WorldWideScience

Sample records for civil aircraft

  1. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Наумов

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  2. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  3. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  4. Perspectives on Unmanned Aircraft Classification for Civil Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Koppen, Daniel M.; Upchurch, Jason M.; Morris, A. Terry; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. Although use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in military and public service operations is proliferating, civil use of UAS remains limited in the United States today. This report focuses on one particular regulatory challenge: classifying UAS to assign airworthiness standards. This paper provides observations related to how the current regulations for classifying manned aircraft could apply to UAS.

  5. Using Synthetic Kerosene in Civil Jet Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    TU Delft in the Netherlands is performing research into the effects of the use of synthetic kerosene in aircraft. The research program consists of both desk research and tests. In the desk research gas turbine simulations will be combined with payload range performance calculations to show engine ef

  6. Aeroservoelastic model based active control for large civil aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A modeling and control approach for an advanced configured large civil aircraft with aeroservoelasticity via the LQG method and control allocation is presented.Mathematical models and implementation issues for the multi-input/multi-output(MIMO) aeroservoelastic system simulation developed for a flexible wing with multi control surfaces are described.A fuzzy logic based optimization approach is employed to solve the constrained control allocation problem via intelligently adjusting the components of output vector and find a proper vector in the attainable moment set(AMS) autonomously.The basic idea is to minimize the L2 norm of error between the desired moment and achievable moment using the designing freedom provided by redundantly allocated actuators and control surfaces.Considering the constraints of control surfaces,in order to obtain acceptable performance of aircraft such as stability and maneuverability,the fuzzy weights are updated by the learning algorithm,which makes the closed-loop system self-adaptation.Finally,an application example of flight control designing for the advanced civil aircraft is discussed as a demonstration.The studies we have performed showed that the advanced configured large civil aircraft has good performance with the proper designed control law designed via the proposed approach.The gust alleviation and flutter suppression are applied with the synergetic effects of elevator,ailerons,equivalent rudders and flaps.The results show good closed loop performance and meet the requirement of constraint of control surfaces.

  7. Electromagnetic launch systems for civil aircraft assisted take-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertola Luca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the feasibility of different technologies for an electromagnetic launcher to assist civil aircraft take-off. This method is investigated to reduce the power required from the engines during initial acceleration. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. The research compares two possible linear motor topologies which may be efficaciously used for this application. The comparison is made on results from both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA.

  8. MANPADS protection for civil aircraft using an expendable decoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Roy H.; Friede, Johan; Millwood, Nicolas; Butters, Brian

    2009-09-01

    With the ever present threat of MANPADS throughout the world the protection of civil aircraft is a desirable capability that has special requirements in terms of certification, safety, logistics, affordability, environmental impact and exportability. The Civil Aircraft Missile Protection System (CAMPS), which includes the CIV-IR (infrared) leaf-based pyrophoric (not pyrotechnic) expendable countermeasure, is a system designed to meet these requirements. This paper presents the operating aspects of the decoy, including discussion of design features necessary to ensure safety both on the ground and in flight and assure successful deployment. The characteristics of the CIV-IR have been measured, both on static single leaves in the laboratory and on deployed packs in field tests and aircraft trials. These measured properties have been used in engagement modelling and simulation to assess the level of protection that can be afforded to commercial airliners against generation 1 and 2 MANPADS threats. Aircraft flight trials with ground based seekers have also been carried out to validate the modelling work. These combine to define the deployment patterns necessary for a successful seduction of the MANPAD.

  9. Hierarchical Colored Timed Petri Nets for Maintenance Process Modeling of Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Cheng-cheng; SUN You-chao; LU Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Civil aircraft maintenance process simulation model is an effective method for analyzing the maintainability of a civil aircraft. First, we present the Hierarchical Colored Timed Petri Nets for maintenance process modeling of civil aircraft. Then, we expound a general method of civil aircraft maintenance activities, determine the maintenance level for decomposition, and propose the methods of describing logic of relations between the maintenance activities based on Petri Net. Finally, a time Colored Petri multi-level network modeling and simulation procedures and steps are given with the maintenance example of the landing gear burst tire of a certain type of aircraft. The feasibility of the method is proved by the example.

  10. The Research on Hidden Failures of Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lie Shu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hidden failure is often appear on civil aircraft, and it is a big risk for normal safe operation. The reason for this failure is the instability of the resistance of the electrical contact. The study on electrical contact is applied science of the reliability, the contact resistance is an important parameter of the reliability of the electrical contact system. In this paper, It also Produces the latest research results from factors that affect contact resistance and contact resistance microscopic model, and then it produces the method of the calculating and measuring engineering about the contact resistance. Lastly, it is point out the future direction of the electrical contacts.

  11. Scaling Trajectories in Civil Aircraft (1913-1997)

    CERN Document Server

    Frenken, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Using entropy statistics we analyse scaling patterns in terms of changes in the ratios among product characteristics of 143 designs in civil aircraft. Two allegedly dominant designs, the piston propeller DC3 and the turbofan Boeing 707, are shown to have triggered a scaling trajectory at the level of the respective firms. Along these trajectories different variables have been scaled at different moments in time: this points to the versatility of a dominant design which allows a firm to react to a variety of user needs. Scaling at the level of the industry took off only after subsequently reengineered models were introduced, like the piston propeller Douglas DC4 and the turbofan Boeing 767. The two scaling trajectories in civil aircraft corresponding to the piston propeller and the turbofan paradigm can be compared with a single, less pronounced scaling trajectory in helicopter technology for which we have data during the period 1940-1996. Management and policy implications can be specified in terms of the pha...

  12. European activities in civil applications of drones: an overview of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzburg, Reiner

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of recent research, development and civil application of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) in Europe. It describes a European strategy for the development of civil applications of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) and reflects most of the contents of the European staff working document SWD(2012) 259 final.

  13. 14 CFR 375.10 - Certain foreign civil aircraft registered in ICAO member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in ICAO member states. 375.10 Section 375.10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.10 Certain foreign civil aircraft registered in ICAO member... of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and registered in a State that at the...

  14. 14 CFR 91.711 - Special rules for foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special rules for foreign civil aircraft. 91.711 Section 91.711 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Foreign Aircraft Operations and Operations of...

  15. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft. Calendar Year 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    A/E N/E CARRIER AVIATION AIRCRAFT AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 1 0 1 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 1 41 1 0 2...34 MARK V11200 2 410 4 K N 2 2 41 1 0 1 KNIGHT TWISTER 2 410 KNOB QUICKIE 11 1411 0 KOLB FEATHER 2 Al 1 KORNS CAPER 2 A1ll 01 KOSTOO- 3 I 4Al 0 1 K R

  16. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  17. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xingjian; Wang Shaoping; Yang Zhongwei; Zhang Chao

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC) strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trim-mable horizontal stabilizer (THS) is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  18. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  19. A Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Noise Signatures from Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project has been successful in developing and demonstrating technologies for integrated aircraft systems that can simultaneously meet aggressive goals for fuel burn, noise and emissions. Some of the resulting systems substantially differ from the familiar tube and wing designs constituting the current civil transport fleet. This study attempts to explore whether or not the effective perceived noise level metric used in the NASA noise goal accurately reflects human subject response across the range of vehicles considered. Further, it seeks to determine, in a quantitative manner, if the sounds associated with the advanced aircraft are more or less preferable to the reference vehicles beyond any differences revealed by the metric. These explorations are made through psychoacoustic tests in a controlled laboratory environment using simulated stimuli developed from auralizations of selected vehicles based on systems noise assessments.

  20. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  1. A fault diagnosis based reconfigurable longitudinal control system for managing loss of air data sensors for a civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andreas; Ossmann, Daniel; Joos, Hans-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    An integrated fault diagnosis based fault tolerant longitudinal control system architecture is proposed for civil aircraft which can accommodate partial or total losses of angle of attack and/or calibrated airspeed sensors. A triplex sensor redundancy is assumed for the normal operation of the aircraft using a gain scheduled longitudinal normal control law. The fault isolation functionality is provided by a bank of 6 fault detection filters, which individually monitor each of the 6 sensors us...

  2. Crashworthiness uncertainty analysis of typical civil aircraft based on Box-Behnken method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Yiru; Xiang Jinwu

    2014-01-01

    The crashworthiness is an important design factor of civil aircraft related with the safety of occupant during impact accident. It is a highly nonlinear transient dynamic problem and may be greatly influenced by the uncertainty factors. Crashworthiness uncertainty analysis is conducted to investigate the effects of initial conditions, structural dimensions and material properties. Simplified finite element model is built based on the geometrical model and basic physics phenomenon. Box-Behnken sampling and response surface methods are adopted to obtain gradient information. Results show that the proposed methods are effective for crashworthiness uncertainty analysis. Yield stress, frame thickness, impact velocity and angle have great influence on the failure behavior, and yield stress and frame thickness dominate the uncertainty of internal energy. Failure strain and tangent modulus have the smallest influence on the initial peak acceleration, and gradients of mean acceleration increase because the appearance of material plastic deformation and element failure.

  3. Behavioral Traits and Airport Type Affect Mammal Incidents with U.S. Civil Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Kristin B.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Martin, James A.; DeVault, Travis L.; Wang, Guiming

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife incidents with aircraft cost the United States (U.S.) civil aviation industry >US1.4 billion in estimated damages and loss of revenue from 1990 to 2009. Although terrestrial mammals represented only 2.3 % of wildlife incidents, damage to aircraft occurred in 59 % of mammal incidents. We examined mammal incidents (excluding bats) at all airports in the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) National Wildlife Strike Database from 1990 to 2010 to characterize these incidents by airport type: Part-139 certified (certificated) and general aviation (GA). We also calculated relative hazard scores for species most frequently involved in incidents. We found certificated airports had more than twice as many incidents as GA airports. Incidents were most frequent in October ( n = 215 of 1,764 total) at certificated airports and November ( n = 111 of 741 total) at GA airports. Most (63.2 %) incidents at all airports ( n = 1,523) occurred at night but the greatest incident rate occurred at dusk (177.3 incidents/hr). More incidents with damage ( n = 1,594) occurred at GA airports (38.6 %) than certificated airports (19.0 %). Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates) incidents incurred greatest (92.4 %) damage costs ( n = 326; US51.8 million) overall and mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus) was the most hazardous species. Overall, relative hazard score increased with increasing log body mass. Frequency of incidents was influenced by species relative seasonal abundance and behavior. We recommend airport wildlife officials evaluate the risks mammal species pose to aircraft based on the hazard information we provide and consider prioritizing management strategies that emphasize reducing their occurrence on airport property.

  4. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan; Wang Lixin; Tan Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS) equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM) is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric tur-bulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness com-pliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ) rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  5. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  6. Drag prediction method of powered-on civil aircraft based on thrust drag bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yufei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A drag prediction method based on thrust drag bookkeeping (TDB is introduced for civil jet propulsion/airframe integration performance analysis. The method is derived from the control volume theory of a powered-on nacelle. Key problem of the TDB is identified to be accurate prediction of velocity coefficient of the powered-on nacelle. Accuracy of CFD solver is validated by test cases of the first AIAA Propulsion Aerodynamics Workshop. Then the TDB method is applied to thrust and drag decomposing of a realistic aircraft. A linear relation between the computations assumed free stream Mach number and the velocity coefficient result is revealed. The thrust losses caused by nozzle internal drag and pylon scrubbing are obtained by the isolated nacelle and mapped on to the in-flight whole configuration analysis. Effects of the powered-on condition are investigated by comparing through-flow configuration with powered-on configuration. The variance on aerodynamic coefficients and pressure distribution is numerically studied.

  7. 民用飞机风挡排雨液选择设计初探%The Study of windshield rain repellent fluid choosing for civil aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白穆; 霍西恒

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed and studied the rain repellent fluid choosing for civil aircraft; summarized the design improvement of rain repellent fluid choosing for civil aircraft.%本文对民用飞机风挡排雨液选择进行了初步分析与研究,给出风挡排雨液选择优化设计概述。

  8. Research on Civil Aircraft Fuel Saving Strategy%民机节油策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2016-01-01

    Fuel saving is a very important and long-term action for airlines. Based on aircraft performance analy-sis, this paper presents fuel saving suggestions on weight, center of gravity and APU usage and taxiing before flight, and also presents economy flight fuel saving strategy suggestions on take-off, climb, cruise, descent, ap-proach and landing phase. By the research of fuel saving measures in each detailed aspect of a flight circle, the pa-per suggests the method of well using flight planning tool to improve fuel consuming efficiency, with a case study and the comparison of different flight planning methods, and educes the conclusion that the integration IT solutions including flight planning and QAR ( Quick Access Recorder ) analysis systems from civil aircraft manufacture is a high performance-price ratio choice for airlines’ fuel saving.%节油是航空公司的长效措施,各航空公司均很重视。从飞行具体环节出发,基于性能研究民机节油策略,给出飞行前重量、重心、APU使用和滑行等措施分析和建议,并给出起飞、爬升、巡航、下降和进近着陆的经济飞行节油策略分析和建议。通过对飞行具体环节节油策略的研究,提出重视飞行计划优化和执行的思路,案例分析优化效果,对比分析现有飞行计划方法,得出飞机制造商提供包含飞行计划和QAR ( Quick Access Recorder)分析系统等的整体IT解决方案,是提升节油效果的一个性价比很高的选择的结论。

  9. 民用飞机FPGA设计研究%Preliminary Research of FPGA Design in Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭林

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the FPGA design in the civil aircraft,including the FPGA development life cycle,design and verification process,as well as the consideration of single-event upset preventing and the consideration of fully testable in critical system.%研究了民用飞机中FPGA的设计,主要包括FPGA设计的研制生命周期、设计与验证过程,以及在关键系统中FPGA设计的单粒子翻转效应及可测试性考虑。

  10. System Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Tai, Jimmy C.; Kirby, Michelle M.; Roth, Bryce A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aspiration of this study was to objectively assess the feasibility of the application of a low speed pneumatic technology, in particular Circulation Control (CC) to an HSCT concept. Circulation Control has been chosen as an enabling technology to be applied on a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This technology has been proven for various subsonic vehicles including flight tests on a Navy A-6 and computational application on a Boeing 737. Yet, CC has not been widely accepted for general commercial fixed-wing use but its potential has been extensively investigated for decades in wind tunnels across the globe for application to rotorcraft. More recently, an experimental investigation was performed at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with application to an HSCT-type configuration. The data from those experiments was to be applied to a full-scale vehicle to assess the impact from a system level point of view. Hence, this study attempted to quantitatively assess the impact of this technology to an HSCT. The study objective was achieved in three primary steps: 1) Defining the need for CC technology; 2) Wind tunnel data reduction; 3) Detailed takeoff/landing performance assessment. Defining the need for the CC technology application to an HSCT encompassed a preliminary system level analysis. This was accomplished through the utilization of recent developments in modern aircraft design theory at Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL). These developments include the creation of techniques and methods needed for the identification of technical feasibility show stoppers. These techniques and methods allow the designer to rapidly assess a design space and disciplinary metric enhancements to enlarge or improve the design space. The takeoff and landing field lengths were identified as the concept "show-stoppers". Once the need for CC was established, the actual application of data and trends was assessed. This assessment entailed a reduction of the

  11. Reduction environmental effects of civil aircraft through multi-objective flight plan optimisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. S.; Gonzalez, L. F.; Walker, R.; Periaux, J.; Onate, E.

    2010-06-01

    With rising environmental alarm, the reduction of critical aircraft emissions including carbon dioxides (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) is one of most important aeronautical problems. There can be many possible attempts to solve such problem by designing new wing/aircraft shape, new efficient engine, etc. The paper rather provides a set of acceptable flight plans as a first step besides replacing current aircrafts. The paper investigates a green aircraft design optimisation in terms of aircraft range, mission fuel weight (CO2) and NOx using advanced Evolutionary Algorithms coupled to flight optimisation system software. Two multi-objective design optimisations are conducted to find the best set of flight plans for current aircrafts considering discretised altitude and Mach numbers without designing aircraft shape and engine types. The objectives of first optimisation are to maximise range of aircraft while minimising NOx with constant mission fuel weight. The second optimisation considers minimisation of mission fuel weight and NOx with fixed aircraft range. Numerical results show that the method is able to capture a set of useful trade-offs that reduce NOx and CO2 (minimum mission fuel weight).

  12. Legislation of China Civil Aircraft Industry and WTO Rules%WTO规则与我国民用飞机产业发展立法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄浩刚; 李乾贵

    2012-01-01

    WTO Rules have huge impact and positive significance for the development of China' s civil aircraft industry. Facing the opportunities and challenges of joining the WTO, the civil aircraft industry must take appropriate , while avoiding disadvantages. China' s legal system is not perfect and the current civil aviation roles and regulations do not meet the requirements of the WTO rules. The concept of the law has not been fully established. China' s civil aircraft industry should reduce the risks of entering WTO. The key point is the relationship between government administrative behavior and the legal system of civil aircraft industry. In order to protect and promote the development of civil aircraft industry, China' s civil aircraft industry needs to establish a sound system of rules and regulations to make China act in accordance with WTO rules and international convention. At the same time, the legislation experience of the typical national civil aircraft industry development can provide useful inspiration and help China to accelerate its sustainable development of civil aircraft industry.%WTO规则对中国民用航空产业特别是我国民用飞机产业的发展有着巨大的影响和积极意义。从目前来看,中国的法律体系尚不完善,现行的民航法规和规章,要么在一些方面规定阙如。要么不符合WTO规则的要求,法治观念还没有完全树立起来。在这种法制环境下,中国民机产业必须规避入世风险。其核心问题是处理好政府的行政管理行为与民机产业法制之间的关系。对此,中国民机产业要建立健全法律法规制度,才能使我国作为WTO成员按照WTO规则和国际惯例保障和促进民机产业的发展。同时,通过典型国家民机产业发展立法的经验借鉴,也能为我国民机产业发展立法提供有益的启示,从而加速我国民机产业的可持续发展。

  13. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for high resolution topography and monitoring: civil protection purposes on hydrogeological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Eleonora; Castagnetti, Cristina; Corsini, Alessandro; De Cono, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The proposed work concerns the analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), also known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), on hydrogeological contexts for civil protection purposes, underlying the advantages of using a flexible and relatively low cost system. The capabilities of photogrammetric RPAS multi-sensors platform were examined in term of mapping, creation of orthophotos, 3D models generation, data integration into a 3D GIS (Geographic Information System) and validation through independent techniques such as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The RPAS used (multirotor OktoXL, of the Mikrokopter) was equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, digital cameras for photos and videos, an inertial navigation system, a radio device for communication and telemetry, etc. This innovative way of viewing and understanding the environment showed huge potentialities for the study of the territory, and due to its characteristics could be well integrated with aircraft surveys. However, such characteristics seem to give priority to local applications for rigorous and accurate analysis, while it remains a means of expeditious investigation for more extended areas. According to civil protection purposes, the experimentation was carried out by simulating operational protocols, for example for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, land mapping, georeferencing methods (with or without Ground Control Points - GCP) based on high resolution topography (2D and 3D information).

  14. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... available in the aircraft a current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual, approved manual material... prohibited range takes place over water on which a safe ditching can be accomplished and if the helicopter is... emergency ditching on open water....

  15. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 6. Aircraft. Civil and Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Materials 6.3.1 Transport Aircraft The United States commercial aircraft manufacturing industry dominates the world market for commercial transport...r S a> oo o z O OC E U OC QC 5 5^2 z < o "• > 8 ? 5 < E 1X1 z UJ o z "■ K 2 io 8 iy 9 E 2 2 251

  16. Research on Zonal Inspection Intervals of Civil Aircraft Based on Improved FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important things in formulating aircraft maintenance program is to determine the zonal inspection intervals. In accordance with the current situation that there has no perfect rating systems of zonal inspection under MSG-3 (Maintenance Steering Group-3 analysis system, a method to calculate the integrate level of zonal rating is to analyze the impact of aircraft zonal rating factors, establish a hierarchical index evaluation system and then utilize the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP to determine the indexes’ weight. Moreover, the zonal inspection intervals can be established according to the correspondence between rates and intervals. Finally, take a typical zone of an aircraft as an example to verify the method.  

  17. The dynamics of the HSCT environment. [air pollution from High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of aircraft engine exhausts on stratospheric ozone levels are currently limited to 2D zonally-averaged models which, while completely representing chemistry, involve high parameterization of transport processes. Prospective 3D models under development by NASA-Goddard will use winds from a data-assimilation procedure; the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere behavior of one such model has been verified by direct comparison of model simulations with satellite, balloon, and sonde measurements. Attention is presently given to the stratosphere/troposphere exchange and nonzonal distribution of aircraft engine exhaust.

  18. Domesticating the Drone: The Demilitarisation of Unmanned Aircraft for Civil Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Remotely piloted aviation systems (RPAS) or 'drones' are well known for their military applications, but could also be used for a range of non-military applications for state, industrial, commercial and recreational purposes. The technology is advanced and regulatory changes are underway which will allow their use in domestic airspace. As well as the functional and economic benefits of a strong civil RPAS sector, the potential benefits for the military RPAS sector are also widely recognised. Several actors have nurtured this dual-use aspect of civil RPAS development. However, concerns have been raised about the public rejecting the technology because of their association with military applications and potentially controversial applications, for example in policing and border control. In contrast with the enthusiasm for dual-use exhibited throughout the EC consultation process, the strategy for avoiding public rejection devised in its roadmap would downplay the connection between military and non-military RPAS and focus upon less controversial applications such as search and rescue. We reflect upon this contrast in the context of the European agenda of responsible research and innovation. In doing so, we do not rely upon critique of drones per se, in their neither their civil nor military guise, but explore the extent to which current strategies for managing their public acceptability are compatible with a responsible and socially beneficial development of RPAS for civil purposes.

  19. Research and Application on Civil Aircraft Ground Flotation%民用飞机地面漂浮性分析研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房务官; 魏小辉; 宋晓晨; 吴卜圣

    2012-01-01

    民用飞机地面漂浮性是评估飞机-机场相容性的一个重要指标,其直接影响到飞机设计参数选择以及地面适应性的优劣.在总体概念设计阶段就必须对飞机的漂浮性能进行分析评估,从而选择恰当的飞机参数.对民用飞机在刚性道面和柔性道面上漂浮性分析方法做了简要说明,并针对国际民用航空组织所推广使用的ACN/PCN(飞机分类号/机场分类号)方法进行了详细分析研究,在此基础上,开发出了飞机地面漂浮性分析软件.通过直接输入飞机相关参数可以快速准确地计算出飞机分类号ACN值.可以有效地对飞机地面漂浮性进行评估和优化,从而解决了用手工方式评估飞机地面漂浮性时的繁琐及不准确,并降低了对从事飞机地面漂浮性计算的人员要求.%Civil aircraft ground flotation is an important evaluation indicator of aircraft- airport compatibility , which affects the aircraft design parameters selection and the pros and cons of the ground adaptability directly. In the general conceptual design stage, the analysis and evaluation of the aircraft flotation must be done to select the appropriate parameters of the aircraft. This paper briefly describes the analysis methods of civil aircraft floating in the rigid pavement and flexible pavement, and carried out a detailed analysis and research for the ACN / PCN,the aircraft and airport's class number method,that is promoted by International Civil Aviation Organization and developed a aircraft ground flotation analysis software on that base. Inputting the relevant aircraft parameters directly, it can calculate the value the class number of aircraft, ACN, quickly and accurately. The software can effectively evaluate and optimize aircraft ground flotation , thus solve the problem of the complication and inaccuracy caused by evaluating the aircraft ground flotation by hand. In addition,it also reduces the demand for the personnel engaged in it.

  20. 民用飞机选型样机需求分析%Requirement Analysis of Civil Aircraft Selection Prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯盼盼

    2014-01-01

    随着我国大型客机市场营销工作的深入以及工程设计进程的不断推进,越来越多的客户希望能够有途径深入了解大型客机,越来越多的设计评估工作需要有合适的平台。本文从市场营销产品价值理论出发分析了选型样机的市场需求,从工程角度对选型样机的工程试验功能进行了阐述,并对选型样机的实现形式—实物选型样机和虚拟选型样机的实用方式进行了分析,为我国大型客机的市场营销工作和工程评估工作提供新思路和新方向。%China's large commercial aircraft wil directly face the market. With the deepening of marketing and engineering design progresses, more and more customers expect to have access to in-depth understanding of large aircraft. In addition, a growing number of design evaluation work needs to have the right platform. This article analyzed the requirement of selection prototype by the product-value theory in marketing, described the function of engineering test and evaluation. Also this paper analyzed practical purpose of physical and virtual prototype. It provided new ideas and a new way to the work of civil aircraft marketing and designing.

  1. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  2. Architecture and Key Techniques of Augmented Reality Maintenance Guiding System for Civil Aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    hong, Zhou; Wenhua, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality technology is introduced into the maintenance related field for strengthened information in real-world scenarios through integration of virtual assistant maintenance information with real-world scenarios. This can lower the difficulty of maintenance, reduce maintenance errors, and improve the maintenance efficiency and quality of civil aviation crews. Architecture of augmented reality virtual maintenance guiding system is proposed on the basis of introducing the definition of augmented reality and analyzing the characteristics of augmented reality virtual maintenance. Key techniques involved, such as standardization and organization of maintenance data, 3D registration, modeling of maintenance guidance information and virtual maintenance man-machine interaction, are elaborated emphatically, and solutions are given.

  3. Civil aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: the new CARIBIC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A large airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com. Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter. Furthermore, an optical particle counter and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS are installed. Aerosol samples are collected for analyses of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. Here we describe the flying observatory and report examples of measurement results.

  4. Civil Aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: The new CARIBIC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com. Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter. Furthermore, an optical particle counter (OPC and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS are incorporated. Aerosol samples are collected for analysis of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases (including isotopic composition of CO2 in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. The flying observatory, its equipment and examples of measurement results are reported.

  5. Optimization Based Clearance of Flight Control Laws A Civil Aircraft Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Anders; Puyou, Guilhem

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the main achievements of the EC funded 6th Framework Program project COFCLUO – Clearance of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of a top-level objective to meet society’s needs for a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly air transport by providing new techniques and tools for the clearance of flight control laws. This is an important part of the certification and qualification process of an aircraft – a costly and time-consuming process for the aeronautical industry.   The overall objective of the COFCLUO project was to develop and apply optimization techniques to the clearance of flight control laws in order to improve efficiency and reliability. In the book, the new techniques are explained and benchmarked against traditional techniques currently used by the industry. The new techniques build on mathematical criteria derived from the certification and qualification requirements together with suitable models...

  6. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  7. 民用飞机预研项目存在问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures in Advanced Research Projects for Civil Aircraft Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒秀丽

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three common problems are pointed out and dissected in advanced research projects for civil aircraft technology in China and three corresponding countermeasures being successfully implemented are pro-posed. These countermeasures are:establishment and application of innovation information repository supporting the setting-up of advanced research projects to reflect correct demand traction, effective formation and operation of the Integrated Project Team for effective project implementation and enhanced Technology Readiness Assessment promo-ting the application of research achievements. Good results of the application of the above-mentioned countermeas-ures are being achieved in the setting-up and implementation of three "serialized" advanced civil aircraft cockpit technology research projects, which break through the bottleneck of the advanced researches' leading and support-ing role to civil aircraft product development and provide a reference to advanced research projects in other indus-tries as well as in different civil aircraft technical fields.%指出我国民用飞机预研项目常见的三类问题并加以剖析,相应提出三项对策付诸实践:建创新信息库助正确需求牵引,组综合项目团队( IPT)助预研高效实施,抓技术成熟度评估( TRA)促研究成果应用. 上述对策在民用飞机驾驶舱技术领域三个系列化预研项目的立项和实施中显现成效,突破制约民用飞机预研引领和支撑民用飞机产品研发的瓶颈,可供民用飞机各技术领域和其他产业的预研项目借鉴.

  8. 民用飞机蓄电池选型浅析%Analysis for Battery Category Selection of Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娟

    2015-01-01

    The function and category of batteries on civil aircraft are introduced in this article. The differences between Nickel-cadmium Battery and Lithium-Ion Battery on power density, charge/discharge characteristics, maintainability, service life, safety, economical efficiency and airworthiness are also analyzed. The result shows that the Lithium-Ion Battery has superior power density and charge/discharge characteristics, while Nickel-cadmium Battery is predominant in maintainability, service life, safety, economical efficiency and airworthiness based on its mature usage.%介绍了当前民用飞机蓄电池的主要功能和类型,对比分析了镍镉蓄电池和锂离子蓄电池在功率密度、充放电特性、维护性、使用寿命、安全性、经济性以及适航性方面的差异,结果表明锂离子蓄电池在功率密度和充/放电特性方面明显占优势,而镍镉蓄电池电池由于其目前应用时间长,在维护性、寿命、安全性、经济性和适航性等方面具有优势。

  9. Civil Aircraft Operate in Cold Weather%民航飞机在寒冷天气下的运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩军

    2014-01-01

    寒冷天气对民航运行的威胁与危害是不容忽视的。该文就如何在寒冷天气下运行,进行了详细的分析与论述。首先提出了机场的保障能力和法规有待完善。然后阐述了飞机在寒冷天气下除冰,防冰的原因及原理。最后列出了机组在寒冷天气下运行需要注意的重要事项。%Threats and hazards of cold weather for civil aviation operation can not be ignored. This article on how to run in cold weather, carry out a detailed analysis and discussion. First proposed the airport security capabilities and regulations need to be im-proved. And then expounds the reason and principle of the aircraft deicing and anti-icing in cold weather. Finally, lists the impor-tant matters for the flight crew ,which need to be attention during operation in cold weather.

  10. The Scientific Research Achievement Transformation in Civil Aircraft Devleopment%民机制造科研项目成果转化问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长法; 周竹维; 赵雄

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary for civil aircraft companies to transform the scientific achievement into production pow -er.Based on the concept description of scientific research achievement transformation , it defines the content of scientific research achievement transformation , proposes the status quo and characteristics of the scientific re-search achievement transformation in civil aircraft development , builds the model of scientific research achieve-ment transformation .This provides the technology innovation reference for the civil aircraft companies .%后发的民机制造企业只有将技术成果转化为现实生产力,才能不断提高其技术水平。首先对技术成果转化的概念进行了讨论,在此基础上界定了成果转化涉及的内容;其次对民机制造技术成果转化的现状及特点进行了介绍;然后对成果转化(或转移)进行了系统分析,在此基础上提出了成果转化的模型,为实现成果转化,最终为实现民机创新性技术进步提供一种有益的思考。

  11. Application of MBSE Method During Landing Gear System Design for Civil Aircraft%MBSE在民机起落架系统设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤超; 方俊伟; 谢陵; 张磊; 夏语冰

    2015-01-01

    This paper clearly introduces function analysis process and method of large-scale civil aircraft based on Raphsody, and its implementation in landing gear system design. Usecase, function flow, sequence and executable state machine of syetem are set up by model. toguide the requirement analysis, function analysis and architecture design of highly complex system in large-scale civil aircraft, and to explore practice of MBSE in highly complex system of civil aircraft.%详细介绍基于Raphsody的大型民机系统功能开发流程与方法,及其在民用飞机起落架系统设计中的应用。通过模型的方式对系统建立用例、功能流、时序关系和可用于执行验证的状态机来描述系统,指导大型民机复杂系统设计过程中的需求分析、功能分析和设计综合工作,探索MBSE方法在民机复杂系统设计中的指导作用。

  12. Fuel-rich, catalytic reaction experimental results. [fuel development for high-speed civil transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollbuhler, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Future aeropropulsion gas turbine combustion requirements call for operating at very high inlet temperatures, pressures, and large temperature rises. At the same time, the combustion process is to have minimum pollution effects on the environment. Aircraft gas turbine engines utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels which are difficult to uniformly atomize and mix with combustion air. An approach for minimizing fuel related problems is to transform the liquid fuel into gaseous form prior to the completion of the combustion process. Experimentally obtained results are presented for vaporizing and partially oxidizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into burnable gaseous components. The presented experimental data show that 1200 to 1300 K reaction product gas, rich in hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and light-end hydrocarbons, is formed when flowing 0.3 to 0.6 fuel to air mixes through a catalyst reactor. The reaction temperatures are kept low enough that nitrogen oxides and carbon particles (soot) do not form. Results are reported for tests using different catalyst types and configurations, mass flowrates, input temperatures, and fuel to air ratios.

  13. Matching design for payload and range of civil aircraft family%民用飞机系列商载航程匹配设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙文巩; 马东立; 崔飞

    2013-01-01

    There has been a pattern transform from single model to family with multiple models for the civil aircraft-developing concept. According to the strategies of modularization and generality, the aircraft family design method was developed. The design principle of the main parameters and the economic description method for the aircraft family were presented. Then the matching design model for payload and range of the aircraft family was established. The impact of the matching relationship of the payload and the range acting on the economy of the aircraft family was analyzed, too. With application of Pareto multi-objective genetic algorithm, the matching design for payload and range of a civil aircraft family was accomplished. The parameter comparison of different design schemes was carried out,and the results are satisfactory.%民用飞机产品开发的模式已从“单型飞机”的概念向“飞机系列”概念转化.根据模块化和通用性的策略,发展了飞机系列化设计方法,给出了飞机系列主要参数的设计原则和飞机系列经济性的描述方法,建立了飞机系列商载航程匹配设计模型.分析了商载和航程的匹配关系对飞机系列经济性的影响,利用Pareto多目标遗传算法,完成了某一民用飞机系列商载和航程的匹配设计,对不同设计方案的参数进行了比较分析,取得了较好的设计结果.

  14. The Application of Requirements Management in Civil Aircraft Development%大型客机设计中的需求管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭博智; 李浩敏

    2013-01-01

    The requirements development and requirements management, including the requirement capture, re-quirement analysis, requirement definition, requirement validation and requirement management, are introduced. According the civil aircraft development needs, the effect and importance of the implementation of requirements management in civil aircraft development are depicted. The requirements management process definition, require-ments management strategy, requirement validation and verification etc in civil aircraft development are introduced. It shows that it's effective to improve the correctness, completeness and coordination of requirements by conducting requirements management in civil aircraft development, and it's helpful to ensure all the development activities con-sistent with the original requirements. Resultant, the civil aircraft development, market, and commercial success can be achieved.%介绍了需求开发和需求管理的基本概念,说明了需求捕获、需求分析、需求定义、需求确认以及需求管理的具体内容。结合大型客机的设计研制特点,阐述了在大型客机设计中开展需求管理工作的重要作用与意义,重点介绍大型客机需求管理流程定义、需求管理策略、需求确认与验证等内容。实践证明,在大型客机设计中实施需求管理工作、实现需求的规范化与精细化管理,可有效提高需求的正确性、完整性和协调性,并确保设计结果与需求之间的一致性,促进大型客机的研制、市场和商业成功。

  15. 民用飞机设计驾驶舱操纵设备的评估%Evaluation on Flight Cockpit Control Equipments of Civil Aircraft Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰立东; 赵京洲; 田金强

    2013-01-01

    人机工效影响着飞行员操纵飞机的感受,因此在民用飞机设计过程中,对人机工效进行及早考虑是非常重要的。在民用飞机设计的各个阶段,都需要适时邀请具有一定资质的飞行员对驾驶舱的人机工效进行评估。对民用飞机设计中飞控驾驶舱飞行员评估方法进行介绍,对评估的要点进行总结分析,供相关工程设计人员参考。%Human factors affect the feeling of pilots operating airplanes. It is necessary to take human factors into account at the beginning of designing civil aircraft. During each phase of designing civil aircraft, it is necessary to invite qualified pilots to evaluate human factors in cockpit when needed. A method of pilot evaluation related with flight cockpit control system in designing civil airplane is introduced and some important issues are summarized and analyzed so as to refer to other relevant engineers and designers when necessary.

  16. Study on the Forecast Method of Market Demand for Civil Aircraft%民用飞机市场需求预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2013-01-01

    民用飞机市场预测包含需求(航空运量)预测和供应(飞机机队)预测两个部分,其中需求预测为自上而下的预测,是对航空市场宏观运量进行分析和预测,这部分预测在预测模型中起着非常重要的作用。针对民用飞机市场需求预测方法和流程进行了详细的论述,该方法是大型客机市场预测和市场研究工作的基础。%The civil aircraft market forecast includes two parts:demand( aviation traffic) forecast and supply( air-craft fleet) forecast. The demand forecast is top-down forecast, which is the analysis and forecast of aviation market macroscopic traffic, and this part of forecast is very important role in the forecast model. The forecast method and process of market demand for civil aviation are discussed in detail in this paper. The method is the basic of market forecast and market research for commercial airliner.

  17. Epidemiological investigation on invasion situation of cockroaches in civil aircraft%民航客机蜚蠊侵害状况的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁朝晖; 王锦平; 冯显炘; 彭伟年; 卢江民; 王晓雨; 林国川

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide scientific evidence for studying biological characteristic of cockroaches and control countermeasures by investigating the species distribution and inroads situation of cockroaches in civil aircraft.Methods In August 2015,the onsite investigations were done for 19 A320 and A321 aircrafts harbored at Sanya airport and Haikou airport for getting the cockroach density.The difference of cockroache density was compared by aircraft type,aircraft age and the 4 areas of the aircraft.Results The total invasion rate was 84.21% on 19 aircrafts.Blauella germanica is the dominant specie.The invasion rates of cockroaches was not statistically significant neither by the comparison of aircraft type (x2 =1.362,P>0.05) nor by the comparison of aircraft age (x2=0.281,P > 0.05).But statistical significance on cockroaches density was found in the comparison of 4 areas of aircrafts (x2=14.629,P<0.01).Conclusions The comprehensive countermeasures,including environmental,physical and chemical controls,should be adopted according to the aircraft structure,operation and safety requirements.%目的 通过对民航客机蜚蠊种群分布及侵害情况的调查,为研究客机蜚蠊的生态特性及防治对策提供依据. 方法 2015年8月,采用现况调查的方法对三亚及海口机场的19架A320及A321客机进行蜚蠊密度监测;比较两种不同机型、不同机龄以及客机4个不同部位蜚蠊侵害情况. 结果 共调查19架客机,蜚蠊总侵害率为84.21%;客机蜚蠊以德国小蠊为优势种群.不同机型客机的蜚蠊侵害率差异无统计学意义(x2=1.362,P>0.05);不同机龄客机蜚蠊侵害率差异无统计学意义(x2 =0.281,P>0.05);客机不同部位蜚蠊密度差异有统计学意义(x2=14.629,P<0.01). 结论 应根据客机特殊的结构、运行特点、安全要求,并结合德国小蠊在客机上的分布特点,采取环境治理、物理防治、化学防治等综合防治措施.

  18. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a)...

  19. Introduction to civil aircraft optical fiber cable installation design requirements%浅谈民用飞机光缆安装设计要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏培坤

    2015-01-01

    Optical fiber communication compared with the traditional electrical communication has many advantages in terms of signal transmission; Optical fiber communication technology also has been widely used in civil aircraft, in this paper, the optical fiber cable installation design requirements are introduced to ensure the optical fiber communication function work normally during installation without damage.%光纤通信和传统电气通信相比在信号传输方面有许多优势,光纤通信技术在民用飞机上也得到了越来越多的应用,对光缆的安装设计要求进行了介绍,确保光缆在安装敷设过程中不会受到破坏以及保证光纤通信正常。

  20. Analyses on Large Civil Aircraft Flight Control Actuator System%大型民用飞机新型飞控作动系统浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈磊

    2012-01-01

    通过分析对比当代大型民用飞机典型作动系统的组成、工作原理和相关技术的优缺点,结合实际工作经验和相关工程参数,探讨了目前可用于新一代单通道民用运输机飞控作动系统的功率电传技术和分布式控制技术的应用前景.在此基础上,提出了一种有发展前景的基于电传技术的新型作动系统架构,通过对该新型作动系统在提升安全性、系统减重和提高通用扩展性方面的分析,认为在单通道民用运输机上采用该新型作动系统具有一定的技术优势.该新型作动系统的架构设计具有实际的工程应用价值.%Based on analysis of contemporary large civil aircraft typical actuator system composition, working principle and related technologies, it proposes the application prospect of the power telex technology and distributed control technology in a new generation of single channel civil transport aircraft flight control actuator system. It establishes the new actuator system architecture based on the telex technology, describes the characteristics of the actuator system in improved security, optimization weight and the general scalability aspects. This new type of actuator system architecture has the actual engineering application value.

  1. 14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... goggle operations. For night vision goggle operations, the following instruments and equipment must be... paragraph (c) of this section; (2) Night vision goggles; (3) Interior and exterior aircraft lighting system required for night vision goggle operations; (4) Two-way radio communications system; (5) Gyroscopic...

  2. The Study of Large Civil Aircraft Flight Control System Design Philosophy%大型民用飞机飞控系统设计理念研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢殿煌

    2015-01-01

    Design philosophy shall be an idea which will be built before project starts to launch. As the flight control system’s top level input, it will directly affect the design of control handling device, system architecture, control law architecture and so on. Civil aircraft flight control system’s design philosophy was studied from the view of methodology. Lifecycle, philosophy characteristics and strategic essence were erected, the influence factors were analyzed importantly, architecture and evaluation method were set up, and the relative database between aircraft accidents and design philosophy were developed, provided aircraft manufacturers to define the flight control system’s design philosophy for the theoretical method direction and technical basis.%飞控系统设计理念是大型民用飞机飞控系统设计的顶层输入,直接影响着飞控操纵器件、系统架构、控制律架构等设计。该文从方法论角度探索和研究了民用飞机飞控系统设计理念,重点分析了设计理念影响因素,建立了设计理念体系结构,提出了设计理念评估方法,建立了民机事故与设计理念的关系数据库,为民机制造商确立自己的民用飞机飞控系统设计理念提供了理论方法指导和技术基础。

  3. Analysis on the Wing Jacking Equipment of Civil Aircraft%民机机翼千斤顶顶升装置分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄晓莉

    2011-01-01

    Jacking condition must be considered when maintaining and replacing parts of a civil aircraft. In this paper, relevant airworthiness standards is be analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of the 13737 and A320 aircraft wing lifting devices is compared, through the force transmission analysis. Vertical component of the 13737 wing jacking load is home by the reinforcing rib and pass to the front spar, horizontal component is borne by the lower skin through the hearing. Vertical component of the A320 wing jacking load is home by the reinforcing rib and pass to the rear spar, horizontal component is borne by the lower skin and the reinforcing rib through the bearing. The aircraft wing jacking connection joints of 13737 is simple, but the force transmission of A320 aircraft wing lifting connection is clearer.%千斤顶顶升情况是民用飞机在进行维修、更换零部件时必须考虑的一个状态。对民机顶升的相关适航条款进行了理解;对B737及A320的机翼顶升装置进行了总结对比,通过传力分析,比较了其优缺点。两种机型的传力方式稍有不同:B737机翼顶升载荷的垂直分量由加强肋承担主要传递到前梁,水平分量通过挤压由下壁板承担;A320机翼顶升载荷的垂直分量由加强肋承担,主要传递到后梁,水平分量通过挤压由下壁板和加强肋承担。B737机翼顶升接头的连接方式操作简单,但A320机翼顶升接头传力路径更清晰。

  4. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect of supersonic and subsonic aircraft operation in the 2010 atmosphere on stratospheric ozone (O3). The results show that: (1) the calculated O3 response is smaller in the 2010 atmosphere compared to previous calculations performed in the 1980 atmosphere; (2) with the emissions provided, the calculated decrease in O3 column is less than 1 percent; and (3) the effect of model grid resolution on O3 response is small provided that the physics is not modified.

  5. 基于事故/事件的民机人因防错设计关键因素研究%Research on key factors of human error proofing design for civil aircraft based on accidents/incidents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 王向章; 李晓旭

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the influence of human error proofing design for civil aircraft on flight safety, 92 typical acci-dents cases by human factors were selected from the world civil aviation safety accidents/incidents database.The element incident analysis method was applied to conduct deep analysis, then the important design factors which need to be considered in the human error proofing design for civil aircraft was summarized, and the important design factor set was established.Based on the man-machine-environment model in systems engineering, and combined with the relevant standards for aircrafts design at home and abroad, an index system of important factors about hu-man error proofing design for civil aircraft was built.The FAHP method was used to calculate the weight of inde-xes, and 14 key factors of human error proofing design that influence the flight safety were determined.Finally, the general requirements of human error proofing design for civil aircraft were proposed against the key factors.It can provide reference for the human error proofing design for civil aircraft to better meet the requirements of initial air-worthiness.%针对民机人因防错设计对飞行安全的影响,从世界民航安全事故/事件数据库中筛选出92起典型的人为因素事故案例,采用基元事件分析法进行深度分析,提炼出民机人因防错设计需要考虑的重要设计因素,并建立重要设计因素集。基于系统工程学的“人机环”模型,结合国内外飞机设计相关标准,建立民机人因防错设计重要因素指标体系。运用模糊层次分析法对因素指标进行权重计算,确立影响飞行安全的14项人因防错设计关键因素,并针对这些关键因素提出民机人因防错设计通用要求,以期为民机人因防错设计满足初始适航要求提供参考。

  6. 民机典型前缘结构抗鸟撞分析研究%Study of Bird Impact Resistance for Typical Civil Aircraft Leading Edge Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何瑞

    2013-01-01

    为保障飞行安全,CCAR25部对民机结构抗鸟撞性能提出了严格的指令性要求,须对机翼前缘、平尾前缘和垂尾前缘等典型前缘结构进行鸟撞分析。鸟撞分析涉及到结构的动力学分析、鸟体的本构关系模拟、材料的高速非线性效应以及结构大变形等多方面因素的影响,相关的计算复杂,会耗费结构设计人员大量的精力和时间。通过采用经验公式和仿真分析方法对前缘结构抗鸟撞性能进行快速的分析,可达到对结构的抗鸟撞能力进行快速预估并从而指导设计的目的。%For flying safety, leading edge structures include wing leading edge horizontal leading edge and vertical leading edge, which are very typical structures in civil aircraft. Bird impact analysis has relations with the structure dynamic analysis the physical model of bird the high speed non-linear influences of material and the structure large displacements. It will cost many energies and much time to accurately analyze bird impact resistance's properties of the structure, and will reduce the work efficiency. In the paper, experienced formula and simulation to quickly an-alyze the bird impact resistance of the aircraft leading edge is employed, then according to the analysis estimates the structure's bird impact resistance, finally depending on the estimation we can quickly revise the design to achieve the aim at the analysis guiding design.

  7. 民用飞机研制项目风险管理研究与应用%Research and Application of Risk Management in Civil Aircraft Development Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新来; 丁常宏; 任长伟; 于晓伟

    2015-01-01

    民用飞机研制项目具有技术含量高、难度大、复杂度高、高投入、高风险、不确定性大等特点,在项目管理中引入风险管理对项目的顺利推进具有重要意义。在研究风险管理理论和流程的基础上,提出了民用飞机研制项目的风险识别方法和量化评估方法,建立了风险管理的组织结构和运行流程,给出了风险管理平台的系统架构和技术实现,开发的系统可用于民用飞机研制项目风险管理。%There are high technical content, dififcult and highly complex, high input, high risks, uncertainties and other great features in civil aircraft development project. Bringing risk management in civil aircraft development project has important signiifcance for project development. Based on researching the theory and procedure of risk management, the methods of risk identification and quantitative assessment in civil aircraft development project was presented, organizational structure and operation process of risk management was established. An architecture framework of risk management system, together with its implementation was proposed, and the developed system was applied in risk management of civil aircraft development project.

  8. 基于模糊综合的民机可达性设计评价方法研究%Study on the Accessibility of Civil Aircraft Based on the Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 孙玛丽

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyze the maintenance accessibility of civil aircraft better, this paper explains the defini-tion of accessibility firstly. An accessibility evaluation system for civil aircraft is established secondly, and the meth-od of accessibility evaluation is researched finally, an example is analyzed in detail for the method mentioned above and the result shows that the paper can provide an effective idea for the maintenance accessibility analysis of civil aircraft.%为更好地对民用飞机的维修可达性进行评价,首先解释了维修可达性的定义及内涵,其次构建了民用飞机维修可达性的评价体系,研究了模糊综合的维修可达性评价方法。最后通过实例分析,为民用飞机维修可达性设计分析提供了一种有效的思路。

  9. Civil Aircraft Thrust Management Function Research%大型飞机推力管理功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 刘超; 柯劫

    2012-01-01

    推力管理是现代民用客机的重要功能,能改善飞机的燃油经济性。对推力管理功能的提出及其功能与系统组成做了全面介绍与分析,同时介绍了当前先进机型在推力管理功能框架设计上的一些先进理念,总结了推力管理功能涉及的两项关键技术。%Power Thrust management is the critical function of modern civil airplane, which can improve the air- plane's fuel efficiency. This paper gave the full introduction and analysis for thrust management and system archi- tecture, and introduced the advance concepts on the structure of design for power thrust management, and summa- rized the two key technologies relevant to power thrust management.

  10. 民用飞机构型标识方法%Configuration Identification Method for Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺璐; 张乐

    2015-01-01

    构型标识是构型管理的四要素之一,从EIA649《national consensus standard for configuration management》中对标识的定义开始,通过解析定义,结合民用飞机全生命周期中构型标识遇到的实际问题及发展瓶颈,给出了全新的构型标识方法,并深入分析了该方法在实际工程应用中的优势。%Configuration identification is one of the four principle elements of configuration management. Begin-ning with the definition and analysis of configuration identification, this paper presents the brand-new configuration identification method, combined with problems and critical issues which happened in civil airplane whole-life-cy-cle configuration identification. The method is analyzed deeply in the advantages of the project application.

  11. Transient effects of harsh luminous conditions on the visual performance of aviators in a civil aircraft cockpit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biao; Lin, Yandan; Sun, Yaojie

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to examine how harsh luminous conditions in a cockpit, such as lightning in a thunderstorm or direct sunlight immediately after an aircraft passes through clouds, may affect the visual performance of pilots, and how to improve it. Such lighting conditions can result in the temporary visual impairment of aviators, which may greatly increase the risk of accidents. Tests were carried out in a full-scale simulator cockpit in which two kinds of dynamic lighting scenes, namely pulse changed and step changed lighting, were used to represent harsh luminous conditions. Visual acuity (VA), reaction time (RT) and identification accuracy (IA) were recorded as dependent variables. Data analysis results indicate that standardized VA values decreased significantly in both pulsing and step conditions in comparison with the dark condition. Standardized RT values increased significantly in the step condition; on the contrary, less reaction time was observed in the pulsing condition. Such effects could be reduced by an ambient illumination provided by a fluorescent lamp in both conditions. The results are to be used as a principle for optimizing lighting design with a thunderstorm light.

  12. The Design of the The Electrical Structure Network(ESN)of the Civil Aircraft%民用飞机电通路结构网络的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健宇

    2016-01-01

    An stable electrical network which has low resistances must be constituted of high conductive structures for any electrical and electronic equipments on civil aircraft, which provides electrical functions such as grounding、bonding、voltage reference、protection from electromagnetic interference and protection against lightning strike. A conventional metallic aircraft inherently provides electrical a high conductive network; at present the advanced composite aircraft requires additional electrical structure network (ESN) to provide electrical functions, due to poor electrical conductivity of composite structures compared to metal. the text introduces the electrical structure network designing for main models of the civil aircraft at present, and summarizes and concludes a general design method for the electrical structure network of civil aircraft, guiding the development of the civil aircraft in our country.%民用飞机上的任何电子电气系统都需要通过导电性较好的结构连接建立一条稳定的低阻抗电通路网络,以满足接地、导电、基准电压、防电磁干扰和闪电防护等电气性能。传统金属材料飞机自身形成了较好的结构电通路;目前较先进的碳纤维复合材料飞机由于其自身结构导电性较差,便需要设计额外的电通路结构网络(ESN)来实现上述的电气性能。通过介绍目前主流飞机的电通路结构网络方案,总结归纳出一种典型的民用飞机电通路结构网络的设计方法,对国内民用飞机的研制具有重要的意义。

  13. Vibration Test Requirements and Application Analysis of Civil Aircraft Equipment (Ⅱ) Vibration Test Requirements of Civil Fixed-wing Aircraft Equipment in DO 160F/G%民用飞机机载设备振动试验要求和应用分析(二)DO 160F/G民用固定翼飞机机载设备振动试验要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝耀昌; 李韻; 徐俊; 王星皓

    2016-01-01

    阐述了民用飞机机载设备振动环境的特点和振动试验分类,归纳和汇总了DO 160 F/G中的各类民用飞机机载设备的振动试验要求,包括振动谱、振动量值和试验持续时间等,并进行了分析和说明,以便于查阅和使用。最后对民用飞机机载设备振动试验方法的应用进行了概括,介绍了民用固定翼飞机的机载设备振动试验要求,按设备在机上的区域不同进行分类,详细地对比说明各个位置上设备的振动试验要求;介绍了民用直升机的机载设备振动试验要求。%ABSTRACT:The paper set forth the characteristics of the vibration environment of civil aircraft equipment and the classifica-tion of vibration tests. The vibration test requirements of various civil aircraft equipment in DO 160 F/G were concluded and summarized, including vibration spectrum, magnitude and duration, and then were analyzed and explained accordingly, so as to facilitate the reference and application thereof. At last, the application of vibration test method for civil aircraft equipment was generalized. Vibration test requirements of civil fixed-wing aircraft equipment was described and classified according to the different sections of the equipment in the aircraft. The vibration test requirements of the equipment at each position were de-scribed in details by contrast; and the vibration test requirements of the airborne equipment of civil helicopters was presented.

  14. Research on New Airworthiness Requirements of Lightning Protection for Civil Aircraft Fuel Tank Explosion Prevention%民机燃油箱防爆闪电防护新适航要求研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 岳鹏; 薛勇; 周宇穗

    2015-01-01

    民用飞机燃油箱系统防爆设计是飞机设计的一个重要方面,其中适航对燃油箱系统闪电防护设计要求作为燃油箱防爆设计及验证的一个重要组成部分,历来受到航空工业界及美国联邦航空局( FAA )的普遍关注.通过研究FAA关于民用飞机燃油箱系统防爆方面闪电防护的最新适航要求,总结了相关条款的变化内容及相应的符合性验证方法,并预判了未来航空工业界由此产生的影响,对民用飞机适航验证有一定借鉴意义.%Fuel tank system explosion prevention of civil aircraft is an important part of aircraft design, and air-worthiness requirements lightning protection regulatory for fuel tank system as an important part of fuel tank explo-sion proof design and validation, has attracted widespread attention in the aviation industry and Federal Aviation Administration( FAA) . This paper studies the latest FAA lightning protection airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft fuel tank system, summarized the evolution of the corresponding provisions and compliance validation meth-od, and also predicted the future effect on aviation industry. The results show the method can provide useful refer-ence for the civil aircraft airworthiness certification.

  15. Crashworthiness Optimization of Civil Aircraft Subfloor Structure%民机机身下部结构耐撞性优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑建强; 向锦武; 罗漳平; 任毅如

    2012-01-01

    针对含多设计参数的典型民机机身下部结构耐撞性设计,提出了一种设计方法,该方法以最小化客舱地板的初始加速度峰值与最大化参考压溃状态的结构内能为优化双目标,通过Kriging模型对结构的冲击响应进行预测,采用非支配排序遗传算法Ⅱ(NSGA-Ⅱ)对双目标进行优化,进而由Nash-Pareto策略获得最优方案.为了得到最优设计方案,同时研究设计参数对机身结构耐撞性的影响,提出最大化期望提高与最大化预测方差同步加点准则建立代理模型.采用该设计方法,以典型民机机身下部结构设计问题为算例,对客舱地板支撑结构、货舱地板和泡沫构件形状参数进行优化.结果表明,相对原始设计客舱地板的加速度峰值降低约18.3%,次高加速度峰值也得到有效降低,改善了机身结构的耐撞性;Kriging模型预测响应与有限元分析结果误差小于1%,说明了设计方法的有效性.%For a typical civil aircraft fuselage structural crashworthiness design with several design parameters, a design approach is proposed to minimize the peak acceleration of the cabin floor and maximize the internal energy of the structure at a certain crushing state. A Kriging surrogate model is adopted for impact response approximation, a nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) for dual objective optimization, and Nash-Pareto strategy for the optimum design selection. In order to obtain the effect of design parameters on crashworthiness as well as the optimum design, a synchronous sampling criterion of the maximum expected improvement and the maximum predicted variance Is suggested to construct a surrogate model. Using this design approach, a typical civil aircraft fuselage structural design with the shape parameters of the cabin floor struts, cargo floor and foam components is studied as a design case. The results indicate that the peak acceleration of the cabin floor is reduced by

  16. The Optimization Design of Door Connecting Rod Bracket Structure of Civil Aircraft%民用飞机舱门连杆支架优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁修起

    2014-01-01

    The cabin latch mechanism of civil aircraft is to prevent the door accidentally open parts. When a jam occurs forced operation, it will produce a greater internal force. The equipment door latch mechanism is all stem shape and load is small except the connecting rod bracket. Connecting rod bracket structure is complex and load is bigger. Based on analyzingresistance load ,using the finite element analysis software HyperMesh and Opti-Struct , three kinds of structure forms of connecting rod bracket are simulated. With comparison and analysis, connecting rod bracket structure satisfied equipment doors functional requirements and prototype test purpose, which provides reference for the follow-up of the real product design.%民用飞机舱门闩机构是防止舱门意外开启的机构部件。当机构发生卡阻且强制操作时,将产生较大的内力。在设备舱门闩机构中除连杆支架外都是杆形件且载荷较小,连杆支架结构形式复杂且载荷较大。在分析机构卡阻载荷的基础上使用有限元分析软件HyperMesh和Opti-Struct对三种结构形式的连杆支架进行了数值模拟。通过对比分析,得到了满足样机设备舱门功能要求和试验目的的连杆支架形式,为后续真实产品的设计提供参考。

  17. 民机货舱压差载荷的分析与解决方案%Analysis and Solution of Civil Aircraft Cargo Differential Pressure Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭阳; 林石泉; 李革萍

    2014-01-01

    One-dimension model is built up for cargo differential pressure calculation in this article, and then the effect of cargo volume and cargo leakage areas on cargo differential pressure load is analyzed. Secondly, this article brief introduces the internal design guide of cargo pressure equalization equipment. And the configurations of pressure equalization valves equipped on China self-developed civil aircraft are presented then. At last, a novel solution of cargo differential pressure load is proposed. The outlet of cargo ventilation shut-off valve is considered to keep open in normal condition to achieve differential pressure relief for cargo. This novel solution will bring some decrease of A/C weight and cost.%本文建立了一维的货舱压差载荷计算方法,并对货舱容积和货舱等效泄漏面积等因素对货舱压差载荷的影响进行了分析。介绍了我国民机货舱压差平衡装置的设计准则,简介了我国自主研制的货舱压差平衡装置结构。最后提出了一种新颖的货舱压差载荷解决方案,即把货舱压差平衡功能集成至货舱出口关断活门中。该方案可减少一定的飞机重量,并节省原货舱压力平衡装置的研制成本。

  18. MRO oriented civil aircraft engine removal date prediction system%面向MRO的民航发动机拆发日期预测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷达; 钟诗胜

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the business requirements of Maintenance,Repair and Operations (MRO) for civil aircraft engine,a software system for engine removal date prediction was developed.The system predicted the removal date of the on-wing engines according to three types of factors affecting the service of the aircraft engine,which were performance,fault and time limit.The concept of damage baseline was proposed by considering the factors that the major fault of the aircraft core engine was always limited,and a damage propagation model based on linear degradation path was established to realize the removal date prediction based on hardware damage fault.This system was currently in service in Air China Limited,and was seamlessly integrated with the existing engine health management and maintenance decision support system via interfaces as a subsystem.The developed system obtained support data from its parent system and provided the prediction results for its parent system as support data.Thus an integrated process was formed including the engine condition monitoring process,the removal date prediction process and the maintenance decision-making process,which satisfied the MRO requirements of Air China Limited.%针对民航发动机维护、维修和大修的业务需求,开发了民航发动机拆发日期预测系统.系统可以根据影响民航发动机使用的性能、故障和时限三类因素,对在翼民航发动机进行拆发日期预测.考虑到故障因素中的硬件损伤数据样本偏少,提出损伤基线的概念,并建立了基于线性退化轨道的硬件损伤发展模型,实现了基于硬件损伤故障的发动机拆发日期预测.该系统应用于中国国际航空股份有限公司(国航),并且通过接口与其现有的发动机健康管理和维修决策支持系统实现无缝集成,成为其子系统.系统从母系统中获得支撑数据并将预测结果提供给母系统,作为维修计划制定模块的支撑数据,从而使发动机状

  19. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... procedures. EPA actively participated in the United Nation's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO... Regulation of Aircraft Engine Emissions E. Brief History of ICAO Regulation of Aircraft Engine Emissions II... under consideration by the United Nation's International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)....

  20. Analysis of Advanced Integration Procedure for Systems Onboard Civil Aircrafts%先进的民用飞机机载系统集成流程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐科华; 陈谋; 吴庆宪

    2012-01-01

    为解决现有民用飞机机载系统设计流程难以在设计前期发现顶层设计偏差的问题,对现有的瀑布式设计流程、V形设计流程及螺旋形设计流程进行了详细分析及对比,总结了各自在系统设计中的优势和局限性,提出采用螺旋形流程对V形流程进行改造的设计方法.该方法强调在设计前期采用模型对设计结果进行充分仿真验证,发现前期设计偏差,进行反复迭代,完善设计;在后期系统综合各阶段进行充分的综合测试验证,并根据结果对系统设计进行修正,确保系统满足前期各项需求.经详细分析表明,该流程集中了传统设计方法的优点,能在设计初期发现各种问题,具有很好的可行性.%It is difficult to discover the top-level design deviation for the complicated system of civil aircraft ahead of schedule based on traditional design procedure. To solve the problem, we analyzed the cascade design procedure, V-shaped procedure and spiral procedure in detail,summarized their advantages and limits, and proposed a method using the spiral procedure to optimize the V-shaped procedure. During early design stage, this method focuses on simulation and verification to the system scheme based on model, thus can discover the early designing error. Iterations are made to make the scheme complete. In latter system integration, test and validation are carried out, and the design is modified based on the test result,thus to make the system satisfy all the requirements. Detailed analysis shows that this is a method which has all the advantages of the traditional procedure, it is a feasible method that can discover the design error ahead of schedule.

  1. 民用飞机阵风载荷及减缓技术的研究%esearch on Gust Load and its Load Alleviation Technology of Civil Aircrafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继伟; 胡赞远

    2012-01-01

    Due to the characteristic of large ratio wing of civil aircrafts, gust load often composes of the severe conditions of civil aircrafts. And it must be emphasized by all countries' airworthiness regulations. Moreover, owing to the elasticity of the aircraft structure, gust disturbance induces the elastic vibrations, reduces the structure stress, produces the fatigue damage, and even promote flutter. Thus it is of very importance and significance to investigate and research in gust load and gust load alleviation technologies in flight load design. This paper gives a brief introduction of gust load theories and the relevant technologies and also puts forward a type of gust load alleviation of method direct lift control to carry out gust load alleviation of the wing.%由于民用飞机机翼具有大展弦比的特点,因此阵风载荷经常成为民用飞机飞行载荷的严重情况,是各国适航标准重点考察的飞行情况。而且,阵风干扰还会因飞机机体的自身弹性引起结构弹性振动,使飞机结构刚度降低,造成机体疲劳损伤,甚至引起颤振。因此,在民用飞机载荷设计过程中对阵风载荷及其减缓技术进行研究具有非常重要的意义。介绍了民用飞机阵风载荷的原理及相关技术,以及阵风载荷减缓技术中用直接升力控制方法来实现机翼的阵风载荷减缓。

  2. Aircraft noise monitoring hardware platform design based on software radio technology at civil airport%基于软件无线电的民用机场航空器噪声监测硬件平台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏麟; 李忠良; 王冲; 刘晔璐

    2016-01-01

    Civil aircraft noise is a major factor in the civil airport noise. For the civil aviation airport noise characteristics, a concrete realization of airport noise signal monitoring and processing center hardware platform architecture is proposed. By using high-speed large-capacity FPGA programmable logic devices, PowerPC embedded processors, PCI-e, and SRIO (RapidIO) high-speed IO technology, constructed based on software radio technology hardware platform to achieve a higher real-time processing and monitoring platform highly reconfigurable.%民用航空器噪声是民用机场噪声的主要因素。针对民用机场航空器噪声的特点,提出了一种具体实现民用机场航空器噪声信号监测及处理中心的硬件平台架构。通过使用高速大容量FPGA可编程逻辑器件、PowerPC嵌入式处理器、PCI-e和SRIO(RapidIO)高速IO技术,构建了基于软件无线电技术的硬件平台,实现了监测平台的较高实时处理能力和高度可重构性。

  3. Application of Reliability Design in Civil Aircraft Environment Control System%可靠性设计在民用飞机环控系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫旭东

    2016-01-01

    民用飞机环控系统可靠性设计的目标是保证飞机达到规定的可靠性定量指标和定性要求,以提高飞机的可靠度,降低运营费用,使飞机具有良好的经济性和市场竞争能力。民用飞机环控系统在设计中大量采用了冗余设计、成熟技术及标准化设计等设计手段,以保证飞机的可靠性和安全性。通过可靠性分析验证飞机平均故障间隔时间和签派可靠度是否满足环控系统设计要求。%The purpose of the reliability design on civil aircraft environment control system is to ensure the aircraft meet the qualitative and quantitative reliability requirements, reduce the cost in working, and to make better eco-nomical and compete ability. In order to ensure the reliability and safety, a fairly large number of technology are used in aircraft environment control system design, redundancy design, mature technology and standardization de-sign . Reliability analysis is used to validate whether mean time between failures and dispatch reliability meet the re-quirement.

  4. 基于突破式创新局限性的民用飞机制造产业创新窘境分析%Analysis of the Dilemma of Civil Aircraft Manufacturing Industry Innovation Based on Radical Innovation Limitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘花清; 黄莹灿; 杨蕾; 冯亚秋

    2015-01-01

    From the research of the radical innovation mode and its development and application situation, this article finds out the limitations of radical innovation through the comparison of different innovation modes in various aspects, combined with the analysis of the status quo of civil aircraft manufacturing industry innovation, and discusses the six innovation dilemmas of radical innovation in civil aircraft manufacturing industry. In view of this background, the authors hope that analysis of the dilemmas of radical innovation in civil aircraft manufacturing industry can promote the development of China's civil aircraft manufacturing industry.%本文从突破式创新模式的探究及其发展和应用情况出发,通过不同创新模式在各方面的比较,发现突破式创新存在的局限性,结合民用飞机制造业的创新现状分析,重点探讨了突破式创新在民用飞机制造产业的六大创新窘境。鉴于此背景之下,希望通过分析当前民用飞机制造产业突破式创新中存在的窘境,促进中国民用飞机制造产业的发展。

  5. Analysis of Influencing Factor of Risk Communication in Civil Aircraft Supply Chain Based on TPB%基于TPB的民机供应链风险沟通影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祎飞; 张亚莉; 姜香美

    2013-01-01

    With theory of planned behavior, a few factors are proposed to analyze between members of civil aircraft supply chain enterprises in risk communication, type of partnership, power structure, risk type, expected results, trust and commitment, the degree of resource and so on. Finally, three measures to improve risk communication are put forward.%本文以计划行为理论(TPB)为基础,分析了民机供应链成员企业之间在风险沟通方面的影响因素,主要有合作伙伴关系类型、力量格局、风险类型、期望结果、信任与承诺、资源配合度,并给出3点建议.

  6. Civil Aircraft ACS Venturi flow Simulation and Error Analysis using Matlab/Simulink%基于Matlab/Simulink的民机空调系统文氏管流量精度仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴铮

    2014-01-01

    Venturi is an important equipment used to estimate the ACS inlet airflow on the civil aircraft. This paper compares the estimated airflow sensing errors resulted from using different sensing positions to obtain temperature and pressure sensor signals based on Matlab/Simulink.%文氏管是测量民用飞机空调系统组件进口流量的重要部件,其精度指标直接影响到组件进口流量的控制。本文通过Matlab/Simulink仿真的方式分析温度压力测量位置的不同对于文氏管流量计算精度的影响。

  7. 民用飞机两跨裂纹结构的剩余强度分析%Residual Strength Analysis about the Two-span Crack Structure of Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海生

    2012-01-01

    According the universal method, the residual strength of civil aircraft fuselage skin and wing skin can meet two-span crack. The designer need evaluates the residual strength of the skin in the condition of two-span crack in the primary-phrase design.%根据通用做法,民用飞机机身和机翼壁板在“两跨”长度裂纹存在情况下剩余强度能够满足要求,设计人员在飞机设计的初级阶段就要对两跨裂纹情况下壁板剩余强度进行评估.

  8. Research on the Limitations of Cooling Mechanism Based on FRM for Civil Aircraft%民用飞机冷却降燃方案的局限性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌

    2016-01-01

    The fuel tank flammability reduction means design for civil aircraft is an important part of fuel tank ex-plosion proof design, it is necessary to carry out the related research. By studying the 25. 981 airworthiness require-ments for civil aircraft, this paper summarizes the fuel tank flammability requirements and the corresponding FRM ( flammability reduction means) , and also studies the applicability of cooling mechanism based on FRM. The re-sults show that this concept has some limitations in actual application, especially it can’ t meet flammability airwor-thiness requirement for the fuel tank within the fuselage configuration.%民用飞机降低燃油箱可燃性设计是燃油箱防爆设计的一个重要方面,有必要对其开展相关研究。通过对民用飞机燃油箱25.981适航条款要求的解读,总结了适航对燃油箱可燃性要求以及对应的降低燃油箱可燃性措施( FRM),并对基于冷却降燃方案的适用性进行分析研究,研究结果表明该方案在实际应用中具有一定局限性,尤其是无法满足位于机身内非主燃油箱的可燃性适航要求。

  9. Adjoint based on high precise aerodynamic shape optimization for transonic civil aircraft%基于伴随算子的大飞机气动布局精细优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文华; 范召林; 陈德华; 覃宁; 孟德虹

    2012-01-01

    After decades of studies, the potentialities of traditional wing-body configuration are almost exhausted. So, it is difficult to improve the performance of the traditional aerodynamic shape of transonic civil aircraft by conventional design method. In this paper we develop ADJOINT method based on aerodynamics optimization software-ADJOPT, and the software is used to optimize the wing of a transonic civil aircraft with fuselage and nacelle, which is already optimized by traditional way. The optimization is multi-parameter, high precise and taking the influence of the fuselage and nacelle into account. The software performs well and gets obvious performance improvement. The research shows that multi-parameter optimization has the ability to exploit potentialities of a high-performance shape and increases the aerodynamic performance of it.%发展了基于伴随算子的气动布局优化设计软件-ADJOPT,并将该软件用于经过传统设计方法优化的大飞机布局上,开展全机状态下的机翼多参数、高精度优化设计,计入了短舱和机身对机翼气动特性的影响,取得了明显的优化效果.研究结果表明,多参数优化设计能够充分挖掘一个优良布局的设计潜力,进一步提高布局性能.

  10. 基于相异性表示的民机液压系统健康评估%Health Assessment of Civil Aircraft Hydraulic System Based on Dissimilarity Representation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓云; 张天刚

    2012-01-01

    This paper carries out the health assessment of the civil aircraft hydraulic system. Based on the dissimilarity representation, one-class LP classifier is taken for the health assessment, to determine the parameters affecting the accuracy of the model assessment, to define the health index, to make the assessment of the overall test samples and non-normal samples, and to compare the results with the support vector machine hyper-sphere model. The evaluation results show that in the case of the selected appropriate parameters, one-class LP classifier based on the dissimilarity classifier model can assess the health of the civil aircraft hydraulic system, and performs better than the support vector machine hyper-sphere model.%为了实现对民航飞机液压系统的健康评估,基于相异性表示的方法,利用单类线性规划分类器模型进行健康评估,确定了影响模型评估准确率的参数,定义了健康指数,得到总体测试样本以及非正常样本的评估结果,且与支持向量机超球模型的评估结果进行比较.结果表明,在已选择相应参数的情况下,采用基于相异性表示的单类线性规划分类器模型可以对民机液压系统进行健康评估.

  11. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  12. Description of Re-manufacture Project of Civil Aircraft Structure%民用飞机结构再制造工程概论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范耀宇

    2015-01-01

    This article states the status of re-manufacture, typical re-manufacture process. It is also planning the method, outline and critical issues of civil airplane structure re-manufacture program from the top level.%阐述再制造工程现状、典型工艺,并从顶层规划了民机结构再制造工程研究思路、总体框架和关键技术。

  13. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  14. Aircraft Disinsection: A Guide for Military and Civilian Air Carriers (Desinsectisation des aeronefs: Un guide a l’intention des responsables des transports aeriens civils et militaires)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    and other pests (e.g., viruses, bac- within the fuselage. The exterior surfaces teria, fungi, amphibians , snakes, birds, and and wheel housings are of...Sudan to the subject of aircraft disinsection. The - Sri Lanka - Surinam resurgence has been caused by the disin- - Swaziland - Tanzania tegration of...is being re- birds, amphibians ), seeds, and meat pro- turned from abroad, every effort should be ducts. made to ensure that it is free of pests

  15. Design and Development of Civil Aircraft Flight Performance Auxiliary Calculation System%民用飞机的飞机性能辅助计算系统设计与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚双磊; 董奇; 刘子昂; 温瑞英

    2016-01-01

    The performance engineer's daily work in the airline is that making the low-speed performance analysis and route operation evaluation by the software performance corresponding to aircraft model,it has a large amount of daily performance calculation. The research is oriented by pre-flight performance assis-tant calculation of performance engineer, the aircraft performance auxiliary calculation software was de-signed and developed. First it established basic performance database of civil aircraft,including aerody-namic data and engine thrust data,the programming language was used in order to complete the primary basic performance calculation, senior professional performance calculation performance curves output of the three main module design,the daily work of the performance engineers achieved quick and simple cal-culation,it laid the data foundation for the follow-up aircraft professional performance calculation,at the same time,it can offer help for the daily performance training of flight dispatcher.%航空公司性能工程师的日常工作就是使用机型对应的飞机性能软件进行低速性能分析和航线评估,日常计算量很大.面向性能工程师的前期飞行性能辅助计算工作,设计并开发了一款飞机性能辅助计算软件,建立机型基础性能数据库,包含气动数据和发动机推力数据,采用编程语言依次完成初级基础性能计算、高级专业性能计算、性能曲线绘制3个主要模块设计、实现性能工程师日常工作的快捷和简便性计算,为后续专业飞机性能计算打下数据基础,同时也可以为飞行签派员的日常性能训练工作提供帮助.

  16. The Supplier Quality Management System Evaluation of Civil Aircraft Development%民机研制供应商质量管理体系评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培发; 张发玉

    2012-01-01

    对主制造商-供应商研制模式下的供应商质量对飞机研制的影响做了探讨,叙述了不同类型供应商的质量体系评价原则,主要包括体系标准、审核要素、审核周期、不符合项更改等指标.对于供应商绩效考核则主要依据其在飞机研制中的重要度等级采取不同周期和内容的考核方式,通过上述供应商质量体系的评价与考核,可以首先选择通过AS/EN/JAN9100标准的公司,最大限度地降低供应商选择的风险.%Based on the aircraft development, it analyzes the mode of main manufacturer -supplier development such as the evaluation principles for different types of suppliers, the quality system standards, audit and audit cycle , non - conformance and so on. Aiming at the main basis of the aircraft development, it researches the supplier performance evaluation, choices the AS/EN/JAN9100 standard of the company, reduces the risk in choosing suppliers.

  17. Aircraft Emissions Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    sample from each trap through a heated (1500C) six-port valve ’ Carle Instruments Model 5621) and onto the analytical column. The coLoponents in each...Environmental Protection, Vol. II. Aircraft Engine Emissions, Int. Civil Aviation Organ., 1981. 7. Nebel , G. J., "Benzene in Auto Exhaust," J. Air Poll

  18. 民用航空器侵权责任主体的相对性及其突破%The Relativity of Civil Aircraft Tort Liability Subject and Its Breakthrough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锡柱

    2015-01-01

    The tort liability of civil aircraft in Tort Liability Law belongs to the category of high risk liability. Whether or not the operator of a civil aircraft is at fault or not,he has to assume responsibility. However,besides the operator,whether or not the third party is at fault could be taken as the responsibility subject,and whether the victim can claim directly to such third party,are not specified in Tort Liability Law,which results in the relativity of subject of tort liability in civil aircraft. The relativity to some extent is beneficial to victims as balance between risks and benefits as well as an embodiment of the economic responsibility,but the relativity is not conducive to intactness of tort liability law system and could not protect the benefits of victims and operators perfectly. Given the balance of interests as well as the standard of making a clear distinction between right and wrong,it is necessary to break the relativity,taking the third party at fault as responsibility subject and to give the victim the right to claim directly to the third party.%我国《侵权责任法》中民用航空器侵权责任属于高度危险责任范畴,民用航空器经营人有无过错,均应承担责任。然而,对于经营人之外有过失的第三人能否作为责任主体,以及受害人能否向此类第三人直接求偿并未在该法中得到明确,进而造成了民用航空器侵权责任主体的相对性。这种相对性在一定程度上保护了受害者,是风险与收益平衡的选择以及经济责任的体现,但是这种相对性不利于侵权责任法体系的完整,对于受害人以及航空器经营人的保护并不周延。基于利益平衡以及明辨是非的标准有必要突破这种责任主体的相对性,将具有过失的第三人作为责任主体,并赋予受害人向第三人的直接请求权。

  19. Aerodynamic Analysis of Civil Aircraft Equipped with Winglet on Numerical Simulation%民机翼梢小翼气动特性数值模拟分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋彪; 李杰

    2011-01-01

    A certain type of civil aircraft wing and body are equipped with two different forms of winglets - Fusion Winglet and tip- fence. The point- to- point patched multi- block technology was used to generate high quality grid by ICEM software. Three- dimensional time- dependent compressible Reynolds- averaged Navier- Stokes equations were solved with third- order upwind- biased flux- difference splitting method and approximate factorization method. The numerical simulation was adopted to obtain reasonable geometry parameters of two different winglets at cruise point. The result data indicates that both winglet has increased lift coefficient and decreased drag coefficient, compared with the original wing- body model. The fusion wing, let increased the lift to drag ratio by 9%, and the tip fence increased the lift to drag ratio by 6%. However, the advantage of wing-body equipped with tip-fence in moment characteristic is obvious.The conclusions have great engineering application value in the design of civil aircraft winglet.%针对某民机翼身组合体加装不同翼梢小翼--融合式翼梢小翼和翼尖涡扩散器进行对比分析.用软件ICEM生成原始翼身组合体及加装不同小翼的翼身组合体的点对点对接多块网格技术生成高质量的数值计算网格,运用Roe三阶迎风偏置通量差分裂方法和隐式近似因子分解方法求解雷诺平均N-S方程.对两种不同翼梢小翼在巡航点进行数值模拟,得到合理的翼稍小翼几何参数;对比升阻特性数据,两种翼梢小翼都可以提高升力系数,减少阻力系数.相对原始翼身组合体,融合式翼梢小翼升阻比增加9%,翼尖涡扩散器升阻比增加6%;但翼尖涡扩散器在力矩特性上有较大优势.所得结论对民用飞机翼稍小翼设计工作具有较大的工程应用价值.

  20. 民用飞机外翼与中央翼上壁板连接形式的研究%Research on the Upper Panel Joint of Outer Wing and Center Wing for Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方采文; 张树军; 贾大炜; 李同

    2015-01-01

    The design and assembly of joint between outer wing and center wing is essential for the developing commercial aircraft. Five kinds of joints for upper panel between outer wing and center wing were researched in this article. CATIA models were established. Using the finite element calculation, the stress and strain condition of the same load was obtained. Comparation and analysis were given from loading, manufacturing and weight, in order to get the advantages and disadvantages of the different joints. The research could provide a technology support for civ-il aircraft structure design.%在现代民用飞机的设计研发中,外翼与中央翼连接处的设计和装配是重中之重。通过对5种外翼与中央翼上壁板连接形式进行研究,建立CATIA模型,通过有限元计算,得出相同载荷形式下的应力应变情况。并从受力、工艺和重量等方面进行分析、比较,初步给出几种外翼与中央翼连接形式的优劣。旨在为类似机型外翼与中央翼上壁板连接形式的确定提供有效思路和技术支持。

  1. Wind tunnel test for turbo-fan engine re-ingestion characteristic of civil aircraft%民机涡扇发动机重吸入特性风洞试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李达新; 赵克良; 王奇志; 盛鸣剑; 黄勇; 张美红

    2012-01-01

    民机在滑跑减速阶段一般会使用发动机的反向推力来提高其减速性能和滑跑安全性,当滑跑速度较低时使用该装置,从发动机排出的向前方喷射的气流存在被发动机重新吸入的可能,该喷流受发动机风扇的压缩做功,喷流的温度比环境温度高,如果此气流被发动机重新吸入,将会导致发动机进气气流的温度畸变,而该畸变将会引起发动机风扇叶片的颤振,影响发动机的寿命和安全性.故对于一个使用涡扇发动机的新型飞机,有必要通过风洞试验来得到其在各工况下的重吸入特性,并且根据其重吸入特性,设定截止使用反推力的滑跑速度.本文主要论述通过风洞试验获得发动机重吸入特性,并且确定反推力使用截止滑跑速度的方法.%For civil aircraft it is common method to use thrust reverser to improve the deceleration and the safety during landing run. However, if the ground running speed of the aircraft is too low, the forward moving plume flow can be re-ingested by the engine. The temperature of the plume flow is much higher than ambient temperature since it gains energy from fan compressor. As a result the re-ingestion may lead to the temperature distortion for inlet flow causing the flutter of the fan blade, thus harming the engine life and safety. Therefore, for a new turbo-fan aircraft it is necessary to obtain the re-ingestion characteristic of the engine through wind tunnel test in order to determine the turn-off speed limit for thrust reverser. This paper mainly states the method to get the A/C's re-ingestion characteristics from the wind tunnel test and acquire the thrust reverser cut-off taxiing speeds.

  2. Estimation of the Aircraft CO2 Emission of China's Civil Aviation During 1960-2009%1960-2009年中国民航飞机的CO2逐年排放变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉成

    2011-01-01

    基于中国民航部门逐年统计数据,计算了1960- 2009年中国民航飞机的CO2逐年排放量,分析了中国民肮飞机CO2排放强度及其变化特点.结果表明:中国民航飞机CO2总排放量由1960年的12.0万t增至2009年的4144万t;CO2排放强度呈明显的降低趋势,由1960年的2.9 kg/换算吨公里降至2009年的0.96 kg/换算吨公里,年均降低0.04 kg/换算吨公里.中国民肮飞机的CO2排放量占整个交通运输仓储和邮政行业CO2排放量的比例较低,仅占6.6%,占全国化石燃料燃烧CO2排放量的比例也很小,平均只有0.25%.%Based on the annual production data collected by Chinese Civil Aviation Statistic Center, the yearly CO2 emission of aircrafts during 1960-2009 was calculated, and the emission intensity and its dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The results show that the total CO2 emission of aircrafts in China increased from 120 kt in 1960 to 41.44 Mt in 2009. The emission intensity of CO2 decreased from 2.9 kg/(converted t · Km) in 1960 to 0.96 kg/(converted t · km) in 2009 at an average rate of 0.04 kg/(converted t · km) per year. The average proportion of the CO2 emission of aircrafts to the total CO2 emission from the sector of transportation, storage and post was 6.6% in the period of 1980-2005, and to the total emission from fossil fuel combustion was 0.25% in the period of 1971-2008.

  3. Study on Electrically Conductive Elastomer Shielding Efficiency for HIRF Condition of Civil Aircraft Electronics Equipment Bay%民用飞机设备舱舱门导电橡胶屏蔽效能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永根; 代继刚; 王乐意

    2014-01-01

    通过理论计算和软件仿真相结合的方法,给出了民用飞机电子电气设备舱高强度辐射场( HIRF)条件下的腔体谐振特性,并对腔体内部电磁场进行仿真。通过对比舱门缝隙导电橡胶屏蔽效能的仿真结果,给出了电子电气设备舱不同状态下的电磁场分布结果,为电子电气舱舱门屏蔽设计提供技术支持。%Resonance Characteristic of the civil aircraft electronics equipment bay ( E/E Bay ) on HIRF condition is obtained through combining the theory calculation with software simulation method .Compa-ring the simulation results of the electrically conductive elastomer shield efficiency , the electromagnetic field inside the E/E bay are supplied ,and this simulation results can support the E/E bay door design .

  4. Research of Data Management in the Development Phase of Civil Aircraft Based on System Engineering%基于系统工程的民用飞机研制阶段数据管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冰

    2016-01-01

    Through analysis of major work content at the various stages of airplane development process,combined of system engineering methods to analyze the producing process,relevance and use of data,defined the main goal of civil aircraft data management,presented the ideal of data inventory planning and the key elements of data management programs,and gave recommendations of data management software evaluation.%通过对飞机研制各阶段主要工作内容的分析,结合系统工程方法对数据的产生、数据的关联性以及数据用途进行研究,进而确定民用飞机数据管理的主要目标,提出数据清单规划的工作思路,定义数据管理计划的关键要素,并对数据管理软件的评估给出建议。

  5. 襟缝翼对民用飞机失速特性的影响%Effect of Slat and Flap on Stall Characteristic of Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周涛; 李亚林; 梁益华; 陈迎春

    2012-01-01

    To detect factors of affecting stall characteristic and stability of aircraft, slot parameter of out board slat, separation face of inboard slat and fuselage, slot between slat and pylon, and slot parameter of flap were investigated. The results indicate that, root and tip of slat may affect pitching moment character- istic, slot between slat and pylon may improve lift coefficient, but no contribution for pitching moment characteristic, and, adjusting deploy angle of flap may not improve separation characteristic on main wing, because effective camber of wing is not changed.%从外侧缝翼缝道参数、内侧缝翼分离面、缝翼与挂架间隙以及后缘襟翼缝道参数等方面考虑,分析了民用飞机失速特性和失稳特性的影响因素.结果表明,前缘缝翼根部和梢部细节对力矩特性有较大影响,缝翼挂架堵缝可提高升力,不影响力矩特性,调整襟翼偏角,可改变机翼有效弯度,不改变主翼分离特性.

  6. Pressure Reliefs of Cockpit Doors of Civil Aircraft%民机驾驶舱门卸压方式选择探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安琳琳; 汪洋

    2014-01-01

    If the cockpit windshields of civilian aircraft have holes in the process of high speed ,the pressure fall sharply and the differential pressure of cockpit and cabin increases quickly ,w hich must relieve pressure to balance the cockpit and cabin pressure . Such as pressure relief in a untimely manner will cause serious harm to the crew body as well as cockpit floor and structure and cause serious damage ,even to pilots’ lives to cause plane crash .So the cockpit has quick pressure relief device .The discharge pressure plate often designed on the cockpit doors .There are mechanical pressure relief and electronic pressure ,and this paper analyzes the two kinds of pressure reliefs .%民用飞机在高空高速飞行过程中,若驾驶舱风挡玻璃出现孔洞,则驾驶舱门内压力急剧下降,此时驾驶舱和客舱压差迅速增大,必须通过快速卸压以平衡驾驶舱和客舱压力。如卸压不及时将会对机组人员身体造成严重伤害,同时对驾驶舱地板和结构等造成严重破坏。严重时将危及飞行员生命,使整个飞机失去控制,且有坠机发生。因此驾驶舱内必须设计有快速卸压装置。民机通常将卸压板设计在驾驶舱门上,目前有机械式卸压和电子卸压两种卸压方式,对这两种卸压方式进行了介绍分析。

  7. Flutter of a civil aircraft with wing ice accumulation%民用飞机翼面结冰颤振特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范石磊; 章俊杰; 李效法

    2011-01-01

    翼面结冰是运输类飞机适航标准气动弹性稳定性要求条款(CCAR25.629)规定的必须考虑的失效、故障与不利条件之一,必须通过风洞试验和理论分析相结合的方法来表明飞机对该适航条款的符合性.针对某型民用飞机,进行了模拟翼面不同结冰状态的颤振模型风洞试验,采用希利普法外推得到颤振速度;同时对不同结冰状态进行了理论分析.试验与分析结果表明,该型飞机翼面结冰状态下颤振形式为机翼弯扭耦合;翼面结冰对该型飞机颤振速度无不利影响;该型飞机翼面结冰状态满足颤振包线要求.%The aeroelastic stability requirements of airworthiness standard for transport category airplanes ( CCAR25.629) prescribe that icing on wing surfaces is one of failures, malfunctions, and adverse conditions which must be considered.The compliance with the airworthiness standard must be shown with wind tunnel test and theoretical analysis.For a civil airplane, wind tunnel test was carried out to simulate different ice accumulation expected on wing surfaces.Schlipp's Method was used to extrapolate the flutter speed.And study was done to analyze different icing conditions.The results of test and analysis showed that the flutter form under icing condition is coupled with wing's bending and torsion; ice accumulation on wing surfaces has no adverse influence on aeroplane's flutter speed; and this type of aeroplane can satisfy the requests of a flutter envelope.

  8. 大型民用飞机风挡鸟撞的适航分析与数值仿真%Airworthiness Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Bird Impact on Large Civil Aircraft Windshield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳慧; 胡宇群; 陈川

    2016-01-01

    鸟撞一直都是航空安全的隐患,对此需要有相应的适航条款来表明民用飞机相关部件的抗鸟撞性能符合要求。针对风挡鸟撞问题现状,分析了目前民用飞机鸟撞适航验证的方法和手段,对比研究了不同鸟撞数值模型,通过计算机辅助设计软件建立了某型民用飞机风挡三维几何模型,采用显式非线性数值分析软件ANSYS/LS-DYNA进行风挡鸟撞过程的数值仿真分析,以期为大型民机风挡鸟撞适航验证提供更有效的方法和手段,提高适航验证工作效率,降低工作成本。%Bird strike is a major threat to aircraft windshields and need a certification requirement for a proven level of impact resistance. Apart from costly bird strike experiments, explicit numerical modeling techniques have been employed. This paper summarized the current airworthiness verification methods of bird strike,compared the different bird strike analysis models. With the help of Computer Aided Design software,established a three-dimensional geometric model of a certain type of civil aircraft windshield,and the simulation of the dynamic process of bird impacting windshield is run using the nonlinear explicit finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The solution of analysis presents the theoretical basis for the airworthi-ness certification methods of bird strike windshield,in hope of improving the efficiency of airworthiness ver-ification work and reducing the cost.

  9. Research of Wing Anti-ice System Performance Validation for Civil Aircraft%某型飞机机翼防冰系统性能验证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍西恒; 王大伟; 李革萍; 李志茂

    2013-01-01

    A certain type of civil aircraft wing anti-ice system performance validation was introduced briefly first:the 2. 5D test model to verify the performance of three dimensional wing anti-ice system. A typical test condition selected to carry out the calculation of 2. 5D model and 3D model performance, meantime the icing wind tunnel test result of 2. 5D model for same condition was analyzed. At last, the 2. 5D model calculation results with the experi-mental results were compared and analyzed, and fixed the calculation results of 3D model,so as to achieve the pur-pose to verify the ice protection system performance.%介绍了某型支线客机机翼防冰系统的性能验证思路,即通过采用2.5D试验模型验证三维防冰系统的性能。选取一个典型状态点分别进行了2.5D及三维模型的性能计算分析,同时进行了相同状态点时2.5D模型的冰风洞试验结果分析,最后将2.5D模型计算结果与试验结果进行对比分析,修正3D模型的计算结果,从而达到验证整个防冰系统性能的目的。

  10. 民用飞机高升力控制系统安全性评估方法浅析%The review on the safety assessment method for high lift control system of civil aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志丹

    2015-01-01

    It introduces the processes and methods for the safety assessment, proposes the analysis items in the stage such as the Functional Hazard Analysis( FHA) , Preliminary System Safety Assessment( PSSA) and System Safety Assessment( SSA) , discusses the assessment method at various stages.Based on the above safety assess-ment methods, it takes a type of civil aviation aircraft as an example, carries out functional hazard analysis, de-fines all function failure in the system process.Based on the extent of failure damage, it classifies these failure, establishes the failure trees according to 1 class function, carries PSSA and SSA, verifies that the system design satisfies the requirement of safety index.%对系统安全性评估的流程和方法进行了研究,分析了功能危害性评估( FHA)、初步安全性评估( PSSA)、系统安全性评估( SSA)3个阶段内容,并探讨了各阶段运用的评估方法。基于以上安全性评估方法,对某民机高升力控制系统进行FHA,确定了系统可能发生的所有功能失效故障,然后按失效故障危害影响程度对这些失效故障进行了分类。以其中一项Ⅰ类功能故障为例建立故障树,对其开展了PSSA和SSA,验证了系统设计满足安全性指标要求。

  11. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... scanning, etc., to discussions of Shari'a law versus common civil law in India; from the study of religious cult in ancient city states to the processes of constitutional reconstruction in former Communist countries; and from attempts at conflict resolution and prevention between Jewish and Arab citizens...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  12. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  13. Maintenance of air worthiness of aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. А. Горячев

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Described are modem conditions of operation of Russian civil aviation, state of aircraft stock, the main principles of maintaining air worthiness of airplanes and helicopters. Considered is a stage by stage prolongation of the service life of each specimen of aircraft with certification being obligatory

  14. Study on Failure Seriousness Quantitative Analysis Method of Civil Aircraft Flight Test Based on Extenic Theory%基于可拓学的民用飞机外场失效后果定量分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李飞敏; 顾仁碗

    2015-01-01

    Based on failure data of civil aircraft in lfight test, under consideration of lfight test characteristics and failure seriousness grade at present, failure seriousness evaluation index system of civil aircraft in flight test and failure seriousness quantitative analysis method of civil aircraft lfight test based on extenics theory were established. Finally, the methods were validated by lfight test data. The validation results show that the methods were reasonable and viable. The method can solve the problem of failure seriousness quantitative analysis based on lfight test data and offer ways for safety evaluation and validation based on lfight test failure data.%本文立足民用飞机外场失效数据,综合试飞特点以及目前失效后果等级划分特点,建立了民用飞机外场失效后果评价指标体系,引入可拓学方法,建立了民用飞机外场失效后果定量分析方法,并采用外场实例数据进行了方法验证,充分说明了方法的合理性和可行性,解决了目前试飞阶段基于失效数据的失效后果定量分析的难题。本方法的提出为民用飞机外场基于失效数据的安全性评估验证工作提供了方法和思路。

  15. Design of Through-flow Nacelle for Low-speed Wind Tunnel Testing of Civil Aircraft%民机低速风洞试验通气发房设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡仞与; 张东云; 施永毅

    2014-01-01

    通气发房是民机风洞试验中模拟发动机效应的一种有效手段。通过调整通气发房出口面积,可以对通过发房的流量进行控制,实现所需模拟的流量系数,保证进气流场的几何相似性。失速特性是民机的一个重要的性能指标,大量的低速风洞试验工作都着眼于着落构型下失速特性的研究;而在失速特性的适航审定试飞时的发动机将处于慢车功率状态,因此以模拟慢车流量系数作为低速风洞试验通气发房的设计目标,有助于在风洞试验中对失速特性进行预测。慢车功率时,由于发动机风扇压比很小,如保留外涵喷口形状,通气发房还能近似模拟风扇的喷流效应。发动机在慢车功率下的流量系数在0.5附近,为实现这一流量系数,在设计通气发房时,需调整内涵出口面积,使发房的总出口面积接近唇口面积的一半。 CFD计算证明这种设计方法得到的通气发房基本能够实现预期的流量系数。%Through-flow nacelle ( TFN) is an effective method of simulating engine effect in wind tunnel Testing. By adjusting the nozzle exit areas of a TFN, the flow passing the TFN could be controlled and the flow ratio ( MFR) could be achieved to make sure the similarity around the inlet flow field. As stall characteristics is one of the impor-tant factor in defining civil aircraft performance, a great portion of the low speed wind tunnel tests is devoted to the study of the stall characteristics of aircraft in landing configuration;and due to the fact that engines tend to be set at an idle condition during airworthy flight tests for stall speed determination, designing a TFN with a MFR corre-sponding to an idle power setting is desirable for the prediction of stall characteristics in wind tunnel testing. When running at idle conditions, an engine will have a very low fan pressure ratio, which means if the fan nozzle geometry is maintained, TFN can

  16. Blade containment evaluation of civil aircraft engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bin

    2013-01-01

    The potential hazard resulting from uncontained turbine engine rotor blade failure has always been the long-term concern of each aero engine manufacturer,and to fully contain the failed blades under critical operating conditions is also one of the most important considerations to meet the rotor integrity requirements.Usually,there are many factors involving the engine containment capability which need to be reviewed during the engine design phases,such as case thickness,rotor support structure,blade weight and shape,etc.However,the premier method to demonstrate the engine containment capability is the fan blade-off test and margin of safety (MS) analysis.Based on a concrete engine model,this paper aims to explain the key points of aero engine containment requirements in FAR Part 33,and introduces the implementation of MS analysis and fan blade-off test in the engine airworthiness certification.Through the introduction,it would be greatly helpful to the industrial community to evaluate the engine containment capability and prepare the final test demonstration in engine certification procedure.

  17. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  18. Validation of a New Developed Aerodynamics Analysis Toolkit for Civil Aircraft Configurations%运输类飞机气动力分析软件ATTF的开发与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广宁; 李凤蔚; 周志宏

    2011-01-01

    local time-stepping, implicit variable-coefficient residual smoothing and multigrid are applied to accelerate the convergence.The solver utilizes the technique of dynamic memory space management to optimize the limited memory space for a small computer, and only one executable file is needed to run different flow simulations with different size of data and various grid topologies, and the executable file only need an input file including correct boundary conditions and necessary control information for a given case. To evaluate the capacity and efficiency of ATTF for complex configurations of civil transport aircraft, the transonic flow simulations around DLR-F6 wing-body-nacelle-pylon (WBNP) configuration from the Second AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-2), which is a wide-body Airbus-type transport aircraft model, are performed. The computational results are compared with the experimental results from ONERA S2MA transonic wind tunnel in France and the computational results from two other CFD software:CFL3D and TRIP2.0 (The TRIP2.0 is developed in China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center). The final results show that the code we developed can be used to obtain coincident result with experiment and other CFD softwares, showing preliminarily that our code is reliable.

  19. Discussion on the Necessity and Basic Ideas of Strengthening Metrology Administration Laws and Regulations for Civil Aircraft Industry%浅析加强民用飞机工业计量监管法规建设的必要性与基本思路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学涛; 周世锋; 邢向楠; 李少壮

    2014-01-01

    Combined with the current development of civil aircraft industry and metrology work features of relevant departments, the paper analyzes the necessity to strengthen metrology administration laws and regulations for civil aircraft industry, and initially proposes principles, bas-ic ideas and main contents of metrology administration laws and regulations. It will provide a reference to prefect the metrology&measurement as-surance system and strengthen the metrology administration of product development for relevant departments.%结合当前我国民用飞机工业发展现状和相关部门计量工作特点,分析了加强民用飞机工业计量监管法规建设的必要性,初步提出了民用飞机工业计量监管法规的制定原则、基本思路和主要内容,为行业主管部门完善民用飞机产品计量测试保证体系和加强产品研制过程的计量监督管理提供了参考。

  20. ABMS of Civil Aircraft Partnership Risk Management:Taking Civil Aircraft Supply Chain as an Example%跨组织项目的合作伙伴关系风险仿真研究--以民机供应链为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚莉; 姜香美; 鲁梦华

    2014-01-01

    作为典型的跨组织项目,大飞机项目涉及多个供应商,并面临诸多风险。为了准确描绘复杂系统的风险管理过程,与目前普遍采用的单纯数学解析风险模型的技术视角不同,本文利用智能体仿真建模来研究民机供应链风险沟通过程及风险沟通影响因素对风险管理绩效的影响,仿真结果表明:1)民机制造商在力量格局中处于劣势状态的情况下,在供应链合作伙伴间增加沟通次数能够降低整个项目周期的风险影响;2)在民机制造商的风险控制能力一定的条件下,适当规模的供应链合作伙伴关系能够降低项目风险。最后,文章提出了管理建议。%As a typical cross-organizational project involving multiple vendors,large aircraft project is faced with numerous risks.Suitable risk management strategies are required to be established based on the past experience and existing risk man-agement methods.Different from mathematical analyzing model,Agent-based Modeling is applied to simulate performance of risk management effected by risk communication processes as well as the risk communication effectors.The simulation re-sults show that:1)At a disadvantage in the power equation,the risk of the entire project cycle can be lowered by increasing the communication between supply chain partners;2)Under certain ability of risk control,project risks can be reduced by appropriate size of supply chain partnership.At last,management recommendations are put forward.

  1. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  2. Responsabilidade civil

    OpenAIRE

    Dalanhol, André

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. 1. INTRODUÇÃO - aborda o tema Responsabilidade Civil - Reparação do Dano Moral Ambiental, de forma sucinta, justificando sua aplicabilidade no direito brasileiro, discorrendo acerca de cada etapa do trabalho; 2. MEIO AMBIENTE - CONCEITO - proposta de um conceito mais amplo de meio ambiente, que melhor se coadune com a realidade atual, uma vez que os con...

  3. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  4. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  5. The effect of aircraft emissions on atmospheric ozone in the northern hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck JP; Reeves CE; de Leeuw FAAM; Penkett SA

    1990-01-01

    The effect of aircraft emissions on tropospheric ozone was studied using a 2-D zonal model, of longitude versus altitude. An emission inventory for the 1987 civil aircraft fleet was constructed based on fuel usage and civil aviation statistics. For the area covered by the model (30 - 60 degrees N)

  6. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  7. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... as required by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and to ensure compliance between domestic U.S. regulations and ICAO Annex 16, Amendment 8. DATES: This amendment becomes effective May 3... United States using aircraft subject to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16...

  8. The longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98. Cranfield University

  9. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... infrastructure and research needs; and (C) Consult with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); (4) Address both civil and public unmanned aircraft systems; (5... be flown using a data link to transmit commands to the aircraft. They may perform a variety of...

  10. Aerodynamic Design and Research for Wing-mounted-engine Integration of Civil Aircraft%民用飞机发动机一体化气动设计相关技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于哲慧

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamic design of aircraft-engine integration is an important part for wing-mounted-engine air-craft design. In order to solve the design problems between aircraft and engine, many solutions were made attempts from different perspectives during the design process, and classic technology patents and valuable experience were formed. Some of the technology solutions are to be discussed as follows to reveal the map and tendency of related integrated design technology.%飞机发动机一体化气动设计是翼吊布局飞机设计的重要组成部分. 为解决飞机与发动机之间的一体化设计问题,人们在设计过程中从不同角度尝试众多解决方案,形成很多典型技术专利,积累了宝贵经验. 通过分析较为典型的方案,以展现一体化气动设计技术发展的脉络和趋势.

  11. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  12. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  13. Research on Estimation of Take-off Weight of Large and Medium Civil Aircraft%大中型民用飞机起飞总重估算方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班凯

    2012-01-01

    推导了基于发动机推力估算起飞总重和基于旅客座位数估算起飞总重的公式.通过多种大中型喷气式民用客机相关参数的统计值,建立起飞总重对相关参数的多元回归分析模型,通过显著性检验,说明模型是有效的,并据此建立了新的起飞总重估算公式.通过算例结果分析表明,新的起飞总重估算公式具有很高精度.在新机的方案设计阶段若能给定此公式所需的相关参数,可以计算得到相对合理的设计起飞总重值.%Formulas for estimating civil airplane take- off weight based on engine thrust and seating capacity are presented respectively. Through a variety of jet civil airplanes' statistical data of related parameters, the multiple regression analysis model of take- off weight with respect to the related parameters is built. The significance test shows that the model is effective, and a novel formula for estimating civil airplane take- off weight is established. The analysis of examples shows that the new formula is accurate. If the parameters required is given in the scheme design stage,then the relatively reasonable design take-off weight value can be obtained by the method of this paper.

  14. Air Traffic Management: Civil/Military Systems and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    develops the- following functions: - data generation, row by row, of the ILP tableau ; - memorization of the coefficient matrix in a compact form...many people on bord or on the ground can be killed if a wide-bodied civil aircraft or an equivalent small military aircraft with large fuel capacity...ver a helicopter at nap-of-the-earth (NOE) altitudes to a distant destination. The source of this perceptual information (i.e., a pilotage system

  15. 基于 Logistics 模型的我国大飞机产业演化分析%Research on evolution of large civil aircraft industry based on logistics model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏

    2015-01-01

    This paper used industry evolution theory and Logistics model to simulate and ana-lyze of industrial growth trend to help to give some guide to the future development of China's large aircraft industry .%综合运用产业演化理论和Logistics模型仿真分析我国大飞机产业包括产业增长率,产值等行业指标的中长期演化过程,对于指导我国大飞机未来的发展有一定的前瞻性和指导意义。

  16. Characteristics of civil aviation atmospheric hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Montoya, J.; Richards, Mark A.; Galliano, J.

    1994-01-01

    Clear air turbulence, wake vortices, dry hail, and volcanic ash are hazards to civil aviation that have not been brought to the forefront of public attention by a catastrophic accident. However, these four hazards are responsible for major and minor injuries, emotional trauma, significant aircraft damage, and in route and terminal area inefficiency. Most injuries occur during clear air turbulence. There is significant aircraft damage for any volcanic ash encounter. Rolls induced by wake vortices occur near the ground. Dry hail often appears as an area of weak echo on the weather radar. This paper will present the meteorological, electromagnetic, and spatiotemporal characteristics of each hazard. A description of a typical aircraft encounter with each hazard will be given. Analyzed microwave and millimeter wave sensor systems to detect each hazard will be presented.

  17. China's Civil Regional Transport Aircraft Sales Model: Research on Xinzhou 60 Aircraft Market Sales Model%中国民用支线运输飞机销售模式——新舟60飞机市场销售模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡长宏

    2011-01-01

    目前对飞机市场销售模式的研究还处在探讨阶段,大量的文献都是对一些普通产品做一些市场分析,在对飞机销售市场研究方面并没有过多的分析.因此,本文主要以新舟60飞机销售体系为列,运用市场细分、产品定位和渠道管理、宣传推广等理论,制定出新舟60飞机市场销售体系模式.%At present, the research on the market sales model of aircraft is still in discussion stage. A large number of literatures only do some market analysis on common products, the research on the aircraft sales market is less. Therefore, taking Xinzhou 60 aircraft sales system as an example, this article formulates Xinzhou 60 aircraft market sales system using market segment, product positioning and channel management, promotion.

  18. A Knowledge-based and Extensible Aircraft Conceptual Design Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Haocheng; LUO Mingqiang; LIU Hu; WU Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Design knowledge and experience are the bases to carry out aircraft conceptual design tasks due to the high complexity and integration of the tasks during this phase.When carrying out the same task,different designers may need individual strategies to fulfill their own demands.A knowledge-based and extensible method in building aircraft conceptual design systems is studied considering the above requirements.Based on the theory,a knowledge-based aircraft conceptual design environment,called knowledge-based and extensible aircraft conceptual design environment (KEACDE) with open architecture,is built as to enable designers to wrap add-on extensions and make their own aircraft conceptual design systems.The architecture,characteristics and other design and development aspects of KEACDE are discussed.A civil airplane conceptual design system (CACDS) is achieved using KEACDE.Finally,a civil airplane design case is presented to demonstrate the usability and effectiveness of this environment.

  19. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  20. Global civil aviation black carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Boies, Adam M; Petzold, Andreas; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-09-17

    Aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions contribute to climate forcing, but few estimates of BC emitted by aircraft at cruise exist. For the majority of aircraft engines the only BC-related measurement available is smoke number (SN)-a filter based optical method designed to measure near-ground plume visibility, not mass. While the first order approximation (FOA3) technique has been developed to estimate BC mass emissions normalized by fuel burn [EI(BC)] from SN, it is shown that it underestimates EI(BC) by >90% in 35% of directly measured cases (R(2) = -0.10). As there are no plans to measure BC emissions from all existing certified engines-which will be in service for several decades-it is necessary to estimate EI(BC) for existing aircraft on the ground and at cruise. An alternative method, called FOX, that is independent of the SN is developed to estimate BC emissions. Estimates of EI(BC) at ground level are significantly improved (R(2) = 0.68), whereas estimates at cruise are within 30% of measurements. Implementing this approach for global civil aviation estimated aircraft BC emissions are revised upward by a factor of ~3. Direct radiative forcing (RF) due to aviation BC emissions is estimated to be ~9.5 mW/m(2), equivalent to ~1/3 of the current RF due to aviation CO2 emissions.

  1. Analysis of Flight Test Technique on Ground Minimum Control Speed for Civil Aircraft%民机地面最小操纵速度试飞分析及技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范祝斌

    2013-01-01

    According to the CCAR-25-R4 “Airworthiness Standards of Transport Category Airplanes” and FAA advisory AC25-7C“Flight Test Guide”, drawing on the flight test experiences of other planes, this paper analyses the flight test principle and impact factors of ground minimum control speed ( VMCG ) in theory, and discusses the flight test technique and the risk alleviated method of VMCG . It can provide guidance for the VMCG flight test of the civil airplane.%按照CCAR-25-R4《运输类飞机适航标准》要求,结合FAA咨询通告AC25-7 C《运输类飞机试飞指南》,总结其它机型的试飞经验,通过理论分析民机地面最小操纵速度( VMCG )试飞原理及影响因素,探讨了民机VMCG试飞的试飞方法及风险规避方法,可为民机的VMCG试飞提供参考。

  2. Investigation and Realization Of Requirements Management For Civil Aircraft Flight Test Risk%民用飞机试飞任务需求管理技术研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严子焜

    2014-01-01

    针对民用飞机进行试飞时对于各种复杂前置条件的管理需求,提出了一种基于设计需求的试飞需求定义和管理方法。该方法充分考虑了飞机的设计特点和试飞执行过程中需关注的各种因素,采用需求管理的概念,开发一种与民机研制相匹配的试飞需求管理工具,以保证试飞过程管理的科学性和高效性。%Summary:According management requirements of various of complex pre-conditions in flight test,develop a method to define flight test requirements and do management based on design requirements database. This method consider aircraft’s design characteristics and various of factors which must be followed, use requirements management idea to develop a flight test requirements tool,which can match civil aircraft’s D&R and make flight test process management to be more scientific nature and effective.

  3. Analysis of Joint Plane Between Outer Wing Box and Center Wing Box for Civil Aircraft%民用飞机外翼中央翼对接面位置的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤平

    2014-01-01

    机翼对接设计是飞机结构设计的一个重要环节,而机翼对接面位置的选择对对接结构的设计有重要影响。基于客机外翼与中央翼的对接面,分析各种对接面位置对对接结构设计的影响,比较其中的优缺点;分析了修形面和其相对于机身等直段的变形量;并提出一种新型对接面位置,为民用飞机外翼中央翼对接的对接面设计提供一种选择。%Wing root joint is essential in aircraft structure design, and the joint rib design is greatly influenced by joint plane position. Based on the joint plane between wing and center wing, the joint rib design affected by differ-ent joint plane positions is analyzed and compared their advantages and disadvantages. The fuselage deformation from modified contour is analyzed. One new joint plane position is raised and the option of joint plane design be-tween wing and center wing is obtained.

  4. Designs and Technology Requirements for Civil Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  5. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  6. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    -international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil......This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  7. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  8. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera...

  9. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  10. AASPT Carbon/Carbon Aircraft Brake Disk Granted MPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Xi'an Chaoma Technology Co. Ltd. was issued Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) for Carbon/Carbon aircraft brake disk for Airbus 320 series by Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The company is held by Academy of Aerospace Solid Propulsion Technology (AASPT), a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). It is the first approval given to a Chinese company to design and produce brakes for main civilian aircraft.

  11. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  12. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  13. EUROPEIZAREA DREPTULUI PROCESUAL CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Union increases the judiciary cooperation in civil and comercial cases with trans-border incidence, based on the principle of mutual recognition of judiciary rulings. The aim of adopting frame-legislation is to ensure the developement of civil procedures. The Council Regulations no. 44/2001 on the competence, the recognition and the enforcement of judiciary rulings in civil and commercial cases is a “real” Code of civil procedure in this matter, to be applied in the member states, thus ensuring the free circulation of the judiciary rulings according to the principles of mutual recognition, mutual trust and reinforcement of juridical security in the union. The community civil procedural code prevails over the national procedural code. The Regulations ensure the administration of the community justice and through their rules avoid the pronunciation, in the member states, of rulings that are irreconcilable with each other, the direct beneficiaries being legal and natural persons.

  14. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    of the century. 2, the laws and strategies of implementing regarding the regulation of civil societal institutions (folkeoplysningsloven) since the 1970’s this paper shows how civil society in 20th century Denmark was produced both conceptually and practically and how this entailed a specific vision and version......Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  15. Environmental Impact Evaluation of Aircraft at System-of-Systems Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroijen, M.J.T.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Voskuijl, M.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Next generations of civil transport aircraft will need to be evaluated not only against their behaviour as an aircraft system but also as a part of the larger air transport system. In addition to this are the sustainability issues related to for instance noise and emissions, represented by environme

  16. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  17. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    in Asia and will balance the carrier acquisitions of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and India. China’s current military strategy is predominantly defensive, its offensive elements being mainly focused on Taiwan. If China decides to acquire a large carrier with offensive capabilities......, then the country will also acquire the capability to project military power into the region beyond Taiwan, which it does not possess today. In this way, China will have the military capability to permit a change of strategy from the mainly defensive, mainland, Taiwan-based strategy to a more assertive strategy...... catapult with which to launch the fi ghter aircraft, not to mention the possible development of a nuclear power plant for the ship. The Russian press has indicated that China is negotiating to buy SU-33 fi ghters, which Russia uses on the Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version...

  18. Evaluation of the doses to aircrew members by considering the aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, G.; Ferrari, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Villari, R.

    A mathematical model of an aircraft has been developed with the aim to investigate the influence of the aircraft structures and contents on the exposure of aircrew and passengers to the galactic component of cosmic rays. The irradiation of the mathematical model in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated using the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage at typical civil aviation altitudes.

  19. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  20. Civil Surgeon Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  1. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  2. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and citiz......The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration...

  3. Development of a validated aircraft child restraint model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pipino, M.; Mugnai, A.; DeWeese, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies conducted at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute have shown that when used in aircraft, automotive Child Restraint Devices (CRDs) do not always provide the level of safety desired. Various factors that contribute to poor performance, such as seat belt anchor location, cushion stiffness, and

  4. Civil helicopter flight research. [for CH-53 helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. J.; Schoultz, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a description of the NASA CH-53 Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft and discusses preliminary results of the aircraft flight research performed to evaluate factors and requirements for future helicopter transport operations. The CH-53 equipped with a 16-seat airline-type cabin and instrumented for flight research studies in noise, vibration, handling qualities, passenger acceptance, fuel utilization, terminal area maneuvers, and gust response. Predicted fuel usage for typical short-haul missions is compared with actual fuel use. Pilot ratings for an IFR handling quality task for three levels of stability augmentation are presented, and the effects of internal noise, vibration, and motion on passenger acceptance are discussed. Future planned CH-53 flight research within the Civil Helicopter Technology Program is discussed.

  5. INTEGRATING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLES IN THE ROMANIAN NATIONAL AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Alina Catinca POP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the Romanian civil airspace brings us back to the 1920's, when the first aircraft started to fly over the Romanian sky. Little did the legislators at that time know how to create the proper legal framework for the use of such machines so that all aspects related to their use be covered, as well as identify all potential risks and effects. Nowadays, UAVs are the new aircraft and it is a challenge for the legislators to properly identify the legal framework so that the safety and security of civil aviation are not affected. The paper will address the challenges the regulator faces in the integration of the UAVs in the Romanian civil airspace, developments and issues raised by the current regulation, as well as aspects related to the national regulations expected to enter into force at the end of 2015, beginning of 2016.

  6. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... America and NOISE-CON 2010 and it will be held at the Baltimore Marriott Waterfront Hotel, Grand Ballroom... Society of America and ] NOISE-CON 2010. It will be held at the Baltimore Marriott Waterfront Hotel, Grand... Space Administration (NASA), and industry to get feedback from interested persons. Public involvement...

  7. FLIGHTS BY FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT TO SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ploeger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legislation enabling effect to be given to the International Convention for regulating air navigation, and to make provision for the control, guidance and encouragement of flying within the Union of South Africa and for other purposes incidental thereto, for all purposes known as the Union Aviation Act [No. 16 of 1923], was passed on the 23rd of May 1923 to allow effect to be given to the International Air Navigation Convention of 1919, and to make the provisions referred to above.

  8. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    0 1 1 FLUG & FAHRZEUGWERKE DIAMANT 16.5 ............................................ 1 10 0 0 5 5 FFA HBV -DIAMANT 16.5...1 10 0 0 17 17 HBV DIAMANT 18 ...................................... 1 10 0 0 5 5 HBV DIAMANT...NETHER ND... 81 - - - 1 NORWAY 21 - - -I PAIIAMA . - - PHILIPPINE ..... - 2 SAIDAN. .... , I - - I SAUDIARAB-. 4 - SINGAPO-... 7 - 5-- -- STCHIlSH

  9. Census U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-31

    10 0 0 5 5 FFA HBV -DIAMANT 16.5 .......................... 1 10 0 0 17 17 HBV DIAMANT 18 ...................................... 1 10 0 0 5 5 HBV DIAM...I New Zealan .......... - - - - - - - - --- Norway ................. 2 - 1 - - - - - - - --- Panama ............... .2 - - - - - - - --- Ptlippine

  10. 76 FR 30231 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... for attendees. The purpose of the meeting is to raise public awareness of the continuing technological... joint meeting of the 159th Acoustical Society of America and NOISE-CON 2010 in Baltimore, Maryland 21202. The purpose of these meetings is to raise public awareness on advances in supersonic technology,...

  11. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft. Calendar Year 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-31

    41 1 0 1 1 EOS/O01 1 41 1 0 2 2 ESP WILD GOOSE 2 41 1 0 1 1 ESPERANZA 4 2 41 1 0 3 3 EVANS 2 41 1 0 1 1 EVANS V.P 1 41 1 0 1 1 EVANS VOLKSPLANE 1 41 1...Gilpin 2 2 Grand 19 2 14 3 Gunnison 54 7 31 6 3 2 1 1 1 1 Hinsdale 2 2 Huerfano 6 4 2 Jackson 3 1 2 Jefferson 304 61 166 18 12 1 1 9 9 27 Kiowa 12 6 6...3 1 2 * h~ll oS 35 11 299 11 59 6 1 1 Prowers 6e 15 41 1 5 1 2 1 Pueolo 69 17 38 2 1 1 3 1 5 Rio Blanco 48 13 31 1 1 Rio Grande 59 20 20 5 2 12

  12. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    ESP WILD GOOSE 2 41 1 0 1 1 ESPERANZA 4 1 41 1 0 3 3 ESPRIT S2 2 41 1 0 1 1 EVANS V.P. II I 41 1 0 1 3 EVANS VOLKSPLANE 1 41 1 0 3 3 EVANS VOLKSPLANE...GarfielO 83 19 54 3 2 1 2 2 G,Ipir 3 2 Grand 25 3 19 3 GunniSOn 4E 7 32 4 2 1 1 1 C-7 4.N ! *~ ! U S REGISTERED GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFTBY TYPE AND...37 11 23 1 1 1Rio Grande 51 16 19 4 1Routt 60 7 37 4 3 1 1Saguache 17 7 7 2 1 San Juan 3 3San Miguel 14 2 6 2 1 1 1 1Seogwick 4 1 3Summit 19 3 10 1

  13. Civil Aircraft Side-Facing Seat Research Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    cranium and brain) 2. Face, including eye and ear 3. Neck 4. Thorax 5. Abdomen and pelvic contents 6. Spine ( cervical , thoracic, and lumbar) 7. Upper...currently no criteria relating the amount of lateral flail to a specific risk of injury, if lateral flexion is limited to the normal static range...lateral flexion does not create a significant injury risk is consistent with the goal of providing an equivalent level of safety to a forward- or aft

  14. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    2 TOTAL 0 1,317 1,317 AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 CONT MOTOR 1 75 0 1 1 BARBARA JEAN 2 41 LYCOMING 1 115 0 2 2 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 3 3 TOTAL 0 3 3...140 3 3VS-1 2 41 CONT MOTOR 1 85 1 1NAZGUL 1 41 LYCOMING 1 65 1 1Z 1 41 CONT MOTOR 1 75 4 4 KORNS CAPER 2 41 LYCOMING 1 140 2 2HM 360 2 41 CONT MOTOR 1

  15. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    3 3 TOTAL 0 3 3 AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 I 0 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 1 41 0 2 2 F/W S-ENG REC...1 KORNS CAPER 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOSAN #39 1 41 1 0 1 1 KOSTOOM-3 2 41 1 0 1 1 KR II 2 41 I 0 2 2 KR P-51J 41 1 0 1 1 KRi 1 41 1 0 3 3 KR 1 1/2 1 41

  16. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-31

    AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 10 1 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 I 41 0 2 2 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 2 2...34 - "SP-" , K(OLB LLTRA-5-A; 4. KOL.E u_7P-’S4 KIORNS CAPER 2 " .4. KOSAN 039 1 4’ 0 , KOSTOOM-3 2 4 1 0 1 - KR I 2 4’ 0 O 1 1 KR P-51i 1 4’ 1 O 1 1 KR I

  17. Census U.S. Civil Aircraft Calendar Year 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-31

    1 41 1 0 1 1 BANTY .................................................. 1 41 1 0 1 1 BARBARA JEAN .................................. 2 41 1 0 1 1...KORNS CAPER ................................... 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOSTOOM-3 ........................................ 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOWALEWSKI ZERO FITR

  18. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    3 3 AUSTIN 2 1 0 BARBARA JEAN 41 1 0 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 Iŕ TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 41 C F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 2 2... CAPER 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOSAN .39 1 41 1 0 1 1 KOSTOOM-3 2 41 1 0 I 1 KR 12 41 1 0 1 1 KRP -I Ij 1 41 1 0 1 1 KR 1 1 41 1 0 2 2 KRI 1,2 1 41 1 0 1 1 5 KR E

  19. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  20. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  1. History and Undergraduate Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Peter

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that a traditional, historically-oriented course in 17th- and 18th-century French civilization continues to be an appropriate and effective approach for undergraduate French study, in preparation for later, more sophisticated cultural analysis. Four course components are discussed: class lectures; literary text selection; textbook…

  2. Re-thinking civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.

  3. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  4. Civility in Classes and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  5. Exploring Civilizations with 'Seven Wolves'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing - A farewell party for the CCTV (China Central Television) crew 'Road to Civilizations-Global Exploration Tour of World Major Civilizations' - the world's first TV series documenting the journey of exploring the 12 civilizations in the human world, was sponsored by Fujian Septwolves Industry Co., Ltd and held at the Beijing Landmark hotel on 16 January.

  6. The Limitation of Western Civilization And the Revival of Oriental Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Hao

    2014-01-01

    <正>In the distribution of modem world civilizations,the Oriental civilization and Western civilization are the two major civilization systems.Western civilization is often represented by the Christian civilization in Europe and North America on both sides across the North Atlantic.Oriental civilization appears more diversified,among which the Chinese civilization,India civilization and Islamic civilization are the most influential

  7. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  8. RISK ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE FOR CIVIL AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Distefano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A practical problem in air transport is how to manage risk and safety. In recent years have been developed special technical and managerial skills to the systematic, forward looking identification and control of hazards throughout the life cycle of a project, program, or activity. Safety Management System (SMS involves identifying, evaluating, and addressing of hazards or risk. Its sole purpose is to prevent accidents. Safety risk assessment is defined as the systematic identification and evaluation of the risk posed by the complete spectrum of possible accident scenarios. Risk assessment is a tool that supports decision making and as such supports risk management. Risk management comprises the safety optimization of the system, the verification process and risk acceptance, which support airport operations. This paper proposed a quantitative methodology for the risk assessment for a civil airport, which is based on historical data of aircraft accidents, contained in the Aviation Safety Network database, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2010.

  9. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  10. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.

  11. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the communicative practice of a Tanzanian NGO, Femina. Based on a tripartite model of engagement (Madianou, 2012) integrating speech, action and understanding, and drawing on fieldwork on the communication practices of Femina, I critically assess the forms of civic engagement...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  12. A second-generation high speed civil transport: Stingray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Sean; Lopes, Kevin; Ngan, Angelen; Perrin, Joseph; Phipps, Marcus; Westman, Blake; Yeo, Urn

    1992-01-01

    The Stingray is the second-generation High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) designed for the 21st Century. This aircraft is designed to be economically viable and environmentally sound transportation competitive in markets currently dominated by subsonic aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and upcoming McDonnell Douglas MD-12. With the Stringray coming into service in 2005, a ticket price of 21 percent over current subsonic airlines will cover operational costs with a 10 percent return on investment. The cost per aircraft will be $202 million with the Direct Operating Cost equal to $0.072 per mile per seat. This aircraft has been designed to be a realistic aircraft that can be built within the next ten to fifteen years. There was only one main technological improvement factor used in the design, that being for the engine specific fuel consumption. The Stingray, therefore, does not rely on technology that does not exist. The Stingray will be powered by four mixed flow turbofans that meet both nitrous oxide emissions and FAR 36 Stage 3 noise regulations. It will carry 250 passengers a distance of 5200 nautical miles at a speed of Mach 2.4. The shape of the Stingray, while optimized for supersonic flight, is compatible with all current airline facilities in airports around the world. As the demand for economical, high-speed flight increases, the Stingray will be ready and able to meet those demands.

  13. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  14. Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  15. Fault mechanism analysis and simulation for continuity resistance test of electrical components in aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xudong; Yin, Yaping; Wang, Jialin; Sun, Zhaorong

    2017-01-01

    A large number of electrical components are used in civil aircraft engines, whose electrical circuits are usually intricate and complicated. Continuity resistance is an important parameter for the operating state of electrical components. Electrical continuity fault has serious impact on the reliability of the aircraft engine. In this paper, mathematical models of electrical components are established, and simulation is made by Simulink to analyze the electrical continuity fault.

  16. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  17. Technical and economic assessment of swept-wing span-distributed load concepts for civil and military air cargo transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of large freighter aircraft was assessed, including the impact of military requirements on the performance, economics, and fuel consumption characteristics. Only configurations having net payloads of 272,155 to 544,311 kilograms contained within swept wings of constant chord were studied. These configurations were of advanced composite construction with controllable winglets and full-span digitally-controlled trailing-edge surfaces. Civil, military, and joint civil/military production programs were considered.

  18. Structural Weight Optimization of Aircraft Wing Component Using FEM Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Arockia Ruban M,; Kaveti Aruna

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges for the civil aviation industry is the reduction of its environmental impact by better fuel efficiency by virtue of Structural optimization. Over the past years, improvements in performance and fuel efficiency have been achieved by simplifying the design of the structural components and usage of composite materials to reduce the overall weight of the structure. This paper deals with the weight optimization of transport aircraft with low wing configuratio...

  19. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  20. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  1. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  2. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  3. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  4. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  5. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  6. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  7. Codificación civil

    OpenAIRE

    Verdera Server, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Conferencias sobre la codificación civil: aspectos históricos (R. Aznar) y jurídicos (J.M. Badenas)Actividad complementaria de los Departamentos de Historia del Derecho y Derecho Civil.Grado en Derecho

  8. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  9. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  10. Código civil colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Secretaria del Senado Colombia

    2005-01-01

    El Código Civil como lo indica su articulo primero,comprende las disposiciones legales sustantivas que determinan especialmente los derechos de los particulares, por razón del estado de las personas, de sus bienes, obligaciones, contratos y acciones civiles.

  11. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  12. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes; Note d'information sur la protection des installations nucleaires contre les chutes d'avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight < 5.7 t), the military aircraft, and the commercial aircraft (w > 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  13. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  14. The Ambivalences of Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Kaare Nielsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the conceptual heterogeneity in the field of ‘civil society’ in the light of a distinction between positions that reflect civil society as a democratic-emancipatory category and positions that consider civil society from the perspective of the state: as an instrumental resource for the technocratic planning of the competitive nation state.The article discusses the implications and perspectives in these two different strategic scenarios for conceptualizing civil society. The argument is made that civil society in relation to democratic citizenship should basically rather be understood as a concept for specific, communicative principles for institutionalizing societal relations and organizing public experience than as an overall concept for third sector organizations.

  15. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.

  16. Quiet propulsive-lift technology ready for civil and military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Queen, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) was designed as research aircraft for investigating terminal-area operations with an advanced propulsive-lift aircraft. The QSRA is a modified De Havilland C-8 Buffalo. The modification to the C-8 consisted of adding a new swept wing with four top-mounted Lycoming YF-102 turbofan engines to provide high levels of propulsive-lift through upper-surface blowing. The state of the art has reached the point where consideration can be given to various applications, including military transport aircraft, civil transports, and business jets. Attention is also given to a ground attack plane with QSRA, the payload advantage resulting from applying propulsive-life technology, and aspects of takeoff performance

  17. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  18. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  19. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  20. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  1. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  2. How persistent is civilization growth?

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions will continue to grow exponentially at an average rate of about 2.3% per year.

  3. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  4. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  5. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  6. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  7. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  8. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  9. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  10. Credit and civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tim

    2003-09-01

    This paper analyses financial credit in order to re-examine the work of Norbert Elias, particularly his association of interdependency complexity with social discipline, and his approach to contradiction. Following a discussion of these issues, the paper examines Elias's writing on money and explores the emergence of financial credit networks in early modern England. Attention is paid to credit networks and social discipline, to credit and the state, and to the contradictory images associated with the transition to modern cash economies. From one perspective, early modern credit networks might be read as a confirmation of Elias, particularly his argument that interdependency complexity, changing power balances and self-restraint are interwoven. Yet the development of modern cash money raises questions, not just in relation to Elias's treatment of money, but also with regard to his assumptions about social discipline and his approach to ambivalence and contradiction. Drawing on the foregoing discussion, the paper argues that the relation between interdependency complexity and social discipline is contingent and variable, and that interdependency complexity may simultaneously encourage contradictory processes, such as those of civilizing and barbarity.

  11. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  12. Preliminary design of a high speed civil transport: The Opus 0-001

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Based on research into the technology and issues surrounding the design, development, and operation of a second generation High Speed Civil Transport, HSCT, the Opus 0-001 team completed the preliminary design of a sixty passenger, three engine aircraft. The design of this aircraft was performed using a computer program which the team wrote. This program automatically computed the geometric, aerodynamic, and performance characteristic of an aircraft whose preliminary geometry was specified. The Opus 0-001 aircraft was designed for a cruise Mach number of 2.2, a range of 4,700 nautical miles and its design was based in current or very near term technology. Its small size was a consequence of an emphasis on a profitable, low cost program, capable of delivering tomorrow's passengers in style and comfort at prices that make it an attractive competitor to both current and future subsonic transport aircraft. Several hundred thousand cases of Cruise Mach number, aircraft size and cost breakdown were investigated to obtain costs and revenues for which profit was calculated. The projected unit flyaway cost was $92.0 million per aircraft.

  13. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  14. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  15. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  16. Frequency-domain identification of aircraft structural modes from short-duration flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssettes, J.; Mercère, G.; Vacher, P.; De Callafon, R. A.

    2014-07-01

    This article presents identification algorithms dedicated to the modal analysis of civil aircraft structures during in-flight flutter tests. This particular operational framework implies several specifications for the identification procedure. To comply with these requirements, the identification problem is formulated in the frequency domain as an output-error problem. Iterative identification methods based on structured matrix fraction descriptions are used to solve this problem and to identify a continuous-time model. These iterative methods are specifically designed to deal with experiments where short-duration tests with multiple-input excitations are used. These algorithms are first discussed and then evaluated through a simulation example illustrative of the in-flight modal analysis of a civil aircraft. Based on these evaluation results, an efficient iterative algorithm is suggested and applied to real flight-test data measured on board a military aircraft.

  17. CERTIFICATION - The final and critical stage of every civil or military aviation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile STEFAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a general rule the final step in every aviation program is the certification of the airplane, an important step in which the airplane, the engins and the equipments are checked by an authority or commission according to the airworthiness rules. The main scope of the certification is to promote a safe aviation product and to protect the general public from unnecessary risk. In all the contries the national authorieties require a civil certificability for all the parts or equipments and a full aircraft certification for a new or wholly modified airplane. The military aircrafts must pased and respond to a specific way of certification and many actual efforts are done in order to unify the diffrent national rules in this field. This paper presents the existing situation in the certification of civil and military airplans and the actual measures done for the unification of certification procedures in the world.

  18. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe.

  19. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  1. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  2. Civil Airlines/Air Services in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. Volumes 1 thru 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Calcutta-Dacca-Chittagong. The Indian subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan in 1947; Bangladesh formed the eastern wing of Pakistan. Because...aircraft on following occasions: - Evacuation of refugees immediately after the partition of India and Pakistan during which period Indian civil aviation...year earlier to October 1946, when Mohammad Ali Jinnah , the founder of Pakistan, formed the Muslim-owned Orient Airways Limited in Calcutta. The

  3. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  4. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the frequency of general aviation airplane accidents and accident rates on the basis of aircraft certification to determine whether or not differences in aircraft certification rules had an influence on accidents. In addition, the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports were analyzed to determine whether there were differences in the qualitative data for the different certification categories. The certification categories examined were: Federal Aviation Regulations Part 23, Civil Air Regulations 3, Light Sport Aircraft, and Experimental-Amateur Built. The accident causes examined were those classified as: Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, Engine Failure, and Structural Failure. Airworthiness certification categories represent a wide diversity of government oversight. Part 23 rules have evolved from the initial set of simpler design standards and have progressed into a comprehensive and strict set of rules to address the safety issues of the more complex airplanes within the category. Experimental-Amateur Built airplanes have the least amount of government oversight and are the fastest growing segment. The Light Sport Aircraft category is a more recent certification category that utilizes consensus standards in the approval process. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured under simpler rules but modifying these airplanes has become lengthy and expensive. The study was conducted using a mixed methods methodology which involves both quantitative and qualitative elements. A Chi-Square test was used for a quantitative analysis of the accident frequency among aircraft certification categories. Accident rate analysis of the accidents among aircraft certification categories involved an ANCOVA test. The qualitative component involved the use of text mining techniques for the analysis of the narrative cause descriptions contained within the accident reports. The Chi

  5. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  6. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  7. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  8. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...... related to sustainability – a Workshop on Traffic. The workshop discussed traffic prognoses and the way they are used in the preparation of urban transport and traffic strategies. Civil engineer Jonas Eliasson spoke about the experience in Sweden of developing a database for traffic prognoses. The main...... to develop a technically advanced form of aesthetics. The Master Class in low energy buildings was led by civil engineer, Svend Svendsen, a Professor at DTU Byg. Together with colleagues and students, he has achieved an extensive knowledge of Integrated Design. In fact, the situation is that our knowledge...

  9. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  10. Tendencias del Derecho civil (2002)

    OpenAIRE

    Arellano Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2002-01-01

    Durante el año 2.002 han dado a luz, en el campo del Derecho Civil, un conjunto de leyes que suponen una importante actualización normativa ante determinadas necesidades presentadas por la dinámica realidad socio-económica de España, en un contexto de acelerada tecnificación, creciente vitalidad y fluidez de tejido social, y de progresiva armonización legislativa con los países de nuestro entorno. Para este informe de Derecho Civil hemos preferido seguir, por razón de mejor carácter sistemáti...

  11. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    aircraft use some form of on-board oxygen generation provided by one of two corporations that dominate this market . A review of safety incident data...manufacture of synthetic resins (e.g., Bakelite), and for 161 making dyestuffs, flavorings, perfumes , and other chemicals. Some are used as

  12. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  13. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  14. Optimal PID Controller Tuning for Multivariable Aircraft Longitudinal Autopilot Based on Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Lotfi Forushani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimized controller around the longitudinal axis of multivariable system in one of the aircraft flight conditions. The controller is introduced in order to control the angle of attack from the pitch attitude angle independently (that is required for designing a set of direct force-modes for the longitudinal axis based on particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. The autopilot system for military or civil aircraft is an essential component and in this paper, the autopilot system via 6 degree of freedom model for the control and guidance of aircraft in which the autopilot design will perform based on defining the longitudinal and the lateral-directional axes are supposed. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is illustrated by considering HIMAT aircraft. The simulation results verify merits of the proposed controller.

  15. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  16. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  17. Etica civile e beatitudini evangeliche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colaianni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, riproduce il testo dell’intervento nel dibattito a due voci (con il presidente della Corte costituzionale, Gaetano Silvestri a conclusione del convegno “La Bibbia sulle strade dell’uomo” (Messina, 23 novembre 2013, ed è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti.SOMMARIO: 1. L’etica civile come etica costituzionale – 2. L’etica evangelica – 3. Irriducibilità? – 4. La promessa e il terzo – 5. La libertà – 6. Il tratto di cammino insieme.  Civil Ethic and Evangelical Beatitudes ABSTRACT The differences between civil ethic and religious ethic, that the Author defines as constitutional principles and evangelic Beatitudes, are well known: it’s common knowledge that the ones are effective in the earthly life while the others are oriented to the eternal life. Nevertheless the Author argues that they both have a common feature before that last analysis: they cross as principles of continuing opposition to unjust society, to “unlawful law”, to spreading apart between the constitutional and evangelic must be and the legislative being of positive law.KEY-WORDS: Civil Ethic – Constitution – Evangelical Beatitudes – Differences - Common Feature.

  18. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  19. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  20. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  1. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section...

  2. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by verdict, decision, settlement, stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920...

  3. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor...

  4. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., stipulation, other disposition which creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section...

  5. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.), and the NASA implementing regulations (14 CFR parts 1250... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work...

  6. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  7. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination...

  8. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  9. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  10. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  11. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1968, the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) has collected data on key education and civil rights issues in our nation's public schools for use by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), other Department offices, other federal agencies, and by policymakers and researchers outside of the Department. The CRDC has…

  12. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z Index About Us Filing with OCR Civil Rights Health Information Privacy Newsroom HHS Home > Office for Civil ... Civil Rights Filing with OCR File a civil rights or health information privacy complaint. Newsroom Read the latest OCR ...

  13. Conceptual Design of a 150-Passenger Civil Tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual design of a short-haul civil tiltrotor aircraft is presented. The concept vehicle is designed for runway-independent operations to increase the capacity of the National Airspace System without the need for increased infrastructure. This necessitates a vehicle that is capable of integrating with conventional air traffic without interfering with established flightpaths. The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft software was used to size the concept vehicle based on the mission requirements of this market. The final configuration was selected based upon performance metrics such as acquisition and maintenance costs, fuel fraction, empty weight, and required engine power. The concept presented herein has a proposed initial operating capability date of 2035, and is intended to integrate with conventional air traffic as well as proposed future air transportation concepts.

  14. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications...

  15. Airline and Aircraft Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Hauka, Maris; Paramonovs, Jurijs

    2014-01-01

    Development of the inspection programme of fatigue-prone aircraft construction under limitation of airline fatigue failure rate. The highest economical effectiveness of airline under limitation of fatigue failure rate and failure probability is discussed. For computing is used exponential regression, Monte Carlo method, Log Normal distribution, Markov chains and semi-Markov process theory. The minimax approach is offered for processing the results of full-scale fatigue approval test of an air...

  16. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  17. El proceso civil de "civil law": Aspectos fundamentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Taruffo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo el autor analiza los sistemas procesales civiles de civil law y de common law desmarcándose de las tradicionales contraposiciones que la doctrina ha acostumbrado utilizar para la explicación de las diferencias fundamentales existentes entre uno y otro modelo. En efecto, a partir de la constatación de la insuficiencia y en ocasiones inutilidad de estas explicaciones para describir la situación actual de ambos modelos procesales, ensaya el autor un discurso que termina por dar luz a la evolución experimentada por estos sistemas y que, como bien apunta, se ha traducido en un acercamiento que se manifiesta de diversas formas como se ocupa de explicarIn this article the author analyses the procedural law systems of civil law and common law outlining the traditional objections that the doctrine is accustomed to using to explain the existing fundamental differences between one and the other model. In fact, it is from the constatation of the insufficiency and, in occasion the uselessness of these explanations in describing the actual situation of both procedural models, that the author attempts a discourse that in the end sheds light on the evolution experienced by these systems and, as he clearly indicates, has translated into an approximation that manifests in different forms

  18. Damage monitoring of aircraft structures made of composite materials using wavelet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, D.; Safin, A.; Luhyna, N.

    2016-10-01

    The present article is dedicated to the study of the acoustic properties of composite materials and the application of non-destructive testing methods to aircraft components. A mathematical model of a wavelet transformed signal is presented. The main acoustic (vibration) properties of different composite material structures were researched. Multiple vibration parameter dependencies on the noise reduction factor were derived. The main steps of a research procedure and new method algorithm are presented. The data obtained was compared with the data from a three dimensional laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer, to validate the results. The new technique was tested in the laboratory and on civil aircraft at a training airfield.

  19. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  20. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  1. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  2. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  3. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  4. The Celestial Basis of Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, W. B.

    Scholars have long puzzled over the reasons for the ubiquity of celestial images in the residue of the world's earliest civilizations: in art, myth, religious cosmology, iconography, cosmogony, eschatological beliefs, and as portents for the conduct of royal and chiefly power. The general consensus is that these images represented a need by early societies to use the fixed celestial heavens in order to regulate ritual and agricultural cycles, and to satisfy a psychological need by people to relate themselves to their surrounding Universe. Such explanations are facile and miss an important aspect of the celestial heavens. The fixed celestial heavens served as the back-drop for a large number of often spectacular temporary naked-eye visible celestial events which animated the night and sometimes the daytime sky, and which created an 'otherworld' for virtually all cultural groups. In this paper I present a model derived from the detailed analysis of Hawaiian oral traditions and culture history in relation to historic astronomical records of temporary celestial events, and then apply this model to cultural traditions from Mesoamerica and other geographic regions in order to demonstrate that novae, supernovae, variable stars, comets, great meteor showers, aurorae, solar and lunar eclipses, and impacting Solar System debris, together played a critical role in the artistic, intellectual, and political development of early civilizations. These data not only provide important insights into the development of civilization, but also provide important details and longitudinal records of astronomical events and phenomena which are otherwise not readily available for scientific scrutiny.

  5. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  6. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra

    2005-01-01

    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  7. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  8. Exhaust Nozzle Materials Development for the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has embarked on a national effort to develop the technology necessary to produce a Mach 2.4 High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) for entry into service by the year 2005. The viability of this aircraft is contingent upon its meeting both economic and environmental requirements. Two engine components have been identified as critical to the environmental acceptability of the HSCT. These include a combustor with significantly lower emissions than are feasible with current technology, and a lightweight exhaust nozzle that meets community noise standards. The Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program will develop the advanced structural materials, materials fabrication processes, structural analysis and life prediction tools for the HSCT combustor and low noise exhaust nozzle. This is being accomplished through the coordinated efforts of the NASA Lewis Research Center, General Electric Aircraft Engines and Pratt & Whitney. The mission of the EPM Exhaust Nozzle Team is to develop and demonstrate this technology by the year 1999 to enable its timely incorporation into HSCT propulsion systems.

  9. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Steve H. L.; Lee, Gideon L.; Lee, In Hwan; Allroggen, Florian; Ashok, Akshay; Caiazzo, Fabio; Eastham, Sebastian D.; Malina, Robert; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2015-03-01

    Aviation emissions impact surface air quality at multiple scales—from near-airport pollution peaks associated with airport landing and take off (LTO) emissions, to intercontinental pollution attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Previous studies have quantified aviation’s air quality impacts around a specific airport, in a specific region, or at the global scale. However, no study has assessed the air quality and human health impacts of aviation, capturing effects on all aforementioned scales. This study uses a multi-scale modeling approach to quantify and monetize the air quality impact of civil aviation emissions, approximating effects of aircraft plume dynamics-related local dispersion (˜1 km), near-airport dispersion (˜10 km), regional (˜1000 km) and global (˜10 000 km) scale chemistry and transport. We use concentration-response functions to estimate premature deaths due to population exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and ozone, finding that aviation emissions cause ˜16 000 (90% CI: 8300-24 000) premature deaths per year. Of these, LTO emissions contribute a quarter. Our estimate shows that premature deaths due to long-term exposure to aviation-attributable PM2.5 and O3 lead to costs of ˜21 bn per year. We compare these costs to other societal costs of aviation and find that they are on the same order of magnitude as global aviation-attributable climate costs, and one order of magnitude larger than aviation-attributable accident and noise costs.

  10. Optics in aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  11. Aircraft propeller control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  12. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  13. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  14. Research on Design of Stability and Control of a 250-seat Tailless Blended-wing-body Civil Transport Aircraft%250座级翼身融合无尾布局客机操稳特性设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曙光; 陆艳辉; 巩磊; 刘晓静

    2011-01-01

    While facing challenges in terms of stability and control due to the lack of conventional tails, the blended-wing-body (BWB) flying wing aircraft configuration is one of the hot baselines for next generation transport airplanes. On the basis of a 250-seat BWB experimental configuration, the control surfaces are configured according to trim, stability augmentation and maneuverability considerations with margins for disturbances. Requirements from airworthiness regulations and flying qualities are set as design goals and incorporated into the eigenstructure assignment method to find stability augmentation solutions. Special consideration is placed on the forward path to provide the desired response type. A roll attitude protection system is designed to improve the flight safety. The results show that the stability and control are sufficient, that the flying qualities are satisfactory after stability augmentation, and that the roll attitude protection system works as expected.%翼身融合(BWB)飞翼布局是未来新一代客机的热点方案之一,然而由于没有常规尾翼,面临着稳定性和操纵性方面的困难.为此,在一架250座级BWB客机布局设计研究基础上,根据平衡、增稳和机动等要求,设计了操纵面配置方案;根据适航要求和电传飞机飞行品质要求设定增稳目标,并将其直接纳入特征结构配置要求中,通过前向通道修正响应类型,保证获得与飞行阶段相适应的响应特征和满意的飞行品质参数;为了提高安全性,在增稳控制设计基础上,在指令回路增设了姿态保护和限制模块.研究结果表明,该设计方案能够提供较合适的稳定性和操纵性,控制增稳后具有满意的飞行品质,保护模块可达到预期效果.

  15. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  16. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  17. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1998-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment After watching this film you can get the view of the civil engineering work at POINT1 where the ATLAS will be built. 03-11-1998 The video starts with the view of the POINT1 taken from the roof of the building 33. 04-11-1998 View of the installation of the entrance of the SDX1 18/19-11-1998 Installation of the rafters to the building PX15

  18. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  19. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, M.; I. Semenchuk

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  20. Gandhi, Civilization, Non-Violence and Obama

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer Söyler

    2010-01-01

    How should we understand Gandhi’s commitment to nonviolence?After discussing and refuting the idea that Gandhi’s conceptionof non-violence can be treated merely as a method to stand up toaggression, its embedment in a concept of true civilization is examined. It is argued that the important nuances between the definitions of civilization in the Gujarati and the English versions of Gandhi’s seminal work Hind Swaraj (1909) reveal Gandhi’s conception of civilization.

  1. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  2. Auxiliary power unit noise of Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jimmy S. W.; Yang, S. J. Eric

    Most modern civil aircraft have an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) which provides compressed air for engine starting and the air-conditioning system on ground and electrical power for aircraft use both on-ground and in-fligth. It is basically a gas turbine engine and it consists of a compressor section, a turbine section, and an accessory drive section. For Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft, the APU is located inside a compartment in the tail section of the aircraft and is completely enclosed by a sound-reduction fire-proof titanium shroud. APU noise is one of the major noise sources at many airports and is extremely important for a densely populated city such as Hong Kong. The noise from APU can affect many people, including ground crew aircraft maintenance staff, and people living in the vicinity of the airport. However, there is very little information available in the literature about APU noise. This paper describes the noise measurement method and presents the measurement results for APUs of one B747 and two B737 aircraft under both 'loaded' and 'no-load' conditions.

  3. Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonya T.

    1999-01-01

    There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal

  4. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Yin Hailian; Zhang Shuai; Yu Xiongqing

    2014-01-01

    Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environ-ment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emis-sion in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Orga-nization (ICAO) aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent) per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emis-sions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC) are performed with five geom-etry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8%in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8%in greenhouse gases.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emissions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC are performed with five geometry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8% in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8% in greenhouse gases.

  6. A mathematical model of aircraft for evaluating the effects of shielding structure on aircrew exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Villari, R

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the influence of the aircraft structures and contents on the exposure of aircrew to the galactic component of cosmic rays, a mathematical model of an aeroplane has been developed. The irradiation of the mathematical model in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated using the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. Effective dose andambient dose-equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage at a typicaI civil aviation altitude. A significant effect of the shielding of aircraft structures has been observed on the ambient dose-equivalent rates, while the impact on the effective dose rates seems to be minor. Care should be taken in positioning the detectors onboard when the measurements are aimed at validating the codes.

  7. Multi-Sensor Fusion with Interacting Multiple Model Filter for Improved Aircraft Position Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changho Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has decided to adopt Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM as the 21st century standard for navigation. Accordingly, ICAO members have provided an impetus to develop related technology and build sufficient infrastructure. For aviation surveillance with CNS/ATM, Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS, Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B, multilateration (MLAT and wide-area multilateration (WAM systems are being established. These sensors can track aircraft positions more accurately than existing radar and can compensate for the blind spots in aircraft surveillance. In this paper, we applied a novel sensor fusion method with Interacting Multiple Model (IMM filter to GBAS, ADS-B, MLAT, and WAM data in order to improve the reliability of the aircraft position. Results of performance analysis show that the position accuracy is improved by the proposed sensor fusion method with the IMM filter.

  8. Fuel level sensor based on polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings for aircraft applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, C. A. F.; Pospori, A.; Sáez-Rodríguez, D.

    2016-01-01

    Safety in civil aviation is increasingly important due to the increase in flight routes and their more challenging nature. Like other important systems in aircraft, fuel level monitoring is always a technical challenge. The most frequently used level sensors in aircraft fuel systems are based...... on capacitive, ultrasonic and electric techniques, however they suffer from intrinsic safety concerns in explosive environments combined with issues relating to reliability and maintainability. In the last few years, optical fiber liquid level sensors (OFLLSs) have been reported to be safe and reliable...... and present many advantages for aircraft fuel measurement. Different OFLLSs have been developed, such as the pressure type, float type, optical radar type, TIR type and side-leaking type. Amongst these, many types of OFLLSs based on fiber gratings have been demonstrated. However, these sensors have not been...

  9. Verification of the CFD simulation system SAUNA for complex aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jonathon A.; Peace, Andrew J.; May, Nicholas E.; Pocock, Mark F.

    1994-04-01

    This paper is concerned with the verification for complex aircraft configurations of an advanced CFD simulation system known by the acronym SAUNA. A brief description of the complete system is given, including its unique use of differing grid generation strategies (structured, unstructured or both) depending on the geometric complexity of the addressed configuration. The majority of the paper focuses on the application of SAUNA to a variety of configurations from the military aircraft, civil aircraft and missile areas. Mesh generation issues are discussed for each geometry and experimental data are used to assess the accuracy of the inviscid (Euler) model used. It is shown that flexibility and accuracy are combined in an efficient manner, thus demonstrating the value of SAUNA in aerodynamic design.

  10. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 1. Civil Defense - Protection Against What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    An explanation of the need for civil defense in nuclear and natural disasters is presented. A brief historical background of civil defense is given. Major topics include: (1) Types of disasters, (2) Probable objectives of a nuclear attack on the United States, (3) The major defensive measures against a nuclear attack, (4) Some reasons for low…

  11. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  12. Aircraft control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  13. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  14. Concept development of a Mach 3.0 high-speed civil transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, A. Warner; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.; Geiselhart, Karl; Martin, Glenn L.; Shields, E. W.; Swanson, E. E.; Coen, Peter G.; Morris, Shelby J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A baseline concept for a Mach 3.0 high-speed civil transport concept was developed as part of a national program with the goal that concepts and technologies be developed which will enable an effective long-range high-speed civil transport system. The Mach 3.0 concept reported represents an aggressive application of advanced technology to achieve the design goals. The level of technology is generally considered to be that which could have a demonstrated availability date of 1995 to 2000. The results indicate that aircraft are technically feasible that could carry 250 passengers at Mach 3.0 cruise for a 6500 nautical mile range at a size, weight and performance level that allows it to fit into the existing world airport structure. The details of the configuration development, aerodynamic design, propulsion system design and integration, mass properties, mission performance, and sizing are presented.

  15. The identification of factors contributing to self-reported anomalies in civil aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Thompson, William

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze anomalies voluntarily reported by pilots in civil aviation sector and identify factors leading to such anomalies. Experimental data were obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) database. These data contained a range of text records spanning 30 years of civilian aviation, both commercial (airline operations) and general aviation (private aircraft). Narrative data as well as categorical data were used. The associations between incident contributing factors and self-reported anomalies were investigated using data mining and correspondence analysis. The results revealed that a broadly defined human factors category and weather conditions were the main contributors to self-reported civil aviation anomalies. New associations between identified factors and reported anomaly conditions were also reported.

  16. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  17. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on... provisions of §§ 21.183(c), 21.184(b), or 21.185(c); and (2) New aircraft engines or propellers...

  18. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You...

  19. Active Center of Islamic Dialogue Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Moghimi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that an essay have introduced about Dialogue Civilizations, at first must be start with a definition about it. Obviously, this simple definition is almost difficult. Defining of Dialogue Civilizations is complex and difficult as far as it need to a vast range of definitions. In this essay will argue that how ever definition of Dialogue Civilization is different, can only seek as specific of intemporall and special situations that are in real-life. As well as this essay emphasize to practice of environmental (realm in Islamic countries. The philosophy of this essay is that, what is the share of Islamic environments with regard to looking at Civilizations special phenomena. The first attitude is that Islamic civilization includes different spaces around the globe. The second attitude is that Islamic Civilization includes developing of other Civilizations realm. The third is that in the realm of Islamic Civilization live different human life and this is an important starting point for Cultural Dialogue in the Islamic countries together. The fourth is that, there are expanding (space, population, political systems, organs and economic is different, that we will describe them in this essay.

  20. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For...

  1. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  2. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner,...

  3. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  4. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  5. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  6. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... benefits and on equal employment opportunity including 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b; and 45 CFR part 90, as... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.15 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations...

  8. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Health and Human Services with the approval of the President (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to...

  9. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such form as may be required by the Director. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply...

  10. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... thereunder, 43 CFR part 17. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative...

  11. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 42, subparts C, D, E, and G. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on...

  12. 38 CFR 21.7310 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... Rights Act of 1964; (2) Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972, as amended; (3) Section...

  13. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1901, subpart E. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer...

  14. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rights. Distributing agencies, subdistributing agencies and recipient agencies shall comply with the Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21...

  15. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty....

  16. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that...

  17. Public health and the civilizing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudsblom, J

    1986-01-01

    Since the Middle Ages, European society has passed through two successive stages in the "civilizing process." Each has been attended by profound changes in psychological and social codes. These are examined in relation to a greater concern with health and hygiene in response to four waves of epidemics: leprosy, plague, syphilis, and cholera. Speculations are offered about AIDS and the "civilizing process".

  18. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... Uniform Fine Assessment (UFA) algorithm, which FMCSA currently uses for calculation of civil penalties. UFA takes into account the statutory penalty factors under 49 U.S.C. 521(b)(2)(D). The evaluation will... will impose a minimum civil penalty that is calculated by UFA. In many cases involving small...

  19. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too

  20. Instituciones de Derecho Civil Colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Barrera Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dice el autor, que con esta obra culmina su labor de tratadista iniciada hace 40 años, tras la aparición de la primera edición en hojas mimeografiadas en 1970, de las clases de derecho procesal que dictó en la Universidad La Gran Colombia; nos parece un acto más contestatario, que la culminación de su producción científica; y esto por el tratamiento dado al derecho procesal por el legislador, especialmente al Código de Procedimiento Civil de 1970; que en algún momento fue considerado de los más desarrollados en la cultura jurídica “neorománica”.

  1. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  2. Instituciones de Derecho Civil Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos H Barrera Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Dice el autor, que con esta obra culmina su labor de tratadista iniciada hace 40 años, tras la aparición de la primera edición en hojas mimeografiadas en 1970, de las clases de derecho procesal que dictó en la Universidad La Gran Colombia; nos parece un acto más contestatario, que la culminación de su producción científica; y esto por el tratamiento dado al derecho procesal por el legislador, especialmente al Código de Procedimiento Civil de 1970; que en algún momento fue considerado de los m...

  3. Expanding advanced civilizations in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, C

    2005-01-01

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way \\cite{Webb}. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  4. Flight dynamics simulation modeling and control of a large flexible tiltrotor aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Ondrej

    A high order rotorcraft mathematical model is developed and validated against the XV-15 and a Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) concept. The mathematical model is generic and allows for any rotorcraft configuration, from single main rotor helicopters to coaxial and tiltrotor aircraft. Rigid-body and inflow states, as well as flexible wing and blade states are used in the analysis. The separate modeling of each rotorcraft component allows for structural flexibility to be included, which is important when modeling large aircraft where structural modes affect the flight dynamics frequency ranges of interest, generally 1 to 20 rad/sec. Details of the formulation of the mathematical model are given, including derivations of structural, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The linking of the components of the aircraft is developed using an approach similar to multibody analyses by exploiting a tree topology, but without equations of constraints. Assessments of the effects of wing flexibility are given. Flexibility effects are evaluated by looking at the nature of the couplings between rigid-body modes and wing structural modes and vice versa. The effects of various different forms of structural feedback on aircraft dynamics are analyzed. A proportional-integral feedback on the structural acceleration is deemed to be most effective at both improving the damping and reducing the overall excitation of a structural mode. A model following control architecture is then implemented on full order flexible LCTR models. For this aircraft, the four lowest frequency structural modes are below 20 rad/sec, and are thus needed for control law development and analysis. The impact of structural feedback on both Attitude-Command, Attitude-Hold (ACAH) and Translational Rate Command (TRC) response types are investigated. A rigid aircraft model has optimistic performance characteristics, and a control system designed for a rigid aircraft could potentially destabilize a flexible one. The various

  5. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  6. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  7. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  8. Causes of aircraft electrical failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, Donald; Slenski, George

    1991-08-01

    The results of a survey of data on failures of aircraft electronic and electrical components that was conducted to identify problematic components are reported. The motivation for the work was to determine priorities for future work on the development of accident investigation techniques for aircraft electrical components. The primary source of data was the Airforce Mishap Database, which is maintained by the Directorate of Aerospace Safety at Norton Air Force Base. Published data from the Air Force Avionics Integrity Program (AVIP) and Hughes Aircraft were also reviewed. Statistical data from these three sources are presented. Two major conclusions are that problems with interconnections are major contributors to aircraft electrical equipment failures, and that environmental factors, especially corrosion, are significant contributors to connector problems.

  9. Proceedings of the Aircraft Wake Vortices Conference, March 15-17, 1977, held at the Transportation Systems Center, Kendall Square, Cambridge, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    CA. Jan. 1977. 309 -1.A IM ASSESSMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS ON THE BEHAVIOR OF AIRCRAFT WAKE VORTICES PAUL B. MACCREADY. JR. AND PETER B.S. LISSAMAN...Transportation Systems Center Civil Aviation Authority Kendall Square London Space House Cambridge MA 02142 Kingsway WC2 England Pitchford . Lynn D. Lockheed

  10. Structural Dynamics of Maneuvering Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    AD-RI92 376 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING RIRCRAFT(U) CONRAD I TECHNOLOGIES INC KING OF PRUSSIA PR M M REDDI SEP 97 CTI-8601 NRDC-88014-69...REPORT NO. NADC-8014-60 STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT M. Mahadeva Reddi .4 Conrad Technologies, Inc. 650 S. Henderson Rd. D T IQ King of...NO A0 CCESSION NO. R02303001 107601 11. TITLE (Include Security Classfication) (u) STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS OF MANEUVERING AIRCRAFT 12. PERSONAL AUTHORS) M

  11. Aircraft vibration and flutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Aggarwal

    1958-04-01

    Full Text Available "The paper outlines the theoretical and experimental procedure one has to adopt for flutter prevention during the various stages (project, design and prototype of the development of modern aircraft. With the advent of high speed, the aerodynamic coefficients have to be calculated with due regards to the effects of compressibility, finite aspect ratio of the lifting surfaces, sweep back and other peculiar shapes of the wings. The use of thin, small aspect ratio with external masses, necessitates the computation of higher frequency modes of vibration. Single degree of freedom flutter and the effect of control surface non-linearities has also become very important. Thus, it is shown how the availability of high speed computing machines, improved experimental technique for model and full scale testing has not kept pace with the uncertainties associated with the transonic speeds, low aspect ratio and the high frequency modes. Cross-checking of theoretical and experimental results at every stage seem to be the only answer."

  12. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  13. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  14. Politicization of Senior Civil Servants in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea NAHTIGAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the civil service system reform, the new normative framework adopted in 2002 introduced a new management arrangement in public administration, whose consequence was the transition of senior positions within ministries, bodies within ministries, and government offices from political officials to positional civil servants with a limited term of office, who have thus become the most senior civil servants, called administrative managers. Based on extensive empirical research and statistical data, this article provides an in-depth analysis of the status and position of administrative managers, which is intended to serve as a test whether the apex of the Slovenian administrative system is politicized and in what form. In the so-called new democracies, politicization most often is manifested as a violation of the principles of political neutrality characteristic of a professional civil service, through personalized and biased appointments of senior civil servants and in the low degree of protection against lay-offs of civil servants on political grounds. Administrative managers thus often have to decide between political susceptibility and trustworthiness versus professionalism and professional accountability, for their tasks belong to the administrative and political realms. This poses a question about the degree of influence politicians exert on administrative managers and the rate of success with which administrative managers manage to retain their professionalism and independence, which should represent the key characteristics of a senior civil servant.

  15. Competencies Framework for Civil Engineer in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanudej Kudngaongarm

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability and the talent that civil engineers apply in the development process. A competency framework defines a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that professionals must have to excel in their careers. A competency framework facilitates the identification of training needs and guides the design of a professional development program. In this paper we propose a competency framework for civil engineers, whose design is based on the activities and interactions that they perform during the civil development process. Thus, competency framework for civil engineers defines a set of knowledge, abilities and key behaviors, with special emphasis in the soft skills. The organization that adopts this framework must define and integrate the specific competencies needed by for civil engineers to allow them to fulfill their goals.

  16. Tropical Climate Dynamics and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, G. H.; Yancheva, G.; Peterson, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James P. Kennett has been a leader in the area of rapid climate change. Jim and his son Douglas J. Kennett, a scientific archeologist, were among the first to make a serious effort to combine high-quality climate data with archeological information to study the impact of climate on societies. They argued about the 'strong relationship between climatically induced changes in environmental conditions and social, political, and economic responses' in coastal California during the past 2 millennia. One tropical climate archive with an appropriate memory for the most relevant sub-centennial to sub-decadal scale climate swings is the anoxic Cariaco Basin off northern Venezuela. Millimeter to micrometer-scale geochemical data in the laminated sediments of the Cariaco Basin have been interpreted to reflect variations in the hydrological cycle and the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical South America during the past millennia. These data with decadal to (sub)annual resolution show that the Terminal Collapse of the Classic Maya civilization occurred during an extended dry period. In detail, the Cariaco record reveals evidence for three separate droughts during the period of Maya downfall, each lasting a decade or less. These data suggest that climate change was potentially one immediate cause of the demise of Mayan civilization, with a century-scale decline in rainfall putting a general strain on resources and several multi-year events of more intense drought pushing Mayan society over the edge. Here, we present a new data set of comparable quality and resolution from Southern China. In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Boelling-Alleroed warming, during the Younger Dryas, and

  17. THE POETIC VECTOR OF CIVILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Epstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article regards poetry as the type of a world view that has profound effect on the social and technical development of civilization. Contrary to popular belief about the decline of poetry in the technological age, poetry, as the desire for imaginative comprehension and transformation of the world, remains the most powerful engine of civilization. There are new, non-linguistic forms of existence of poetry (outside of verses and books that are explored in the article: anthropoeia, biopoeia, kosmopoeia, noopoeia, sociopoeia, technopoeia… For example, the technique is no less metaphorical and symbolic than poetry is, but it embodies the energy of creation not in words, but in the poetically transfigured matter where each element is „playing” with nature, overcomes the force of gravity, the distances of time and space. Tehnopoeia as realized in aviation, rocketry, electronics, Internet, new means of communication, allows to see clearly the invisible, to hear the inaudible, to speak many languages. Technopoeia is the poetic aspect of technology as an activity that implements the creative aspirations of humans and the symbolic vision of the world. The article examines the „physics of poetry,” as it was understood by Surrealists, and shows that the poetic perception of things is not opposed to its utilitarian functions, but both can be harmoniously combined. Contemporatry science and technology aspire to implement a number of fundamental biopoetic and cosmopoetic metaphors: the universe — a computer, a planet — a living organism, the computer — the brain, the Internet — the nervous system, infectious viruses — computer and genes, the language of life — the process of writing… The metaphor becomes an integral part of the scientific outlook and the driving force behind the new discovery. Philology and poetics need to develop new methods of analysis of poetic phenomena as embodied not in verses, but in scientific thinking and

  18. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  19. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  20. [The civil liability of obstetricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, R; Hindemith, J

    2011-12-01

    The number of maternal and child deaths associated with delivery in Germany has reached a historically low level. Even so, the number of claims for damages arising from birth complications is continuously increasing. The reasons for this apparent paradox are analysed in the present contribution. Basic principles of the present situation concerning legal precedents with regard to birth damages are illustrated. The legal instrumentarium which the courts use to reach their decisions is presented. The interactions of the reasons for liability are demonstrated for the five most frequently occurring critical obstetric situations (intrauterine asphyxia, premature amniorrhexis, danger of premature birth, intrauterine growth retardation, birth of a depressed child).From an analysis of court decisions on liability questions that result from an objective failure of obstetric management in critical situations, four general empirical rules can be derived and observation of these rules could markedly reduce the number of patient claims. The function of civil court rulings as a necessary control instance is positively accepted.

  1. Noviolencia, desobediencia civil y ejemplaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo, sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una educación y filosofía para lapaz. Es por ello por lo que se hace imprescindible traer a primer plano la importanciadel compromiso, la responsabilidad y el sacrificio que comporta la noviolencia, a finde que se los pueda hacer trascender socialmente bajo la modalidad (decisiva en unacultura de paz de ejemplaridad y autoridad, muy relevantes para que la noviolenciagane prestigio social real (y no un prestigio utópico.

  2. We have never been civilized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Jonathan Luke

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates how world political binaries (democratic–autocratic, civilized–barbarian, etc.) are materially, as well as ideationally, constructed. By drawing on the analytical sensibilities of Actor-Network Theory, it is shown that differences in the actions, practices and/or behavio......This article demonstrates how world political binaries (democratic–autocratic, civilized–barbarian, etc.) are materially, as well as ideationally, constructed. By drawing on the analytical sensibilities of Actor-Network Theory, it is shown that differences in the actions, practices and....../or behaviours of states usually situated at one or another extreme of socio-political dichotomies are sometimes dependent only on the availability of, and/or global inequalities in, mundane material ‘allies’, such as airplanes, sedatives and military bases. Empirically, the article evidences this claim...... signifiers), but, rather, to differences in the agencies of the non-human object of the aircraft available in each case. These empirical findings allow the article to affirm the value-added of Actor-Network Theory’s ‘reconstructive’ method in International Relations for: 1) ‘mangling’ power-saturated world...

  3. Structural Weight Optimization of Aircraft Wing Component Using FEM Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockia Ruban M,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for the civil aviation industry is the reduction of its environmental impact by better fuel efficiency by virtue of Structural optimization. Over the past years, improvements in performance and fuel efficiency have been achieved by simplifying the design of the structural components and usage of composite materials to reduce the overall weight of the structure. This paper deals with the weight optimization of transport aircraft with low wing configuration. The Linear static and Normal Mode analysis were carried out using MSc Nastran & Msc Patran under different pressure conditions and the results were verified with the help of classical approach. The Stress and displacement results were found and verified and hence arrived to the conclusion about the optimization of the wing structure.

  4. Gas dynamics, optics and chemistry of an aircraft condensable wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinats, E.S.; Kashevarov, A.V.; Stasenko, A.L. [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Prediction of the properties of a jet-and-vortex wake from an individual airplane is of great interest as the first step to assessment of the possible global changes in the atmosphere due to the world civil aviation. Several mathematical models of the different regions of an aircraft wake and corresponding numerical results are presented. The axisymmetric exhaust jet was simulated on the base of the well-known k-{epsilon} model of turbulence. Jet chemistry was investigated on the base of kinetic scheme of the gas phase reactions of enriched by including chemisorption by water droplets of several species and by taking into account of the photochemical processes. In the 3D far wake model, the numerical results for distribution of species exhausted by the engines and entrapped by the velocity field of two parallel vortices are shown. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  5. A Mathematics Lesson from the Mayan Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Morales-Aldana, Leonel

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can infuse culture into the curriculum and develop students' competence and confidence by using ethnomathematics. Examines the mathematics of the Mayan civilization. Contains 22 references. (ASK)

  6. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph (m)(4) of this section, the Hearing Officer may receive any oral or documentary evidence, but... the civil penalty on the person's ability to do business; (iv) Any history of prior violations;...

  7. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  8. A Universal Model of Global Civil Unrest

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, we analyze records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008. We demonstrate that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  9. Rhetorical Alliances in the Civil Rights Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Molefi Kete

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the rhetorical mode of the civil rights movement and gives some attention to the problematic convergence of white and Black progressive writers. Focuses on two recurring metaphors used to describe the condition of Blacks: invisibility and Black Power. (KH)

  10. Study for Air Vehicles at High Speeds, Identifying the Potential Benefits to Transport Aircraft of a Continuously Variable Geometry Trailing-Edge Structure that can be Utilized for Aircraft Control, Trim, Load-Alleviation, and High Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Fig. 1.1.29 NOTIONAL NEXT GENERATION MOBILTY & TRANSPORTS & CIVIL AIRCRAFT ESTOL CONCEPTS NASA ...This subject is in revival currently. Early proving work has been conducted by NASA on FA- 18 formations. In the time-scale to 2012, Ref.15 mentions...flight research ( NASA & AFRL) into Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) on a Gulfstream-III, Fig.1.1.23. The conventional TE flaps (19 ft span x

  11. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  12. Civil responsibility of Physical Education professionals

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the civil responsibility of Physical Education professionals which consists of an obligation to repair eventual damages in their professional practice. Firstly, this study presents a historical rescue, the conceptualization of civil responsibility , the differentiation of that criminal responsibility, and also of the assumed ones. Secondly, the conditions for the imputation of a damage and the differentiation between obligation of means and obligation of ...

  13. The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 1971 August 2008 The Future SSC Pacific Civil Service Workforce P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for... Shigley G. Pennoyer J. Carreño Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SSC San Diego San Diego, CA 92152-5001 SB...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 08–2008 Final THE FUTURE SSC PACIFIC CIVIL SERVICE WORKFORCE P. Shigley G. Pennoyer J

  14. Environmental and ecological citizenship in civil society

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, David

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the work of Andrew Dobson, two notions of citizenship in civil society can be distinguished: environmental citizenship, which focuses on environmental rights and seeks to redefine the relationship between the state and the citizen; and ecological citizenship, which goes beyond a rights-based notion of citizenship to advocate the fair usage of ecological space across international borders. Using civil society initiatives to conserve forests, this article argues that these two noti...

  15. Galactic civilizations - Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.

  16. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  17. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  18. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  19. Investigations of transonic buffet control on civil aircraft wing with the use of tangential jet blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, K. A.; Petrov, A. V.; Potapchick, A. V.; Soudakov, V. G.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical and experimental investigations of transonic buffet control by tangential jet blowing are presented. To suppress the shock-induced boundary layer separation and the buffet at transonic speeds, compressed air jet is blown through a small slot nozzle tangentially to the upper surface of the supercritical airfoil. Numerical simulations were carried out on the basis of the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. Experimental studies of the tangential jet blowing were performed in the transonic wind tunnel T-112 of TsAGI. Results show that the jet moves the shock downstream, increases lift, suppresses flow separation under shock foot and delays buffet onset.

  20. Calculations of Maximum A-Weighted Sound Levels (dBA) Resulting from Civil Aircraft Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    Department of Transportation ___________________________ Federal Aviation Administration i i . Co ntr ac t or Grant No. Office of Environmental Quality ...RA’i’ t\\ i’ Ni.” tSF~ iN INI \\ ’t ’ R ~\\Nt~ ‘t~rt k\\’R 0’~NVi I ’NMF N’l’:~ Sound Lavals and Loudn ss of IIIusl rat~ve Noks•s ~n Indoo r and Outdoor...impact ot increasitig sound l e v e l . ; on speech. i’his tab le provides outdoor i n t e r f e r e n c e love Is. indoo r tnt cr1 or et i c o levt

  1. Research on the Application of Life Cycle Cost Management in the Civil Aircraft Assembly Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawei, Lian; Xuefeng, Zhao

    Based on the investigation of airplane enterprises, the paper defines the life cycle of the airplane's assembly line in a reasonable way. It takes the model of project list in the stage of bidding to make it more actual. Regarding the airplane's assembly line, it also applies the equipments life cycle management theory into the using stage so that we can control the using cost more effectively. The paper uses the Crystal Ball to analyze the risk factors of the airplane's assembly line and improves the investment budget's accuracy.

  2. Assessing/Optimising Bio-fuel Combustion Technologies for Reducing Civil Aircraft Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Mazlan, Nurul Musfirah

    2012-01-01

    Gas turbines are extensively used in aviation because of their advantageous volume as weight characteristics. The objective of this project proposed was to look at advanced propulsion systems and the close coupling of the airframe with advanced prime mover cycles. The investigation encompassed a comparative assessment of traditional and novel prime mover options including the design, off-design, degraded performance of the engine and the environmental and economic analysis of the system. The ...

  3. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft for Calendar Year 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-31

    TOTAL 0 3 3 AUSTIN BARBARA JEAN 2 41 1 0 1 1 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 AVIONS FAIREY TIPSY NIPPER T-66 1 41 1 0 2 2 F/W S-ENG REC. ENG 41...FLYER 1 51 2 0 1 1 KOLB ULTRA-STAR 1 41 1 0 1 1 KOLB ULTRASTAR 1 41 1 0 2 2 KORNS CAPER 2 41 1 0 1 1 KOSAN #39 1 41 1 0 1 1 KOSTOOM-3 2 41 1 0 1 1 KR

  4. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  5. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  6. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for..., airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return to service as provided...

  7. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  8. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You may review copies of the referenced service information at the... by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines...

  9. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model and the Four Point Aircraft (FPA) model. Although they are well...

  10. THE AIRPORT DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KONIECZKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a summary of the issues involved in de-icing several kinds of aircrafts before flight. The basic risks of an iced aircraft and the factors that can influence its intensity are stated. It discusses the methods for de-icing and protecting against ice formation on small aircrafts, helicopters, and large aircrafts. It also classifies the fluids and other methods used for these de-icing operations, and explains the characteristics and limitations of their use.

  11. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  12. A Glimpse of Scientific Research on Fundamental Problems of Military and Civil Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1939-01-01

    Among the outstanding accomplishments of the last century is man's conquest of the air. That conquest began in 1903 when the Wright brothers made the first successful flight of an airplane at Kitty Hawk, N. C. Five years later the United States Government purchased its first airplane for the use of the Army, and began the training of officers for military flying. During the years immediately preceding the outbreak of the World War the Government and a meager aircraft industry had made important progress, but the Government, practically the only customer, had purchased less than 100 airplanes. In the meantime, leading European nations, sensing acutely the potentialities of aircraft in warfare, had made greater progress and had begun laying the foundations for the new science of aeronautics. The World War gave a remarkable impetus to the development of aeronautics and emphasized the need for organized research on the fundamental problems of flight. By act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was created and charged with the duty of supervising, directing, and conducting fundamental scientific research and experiment in aeronautics. With the farsighted support of the Congress the Committee has led the world in the development of unique aeronautical research facilities in its laboratories at Langley Field, Va. The research programs include problems initiated by the Committee and its subcommittees and also investigations requested by the Army, the Navy, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The results of researches conducted under one control, serve without duplication of effort, the needs of all branches of aviation, civil and military, and exert a profound influence on the progress of aeronautics by improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of aircraft. A brief description of the results of some of the committee's researches and of the equipment employed will be found in the following pages.

  13. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F.; Jacquin, L.; Laverdant, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  14. System Synthesis in Preliminary Aircraft Design Using Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaurentis, Daniel; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Schrage, Daniel P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents an approach to conceptual and early preliminary aircraft design in which system synthesis is achieved using statistical methods, specifically Design of Experiments (DOE) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM). These methods are employed in order to more efficiently search the design space for optimum configurations. In particular, a methodology incorporating three uses of these techniques is presented. First, response surface equations are formed which represent aerodynamic analyses, in the form of regression polynomials, which are more sophisticated than generally available in early design stages. Next, a regression equation for an Overall Evaluation Criterion is constructed for the purpose of constrained optimization at the system level. This optimization, though achieved in an innovative way, is still traditional in that it is a point design solution. The methodology put forward here remedies this by introducing uncertainty into the problem, resulting in solutions which are probabilistic in nature. DOE/RSM is used for the third time in this setting. The process is demonstrated through a detailed aero-propulsion optimization of a High Speed Civil Transport. Fundamental goals of the methodology, then, are to introduce higher fidelity disciplinary analyses to the conceptual aircraft synthesis and provide a roadmap for transitioning from point solutions to probabilistic designs (and eventually robust ones).

  15. Quantitative Inspection Technologies for Aging Military Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    177 Figure 133. Aircraft Mockup With EDM Notches Marked As Red Dots And Numbered In Magnified Photos...178 ix Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Figure 134. First Test Of The Pantograph Scanner On The Mockup Aircraft...180 Figure 137. CAD Model Of Arc Scanner And Simulated Aircraft Fitting Mockup Panel ..................................... 181 Figure 138

  16. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  17. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying...

  18. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be...

  19. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathemat

  20. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  1. IMAGE: A Design Integration Framework Applied to the High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Mark A.; Craig, James I.

    1993-01-01

    Effective design of the High Speed Civil Transport requires the systematic application of design resources throughout a product's life-cycle. Information obtained from the use of these resources is used for the decision-making processes of Concurrent Engineering. Integrated computing environments facilitate the acquisition, organization, and use of required information. State-of-the-art computing technologies provide the basis for the Intelligent Multi-disciplinary Aircraft Generation Environment (IMAGE) described in this paper. IMAGE builds upon existing agent technologies by adding a new component called a model. With the addition of a model, the agent can provide accountable resource utilization in the presence of increasing design fidelity. The development of a zeroth-order agent is used to illustrate agent fundamentals. Using a CATIA(TM)-based agent from previous work, a High Speed Civil Transport visualization system linking CATIA, FLOPS, and ASTROS will be shown. These examples illustrate the important role of the agent technologies used to implement IMAGE, and together they demonstrate that IMAGE can provide an integrated computing environment for the design of the High Speed Civil Transport.

  2. The Emergence of Civilization [and] Case Studies in the Emergence of Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jack

    This secondary level anthropology textbook emphasizes the comparison of the patterns of culture change which resulted in complex societies (civilizations) in six different areas around the world. The textbook stresses problem-solving and is centered around three questions: In what manner and through what stages did these civilizations evolve? What…

  3. Concept development of a Mach 4 high-speed civil transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Christopher S.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Mcgraw, Marvin E., Jr.; Shields, Elwood W.; Swanson, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to configure and analyze a 250 passenger, Mach 4 High Speed Civil Transport with a design range of 6500 n.mi. The design mission assumed an all-supersonic cruise segment and no community noise or sonic boom constraints. The study airplane was developed in order to examine the technology requirements for such a vehicle and to provide an unconstrained baseline from which to assess changes in technology levels, sonic boom limits, or community noise constraints in future studies. The propulsion, structure, and materials technologies utilized in the sizing of the study aircraft were assumed to represent a technology availability date of 2015. The study airplane was a derivative of a previously developed Mach 3 concept and utilized advanced afterburning turbojet engines and passive airframe thermal protection. Details of the configuration development, aerodynamic design, propulsion system, mass properties, and mission performance are presented. The study airplane was estimated to weigh approx. 866,000 lbs. Although an aircraft of this size is a marginally acceptable candidate to fit into the world airport infrastructure, it was concluded that the inclusion of community noise or sonic boom constraints would quickly cause the aircraft to grow beyond acceptable limits using the assumed technology levels.

  4. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  5. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  6. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  7. Aircraft Natural/Artificial Icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-12

    axial vibration is caused by an oscillator driving a coil in the probe to create a magnetostrictive force. A sensing coil within the probe senses the...Consequence TOP 7-3-537 12 February 2009 C-1 APPENDIX C. ICING TEST SITE SELECTION 1. INTRODUCTION Unlike large fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters

  8. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  9. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  10. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  11. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  12. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  13. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  14. Nordic visions of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten HEIBERG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of Scandinavian literature written by surviving volunteers of the International Brigades which concerns the Spanish Civil War. However, when it comes to scientific studies the situation is an altogether different one. Only a small number of academic studies can be found available, often limited in scope and of modest quality. The Civil War seems to be of marginal interest to the Nordic research community, which is generally more interested in national history than in European and world history. There are, however, some exceptions to this, as this article will demonstrate. The most interesting conclusion - from an international historiographical point of view - to be drawn from a number of new studies is that the Spanish Civil War produced political and military repercussions in Scandinavia during the German occupation of Denmark and Norway from 1940-1945.

  15. Global justice and transnational civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temi Ogunye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all accounts of global justice recognise that the world, as it is, is unjust, and that something ought to be done about this. But what? In this paper, I argue that wealthy individuals have a duty grounded in the natural duty of justice to engage in civil disobedience against the currently unjust global order with the aim of pressuring for institutional reform. In particular, I argue that those who subscribe to the two main views on global justice—cosmopolitanism and statism—can agree that the conditions which give rise to the duty to engage in civil disobedience obtain in global society today. I then explain why I focus on transnational civil disobedience, argue that only the wealthy have the duty to engage in it, and give an example of how this duty has been discharged in the real world.

  16. Fabrication and evaluation of advanced titanium structural panels for supersonic cruise aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L.

    1977-01-01

    Flightworthy primary structural panels were designed, fabricated, and tested to investigate two advanced fabrication methods for titanium alloys. Skin-stringer panels fabricated using the weldbraze process, and honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated using a diffusion bonding process, were designed to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 research aircraft. The investigation included ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale panels, and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Test results obtained on full-scale panels and structural element specimens indicate that both of the fabrication methods investigated are suitable for primary structural applications on future civil and military supersonic cruise aircraft.

  17. Chemistry in plumes of high-flying aircraft with H2 combustion engines: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Weibring

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on high-speed civil transport (HSCT systems have renewed the interest in the chemistry of supersonic-aircraft plumes. The engines of these aircraft emit large concentrations of radicals like O, H, OH, and NO. In order to study the effect of these species on the composition of the atmosphere, the detailed chemistry of an expanding and cooling plume is examined for different expansion models.

    For a representative flight at 26 km the computed trace gas concentrations do not differ significantly for different models of the expansion behaviour. However, it is shown that the distributions predicted by all these models differ significantly from those adopted in conventional meso-scale and global models in which the plume chemistry is not treated in detail. This applies in particular to the reservoir species HONO and H2O2.

  18. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  19. La responsabilidad civil medioambiental por productos defectuosos

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La tesis cuestiona por una parte la exhaustividad del marco regulador de la responsabilidad Civil por productos defectuosos y, por la otra, la singularidad de los daños medioambientales. Así, pretende, entre otros objetivos, contribuir en la construcción del Derecho Civil medioambiental, buscando, dentro del ámbito de protección de la legislación sobre productos defectuosos, el posible anclaje de los daños medioambientales. Gira en torno a la cuestión del régimen aplicable a supuesto...

  20. The Civil War in cyberspace today

    OpenAIRE

    Eiroa, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    The appeal of the Spanish Civil War in the online world is a phenomenon deserving of attention, as an event that took place more than 75 years ago which still arouses debate and the curiosity of many. It is surprising that the media world considers it “newsworthy” and that it has an important presence on the Internet — on blogs, websites, You Tube, and even social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter. This article examines all mention of the Civil War in online media. We start from th...

  1. Fundamentos del seguro de responsabilidad civil

    OpenAIRE

    Nuñez del Prado Simons, Alfonso; Universidad de Lima

    2015-01-01

    Luego de una pequeña introducción en que comenta algunos problemas del Seguro Obligatorio de Accidente de Tránsito (SOAT) y de los seguros oncológicos en relación a los médicos, el autor hace una revisión de los fundamentos legales de la responsabilidad civil, especialmente la extracontractual, a partir de la legislación peruana y luego explica los alcances del seguro de responsabilidad civil general.

  2. Disfuncionalidades del servicio civil en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Isaza E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta las características del servicio civil colombiano y argumenta que este existe en un nivel formal, pero sufre de una brecha de implementación que ha conducido a la creación de una serie de disfuncionalidades en el sistema. Esta situación explica la discrepancia entre la imagen positiva que existe fuera del país frente a su servicio civil y la imagen que existe dentro, basada en el mal funcionamiento práctico del mismo.

  3. Newton and the origin of civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Buchwald, Jed Z

    2012-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published in 1728, one year after the great man's death, unleashed a storm of controversy. And for good reason. The book presents a drastically revised timeline for ancient civilizations, contracting Greek history by five hundred years and Egypt's by a millennium. Newton and the Origin of Civilization tells the story of how one of the most celebrated figures in the history of mathematics, optics, and mechanics came to apply his unique ways of thinking to problems of history, theology, and mythology, and of how his radical ideas produced an

  4. Preaching in the perspective of civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kroczek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Preaching the word of God is the part of the ministry of the divine word. The activity belongs exclusively to the Church and is regulated by the church law, but it is also under regime of Polish law. The article focuses on the Polish civil law and treats about: copyright law, the protection of secret information in labor law and in educational law, the obligation of silence before election day, and protection of personal interests. The catholic ministers must be aware of the civil liability for the preaching.

  5. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  6. La responsabilidad civil en el delito fiscal

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Se realiza un análisis de la procedencia de pronunciamiento sobre responsabilidad civil en el delito fiscal en referencia a la cuota tributaria defraudada. Se toma como punto de partida la posición del tribunal supremo que admite la configuración de la deuda tributaria defraudada como responsabilidad civil, y se subraya las dificultades técnicas de la misma, tomando en consideración la naturaleza ex lege que en todo caso ostenta la obligación de hacer efectivo el pago de la deuda tributaria,...

  7. Global civil society and its discontents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, T. Olaf

    2006-01-01

    According to enthusiasts the concept of global civil society is spreading rapidly and becoming pivotal to the reconfiguring of the statist paradigm. However, critics have recently grown more numerous and outspoken in opposition to the term claiming that it is actually perpetuating statism...... by grafting the idea of civil society onto the global by way of an unhelpful domestic analogy. This paper examines the role the concept is playing in perpetuating/reconfiguring statism. First it summarizes current criticism by identifying three basic accusations: the ambiguity of the term, the "domestic...

  8. Optimal Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thesbjerg, Leo

    In designing large civil engineering structures, an important consideration is prospective dynamic loadings which may include earthquake ground motion, wind gusts, severe sea states and moving vehicles, rotating and reciprocating machinery and others. successful design of such structures requires...... providing for the safety and integrity of the structure, and in some cases also providing for a measure of comfort for the occupants during such loading which the structure and its occupants must endure. Due to these uncertainties, the civil engineering community has traditionally adopted a very...

  9. Social Movements, Civil Society and Corporations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bakker, Frank; Hond, Frank den; King, Brayden

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between social movements and civil society on the one hand, and the corporate world on the other hand, are often shaped by conflict over the domination of economic, cultural and social life. How this conflict plays out, in current as well as in historical times and places......, is the central question that unites the papers in this special issue. In this essay, we review the differences and points of contact between the study of social movements, civil society and corporations, and offer an agenda for future research at this intersection that also frames the papers in the special issue...

  10. Disinfection of aircraft : Appropriate disinfectants and standard operating procedures for highly infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Joachim; Gnirs, Peter; Hölterhoff, Sabine; Wirtz, Angela; Jeglitza, Matthias; Gaber, Walter; Gottschalk, Rene

    2016-12-01

    For infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases. Although, basic advice on hygiene and sanitation on board an aircraft is given by the World Health Organization, these guidelines lack details on available and effective substances as well as standardized operating procedures (SOP). The purpose of this paper is to give guidance on the choice of substances that were tested by a laboratory of Lufthansa Technik and found compatible with aircraft components, as well as to describe procedures which ensure a safe and efficient disinfection of civil aircrafts. This guidance and the additional SOPs are made public and are available as mentioned in this paper.

  11. 16 CFR 1.98 - Adjustment of civil monetary penalty amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... monetary penalty amounts. This section makes inflation adjustments in the dollar amounts of civil monetary... OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Civil Penalty Adjustments Under the Federal Civil Penalties...

  12. El derecho civil, los derechos civiles forales o especiales y el derecho civil autonómico

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza Penadés, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Para poder comprender el concepto y significado del Derecho Civil conviene previamente delimitar su contenido y comprender su consideración como Derecho Privado y como Derecho común, que es fruto de su evolución histórica.

  13. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  14. Varying Levels of Automation on UAS Operator Responses to Traffic Resolution Advisories in Civil Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Caitlin; Fern, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Continuing demand for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has put increasing pressure on operations in civil airspace. The need to fly UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) in order to perform missions vital to national security and defense, emergency management, and science is increasing at a rapid pace. In order to ensure safe operations in the NAS, operators of unmanned aircraft, like those of manned aircraft, may be required to maintain separation assurance and avoid loss of separation with other aircraft while performing their mission tasks. This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of automation on UAS operator performance and workload while responding to conflict resolution instructions provided by the Tactical Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) during a UAS mission in high-density airspace. The purpose of this study was not to investigate the safety of using TCAS II on UAS, but rather to examine the effect of automation on the ability of operators to respond to traffic collision alerts. Six licensed pilots were recruited to act as UAS operators for this study. Operators were instructed to follow a specified mission flight path, while maintaining radio contact with Air Traffic Control and responding to TCAS II resolution advisories. Operators flew four, 45 minute, experimental missions with four different levels of automation: Manual, Knobs, Management by Exception, and Fully Automated. All missions included TCAS II Resolution Advisories (RAs) that required operator attention and rerouting. Operator compliance and reaction time to RAs was measured, and post-run NASA-TLX ratings were collected to measure workload. Results showed significantly higher compliance rates, faster responses to TCAS II alerts, as well as less preemptive operator actions when higher levels of automation are implemented. Physical and Temporal ratings of workload were significantly higher in the Manual condition than in the Management by Exception and

  15. CIVIL LIABILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marica

    2008-09-01

    é un dommage ou un préjudice. Le droit à un environnement écologique, sain et équilibré, est reconnu et garanti par la législation nationale, ainsi que par celle internationale.L’article 35 de la Constitution de la Roumanie, tel qu’il a été modifié par la Loi no. 429/2003, affirme, entre autres droits fondamentaux, le droit à un environnement sain, qui est une partie d’une troisième génération de droits, appelés droits de solidarité, qui peuvent être respectés non seulement par des efforts internes de l’Etat, mais aussi par la coopération entre l’Etat et les citoyens. Par la conclusion d’un accord d’association entre la Roumanie et l’Union Européenne, entré en vigueur en 1995, la Roumanie a assumé l’acquis communautaire de l’environnement, avec ses trois droits fondamentaux (le droit d’être informé au sujet de l’environnement, le droit de participer au processus de prise de décision concernant l’environnement et le droit de solliciter la réparation des dommages écologiques, ou l’annulation d’actes administratifs illégaux a joué un rôle important dans ce processus.Mots-clé: biodiversité, la protection de l’environnement, pollution, la réparation des dommages écologiques, responsabilité civile

  16. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  17. CID Aircraft slap-down

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  18. Static Aeroelasticity in Combat Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Simulation Maneuverability Performance System Integration Design Load Spectren FIG. 1 HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT DESIGN Simulation has a great potential...Aeroelasticity has also a great effect on the flight control system design. If the basic control powers are reduced by increasing dynamic pressure...Components Flight Envelope Structure Concept a Total Aircraf Analysis FIG, 2 BASIC DATAS FOR AEROELASTIC DESIGN STUDIES Aeroelastic activities are now devided

  19. Aircraft Derived Data Validation Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    to be equipped with Flight Management Systems (FMSs) that use sophisticated digital computers to assist pilots, allowing them to fly more fuel...some basic data is prepared. These include calculations of aircraft position projeted on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, and...Administration FMS Flight Management System GA General Aviation NextGen Next Generation Air Transportation System NGA National Geospatial-Intelligence

  20. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  1. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... offense; (ii) Any history of prior offenses by the Respondent (including offenses occurring prior to the... proposed civil money penalty, including documentary evidence to support any of Respondent's arguments or... argument in mitigation, the Respondent shall provide documentary evidence as part of its response....

  2. Global Civil Society and International Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas

    2011-01-01

    Research in the field of citizenship, civil society, and social movements in relation to larger democratic summits has either focused on radical confrontational elements of activism, broad public demonstrations, or the professional non-governmental organizations. In this article, I label the type...

  3. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  4. Aluminium building and civil engineering structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetens, F.; Mennink, J.

    1999-01-01

    The design of aluminium structures in building and civil engineering applications is different from designing in traditional materials. This difference is based on the physical and mechanical properties of the material and the freedom of cross-sectional shape provided by the extrusion manufacturing

  5. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common f

  6. The language of architecture and civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Riejos, Ana Ma Roldan

    2011-01-01

    This book not only provides unique and in-depth information to understand the language of architecture and civil engineering, it is also helpful for students and professionals who need to improve their linguistic skills. The LACE book includes plenty of

  7. State Education Agency Civil Rights Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter

    This memorandum addresses the responsibility of State Education Agencies (SEAs) for insuring that local educational agencies do not violate students' civil rights. The SEA's duty is said to arise from two sources. First, in most if not all States, State law mandates that State education officials supervise and regulate the conduct of local school…

  8. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  9. CIVIL ENGINEERS' ROLES IN PUBLIC WORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Teruaki

    Recently, the public interests are becoming high in the way of executing public works and the future direction of infrastructure development, which raises nation-wide discussion on these issues. How should we make our country's growth strategy for sustainable development? How should we realize the grand design of infrastructure needed for the implementation of such a strategy? It is obvious that further discussions are needed for these challenging questions. With an aim to promote such discussions, this paper reviews the history of public works and the professional practices (or accomplishments) of our great civil engineers, and discusses the future of public works and the roles of civil engineers based on their origin. Further, in this paper, the author, as the chairman of the Public Works Committee of Japan Civil Engineering Contractors Association, introduces the Association's proposal of "realization of an attractive construction industry." However, for its realization, sustainable institutional arrangements under social consensus are indispensable. Also, individual engineer must establish his/her own identity based on sense of social ethics. It is the author's hope that, through these journals, the professional practices of civil engineers will be widely known to the public with objective logics and discussed to achieve social consensus.

  10. Civil Rights in the Third Wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffler, Alvin

    1982-01-01

    Current political and legal institutions must be restructured to accommodate the new, higher levels of social diversity brought about by technological progress. Those who are committed to civil rights should recognize the need to tolerate and even encourage diversity, instead of attempting to recreate the homogeneity of yesterday's mass society.…

  11. Civil War. NBER Working Paper No. 14801

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattman, Christopher; Miguel, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory…

  12. Civil Rights and Japanese-American Internment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Greg; Hojo, Samantha; Lai, Selena; Mukai, Gary; Yoda, Steven

    Students may not be as familiar with the Asian American struggle for equal rights as they are with the black struggle for equal rights. But Asian Americans' civil rights have also been challenged and/or denied throughout their history in the United States. This curriculum module contains six lessons and can be used as a supplement to history…

  13. Globalization of Constitutional Law and Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbrodt, David

    1993-01-01

    Two issues are discussed: (1) reasons for raising global and international human rights issues in constitutional law, civil rights, and administrative law courses in United States law schools; and (2) barriers to globalization of courses and ways to overcome them. (MSE)

  14. The civilized sacred in contemporary China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Recent policies set by the Government renewed the urgency of being civilized (wenming): behavior in public parks needs to be wenming, and also rituals in Buddhist and Daoist temples have to be wenming. The next step has been to encourage citizens to avoid burning incense or visiting temples, and to

  15. Civil society responds to protection gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Jackson

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of mechanisms to protect the populationof the OPT, and the reluctance or impotence of the‘international community’, global civil society activists andhuman rights campaigners – working with Palestinianand Israeli actors – have stepped into the breach.

  16. RECRUITMENT AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cristina RADU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is recruitment and training. The originality of this article lies in the multidisciplinary character, combining elements of labor law, administrative law and human resources management, character reflected in the bibliography used. Another merit of this study is that the authors correlated the provisions of various laws: Constitution, Labor Code, Law no. 161/2003 on the transparency in exercising public dignities and public functions, Government Ordinance no. 137/2000 regarding the prevention and sanction of all discrimination forms, Government Ordinance no. 129/2000 concerning adults’ professional training.

  17. China To Boost Civil Aerospace Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) announced on January 30,2008 that it had approved the overall development planning of three national aerospace industrial bases.Building a civil aerospace industry base serves to optimize and integrate aerospace resources to further increase the potential for technological innovation and product R&D in China's aerospace industry.

  18. A Changing Climate for Civil Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Edward B.

    1983-01-01

    Identifies trends likely to influence civil rights issues in the 1980s: new emphases on entrepreneurial thinking, self-reliance, and meritocracy; a new socioeconomic agenda; and growing expectations that business will fill the gap left by shrinking government budgets and will support efforts to end discrimination against minorities and women. (CMG)

  19. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 20-15:320-15, “Equal Employment Opportunity in Construction Financed with RUS Loans”; 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b and 45 CFR part 90. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17...

  20. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $100,000 per violation may be assessed... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21... penalty. Any person (an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to...

  1. Civil and Military Bureaucracy in Pakistan,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Mohammad Ali Jinnah and maintained by his successors until 1958. During the Ayub period (1958-69), the basic framework of adminis- tration was maintained...civil services. * As opposed to the refugees who came from India at Partition . By_ Distribut il/ October 1981 Avallal-ility Codes Avn il and/or Dist special

  2. Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-25

    Aeromedical Evacuation: Validating Civil Reserve Air Fleet FORMAT : Civilian Research Paper DATE: 25 February 2009 WORDS: 10,172 PAGES: 56 CLASSIFICATION... Barrancas , Florida, in 1910. Unfortunately, on its first test flight, it flew only 500 yards at an altitude of 100 feet before crashing. This flight

  3. Civil Technology. Surveying. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Beverley J.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary civil technology--surveying education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in surveying in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills. The first…

  4. Civil Litigation in China and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Bratković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed book: Civil Litigation in China and Europe: Essays on the Role of the Judge and the Parties (= 31 Ius Gentium: Comparative Perspectives on Law and Justice (C.H. (Remco van Rhee & Fu Yulin, eds. (Springer 2014.

  5. Citizenship, Democratic Participation, and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between organized civil society and the public sector has becoming stronger and more outspoken for several reasons. First, the public sector is increasingly turning to the civic organizations because the general failure of New Public Management strategies and market-driven solutio...... participatory democracy through active involving of all citizens....

  6. Should Bad Civil Servants Be Chosen by Voting?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to promote good service from civil servants, Anqiu City in Shandong Province recently issued the Appraisal Methods for Best-and Worst-Performing Civil Servants. Based on the regulation, the city government

  7. Portugal’s Laboratorio National de Engenharia Civil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The civil engineering program of Portugal’s Laboratorio National de Engenharia Civil is described, with emphasis on recent trends within the Hydraulics Department’s coastal engineering unit.

  8. ICAO Assistance to Civil Aviation in the Developing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Describes the cost advantages of air transportation over road, rail, and river transportation in many circumstances which prevail today in developing countries. Presents accounts of International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) efforts supporting civil aviation programs in these countries. (DS)

  9. Civil society and the ‘commanding heights’:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Paton, Rob

    Civil society associations, including voluntary and community groups, trade unions, faithbased organisations, co-operatives and mutuals, have long influenced the economy. Civil society associations can run businesses and they can run organisations that aim to influence businesses. Together...

  10. Civil society response to human trafficking in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Yousaf

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In South Asia civil society organisations have led the way in encouraging governments to address the problem of human trafficking. A coordinated regional response by both governments and civil society organisations is urgently required.

  11. The Language of Civil Engineering: Descriptive, Prescriptive, and Persuasive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machauf, Liora

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on the language of civil engineering as manifested in the professional journal "Civil Engineering ASCE." Articles are analyzed, both syntactically and lexically, in terms of three major rhetorical functions: description, prescription, and persuasion. (17 references) (GLR)

  12. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  13. Criminal Acts against Civil Aviation: 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    hijacker was seized by a Soviet commando team. December 28, 1990 Hijacking-Air Algerie Air Algerie Flight 6201 was hijacked during a domestic flight...from Ghardaia to Algiers. The aircraft landed at Mellah International Airport in Annaba , Algiers, where the two hijackers demanded that the plane be

  14. Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation. 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Because authorities in Lahore refused the aircraft permission to land, however, the pilot went to Raja Sansi Airport in Amritsar, India. There the hijacker...Maroc ATR-42 Casablanca , Morocco/El Aaiun Canary Islands/ Asmara, Western Sahara Mentally unstable 10-06-89 Myanmar Fokker 28 Mergui/Rangoon, Burma

  15. Personnel of Civil Aviation as a Systematic Formation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Personnel of civil aviation as a systematic formation is considered in the article. During the research the author presents scientific views on the definition of «system», reveals the essence of the organization of personnel of civil aviation as a systematic formation. Essential characteristics of the integral system of personnel of civil aviation and its systematic qualities are determined.English abstractThe personnel of civil aviation is a system organized formation of trained workers of c...

  16. Civil-Military relations and democratization in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Berrios, Carlos G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine civil-military relations in Guatemala and their effect on democratic consolidation. The issue of civil- military relations in Guatemala is one of particular importance as political and military leaders as well as members of civil society attempt to redefine the role of the military after 36 years of civil war. Applying Felipe Aguero's theory of civilian supremacy, this thesis argues that since 1982, the Guatemalan military has evolved into a profession...

  17. ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Annual Report 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    Civil society organizations, including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), are important stakeholders of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The ADB Cooperation with Civil Society Annual Report 2010 presents an overview of the year’s work in cooperating with civil society organizations, including NGOs, in country and regional programming work, project operations, as well as in policy and strategy development. Through ADB’s NGO and Civil Society Center, ADB is strengthening its partnership with ...

  18. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  19. Civil reconnaissance; separating the insurgent from the population

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Kevin P.

    2007-01-01

    Civil Information Management is one of the main tools in conducting effective counter insurgency operations, yet there is no definitive doctrine that explains how to collect, analyze, or warehouse Civil Information. This thesis provides a methodology for collecting civil information in a counter insurgency environment. The proposed methodology provides a foundation for the creation of standard operating procedures and tactics to enhance the US Military's capability to conduct Civil Recon...

  20. DOCTRINAL FOUNDATIONS OF PLURALITY OF PERSONS IN CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yermolayev A. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the theoretical basis of the multiplicity of individual and joint ownership of civil rights and conscientious objection to civilian duties. The author explores the state of development of scientific problems of completely plurality of persons in civil law, proves the necessity to consider the multiplicity not through teaching about the object of civil rights, but through the subject of civil rights

  1. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    OpenAIRE

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-01-01

    The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.

  2. Civil Rights for Trafficked Persons: Recommendations for a More Effective Federal Civil Remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Lack

    2008-01-01

    In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its...

  3. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  4. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  5. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013... for Subsonic Engines'', in the third column, in the last row, the entry ``rO > 26.7'' is corrected...

  6. Towards an Africological Pedagogical Approach to African Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Victor Oguejiofor

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of controversies related to African studies and makes the case for an Africological pedagogical approach to African Civilization. The title "African Civilization" reflects the African place in the whole of world civilization even though that place is itself a multiple entity. (SLD)

  7. Opportunities in Civil Engineering. [VGM Career Horizons Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, D. Joseph; Heer, John E., Jr.

    This book presents information on career opportunities in civil engineering. Chapter 1 focuses on the scope of civil engineering, discussing: role of scientist, engineer, and technologists; engineering and engineering technology; civil engineer's role and obligations; and other information. Chapter 2 considers such aspects of the education for…

  8. Quantitative and Econometric Methodologies in the Study of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the quantitative study of civil war, focusing on the development of quantitative conflict studies, the basics of the quantitative method, the prominent sources of civil conflict data, and the strengths and weaknesses of using quantitative methods to analyse civil war.

  9. 77 FR 65100 - Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... inflation. This rule sets forth the maximum, inflation-adjusted dollar amount for civil monetary penalties... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 143 RIN 3038-AD76 Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation AGENCY... and orders thereunder. The rule, as amended, implements the Federal Civil Penalties...

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-9 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 35.925-9 Section 35.925-9... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-9 Civil rights. That if the... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and part 7 of this chapter have been met....

  11. 12 CFR 622.60 - Payment of civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment of civil money penalty. 622.60 Section... Rules and Procedures for Assessment and Collection of Civil Money Penalties § 622.60 Payment of civil money penalty. (a) Payment date. Generally, the date designated in the notice of assessment for...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1834 - Civil money penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalty. 493.1834 Section 493.1834... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1834 Civil money... Secretary to impose civil money penalties on laboratories. Section 1846(b)(3) of the Act...

  13. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act

  14. A Qualitative Analysis of SAC Aircraft Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    A122 815 A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MRINTENANCE(U) 112 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PRTTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS D...Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio ’ ; " ... ..... ... ... . .. .. A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE Douglas P. Cook, Captain... QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SAC Master’s Thesis AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(q) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a) Douglas

  15. Visualization of Aircraft Longitudinal-Axis Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Kvasnica

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the use of continuous mathematical models of an aircraft in an aircraft simulator is described. The models are of lower degree and less time-consuming for calculation. Computer implementation of the models capable to work faster and more accurately and efficiently is also described. The suggested approach allows to achieve the required precision at accelerated simulation speed using the continuous mathematical models of an aircraft. Frequency of the computation of continuous ma...

  16. Advanced Aerostructural Optimization Techniques for Aircraft Design

    OpenAIRE

    Yingtao Zuo; Pingjian Chen; Lin Fu; Zhenghong Gao; Gang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Traditional coupled aerostructural design optimization (ASDO) of aircraft based on high-fidelity models is computationally expensive and inefficient. To improve the efficiency, the key is to predict aerostructural performance of the aircraft efficiently. The cruise shape of the aircraft is parameterized and optimized in this paper, and a methodology named reverse iteration of structural model (RISM) is adopted to get the aerostructural performance of cruise shape efficiently. A new mathematic...

  17. Aircraft Survivability. Susceptibility Reduction. Fall 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    to determine the degree of control available with manual manipulation of engine throttles for various transport aircraft. Simulations included...Boeing 727, 737, 747, 757, 767, 777, MD-11, MD-90, C-17, and Airbus A320 and A300 transport aircraft. Preliminary missile impact effects were...shown, for most aircraft tested, that using only manual TOC it is very difficult to make a safe runway landing due to difficulty in controlling the

  18. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  19. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...