19751 TABLE J.44 TABLE J.42 : 8-274- WE : 8-27-84 MATU: UFO 0.9 Th 117 I1. MOM : LR 0.9 Vh 117 1S

  7. Intelligibility of ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) spelling alphabet words and digits using severely degraded speech communication systems. Part 1: Narrowband digital speech (United States)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, Astrid


    The Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT) is widely used to evaluate digital voice systems. Would-be users often have no reference frame of interpreting DRT scores in terms of performance measures that they can understand, e.g., how many operational words are correctly understood. This research was aimed at providing a better understanding of the effects of very poor quality speech on human communication performance. It is especially important to determine how successful communications are likely to be when the speech quality is severely degraded. This report compares the recognition of ICAO spelling alphabet words (ALFA, BRAVO, CHARLIE, etc) with DRT scores for the same conditions. Confusions among the spelling alphabet words are also given. Two types of speech degradation were selected for investigation: narrowband digital speech (the DoD standard linear predictive coding algorithm operating at 2400 bits/s) with varying bit-error rates and analog jamming. The report will be in two parts. Part 1 covers the narrowband digital speech research, and Part 2 will cover the analog speech research.

  8. Intelligibility of ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) Spelling Alphabet Words and Digits Using Severely Degraded Speech Communication Systems. Part 1. Narrowband Digital Speech. (United States)


    6 shows the effect of bit errors on DRT feature scores. The graveness and sustention features had the lowest overall scores in all conditions... Sustention is the feature that allows us to dis- tinguish between p and f, b and v, etc. Graveness allows us to distinguish between sounds like b and d or f...rates. Voiers (1983) also found graveness and sustention to be the most vulnerable under noise degradation, but nasality remained robust in noise. o

  9. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda. (United States)

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M


    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda. Copyright © 2015

  10. [Right of access to healthcare in the context of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012: the perspective of civil society organizations and professional associations]. (United States)

    Suess, Amets; Ruiz Pérez, Isabel; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; March Cerdà, Joan Carles


    The recent publication of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 (RDL 16/2012), which introduces structural changes in the Spanish Public Healthcare System, can be placed in the broader context of budgetary adjustments in response to the current economic crisis. An analysis of the interrelationships among economic crisis, healthcare policies, and health reveals that citizen participation is one of several potential strategies for reducing the impact of this situation on the population. This observation raises the interest to know the citizens' perspectives on the modifications introduced by the RDL 16/2012. Narrative review of documents related to the RDL 16/2012 published by civil society organizations and professional associations in the Spanish context. A broad citizen response can be observed to the introduction of RDL 16/2012. The documents reviewed include an analysis of changes in the healthcare model inherent to the RDL 16/2012, as well as predictions on its impact on access to healthcare, healthcare quality, and health. The civil society organizations and professional associations offer recommendations and proposals, as well as collaboration in elaborating alternative strategies to reduce costs. The response of civil society organizations and professional associations underscores the importance of strengthening citizen participation in the development of healthcare policies aimed at maintaining the universal character and sustainability of the Spanish Public Healthcare System in the current moment of economic and systemic crisis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. A Review of General Aviation Safety (1984-2017). (United States)

    Boyd, Douglas D


    General aviation includes all civilian aviation apart from operations involving paid passenger transport. Unfortunately, this category of aviation holds a lackluster safety record, accounting for 94% of civil aviation fatalities. In 2014, of 1143 general aviation accidents, 20% were fatal compared with 0 of 29 airline mishaps in the United States. Herein, research findings over the past 30 yr will be reviewed. Accident risk factors (e.g., adverse weather, geographical region, post-impact fire, gender differences) will be discussed. The review will also summarize the development and implementation of stringent crashworthiness designs with multi-axis dynamic testing and head-injury protection and its impact on mitigating occupant injury severity. The benefits and drawbacks of new technology and human factor considerations associated with increased general aviation automation will be debated. Data on the safety of the aging general aviation population and increased drug usage will also be described. Finally, areas in which general aviation occupant survival could be improved and injury severity mitigated will be discussed with the view of equipping aircraft with 1) crash-resistant fuel tanks to reduce post-impact conflagration; 2) after-market ballistic parachutes for older aircraft; and 3) current generation electronic locator beacons to hasten site access by first responders.Boyd DD. A review of general aviation safety (1984-2017). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(7):657-664.

  12. A volcanic activity alert-level system for aviation: review of its development and application in Alaska (United States)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Miller, Thomas P.


    An alert-level system for communicating volcano hazard information to the aviation industry was devised by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) during the 1989–1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. The system uses a simple, color-coded ranking that focuses on volcanic ash emissions: Green—normal background; Yellow—signs of unrest; Orange—precursory unrest or minor ash eruption; Red—major ash eruption imminent or underway. The color code has been successfully applied on a regional scale in Alaska for a sustained period. During 2002–2011, elevated color codes were assigned by AVO to 13 volcanoes, eight of which erupted; for that decade, one or more Alaskan volcanoes were at Yellow on 67 % of days and at Orange or Red on 12 % of days. As evidence of its utility, the color code system is integrated into procedures of agencies responsible for air-traffic management and aviation meteorology in Alaska. Furthermore, it is endorsed as a key part of globally coordinated protocols established by the International Civil Aviation Organization to provide warnings of ash hazards to aviation worldwide. The color code and accompanying structured message (called a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) comprise an effective early-warning message system according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. The aviation color code system currently is used in the United States, Russia, New Zealand, Iceland, and partially in the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia. Although there are some barriers to implementation, with continued education and outreach to Volcano Observatories worldwide, greater use of the aviation color code system is achievable.

  13. Civil Society as a Self-Organizing Social System and the State: Some Objections to the Hegel Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila J. Grudtsina


    Full Text Available In the present article author attempts by using different scientific methods used in synergy, to propose an alternative formula to the formula of Hegelian distinction of civil society and state, that are not as different and competing with each other systems as well as the necessary elements to each other converge single social system. This scientific idea is presented in an arithmetic progression in civil society - "mass", next level - the civil society itself, realizing itself, advancing and increasingly, next level – the legal state (ideal for which to strive. In this case, the state will not be the term, but the result in the formula. In the conclusion, author concludes that one can not ignore responsibility of authorities, seeking in the modern world to create institutes of civil society. Taking into account that this generally positive process can be used as a special instrument of government, including the effective management of the objective processes in society, where the presence of democratic prerequisites, no matter how weak they are, civil society inevitably grows up.

  14. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.


    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  15. [The profile training of aviation doctors]. (United States)

    Blaginin, A A; Lizogub, I N


    Authors consider the trends of training doctors in the specialty "physician in aerospace medicine". First level is initial training for faculty training of doctors. The higher level is vocational retraining and advanced training in the departments of postgraduate and further education. It solved the issues of preparation of specialists in various areas of aviation medicine: medical-chairman of the Flight Commission, an expert medical doctor-flight expert committee, a specialist laboratory (Cabinet) of Aviation Medicine, the Medical Director of Aviation (enterprise, organization), etc. The highest level of training is residency. The necessity of legislative consolidation of an independent direction for the organization of training and medical support of aviation operations is proved.

  16. Aviation and the Community College. (United States)

    Finch, Harold L.; Watson, Russell W.

    This report summarizes the major conclusions of the Aviation Briefing for Community Colleges, which met to establish dialogue between community colleges and the aviation industry. Included are: (1) an overview of community college aviation, covering the topics of the aviation industry, the rationale for aviation in the community college, the types…

  17. Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Created in 2009 as part of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate's Integrated Systems Research Program, the Environmentally Responsible Aviation...

  18. Efficacy of Low-Cost PC-Based Aviation Training Devices (United States)

    Reweti, Savern; Gilbey, Andrew; Jeffrey, Lynn


    Aim/Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore whether a full cost flight training device (FTD) was significantly better for simulator training than a low cost PC-Based Aviation Training Device (PCATD). Background: A quasi-transfer study was undertaken to ascertain whether a Civil Aviation Authority certified Flight Training Device (FTD) was…

  19. A Cyber-Based Data-Enabled Virtual Organization for Wind Load Effects on Civil Infrastructures: VORTEX-Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Kareem


    Full Text Available Despite many advances in the area of wind effects on structures in recent decades, research has been traditionally conducted within limited resources scattered geographically. With the trend toward increasingly complex designs of civil infrastructure combined with the escalating potential for losses by extreme wind events, a new culture of research needs to be established based on innovative and collaborative solutions for better management of the impact of extreme wind events. To address this change, this paper presents a new paradigm of a multiscale cyber-based laboratory framework for the analysis/design, modeling, and simulation of wind load effects based on an ongoing collaborative cyberinfrastructure-based platform, Virtual Organization for Reducing the Toll of EXtreme Winds (VORTEX-Winds,, and discusses its current status since its inception in 2007 and ongoing developments. This collaborative framework as it evolves would enable a paradigm shift by offering advanced cyber-enabled modules (e-modules for accelerating advances in research and education to achieve improved understanding and better modeling of wind effects on structures. Accordingly, it will enhance wind community’s analysis and design capabilities to address next-generation challenges posed by wind. Through empowering those without computational or experimental resources, the e-modules will encompass a large set of subject areas and topics categorized as Database-enabled design, Full-scale/Field site data repository, Statistical/Stochastic toolboxes, Tele-experimentation, Uncertainty modeling, Damage assessment, and Computational platforms. This prototype will allow access to the individual e-module, while it is envisaged that next level of development in VORTEX-Winds will have the capability for an automated and integrated analysis/design through a nexus of e-modules. A highlight of the e-modules currently completed or in development is presented

  20. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy......In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Akimov


    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of civil aviation aircraft flights delays, because of the lack of efficiency of the air traffic planning. As a result, airports and airlines have financial losses. Analysis of delays at Moscow aerodromes, Tegel and Munich aerodromes are given. The principles of organization of air traffic planning system in the Russian Federation are described, as well as recommendations the use of which will improve the efficiency of the air traffic planning system in the Russian Federation.

  2. 14 CFR 91.219 - Altitude alerting system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. (United States)


    ...: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. 91.219 Section 91.219 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... system or device: Turbojet-powered civil airplanes. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a turbojet-powered U.S.-registered civil airplane unless that airplane is...

  3. 75 FR 30690 - Civil Penalty Inflation Adjustment for Commercial Space Adjudications (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 406 RIN 2120-AJ63 Civil Penalty Inflation Adjustment for... compliance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996. The rule makes mandatory inflation-based adjustments to the maximum civil...

  4. 75 FR 72935 - Revisions to the Civil Penalty Inflation Adjustment Tables (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 13 RIN 2120-AJ50 Revisions to the Civil Penalty Inflation... rule adjusts for inflation the minimum and maximum civil monetary penalty amounts the FAA may impose... scope of the agency's authority. This rulemaking is issued under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation...

  5. Aviation safety and ICAO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jiefang


    The thesis addresses the issue of aviation safety under the rule of law. Aviation safety is a global concern. While air transport is considered a safe mode of travel, it is susceptible to inherent risks of flight, the use of force, and terrorist acts. Consequently, within the framework of the

  6. The aviation industry in Nigeria: A historical overview | Ogbeidi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insatiable needs of man necessitated his movement from one place to another and one major means by which he has been doing this is by flying in the aeroplane. The article traces the history of civil aviation in Nigeria, exploring the various phases of development which the industry has gone through. It concludes that ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Epstein


    Full Text Available The article regards poetry as the type of a world view that has profound effect on the social and technical development of civilization. Contrary to popular belief about the decline of poetry in the technological age, poetry, as the desire for imaginative comprehension and transformation of the world, remains the most powerful engine of civilization. There are new, non-linguistic forms of existence of poetry (outside of verses and books that are explored in the article: anthropoeia, biopoeia, kosmopoeia, noopoeia, sociopoeia, technopoeia… For example, the technique is no less metaphorical and symbolic than poetry is, but it embodies the energy of creation not in words, but in the poetically transfigured matter where each element is „playing” with nature, overcomes the force of gravity, the distances of time and space. Tehnopoeia as realized in aviation, rocketry, electronics, Internet, new means of communication, allows to see clearly the invisible, to hear the inaudible, to speak many languages. Technopoeia is the poetic aspect of technology as an activity that implements the creative aspirations of humans and the symbolic vision of the world. The article examines the „physics of poetry,” as it was understood by Surrealists, and shows that the poetic perception of things is not opposed to its utilitarian functions, but both can be harmoniously combined. Contemporatry science and technology aspire to implement a number of fundamental biopoetic and cosmopoetic metaphors: the universe — a computer, a planet — a living organism, the computer — the brain, the Internet — the nervous system, infectious viruses — computer and genes, the language of life — the process of writing… The metaphor becomes an integral part of the scientific outlook and the driving force behind the new discovery. Philology and poetics need to develop new methods of analysis of poetic phenomena as embodied not in verses, but in scientific thinking and

  8. The independence of international civil servants during the neoliberal decades: implications of the work stoppage involving 700 staff of the World Health Organization in November 2005. (United States)

    Katz, Alison


    The independence of international civil servants is critical to the fulfillment of their organizations' mandates, but it has been seriously undermined during 25 years of neoliberal influence in U.N. agencies, including the World Health Organization. In November 2005, 700 staff at WHO headquarters participated in a one-hour work stoppage--the first industrial action in the organization's history. Hierarchical and arbitrary management, abuse of rules and procedures, nepotism and harassment, and undue influence of international financial institutions, powerful member states, and transnational corporations have exhausted morale and motivation, creating a conformist environment and interfering with technical health work. In the neoliberal era, WHO staff confront conflicting duties of loyalty to a handful of member states and their private interests and loyalty to WHO's constitutional mandate. International civil servants need support from governing bodies and from the world's people in finding the correct balance. A first essential step would be respect for international labor standards within the U.N. family and, in particular, negotiation status and collective bargaining--human rights in the workplace and prerequisites for staff independence, integrity, and competence, qualities required to serve the world's people.

  9. Architecture and Key Techniques of Augmented Reality Maintenance Guiding System for Civil Aircrafts (United States)

    hong, Zhou; Wenhua, Lu


    Augmented reality technology is introduced into the maintenance related field for strengthened information in real-world scenarios through integration of virtual assistant maintenance information with real-world scenarios. This can lower the difficulty of maintenance, reduce maintenance errors, and improve the maintenance efficiency and quality of civil aviation crews. Architecture of augmented reality virtual maintenance guiding system is proposed on the basis of introducing the definition of augmented reality and analyzing the characteristics of augmented reality virtual maintenance. Key techniques involved, such as standardization and organization of maintenance data, 3D registration, modeling of maintenance guidance information and virtual maintenance man-machine interaction, are elaborated emphatically, and solutions are given.

  10. The Civil Society Sector


    Anheier, Helmut K.; Lester M. Salamon


    Salamon and Anheier bring the civil society sector - the plethora of private, nonprofit, and nongovernmental organizations that have emerged in recent decades - into better focus conceptually as well as empirically. They draw on the results of a major inquiry into the scope, structure, financing and role of the "nonprofit sector" in a broad cross-section of countries around the world.

  11. Fighting climate change in the air: lessons from the EU directive on global aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole de Paula Domingos


    Full Text Available The European Union's (EU decision to include aviation into the Emissions Trade Scheme was heatedly contested. Countries around the world, but mainly the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa group (BRICS and the US, denounced the EU's initiate as illegal and unilateral. Following a decade of frustrated negotiations at the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, this paper interrogates why such measure, in principle climate-friendly, inspired so much global resentment. I argue that concerns with competitiveness and risks of legal inconsistency are important, but insufficient elements to explain the core of the conflict. The paper suggests that the EU was strongly criticized because third countries perceived this action as an imposed solution, which fostered an environment of distrust. Therefore, I claim that the problem has more to do with a normative divide than with a substantive divergence on what should be done regarding aviation emissions. My analysis is informed by the present literature on the links between trade and climate change, but gives particular weight to first-hand information through interviews with key stakeholders. The paper is divided in three parts. First, it presents the scope of the EU directive in historical perspective. Second, it explores the EU's measure through three different angles: legal, economical and political. The final part explores some possible solutions to overcome these divergences.

  12. Application of diffusion maps to identify human factors of self-reported anomalies in aviation. (United States)

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Mikusinski, Piotr


    A study investigating what factors are present leading to pilots submitting voluntary anomaly reports regarding their flight performance was conducted. Diffusion Maps (DM) were selected as the method of choice for performing dimensionality reduction on text records for this study. Diffusion Maps have seen successful use in other domains such as image classification and pattern recognition. High-dimensionality data in the form of narrative text reports from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) were clustered and categorized by way of dimensionality reduction. Supervised analyses were performed to create a baseline document clustering system. Dimensionality reduction techniques identified concepts or keywords within records, and allowed the creation of a framework for an unsupervised document classification system. Results from the unsupervised clustering algorithm performed similarly to the supervised methods outlined in the study. The dimensionality reduction was performed on 100 of the most commonly occurring words within 126,000 text records describing commercial aviation incidents. This study demonstrates that unsupervised machine clustering and organization of incident reports is possible based on unbiased inputs. Findings from this study reinforced traditional views on what factors contribute to civil aviation anomalies, however, new associations between previously unrelated factors and conditions were also found.

  13. The organic materials in the Five Northern Provinces' Assembly Hall: disclosing the painting technique of the Qing dynasty painters in civil buildings (United States)

    Lluveras-Tenorio, A.; Bonaduce, I.; Sabatini, F.; Degano, I.; Blaensdorf, C.; Pouyet, E.; Cotte, M.; Ma, L.; Colombini, M. P.


    The beiwusheng huiguan (`Meeting hall of the Five Northern Dynasties') is a building complex from the Qing dynasty (1636-1912 ad) located in Wafangdian, near Ziyang, in the south of the Chinese Province of Shaanxi. Two of the preserved halls are richly decorated with wall paintings dated probably in 1848 ad and representing scenes of the `Romance of the Three Kingdoms' and Confucian moral tales. They are a rare example of well-preserved mural paintings of high artistic value inside civil buildings. The aims of this paper are the chemical characterization and localization of organic materials used as binders and colorants in the wall paintings. A multi-analytical approach, consisting in the combined use of gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques (GC/MS and Py-GC/MS) and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), was chosen for these purposes. Proteinaceous materials (animal glue and egg), saccharide material (fruit tree gum) and a siccative oil were identified in different paint layers supplying invaluable information about the painting technique used. Moreover, the analyses of organic dyes allowed identifying indigo and gallic acid in more than one sample adding fundamental information about Chinese artists' techniques in mural paintings, missing from the previous studies. To shed light on the gilding technique, the distribution of the painting materials was achieved by means of synchrotron radiation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR micro-FTIR) and X-ray fluorescence (SR micro-XRF). The results obtained from the multi-analytical approach enabled us to determine the organic materials both binders and organic colorants used by Chinese artisans, highlighting the high technical level achieved in nineteenth century. The binding media and the organic colorants identified, as well as their distribution, allowed the discussion on the painting technique used by the artists of the Qing dynasty giving information for the

  14. Volcanic Ash and Aviation - the 2014 Eruptions of Kelut and Sangeang Api, Indonesia (United States)

    Tupper, A. C.; Jansons, E.


    Two significant eruptions in Indonesia during the first part of 2014 have highlighted the continuing challenges of safe air traffic management around volcanic ash clouds. The stratospheric eruption of Kelut (also known as Kelud) in Java late on 13 February 2014 resulted in widespread aviation disruption over Indonesia and at least one serious volcanic ash encounter from an international airline. An upper-tropospheric eruption of Sangeang Api in the Lesser Sunda Islands on 30 May 2014 did not result in any known aircraft encounters, but did result in many delays and flight cancellations between Indonesia and Australia. In both cases, the eruption and resultant ash clouds were relatively well observed, if subject to the usual issues in characterising such clouds. For example, as tropical eruptions frequently reach 15 km amsl and above due to the height of the tropical tropopause, it is frequently very difficult to provide an accurate estimation of conditions at the cruising levels of aircraft, at 10-11 km (or lower for shorter domestic routes). More critically, the challenge of linking operational results from two scientific professions (volcanology and meteorology) with real-time aviation users remains strongly evident. Situational awareness of domestic and international airlines, ground-based monitoring and communications prior to and during the eruption, receiving and sharing pilot reports of volcanic ash, and appropriate flight responses all remain inadequate even in relatively fine conditions, with an unacceptable ongoing risk of serious aviation encounters should improvements not be made. Despite the extensive efforts of the International Civil Aviation Organization, World Meteorological Organization, and all partners in the International Airways Volcano Watch, and despite the acceleration of work on the issue since 2010, volcanic ash management remains sub-optimal.

  15. The Ambivalences of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kaare Nielsen


    Full Text Available This article discusses the conceptual heterogeneity in the field of ‘civil society’ in the light of a distinction between positions that reflect civil society as a democratic-emancipatory category and positions that consider civil society from the perspective of the state: as an instrumental resource for the technocratic planning of the competitive nation state.The article discusses the implications and perspectives in these two different strategic scenarios for conceptualizing civil society. The argument is made that civil society in relation to democratic citizenship should basically rather be understood as a concept for specific, communicative principles for institutionalizing societal relations and organizing public experience than as an overall concept for third sector organizations.

  16. Aviation and climate change (United States)


    This report provides background on aviation emissions and the factors affecting them; it discusses the tools available to control emissions, including existing authority under the Clean Air Act and proposed economy-wide cap-and-trade legislation; and...

  17. Research on measurement of aviation magneto ignition strength and balance (United States)

    Gao, Feng; He, Zhixiang; Zhang, Dingpeng


    Aviation magneto ignition system failure accounted for two-thirds of the total fault aviation piston engine and above. At present the method used for this failure diagnosis is often depended on the visual inspections in the civil aviation maintenance field. Due to human factors, the visual inspections cannot provide ignition intensity value and ignition equilibrium deviation value among the different spark plugs in the different cylinder of aviation piston engine. So air magneto ignition strength and balance testing has become an aviation piston engine maintenance technical problem needed to resolve. In this paper, the ultraviolet sensor with detection wavelength of 185~260nm and driving voltage of 320V DC is used as the core of ultraviolet detection to detect the ignition intensity of Aviation magneto ignition system and the balance deviation of the ignition intensity of each cylinder. The experimental results show that the rotational speed within the range 0 to 3500 RPM test error less than 0.34%, ignition strength analysis and calculation error is less than 0.13%, and measured the visual inspection is hard to distinguish between high voltage wire leakage failure of deviation value of 200 pulse ignition strength balance/Sec. The method to detect aviation piston engine maintenance of magneto ignition system fault has a certain reference value.

  18. [The criteria for the relationship between hearing impairment and professional occupation and the criteria for professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel engaged in civilian aviation]. (United States)

    Pankova, V B

    This article describes the main clinical features associated with the development and manifestations of disturbed sound perception in the members of the aeronautical personnel engaged in the Russian civilian aviation. The main expert criteria for the relationship between the diseases of the organs of hearing (as exemplified by chronic sensorineural hearing impairment) and professional occupation have been developed based on the results of the clinical and diagnostic examination with the use of whispered and loud speech acumetry, tonal threshold audiometry, speech audiometry, impedancometry and evoked optoacoustic emission. Civilian aviation sectoral approaches to the evaluation of professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel are considered in accordance with the criteria adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized UN agency that sets the international standards for the civilian aviation and co-ordinates its development with the purpose of enhancing the safety and effectiveness of flights. The criteria are formulated for the solution of the expert problems arising from the relationship between the professional occupation and the diseases of the organs of hearing and for the evaluation of the professional suitability in terms of hearing among the aeronautical personnel engaged in civilian aviation.

  19. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas


    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  20. Subsidies in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gössling


    Full Text Available Relatively little attention has been paid to the existence of subsidies in aviation. As the sector’s importance for economic development is often highlighted, this paper seeks to provide a conceptual overview of the various forms of subsidies in aviation, as a contribution to a more holistic understanding of economic interrelationships. Based on a purposive sampling strategy, existing forms of subsidies are identified and categorized along the value chain. Focus is on industrialized countries, for which more information is available. Results indicate that significant subsidies are extended to manufacturers, infrastructure providers and airlines. These contribute to global economic growth related to aviation, but they also influence capacity in global aviation markets, strengthen the market position of individual airlines, and create conflicts between airlines and the countries they are based in. While the actual scale of subsidies cannot be determined within the scope of this paper, it provides a discussion of options to empirically assess the effects of aviation subsidies on market outcomes. Finally, general conclusions regarding the impact of subsidies on the overall sustainability of the air transport sector are drawn: These include rapidly growing capacity in the aviation system, economic vulnerabilities, and negative climate change related impacts. Results call for a better understanding of the distribution, character and implications of subsidies.

  1. 14 CFR 60.37 - FSTD qualification on the basis of a Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement (BASA). (United States)


    ... on International Civil Aviation for the sponsor of an FSTD located in that contracting State may be... Implementation Procedure (SIP) established under the BASA. (b) The SIP must contain any conditions and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Elisov Lev


    Full Text Available The authors’ original problem-solution-approach concerning aviation security management in civil aviation apply- ing parallel calculation processes method and the usage of neural computers is considered in this work. The statement of secure environment modeling problems for grid models and with the use of neural networks is presented. The research sub- ject area of this article is airport activity in the field of civil aviation, considered in the context of aviation security, defined as the state of aviation security against unlawful interference with the aviation field. The key issue in this subject area is aviation safety provision at an acceptable level. In this case, airport security level management becomes one of the main objectives of aviation security. Aviation security management is organizational-regulation in modern systems that can no longer correspond to changing requirements, increasingly getting complex and determined by external and internal envi- ronment factors, associated with a set of potential threats to airport activity. Optimal control requires the most accurate identification of management parameters and their quantitative assessment. The authors examine the possibility of applica- tion of mathematical methods for the modeling of security management processes and procedures in their latest works. Par- allel computing methods and network neurocomputing for modeling of airport security control processes are examined in this work. It is shown that the methods’ practical application of the methods is possible along with the decision support system, where the decision maker plays the leading role.

  3. Faith based aviation: An ethnographic study of missionary flights international (United States)

    Cooper, Joseph H.

    The development of faith-based missionary aviation is a post-World War II phenomenon. The war effort demonstrated the value, utility, and global reach of aviation to remote, underdeveloped areas of the world. With the beginnings of a worldwide infrastructure for aviation, Christian aviators realized aviation could increase the range and effectiveness of their efforts to reach the world for Christ (Mellis, 2006). Although individual organizations provide statistical information and data about flight operations there is a lack of external evidence and relevant research literature confirming the scope and value of these faith based aviation organizations and operations. A qualitative, ethnographic study was conducted to document the activities of one faith-based aviation organization to gain an understanding of this little known aspect of civilian aviation. The study was conducted with Missionary Flights International (MFI) of Fort Pierce, FL which has been involved in faith-based, missionary aviation since its inception in 1964. As an aviation organization "MFI strives to offer affiliated missions the kind of efficient service and professionalism expected of an airline operation" (Missionary Flights International, 2013, p.1). MFI is a lifeline for missionaries to Haiti and the Dominican Republic, fulfilling their motto of "Standing in the Gap". MFI provides twice a week service to the island of Hispaniola and the Republic of Haiti. In this in-depth study insight and understanding was gained into the purpose of MFI, their daily routines and operations, and the challenges they face in maintaining their flight services to Haiti. This study provided documentation of the value and utility of such aviation efforts and of the individuals involved in this endeavor.

  4. Medical responses to civil war and revolution in Spain, 1936-1939: international aid and local self-organization. (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth A


    The traditional view that war is 'good' for medicine has been challenged by some historians in recent decades. In the case of the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939, a number of advances in wound treatment, emergency surgery and other areas reputedly occurred, and were important in shaping the medical response to more extended warfare in 1939-1945. At the same time, there was a significant attempt at humanitarian intervention, aiming to provide medical aid and health care for the war's casualties and refugees, in parallel with local transformations in health provision. Political differences within as well as between the contending forces complicated matters. These developments are examined with a view to assessing their implications in the contemporary international context.

  5. An Exploratory Study on the Post-Implementation of Threat and Error Management Training in Australian General Aviation (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yong; Bates, Paul R.; Murray, Patrick S.; Martin, Wayne L.


    Threat and Error Management (TEM) training, endorsed and recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO), was mandated in Australia with the aim of improving aviation safety. However, to date, there has been very limited, if any, formal post-implementation review, assessment or evaluation to examine the "after-state"…

  6. University Aviation Degree Courses: A Study of Labour Market and Student Retention Challenges for Sustainable Course Development (United States)

    Yadav, Devinder K.


    Universities offering aviation degree courses face a dilemma when integrating flying training, which is vocational skills training, into an academic degree programme. Whilst flying training for a pilot's licence is provided by flying schools regulated by a country's Civil Aviation Authority, the HE sector is responsible for the academic standards…

  7. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.


    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  8. Evaluating Options for Civil Space Situational Awareness (SSA) (United States)

    Lal, B.; Carioscia, S. A.

    In recent years, the number of active satellites and human-made orbital space debris has increased dramatically. An expansion of activities in space, as is currently being proposed by many commercial and international entities, is expected to further exacerbate this challenge. The 18th Space Control Squadron under the Department of Defense (DOD) United States Strategic Command provides space situational awareness (SSA) services to users outside the national security community at no cost. International and commercial users demand better SSA service than is currently feasible, and the demand comes at a time when DOD is under pressure to better prepare for and respond to growing space-based threats to national security. Concerned about the possibility of overextending across conflicting missions in a fiscally constrained environment, some DOD officials have publicly noted a desire to move SSA services not related to national security out of DOD purview. Responding to a request from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), researchers at the Science and Technology Policy Institute (STPI) identified and evaluated potential approaches for providing SSA services for civil and commercial operations in space. In this paper, we summarize the report [1] and present the pros and cons of four approaches to the provision of civil SSA services in the United States: (1) maintaining status quo through continued provision by DOD; (2) provision by a civil government entity; (3) industry self-provision; and (4) provision by an international organization. Within the second approach, assuming the provision of SSA by a civil agency, STPI further identified and discussed four options: (1) civil agency service capability embedded within DOD; (2) independent civil service capability, using DOD software and systems; (3) independent civil service capability, using commercial software and systems; and (4) the government certifies non

  9. Designing a Better Navy Aviation Retention Bonus (United States)


    human worth, community.  Military bearing/character—Appearance, conduct, physical fitness , adherence to Navy Core Values.  Teamwork—Contributions...Federal Aviation Administration FITREP fitness report FOS failure of selection FRG Fleet Replenishment Group FRS Fleet Replenishment Squadron IFS...retention bonus while fitting within the current promotion and advancement system. C. STUDY ORGANIZATION The study is separated into six chapters that

  10. 14 CFR 385.13 - Authority of the Director, Office of International Aviation. (United States)


    ... International Aviation. 385.13 Section 385.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ORGANIZATION STAFF ASSIGNMENTS AND REVIEW OF ACTION UNDER ASSIGNMENTS Assignment of Functions to Staff Members § 385.13 Authority of the Director, Office of International Aviation...

  11. Network effects in environmental justice struggles: An investigation of conflicts between mining companies and civil society organizations from a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Iskender Aydin

    Full Text Available This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ; if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased, they were more likely to lead to different (or similar EJ outcomes. Such network effects in mining conflicts have policy implications for EJ movements. It would be a strategic move on the part of successful CSOs to become involved in other major conflicts and disseminate information about how they achieved greater EJ success.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravdov Mikhail Aleksandrovich


    Full Text Available The aim: the studing of the motivation of youth to volunteer activity. During the investigation were used methods of discussion, interviewing, interrogation and mathematical processing of data. In the article the experience of forming of youth voluntary social associations in Ivanovo region are regarded and the forming of a volunteers student group–“Sova” on the base of Ivanovo institute of the public fire service of the Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters. Was the level of Knowledge of Students about volunteer activity revealed, as well as the role student youth’s participation in volunteer organizations and the influence of the student volunteer associations on the development of pupils’ personalities in boarding school.

  13. Network effects in environmental justice struggles: An investigation of conflicts between mining companies and civil society organizations from a network perspective. (United States)

    Aydin, Cem Iskender; Ozkaynak, Begum; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz; Yenilmez, Taylan


    This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs) around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ); if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased), they were more likely to lead to different (or similar) EJ outcomes. Such network effects in mining conflicts have policy implications for EJ movements. It would be a strategic move on the part of successful CSOs to become involved in other major conflicts and disseminate information about how they achieved greater EJ success.

  14. The role of organized civil society in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean El papel de la sociedad civil organizada en el control del tabaco en Latinoamérica y el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marcet Champagne


    Full Text Available Civil society has been the engine that has permitted many of the accomplishments seen in tobacco control in Latin America and the Caribbean. However, the role of civil society is not clearly understood. Civil society plays five main roles: advocate, coalition builder, provider of evidence-based information, watchdog and service provider. Some of these roles are played weakly by civil society in the region and should be encouraged to support beneficial societal change. Civil society working in tobacco control has evolved over the years to now become more professionalized. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use have brought about significant change with positive and negative consequences. Strengthening civil society not only supports the tobacco control movement but it provides competencies that may be used in many ways to promote change in democratic societies.La sociedad civil ha sido el motor que ha permitido muchos logros en el control del tabaco en Latinoamérica y el Caribe. Sin embargo, no se comprende bien el papel que juega. La sociedad civil tiene cinco roles principales: abogar, construir coaliciones, proveer información basada en evidencia, ser perro guardián y proveer servicios. Algunos de estos roles se juegan débilmente y deben ser promovidos para apoyar cambios benéficos en la sociedad. La sociedad civil ha evolucionado a través de los años en el control del tabaco y ahora se ha profesionalizado más. El Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco (CMCT de la OMS y la iniciativa Bloomberg para Reducir el Uso del Tabaco han traído consigo cambios significativos con consecuencias positivas y negativas. El fortalecimiento de la sociedad civil no sólo significa un beneficio para el movimiento del control del tabaco sino que también provee las competencias que sirven de muchas formas para promover el cambio en las sociedades democráticas.

  15. The Hunting of the Snark: Organizing and Synchronizing of Informational Elements for Homeland Defense and Civil Support (United States)


    Public Opinion.” Master’s thesis, Naval War College, 2004. Daft , Richard L. Organization Theory and Design. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College...D. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION POLICY AND AUTHORITY.......... 41 E. LEADERSHIP ...53 7. Leadership .............................................................................. 54 D

  16. Naval Aviation Vision (United States)


    modeling and simulation, distributed testing, and ground testing. The fully instrumented and integrated Atlantic Test Range supports cradle taking “ cats ” and “traps” for many years to come. Naval aviatioN visioN • JaNuary 2012109 Sergeant Jesus J. Castro Title: KC-130J Super Hercules

  17. Politics of aviation fields (United States)

    Vivent, Jacques


    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  18. Review of Aviator Selection (United States)


    achieved by a battery that reliably and accurately measures general intelligence: psychomotor skills; selective and divided attention; working memory ...aviator selection, including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Caldwell, O’Hara, Caldwell, Stephens, & Krueger, 1993), Eysenck Personality...administered tests measuring psychomotor skills, short-term memory , time- sharing ability, and attitudes toward risk-taking. Across several studies, the

  19. 78 FR 6276 - Aviation Communications (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... pertaining to Aviation Communications remain up-to-date and continues to further the Commission's goals of... letter from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) asking that the Commission not implement the...

  20. 78 FR 61203 - Aviation Services (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... permit ground testing of aviation data link systems, and decline to authorize remote monitoring of... the airport surface, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) seeks to expand the use of ASDE-X to...

  1. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation (United States)

    ,; ,


    International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO) International Airways Volcano Watch. This plan defines agency responsibilities, provides a comprehensive description of an interagency standard for volcanic ash products and their formats, describes the agency backup procedures for operational products, and outlines the actions to be taken by each agency following an occurrence of a volcanic eruption that subsequently affects and impacts aviation services. Since our most recent International Conference on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety, volcanic ash-related product and service activities have grown considerably along with partnerships and alliances throughout the aviation community. In January 2005, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Centers for Environment Prediction began running the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model in place of the Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport and Dispersion (VAFTAD) model, upgrading support to the volcanic ash advisory community. Today, improvements to the HYSPLIT model are ongoing based on recommendations by the OFCM-sponsored Joint Action Group for the Selection and Evaluation of Atmospheric Transport and Diffusion Models and the Joint Action Group for Atmospheric Transport and Diffusion Modeling (Research and Development Plan). Two international workshops on volcanic ash have already taken place, noticeable improvements and innovations in education, training, and outreach have been made, and federal and public education and training programs on volcanic ash-related products, services, and procedures iv continue to evolve. For example, in partnership with Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University and other academic institutions, volcanic ash hazard and mitigation training has been incorporated into aviation meteorology courses. As an essential next step, our volcanic ash-related efforts in the near term will be centered on the development of an interagency implementation plan to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Elisov Lev


    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical formulation of the problem formalization of the subject area related to aviation security in civil aviation. The formalization task is determined by the modern issue of providing aviation security. Aviationsecurity in modern systems is based upon organizational standard of security control. This standard doesn’t require calcu- lating the security level. It allows solving the aviation security task without estimating the solution and evaluating the per- formance of security facilities. The issue of acceptable aviation security level stays unsolved, because its control lies in inspections that determine whether the object security facilities meet the requirements or not. The pending problem is also in whether the requirements are calculable and the evaluation is subjective.Lately, there has been determined quite a certain tendency to consider aviation security issues from the perspective of its level optimal control with the following identification, calculation and evaluation problems solving and decision mak- ing. The obtained results analysis in this direction shows that it’s strongly recommended to move to object formalization problem, which provides a mathematical modeling for aviation security control optimization.In this case, the authors assume to find the answer in the process of object formalization. Therefore aviation secu- rity is presented as some security environment condition, which defines the parameters associated with the object protec-tion system quality that depends on the use of protective equipment in conditions of counteraction to factors of external andinternal threats. It is shown that the proposed model belongs to a class of boundary value problems described by differential equations in partial derivatives. The classification of boundary value problems is presented.

  3. An examination of aviation accidents in the context of a conflict of interests between law enforcement, insurers, commissions for aircraft accident investigations and other entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BALCERZAK


    Full Text Available The sole purpose of air accident investigations should be the prevention of accidents and incidents in the future without apportioning blame or liability. Any civil aviation safety system is based on feedback and lessons learned from accidents and incidents, which require the strict application of rules on confidentiality in order to ensure the availability of valuable sources of information in the future. Therefore, related data, especially sensitive safety information, should be protected in an appropriate manner. Information provided by a person in the framework of a safety investigation should not be used against that person, in full respect of constitutional principles, as well as national and international law. Each “involved person” in an accident or another serious incident should promptly notify the competent investigating authority of the state of the event. An “involved person” means the owner, a member of the crew, the operator of the aircraft involved in an accident or other serious incident, or any person involved in the maintenance, design, manufacture of the affected aircraft or in the training of its crews, as well as any person involved in air traffic control, providing flight information or providing airport services to the aircraft in question, the staff of the national civil aviation authority, or staff of the European Aviation Safety Agency. The protection level of the organization (employer: employees who report an event or replace applications following an event with regard to the appropriate reporting systems should not face any prejudice from their employer because of information provided by the applicant. The protection does not cover (exclusions: infringement with wilful misconduct (direct intent, recklessness infringement; infringement committed by a clear and serious disregard of the obvious risks; and serious professional negligence of an unquestionably duty of care required under the circumstances

  4. Air Traffic Growth, Energy and the Environment 2040: Drivers, Challenges and Opportunities for Aviation


    Randt, Niclas P.; Jessberger, Christoph; Ploetner, Kay;


    Although there is a general agreement that civil aviation will continue its expansion in all major regions of the world within the next decade, its long-term development is highly uncertain. Aviation stakeholders (especially airlines) build their strategies upon time frames of roughly five to ten years while politics and regulatory authorities define goals for the entire industry that reach far beyond that. This paper presents how the scenario technique can help to interconnect short-term str...

  5. Safety engineering in handling fuels and lubricants in civil aviation (United States)

    Protoereiskii, Aleksandr Stepanovich

    The book is concerned with methods of improving working conditions, work hygiene, safety engineering, and fire and explosion prevention during the storage and handling of petroleum products at fuel and lubricant storage facilities. The discussion covers methods of protection against static and atmospheric discharges, lightning protection, safety engineering in fuel and lubricant laboratories, and methods of fire prevention and fire extinction. Attention is also given to methods for administering first aid in case of accidents and poisoning.

  6. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation (United States)

    Phillips, Edwin D.


    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  7. Galactic-scale civilization (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.


    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  8. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations. 91.313 Section 91.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...-category civil airplane manufactured after July 18, 1978, unless an approved shoulder harness is installed...

  9. Research to assess impacts on developing countries of measures to address emissions in the international aviation and shipping sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, A. [Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Faber, J.; Koopman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van Velzen, A. [Transport Analysis and Knowledge Systems TAKS, s.l. (Netherlands); Long, K.; Pollitt, H.; Barker, T. [Cambridge Econometrics, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Comberti, C.; Fazekas, D.; Blachowicz, A. [Climate Strategies, London (United Kingdom)


    The greenhouse gas emissions of international aviation and maritime transport are projected to increase rapidly over the coming decades, despite significant improvements in the fuel efficiency of aircraft and ships. In order to address their growth, Market Based Measures (MBMs) have been proposed to complement technical and operational measures. These measures are being discussed in ICAO (the UN organization for civil aviation) and IMO (the UN organization for maritime transport). One of the main issues in the debate has been the impact of MBMs on developing countries and especially on remote economies. This report quantifies the economic impacts of MBMs on ten case study economies and globally. The case study economies have been selected in the expectation that they would be relatively highly impacted because of their remoteness and/or dependence on international aviation or maritime transport. This report shows that the decrease in GDP is less than 0.01% on average and significantly less than 0.1% for all but a few of the case study countries. Countries with a higher dependency on tourism and trade are likely to experience greater economic impacts as market-based measures raise the costs of aviation and maritime transport; they impact economies due to increased prices for passenger travel and exported and imported goods. Some of these countries are small island states that are also vulnerable to climate change impacts. Undesired economic impacts on developing countries can be addressed effectively by a combination of measures such as exemptions of certain routes, lump sum rebates, and investments in infrastructure efficiency and development of more efficient ships and aircraft.

  10. Thermal Imaging in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Štumper


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the use of thermal imaging in aviation. In the never ending pursuit of lower costs, the Thermal Imaging offers shorter inspection times thanks to its application in aircraft inspections and can reduce the number of costly goarounds using the Enhanced Vision System, which also increases safety in one of the most dangerous parts of flight. Thermal Imaging also offers solutions for Airport Perimeter Security and it can be used for construction of ground surveillance system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł GŁOWACKI


    Full Text Available Poland, as a member of the EU, is represented within the ICAO, by the European Aviation Safety Agency. However, this does not relieve our country from the responsibility of developing a state safety programme (SSP. The need to set up such a programme, which has to be specific to every country involved in aviation operation, was introduced by the ICAO’s Annex 19. One of the important points in Annex 19 is: “5.2.1 Each State shall establish and maintain a safety database to facilitate the effective analysis of information on actual or potential safety deficiencies obtained, including that from its incident reporting systems, and to determine any actions required for the enhancement of safety”. The Polish Civil Aviation Authority, along with other databases, manages the European Coordination Centre for Aviation Incident Reporting Systems (ECCAIRS. The authors (who are specialists dealing with exploitation processes in aviation have conducted a laborious processing of the data contained in the ECCAIRS database, analysing them based on various criteria: aviation occurrence categories (as defined by the ICAO, phases of flight for different airports in Poland etc. Aircraft with an maximum take-off mass (MTOM 5,700 kg (commercial aviation were considered separately. It was found that the most events are those that relate to power plant (SCF-PP airframes and related system (SCF-NP failures, followed by collisions with birds (BIRD, events related to airports (ADRM and events related to the required separation of aircraft (MAC. For lighter aircraft, the dominant categories are ARC, CTOL, GTOW and LOC-I events. The article presents a proposed method for predicting the number of events, determining the alert levels for the next years and assuming a normal distribution (Gaussian. It is one of the first attempts to use actual data contained in the database of events on airports in Poland. The results of this analysis may support the decisions of

  12. Civil Society Participation in the Governance of Educational Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Civil Society Participation in the Governance of Educational Systems. Donor organizations increasingly support the idea that civil society organizations should be involved in the process of national education reform. Yet despite this widespread endorsement, little is known about the quality and effectiveness of civil society ...

  13. Civil Society Participation in the Governance of Educational Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Donor organizations increasingly support the idea that civil society organizations should be involved in the process of national education reform. Yet despite this widespread endorsement, little is known about the quality and effectiveness of civil society participation in education reform. This project will explore the role of civil ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maleshin


    Full Text Available Contemporary Russian civil procedure is not a pure Continental model because it also has procedural features of the common law system, as well as some other original and exceptional features. This article examines the main aspects of Russian civil justice: its main principles; judicial organization, including the structure of the courts and the division between courts of general jurisdiction and arbitrazh (commercial courts, and the Intellectual Property Court; sources of procedural law; bar organization; the jurisdiction of the courts; actions and proceedings; legal costs; evidence; administrative procedure; class actions; enforcement proceedings; and arbitration and mediation.

  15. The Relationship Between Core Members' Social Capital and Perceived and Externally Evaluated Prestige and Cooperation Among HIV/AIDS-Related Civil Society Organizations in China. (United States)

    Wang, Danni; Xu, Xiaoru; Mei, Guangliang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi


    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the core members' social capital was associated with individually perceived and externally evaluated prestige and cooperation among the HIV/AIDS-related civil society organizations (CSOs). To accomplish this, a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was carried out in eight provinces of China. Data were collected from the 327 core members via questionnaires and self-evaluated performance of the respondents were evaluated and measured. The interviews were conducted with all core members and the supervisory staff of the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that social support (adjusted odds ratio [a OR] = 1.87) and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher odds of prestige performance in self-evaluation. Furthermore, social support (a OR = 1.65), trust (a OR = 1.33), and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.52) were significantly correlated with cooperation performance. Trust was positively associated with the cooperation performance on external evaluation. These findings may provide a new perspective on challenges that the CSOs face in response to a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Social capital may increase performance and accelerate organizational growth, ultimately improving HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

  16. [Knowledge, and attitudes of Civil Society Organizations in the implementation of the Expanded Program on Immunization in Côte d'Ivoire]. (United States)

    Yao, Gnissan Henri Auguste; Aka, Lepri Bernadin Nicaise; Manouan, Nogbou Jean Marc; Effi, Odile Angbo; Douba, Alfred; Zengbé-Acray, Pétronille; Traoré, Youssouf; Soumahoro, Sory Ibrahim; Ak, Koko Aude; Dagnan, N'Cho Simplice


    The objective of this study was to assess the level of involvement of leaders of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in implementation of routine EPI activities. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge and attitudes of CSOs concerning implementation of routine EPI activities in the health district of Adiaké (Côte d'Ivoire). This study shows that 77.1% of CSO leaders were literate and 92.9% of them were practicing Catholics or Muslims. They had a good knowledge of the existence of EPI (97.1%) and EPI target diseases, but were ignorant about the immunization schedule (82%). 90% of CSO leaders considered EPI to be an important activity for the prevention of childhood diseases. They considered the reception in immunization units to be satisfactory (60%) and believed that rumours about the sterility of women were the cause of refusal of vaccination by communities. Although 41.4% of leaders had participated in social mobilization activities, none had participated in the mobilization of resources. Vaccination was not rejected by CSO leaders, but their lack of participation in implementation of EPI could induce errors and lead them to believe the rumours and refuse vaccination of their community. The effective integration of the socio-cultural bases of communities in which immunization programmes are conducted will promote the adhesion of the people responsible for these programmes.

  17. Sivil Havacılık Lisans Mezunlarının İstihdam ve Kariyer Durumları Üzerine Bir Araştırma/A Study of Civil Aviation Graduates' Employment and Career Status


    Kiracı, Arş.Grv.Kasım; Bayrak, Arş.Grv.Ümran


    Extended AbstractPurpose and Problem: In line with the developments in the aviation sector in Turkey and in the world, the need for labor force is continuously increasing. In order to meet this strong demand universities open aviation departments. However, the excessive increase in the student quotas is remarkable. This excess is to such degree that quotas for half of the number of all graduates so far are opened in just one year. Therefore, by analyzing the employment status of graduates, th...

  18. Public health within the EU policy space: a qualitative study of Organized Civil Society (OCS) and the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach. (United States)

    Franklin, P K


    This article reviews how Organized Civil Society (OCS) groups in the field of public health work across the boundaries between European institutions and policy areas. In particular, it explores 1) how the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is conducted by these groups informally within the formal governance structures, and 2) how this advocacy work creates space for public health within the broader political determinants of health. A qualitative mixed-methods framework. Political ethnography, including 20 semi-structured interviews conducted with EU health strategy stakeholders and participant observations in public health events (n = 22) in Brussels over a three-year period (2012-2015), as well as four interviews with EU Member State representatives. Three additional semi-structured interviews were conducted with World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe staff members who had been involved in the drafting of the Health 2020 framework and strategy and the accompanying main implementation pillar, European Action Plan for Strengthening Public Health Capacities and Services (EAP-PHS). The findings provide an insight into OCS work in the field of European public health, offering an account of the experiences of HiAP work conducted by the research participants. The OCS groups perceive themselves as communicators between policy areas within European institutions and between local and supranational levels. The structures and political determinants of health that impose limitations on a public institution can at points be transcended by stakeholders, who conduct HiAP work at supranational level, thus negotiating space for public health within the competitive, globalized policy space. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 10798 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of task assignment to the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA has withdrawn a task assigned to the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory...

  20. Aviation Safety Hotline Information System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aviation Safety Hotline Information System (ASHIS) collects, stores, and retrieves reports submitted by pilots, mechanics, cabin crew, passengers, or the public...

  1. Global civil society: between nation states and transnational corporations


    S. A. Kvitka


    Global civil society is the subject of the formation of a new world order and the modern humanitarian outlook, which is based on the primacy of justice and human rights. One of the actors head of global civil society is an international non-governmental organizations. But wrong to equate global civil society with the activities of these organizations only. Mostly they influence governments and their humanitarian and international politics. Meanwhile, the role of global civil and its society v...

  2. Evolution of civil aircraft industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram I. Afyan


    Full Text Available Civil aircraft industry market is а complex multistage system of manufacturers and consumers, which affects countries all over the world. The globalization and world economic growth caused inevitable merger of national markets into one system where the key role belongs to few corporations. In the article the author analyze peculiarities of civil aircraft industry global market shaping. Main reasons of aircraft industry centers appearance are considered through socio political and economic development of the industry. Factors that caused national specialization of manufacturing countries are examined along with peculiarities of Boeing leadership. The main stages of the industry development are described starting from the beginning of the 20th century up to the present day. The author highlights specific characters of European manufacturers development and their merger into one multinational conglomerate. Besides, modern market status is examined through benchmark study of the main competitors. Main tendencies of the industry are segmentation and new aviation industry clusters appearance. Key actors of regional aviation are described, which are Embraer and Bombardier. Reasons of their appearance and development are analyzed. Main pretenders for the aviation industry global market entrance are outlined.

  3. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.


    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  4. History and Civility (United States)

    Schaefer, Larry


    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  5. Technology outlook for aviation (United States)

    Roberts, L.


    Growth projections for aviation technology are put forth for a quarter-century ahead. Three main trends envisaged are towards: great efficiency and economy and longer range and endurance for subsonic aircraft; new generations of short-range fixed-wing craft and rotorcraft with versatile applicability; supersonic and hypersonic speeds. Improvements in lift/drag ratio, specific fuel consumption, structural weight factor, aerodynamic improvements (laminar flow control, increased wing aspect ratio, drag reduction for specified lift, propulsion efficiency, higher bypass ratios, composite structures) are discussed along with V/STOL, controllable twist rotors, circulation control rotors, variable-cycle engines, and higher structural efficiencies.

  6. A grey relational analytical approach to safety performance assessment in an aviation industry of a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyichukwu Ebubechukwu Onyegiri


    Full Text Available Safety in aviation impacts the overall success of the sector. It depends on the effectiveness and efficiency of safety management systems (SMSs, which contain diverse and complex elements. Thus, a quantitative methodology for aviation SMS in developing countries, capable of prioritising resources with incomplete information, is needed. Grey relational analysis (GRA is the most appropriate tool for this situation. This study assessed an existing SMS and determined its critical elements in a developing country’s aviation industry. Questionnaires were framed from the SMS manual of the International Civil Aviation Organization and from previous literature. The robustness and the efficiency of the approach were tested with data obtained from airline operators in Nigeria. Assessment of SMSs was done among airline service providers ascertaining the important levels of SMS elements. GRA was then applied to this data to identify the most influential elements of an SMS. Several companies were examined. Company A needs for a focus on sharing safety information and sensitization techniques to enable SMSs to better permeate through all levels, making employees aware of their SMS roles and duties to pursue a better safety culture. Company B needs to focus on more in-depth safety information dissemination platforms and methods. Non-punitive reporting should be done and safety promotion, culture, training and education should be prioritised. Company A has a better safety record than B. Overall, from the grey model, 12 critical elements were found out of 22 revised SMS elements that affect SMS. The major critical component was the safety structure and regulation. This is needed to build long lasting and effective SMSs. The novelty of this work is its unique application of GRA for a developing country’s airline safety.

  7. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration...

  8. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation Administration...

  9. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility program...

  10. 75 FR 6433 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental Assessment and Public...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Availability of a Draft Environmental... Chicago, Illinois. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) proposes to fund, construct, and...

  11. Explosives detection for aviation security. (United States)

    Fainberg, A


    The threat of terrorism against commercial aviation has received much attention in the past few years. In response, new ways to detect explosives and to combine techniques based on different phenomena into integrated security systems are being developed to improve aviation security. Several leading methods for explosives and weapons detection are presented.

  12. Governing Civil Society Organisations and Constructing the Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein Jessen, Mathias

    This paper argues that civil society is something that must be produced and constructed in order to come into existence. This construction entails a specific production of what civil society is, which values are (and should be) present in it, what the common good is and how civil society and civil...... society organizations can and should contribute to it. Civil society always has and continues to exist in the shadow of the state meaning that the state is the main producer of civil society through legislation, administration and discourse. Since the 1990s, civil society has become a pivotal notion...... in both the public agenda and in state governance. In an age of scaling back of welfare services, civil society has become an important arena for the relief of the troubled welfare state. This paper uses Denmark as an illustrative example to show how civil society is produced both as a specific site...

  13. The Civil Defense Acquisition Workforce: Enhancing Recruitment Through Hiring Flexibilities (United States)


    The Civil Defense Acquisition Workforce: Enhancing Recruitment Through Hiring Flexibilities Kathryn A. Francis Analyst in Government...Organization and Management November 22, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R44695 The Civil Defense Acquisition Workforce: Hiring...establishment of new flexibilities, staff knowledge of appropriate use, budgetary constraints, and efforts to balance hiring speed with equity. The Civil

  14. Pandemic Diseases and the Aviation Network SARS, a case study (United States)

    Hufnagel, Lars; Brockmann, Dirk; Geisel, Theo


    We investigate the mechanisms of the worldwide spread of infectious diseases in a modern world in which humans travel on all scales. We introduce a probabilistic model which accounts for the worldwide spread of infectious diseases on the global aviation network. The analysis indicates that a forecast of the geographical spread of an epidemic is indeed possible, provided that local dynamical parameters of the disease such as the basic reproduction number are known. The model consists of local stochastic infection dynamics and stochastic transport of individuals on the worldwide aviation network which takes into account over 95% of the entire the national and international civil aviation traffic. Our simulations of the SARS outbreak are in surprisingly good agreement with published case reports. Despite the fact that the system is stochastic with a high number of degrees of freedom the outcome of a single simulation exhibits only a small magnitude of variability. We show that this is due to the strong heterogeneity of the network ranging from a few two over 25,000 passengers between nodes of the network. Thus, we propose that our model can be employed to predict the worldwide spread of future pandemic diseases and to identify endangered regions in advance. Based on the connectivity of the aviation network we evaluate the performance of different control strategies and show that a quick and focused reaction is essential to inhibit the global spread of infectious diseases.

  15. 78 FR 72141 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... December 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration, 800...

  16. 78 FR 50138 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... September 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration, 800...

  17. 78 FR 34139 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration, 800...

  18. 75 FR 60493 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Regulations, the FAA gives notice it has renewed the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2..., Executive Director, Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P ...

  19. Education as a Basic Element of Improving Professional Important Qualities of Aviation Technical Maintenance Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbačovs Oļegs


    Full Text Available In this article the importance of professional qualities, competence and their increase, directly dependent on the training of aviation technical maintenance personnel and determination the level of flight safety is covered. This publication analyses necessary training and requirements for aviation technical personnel involved in aircraft maintenance, as well as the requirements for aviation training organizations, defined as per Part-147, for such personnel preparation and training.

  20. Wind turbines and aviation interests - European experience and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jago, P.; Taylor, N.


    The approach of other European countries to the effects of wind turbines on civil and military aviation has been studied in order to determine the applicability of these experiences to UK stakeholders. The background to the study is traced, and the restriction on the siting of turbines due to the hazards posed to aviation and defence interests, and the potential effects on radar for air traffic control, defence and low flying aircraft are examined. The planning and siting issues in different European countries, the planning system in the UK, and the safeguarding of aerodromes and military sites are discussed along with issues involved in low flying aircraft and search and rescue operations, and the marking and illumination of wind farms.

  1. Geophylosophy of circumpolar civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zhuvaka


    Under the influence of colonization occurred the interpenetration of civilizations, indigenous peoples have largely lose its image, the traditional way of life and culture. Arctic civilization has appeared in a crisis and facing the threat of extinction.

  2. Det civile samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov


    Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement.......Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement....

  3. NOx Emissions Characteristics and Correlation Equations of Two P and W's Axially Staged Sector Combustors Developed Under NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project (United States)

    He, Zhuohui J.


    Two P&W (Pratt & Whitney)'s axially staged sector combustors have been developed under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. One combustor was developed under ERA Phase I, and the other was developed under ERA Phase II. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions characteristics and correlation equations for these two sector combustors are reported in this article. The Phase I design was to optimize the NOx emissions reduction potential, while the Phase II design was more practical and robust. Multiple injection points and fuel staging strategies are used in the combustor design. Pilot-stage injectors are located on the front dome plate of the combustor, and main-stage injectors are positioned on the top and bottom (Phase I) or on the top only (Phase II) of the combustor liners downstream. Low power configuration uses only pilot-stage injectors. Main-stage injectors are added to high power configuration to help distribute fuel more evenly and achieve lean burn throughout the combustor yielding very low NOx emissions. The ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) landing-takeoff NOx emissions are verified to be 88 percent (Phase I) and 76 percent (Phase II) under the ICAO CAEP/6 (Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection 6th Meeting) standard, exceeding the ERA project goal of 75 percent reduction, and the combustors proved to have stable combustion with room to maneuver on fuel flow splits for operability.

  4. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.


    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  5. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013 (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B.


    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA’s General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board’s data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P score’s ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI = 0.64 to 0.78). Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes. PMID:27773963

  6. A Guide To Aviation Education Resources. (United States)

    National Coalition for Aviation Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide to aviation education resources was compiled by the National Coalition for Aviation Education (NCAE) which represents government, industry, and labor. NCAE's mission is to: (1) promote aviation education activities and resources; (2) increase public understanding of the importance of aviation; and (3) support educational initiatives at…

  7. 75 FR 44998 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ...-OST-2010-0074] The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice.... ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of meeting... meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held August 24, 2010, in Chicago, Illinois...

  8. 75 FR 57103 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held September 28...

  9. 75 FR 60163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19, 2010...

  10. 75 FR 34520 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... competitiveness of the U.S. aviation industry and its capability to manage effectively the evolving transportation... The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting... Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  11. Aviation and Remote Sensing Programs (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Efficiency and effectiveness of aerial photograph acquisition by the Region 3 Aviation Program will be improved with use of newly purchased upgrades for the Applanix...

  12. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety (United States)

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.; ,


    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  13. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.


    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  14. Perceived Leadership Styles and Effectiveness of Aviation Program Leaders: A Four-Frame Analysis (United States)

    Phillips, Ryan


    The aviation industry and higher education environments are ever-changing due to a multitude of economic and external variables. The leaders of aviation higher education programs must successfully lead their organization and followers in preparing student graduates for the industry that awaits them upon graduation. This study examined the…

  15. The Effects of Tobacco on Aviation Safety (United States)


    THE EFFECTS OF TOBACCO ON AVIATION SAFETY4 I 8. Performing 0rganization Report No. J. .L... orL ~l MrM K. 1 1 rJnder_____ 9.. .-tPer’rorming medical certificate. 3.0 Aerobatics, age 60, diabetic , arteriosclerotic vascular disease. 3.4 Age 67, pilot incapacitation due to disturbance of... Diabetes , hypertension, RA level of 111 mso, age 52, 2,000 ft. 6.1 BA level of 252 mg%, unauthorized use of aircraft. 6.3 4,700 ft, low-level

  16. IMPACT OF AVIATION ON CLIMATE: FAA's Aviation Climate Change Research Initiative (ACCRI) Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guy P Brasseur; Mohan Gupta; Bruce E Anderson; Sathya Balasubramanian; Steven Barrett; David Duda; Gregggg Fleming; Piers M Forster; Jan Fuglestvedt; Andrew Gettelman; Rangasayi N Halthore; S Daniel Jacob; Mark Z Jacobson; Arezoo Khodayari; Kuo-Nan Liou; Marianne T Lund; Richard C Miake-Lye; Patrick Minnis; Seth Olsen; Joyce E Penner; Ronald Prinn; Ulrich Schumann; Henry B Selkirk; Andrei Sokolov; Nadine Unger; Philip Wolfe; Hsi-Wu Wong; Donald W Wuebbles; Bingqi Yi; Ping Yang; Cheng Zhou


      Aviation emissions are mostly concentrated on flight corridor regions. [...]studies are needed to better understand the geographical disparities in regional climate impacts of aviation emissions...

  17. Aviation Systems Test and Integration Lab (AvSTIL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aviation Systems Test and Integration Laboratory offers an innovative approach to aviation system and subsystem testing by fully immersing aviation platforms in...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław KOZUBA


    Full Text Available This article examines airbases as organizational units of the Polish Air Force from the perspective of executing logistical processes, with a particular emphasis on multirole aircraft maintenance processes. We selected air force bases that deal with multirole aircraft in order to become acquainted with the opinions of service processing executors. The observations of most immediate executors of the processes allow us to examine the possibilities for their enhancement and development. We presented the dependencies between different factors occurring in logistics processes, and their relationships and conditionings [3, 6, 7]. We described these factors using comparative parameters by means of the analysis and tools recommended in the science of management [2, 3, 8], while the collected material was developed using statistical tools and computer software [1]. The article is illustrated with numerous pictures and tables.

  19. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  20. A Domain-Specific Language for Aviation Domain Interoperability (United States)

    Comitz, Paul


    Modern information systems require a flexible, scalable, and upgradeable infrastructure that allows communication and collaboration between heterogeneous information processing and computing environments. Aviation systems from different organizations often use differing representations and distribution policies for the same data and messages,…

  1. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger


    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  2. Citizenship, Democratic Participation, and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.


    The interaction between organized civil society and the public sector has becoming stronger and more outspoken for several reasons. First, the public sector is increasingly turning to the civic organizations because the general failure of New Public Management strategies and market-driven solutions...... concerning provision of public goods. Second, the public sector is in need of information concerning marginalized groups and has problems representing these groups because of the growing diversity in the population. Only the civil society and its organizations seem to have the capability and resources...... representing specific social groups and time and energy to be involved in social networks among vulnerable social groups. Third, the structure and the functions of civil society organizations and their scope of activities are strongly dependent on the structure of the welfare regime. During the recent decade...

  3. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.


    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  4. Assessment of the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (United States)


    A comprehensive Tools Suite to allow for : thorough evaluation of the environmental effects and impacts : of aviation is currently being developed by the U.S. This suite : consists of the Environmental Design Space (EDS), the : Aviation Environmental...

  5. General aviation statistical databook & industry outlook (United States)


    2009 was one of the toughest years the general aviation industry has ever : experienced. The global economic crisis which included major constraints : on credit, coupled with the mischaracterization of business aviation led some : operators to divest...

  6. 76 FR 2745 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Eighty-Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159: Global Positioning System (GPS) AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee...

  7. 77 FR 56909 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works with...

  8. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Document Server


    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  9. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia


    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  10. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  11. Apps for Ancient Civilizations (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie


    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  12. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  13. A new approach to modeling aviation accidents (United States)

    Rao, Arjun Harsha

    General Aviation (GA) is a catchall term for all aircraft operations in the US that are not categorized as commercial operations or military flights. GA aircraft account for almost 97% of the US civil aviation fleet. Unfortunately, GA flights have a much higher fatal accident rate than commercial operations. Recent estimates by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) showed that the GA fatal accident rate has remained relatively unchanged between 2010 and 2015, with 1566 fatal accidents accounting for 2650 fatalities. Several research efforts have been directed towards betters understanding the causes of GA accidents. Many of these efforts use National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident reports and data. Unfortunately, while these studies easily identify the top types of accidents (e.g., inflight loss of control (LOC)), they usually cannot identify why these accidents are happening. Most NTSB narrative reports for GA accidents are very short (many are only one paragraph long), and do not contain much information on the causes (likely because the causes were not fully identified). NTSB investigators also code each accident using an event-based coding system, which should facilitate identification of patterns and trends in causation, given the high number of GA accidents each year. However, this system is susceptible to investigator interpretation and error, meaning that two investigators may code the same accident differently, or omit applicable codes. To facilitate a potentially better understanding of GA accident causation, this research develops a state-based approach to check for logical gaps or omissions in NTSB accident records, and potentially fills-in the omissions. The state-based approach offers more flexibility as it moves away from the conventional event-based representation of accidents, which classifies events in accidents into several categories such as causes, contributing factors, findings, occurrences, and phase of flight. The method

  14. Malaysian aviation technologist promotion to managerial role: an empirical overview (United States)

    Liew, C. L.; Abu Talib, A. R.; Jacobs, R. L.


    The Malaysian aviation industry has continued to march forward. With a turnover of RM23.7 billion in 2013, it is expected to grow higher especially after the Malaysian national aerospace blueprint was launched in 2015. The aviation related organizations currently have a workforce of approximately 13500. These organizations need to be managed by competent managers who have a strong background of technologist. Aviation technologist is one of the key components in the aviation maintenance industry as they are the future managers charged with the responsibility to ensure continuation of the organization's objectives and culture. The technologist role and manager's role are somehow different. The promotion of technologist to managerial roles is quite common but whether the technologist is able to take up managerial role effectively is yet to be fully understood. It is quite common that there was insufficient training for the technologist before being promoted to take up management roles. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of technologists and managers in professional services industries such as MRO and to understand that there is a need within the industry to re-look into the perspective of a proper training to prepare them to take up management roles effectively.

  15. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...... of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version...

  16. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar


    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...... literature. First, contrary to what is commonly argued, we claim that strong states in Asia promote civil regulation in what we call the “paradox of the weak state”. Second, we not only argue that civil regulation is mainly enforced by multinational enterprises willing to promote international social...

  17. Islam dan Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sukardi


    Full Text Available The article tries to address the concept of civil society from varied perspectives. From a historical point of view, civil society demands not only the absent domination of state but also liberates individuals from the hegemony of state. The article shows that in Indonesia and Malaysian discourse, masyarakat madani is often used to represent the term of civil society. Using this conception, major values of civil society also share with basic ideas within the Medina Treaty in the history of Islam. These ideas include egalitarianism, human rights protection, participation, law and justice enforcement and pluralism. In this frame, the question on whether or not Islam is compatible with the concept of civil society is clearly answered. Muslims could benefit such a concept to build their awareness of being progressive and adaptive to social changes.

  18. Eco-efficiency in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grewe, V.; Linke, Florian


    Air traffic guarantees mobility and serves the needs of society to travel over long distances in a decent time. But aviation also contributes to climate change. Here, we present various mitigation options, based on technological and operational measures and present a framework to compare the

  19. Managing the Aviation Insider Threat (United States)


    World Airport NSAS National Strategy for Aviation Security OIS Office of Intelligence SIDA Security Identification Display Area STA Security...Security of the secured area”, 1542.205, “Security of the security identification display area ( SIDA )”, and 1542.209, “Fingerprint-based criminal

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2 (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2...

  1. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1 (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No...

  2. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports Development Office, ASW-650...

  3. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901 Locust...

  4. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. Curriculum Implementation Guide. (United States)

    Moore, John, Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum implementation guide is a scope and sequence for the general section of a course in aviation maintenance technology. The course materials were prepared through a cooperative effort of airframe and powerplant mechanics, general aviation industry representatives, Federal Aviation Administration representatives, and vocational…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Kulyk


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Increasing of civil aviation safety level is one of principal objectives of world air transport development. Present research paper discusses modern trends of civil aviation activity. Special attention is paid to efficiency, safety and security of the global air transport system /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  6. Scientific Contributions to Aviation Safety: A User's Perspective (United States)

    Stills, M.; Guffanti, M.; Salinas, L.


    Volcanic ash poses a significant threat to aviation, and steps are taken by commercial operators to avoid encounters in order to protect the safety of passengers and crews. To minimize the risk of damage to aircraft, pilots, dispatchers, and meteorologists plan routes that avoid ash and sometimes execute fuel stops and/or diversions when necessary. Preventing damaging encounters to ensure safety is paramount, but route changes and diversions need to be as efficient as possible in terms of time and fuel expended. Many airlines have experience dealing with possible ash hazards, and dispatchers, pilots, and weather units rely heavily on information from volcano and meteorological scientists. Formal warning messages from civil aviation authorities and aviation weather offices also are an integral part of all operational decisions. Airline operation centers need a range of products and services from scientific groups, including: global synoptic views of activity that may impact flight routes; specific forecasts (predictions) of impending volcanic activity; clear descriptions of ash-dispersion model capabilities and remote-sensing detection techniques. More in-depth issues may also need to be addressed such as dispersion model differences; satellite sensor inadequacy, as it relates to the detection of specific physical phenomena; clarity of labeling of time-series data, such as sequential remote-sensing imagery; and direct access to subject matter experts during events. Information flow needs to be consistent and issued at specific intervals and in specific formats to facilitate procedural development in the aviation community. These issues provide a strong argument in the United States for continued collaboration among air carriers, Volcano Observatories, and Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers.

  7. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape. (United States)

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J


    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  8. Symposium in honour of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization : 90 year of contribution to the creation of international civil service law

    CERN Document Server

    Colloque en l'honneur du Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail : une contribution de 90 ans à la création d'un droit de la fonction publique internationale; 90 years of contribution of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization to the creation of international civil service law; Une contribution de 90 ans du Tribunal administratif de l'Organisation internationale du Travail à la création d'un droit de la fonction publique internationale; Une contribution de 90 ans du TAOIT; 90 years of contribution of the ILOAT


    The present book arises out of a symposium that the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization organized on 5 May 2017 to celebrate the 90 years of its existence and its 125th Session held in 2017.

  9. Russian eruption warning systems for aviation (United States)

    Neal, C.; Girina, O.; Senyukov, S.; Rybin, A.; Osiensky, J.; Izbekov, P.; Ferguson, G.


    More than 65 potentially active volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kurile Islands pose a substantial threat to aircraft on the Northern Pacific (NOPAC), Russian Trans-East (RTE), and Pacific Organized Track System (PACOTS) air routes. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) monitors and reports on volcanic hazards to aviation for Kamchatka and the north Kuriles. KVERT scientists utilize real-time seismic data, daily satellite views of the region, real-time video, and pilot and field reports of activity to track and alert the aviation industry of hazardous activity. Most Kurile Island volcanoes are monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) based in Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. SVERT uses daily moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images to look for volcanic activity along this 1,250-km chain of islands. Neither operation is staffed 24 h per day. In addition, the vast majority of Russian volcanoes are not monitored seismically in real-time. Other challenges include multiple time-zones and language differences that hamper communication among volcanologists and meteorologists in the US, Japan, and Russia who share the responsibility to issue official warnings. Rapid, consistent verification of explosive eruptions and determination of cloud heights remain significant technical challenges. Despite these difficulties, in more than a decade of frequent eruptive activity in Kamchatka and the northern Kuriles, no damaging encounters with volcanic ash from Russian eruptions have been recorded. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esty Ekawati


    Full Text Available Civil Society is non-government organization or an autonomous group which is faced with state and has a function for check and balance for the government policy. Civil society also has a function to social control. Lary Diamond said that civil society establish on cultural organization such as religion or ethnic or organization which keep the truth and believe. Nahdhatul Ulama is a religion organization in Indonesia which has function to social control for the government. Beside that, the activities of NU in education, democracy development and other social activities made NU still exist in social and political society in Indonesia.

  11. Transferring Aviation Practices into Clinical Medicine for the Promotion of High Reliability. (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; McPherson, Mark K; Pina, Joseph S; Gaydos, Steven J


    Aviation is a classic example of a high reliability organization (HRO)-an organization in which catastrophic events are expected to occur without control measures. As health care systems transition toward high reliability, aviation practices are increasingly transferred for clinical implementation. A PubMed search using the terms aviation, crew resource management, and patient safety was undertaken. Manuscripts authored by physician pilots and accident investigation regulations were analyzed. Subject matter experts involved in adoption of aviation practices into the medical field were interviewed. A PubMed search yielded 621 results with 22 relevant for inclusion. Improved clinical outcomes were noted in five research trials in which aviation practices were adopted, particularly with regard to checklist usage and crew resource-management training. Effectiveness of interventions was influenced by intensity of application, leadership involvement, and provision of staff training. The usefulness of incorporating mishap investigation techniques has not been established. Whereas aviation accident investigation is highly standardized, the investigation of medical error is characterized by variation. The adoption of aviation practices into clinical medicine facilitates an evolution toward high reliability. Evidence for the efficacy of the checklist and crew resource-management training is robust. Transference of aviation accident investigation practices is preliminary. A standardized, independent investigation process could facilitate the development of a safety culture commensurate with that achieved in the aviation industry.Powell-Dunford N, McPherson MK, Pina JS, Gaydos SJ. Transferring aviation practices into clinical medicine for the promotion of high reliability. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):487-491.

  12. Civil & Criminal Penalties (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  13. The paradox of civilizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilliam, Laura

    of youngsters particularly interesting to look at from an Eliasian perspective. They are outsiders resented by the established of society, yet as outsiders and children they are also the target of intense civilizing missions. They have to be integrated into Danish society – and through what is termed...... “integration” in policies, they are to become civilized citizens. While Elias described civilization as a process which is “set in motion blindly”, he also consented that it “gradually leads towards greater scope for planned intervention into both the social and individual structures” (Elias: 1939....../1994:367). In Denmark, the school institution is the principal institution for society’s planned intervention into these structures. It is the institution, which politicians and civilians turn to, when moral panics of social ills thrive. Likewise the school is also given the task of integrating and civilizing ethnic...

  14. Civil Surgeon Info (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  15. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...

  16. Love and Civil Rights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman, Ediberto


    .... During the era where he achieved the greatest influence, Dr. King knew that societal-wide change could not occur without transforming the American psyche on the basic fairness of the civil rights struggle...

  17. Aviator Selection 1919-1977. (United States)


    Hutchins and Pomarolli (72), and Willingham (143) indicated some relationship between more finely coordinated muscular skills ( gymnastic and swimming per... rhythmic tapping. A biserial correlation of .42 was observed for predicting training success. Divided attention during the performance of simultaneous...H. Gymnastics grades as predictors to attri- tion to flight training. SR #58-15, Naval School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, Florida, 1958. 118

  18. General Aviation Land Use Planning


    Isenberg, Nick; Payne, Brian; Muia, Maria


    In this session we discuss the value of land use planning sessions in determining airside and landside short-, mid-, and long-term needs of the airport. Land use plans have been used to secure funding and increase commercial landside and military airside growth. Currently a plan is being used to develop the first general aviation aerotropolis concept. Join us to learn how a land use plan can increase the marketability and revenue generation of your airport.

  19. Galactic civilizations - Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion (United States)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.


    A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.

  20. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael


    automobiles. ?? Community Noise: Hub and smaller GA airports are facing increasing noise restrictions, and while commercial airliners have dramatically decreased their community noise footprint over the past 30 years, GA aircraft noise has essentially remained same, and moreover, is located in closer proximity to neighborhoods and businesses. ?? Operating Costs: GA operating costs have risen dramatically due to average fuel costs of over $6 per gallon, which has constrained the market over the past decade and resulted in more than 50% lower sales and 35% less yearly operations. Infusion of autonomy and electric propulsion technologies can accomplish not only a transformation of the GA market, but also provide a technology enablement bridge for both larger aircraft and the emerging civil Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) markets. The NASA Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) project successfully used a similar approach to enable the introduction of primary composite structures and flat panel displays in the 1990s, establishing both the technology and certification standardization to permit quick adoption through partnerships with industry, academia, and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Regional and airliner markets are experiencing constant pressure to achieve decreasing levels of community emissions and noise, while lowering operating costs and improving safety. But to what degree can these new technology frontiers impact aircraft safety, the environment, operations, cost, and performance? Are the benefits transformational enough to fundamentally alter aircraft competiveness and productivity to permit much greater aviation use for high speed and On-Demand Mobility (ODM)? These questions were asked in a Zip aviation system study named after the Zip Car, an emerging car-sharing business model. Zip Aviation investigates the potential to enable new emergent markets for aviation that offer "more flexibility than the existing transportation solutions

  1. Nuclear energy and civilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soentono, S. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country`s ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  2. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) (United States)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; hide


    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  3. Non-Profit Ecological Organizations in the Function of the Realization of the Right to Freedom of Association and the Development of Civil Environmental Liability in Kazakhstan (United States)

    Aitimov, Bolat Zh.; Dussipov, Erkin Sh.; Altynbekkyzy, Alua; Ashimova, Dinara I.; Nurbek, Dana T.; Urazymbetov, Talgat E.


    Environmental issues have become a central issue, which is considered not only at the state level, but also in the international arena. At the moment the main initiators of drawing attention to the environment are the environmental non-profit organizations. In developed countries, these organizations provide full support to the government and…

  4. Satellite Delivery of Aviation Weather Data (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Haendel, Richard


    With aviation traffic continuing to increase worldwide, reducing the aviation accident rate and aviation schedule delays is of critical importance. In the United States, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Aviation Safety Program and the Aviation System Capacity Program to develop and test new technologies to increase aviation safety and system capacity. Weather is a significant contributor to aviation accidents and schedule delays. The timely dissemination of weather information to decision makers in the aviation system, particularly to pilots, is essential in reducing system delays and weather related aviation accidents. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating improved methods of weather information dissemination through satellite broadcasting directly to aircraft. This paper describes an on-going cooperative research program with NASA, Rockwell Collins, WorldSpace, Jeppesen and American Airlines to evaluate the use of satellite digital audio radio service (SDARS) for low cost broadcast of aviation weather information, called Satellite Weather Information Service (SWIS). The description and results of the completed SWIS Phase 1 are presented, and the description of the on-going SWIS Phase 2 is given.

  5. Civil Society and Islamism in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A vibrant civil society sector in some Middle Eastern states has managed over the years to fill a role traditionally held by state institutions, that of providing social services such as health care, education and housing. Islamic civil society organizations have been especially successful in this role, and in doing so have acquired ...

  6. Civil Religious Dynamics in José Craveirinha's Aesthetisised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is about the way in which Craveirinha's aesthetic representation in Karingana-Ua-Karingana, Xigubo and Cela 1, helped gather a shared repertoire near the will (longings, desires, wishes) of many Mozambicans – the organic civil religion, into a coherent political project – the instrumental civil religion. That is ...

  7. Institutions of Civil Society in Space of Democratic Politics


    Zhuravleva, I. V.


    The article presents an analysis of a civil society organization depending on the democratization of the political system from three points of view: Liberal Democratic, Social Democratic and that generalizing the first and the second ones. Democracy is considered as a subordinate use; requirements for compliance of democracy in relation to civil society are identified and their relationship is defined.

  8. The Council on Aviation Accreditation: Part One - Historical Foundation (United States)

    Prather, C. Daniel


    The Council on Aviation Accreditation (CAA) was established in 1988 in response to the need for formal, specialized accreditation of aviation academic programs, as expressed by institutional members of the University Aviation Association (UAA). The first aviation programs were accredited by the CAA in 1992, and today, the CAA lists 60 accredited programs at 21 institutions nationwide. Although the number of accredited programs has steadily grown, there are currently only 20 percent of UAA member institutions with CAA accredited programs. In an effort to further understand this issue, a case study of the CAA was performed, which resulted in a two-part case study report. Part one focuses on the following questions: (a) why was the CAA established and how has it evolved; (b) what is the purpose of the CAA; (c) how does a program become accredited by the CAA; and (d) what is the current environment in which the CAA operates. In answering these questions, various sources of data (such as CAA documents, magazine and journal articles, email inquiries, and an on-line survey) were utilized. Part one of this study resulted in a better understanding of the CAA, including its history, purpose, and the entire accreditation process. Part two will both examine the contemporary issues being faced by the CAA and provide recommendations to enhance the future growth of the organization.

  9. The Threat Among Us: Insiders Intensify Aviation Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Katie E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Aviation terrorism is powerful and symbolic, and will likely remain a staple target for terrorists aiming to inflict chaos and cause mass casualties similar to the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. The majority of international and domestic aviation terrorist attacks involves outsiders, or people who do not have direct access to or affiliation with a target through employment. However, several significant attacks and plots against the industry involved malicious employees motivated by suicide or devotion to a terrorist organization. Malicious insiders’ access and knowledge of aviation security, systems, networks, and infrastructure is valuable to terrorists, providing a different pathway for attacking the industry through the insider threat. Indicators and warnings of insider threats in these cases exist, providing insight into how security agencies, such as the Transportation Security Administration, can better predict and identify insider involvement. Understanding previous aviation insider threat events will likely aid in stimulating proactive security measures, rather than reactive responses. However, similar to traditional airport security measures, there are social, political, and economic challenges in protecting against the insider threat, including privacy concerns and cost-benefit analysis.

  10. The Case of Palestinian Civil Society in Israel: Islam, Civil Society, and Educational Activism (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Mustafa, Muhanad


    This article examines the educational activism of two Arab civil organizations in Israel: the Follow-Up Committee on Arab Education (FUCAE) and the Eqraa Association (Eqraa). On the one hand, it explores the possibilities and limitations of the involvement of the FUCAE in the state's Arab education system, as a secular organization that is heavily…

  11. The Impact of Commercial Aviation on Naval Aviation (United States)


    aviators more comparable to the airlines . The current ACCP plan is projected to cost the Navy $33.2 million in FY17, $35.3 million in FY18, $36.9...was the low end of the spectrum. Currently, the five airlines analyzed in this study are projected to hire a combined 2,500 new pilots in 2016...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) For the first time in over 15 years, commercial airlines are hiring large numbers of pilots and

  12. Methodology of the Auditing Measures to Civil Airport Security and Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Kolesár


    Full Text Available Airports similarly to other companies are certified in compliance with the International Standardization Organization (ISO standards of products and services (series of ISO 9000 Standards regarding quality management, to coordinate the technical side of standardizatioon and normalization at an international scale. In order for the airports to meet the norms and the certification requirements as by the ISO they are liable to undergo strict audits of quality, as a rule, conducted by an independent auditing organization. Focus of the audits is primarily on airport operation economics and security. The article is an analysis into the methodology of the airport security audit processes and activities. Within the framework of planning, the sequence of steps is described in line with the principles and procedures of the Security Management System (SMS and starndards established by the International Standardization Organization (ISO. The methodology of conducting airport security audit is developed in compliance with the national programme and international legislation standards (Annex 17 applicable to protection of civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference.

  13. Taxation of United States general aviation (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and


    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.


  15. Measuring Religion in Global Civil Society (United States)

    Bush, Evelyn L.


    This article illustrates two conceptual and methodological problems that interfere with the accurate identification and measurement of religious mobilization in global civil society. First, data used to study the organizational composition of global culture contain a selection bias that favors organizations within an elite stratum of the world…

  16. Psychophysiological monitoring of operator's emotional stress in aviation and astronautics. (United States)

    Simonov, P V; Frolov, M V; Ivanov, E A


    The level of emotional stress depending on the power of motivation and the estimation by the subject of the probability (possibility) of goal achievement, largely influences the operator's skill performance (that of a pilot, controller, astronaut). A decrease in the emotional tonus leads to drowsiness, lack of vigilance, missing of significant signals, and to slower reactions. The extremely high stress level disorganizes the activity, complicates it with a trend toward untimely acts and reactions to the insignificant signals (false alarms). The best methods to monitor the degree of the operator's emotional state during his skill performance are the integral estimation of the changes in heart-rate and T-peak amplitude, as well as the analysis of spectral and intonational characteristics of the human voice during radio conversation. These methods were tested on paratroopers, pilots in civil aviation, and airport controllers.

  17. Prescribing Spectacles for Aviators: USAF Experience (United States)


    spectacles or contact lenses , it is 20 26 a0 36 40 4 so mandatory, per Air Force Regulation (AFR) 60-16, AGE paragraph 6-3 (3 March 1989), that they carry in...operators (from USAFSAM-SR-89-5). case of trouble with spectacles or contact lenses , fliers Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine - January, 1992...aviators. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES spectacles; presbyopia ; bifocals; trifocals; multifocals; _ vision, aviators; flyers; aircrew members

  18. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John


    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  19. 78 FR 49595 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task to...

  20. 77 FR 10797 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of withdrawal of task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA has withdrawn a task assigned to the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory...

  1. 77 FR 69916 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation... public of a meeting of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held on December 6, 2012, at 1:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation...

  2. 76 FR 81009 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task to...

  3. 76 FR 21936 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task to...

  4. 78 FR 11728 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... held on March 5, 2013, at 1:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation...

  5. Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aviation Information Systems Development Laboratory (AISDL) provides the tools, reconfigurability and support to ensure the quality and integrity of new...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyktoriia Cherevatiuk


    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal directions of optimization of the legal adjusting of certification of air ships of general aviation, by realization of analysis of rules, procedure and subjects of registration of civil air ships and permissive system in Ukraine, USA, and also in the countries of the European concord.  Exposure of factors that restrain development of general aviation in Ukraine and grant to suggestion in relation to the improvement of the legal adjusting of certification of air ships of general aviation. Methods: the use of approach of the systems allowed to reveal basic directions of optimization of the legal adjusting of certification of air ships of general aviation of Ukraine, being base on experience of leading countries of the world. Results: in the article attention is accented on the lacks of the legal adjusting of Ukrainian general aviation,  in particular, to the legislative vagueness of concept of general aviation that limits her development in direction of realization as commercial and substantially narrows the spectrum of possibilities for her subjects, and also does this sector of aviation economically unattractive. Substantially absence of the ramified classification of air ships complicates the legal adjusting, what took into account sizes of air ship, engine, condition of take off the plane and landings, distance of flights, carrying capacity and other. The questions of optimization of the legal adjusting of certification of air ships of general aviation touch simplification of procedure of certification for ultralight , being base on experience of the USA, Canada, and also some countries of Europe. Discussion: authors offer the ways of optimization of the legal adjustment of certification of air ships of general aviation of Ukraine.

  7. Classification of extraterrestrial civilizations (United States)

    Tang, Tong B.; Chang, Grace


    A scheme of classification of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) communities based on the scope of energy accessible to the civilization in question is proposed as an alternative to the Kardeshev (1964) scheme that includes three types of civilization, as determined by their levels of energy expenditure. The proposed scheme includes six classes: (1) a civilization that runs essentially on energy exerted by individual beings or by domesticated lower life forms, (2) harnessing of natural sources on planetary surface with artificial constructions, like water wheels and wind sails, (3) energy from fossils and fissionable isotopes, mined beneath the planet surface, (4) exploitation of nuclear fusion on a large scale, whether on the planet, in space, or from primary solar energy, (5) extensive use of antimatter for energy storage, and (6) energy from spacetime, perhaps via the action of naked singularities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fu


    Full Text Available This article presents a basic and comprehensive introduction of Chinese civil justice. It gives a complete picture of Chinese civil justice, including the brief history, the court and judge system, the outline of the procedure, and the internationalization. Through the introduction, one can find that Chinese civil procedure law is a mixture of Soviet procedural concept, Chinese local culture, and western procedural concept and rules. It is still a developing procedure and experiences a process from resisting western procedural concept to gradually accepting and learning from it. It used to be a supra-inquisitorial trial model with overwhelming focus on conciliation, but is now transforming to aparty disposition trial model with preference to conciliation under the premise of voluntariness. With the globalization of economy, the international cooperation of China, especially with the BRICS countries, will also become more and more important.

  9. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd


    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  10. History of aviation safety; the satisfying sighs of relief due to developments in Aviation safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, J.A.A.M.


    Aviation safety is an Integral part of my career. Being part of TU Delft’s impressive record of research on Aviation safety, my career has been with a sense of purpose and a responsibility to equip students to deal with the status quo challenges on Aviation safety, developments, Investigations and

  11. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report. (United States)

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  12. Aviation Maintenance (Aircraft Mechanics & Aircraft & Instrument Repair Personnel). Aviation Careers Series. Revised. (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines career opportunities in aviation maintenance. The booklet provides the following information about aviation maintenance jobs: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs are, wages and benefits, opportunities for advancement, requirements to enter the job, opportunities for…

  13. Aviation and the Environment. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography Related to Aviation's Responses Toward Improving the Environment. (United States)

    Marshall, Jane

    This informal, brief bibliography attempts to stress the positive side of aviation, annotating documents that explain how the airlines, aircraft engine manufacturers, government agencies, military aviation, and general aviation are meeting their responsibilities in solving environmental problems. Topics arousing public concern are identified:…

  14. Politics and International Organizations : four cases in The Hague and Geneva : Prepared for the IIAS Congress in Morocco, June 2014 - Study Group IX "Civil Service and Poltics"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa Groen


    In Western Europe, cities that host International Organizations (IOs) have to deal with more and more competition. The last decade many IOs settled in Eastern European and Asian countries. Distributing IOs over several cities in Europe for reasons of political balance and give-and-take among

  15. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.


    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Petrov


    Full Text Available The paper outlines science and methodological aspects of issuing bulletins for the civil aircraft and practical prob- lems accumulated in the national aviation industry within the mentioned area. Bulletins are used to inform operators about the purpose, data content and technologies outlining the design changes accomplishment if the aircraft considered at the moment of the design changes is already at the operational stage. Hence maintaining aircraft airworthiness is impossible without making certain modifications and repairs in the design, the bulletins issuing and implementation procedures have notable impact on safety and effectiveness of air transportation.Deficiencies considered are the results of practices used since 1980 and supported by the later interstate standard GOST 31270-2004 in the field of the bulletins development and implementation, which are not in line with contemporary conditions of international civil aviation activities. Negative consequences of transferring the Soviet way of working with aircraft bulletins intothe changed conditions of the state regulation of civil aviation activities in Russia are shown as well as those for substantial com-plication of the rules and procedures in comparison to the standards of Unified System of Design Documentation.Main theses of the ICAO standards and international practice are briefly analyzed, however they are not complete- ly presented in the national aviation regulations. The recommendations proposed are aimed to eliminate mentioned defi- ciencies through the standards amendment process and improvement of Russia's civil aviation regulatory base. Developed recommendations are mainly focused on the formulation of the new concept and certain content of the revised standard requirements to replace GOST 31270-2004.

  17. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.


    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  18. Medicare and state health care programs: fraud and abuse, civil money penalties and intermediate sanctions for certain violations by health maintenance organizations and competitive medical plans--HHS. Final rule. (United States)


    This final rule implements sections 9312(c)(2), 9312(f), and 9434(b) of Public Law 99-509, section 7 of Public Law 100-93, section 4014 of Public Law 100-203, sections 224 and 411(k)(12) of Public Law 100-360, and section 6411(d)(3) of Public Law 101-239. These provisions broaden the Secretary's authority to impose intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties on health maintenance organizations (HMOs), competitive medical plans, and other prepaid health plans contracting under Medicare or Medicaid that (1) substantially fail to provide an enrolled individual with required medically necessary items and services; (2) engage in certain marketing, enrollment, reporting, or claims payment abuses; or (3) in the case of Medicare risk-contracting plans, employ or contract with, either directly or indirectly, an individual or entity excluded from participation in Medicare. The provisions also condition Federal financial participation in certain State payments on the State's exclusion of certain prohibited entities from participation in HMO contracts and waiver programs. This final rule is intended to significantly enhance the protections for Medicare beneficiaries and Medicaid recipients enrolled in a HMO, competitive medical plan, or other contracting organization under titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act.

  19. Global Civil Society and International Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas


    Research in the field of citizenship, civil society, and social movements in relation to larger democratic summits has either focused on radical confrontational elements of activism, broad public demonstrations, or the professional non-governmental organizations. In this article, I label the types...... a central role in today’s activist landscape. I develop these typological conceptual representations based on an understanding of civil society as a mediating catalyst. By presenting six versions of citizenship participation based on an analysis of diverse ends and means, I identify how each of them has...... is fruitful. In conclusion, the creative activist is revealed as a mediating figure in civil society pointing towards a new definition of ‘facilitating citizenship’....

  20. Analysis of Air Force Civil Engineering Strategic Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mondo, Francis


    Several organizations within the Department of Defense, including the Air Force Civil Engineer, are actively engaged in strategic planning in an effort to create a roadmap for future capabilities and performance...

  1. 77 FR 26641 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting (United States)


    ... 4, 2012 Part III Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration Aviation... Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS... Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) on May...

  2. 78 FR 20685 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting (United States)


    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) will meet in Arlington, VA. This.... L. 92-463). The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) provides advice and makes...

  3. 78 FR 41413 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting (United States)


    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) will hold a meeting of the Aviation... and provides advice and recommendations for improving aviation security measures to the Administrator...




  5. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel


    of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  6. Department of Civil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Submitted: April 20, 2016. Accepted: September 08, 2016. Department of Civil Engineering, University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Abstract ... buildings and roads can be sighted. According to Tomas (2013), the most ..... Sustaining Projects. Benefits: Masters Course Manual. University of Bradford, UK: Centre.

  7. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations. (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  8. Agricultural aviation application in the USA (United States)

    The United States has the most advanced equipment and applications in agricultural aviation. It also has a complete service system in agricultural aviation. This article introduces the current status of aerial application including service, equipment, and aerial application techniques. It has a c...

  9. 76 FR 17613 - Aviation Service Regulations (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Service Regulations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 87 as follows: PART 87--AVIATION SERVICES 1. The...

  10. Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akselsson, R.; Koornneef, F.; Stewart, S.; Ward, M.


    Chapter 2: Resilience Safety Culture in Aviation Organisations The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  11. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China


    Zhu Yongming; Liu Yongchao


    China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation ind...

  12. Questions and Countermeasures on Developing General Aviation Industry in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongming


    Full Text Available China’s general aviation industry has exposed many problems with the low-altitude airspace expanding openness. General aviation is an important part of national economy and defence forces, the development of general aviation has a practical and far-reaching significance. By analysing the China’s current general aviation industry, combined with the importance of the development of general aviation, propose some countermeasures and suggestions for the development of China’s general aviation industry.

  13. Re-thinking civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger


    Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.

  14. Civil partnerships five years on. (United States)

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann


    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  15. Research and Analysis on Energy Consumption Features of Civil Airports (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Jianping; Xu, Junku; Su, Jixiang


    Civil aviation is an important part of China’s transportation system, and also the fastest-growing field of comprehensive transportation. Airports, as a key infrastructure of the air transportation system, are the junctions of air and ground transportation. Large airports are generally comprehensive transportation hubs that integrate various modes of transportation, serving as important functional zones of cities. Compared with other transportation hubs, airports cover a wide area, with plenty of functional sections, complex systems and strong specialization, while airport buildings represented by terminals have exhibited characteristics of large space, massive energy consumption, high requirement for safety and comfort, as well as concentrated and rapidly changing passenger flows. Through research and analysis on energy consumption features of civil airports, and analysis on energy consumption features of airports with different sizes or in different climate regions, this article has drawn conclusions therefrom.

  16. Museum of the Bulgar Civilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugrov Dmitriy G.


    Full Text Available In May, 2013, a Museum of Bulgar Civilization, a division of the Bolgar State Historical and Architectural Museum-Reserve, was inaugurated in the city of Bolgar. The museum exposition presents authentic historical and cultural monuments of the Bulgar-Tatar population of the Volga river region, answers visitors’ questions about the origin of the Bulgars, about ethnic, political and cultural aspects of the Bulgar civilization, about historical destinies of the medieval population of Volga Bulgaria, and the role of its cultural heritage in the modern world. The basic exposition consists of three parts: “History of Bulgar civilization”, “Ancient Bolgar: the life of the city” and "Discovery of ancient Bolgar.” The internal structure of the first part is organized along chronological lines, starting from the Xiongnu Empire and the Great Migration Period to the emergence of medieval Tatar states. The second part represents various aspects of material and spiritual culture of medieval Bolgar in the period of its prosperity (13th-14th centuries. The third part is devoted to the history of the study of Bolgar and its environs starting from the 17-18th centuries up to modern integrated research.

  17. Humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine


    O. A. Lyndyuk


    European integration of Ukraine requires new philosophy of governance modernization and organization, an effective functioning of the civil service system. The urgency of the implementation of humanization approach is a priority for modernization of the national civil service system. The problem of humanization of the civil service in the context of the European integration of Ukraine has been studied in the article. The essence of concepts of «humanism» and «humanization of the civil service...

  18. 14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and... (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powered civil aircraft with standard... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... after July 18, 1978, an approved shoulder harness for each front seat. The shoulder harness must be...

  19. Mindful Application of Aviation Practices in Healthcare. (United States)

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Brennan, Peter A; Peerally, Mohammad Farhad; Kapur, Narinder; Hynes, Jonny M; Hodkinson, Peter D


    Evidence supports the efficacy of incorporating select recognized aviation practices and procedures into healthcare. Incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and crew resource management (CRM) have all been assessed for implementation within the UK healthcare system, a world leader in aviation-based patient safety initiatives. Mindful application, in which aviation practices are specifically tailored to the unique healthcare setting, show promise in terms of acceptance and long-term sustainment. In order to establish British healthcare applications of aviation practices, a PubMed search of UK authored manuscripts published between 2005-2016 was undertaken using search terms 'aviation,' 'healthcare,' 'checklist,' and 'CRM.' A convenience sample of UK-authored aviation medical conference presentations and UK-authored patient safety manuscripts were also reviewed. A total of 11 of 94 papers with UK academic affiliations published between 2005-2016 and relevant to aviation modeled healthcare delivery were found. The debrief process, incident analysis, and CRM are the primary practices incorporated into UK healthcare, with success dependent on cultural acceptance and mindful application. CRM training has gained significant acceptance in UK healthcare environments. Aviation modeled incident analysis, debrief, safety brief, and CRM training are increasingly undertaken within the UK healthcare system. Nuanced application, in which the unique aspects of the healthcare setting are addressed as part of a comprehensive safety approach, shows promise for long-term success. The patient safety brief and aviation modeled incident analysis are in earlier phases of implementation, and warrant further analysis.Powell-Dunford N, Brennan PA, Peerally MF, Kapur N, Hynes JM, Hodkinson PD. Mindful application of aviation practices in healthcare. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(12):1107-1116.

  20. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.


    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar KITANOVSKI


    Full Text Available Absence of strong democratic state based on popular support, transparent institutions, responsible elites that promote cooperation and strive towards achieving consensus, results in the inability of the government to launch economic growth, such as crime gangs, and organized crime structures. Position of women, is also described partially by statistics and partially by the personal remarks of author. General conclusion over the situation of women in Macedonia in particular to that with Albanian ones is that radical transformation of their position, role and a function is required. In other words, position of women have to be altered from the role passive and non active member of society who only exists through a function of wife and a mother within confines of the traditional patriarchal family into the working asset, economically independent of a man.

  2. Heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability. Annual progress report, June 1, 1976-May 31, 1977. Civil engineering technical report No. 222

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, J.B. Jr.; Owen, W.F.; Stuckey, D.C.; Young, L.Y.; McCarty, P.L.


    This report represents the results of the first year of study on the heat treatment of organics to increase its biodegradability by anaerobic bacteria for the microbial production of methane. The purpose of this study is to develop a means for increasing the yield and reducing the cost of methane, a useful energy source. The procedures being evaluated are heat treatment at temperatures up to 250/sup 0/C, under pH ranges of 1 to 13. Included in this report are results on: (1) lignocellulose digestion and acclimation to its products from heat treatment; (2) the fate of waste activated sludge and its cellular nitrogenous compounds; and (3) the biodegradability of model compounds likely to be formed during heat treatment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zibitsky


    Full Text Available This article has a purpose to give a brief review of usage of composite materials in the structure of modern civil aircraft. The current condition of civil aviation was analyzed, serious problems were determined and possible achievements in the future were discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of composite materials were analyzed, non-destructive methods of control were reviewed and the necessity to design new method, which allows to control the integrity of structure in real time during design service goal of the aircraft (the concept of “clever material” was shown.

  4. Eco-efficiency in aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Grewe


    Full Text Available Air traffic guarantees mobility and serves the needs of society to travel over long distances in a decent time. But aviation also contributes to climate change. Here, we present various mitigation options, based on technological and operational measures and present a framework to compare the different mitigation options by taking into account aspects, such as changes in operational costs, climate impact reduction, eco-efficiency, possible starting point of the mitigation option and the investment costs. We show that it is not possible to directly rank these options because of the different requirements and framework conditions. Instead, we introduce two different presentations that take into account these different aspects and serve as a framework for intercomparison.

  5. Aviation Research and the Internet (United States)

    Scott, Antoinette M.


    The Internet is a network of networks. It was originally funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DOD/DARPA and evolved in part from the connection of supercomputer sites across the United States. The National Science Foundation (NSF) made the most of their supercomputers by connecting the sites to each other. This made the supercomputers more efficient and now allows scientists, engineers and researchers to access the supercomputers from their own labs and offices. The high speed networks that connect the NSF supercomputers form the backbone of the Internet. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a menu system. It gathers Internet resources from all over the world into a series of screens that appear on your computer. The WWW is also a distributed. The distributed system stores data information on many computers (servers). These servers can go out and get data when you ask for it. Hypermedia is the base of the WWW. One can 'click' on a section and visit other hypermedia (pages). Our approach to demonstrating the importance of aviation research through the Internet began with learning how to put pages on the Internet (on-line) ourselves. We were assigned two aviation companies; Vision Micro Systems Inc. and Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (IAT). We developed home pages for these SBIR companies. The equipment used to create the pages were the UNIX and Macintosh machines. HTML Supertext software was used to write the pages and the Sharp JX600S scanner to scan the images. As a result, with the use of the UNIX, Macintosh, Sun, PC, and AXIL machines, we were able to present our home pages to over 800,000 visitors.

  6. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents (United States)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of general aviation airplane accidents and accident rates on the basis of aircraft certification to determine whether or not differences in aircraft certification rules had an influence on accidents. In addition, the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports were analyzed to determine whether there were differences in the qualitative data for the different certification categories. The certification categories examined were: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23, Civil Air Regulations 3, Light Sport Aircraft, and Experimental-Amateur Built. The accident causes examined were those classified as: Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, Engine Failure, and Structural Failure. Airworthiness certification categories represent a wide diversity of government oversight. Part 23 rules have evolved from the initial set of simpler design standards and have progressed into a comprehensive and strict set of rules to address the safety issues of the more complex airplanes within the category. Experimental-Amateur Built airplanes have the least amount of government oversight and are the fastest growing segment. The Light Sport Aircraft category is a more recent certification category that utilizes consensus standards in the approval process. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured under simpler rules but modifying these airplanes has become lengthy and expensive. The study was conducted using a mixed methods methodology which involves both quantitative and qualitative elements. A Chi-Square test was used for a quantitative analysis of the accident frequency among aircraft certification categories. Accident rate analysis of the accidents among aircraft certification categories involved an ANCOVA test. The qualitative component involved the use of text mining techniques for the analysis of the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports. The Chi

  7. Civil society actions for a toxics--free future. (United States)

    DiGangi, Joe


    Participation of civil society in efforts to protect public health and the environment from chemical exposure is often undertaken in the context of major multilateral environmental agreements, especially in developing and transition countries. However, often there is confusion about what these agreements mean in practice and how civil society actually effectively contributes to their implementation. This paper will explore how public interest nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations in developing and transition countries have shaped and used multilateral environmental agreements to advance chemical safety issues nationally and how, in turn, these multilateral agreements have shaped NGO agendas. The emphasis is on how public interest NGOs and civil society organizations have utilized key elements of chemicals agreements in their chemical safety activities on the ground. Obstacles faced by NGOs, tools and methods used, and case studies of successful activities are discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwantissa Indranath Abeyratne


    Full Text Available  To say that Indonesia is an enigma in air transport is an understatement.  On the one hand,  the  demand for air transport in Indonesia is higher in proportion to its GDP per capita.  Its economy can be expected to grow 6% to 10% annually. A single aviation market could add another 6% to 10% growth in sheer demand.  It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world, being the 16th richest country currently, and, according to an Airbus forecast,   will be the 7th richest in 2030.  Yet its airports are badly in need of expansion, its infrastructure is bursting at its seems, and above all, its airlines are strongly resisting liberalization of air transport in the region for fear of being wiped out by stronger contenders in the region.  Against this backdrop, it is incontrovertible that Indonesia's civil aviation is intrinsically linked to regional and global considerations.  Indonesia's archipelagic topography makes its people heavily reliant on safe, regular and reliable air services that may connect them not only internally but also to the outside world.A single aviation market in the ASEAN region will bring both benefits to Indonesia and challengers to its air transport sector. This article discusses the economic and regulatory challenges that Indonesia faces with the coming into effect of the ASEAN Single Aviation market in 2015.

  9. 77 FR 27538 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-Continuing a Task (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--Continuing a Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of continuing a task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee...

  10. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone


    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Agrawal


    Full Text Available In India the concept of civil justice is not new. It has existed since time immemorial. A large number of related provisions are found in Manu, who compiled the then existing justice system in India of thousands of years ago in his fourteen-volume work titled Manava Dharma Shastra. The concept of justice is also found in detail in the Vedas, which are from avery ancient time. In both these scriptures the rule of law was adequately provided. Today, however, the Indian civil justice system resembles its common law counterparts. It features a coordinated, pyramid structure of judicial authority, emphasizing formal procedural justice dominated by litigants of equal status engaged in adversarial processes, and provides binding, win-lose remedies.

  12. Civil Engineering Dispute Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J


    Construction work on the civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. A dispute resolution procedure has been included in the contract, whereby a Panel of Adjudicators may be called upon to make a decision in the case of a difference or dispute between the parties. The aim of this paper is to present CERN's first experience of civil engineering Adjudication arising from problems encountered with the ground freezing technique employed to allow construction of two new shafts.

  13. Manifestations of advanced civilizations (United States)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  14. Civil society, health, and social exclusion in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Schurmann, Anna T; Mahmud, Simeen


    Civil society has the potential to have a positive impact on social exclusion and health equity through active monitoring and increased accountability. This paper examines the role of civil society in Bangladesh to understand why this potential has not been realized. Looking at two models of civil society action-participation in decentralized public-sector service provision and academic think-tank data analysis-this analysis examines the barriers to positive civil society input into public policy decision-making. The role of non-governmental organizations, political, cultural and economic factors, and the influence of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors are considered. The paper concludes that, with a few exceptions, civil society in Bangladesh replicates the structural inequalities of society at large.

  15. Assessing the impact of aviation on climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Marais


    Full Text Available We present an assessment of the marginal climate impacts of new aviation activities. We use impulse response functions derived from carbon-cycle and atmospheric models to estimate changes in surface temperature for various aviation impacts (CO2, NOx on methane, NOx on ozone, sulfates, soot, and contrails/induced cirrus. We use different damage functions and discount rates to explore health, welfare and ecological costs for a range of assumptions and scenarios. Since uncertainty is high regarding many aviation effects, we explicitly capture some uncertainty by representing several model parameters as probabilistic distributions. The uncertainties are then propagated using Monte Carlo analysis to derive estimates for the impact of these uncertainties on the marginal future climate impacts. Our goal is to provide a framework that will communicate the potential impacts of aviation on climate change under different scenarios and assumptions, and that will allow decision-makers to compare these potential impacts to other aviation environmental impacts. We present results to describe the influence of parametric uncertainties, scenarios, and assumptions for valuation on the expected marginal future costs of aviation impacts. Estimates of the change in global average surface temperature due to aviation are most sensitive to changes in climate sensitivity, the radiative forcing attributed to short-lived effects (in particular those related to contrails and aviation-induced cirrus, and the choice of emissions scenario. Estimates of marginal future costs of aviation are most sensitive to assumptions regarding the discount rate, followed by assumptions regarding climate sensitivity, and the choice of emissions scenario.

  16. [Civil status and suicide]. (United States)

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bitzer-Quintero, Oscar Kurt; García-González, Adolfo; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo


    To determine if civil status acts as a risk factor in suicide and how it modifies according to gender, age and population size. A retrospective study which analyzes information from the mortality data from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, from 1998 to 2002. Variables like suicides age, sex, cause of death, federal entity, population size and civil status were registered. Single men showed twofold risk for committing suicide. Women did not show any associated risk for suicide according to civil status. The risk of married men for committing suicide increased gradually with age. Medium-sized communities with less than 19,999 habitants presented the highest risk for habitants to commit suicide. Suicide is associated to gender especially to men who are not married and living in small and medium-sized communities. One explanation could be the lack of integrated behavior as defined by Emile Durkheim, where the physical density of society will determine behavior and ideas. This social structure phenomenon is called the "moral cocoon." This works around the individual being less individualistic and granting him/her the feeling of belonging to a group.

  17. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  18. World experience in aviation companies staffing executive and administrative personnel


    T.N. Shkoda


    Leading international aviation companies experience in staffing executive and administrative personnel is considered in the article. The author analyzes staffing specifics of such aviation companies as Southwest Airlines, Lufthansa AG, and work of such staffing agencies as Aeropeople Aerotek in this direction. It is defined that Ukrainian aviation companies should use world leading aviation companies experience.

  19. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation safety...

  20. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation. SUMMARY: This notice advises interested persons that the First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on April...

  1. 32 CFR 705.32 - Aviation events and parachute demonstrations. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aviation events and parachute demonstrations... STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.32 Aviation events and... appropriate for aviation participation include: Dedication of airports; aviation shows; aircraft exposition...

  2. Cooperative Demonstration Program To Train Aviation Maintenance Technicians. Final Report. (United States)

    Alabama Aviation and Technical Coll., Ozark.

    The Alabama Aviation and Technical College, working with representatives of the aviation industry, the military, the Alabama Department of Aeronautics, and the Federal Aviation Administration, developed a training program for aviation maintenance technicians. The program also aimed to emphasize and expand opportunities for minorities, females, and…

  3. Eating Habit and Other Factors Related to Anemia in Civil Female Flight Attendant in Indonesia


    Sary, Resna Nurhantika; Gathmyr, Dewi; Carmen M. Siagian; Basuki, Bastaman


    Background: Anemia is a health problem in women that can interfere work performance including female flight attendant. This study aimed to identify several dominant risk factors related to anemia in female flight attendants. Method: A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling was conducted to female flight attendant who performing periodic medical check-up at the Civil Aviation Medical Center, Jakarta on May 1-152013. Data collected using structured questionnaire. The data collected were ...

  4. Proactive Management of Aviation System Safety Risk (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation safety systems have undergone dramatic changes over the past fifty years. If you take a look at the early technology in this area, you'll see that there was...

  5. Improved Hearing Protection for Aviation Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKinley, Richard L; Bjorn, Valerie S; Hall, John A


    .... Normally, the source of the noise cannot be quieted without loss in performance. Therefore hearing protection is the primary tool to mitigate aviation personnel noise exposures during operations of aircraft...

  6. Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) by Department of Defense (DoD) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA). It is based upon ongoing work performed in support of the joint Office of the Secretary of Defense-Federal Aviation Administration (OSD-FAA...

  7. Redefining White Light Chromaticity Boundaries for Aviation (United States)


    Several aspects are involved in the recognition of an aviation signal light's color, including its chromaticity, layout on the airfield, and the chromaticity of other light sources in view. The LRC conducted a human factors investigation of the bound...

  8. General Aviation Weather Encounter Case Studies (United States)


    This study presents a compilation of 24 cases involving general aviation (GA) pilots weather encounters over the : continental U.S. The project team interviewed pilots who had experienced a weather encounter, and we : examined their backgrounds, f...

  9. Human factors in general aviation accidents. (United States)


    During the twelve months ending October 31, 1965, there were 122 fatal general aviation accidents in the Western Region in which the Regional Flight Surgeon's office was notified and the wreckage was located within one week. Autopsies were obtained i...

  10. Operational Risk Management and Military Aviation Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Park


    .... The Army's Class A aviation mishap rate declined after it implemented risk management (RM) principles in 1987. This reduction caught the attention of Air Force leadership who have since stated that the application of operational risk management...

  11. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork...

  12. Aviation Safety Concerns for the Future (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.; Roelen, Alfred L. C.; den Hertog, Rudi


    The Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) is a multidisciplinary international group of aviation professionals that was established to identify possible future aviation safety hazards. The principle was adopted that future hazards are undesirable consequences of changes, and a primary activity of FAST became identification and prioritization of possible future changes affecting aviation. Since 2004, FAST has been maintaining a catalogue of "Areas of Change" (AoC) that could potentially influence aviation safety. The horizon for such changes is between 5 to 20 years. In this context, changes must be understood as broadly as possible. An AoC is a description of the change, not an identification of the hazards that result from the change. An ex-post analysis of the AoCs identified in 2004 demonstrates that changes catalogued many years previous were directly implicated in the majority of fatal aviation accidents over the past ten years. This paper presents an overview of the current content of the AoC catalogue and a subsequent discussion of aviation safety concerns related to these possible changes. Interactions among these future changes may weaken critical functions that must be maintained to ensure safe operations. Safety assessments that do not appreciate or reflect the consequences of significant interaction complexity will not be fully informative and can lead to inappropriate trade-offs and increases in other risks. The FAST strongly encourages a system-wide approach to safety risk assessment across the global aviation system, not just within the domain for which future technologies or operational concepts are being considered. The FAST advocates the use of the "Areas of Change" concept, considering that several possible future phenomena may interact with a technology or operational concept under study producing unanticipated hazards.

  13. USA Aviation Digest Index, 1989. Volume 1. (United States)


    project number(s), task NASA - Leave blank. number(s), and work unit number(s). Use the NTIS - Leave blank. following labels: C - Contract PR - Project ...representative for operator’s manuals changes. USA Aviation Digest; Jun 1989: p. 34-35. NARRP SEE HELMET ASSEMBLY REFUELING REARMING PERSONNEL ( HARRP ...PERSONNEL ( HARRP ) New helmet for rearming refueling personnel. USA Aviation Digest; Sept-Oct 1989: p. 46-48. 20 HELMETS ,eLmets: From Roman chariots to

  14. Commercial technology for aviation configuration management.


    White, P. Scott


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the current policy and procedures used to manage naval aviation configuration control. It recommends that the Navy consult with SABRE Decision Technologies, or a company with a similar background, to re- engineer the process for approving configuration changes and create an information technology system to manage the process. During this study, I have identified two major challenges to naval aviation configuration ...

  15. The Empirical Research on Civil Servants’ Motivation: Evidence from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Bercu


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the most important factors with impact on civil servants motivation. The factors affecting motivation are examined and their effects on job satisfaction are explained. In order to achieve the aforementioned objective of the research, we will employ the Maslow-Herzberg combined model. The study was conducted in 21 Town Halls from the IASI County, Romania. Pearson’s correlation and regression analyses were used to establish whether the selected motivational factors were related to civil servants’ job satisfaction. The civil servants who feel that they are important for their organization will pursue goals actively and will increase the efforts to be more competitive at work and perform better. The limits of our research depend on the organizations analysed. The framework provides an explanation of why some factors enhance the civil servants’ motivation, while others not so much.

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration... (United States)


    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory...

  17. Initial cognitive performance predicts longitudinal aviator performance. (United States)

    Yesavage, Jerome A; Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M; Friedman, Leah F; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K; Murphy, Greer M; Taylor, Joy L


    The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40-77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1-13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities.

  18. General Aviation Pilots Over 70 Years Old. (United States)

    Vuorio, Alpo; Asmayawati, Saryani; Budowle, Bruce; Griffiths, Robin; Strandberg, Timo; Kuoppala, Jaana; Sajantila, Antti


    Currently it is not unusual for general aviation pilots in the United States to continue to fly beyond the age of 70, even into their 80s and 90s. Pilots have regular examinations according to protocols which do not specify special or additional requirements for pilots over 70 yr of age. Additionally, the third class medical reforms passed by the U.S. Senate on 15 July 2016 could potentially result in even less stringent medical certification requirements for general aviation pilots. Accident rates, medical parameters, autopsy findings, and toxicological findings from the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) general aviation (GA) accident database were analyzed to assess potential risk factors with accident outcomes. During 2003-2012, there were 114 (113 men, 1 woman) general aviation fatal accidents involving pilots ages 70 to 92 yr. A combination of 3 or more drugs were found in 13 (13%) of deceased pilots. The most frequent drugs were first generation antihistamines and antidepressants represented the next highest proportion of possible performance-affecting medications. This study indicates that there are critical medical factors that may contribute to fatal accidents among elderly pilots. Polypharmacy use should be taken into consideration, especially during periodic health examinations and fatal aviation investigations involving elderly pilots.Vuorio A, Asmayawati S, Budowle B, Griffiths R, Strandberg T, Kuoppala J, Sajantila A. General aviation pilots over 70 years old. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):142-145.

  19. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...... theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...

  20. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy......-- as an institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  1. Base Civil Engineer Organization: Standardized versus Flexible. (United States)


    have been searching. In fact, many researchers claim that contingency theory is widely accepted, and thus no longer controversial ( Schoonhoven , 1981...surrounds the structural-contingency model, due to the vagueness and lack of clarity with which the model is often stated ( Schoonhoven , 1981; Pennings...Waltham MA, June 1981. ADB062457L. Schoonhoven , C. "Problems with Contingency Theory: Testing Assumptions Hidden in the Language of Contingency Tehory

  2. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern......, economic and social impact. Civilization is a term widely used within modern political discourse its meaning, yet it is poorly understood and misused. part I explores the idea of a ‘standard of civilization', its implications for governance, and the use of such standards in political theory and economic...

  3. Homeland Security and Civil Liberties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leonard; Lovelace, Douglas C., Jr


    .... The conference examined national security issues related to civil liberties, immigration policy, privacy issues, first amendment rights, and the balance of executive and judicial power in relation...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A.A. Wambier


    Full Text Available This study deals in a succinct way with the Brazilian model of civil procedural law. There is an historical approach specifically about Portuguese law which was in force in Brazil at the beginning (until 1832, after what there comes a brief description of the judiciary structure (courts and judges and only then we talk about the scope of civil procedure, its fundamental principles and, in a “law in practice” approach, access to justice. The role of a judge towards deciding “according to statutes and evidence” is analysed and the current importance of case law is deeply focused, mainly according to the new CPC (in force since 2015 and so are appellate proceedings, class actions, enforcement proceedings and ADR. The last items concern the role and the importance of academia, and some interesting cultural observations, where we deal with the very serious crisis, both ethical and economic, that Brazil is living now, in the political sphere. The judiciary branch is now our only hope.

  5. Civil Courage, a Factor of Social Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This commentary is focused on a book coauthored and coordinated by Svetlana Broz (Having What It Takes. Essays on Civil Courage, edited by Thomas Butler, translated into English by Senada Kreso, Gariwo, Sarajevo, 2006, series "The Questions of All Questions", president of the Bosnia and Herzegovina Branch of the International Gariwo with its headquarters in Milan. This organization aims at the discovery, recognition and reaffirmation of the Righteous worldwide, those individuals who had enough civil courage to risk their own lives helping unjustly persecuted people. The majority of the essays in the book extract their value out of the authors' life experiences during the war of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995. In order to enlarge the field of the debate, the editors also included essays by English, Israeli and Palestinian authors dealing with the same issues manifested in other spaces. All of them try to demonstrate that civil courage is very different from military courage. It is the courage of the nonconformist, the rebel,and risks - or even courts - social disapproval, persecution, punishment, even martyrdom. At the everyday level it is the courage of the self-conscious dissident proclaiming his/her opposition to the values of his/her dominant reference group. Basically, it stands for the struggle of the individual against all forms of social systems directed against man. The authors show that individual examples of civil courage are possible in any period of time. However, it can only be cherished in democracies with strong elements of civil society as it can arise only from the free responsibility of free human beings.

  6. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the role that churches can and should play in civil society to develop societal morally. The central-theoretical argument is that the biblical notion of the kingdom of God can, when it is systematically and theologically developed, offer an acceptable foundation for the civil action of churches. In light of this ...

  7. Partners in peace : discourses and practices of civil-society peacebuilding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van M.


    Since the early 1990s, international development organizations and donor agencies increasingly recognize the contributions local civil society can make to peace. Despite their popularity, questions still remain on the actual nature, practices, and roles of local civil society organizations in

  8. Aviation Program Administrators' Perceptions of Specialized Aviation Accreditation under Public Law 111-216 (United States)

    Christensen, Cody


    Sherman (2006) and Prather (2007) studied why so few of the schools offering aviation-related curriculum leading to an associate's or bachelor's degree do not seek specialized accreditation. The goal of this study was to update the field of specialized aviation accreditation in the new environment of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation…

  9. Emerging trends in alternative aviation fuels (United States)

    Corbett, Cody

    The days of petroleum-based aviation fuels are numbered. New regulations to be set in place in the coming years will force current fuels to be phased out in favor of cleaner fuels with less toxic emissions. The alternative fuel industry has already taken its foothold in other modes of transportation, and aviation will soon follow suit. Many companies have cropped up over the last decade, and a few have been around longer, that work hard to develop the alternative aviation fuels of the future. It is important, however, for the aviation community to know what to expect and when to expect it concerning alternative fuels. This study investigates where various companies in the alternative aviation fuel industry currently stand in their development and production processes, and how their products will affect aircraft owners and operators. By interviewing representatives from these companies and analyzing their responses to identify trends, an educated prediction can be made about where the industry is headed and when the aviation community can expect these fuel to be available. The findings of this study indicate that many companies are still in their developmental stages, with a few notable outliers, and that most of these companies expect to see production of their product by 2017. Also, the fuel manufacturers are dealing with all the legal hurdles regarding alternative fuels, so little to no effort will be required on the part of the consumer. These findings, along with their analysis, will enable the aviation community to make educated decisions concerning fuel and their aircraft, as well and do their part to help these beneficial fuels get to market.

  10. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of...

  13. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of...

  14. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of...

  15. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment. (United States)


    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of...

  16. Civil Society Organizations’ Contribution To Democratic Governance In European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoș – Cătălin Apostu


    Full Text Available This paper tries to focus/put emphasis on what are Civil Society Organizations are and gives an outline of categories of such Organizations in Europe, it briefly looks at Governance and Democratic Governance concepts. It will then after focus on the major roles of Civil Society Organizations in European democratic Governance drawing other examples also from other countries where possible and try to bring out scholarly arguments on the negative impacts of civil society organizations. The paper ends with conclusions and analysis of SC participation through EU’s multilevel governance. Much of my discussion and commentaries shall be depicted and based on information and ideas put forward by the following scholars; Paul Magnette 2003, European Governance and Civic participation, Dawid Friedrich 2007/08, Actual and Potential Contribution of Civil Society Organizations to Democratic Governance in Europe, EU Governance White Paper 2001, Rollin F. Tusalem 2007, the role of Civil Society in the Third and Fourth-Wave Democracies and other scholars not limited to the above.

  17. Key features of the public associations and civil activists’ cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Sokolov


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the public associations and civil society activists’ cooperation for solving social problems. The results of the expert survey in 12 regions of the Russian Federation show that the cooperation/coalition/partnership of public organizations, NGOs and civil society activists is an effective tool for solving social problems. The author identifies two main factors promoting interaction of public associations and civil activists: the interconnectedness of issues relevant for different organizations and activist groups as well as presence of strong leaders who can unite social organizations, NGOs and civil society activists. The research showed the main obstacles for the development of interaction in social activities: low level of initiative, limited resources, lack of a common goal, and the governing bodies’ opposition to the citizens’ activities. The article analyzes general features of coalitions of public organizations, NGOs and civil society activists (such as number of leaders and partners, principles of organization, etc. as well as the factors responsible for the collapse of coalitions (low level of initiative and activity of citizens, solution of the problem that gave rise to the coalition, limited resources, conflicts inside the coalition, etc..

  18. Innovation in the Desert: 9th Air Force Tactical Aviation Logistics in Northwest Africa during World War II (United States)


    INNOVATION IN THE DESERT: 9TH AIR FORCE TACTICAL AVIATION LOGISTICS IN NORTHWEST AFRICA DURING WORLD WAR II A thesis...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Innovation in the Desert: 9th Air Force Tactical Aviation Logistics in Northwest Africa...learning organization methodology will unmask a prevalence for proactive change, resulting in an innovative culture which led to operational

  19. Civil society's role in conflict prevention | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Jul 22, 2011 ... We have two priorities at the moment: one, to train organizations to deal with conflict; and two, to create an early warning system based on local and national ... This is a very good example in terms of how civil society can collaborate with an intergovernmental organization, not only to alert but also to take ...

  20. Senior Officer Course Manual. Military Justice and Civil Law (United States)


    that a LT in the Operations Department has been selling AMWAY products to military and civil service personnel as well as actively recruiting others...34Active" is defined as "publicly demonstrating or rallying, fund raising, recruiting and training members, and organizing or leading such organizations

  1. Predicaments and Expectations of Civil Engineering Education in China. (United States)

    Liu, Xila; Fang, Dongping


    Explains the goals of civil engineering in China which include integrated knowledge structure and multi-level knowledge and abilities of innovation, adaptation, cooperation, communication, and organization. Discusses the challenges of student-centered education, dynamics of education organization, and open education. (Author/YDS)

  2. 75 FR 79978 - Civil Penalties (United States)


    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 578 RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY... increases the maximum civil penalty amounts for related series of violations of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, as amended (Vehicle Safety Act) and increases the liability for a violation of...

  3. Developments in European Civil Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortés, P.; Mańko, R.; Cortés, P.


    This chapter is structured as follows. In Section B we explore the legal basis for the creation of European civil procedures and Europeanization of procedural private law in general. In Section C we provide an overview of existing EU instruments on civil procedure, which we propose to divide into

  4. Código civil colombiano


    Secretaria del Senado de Colombia


    El Código Civil como lo indica su articulo primero,comprende las disposiciones legales sustantivas que determinan especialmente los derechos de los particulares, por razón del estado de las personas, de sus bienes, obligaciones, contratos y acciones civiles.

  5. Introducing Islamic Civilization: Course Syllabus. (United States)

    Smith, Reuben W., Ed.

    The syllabus reflects a course in Islamic civilization taught at the University of Chicago and includes the recommendations of participants at a conference on the problems of presenting such a course. The "civilization approach" offers a panoramic view of various related fields, affords a perspective on the problems of analyzing changes over time,…

  6. Defense Support to Civil Authorities (United States)


    Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ) [on-line pamphlet], The Army Lawyer (Charlottesville, VA: Judge Advocate...City Bombing: Immediate Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ). The Army Lawyer. [Charlottesville, VA]: Judge

  7. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT aims to publish definitive and original research papers of high standard, containing material of broad interest and of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems. It provides a forum for ...

  8. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment. (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  9. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering. (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne


    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  10. Codificación civil


    Verdera Server, Rafael


    Conferencias sobre la codificación civil: aspectos históricos (R. Aznar) y jurídicos (J.M. Badenas)Actividad complementaria de los Departamentos de Historia del Derecho y Derecho Civil.Grado en Derecho

  11. Nivel operacional de la sociedad civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Mendiwelso Bendek


    Full Text Available Michael Walzer (2002 afirma que las organizaciones de la sociedad civil se generan en procesos de auto organización pero que existen algunas organizaciones con mayor capacidad que otras para organizarse y que también es necesario que el estado provea la asistencia que requiere la vida en asociación en donde primero que todo se debe proteger a los más débiles. En este artículo, desde una visión sistémica, se intenta reflexionar sobre las competencias requeridas para un efectivo proceso de auto-organización en la construcción de lo público. Se sostiene que esto hace necesario observar las estructuras que apoyan el aprendizaje y participación ciudadana.Michael Walzer (2002 claims that self-organization underpins the emergence of civil society organizations and that some of these organizations have more opportunities than others to be effective, suggesting that it is necessary for the State to support those associations that operate in weaker contexts. In this paper, from a systemic perspective, the author reflects upon the required competencies to enable effective self-organizing processes in the construction of the public sphere, in particular she advocates the need to observe the emerging organization structures supporting citizens' learning and participation.

  12. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.


    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  13. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.


    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 1.4 million reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 6,000 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides selected de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation will discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  14. External costs of aviation. Background report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dings, J.M.W.; Wit, R.C.N.; Leurs, B.A.; De Bruyn, S.M.; Davidson, M.D. [CE, Delft (Netherlands); Fransen, W. [INTEGRAL Knowledge Utilization, Landsmeer (Netherlands)


    Besides numerous benefits to citizens and companies, air transport also brings undesired side-effects such as emissions and noise nuisance. Most of these negative 'external' effects, as they are called, are currently not priced or only to a limited degree. Consequently, the market place creates insufficient incentives to reduce these external effects. The study, commissioned by the German Umweltbundesamt, aims to contribute to the ongoing international process to create market-based incentives to the aviation industry to reduce the environmental impact of aviation. It does to by assessing, within margins as small as possible, external costs of aviation. The report at hand is a background report to the study 'External costs of aviation'. It contains four technical annexes. The first annex contains an overview of the international literature on the valuation of greenhouse gas emissions. The second annex describes the dependence of climatic impact of aviation on the occurrence of contrails, and the dependence of contrail formation on operational circumstances. The third annex contains an assessment of international literature on the valuation of non-greenhouse gas emissions, such as NOx and SO2. The fourth annex contains a short description of the methodology by which emissions and noise are allocated to passenger and freight transport in this study.

  15. National General Aviation Design Competition Project Report (United States)


    This report summarizes the management of the National General Aviation Design Competition on behalf of NASA, the FAA and the Air Force by the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) for the time period October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000. This was the VSGC's sixth year of managing the Competition, which the Consortium originally designed, developed and implemented for NASA and the FAA. The seventh year of the Competition was announced in July 2000. Awards to winning university teams were presented at a ceremony held at AirVenture 2000, the Experimental Aircraft Association's Annual Convention and Fly-In at Oshkosh, WIS. NASA, FAA and AOPA administrators presented the awards. The competition calls for individuals or teams of undergraduate and graduate students from U.S. engineering schools to participate in a major national effort to rebuild the U.S. general aviation sector. For the purpose of the contest, General aviation aircraft are defined as fixed wing, single or dual engine (turbine or piston), single-pilot aircraft for 2-6 passengers. In addressing design challenges for a small aircraft transportation system, the competition seeks to raise student awareness of the importance of general aviation and to stimulate breakthroughs in technology and their application in the general aviation market. The Competition has two categories: Innovative Design, and Design It, Build It, Fly It. Awards were given in both categories for this reporting year.

  16. The rivers of civilization (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John


    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  17. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model (United States)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III


    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. Therefore, NASA is developing the ability to evaluate the potential impact of various advanced technologies. By thoroughly understanding the economic impact of advanced aviation technologies and by evaluating how the new technologies will be used in the integrated aviation system, NASA aims to balance its aeronautical research program and help speed the introduction of high-leverage technologies. To meet these objectives, NASA is building the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). NASA envisions ASAC primarily as a process for understanding and evaluating the impact of advanced aviation technologies on the U.S. economy. ASAC consists of a diverse collection of models and databases used by analysts and other individuals from the public and private sectors brought together to work on issues of common interest to organizations in the aviation community. ASAC also will be a resource available to the aviation community to analyze; inform; and assist scientists, engineers, analysts, and program managers in their daily work. The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. Commercial air carriers, in particular, are an important stakeholder in this community. Therefore, to fully evaluate the implications of advanced aviation technologies, ASAC requires a flexible financial analysis tool that credibly links the technology of flight with the financial performance of commercial air carriers. By linking technical and financial information, NASA ensures that its technology programs will continue to benefit the user community. In addition, the analysis tool must be capable of being incorporated into the

  18. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S


    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  19. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B


    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  20. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together......, has helped create a new standard for sustainable building. One day of the master class was devoted to lectures by civil engineers and architects from Denmark and abroad who talked about their own experience with Integrated Design. The anniversary event was rounded off with another important topic...... Anniversary Conference on 16 November offered a number of seminars organised by the professional associations and lectures by civil engineers Stephen Selkowich and Cecil Balmond. In collaboration with the architect Renzo Piano, Stephen Selkowich has developed and tested low-energy façade systems; and Cecil...

  1. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...... a previously passive insulation material is altered to play an active role in a building. The Design Master Class was for architects, civil engineers and students. It was led by Richard Horden, who is not only the head of a design department at Munich Technical University, but also works on design in his own...... to develop a technically advanced form of aesthetics. The Master Class in low energy buildings was led by civil engineer, Svend Svendsen, a Professor at DTU Byg. Together with colleagues and students, he has achieved an extensive knowledge of Integrated Design. In fact, the situation is that our knowledge...

  2. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology (United States)


    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the... methodology for calculation of certain civil penalties. To induce compliance with federal regulations, FMCSA...

  3. Civil Society as a Game Changer: A Comparative Study of Political Transitions in Eastern Europe and the Middle East (United States)


    regulating capability of civil society. According to the German philosopher Hegel , one of the early critical theorists, civil society is a...1998), 50. 11 civility of society through laws and organizations. For Hegel , it is the independent association and public opinion, both key...components of civil society, which fulfill a political and ethical mediating role between the individual and the state. Karl Marx, similar to Hegel

  4. Civil Code, 11 December 1987. (United States)


    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  5. Relevant Market in Commercial Aviation of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kociubiński


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the issue of definition of relevant market in civil aviation within the European Union. The liberalization of the market since the early 1990s has led to a rapid increase in the number of airlines operating in the EU. The increase in the competitiveness of the market has brought many positive changes for passengers, such as lower fares and a better network of connections. At the same time it has created a risk that the airlines, in order to gain a competitive edge, would infringe the rules of competition. This is especially important in the context of the phenomenon that is the development of the airline alliances, which could lead to an abuse of a dominant position. A clear definition of the relevant market is a first step in an assessment of whether such an abuse occurred. This paper focus on the elements that Internal Market regulator, the European Commission, takes into consideration when defining relevant market in the airline industry.

  6. The effects of civility on advice, leadership, and performance. (United States)

    Porath, Christine L; Gerbasi, Alexandra; Schorch, Sebastian L


    Workplace incivility is rampant and on the rise-with costs to individuals and organizations. Despite the increased need for civility, little is known about potential individual benefits of civility, defined as behavior involving politeness and regard for others in the workplace, within workplace norms for respect (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). Recent research has suggested that being civil may be hazardous to influence, power, and income (see Forni, 2002; Judge et al., 2012).Yet, throughout history, civil behavior has been extolled because it paid dividends to the person who behaved well. The focus of this research is whether that holds true in organizations. Using social exchange theory, we developed hypotheses about how civility benefits people, and investigated this in 2 studies. First, in a 2-wave social network study of a research and development department (n = 31) of a biotechnology firm, we found that people who perceived a colleague as civil would be more likely to seek that person out for work advice and to see that person as a leader. The more the individual was perceived as civil by others in his or her network, the better his or her performance. Being sought out for work advice and being viewed as a leader mediated this effect. In the second experiment (n = 162), we extended our understanding of what drove these benefits. We found that people who are civil were perceived as warm and competent, and these positive perceptions, in turn, helped to explain the benefits garnered. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. General Aviation Pilots Over 70 Years Old


    Vuorio, Alpo; Asmayawati, Saryani; Budowle, Bruce; Griffiths, Robin; Strandberg, Timo; Kuoppala, Jaana; Sajantila, Antti


    BACKGROUND: Currently it is not unusual for general aviation pilots in the United States to continue to fly beyond the age of 70, even into their 80s and 90s. Pilots have regular examinations according to protocols which do not specify special or additional requirements for pilots over 70 yr of age. Additionally, the third class medical reforms passed by the U.S. Senate on 15 July 2016 could potentially result in even less stringent medical certification requirements for general aviation pilo...

  8. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques (United States)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.


    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  9. Computer technology forecast study for general aviation (United States)

    Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D.


    A multi-year, multi-faceted program is underway to investigate and develop potential improvements in airframes, engines, and avionics for general aviation aircraft. The objective of this study was to assemble information that will allow the government to assess the trends in computer and computer/operator interface technology that may have application to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. The current state of the art of computer hardware is assessed, technical developments in computer hardware are predicted, and nonaviation large volume users of computer hardware are identified.

  10. An understanding of how aviation is handled in Helsinki and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Jens Hundevad; Lassen, Claus


    framework is based on the relatively new aeromobility paradigm that embraces a holistic societal perspective on aviation. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, such as representatives from airport, airline, government, unions including business and tourism organizations, the article produce...... an understanding of how aviation in Finland is influenced by time/place relations. The natural geographical position in relation to traffic between Europe and Asia is exploited by long term focus on the national carrier: Finavia, Helsinki airport and traffic rights. Development of these areas requires long term...... commitment, understanding of dynamics with in aviation systems and willingness to invest; even in turbulence times. The narrative related to ‘Finland is an island’ is a key driver for political awareness, stronghold and essential for understanding the strategies and politics behind Helsinki as an airport hub...

  11. Material civilization: things and society. (United States)

    Dant, Tim


    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  12. Study of Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers Aboard Civil Aviation Aircraft. (United States)


    cyanide (HCN), oxides of nitrogen (NO ), ammonia ( NH3 ), hydrogen suifide (H 2S), phosgene (COC12 ), and many other compounds. * . "From fires in...that the effective volume is up to 300 times that of the stored volume. Foam is an effective scrubber for fumes and smoke. Foam blankets over


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Polyakov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of providing an assessment of pilots training for work the airlines in order to ensure flight safety. In this regard, a draft comprehensive methodology for assessing professional training of pilots is offered. It is divided into three stages: 1 introduction into profession; 2 active flight activity and stage in improving professional of skills in case of incidents or accidents in flight.

  14. Semiannual Report to Congress on the Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program. (United States)


    aircraft. The ups (in 1980 - 21 hijackings, and 1983 - 18 hijackings) primarily were the result of waves of homesick Cuban refugees trying to return...about 8 hijackings per year. If the unusual waves of hijackings by homesick Cuban-refugees of 1980 and 1983 were normalized to the usual I to 3 a year of

  15. Antiemetics With Concomitant Sedative Use in Civil Aviation Pilot Fatalities: From 2000 to 2006 (United States)


    prescribed to treat motion sickness as well as the adverse side effects of opioid analgesics, general anesthetics , and chemotherapy directed against... lidocaine , and atropine were detected in blood, liver, and lung. Morphine and acet- aminophen were both detected in blood, and morphine was also...containing drug paraphernalia including a green leaf-type substance, which local law enforcement offi cials determined to be consistent with marijuana

  16. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (United States)


    ..., it may be attached to the application. (2) Clearance of runway. The Department of the Navy reserves...-25363 of the NAVSUP Manual for payment of all costs incurred by the Government as a direct result of the.... (b) Fire and crash control and rescue. (c) Movement and storage of aircraft or wreckage. (d) Damage...

  17. The study of the evolution of aerosol concentrations at altitudes of civil aviation (United States)

    Mamontov, Alexey; Gurvich, Alexander


    Clear Air Turbulence refers to turbulences in air without cloud, usually located in high troposphere and low stratosphere. Those CAT are a serious issue for inflight plane security and are responsible for numerous injuries or even reported deaths every year. Planes crossing such CAT can be strongly vertically shaken and passengers with security belt unfastened can be seriously injured. There is nowadays no alert system able to detect CAT at typical flight height. Indeed, onboard weather radars are blind to clear air turbulence. Today, Clear Air Turbulences are a serious flight security problem because there exists no ground or onboard detection devices. Besides, the physical phenomenon is far from being clearly understood. The understanding of CAT phenomenon is poor because: 1) is difficult to measure the CAT atmospheric parameters in situ (relatively low occurrence) 2) the simulations are complex. Therefore, this original project intends to 1) obtain a complete measured data set by remote sensing from the ground 2) join two different know-how to address the theoretical simulation aspects of CAT. Archive for the research was obtained in the performance of the European research program DELICAT (Demonstration of LIDAR based Clear Air Turbulence detection), which was a fullfledged performer IAP RAS(Obukhov Institute of atmospheric physics of Russian Academy of Science. The task of the flight test project DELICAT was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods of lidar detection of turbulence. Flight tests were conducted using aircraft lidar instrument on board aircraft research vessel Cessna Citation II. Flight tests have given not only the information necessary to take into account the properties of airborne noise, but also provided us with data on atmospheric aerosol along the flight path. Questions aerosol scattering and the resulting data in this direction have not been claimed by European participants DELICAT. In practice many hours continuous recording of lidar response proportional to the intensity of the scattered radiation is observed, broke for further processing of measured data into segments lasting 1 minute. For the analysis of selected segments of the flight with constant values: height, direction and speed of the aircraft. An exploratory analysis of a small number of selected flights. Created data archive, a method of constructing 2D distributions have experience highlight areas free from congestion and provide estimates of the aerosol extinction. It should also be noted that the publication of lidar observations from the aircraft in the direction of the flight path we have not found, and their absence lends even greater urgency in the research.

  18. Study of the dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation at civil aviation altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, A; Rancati, T


    The dependence of the doses on solar activity for intermediate levels of the solar modulation parameter has been studied by means of simulations carried out by the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. The vertical cut-off rigidities investigated lie between 0.4 and 6.1 GV. The calculated results show that the linear dependence proposed in a previous work, for the effective dose rate as a function of the solar modulation parameter, can be considered as an acceptable approximation. In addition, some dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation and some properties of the dosemeters in use for monitoring in the cosmic ray environment have been analysed with a view to simplifying measurements. The depth-dose curves in the ICRU sphere and the response of a tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber have been determined by the FLUKA code for a number of cosmic ray spectra. On the basis of the calculated results, it is concluded that a value of the depth, d, which would make the ambient dose equivalent a conservative predic...

  19. Drugs and alcohol in civil aviation accident pilot fatalities from 2004-2008. (United States)


    The FAA Office of Aerospace Medicine sets medical standards needed to protect the public and pilots from death : or injury due to incapacitation of the pilot. As a part of this process, toxicology testing is performed by the FAA : on almost every pil...

  20. Develop a Normative or Descriptive Model of the International/Domestic Civil Aviation Industry. Volume 3. (United States)


    Jacksons Airport Air Gabon * P.O. Box 7186 B.P. 2206 Boroko Libreville Papua New Guinea Gabon 1 lHot lawd no w pemmlpmM Ta-W Coodinatlun GENEVA 0 Telephone...Vice President SECURITY PACIFIC LEASING: London, United Kingdom Michael Percy , Assistant Vice President SEURITY ,PACIFIC NATIaiAL BANK: London, United...C. Debrah L. Denenark, Financial Analyst TANOIN & COMPANY: New York, New York Michael J. Jackson , Vice President THACHER PROFFITT & WOOD: New York