WorldWideScience

Sample records for civil aircraft

  1. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in §...

  2. Crashworthiness of composite seats for civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been conducted into the design of civil aircraft seats which are forward-facing and use the lap-belt method of restraint. Within these terms of reference, the response of the seat restraint occupant system (SROS) to impact loading has been analysed using physical (dynamic testing) and analytical (computer simulation) modelling techniques. With the increasing use of fibre-reinforced polymer composites in aircraft for weight efficiency, and the consequent appearance of composite se...

  3. Perspectives of civil aircraft avionics development

    OpenAIRE

    Наумов, А. В.

    1999-01-01

    Considered are main directions for civil avionics development. General requirements for airborne equipment functions. Analysis of airborne avionics selection per architecture and economical effectiveness in made. Proposed is the necessity of new approach to integrated avionics complex design, first of all, on basis of mathematical method for aircraft equipment and technical characteristics definition

  4. Radiation exposure measurement onboard civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active dosemeter DOSTEL based on two silicon planar detectors was flown on civil aircraft flights to study the radiation exposure of air crew members. The altitude and latitude dependence of count and dose rates as well as long-term variations are measured. After calibration of the DOSTEL response against measurements of a TEPC instrument, total dose-equivalent values for various flights are compared with H*(10) calculations by EPCARD yielding a ratio of 1.02 ± 0.09 (standard variation). (authors)

  5. Actuation technology for flight control system on civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses the author’s Group Design Project (GDP) and Individual Research Project (IRP). The IRP is discussed primarily herein, presenting the actuation technology for the Flight Control System (FCS) on civil aircraft. Actuation technology is one of the key technologies for next generation More Electric Aircraft (MEA) and All Electric Aircraft (AEA); it is also an important input for the preliminary design of the Flying Crane, the aircraft designed in the author’s G...

  6. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  7. Perspectives on Unmanned Aircraft Classification for Civil Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Koppen, Daniel M.; Upchurch, Jason M.; Morris, A. Terry; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. Although use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in military and public service operations is proliferating, civil use of UAS remains limited in the United States today. This report focuses on one particular regulatory challenge: classifying UAS to assign airworthiness standards. This paper provides observations related to how the current regulations for classifying manned aircraft could apply to UAS.

  8. Considerations of Unmanned Aircraft Classification for Civil Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Morris, A. Terry; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. Although use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in military and public service operations is proliferating, civil use of UAS remains limited in the United States today. This report focuses on one particular regulatory challenge: classifying UAS to assign airworthiness standards. Classification is useful for ensuring that meaningful differences in design are accommodated by certification to different standards, and that aircraft with similar risk profiles are held to similar standards. This paper provides observations related to how the current regulations for classifying manned aircraft, based on dimensions of aircraft class and operational aircraft categories, could apply to UAS. This report finds that existing aircraft classes are well aligned with the types of UAS that currently exist; however, the operational categories are more difficult to align to proposed UAS use in the NAS. Specifically, the factors used to group manned aircraft into similar risk profiles do not necessarily capture all relevant UAS risks. UAS classification is investigated through gathering approaches to classification from a broad spectrum of organizations, and then identifying and evaluating the classification factors from these approaches. This initial investigation concludes that factors in addition to those currently used today to group manned aircraft for the purpose of assigning airworthiness standards will be needed to adequately capture risks associated with UAS and their operations.

  9. Active flow control systems architectures for civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbal, M; Liddle, SC; Crowther, WJ

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics This paper considers the effect of choice of actuator technology and associated power systems architecture on the mass cost and power consumption of implementing active flow control systems on civil transport aircraft. The research method is based on the use of a mass model that includes a mass due to systems hardware and a mass due to the system energy usage. An Airbus A320 aircraft wing is used as a case-study applicatio...

  10. 76 FR 34124 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion Correction In notice document 2011-12742 appearing on page 30231 in the issue of Tuesday, May 24, 2011, make the following...

  11. Radiation exposure monitoring in civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrewe, Ulrich J.

    1999-02-01

    Based on the 1990 Recommendation of the ICRP (ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991) a European Directive [Official J. Eur. Communities 19 (1996) L159, 1-114] commits the European Union (EU) member states to revise their national radiation protection laws by the year 2000 such that the exposure of aircrews to the increased cosmic radiation prevailing at aviation flight altitudes will be treated as occupational risks. A consequence will be that employers must assess the aircrew exposure. The ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Exposure Monitoring) research project intends to investigate practically methods for aircraft dose equivalent determination. The in-flight measurements were carried out on cargo aircraft. Field calibrations were performed using Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) as the reference instrument. Various monitors were used to investigate the spatial doserate distribution. The measured data were collated according to the different altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained from various in-flight measurements are reported and a concept for a future routine dose assessment for aircrew is proposed.

  12. Radiation exposure monitoring in civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the 1990 Recommendation of the ICRP (ICRP Publication 60, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1991) a European Directive [Official J. Eur. Communities 19 (1996) L159, 1-114] commits the European Union (EU) member states to revise their national radiation protection laws by the year 2000 such that the exposure of aircrews to the increased cosmic radiation prevailing at aviation flight altitudes will be treated as occupational risks. A consequence will be that employers must assess the aircrew exposure. The ACREM (Air Crew Radiation Exposure Monitoring) research project intends to investigate practically methods for aircraft dose equivalent determination. The in-flight measurements were carried out on cargo aircraft. Field calibrations were performed using Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counters (TEPC) as the reference instrument. Various monitors were used to investigate the spatial doserate distribution. The measured data were collated according to the different altitudes and geomagnetic latitudes. The results obtained from various in-flight measurements are reported and a concept for a future routine dose assessment for aircrew is proposed

  13. Severity estimation and shop visit prediction of civil aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Hanumanthan, Hariharan

    2009-01-01

    To sustain in the vibrant field of civil aviation, the aircraft and engine manufacturers are in the pursuit of delivering efficient systems with the best economics. In umpteen scenarios of growing interest, engine maintenance cost due to scheduled maintenance is of importance. The current research is focused on estimation of the maintenance factors, such as severity and shop visit rate to study the operational scenarios and concurrent technologies. The severity, defined as r...

  14. Hierarchical Colored Timed Petri Nets for Maintenance Process Modeling of Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Cheng-cheng; SUN You-chao; LU Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Civil aircraft maintenance process simulation model is an effective method for analyzing the maintainability of a civil aircraft. First, we present the Hierarchical Colored Timed Petri Nets for maintenance process modeling of civil aircraft. Then, we expound a general method of civil aircraft maintenance activities, determine the maintenance level for decomposition, and propose the methods of describing logic of relations between the maintenance activities based on Petri Net. Finally, a time Colored Petri multi-level network modeling and simulation procedures and steps are given with the maintenance example of the landing gear burst tire of a certain type of aircraft. The feasibility of the method is proved by the example.

  15. Scaling Trajectories in Civil Aircraft (1913-1997)

    CERN Document Server

    Frenken, Koen

    2010-01-01

    Using entropy statistics we analyse scaling patterns in terms of changes in the ratios among product characteristics of 143 designs in civil aircraft. Two allegedly dominant designs, the piston propeller DC3 and the turbofan Boeing 707, are shown to have triggered a scaling trajectory at the level of the respective firms. Along these trajectories different variables have been scaled at different moments in time: this points to the versatility of a dominant design which allows a firm to react to a variety of user needs. Scaling at the level of the industry took off only after subsequently reengineered models were introduced, like the piston propeller Douglas DC4 and the turbofan Boeing 767. The two scaling trajectories in civil aircraft corresponding to the piston propeller and the turbofan paradigm can be compared with a single, less pronounced scaling trajectory in helicopter technology for which we have data during the period 1940-1996. Management and policy implications can be specified in terms of the pha...

  16. European activities in civil applications of drones: an overview of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzburg, Reiner

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of recent research, development and civil application of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) in Europe. It describes a European strategy for the development of civil applications of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) and reflects most of the contents of the European staff working document SWD(2012) 259 final.

  17. 14 CFR 91.317 - Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated civil aircraft: Operating limitations. 91.317 Section 91.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... type or supplemental type certification of that aircraft; (2) For training flight crews,...

  18. Administrative regulations concerning the carriage of dangerous substances by civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulations, which entered into force on the date they were adopted, apply to the transport of dangerous substances by civil aircraft in Norway and by aircraft registered in Norway for transport outside Norwegian territory. They provide that such substances, including radioactive materials, must be carried in accordance with the IATA Restricted Articles Regulations

  19. Power Generation and Distribution System of Modern Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Srivastava

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the aircraft industry is moving towards the all electric and More Electric Aircraft (MEA; is the future trend in adopting single power type for driving the non-propulsive aircraft systems; i.e. is the electrical power. The trend in the aircraft industry is to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems achieving more comfort and monitoring features. The structure of MEA distribution system improves aircraft maintainability, reliability, flight safety and efficiency. Moreover, MEA reduces the emissions of air pollutant gases from aircrafts, which can contribute in significantly solving some of the problems of climate change. However, the MEA puts some challenges on the aircraft electrical system, both in the amount of the required power and the processing and management of this power. MEA electrical distribution systems are mainly in the form of multi-converter power electronic system.

  20. Next Generation Civil Transport Aircraft Design Considerations for Improving Vehicle and System-Level Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Wahls, Richard A.; DelRosario, Ruben,

    2013-01-01

    The future of aviation will benefit from research in aircraft design and air transportation management aimed at improving efficiency and reducing environmental impacts. This paper presents civil transport aircraft design trends and opportunities for improving vehicle and system-level efficiency. Aircraft design concepts and the emerging technologies critical to reducing thrust specific fuel consumption, reducing weight, and increasing lift to drag ratio currently being developed by NASA are discussed. Advancements in the air transportation system aimed towards system-level efficiency are discussed as well. Finally, the paper describes the relationship between the air transportation system, aircraft, and efficiency. This relationship is characterized by operational constraints imposed by the air transportation system that influence aircraft design, and operational capabilities inherent to an aircraft design that impact the air transportation system.

  1. Cabin environment and air quality in civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    The cabin environment of a commercial aircraft, including cabin layout and the quality of air supply, is crucial to the airline operators. These aspects directly affect the passengers’ experience and willing to travel. This aim of this thesis is to design the cabin layout for flying wing aircraft as part of cabin environment work, followed by the air quality work, which is to understand what effect the ECS can have in terms of cabin air contamination. The project, initially, focuses on the...

  2. Capability Maturity Assessment Method of Civil Aircraft Customer Service System

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jun; Chen Lin; Sun Lei

    2014-01-01

    According to the basic ideas of the maturity model (Capability Maturity Model, CMM), the maturity model and its capability maturity comprehensive evaluation method of civil aircrafts’ customer service system are established from five aspects: Engineering and technical support, marketing and customer support, spare parts support, flight training and technical publications. Referencing survey results of the customer service satisfaction from airlines, weights was ...

  3. Civil aircraft vortex wake. TsAGI's research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, S. L.; Gaifullin, A. M.; Sviridenko, Yu. N.

    2014-11-01

    This paper provides a review of research conducted in TsAGI (Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute) concerning a vortex wake behind an airliner. The research into this area of theoretical and practical importance have been done both in Russia and in other countries, for which these studies became a vital necessity at the end of the 20th century. The paper describes the main methods and ratios on which software systems used to calculate the evolution of a vortex wake in a turbulent atmosphere are based. Verification of calculation results proved their acceptable consistency with the known experimental data. The mechanism of circulation loss in a vortex wake which is based on the analytical solution for the problem of two vortices diffusing in a viscous fluid is also described. The paper also describes the model of behavior of an aircraft which has deliberately or unintentionally entered a vortex wake behind another aircraft. Approximated results of calculations performed according to this model by means of artificial neural networks enabled the researchers to model the dynamics of an aircraft in a vortex wake on flight simulators on-line.

  4. The relationship between civil aircraft noise and community annoyance in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Changwoo; Kim, Jaehwan; Hong, Jiyoung; Lee, Soogab; Lee, Soojoo

    2007-01-01

    Studies of community annoyance caused by civil aircraft noise exposure were carried out in 18 areas around Gimpo and Gimhae international airports in order to accumulate social survey data and assess the relationship between aircraft noise levels and annoyance responses in Korea. WECPNL, adopted as the aircraft noise index in Korea, and the percentage of respondents who felt highly annoyed (%HA) have been used to assess the dose-response of aircraft noise. Aircraft noise levels were measured automatically by airport noise monitoring system, B&K type 3597. Social surveys were carried out to people living within 100 m of noise measurement points. The Questionnaire used in the survey contained demographic factors, noise annoyance, interference with daily activities and health-related symptoms. The question relating to the aircraft noise annoyance was answered on an 11-point numerical scale. The randomly selected respondents who were aged between 18 and 70 years completed the questionnaire by themselves. In total, 705 respondents participated in the questionnaire. The results show that WECPNL, noise metric considering characteristics of event and intrusive noise, is more reasonable than L dn, noise metric considering total sound, to assess the effects of aircraft noise on health. It is also shown that the annoyance responses caused by aircraft noise in Korea seems higher than those reported in other countries.

  5. Costs and benefits of composite material applications to a civil STOL aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Costs and benefits of advanced composite primary airframe structure were studied to determine cost-effective applications to a civil STOL aircraft designed for introduction in the early 1980 time period. Applications were assessed by comparing costs and weights with a baseline metal aircraft which served as a basis of comparison throughout the study. Costs as well as weights were estimated from specific designs of principal airframe components, thus establishing a cost-data base for the study. Cost effectiveness was judged by an analysis that compared direct operating costs and return on investment of the composite and baseline aircraft. A systems operations analysis was performed to judge effects of the smaller, lighter composite aircraft. It was determined that broad applications of advanced composites to the airframe considered could be cost-effective, but this advantage is strongly influenced by structural configuration and several key cost categories.

  6. Modeling and assessment of civil aircraft evacuation based on finer-grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Wei; Jiang, Li-Xue; Xu, Qing-Feng; Song, Wei-Guo

    2016-04-01

    Studying civil aircraft emergency evacuation process by using computer model is an effective way. In this study, the evacuation of Airbus A380 is simulated using a Finer-Grid Civil Aircraft Evacuation (FGCAE) model. In this model, the effect of seat area and others on escape process and pedestrian's "hesitation" before leaving exits are considered, and an optimized rule of exit choice is defined. Simulations reproduce typical characteristics of aircraft evacuation, such as the movement synchronization between adjacent pedestrians, route choice and so on, and indicate that evacuation efficiency will be determined by pedestrian's "preference" and "hesitation". Based on the model, an assessment procedure of aircraft evacuation safety is presented. The assessment and comparison with the actual evacuation test demonstrate that the available exit setting of "one exit from each exit pair" used by practical demonstration test is not the worst scenario. The half exits of one end of the cabin are all unavailable is the worst one, that should be paid more attention to, and even be adopted in the certification test. The model and method presented in this study could be useful for assessing, validating and improving the evacuation performance of aircraft.

  7. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the...

  8. Systems and certification issues for civil transport aircraft flow control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Stephen C; Crowther, William J.; Jabbal, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This article is placed here with permission from the Royal Aeronautical Society - Copyright @ 2009 Royal Aeronautical Society The use of flow control (FC) technology on civil transport aircraft is seen as a potential means of providing a step change in aerodynamic performance in the 2020 time frame. There has been extensive research into the flow physics associated with FC. This paper focuses on developing an understanding of the costs and design drivers associated with the systems needed ...

  9. Simulated Rotor Wake Interactions Resulting from Civil Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations Near Vertiport Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Rajagopalan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    A mid-fidelity computational fluid dynamics tool called RotCFD - specifically developed to aid in rotorcraft conceptual design efforts - has been applied to the study of rotor wake interactions of civil tiltrotor aircraft in the immediate vicinity of vertiport/airport ground infrastructure. This issue has grown in importance as previous NASA studies have suggested that civil tiltrotor aircraft can potentially have a significant impact on commercial transport aviation. Current NASA reference designs for such civil tiltrotor aircraft are focused on a size category of 90-120 passengers. Notional concepts of operations include simultaneous non-interfering flight into and out of congested airports having vertiports, that is, prepared VTOL takeoff and landing zones, or underutilized short runways for STOL operation. Such large gross-weight vehicles will be generating very high induced velocities. Inevitably, the interaction of the rotor wake with ground infrastructure such as terminals/jetways must be considered both from an operational as well as design perspective.

  10. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  11. High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Simulation: Reference-H Cycle 1, MATLAB Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotack, Robert A.; Chowdhry, Rajiv S.; Buttrill, Carey S.

    1999-01-01

    The mathematical model and associated code to simulate a high speed civil transport aircraft - the Boeing Reference H configuration - are described. The simulation was constructed in support of advanced control law research. In addition to providing time histories of the dynamic response, the code includes the capabilities for calculating trim solutions and for generating linear models. The simulation relies on the nonlinear, six-degree-of-freedom equations which govern the motion of a rigid aircraft in atmospheric flight. The 1962 Standard Atmosphere Tables are used along with a turbulence model to simulate the Earth atmosphere. The aircraft model has three parts - an aerodynamic model, an engine model, and a mass model. These models use the data from the Boeing Reference H cycle 1 simulation data base. Models for the actuator dynamics, landing gear, and flight control system are not included in this aircraft model. Dynamic responses generated by the nonlinear simulation are presented and compared with results generated from alternate simulations at Boeing Commercial Aircraft Company and NASA Langley Research Center. Also, dynamic responses generated using linear models are presented and compared with dynamic responses generated using the nonlinear simulation.

  12. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  13. A Review of Current and Prospective Factors for Classification of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Morris, A. Terry; Neogi, Natasha; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    While progress is being made on integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into our national airspace on a broad scale, much work remains to establish appropriate certification standards and operational procedures, particularly with respect to routine commercial operations. This paper summarizes research to examine the extent to which today's civil aircraft taxonomy applies to UAS, and, if needed, how that taxonomy could be amended to better cover different UAS designs and operations. Factors that shape the current taxonomy, as defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations, were assessed for applicability to UAS, potential incompatibilities were identified, and additional factors were proposed that might be useful for an updated aircraft taxonomy intended to cover UAS. The results suggest the possibility of constructing new groups in the taxonomy for UAS under a restricted category that share common airworthiness standards. Establishing distinct groups for UAS and associated standards that enable low risk operations for compensation or hire could be a timely step toward full integration. Such a step would allow the civil aviation industry and regulators to gain valuable experience with UAS while carefully controlling access and potential harm to the aviation system as a whole.

  14. A Psychoacoustic Evaluation of Noise Signatures from Advanced Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Christian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project has been successful in developing and demonstrating technologies for integrated aircraft systems that can simultaneously meet aggressive goals for fuel burn, noise and emissions. Some of the resulting systems substantially differ from the familiar tube and wing designs constituting the current civil transport fleet. This study attempts to explore whether or not the effective perceived noise level metric used in the NASA noise goal accurately reflects human subject response across the range of vehicles considered. Further, it seeks to determine, in a quantitative manner, if the sounds associated with the advanced aircraft are more or less preferable to the reference vehicles beyond any differences revealed by the metric. These explorations are made through psychoacoustic tests in a controlled laboratory environment using simulated stimuli developed from auralizations of selected vehicles based on systems noise assessments.

  15. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  16. 14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designed to protect the occupant from serious head injury when the occupant experiences the ultimate..., approved flotation gear readily available to each occupant and, unless the aircraft is operating under part... latching device for each occupant 2 years of age or older. (14) For small civil airplanes...

  17. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric turbulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  18. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan; Wang Lixin; Tan Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS) equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM) is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric tur-bulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness com-pliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ) rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  19. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  20. Supporting the Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems(UAS) for Global Science Observations in Civil and Segregated Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, B. L.; Reider. K/

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are growing more popular within the earth science community as a way to augment measurements currently made with manned aircraft. UAS arc uniquely suited for applications that require long dwell times and/or in locations that are generally too dangerous for manned aircraft. Environmental monitoring in areas like the Arctic or obtaining data within a hurricane are just a couple of examples of many applications to which UAS are ideally suited. However, UAS are not without their challenges. Most unmanned aircraft are unable to meet current airspace regulations that are in place for manned aircraft, and specific airspace standards and regulations for unmanned aircraft do not exist. As a result, gaining access to civil airspace for flights is very difficult around the world. Under Term of Reference 48 within the ISPRS Commission 1, WGI/I: Standardization of Aircraft Interfaces, efforts have been made to understand and quantify the current state of UAS airspace access on a global scale. The results of these efforts will be presented along with examples of successful science missions that have been conducted internationally during the past year.

  1. 民用飞机风挡排雨液选择设计初探%The Study of windshield rain repellent fluid choosing for civil aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白穆; 霍西恒

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed and studied the rain repellent fluid choosing for civil aircraft; summarized the design improvement of rain repellent fluid choosing for civil aircraft.%本文对民用飞机风挡排雨液选择进行了初步分析与研究,给出风挡排雨液选择优化设计概述。

  2. HiVision millimeter-wave radar for enhanced vision systems in civil and military transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkl, Martin; Tospann, Franz-Jose

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a guideline to meet the requirements of forward looking sensors of an enhanced vision system for both military and civil transport aircraft. It gives an update of a previous publication with special respect to airborne application. For civil transport aircraft an imaging mm-wave radar is proposed as the vision sensor for an enhanced vision system. For military air transport an additional high-performance weather radar should be combined with the mm-wave radar to enable advanced situation awareness, e.g. spot-SAR or air to air operation. For tactical navigation the mm-wave radar is useful due to its ranging capabilities. To meet these requirements the HiVision radar was developed and tested. It uses a robust concept of electronic beam steering and will meet the strict price constraints of transport aircraft. Advanced image processing and high frequency techniques are currently developed to enhance the performance of both the radar image and integration techniques. The advantages FMCW waveform even enables a sensor with low probability of intercept and a high resistance against jammer. The 1997 highlight will be the optimizing of the sensor and flight trials with an enhanced radar demonstrator.

  3. System Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Tai, Jimmy C.; Kirby, Michelle M.; Roth, Bryce A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aspiration of this study was to objectively assess the feasibility of the application of a low speed pneumatic technology, in particular Circulation Control (CC) to an HSCT concept. Circulation Control has been chosen as an enabling technology to be applied on a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This technology has been proven for various subsonic vehicles including flight tests on a Navy A-6 and computational application on a Boeing 737. Yet, CC has not been widely accepted for general commercial fixed-wing use but its potential has been extensively investigated for decades in wind tunnels across the globe for application to rotorcraft. More recently, an experimental investigation was performed at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with application to an HSCT-type configuration. The data from those experiments was to be applied to a full-scale vehicle to assess the impact from a system level point of view. Hence, this study attempted to quantitatively assess the impact of this technology to an HSCT. The study objective was achieved in three primary steps: 1) Defining the need for CC technology; 2) Wind tunnel data reduction; 3) Detailed takeoff/landing performance assessment. Defining the need for the CC technology application to an HSCT encompassed a preliminary system level analysis. This was accomplished through the utilization of recent developments in modern aircraft design theory at Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL). These developments include the creation of techniques and methods needed for the identification of technical feasibility show stoppers. These techniques and methods allow the designer to rapidly assess a design space and disciplinary metric enhancements to enlarge or improve the design space. The takeoff and landing field lengths were identified as the concept "show-stoppers". Once the need for CC was established, the actual application of data and trends was assessed. This assessment entailed a reduction of the

  4. Reduction environmental effects of civil aircraft through multi-objective flight plan optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With rising environmental alarm, the reduction of critical aircraft emissions including carbon dioxides (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) is one of most important aeronautical problems. There can be many possible attempts to solve such problem by designing new wing/aircraft shape, new efficient engine, etc. The paper rather provides a set of acceptable flight plans as a first step besides replacing current aircrafts. The paper investigates a green aircraft design optimisation in terms of aircraft range, mission fuel weight (CO2) and NOx using advanced Evolutionary Algorithms coupled to flight optimisation system software. Two multi-objective design optimisations are conducted to find the best set of flight plans for current aircrafts considering discretised altitude and Mach numbers without designing aircraft shape and engine types. The objectives of first optimisation are to maximise range of aircraft while minimising NOx with constant mission fuel weight. The second optimisation considers minimisation of mission fuel weight and NOx with fixed aircraft range. Numerical results show that the method is able to capture a set of useful trade-offs that reduce NOx and CO2 (minimum mission fuel weight).

  5. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  6. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for high resolution topography and monitoring: civil protection purposes on hydrogeological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Eleonora; Castagnetti, Cristina; Corsini, Alessandro; De Cono, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The proposed work concerns the analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), also known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), on hydrogeological contexts for civil protection purposes, underlying the advantages of using a flexible and relatively low cost system. The capabilities of photogrammetric RPAS multi-sensors platform were examined in term of mapping, creation of orthophotos, 3D models generation, data integration into a 3D GIS (Geographic Information System) and validation through independent techniques such as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The RPAS used (multirotor OktoXL, of the Mikrokopter) was equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, digital cameras for photos and videos, an inertial navigation system, a radio device for communication and telemetry, etc. This innovative way of viewing and understanding the environment showed huge potentialities for the study of the territory, and due to its characteristics could be well integrated with aircraft surveys. However, such characteristics seem to give priority to local applications for rigorous and accurate analysis, while it remains a means of expeditious investigation for more extended areas. According to civil protection purposes, the experimentation was carried out by simulating operational protocols, for example for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, land mapping, georeferencing methods (with or without Ground Control Points - GCP) based on high resolution topography (2D and 3D information).

  7. Civil Drones in Society: Societal and Ethics Aspects of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHER PHILIP

    2014-01-01

    Remotely piloted aviation systems (RPAS) or ‘drones’ are well known for their military uses, but they could also be used for a range of civil applications for state, industrial, commercial and recreational purposes. Regulatory changes are underway which will allow their use in domestic airspace, with substantial functional and economic benefits predicted. The potential benefits of the civil drone sector for its military counterpart have also been recognised and nurtured, although concerns hav...

  8. Application of powered lift and mechanical flap concepts for civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine various design and performance parameters, including wing loading and thrust loading requirements, for powered-lift and mechanical flap conceptual aircraft constrained by field length and community noise impact. Mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) were found for optimum designs. As a baseline, the design and performance parameters were determined for the aircraft using engines without noise suppression. The constraint of the 90 EPNL noise contour being less than 2.6 sq km (1.0 sq mi) in area was then imposed. The results indicate that for both aircraft concepts the design gross weight, DOC, and required mission block fuel decreased with field length. At field lengths less than 1100 m (3600 ft) the powered lift aircraft had lower DOC and block fuel than the mechanical flap aircraft but produced higher unsuppressed noise levels. The noise goal could easily be achieved with nacelle wall treatment only and thus resulted in little or no performance or weight penalty for all studied aircraft.

  9. The dynamics of the HSCT environment. [air pollution from High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of aircraft engine exhausts on stratospheric ozone levels are currently limited to 2D zonally-averaged models which, while completely representing chemistry, involve high parameterization of transport processes. Prospective 3D models under development by NASA-Goddard will use winds from a data-assimilation procedure; the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere behavior of one such model has been verified by direct comparison of model simulations with satellite, balloon, and sonde measurements. Attention is presently given to the stratosphere/troposphere exchange and nonzonal distribution of aircraft engine exhaust.

  10. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... execute the Aviation Facility License. A statement explaining the circumstances of the emergency landing... with his recommendations. (4) Reimbursement for costs. (i) The civil user making an emergency landing... emergency landing. Such costs will include those associated with labor, material, rental of...

  11. Domesticating the Drone: The Demilitarisation of Unmanned Aircraft for Civil Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Remotely piloted aviation systems (RPAS) or 'drones' are well known for their military applications, but could also be used for a range of non-military applications for state, industrial, commercial and recreational purposes. The technology is advanced and regulatory changes are underway which will allow their use in domestic airspace. As well as the functional and economic benefits of a strong civil RPAS sector, the potential benefits for the military RPAS sector are also widely recognised. Several actors have nurtured this dual-use aspect of civil RPAS development. However, concerns have been raised about the public rejecting the technology because of their association with military applications and potentially controversial applications, for example in policing and border control. In contrast with the enthusiasm for dual-use exhibited throughout the EC consultation process, the strategy for avoiding public rejection devised in its roadmap would downplay the connection between military and non-military RPAS and focus upon less controversial applications such as search and rescue. We reflect upon this contrast in the context of the European agenda of responsible research and innovation. In doing so, we do not rely upon critique of drones per se, in their neither their civil nor military guise, but explore the extent to which current strategies for managing their public acceptability are compatible with a responsible and socially beneficial development of RPAS for civil purposes. PMID:25371277

  12. Domesticating the Drone: The Demilitarisation of Unmanned Aircraft for Civil Markets

    OpenAIRE

    BOUCHER PHILIP

    2014-01-01

    Remotely piloted aviation systems (RPAS) or ‘drones’ are well known for their military applications, but could also be used for a range of non-military applications for state, industrial, commercial and recreational purposes. The technology is advanced and regulatory changes are underway which will allow their use in domestic airspace. As well as the functional and economic benefits of a strong civil RPAS sector, the potential benefits for the military RPAS sector are also widely recognised. ...

  13. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  15. Numerical modelling of pressure rise combustion for reducing emissions of future civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Materano Blanco, Gilberto Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This work assesses the feasibility of designing and implementing the wave rotor (WR), the pulse detonation engine (PDE) and the internal combustion wave rotor (ICWR) as part of novel Brayton cycles able to reduce emissions of future aircraft. The design and evaluation processes are performed using the simplified analytical solution of the devices as well as 1D-CFD models. A code based on the finite volume method is built to predict the position and dimensions of the slots fo...

  16. Optimization Based Clearance of Flight Control Laws A Civil Aircraft Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Anders; Puyou, Guilhem

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the main achievements of the EC funded 6th Framework Program project COFCLUO – Clearance of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of a top-level objective to meet society’s needs for a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly air transport by providing new techniques and tools for the clearance of flight control laws. This is an important part of the certification and qualification process of an aircraft – a costly and time-consuming process for the aeronautical industry.   The overall objective of the COFCLUO project was to develop and apply optimization techniques to the clearance of flight control laws in order to improve efficiency and reliability. In the book, the new techniques are explained and benchmarked against traditional techniques currently used by the industry. The new techniques build on mathematical criteria derived from the certification and qualification requirements together with suitable models...

  17. Civil Aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: The new CARIBIC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com. Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter. Furthermore, an optical particle counter (OPC and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS are incorporated. Aerosol samples are collected for analysis of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases (including isotopic composition of CO2 in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. The flying observatory, its equipment and examples of measurement results are reported.

  18. Civil aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: the new CARIBIC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A large airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com. Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter. Furthermore, an optical particle counter and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS are installed. Aerosol samples are collected for analyses of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. Here we describe the flying observatory and report examples of measurement results.

  19. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  20. Development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy based trim tab actuator for a civil aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy (SMA) based smart trim tab for a typical two seater civil aircraft. The SMA actuator was housed in the port side of the elevator for the purpose of actuating the trim tab. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a full scale horizontal tail model with elevator and trim tab at free stream speeds of 25, 35 and 45 m s−1, and also for a number of deflections of the elevator (30° up, 0° neutral and 25° down) and trim tab (11° and 21° up and 15° and 31° down). To measure the hinge moment experienced by the trim tab under various test conditions, two miniaturized balances were designed and fabricated. A gain scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller was developed to control the SMA actuated smart trim tab. It was confirmed during the tests that the trim tab could be controlled at the desired position against the aerodynamic loads acting on it for the various test conditions. (paper)

  1. Problems and Countermeasures in Advanced Research Projects for Civil Aircraft Technology%民用飞机预研项目存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒秀丽

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three common problems are pointed out and dissected in advanced research projects for civil aircraft technology in China and three corresponding countermeasures being successfully implemented are pro-posed. These countermeasures are:establishment and application of innovation information repository supporting the setting-up of advanced research projects to reflect correct demand traction, effective formation and operation of the Integrated Project Team for effective project implementation and enhanced Technology Readiness Assessment promo-ting the application of research achievements. Good results of the application of the above-mentioned countermeas-ures are being achieved in the setting-up and implementation of three "serialized" advanced civil aircraft cockpit technology research projects, which break through the bottleneck of the advanced researches' leading and support-ing role to civil aircraft product development and provide a reference to advanced research projects in other indus-tries as well as in different civil aircraft technical fields.%指出我国民用飞机预研项目常见的三类问题并加以剖析,相应提出三项对策付诸实践:建创新信息库助正确需求牵引,组综合项目团队( IPT)助预研高效实施,抓技术成熟度评估( TRA)促研究成果应用. 上述对策在民用飞机驾驶舱技术领域三个系列化预研项目的立项和实施中显现成效,突破制约民用飞机预研引领和支撑民用飞机产品研发的瓶颈,可供民用飞机各技术领域和其他产业的预研项目借鉴.

  2. Study on the Forecast Method of Market Demand for Civil Aircraft%民用飞机市场需求预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2013-01-01

    民用飞机市场预测包含需求(航空运量)预测和供应(飞机机队)预测两个部分,其中需求预测为自上而下的预测,是对航空市场宏观运量进行分析和预测,这部分预测在预测模型中起着非常重要的作用。针对民用飞机市场需求预测方法和流程进行了详细的论述,该方法是大型客机市场预测和市场研究工作的基础。%The civil aircraft market forecast includes two parts:demand( aviation traffic) forecast and supply( air-craft fleet) forecast. The demand forecast is top-down forecast, which is the analysis and forecast of aviation market macroscopic traffic, and this part of forecast is very important role in the forecast model. The forecast method and process of market demand for civil aviation are discussed in detail in this paper. The method is the basic of market forecast and market research for commercial airliner.

  3. Flying and handling qualities of a fly-by-wire blended-wing-body civil transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2003-01-01

    The blended-wing-body (BWB) configuration appears as a promising contender for the next generation of large transport aircraft. The idea of blending the wing with the fuselage and eliminating the tail is not new, it has long been known that tailless aircraft can suffer from stability and control problems that must be addressed early in the design. This thesis is concerned with identifying and then evaluating the flight dynamics, stability, flight controls and handling qualities of a generic B...

  4. Influence of Implementation of Composite Materials in Civil Aircraft Industry on reduction of Environmental Pollution and Greenhouse Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer-based Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) models were carried out to compare lightweight composites with the traditional aluminium over their useful lifetime. The analysis included raw materials, production, useful life in operation and disposal at the end of the material's useful life. The carbon fibre epoxy resin composite could in some cases reduce the weight of a component by up to 40 % compared to aluminium. As the fuel consumption of an aircraft is strongly influenced by its total weight, the emissions can be significantly reduced by increasing the proportion of composites used in the aircraft structure. Higher emissions, compared to aluminium, produced during composites production meet their 'break even' point after certain number of time units when used in aircraft structures, and continue to save emissions over their long-term operation. The study highlighted the environmental benefits of using lightweight structures in aircraft design, and also showed that utilisation of composites in products without energy saving may lead to increased emissions in the environment.

  5. Techno-economic and environmental risk assessment of innovative propulsion systems for short-range civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenares Quintero, Ramon Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Aircraft are thought to contribute about 3.5% (IPCC, 1999) to the total radiative forcing (a measure of change in climate) of all the human activities and this figure is forecaste to increase. Future concerns for aviation’s role in climate change are mainly due to the envisaged continued growth in this sector. Growth rates for emissions are less than those for traffic growth since fuel efficiency continues to improve over the years. Despite regular improvements in fuel efficien...

  6. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a)...

  7. Reduction of aircraft noise in civil air transport by optimization of flight tracks and takeoff and approach procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottmann, Uwe

    1988-08-01

    Noise optimized design of operational flight procedures for effective noise pollution reduction is analyzed. Power cutback during certain stages of approach and takeoff, extension of distance between sound source and sound receiver, as well as diminution of sound impact time are optimized for specific flight procedures and routings. Five takeoff and three landing procedures are analyzed in acoustic effects. Sound immission is computed by NOISIMSIS (NOISe IMpact SImulation System), a simulation system especially created for this task, under consideration of aircraft type specified sound emission characteristics and performance data as well as different meteorological conditions. The investigations for the example of Frankfurt airport result in formulating a planning guideline with notes and impulses for activities in operational noise abatement.

  8. Research on Flight Test Planning and Management for Civil Aircraft%民用飞机试飞规划与管理技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冲; 修忠信; 田海玲; Ding Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    梳理了通用的民机试飞需求类型,讨论了民机试飞任务分工和试飞计划制订原则,分析了民机试飞科目特点和逻辑关系,研究并提出了一种民机试飞任务优化方法,系统地阐述了试飞规划与管理体系,实现了民机试飞的闭环控制,解决了国内试飞规划中未能系统研究的问题,并创建了一套具有国际先进水平的民机试飞规划与管理系统( Flight Test Control System,简称“FTCS冶)。 FTCS已在实际型号试飞工作中得到了验证和应用,起到了减少试飞架次和提高试飞效率的作用,具有实际的工程应用意义。%The article introduces the requirement types of general flight test for civil aircraft. The principles about flight test division and planning is discussed. The characteristics and logical relationship of flight test subjects are analyzed. A optimization method about flight test is researched and presented. The flight test planning and manage-ment system is systematically elaborated. A closed-loop control flight test is achieved. The problem of flight plan-ning is solved , which has not been researched in China. A set of civil aircraft flight test planning and management system ( FTPM) which has the international advanced level is created. The FTPM has been validated and applied in practical flight test, which plays a role of reducing flight test sortie and improving the efficiency. The results show it has a practical significance in engineering application.

  9. Transient effects of harsh luminous conditions on the visual performance of aviators in a civil aircraft cockpit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Biao; Lin, Yandan; Sun, Yaojie

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to examine how harsh luminous conditions in a cockpit, such as lightning in a thunderstorm or direct sunlight immediately after an aircraft passes through clouds, may affect the visual performance of pilots, and how to improve it. Such lighting conditions can result in the temporary visual impairment of aviators, which may greatly increase the risk of accidents. Tests were carried out in a full-scale simulator cockpit in which two kinds of dynamic lighting scenes, namely pulse changed and step changed lighting, were used to represent harsh luminous conditions. Visual acuity (VA), reaction time (RT) and identification accuracy (IA) were recorded as dependent variables. Data analysis results indicate that standardized VA values decreased significantly in both pulsing and step conditions in comparison with the dark condition. Standardized RT values increased significantly in the step condition; on the contrary, less reaction time was observed in the pulsing condition. Such effects could be reduced by an ambient illumination provided by a fluorescent lamp in both conditions. The results are to be used as a principle for optimizing lighting design with a thunderstorm light. PMID:22858009

  10. Analysis on Installation Angle of Landing Light in Civil Aircraft%民用飞机着陆灯安装角度分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳

    2012-01-01

    确定着陆灯安装角度是民用飞机着陆灯系统设计的重要环节,提出一种以主起落架旋转点为参考基准的着陆灯安装角度分析方法,并以某型号民用飞机为例,推算最佳安装角度。通过仿真证明该分析方法思路清晰、计算简单、实用性强,对民用飞机着陆灯系统设计具有一定参考价值。%Determining the installation angle of each landing light is an important link of landing light system design. This paper proposes an analyzing method of landing light installation angle basing on main landing gear. And take a civil aircraft as an example analyzes the optimal installation angle. The simulation indicates that this method is characterized by clear thinking, simplified calculation and practicability for application. The research of this paper makes contributions to the design of landing light system.

  11. Research on New-type Fire Extinguishing Agents Performance for Civil Aircraft%现代民机新型灭火剂性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇鸿飞

    2014-01-01

    The research background and varieties of new-type fire extinguishing agent were introduced. Physical and chemical performance, toxicity, causticity, fire extinguishing performance and environmental protection per-formance of the potential new-type fire extinguishing agent were deeply analyzed and studied. The varieties of fire extinguishing agents which are suited to be used in civil aircraft were confirmed and the advantages and disadvanta-ges of fire extinguishing agent were obtained through researching new-type fire extinguishing agent performance.%对新型灭火剂研究背景和种类进行了简要介绍,对具有开发潜力的新型灭火剂的理化性能、毒性、腐蚀性、灭火性能、环保性能进行深入分析与研究。通过对新型灭火剂性能的研究,得出每种灭火剂的优缺点,筛选出适用于现代民机灭火系统的灭火剂。

  12. The Design of the The Electrical Structure Network(ESN)of the Civil Aircraft%民用飞机电通路结构网络的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健宇

    2016-01-01

    An stable electrical network which has low resistances must be constituted of high conductive structures for any electrical and electronic equipments on civil aircraft, which provides electrical functions such as grounding、bonding、voltage reference、protection from electromagnetic interference and protection against lightning strike. A conventional metallic aircraft inherently provides electrical a high conductive network; at present the advanced composite aircraft requires additional electrical structure network (ESN) to provide electrical functions, due to poor electrical conductivity of composite structures compared to metal. the text introduces the electrical structure network designing for main models of the civil aircraft at present, and summarizes and concludes a general design method for the electrical structure network of civil aircraft, guiding the development of the civil aircraft in our country.%民用飞机上的任何电子电气系统都需要通过导电性较好的结构连接建立一条稳定的低阻抗电通路网络,以满足接地、导电、基准电压、防电磁干扰和闪电防护等电气性能。传统金属材料飞机自身形成了较好的结构电通路;目前较先进的碳纤维复合材料飞机由于其自身结构导电性较差,便需要设计额外的电通路结构网络(ESN)来实现上述的电气性能。通过介绍目前主流飞机的电通路结构网络方案,总结归纳出一种典型的民用飞机电通路结构网络的设计方法,对国内民用飞机的研制具有重要的意义。

  13. The Optimization Design of Door Connecting Rod Bracket Structure of Civil Aircraft%民用飞机舱门连杆支架优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁修起

    2014-01-01

    The cabin latch mechanism of civil aircraft is to prevent the door accidentally open parts. When a jam occurs forced operation, it will produce a greater internal force. The equipment door latch mechanism is all stem shape and load is small except the connecting rod bracket. Connecting rod bracket structure is complex and load is bigger. Based on analyzingresistance load ,using the finite element analysis software HyperMesh and Opti-Struct , three kinds of structure forms of connecting rod bracket are simulated. With comparison and analysis, connecting rod bracket structure satisfied equipment doors functional requirements and prototype test purpose, which provides reference for the follow-up of the real product design.%民用飞机舱门闩机构是防止舱门意外开启的机构部件。当机构发生卡阻且强制操作时,将产生较大的内力。在设备舱门闩机构中除连杆支架外都是杆形件且载荷较小,连杆支架结构形式复杂且载荷较大。在分析机构卡阻载荷的基础上使用有限元分析软件HyperMesh和Opti-Struct对三种结构形式的连杆支架进行了数值模拟。通过对比分析,得到了满足样机设备舱门功能要求和试验目的的连杆支架形式,为后续真实产品的设计提供参考。

  14. 民用航空器适用善意取得制度的可行性辨析%The Analysis of Bona Fide Acquisition of Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝秀辉; 王锡柱

    2015-01-01

    When essentials of bona fide acquisition are satisfied, the absolute value and volume are not negative elements.Physical characteristics of civil aircraft, such as high value, or great bulk would not constitute virtual elements which impede the application of bona fide acquisition.Civil aircraft falls under the category of movable property in the system of property law, the opinion, that bona fide acquisition is non-applicable to civil air craft because it shall be deemed as real estate, is false.However, the rela-tionship between bona fide acquisition and registration antagonism is construed, the registration antago-nism of civil aircraft is not the obstacle of bona fide acquisition of it.In law and in fact, there is possibili-ty of application of bona fide acquisition to civil aircraft.%在符合善意取得成立条件时,绝对价值和体积并未作为其适用的否定性条件,民用航空器价值高、体积大的特性因而并不成为阻碍其适用善意取得的实质性条件。在《物权法》体系中,民用航空器属于动产范畴,视其为不动产从而否定其适用善意取得制度的论述不成立。无论是将善意取得与登记对抗的关系进行何种建构,民用航空器登记对抗制度都未造成其适用善意取得制度的困局。在法律上和事实上,民用航空器均具有适用善意取得制度的可行性。

  15. Analysis and simulation of emergency breakaway for large civil aircraft landing gear%大型民用飞机起落架应急断离分析与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜瑞; 许锋

    2014-01-01

    起落架应急断离设计是民用飞机设计中必须考虑的问题。根据适航相关规定,论述了起落架应急断离设计的结构设计要求。基于LMS Virtual.Lab Motion多体动力学仿真平台,建立了某型民用飞机主起落架的动力学仿真模型。完成主起落架自由落震、地面滑跑过障碍物等情况的仿真计算,并着重对仿真过程中各断离点载荷进行分析,确定了相应的断离载荷和断离序列,实现了大型民用飞机起落架应急断离动力学特性的分析与仿真。%It is necessary key item for civil aircraft design to focus on the emergency breakaway design of landing gear.According to the airworthiness regulations, it analyzes the structural requirements of the landing gear emer-gency breakaway design.Based on multi-body dynamical simulating plate of LMS Virtual Lab Motion, it estab-lishes the dynamical model of an civil aircraft main landing gear, simulates the main landing gear model of free drop and taxiing obstacles, analyzes the disconnection point load, concludes the breakaway loads and the failure sequence .These results lead to the dynamical analysis and simulation of emergency breakaway for large civil air-craft landing gear.

  16. Optimization Design and Experimental Validation for Cabin Air Distribution of Civil Aircraft%民用飞机座舱空气分配优化设计与试验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪光文; 吴成云; 杨智; 李革萍; 辛旭东

    2015-01-01

    以仿真分析和试验试飞为手段,对某型客机空气分配进行优化设计. 首先建立飞机座舱热载荷动态仿真模型,分析飞机驾驶舱及客舱新的供气需求;其次根据飞机空气分配管路实际构型建立Flowmaster仿真模型,并基于模型调节管路构型,以调整各舱室空气分配流量,实现驾驶舱和客舱的流量需求;最后将优化设计应用于民用飞机空气分配系统中,仿真分析和试验试飞验证结果吻合较好,说明了仿真技术手段的合理性.%In this paper, simulation analysis and experimental validation are applied for indicating air distribution configuration complied with the requirements. Firstly, the cabin/cockpit heat load dynamic model is set up and air supply requirement is analyzed. Secondly, to fulfill the target of air supply, Flowmaster model for one civil aircraft air distribution system is built and quantity of supplied air is adjusted based on the model. Lastly, ground/flight test is performed to validate simulation result similar with test result, and the air supplied to the cabin and cockpit meets the requirement of air worthiness standard and high level requirement. This attempt is the trial of civil aircraft air conditioning system distribution development and research, and the methods adopted are effectively enhancing the civil aircraft independent research capability.

  17. Leap Motion交互在民机上的应用%The application of Leap Motion in the interaction of civil aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金磊

    2015-01-01

    近年来,随着用户体验概念的不断推广,人机交互的设计也在不断发展,但键盘鼠标依旧是目前人们操作电脑的主流方式.一方面在改进传统键盘鼠标的操控方式,比如触控操作的出现,让手指代替光标直接与屏幕接触;另一方面则又设法开创全新的人机交互方式,如手势操作、人脑控制等.硬件体感交互设备也在层出不穷,像微软的Kinect,任天堂的Wii,谷歌的Google Glass等,其中Leap Motion作为去年刚在市面上出售的硬件交互设备,承载着很多人的期待.所以,本文借助民机展示的应用平台来探索一下Leap Motion这个新的交互设备的实际应用,在提高其实用性的同时找出其交互方式上的优缺点,为其未来发展空间做一个评估.%With the spreading of the concept of User Experience, the design of Human-computer Interaction is developing at the same time. However, keyboard and mouse are still the most popular way of operation. On the one side, we are developing this operating way. For example, the emergence of "Touch"operation can let finger rather than mouse to touch the screen. On the other side, we are creating new Human-computer interactive way as well, including gesture operation, brain control and so on. Interactive hardware, such as Kinect in Microsoft, Wii in Nintendo and Goole Glass, has more and more types. Among them, Leap Motion, which was came out in the last year, is the most attractive one. The article is to explore some practical application of leap motion — a new interactive devices with the help of civil aircraft display platform .While in improving actually use and find out the interactive way on the advantages and disadvantages at the same time. And also make an assessment for the future development.

  18. Experimental Assessment of the Emissions Control Potential of a Rich/Quench/Lean Combustor for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Padget, F. C.; Tacina, Robert R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In support of Pratt & Whitney efforts to define the Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) combustor for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft engine, UTRC conducted a flametube-scale study of the RQL concept. Extensive combustor testing was performed at the Supersonic Cruise (SSC) condition of a HSCT engine cycle, Data obtained from probe traverses near the exit of the mixing section confirmed that the mixing section was the critical component in controlling combustor emissions. Circular-hole configurations, which produced rapidly-, highly-penetrating jets, were most effective in limiting NOx. The spatial profiles of NOx and CO at the mixer exit were not directly interpretable using a simple flow model based on jet penetration, and a greater understanding of the flow and chemical processes in this section are required to optimize it. Neither the rich-combustor equivalence ratio nor its residence time was a direct contributor to the exit NOx. Based on this study, it was also concluded that (1) While NOx formation in both the mixing section and the lean combustor contribute to the overall emission, the NOx formation in the mixing section dominates. The gas composition exiting the rich combustor can be reasonably represented by the equilibrium composition corresponding to the rich combustor operating condition. Negligible NOx exits the rich combustor. (2) At the SSC condition, the oxidation processes occurring in the mixing section consume 99 percent of the CO exiting the rich combustor. Soot formed in the rich combustor is also highly oxidized, with combustor exit SAE Smoke Number emissions control at SSC also performed better at part-power conditions. Data from mixer exit traverses reflected the expected mixing behavior for off-design jet to crossflow momentum-flux ratios. (4) Low power operating conditions require that the RQL combustor operate as a lean-lean combustor to achieve low CO and high efficiency. (5) A RQL combustor can achieve the emissions goal

  19. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.15 Detaining an...

  20. 民机半实物仿真硬件接口系统设计研究%Design and Research of Civil Aircraft HIL Simulation Hardware Interface System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢陵

    2011-01-01

    对民用飞机飞控系统的半实物仿真过程中所采用的硬件接口系统的功能、架构、组成等进行了设计和研究,并提供了硬件采购清单,该方案可以为各种半实物仿真实验系统提供高效、灵活的接口管理方案。%the article researches functions,architecture and constitution of the hardware interface system which is used in civil aircraft flight control system hard-in-loop simulation.And providing the hardware purchasing list.This article provide the efficient,flexible interface management solution for the hard-in-loop simulation system.

  1. Analysis of Influencing Factor of Risk Communication in Civil Aircraft Supply Chain Based on TPB%基于TPB的民机供应链风险沟通影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐祎飞; 张亚莉; 姜香美

    2013-01-01

    With theory of planned behavior, a few factors are proposed to analyze between members of civil aircraft supply chain enterprises in risk communication, type of partnership, power structure, risk type, expected results, trust and commitment, the degree of resource and so on. Finally, three measures to improve risk communication are put forward.%本文以计划行为理论(TPB)为基础,分析了民机供应链成员企业之间在风险沟通方面的影响因素,主要有合作伙伴关系类型、力量格局、风险类型、期望结果、信任与承诺、资源配合度,并给出3点建议.

  2. 民用飞机噪声合格审定的切入飞行试验方法%Intercept Flight Test Method of Civil Aircraft Noise Certification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫国华; 周利敏

    2014-01-01

    Civil aircraft noise certification usually requires repeated flight tests, which is costly and time-consuming. This paper proposes a complete intercept flight test method to reduce the costs and shorten the certification period. The intercept flight procedures of take-off and approach noise measurement test were established based on the establishment principle of equivalent aircraft noise certification procedures approved by International Civil Aviation Organization. The method for determining 10 dB-down period is summarized with a specific type of jet as example. The intercept flight test method is of high application value for the noise certification of future ARJ21-700 derivative types and C919.%针对民用飞机噪声合格审定中重复多次进行相关飞行试验造成的成本高、耗时长问题,为进一步降低民用飞机噪声合格审定成本、缩短审定周期,基于国际民航组织规定的飞机噪声合格审定等效程序建立原则,通过对飞机起飞和进场的噪声测量试验建立飞机噪声合格审定中的切入飞行程序,从而构建完整的切入飞行试验方法。以某型喷气式飞机为例,概述了10 dB降区间的确定方法;设计了切入飞行试验方法,对于未来ARJ21-700的衍生机型及C919的噪声合格审定具有重要的工程应用价值。

  3. LQR in control law design for a relaxed static stability large civil aircraft%放宽静稳定性大型客机的LQR控制律设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一超; 江驹; 王新华; 甄子洋; 李欣

    2012-01-01

    Feedback of normal overload in the autopilot' s inner loop of longitudinal control law can form the C-star control configuration for the relaxed static stability large civil aircraft and increase its static stability. In this article , the output-feedback tracker closes the inner loop, the attitude loop and the thrust loop simultaneously by means of the LQR method. The nonlinear model of B707 civil aircraft is established, trimmed and linearized. After the control parameters are designed, the digital simulation is performed. The simulation results show that the transient and steady-state responses are satisfactory. And the augmentation effect meets the requirements well.%论述了法向过载信号反馈在放宽静稳定性大型客机自动驾驶仪增稳控制中的作用.在自动驾驶仪纵向内回路控制律中引入法向过载信号,构成了国际先进客机的C*控制律构型;反馈系统的输出信号,选用LQR设计方法同时闭合客机纵向的内回路和姿态、油门回路,形成了输出跟踪器,并设计了性能指标与反馈参数.以B707为例,建立了其着陆进近阶段的非线性模型,配平并线性化,用获得的控制律进行数字仿真验证.结果表明,内回路增稳效果良好,C*响应曲线在最佳响应区,姿态响应和速度保持都达到了满意的效果.

  4. On Civility and Civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAVID GOSSET

    2010-01-01

    @@ At a time when misunderstand-ings between cultures run rampant, when walls of fear, prejudice and hatred divide the members of the human family, it is urgent to intensify the dialogue between civilizations. Under the new leadership of its Director General lrina Bokova, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) declared 2010 as the "Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures." In this context, the concerted reflections and actions of Europe and China can be highly meaningful.

  5. Electromagnetic Interference In New Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews plans to develop tests and standards to ensure that digital avionics systems in new civil aircraft immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Updated standards reflect more severe environment and vulnerabilities of modern avionics.

  6. 民用飞机降噪优化方案分析%Optimization Schemes of Civil Aircraft Noise Reduction Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏天; 闫国华

    2014-01-01

    The advanced noise reduction technology of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA) are ana-lyzed, which greatly reduced aircraft noise levels."Mute"project aircraft can provide a reference for the future development of large aircrafts in China.For the current type of aircrafts, based on the meet of the noise airworthiness methods, the appropri-ate noise reduction program is analyzed.The single event noise value algorithm is use to calculate the effective perceived noise level (EPNdB).The result shows that under program of the steeper approach,the Boeing 737-800 can reduce the noise level of 8EPNdB at most, the area of contour of 30%can reduce at most.Under the thrust cutback scheme, the Boeing 737-800 can reduce the noise level of 3.96EPNdB at the height of 600 meters.By comparing analysis, it can provide a reference for the development of China′s large aircraft.%分析美国航空航天局(NASA)先进降噪理论和模型,"静音"飞机具有前瞻性。对于现役机型,在符合现行噪声适航方法的基础上,分析适航降噪程序。利用单事件噪声值算法对有效感觉噪声级( EPNdB )进行计算,结果显示在大角度进近程序下,波音737-800飞机可最多降低8有效感觉噪声分贝,噪声等值线面积最多可减少30%。利用减推力起飞降噪程序,波音737-800飞机在600 m高度时可降低3.96有效感觉噪声分贝。通过对比分析可为我国大飞机等研制提供借鉴。

  7. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  8. Estimation of the Aircraft CO2 Emission of China's Civil Aviation During 1960-2009%1960-2009年中国民航飞机的CO2逐年排放变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉成

    2011-01-01

    基于中国民航部门逐年统计数据,计算了1960- 2009年中国民航飞机的CO2逐年排放量,分析了中国民肮飞机CO2排放强度及其变化特点.结果表明:中国民航飞机CO2总排放量由1960年的12.0万t增至2009年的4144万t;CO2排放强度呈明显的降低趋势,由1960年的2.9 kg/换算吨公里降至2009年的0.96 kg/换算吨公里,年均降低0.04 kg/换算吨公里.中国民肮飞机的CO2排放量占整个交通运输仓储和邮政行业CO2排放量的比例较低,仅占6.6%,占全国化石燃料燃烧CO2排放量的比例也很小,平均只有0.25%.%Based on the annual production data collected by Chinese Civil Aviation Statistic Center, the yearly CO2 emission of aircrafts during 1960-2009 was calculated, and the emission intensity and its dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The results show that the total CO2 emission of aircrafts in China increased from 120 kt in 1960 to 41.44 Mt in 2009. The emission intensity of CO2 decreased from 2.9 kg/(converted t · Km) in 1960 to 0.96 kg/(converted t · km) in 2009 at an average rate of 0.04 kg/(converted t · km) per year. The average proportion of the CO2 emission of aircrafts to the total CO2 emission from the sector of transportation, storage and post was 6.6% in the period of 1980-2005, and to the total emission from fossil fuel combustion was 0.25% in the period of 1971-2008.

  9. Study on VOR/DME Airworthiness Certification Flight-Test Technology of Civil Aircraft%民用飞机VOR/DME合格审定试飞技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖妮; 汤恒仁

    2013-01-01

    参考美国联邦航空局(FAA)颁布的咨询通告AC25-7A,提出了民用飞机甚高频全向信标和测距器合格审定试飞的飞行试验方法和数据处理方法,对试飞中遇到的难点给出了具体解决措施,并在ARJ21-700型客机合格审定试飞中进行了验证。%According to advisory announce AC25-7 A issued by the federal aviation administration (FAA), VOR/DME flight-test and data processing method of civil aircraft are presented. The difficulties in flight-test are solved and the usability of this method is proved by the airworthiness certification flight-test of ARJ-700.

  10. Civil Aircraft Landing Overrun Risk Analysis Based on Bow-tie Model%基于 Bow -tie 模型的民机着陆冲出跑道风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆正; 崔振新; 汪磊

    2015-01-01

    To better systematically analyze the civil aircraft landing overrun incident ,a Bow-tie model is applied to con-duct researches .In terms of landing overrun causes identification ,combined with the SHEL model and a Reason model ,a detailed analysis of these causes of the accidents is made and the formation mechanism of landing runway is got .The landing overrun influence factors are concluded as crew technical fault , violation of procedures or standards , loss of situational awareness ,CRM failure ,aircraft mechanical failure ,adverse weather conditions ,wet or contaminated runway and runway design defects .According to the analysis results preventive and controlling measures are put forward .The Bow-tie pattern-ing is used to concisely describe the causes and results of landing overrun and the relevant preventive and control measures . This study provides a systemic risk management method for civil aircraft landing overrun .%为了更加系统全面地分析民机着陆冲出跑道风险,采用Bow-tie模型进行研究。在着陆冲出跑道原因辨识方面,结合SHEL模型和Reason模型对这些事故的原因进行了具体分析,得到了着陆冲出跑道的形成机理,最终将着陆冲出跑道影响因素归纳为机组技能失误、机组违反程序或标准、机组丧失情景意识、机组资源管理失效、航空器机械故障、不利天气条件影响、跑道湿滑或污染、跑道设计缺陷等,并基于上述分析结果绘制航空器着陆冲出跑道Bow-tie图,对着陆冲出跑道的原因和后果以及相应的预防和控制措施进行了描述。最后对着陆冲出跑道历史数据进行统计,结果表明,机组因素和环境因素是导致着陆冲出跑道最主要的两个原因,提出着陆冲出跑道防范的重点,从系统角度提出了民机着陆冲出跑道的风险管理办法。

  11. Analysis for environmental control system on civil aircraft%旅客机环境控制系统方案分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘猛; 袁领双; 王浚

    2009-01-01

    介绍了波音公司和空中客车公司环境控制系统的发展现状,提出了一种使用R134a工质的变频蒸发式制冷的环境控制系统,应用起飞总质量法进行了代偿损失分析,对给定飞行剖面上的能量消耗进行了计算及定性分析,并以燃油消耗为指标对新系统的能耗特性与采用空气制冷的环境控制系统进行了比较.新系统有效降低了燃油消耗(仅21.93 kg/min,约是传统系统的40%),提高了飞行的经济性.系统的低噪音、灵活调节和无污染供气,能够提高座舱的健康、舒适度.%The advanced technology of environmental control system (ECS) from Boeing and Airbus was introduced. A new concept for ECS was raised, which applied vapor cycle refrigeration with frequency scroll compressor using refrigerant R134a. ECS penalty was calculated with the method of take-off gross weight. And the calculation and qualitative analysis were done for the new ECS energy consumption in the whole flight profile. Then the performance of the new ECS was compared with current ECS in fuel consumption. The results show that new system consumes less fuel( only 21. 93 kg/min, about 40% of traditional system) , which could increase aircraft economic performance. And the health and comfort in cabin could be improved with the low noise, flexible regulation and clean air-supplying.

  12. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the...

  13. 概念设计阶段起落架接地点设计%The Landing Gear Touchdown Point Design of Advanced Civil Jet Aircraft in Concept Design Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃

    2012-01-01

    针对现代民用飞机设计特点,尤其是某些新技术的应用和飞机系列化发展的需求,在充分吸收和借鉴传统飞机概念设计阶段起落架设计方法的基础上,从工程应用角度出发,总结并提出一套现代民用飞机概念设计阶段起落架接地点设计流程及方法。同时,按照设计流程将影响起落架接地点设计的限制因素划分为适航安全、性能、结构、空间布置、运营等影响因素,明晰各限制因素对设计产生的影响。%According to the design characteristics of advanced civil jet aircraft, especially about application of some new techniques and the requirements of family development, and based on traditional landing gear design method, the paper gives a study on a new design method of landing gear touchdown point in concept design phase from engineer design aspect. Meanwhile, following design steps, the restriction factors of landing gear touchdown point design are classified in safety, oerformance, structure, kinematics, ooeration, etc. Each restriction factor is clearlv described in the paner.

  14. 民用飞机客户服务体系能力成熟度评估方法%Capability Maturity Assessment Method for Civil Aircraft Customer Service System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峻; 陈林; 孙蕾

    2014-01-01

    According to the basic ideas of the Capability Maturity Model (CMM), the Maturity Model for civil aircraft customer service system was established on ifve big aspects: the engineering and technical support, marketing and customer support, spare parts support, flight training, technical publications, and so on. Then, Capability Maturity comprehensive evaluation method was given. With the survey results airlines of customer service satisfaction, and weights which were determined by expert advice, using the multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method , maturity level on the actual customer service system for comac's customer service center are evaluated, making the current maturity level of clear and continuous improvement Suggestions are put forward.%针对民用飞机客户服务中心的客户服务体系,根据成熟度模型(Capability Maturity Model,CMM)的基本思想,从工程技术支持、市场与客户支援、航材支援、飞行培训和技术出版物等5大方面入手,建立民用飞机客户服务体系的成熟度模型,提出其能力成熟度综合评价方法。通过参考中国商飞开展的客户服务满意度调查问卷结果,并融合专家意见确定的权重值,利用多层次模糊综合评价方法,对中国商飞客户服务中心现有的客户服务体系进行成熟度等级评价,明确其目前所处的成熟度层级,并提出持续改进的建议。

  15. Numerical Simulation Analysis of the Air Distribution in Single-aisle Cabin Civil Aircraft%单通道民用飞机客舱气流组织数值仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建新

    2015-01-01

    The numerical simulation analysis model of air distribution in single-aisle cabin civil aircraft is built. The flow field, temperature filed, PMV, PPD and DR are calculated and analyzed at different air-supply angle, different air-supply velocity and different air proportion between the high outlet and low outlet. The results show that horizontally supplying air at the low and high outlet, high velocity for low outlet and low velocity for high out-let, and more air for low outlet and less air for the high outlet are suitable.%建立了单通道民用飞机客舱气流组织数值仿真模型,对不同的送风角度、送风速度和送风比例等状态的客舱气流组织进行了数值仿真研究,通过对比分析不同状态的仿真结果的流场、温度场、预期不满意百分率PPD、预测平均反应PMV、吹风感所引起的不满意率DR及其垂直温差导致的不满意率PD等热舒适性参数,发现水平角度送风、上风口较低风速和下风口较大风速、上风口风量少于下风口的设计较为合理。

  16. Research on the Temperature Control of the Cabin Door Area for Civil Aircraft%民用飞机客舱舱门区域温度控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智; 程湛

    2013-01-01

    The temperature control of cabin door area for civil aircraft is investigated, and the calculation model of cabin door area is established. The method of temperature control for cabin door area is also presented. It could be laid out a heater to improve the air temperature of cabin door area inlet for the temperature control of door area, and it could be laid out the insulation between structure and liner of the cabin door or enhanced the resistance of liner for the temperature control of door area. And at the same time, the logic of automatic shutting off has to be set in order to avoid that the outlet temperature of heater is too high in some operating condition.%对民用飞机客舱舱门区域温度控制进行了研究,建立了客舱舱门区域温度计算模型,并且提出了客舱舱门区域温度控制方法:即客舱舱门区域温度控制主要通过加热器来提高供入舱门区域的空气温度来实现;而舱门接触温度控制主要通过在舱门结构梁与内饰板之间布置绝热层或增加内饰板的热阻来实现。同时为避免在某些工况下舱门加热器出口空气温度太高舱门区域加热器需设置自动关断逻辑。

  17. Civilizing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, Paddy

    2011-01-01

    The theory of “civilizing processes” was developed by Norbert Elias in the 1930s to describe and explain the generation of higher standards of various forms of conduct in the context of unplanned but structured changes in state formation and lengthening chains of social interdependencies (Elias 2000). The idea of civilized conduct may seem a strange companion to popular understandings of consumer culture, when the latter phrase is often associated with hedonism, individualism and excess. But ...

  18. Aircraft Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena BALMUS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of digital systems instead of analog ones has created a major separation in the aviation technology. Although the digital equipment made possible that the increasingly faster controllers take over, we should say that the real world remains essentially analogue [4]. Fly-by-wire designers attempting to control and measure the real feedback of an aircraft were forced to find a way to connect the analogue environment to their digital equipment. In order to manage the implications of this division in aviation, data optimization and comparison has been quite an important task. The interest in using data acquisition boards is being driven by the technology and design standards in the new generation of aircraft and the ongoing efforts of reducing weight and, in some cases addressing the safety risks. This paper presents a sum of technical report data from post processing and diversification of data acquisition from Arinc 429 interface on a research aircraft platform. Arinc 429 is by far the most common data bus in use on civil transport aircraft, regional jets and executive business jets today. Since its introduction on the Boeing 757/767 and Airbus aircraft in the early 1980s hardly any aircraft has been produced without the use of this data bus. It was used widely by the air transport indu

  19. Procurement Cost Analysis of the Turbofan Engine of Large Civil Aircraft%大型民用飞机涡扇发动机采购成本研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊华文; 王光秋

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to improve the method available for estimating the procurement cost of tur-bofan engines for large civil aircraft. A new approach to analyze the R&D cost and production cost is studied based on the domestic and foreign studies. The newly developed turbofans are used to evaluate the accuracy of the meth-od. Engine list price is the reference to the market price. Procurement price is mainly determined by the market competition situation. Procurement price could be at big discount based on the negotiation between the engine man-ufacturers and the customers. Launching customers, big leasing companies and big airlines ( groups) tend to have big discount. Pricing practice of Rolls-Royce's aero engines is studied as an example of buying big civil turbofan engines. The results show that the estimation methodology of procurement cost is rational;the calculation is simple and practical;the precision of the calculations is accepted for the real requirements.%通过查阅大量国内外相关文献资料和报道,并结合作者的工作经验,首先探索了大型民用飞机发动机的研制和批生产成本的分析方法和计算模型,估算了市场上新型发动机的研制成本和批生产成本。然后提出了大型民用飞机发动机的基本价格计算方法,利用市场上新型涡扇发动机的参数进行计算分析,并结合飞机的基本价格进行了比较分析。在分析发动机成本、基本价格和市场竞争情况的基础上,分析了实际采购价格策略。研究表明,在市场经济条件下,发动机采购成本估算应采用“市场定价冶准则。提出的方法合理,计算简便易用,精度能满足实际需要。可以为中国研制大飞机项目提供参考,同时也可以为航空公司在选择和采购发动机时提供参考,以便合理估算大型民用飞机涡扇发动机的采购成本。

  20. The longitudinal static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  1. Aeronautical Ad Hoc Network for Civil Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Vey, Quentin; Pirovano, Alain; Radzik, José; Garcia, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical communication systems are constantly evolving in order to handle the always increasing flow of data generated by civil aviation. In this article we first present communication systems currently used for en-route aircraft. We then propose Aeronautical Ad hoc NETwork (AANET) as a complementary communication system and demonstrate its connectivity and assess the throughput by simulations based on real aircraft trajectories over the French sky and over the Atlantic ocean.

  2. Vehicle for civil helicopter ride quality research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. J.; Schlegel, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A research aircraft for investigating the factors involved in civil helicopter operations was developed for NASA Langley Research Center. The aircraft is a reconfigured 17000 kg (36000 lb) military transport helicopter. The basic aircraft was reconfigured with advanced acoustic treatment, air-conditioning, and a 16-seat airline cabin. During the spring of 1975, the aircraft was flight tested to measure interior environment characteristics - noise and vibration - and was flown on 60 subjective flight missions with over 600 different subjects. Data flights established noise levels somewhat higher than expected, with a pure tone at 1400 Hz and vertical vibration levels between 0.07g and 0.17g. The noise and vibration levels were documented during subjective flight evaluations as being the primary source of discomfort. The aircraft will be utilized to document in detail the impact of various noise and vibration levels on passenger comfort during typical short-haul missions.

  3. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and...

  4. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  5. Aircraft Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  6. History and Civility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  7. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    the majority of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status...... information is pieced together, then a picture is created of a Chinese aircraft carrier program, where Varyag will be made operational for training purposes. With this as the model, China will build a similar sized carrier themselves. If this project does become a reality, then it will take many years for...... Kuznetsov carrier. The SU-33 is, in its modernized version, technologically at the same level as western combat aircraft in both the offensive as well as the defensive roles. But Russia and China currently have an arms trade 6 dispute that is likely to prevent a deal, unless the dispute is resolved. As an...

  8. The longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, Helena V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a simple theory of the longitudinal controls fixed static stability of tailless aeroplanes. The classical theory, as developed for the conventional aircraft, is modified to accommodate the particular features of the tailless aeroplanes. The theory was then applied to a particular blended-wing-body tailless civil transport aircraft, BWB-98.

  9. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yu; Yin Hailian; Zhang Shuai; Yu Xiongqing

    2014-01-01

    Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emissio...

  10. China's Civil Regional Transport Aircraft Sales Model: Research on Xinzhou 60 Aircraft Market Sales Model%中国民用支线运输飞机销售模式——新舟60飞机市场销售模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡长宏

    2011-01-01

    目前对飞机市场销售模式的研究还处在探讨阶段,大量的文献都是对一些普通产品做一些市场分析,在对飞机销售市场研究方面并没有过多的分析.因此,本文主要以新舟60飞机销售体系为列,运用市场细分、产品定位和渠道管理、宣传推广等理论,制定出新舟60飞机市场销售体系模式.%At present, the research on the market sales model of aircraft is still in discussion stage. A large number of literatures only do some market analysis on common products, the research on the aircraft sales market is less. Therefore, taking Xinzhou 60 aircraft sales system as an example, this article formulates Xinzhou 60 aircraft market sales system using market segment, product positioning and channel management, promotion.

  11. The Creation Of A Formal Test Flying System Within The British Microlight Aircraft Association And A Discussion Of The Spin Testing Of Microlight Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gratton, GB; Porteous, TC

    2000-01-01

    The UK microlight aircraft community, under the guidance of the British Microlight Aircraft Association (BMAA), has developed a formalised system for the training and qualification of civil test pilots on this class of aircraft. This system is unique in Britain where most of the rest of the industry relies upon a pool of military-trained test aircrew, most of whom have no experience of microlight aircraft. This paper describes the system operated by the BMAA for the training and qualifica...

  12. Collision avoidance systems for UAS operating in civil airspace

    OpenAIRE

    Alturbeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civil airspace is restricted by the aviation authorities which require full compliance with regulations that apply for manned aircraft. This thesis proposes control algorithms for a collision avoidance system that can be used as an advisory system or a guidance system for UAVs that are flying in civil airspace under visual flight rules. An effective collision avoidance system for the UAV should be able to perform the different fun...

  13. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  14. Det civile samfund

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement.......Kapitlet giver en oversigt over de vigtigste teoretiske forståelser af begrebet om det civile samfund. Desuden giver kapitlet en empirisk oversigt over foreninger og organisationer i det danske civilsamfund samt befolkningens civile engagement....

  15. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  16. 14 CFR 91.605 - Transport category civil airplane weight limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transport category civil airplane weight... Equipment and Operating Requirements for Large and Transport Category Aircraft § 91.605 Transport category civil airplane weight limitations. (a) No person may take off any transport category airplane...

  17. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  18. Civil Action Exercise Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bojinca, Moise

    2010-01-01

    The specialized literature defines civil action as being: “the legal means used by a person in order to ask the court to recognize its right or to fulfil this right, by ending the obstacles put by another person or through an adequate compensation Irrespective of its definition method, civil action is considered a central institution around which the entire activity of the court of law and of the parties gravitates. Next, we will discuss the requirements for exercising civil action: expressio...

  19. Civil engineering terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhta, Milan; Brunčič, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Among all crises, which have struck Slovenian construction industry, the crisis of civil engineering terminology is perhaps less noticeable, but still as important as all the others. The lack of fundamental characteristics of proper terminology causes a reasonable doubt whether Slovenian civil engineering terminology actually exists. After three editions of Splošni tehniški slovar (A General Technical Dictionary), a preparation of the new civil engineering dictionary represents one step towar...

  20. Civil Society and Accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Kaldor, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides a brief historical overview of the concept of civil society and the relevance of different meanings to the notion of 'voice' as it relates to poor people. It outlines civil society actors that might be helpful in clarifying different forms of accountability. And in the last section, it draws some conclusions and policy recommendations about the accountability of different types of civil society groups.

  1. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  2. APPLICATION FOR AIRCRAFT TRACKING

    OpenAIRE

    Ostroumov, Ivan; Kuz’menko, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In the article the important problems of software development for aircraft tracking have beendiscussed. Position reports of ACARS have been used for aircraft tracking around the world.An algorithm of aircraft coordinates decoding and visualization of aircraft position on the map has beenrepresented.Keywords: ACARS, aircraft, internet, position, software, tracking.

  3. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  4. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  5. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  6. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...

  7. Islam dan Civil Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Sukardi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to address the concept of civil society from varied perspectives. From a historical point of view, civil society demands not only the absent domination of state but also liberates individuals from the hegemony of state. The article shows that in Indonesia and Malaysian discourse, masyarakat madani is often used to represent the term of civil society. Using this conception, major values of civil society also share with basic ideas within the Medina Treaty in the history of Islam. These ideas include egalitarianism, human rights protection, participation, law and justice enforcement and pluralism. In this frame, the question on whether or not Islam is compatible with the concept of civil society is clearly answered. Muslims could benefit such a concept to build their awareness of being progressive and adaptive to social changes.

  8. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... literature. First, contrary to what is commonly argued, we claim that strong states in Asia promote civil regulation in what we call the “paradox of the weak state”. Second, we not only argue that civil regulation is mainly enforced by multinational enterprises willing to promote international social and...... environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  9. AASPT Carbon/Carbon Aircraft Brake Disk Granted MPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Xi'an Chaoma Technology Co. Ltd. was issued Parts Manufacturer Approval (PMA) for Carbon/Carbon aircraft brake disk for Airbus 320 series by Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC). The company is held by Academy of Aerospace Solid Propulsion Technology (AASPT), a subsidiary of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC). It is the first approval given to a Chinese company to design and produce brakes for main civilian aircraft.

  10. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  11. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  12. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration- and...

  13. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...... scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based...

  14. Civil justice reform II

    OpenAIRE

    McInnis, A

    2002-01-01

    In the column last month our regular contributor Dr Arthur McInnis took our first look at Hong Kong's Civil Justice Reform Interim Report and Consultative Paper. Those reforms as noted and if enacted, would bring the most far-reaching changes to civil - including construction -litigation in more than 100 years. This month, in the second of the two-part series, we look at the key concepts underlying and the details in the specific proposals.

  15. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  16. Civil Rights: Progress Report, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Robert A., Ed.; Alligood, Arlene, Ed.

    Contents of this comprehensive review of civil rights developments from 1968 to 1970 include: Introduction--civil rights 1970: progress continues, priority wanes; Legislative Background--20 years of civil rights; Commission Report--civil rights enforcement; a promise unfulfilled; Supreme Court Decision--key decision on busing, racial balance…

  17. Preliminary Considerations for Classifying Hazards of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Szatkowski, George N.; Ulrey, Michael L.; DeWalt, Michael P.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in national airspace has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. To make routine and safe operation of these aircraft a reality, a number of technological and regulatory challenges must be overcome. This report discusses some of the regulatory challenges with respect to deriving safety and reliability requirements for unmanned aircraft. In particular, definitions of hazards and their classification are discussed and applied to a preliminary functional hazard assessment of a generic unmanned system.

  18. Reforming Russian Civil Procedur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Maleshin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The II Annual Symposium of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure ‘2015: The Civil Procedure 2.0: Reform and Current State’ took place on October 9, 2015, at the Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga region Federal University.The Symposium is now an established tradition for the University. In 2015 it brought together in Kazan eminent scholars of civil procedure from cities across the whole of Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Saratov, Ekaterinburg, Omsk, Samara, Nizhnekamsk and others. This large-scale event attracted the attention not only of Russian scholars, but also of legal scholars from abroad: Elisabetta Silvestri (Professor, University of Pavia, Italy, William B. Simons (Professor, University of Tartu, Estonia, Jaroslav Turlukovsky (Professor, Warsaw University, Poland, Stuart H. Schultz (Practising Attorney, USA, Irina Izarova (Associate Professor, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine.The opening ceremony of the Symposium began with greetings to all participants and best wishes for productive discussions. Participants were welcomed with remarks by Marat Khairullin, Deputy Chair of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Tatarstan, Radik Ilyasov, Head of the Federal Bailiff Service of the Republic of Tatarstan, and Ildar Tarkhanov, Academic Supervisor at the Faculty of Law. They expressed their appreciation for the great value of the journal Herald of Civil Procedure in the growth of the science of civil procedure and enforcement procedure, and for its contributions to the development of the judicial system of the Russian Federation.In addition to hearing prepared reports and discussing viewpoints on current issues of civil and arbitration procedure, participants attended presentations by representatives from procedural law periodicals in the frame of the Symposium. The Editor-in-Chief of Herald of Civil Procedure, Damir Valeev, and the Commercial Director of the Statut Publishing House (Moscow, Kirill Samoilov, presented new

  19. Aircraft emissions at Turkish airports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with estimating aircraft landing and take-off (LTO) emissions (HC, CO, NOx, SO2) at 40 Turkish airports including the biggest airports, i.e. Ataturk International Airport (AIA) in Istanbul, Antalya Airport in Antalya and Esenboga Airport in Ankara in 2001. The calculation model is based on flight data recorded by the State Airports Authority. The flight data include the type and number of aircraft, number of passengers, amount of cargo etc., which depend on day-time and date. For the emission calculations the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)-Engine emission data bank, which includes minimum and maximum values for both fuel flow rates and emissions factors, is used. By using first the minimum and then the maximum values from the data bank, two estimations of aircraft LTO emissions at Turkish airports are calculated: i.e. minimum and maximum estimations. Total LTO emissions from aircraft at Turkish airports are estimated to be between 7614.34 and 8338.79 t/year. These results are comparable with those from USA airports. Approximately half of these amounts are produced at AIA. To predict future emissions, it is estimated that an increase of 25% in LTO cycles might cause a rise of between 31 and 33% in emissions. The estimations show that a decrease of 2 min in taxiing time results in a decrease of 6% in LTO emissions. The estimation model used in this study can be used for expansions and planning of airports from an environmental point of view. (author)

  20. A Cybernetic Approach to Assess the Longitudinal Handling Qualities of Aeroelastic Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Damveld, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The future demand for larger and lighter civil transport aircraft leads to more flexible aircraft, which bring their own controlling and handling problems. A review of established handling qualities methods showed that they were either unsuitable for aeroelastic aircraft, or had significant disadvantages. After consideration of the basic principles behind a number of handling qualities methods, a new handling qualities method was developed, the Experimental Behavior Measurement Method (EBMM)....

  1. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T B; Morris, M

    1977-05-01

    We have argued that planning for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence should involve a minimum number of assumptions. In view of the feasibility (at our present level of understanding) of using nuclear fusion to effect interstellar travel at a speed of 0.1c, it appears unwarranted (at this time) to assume that it would not occur for at least some technologically advanced civilizations. One cannot even conclude that humans would not attempt this within the next few centuries. On the contrary, the most likely future situation, given the maintenance of technological growth and the absence of extraterrestrial interference, is that our civilization will explore and colonize our galactic neighborhood. A comparison of the time scales of galactic evolution and interstellar travel leads to the conclusion that the galaxy is either essentially empty with respect to technological civilizations or extensively colonized. In the former instance, a SETI would be unproductive. In the latter, a SETI could be fruitful if a signal has been deliberately directed at the earth or at an alien outpost, probe, or communication relay station in our solar system. In the former case, an existing antenna would probably be sufficient to detect the signal. In the latter case, success would depend on the way in which the communications were coded. Failure to detect a signal could permit any of the following conclusions: (i) the galaxy is devoid of technological civilizations, advanced beyond our own, (ii) such civilizations exist, but cannot (for some reason which is presently beyond our ken) engage in interstellar colonization, or (iii) such civilizations are not attempting overt contact with terrestrial civilizations and their intercommunications, if present, are not coded in a simple way. To plan at this time for a high-cost, large-array SETI based on the last two possibilities appears to be rather premature. PMID:17760037

  2. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  3. FLIGHTS BY FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT TO SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ploeger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legislation enabling effect to be given to the International Convention for regulating air navigation, and to make provision for the control, guidance and encouragement of flying within the Union of South Africa and for other purposes incidental thereto, for all purposes known as the Union Aviation Act [No. 16 of 1923], was passed on the 23rd of May 1923 to allow effect to be given to the International Air Navigation Convention of 1919, and to make the provisions referred to above.

  4. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... attendees. The FAA is seeking to raise public awareness of the continuing technological advances in... public awareness on advances in supersonic technology, and for the FAA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and industry to get feedback from interested persons. Public involvement...

  5. Safety Assessment of Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) System for Civil Aircraft Based on Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis (DFTA)%基于动态故障树分析的民用飞机辅助动力装置系统安全性评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王栋

    2014-01-01

    Traditional fault tree analysis method is widely used for system safety assessment in civil aviation indus-try , but dynamic characteristics of systems/subsystems, including operational sequencing interpretation, spare and redundancy expression cannot be represented by traditional fault trees. On the other hand, civil aircraft auxiliary power unit ( APU) often operates as a redundant system and its behavior can be described by using dynamic fault tree appropriately. As a result, the interest of DFTA application is focused on APU system safety assessment. In this paper, two kinds of dynamic gates ( PAND and CSP) were introduced firstly. Their quantitative calculations were presented by applying Markov model. Then two typical cases with auxiliary power unit ( APU) system safety assess-ment were analyzed by traditional fault tree and dynamic fault tree respectively. Finally the comparison between two kinds of Fault Tree Analysis ( FTA ) was provided and the result indicates that Dynamic Fault Tree Analysis ( DFTA) method based on proper application reaches remarkable accuracy ,and the calculation cost is acceptable when second-order approximation of exponential distribution function is applied.%在民用航空工业领域,传统的故障树分析方法广泛运用于系统安全性评估。然而,包含系统/子系统运行的时序阐述以及备份、冗余表达在内的动态特性不能通过传统故障树呈现。另一方面,民用飞机辅助动力装置( APU)经常作为一个冗余系统运作,因而其行为可以通过运用动态故障树进行适当的描述。所以APU的这种特性激发了动态故障树分析在APU系统安全性评估上应用的关注。首先介绍了两种动态门(优先与门和冷备件门),其定量计算通过施用马尔可夫模型来呈现;然后分别通过传统故障树以及动态故障树分析了APU系统安全性评估的两个典型案例;最后进行了两种故障树分析( FTA )的比较,其

  6. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the International Civil Aviation Organization may carry and operate radio transmitters in the United... the State in which the aircraft is registered. The use of radio transmitters in the United States....191 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO...

  7. 78 FR 23698 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... through 920169. This proposed AD is prompted by a recent event where an extinguishing test at a Sikorsky... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will... requirements.'' Under that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft...

  8. Cost Analysis for Large Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents cost analysis of purchase price and DOC+I (direct operating cost plus interest) that supports NASA s study of three advanced rotorcraft concepts that could enter commercial transport service within 10 to 15 years. The components of DOC+I are maintenance, flight crew, fuel, depreciation, insurance, and finance. The cost analysis aims at VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and CTOL (conventional takeoff and landing) aircraft suitable for regional transport service. The resulting spreadsheet-implemented cost models are semi-empirical and based on Department of Transportation and Army data from actual operations of such aircraft. This paper describes a rationale for selecting cost tech factors without which VTOL is more costly than CTOL by a factor of 10 for maintenance cost and a factor of two for purchase price. The three VTOL designs selected for cost comparisons meet the mission requirement to fly 1,200 nautical miles at 350 knots and 30,000 ft carrying 120 passengers. The lowest cost VTOL design is a large civil tilt rotor (LCTR) aircraft. With cost tech factors applied, the LCTR is reasonably competitive with the Boeing 737-700 when operated in economy regional service following the business model of the selected baseline operation, that of Southwest Airlines.

  9. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  10. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  11. An MDO concept for large civil airliner wings

    OpenAIRE

    Gantois, K.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis investigates the application of Multi-Disciplinary Design, Anal- ysis and Optimisation to the design of a large civil airliner, similar in size as the future A3XX. For the first time structural optimisation, manufacturing cost and aerodynamic effects are simultaneously integrated within a realistic, complex aircraft design problem: the wing box of such a large airliner. A novel multi-level system was developed to incorporate structural effects and manufacturing c...

  12. Civil justice reform

    OpenAIRE

    McInnis, A

    2001-01-01

    Last month a high-level Working Party on Civil Justice Reform in Hong Kong released a widely anticipated Interim Report and Consultative Paper. The reforms, if enacted, would bring the most far-reaching changes to civil - including construction - litigation in the territory in more than 100 years. This month, in the first of a two-part series, our regular contributor Dr Arthur McInnis, looks at the context for the reforms and the reasons underlying them while next month the recommendations th...

  13. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  14. INTEGRATING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLES IN THE ROMANIAN NATIONAL AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Alina Catinca POP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the Romanian civil airspace brings us back to the 1920's, when the first aircraft started to fly over the Romanian sky. Little did the legislators at that time know how to create the proper legal framework for the use of such machines so that all aspects related to their use be covered, as well as identify all potential risks and effects. Nowadays, UAVs are the new aircraft and it is a challenge for the legislators to properly identify the legal framework so that the safety and security of civil aviation are not affected. The paper will address the challenges the regulator faces in the integration of the UAVs in the Romanian civil airspace, developments and issues raised by the current regulation, as well as aspects related to the national regulations expected to enter into force at the end of 2015, beginning of 2016.

  15. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  16. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  17. What Is Western Civilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…

  18. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.)

  19. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  20. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  1. Democracy promotion and civil society

    OpenAIRE

    Ishkanian, Armine

    2007-01-01

    The annual Global Civil Society Yearbooks provide an indispensable guide to global civil society or civic participation and action around the world. This year, the Yearbook will focus on communicative power and democracy, investigating different forms of democracy promotion and communication with a view to understanding the relationship between communication, democracy and media. The Global Civil Society Yearbook remains the standard work on all aspects of contemporary global civil society fo...

  2. Exploring Civilizations with 'Seven Wolves'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jie

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing - A farewell party for the CCTV (China Central Television) crew 'Road to Civilizations-Global Exploration Tour of World Major Civilizations' - the world's first TV series documenting the journey of exploring the 12 civilizations in the human world, was sponsored by Fujian Septwolves Industry Co., Ltd and held at the Beijing Landmark hotel on 16 January.

  3. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...) entitled ``Civil Penalties'' which proposed the adjustment of certain civil penalties for inflation. 74 FR.... See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997) (NHTSA's civil penalty policy under the Small Business Regulatory... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477, 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jessica Lang, Office of...

  4. 77 FR 70710 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ...,000. 75 FR 5246. Also on February 10, 2010, NHTSA last adjusted the maximum civil penalty for a... civil penalty policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10... Act was published on February 4, 1997. 62 FR 5167. At that time, we codified the penalties...

  5. 77 FR 55175 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... $6,000. 71 FR 28279. At the same time, the agency adjusted the maximum civil penalty for a single... to $16,650,000. 75 FR 5246. Also on February 10, 2010, NHTSA last adjusted the maximum civil penalty... policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997)...

  6. Desobediencia civil en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fondevila

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La crisis económica de Argentina en años recientes derivó en la pérdida de legitimidad de las instituciones políticas del país. La medida de suspensión de las libertades y garantías de derechos individuales provocó una desobediencia civil generalizada que llevó a miles de personas a manifestar pacíficamente su repudio al gobierno de Fernando de la Rúa. Este gesto ciudadano espontáneo, desorganizado y voluntario sirvió, entre otras cosas, para formar una autodeterminación primaria directa de la voluntad popular y una autocomprensión del carácter democrático de la sociedad civil. La justificación de la desobediencia se basaba en una cuestión de derechos. Todos los manifestantes afirmaban que tenían derecho a desobedecer porque la desobediencia, en ciertas circunstancias, era un derecho humano. ¿Pero puede ser la desobediencia civil, en un Estado de derecho, un auténtico derecho? ¿En qué circunstancias, en el contexto legal y fuera de los derechos habituales de resistencia como huelga, manifestación, etcétera, se puede desobedecer una norma legal? Abstract: The recent economic crisis in Argentina led to the loss of identity of the country’s political institutions. The measure of the suspension of freedom and of the guarantee of individual rights provoked a generalized civil disobedience which led thousands of people to peacefully demonstrate their repudiation of Fernando de la Rúa’s government. This spontaneous, unorganized and voluntary action by the citizens served, among other things, to form a direct primary self-determination of the will of the people and a self-understanding of the democratic character of civil society. The justification of the disobedience was based on a question of rights. All the demonstrators asserted that they had the right to disobey because disobedience, in certain circumstances, was a human right. However, can civil disobedience, in a constitutional state, be an authentic right

  7. The Limitation of Western Civilization And the Revival of Oriental Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su; Hao

    2014-01-01

    <正>In the distribution of modem world civilizations,the Oriental civilization and Western civilization are the two major civilization systems.Western civilization is often represented by the Christian civilization in Europe and North America on both sides across the North Atlantic.Oriental civilization appears more diversified,among which the Chinese civilization,India civilization and Islamic civilization are the most influential

  8. Galactic-scale civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  9. Civil Engineering Dispute Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J

    2001-01-01

    Construction work on the civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. A dispute resolution procedure has been included in the contract, whereby a Panel of Adjudicators may be called upon to make a decision in the case of a difference or dispute between the parties. The aim of this paper is to present CERN's first experience of civil engineering Adjudication arising from problems encountered with the ground freezing technique employed to allow construction of two new shafts.

  10. Civil Servants’ Salary Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Bilquees, Faiz

    2006-01-01

    The paper looks at the trends in nominal and real salaries of the Federal Government employees over the period 1990-2006. It examines the structural defects in the existing salary structure and the anomalies in the allowances structure to show that appropriate remuneration for the civil servants requires serious and urgent consideration. The widening gap in the emoluments of government employees versus the public sector corporations and private sector employees has a strong bearing on the mot...

  11. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  12. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  13. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Pelliccioni, M; Villari, R

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H*(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. PMID:14978289

  14. Evaluation of the influence of aircraft shielding on the aircrew exposure through an aircraft mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the influence of aircraft shielding on the galactic component of cosmic rays, an aircraft mathematical model has been developed by the combinatorial geometry package of the Monte-Carlo transport code FLUKA. The isotropic irradiation of the aircraft in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated. Effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage, at a typical civil aviation altitude (10 580 m), for vertical cut-off rigidity of 0.4 GV (poles) and 17.6 GV (equator) and deceleration potential of 465 MV. The values of both quantities were generally lower than those in the free atmosphere. They depend, in an intricate manner, on the location within the aircraft, quantity of fuel, number of passengers, etc. The position onboard of crew members should be taken into account when assessing individual doses. Likewise due consideration must be taken when positioning detectors which are used to measure H *(10). Care would be needed to avoid ambiguity when comparing the results of calculation with the experimental data. (authors)

  15. A second-generation high speed civil transport: Stingray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, Sean; Lopes, Kevin; Ngan, Angelen; Perrin, Joseph; Phipps, Marcus; Westman, Blake; Yeo, Urn

    1992-01-01

    The Stingray is the second-generation High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) designed for the 21st Century. This aircraft is designed to be economically viable and environmentally sound transportation competitive in markets currently dominated by subsonic aircraft such as the Boeing 747 and upcoming McDonnell Douglas MD-12. With the Stringray coming into service in 2005, a ticket price of 21 percent over current subsonic airlines will cover operational costs with a 10 percent return on investment. The cost per aircraft will be $202 million with the Direct Operating Cost equal to $0.072 per mile per seat. This aircraft has been designed to be a realistic aircraft that can be built within the next ten to fifteen years. There was only one main technological improvement factor used in the design, that being for the engine specific fuel consumption. The Stingray, therefore, does not rely on technology that does not exist. The Stingray will be powered by four mixed flow turbofans that meet both nitrous oxide emissions and FAR 36 Stage 3 noise regulations. It will carry 250 passengers a distance of 5200 nautical miles at a speed of Mach 2.4. The shape of the Stingray, while optimized for supersonic flight, is compatible with all current airline facilities in airports around the world. As the demand for economical, high-speed flight increases, the Stingray will be ready and able to meet those demands.

  16. Evolution of civil aeromedical helicopter aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D R; Samper, E R

    1989-07-01

    The rapid increase in the use of helicopters for hospital transport during the 1980s is the culmination of several hundred years of military medical innovation. Mass battefield casualties spurred both technologic and medical changes necessary for today's sophisticated helicopter systems in use worldwide, particularly in the United States. The Napoleonic Era and the American Civil War provided the framework for the evolution of today's state-of-the-art emergency medical techniques. The use of airplanes to evacuate the wounded eventually led to using helicopters for rescue missions in World War II. The combat experiences of the United States in Korea, the British in Malaya, and the French in Indochina proved that rotary-wing aircraft were invaluable in reducing battlefield death rates. Any skepticism about the efficacy of helicopter medical evacuation was erased during the Vietnam conflict. As an integral part of the modern battlefield, these specialized aircraft became a necessity. The observations and experience of American servicemen and medical personnel in Vietnam established the foundation for the acceptance of helicopter transport in modern hospital systems. PMID:2665130

  17. Designing A Conventional Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Sonei, Arash

    2014-01-01

    This paper is explaining the important design phases of dimensioning an unmanned conventional aircraft from scratch and will also design one according to a few chosen requirements. The design phases discussed will be all from wing dimensioning to stability and spin recovery, aircraft performance requirements and how to select a motor which overcomes these. As well as the optimal rate of climb for improved efficiency is discussed. In the end an aircraft which manages the set requirements and i...

  18. Lightning effects on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  19. Residual stress measurements in laser clad aircraft aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue and corrosion damage of structural components threatens the safety and availability of civil and military aircrafts. There is no sign of relief from these threats as civil and military aircrafts worldwide are continuously being pushed further into and past their initial design fatigue lives in tight financial circumstances. Given fatigue and corrosion damage often initiates at the surface and sub-surface of the components, there has been extensive research and development worldwide focused on advanced aircraft repair technologies and surface enhancement methods. The Deep Surface Rolling (DSR) is one of advanced surface enhancement technologies that can introduce deep compressive residual stresses into the surface of aircraft metallic structure to extend its fatigue life. For the development of cost-effective aircraft structural repair technologies such as laser cladding, in this study, aluminium alloy 7075-T651 specimens with simulated corrosion damage were repaired using laser cladding technology. The surface of the laser cladding region was then processed by DSR. The experimental results from subsequent fatigue testing of laser cladded baseline, DSR and post-heat treated laser cladded specimens discovered that the DSR process can significantly increase fatigue life in comparison with the ascladded baseline. The three dimensional residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction and the results confirmed the beneficial compressive residual stresses at the cladding surface can be achieved in depth more than 1.0 mm.

  20. Desobediencia civil en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Fondevila

    2003-01-01

    Resumen: La crisis económica de Argentina en años recientes derivó en la pérdida de legitimidad de las instituciones políticas del país. La medida de suspensión de las libertades y garantías de derechos individuales provocó una desobediencia civil generalizada que llevó a miles de personas a manifestar pacíficamente su repudio al gobierno de Fernando de la Rúa. Este gesto ciudadano espontáneo, desorganizado y voluntario sirvió, entre otras cosas, para formar una autodeterminación primaria di...

  1. The development of a system for the evaluation of electromagnetic interference with pacemaker function: hazards in the aircraft environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDeller, A G; Toff, W D; Hobbs, R A; Robb, D J; Camm, A J

    1989-01-01

    It has been recognized for many years that the electromagnetic (EM) environment within aircraft presents a potential hazard to the subject with a pacemaker. Most of the information currently available is, however, several years old and may not be strictly relevant to modern pacemakers and the electromagnetic environment found in today's civil aircraft. In mid 1986 it was therefore decided to investigate the effect on a number of currently available unipolar pacemakers of typical levels of electromagnetic interference encountered in civil aircraft. PMID:2746623

  2. Atmospheric mercury measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kock, Hans H.; Bödewadt, Jan; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Weber, Stefan; Hermann, Markus; Becker, Julia; Zahn, Andreas; Martinsson, Bengt

    2016-05-01

    Goal of the project CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container) is to carry out regular and detailed observations of atmospheric composition (particles and gases) at cruising altitudes of passenger aircraft, i.e. at 9-12 km. Mercury has been measured since May 2005 by a modified Tekran instrument (Tekran Model 2537 A analyser, Tekran Inc., Toronto, Canada) during monthly intercontinental flights between Europe and South and North America, Africa, and Asia. Here we describe the instrument modifications, the post-flight processing of the raw instrument signal, and the fractionation experiments.

  3. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  4. Distributional disputes and civil conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Some polities are able to use constitutionally prescribed political processes to settle distributional disputes, whereas in other polities distributional disputes result in civil conflict. Theoretical analysis reveals that the following properties help to make it possible to design a self-enforcing constitution that can settle recurring distributional disputes between social classes without civil conflict: • Neither social class has a big advantage in civil conflict. • The expected incrementa...

  5. Economic development and civil development

    OpenAIRE

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly held that economic development automatically brings civil development with it, as if between the two there were a cause-effect relationship. While economic development is obviously a necessary condition for civil development, it is not a sufficient one. On the other hand, without certain fundamental pre-requisites in the civil development field, such as a minimum level of education, economic development is impossible. Thus, the two phenomena are best conceived of in terms of in...

  6. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern......, economic and social impact. Civilization is a term widely used within modern political discourse its meaning, yet it is poorly understood and misused. part I explores the idea of a ‘standard of civilization', its implications for governance, and the use of such standards in political theory and economic...

  7. Preliminary Study on Effect of Aviation Fuel in the Safety Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Crashed by Aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Byeong Moo; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Yun Seok; Kim, Young Jin [Daewoo E and C Co., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    As the safety assessments of nuclear power plants for the hypothetical large civil aircraft crash should be made mandatory, studies on large aircraft-nuclear power plant impact analyses and assessments are actively in progress. The large civil aircraft are being operated with a large amount of fuel and the fuel can be assumed to contribute to the impact loads at the impact. The fuel, i.e., the internal liquid can be considered as added masses classically in the evaluation of the impact load. According to the recent experimental research, it has been shown that the impact load of high speed impacting body with internal liquid is much higher than that of the mass-equivalent impacting body. In this study, the impact loads according to the existence of the internal liquid are computed by numerical methods and the safety assessment of nuclear power plant crashed by large civil aircraft are performed as an application

  8. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  9. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  10. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  13. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  14. The rivers of civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  15. Civil Liberties and Computer Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Curran; Steven McIntyre; Hugo Meenan; Francis McCloy; Ciaran Heaney

    2004-01-01

    Civil Liberties - the term used for the fundamental liberties and rights of a countries citizen is the right of free speech, thought and action. This is the fundamental building block of a democratic society. This research essay outlines the current measures western governments are taking to ensure our safety and the associated costs to civil and human rights.

  16. [Psychiatric evaluation in civil law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, K

    1992-03-01

    Aspects of civil law of importance for the psychiatrist as expert witness are those dealing with disability pensions accident insurance, compensation in civil law and rights of the seriously disabled. The legal basis of each is briefly outlined, and some guidelines given for psychiatric court reports. Some outstanding theoretical and practical problems are mentioned. PMID:1579170

  17. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  18. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  19. Civil engineering experiences in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de

    2009-01-01

    The good cooperation established between Universities, Laboratory National of Civil Engineering and private companies made possible the execution of a considerable number of civil engineering works by Portugueses, inside and outside the country. Some good examples are presented in this paper.

  20. Codificación civil

    OpenAIRE

    Verdera Server, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Conferencias sobre la codificación civil: aspectos históricos (R. Aznar) y jurídicos (J.M. Badenas)Actividad complementaria de los Departamentos de Historia del Derecho y Derecho Civil.Grado en Derecho

  1. Civil works for NPPs construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophe Portenseigne, Technical Director of Bouygues Travaux Publics, provided explanations on the main challenges of Civil work for the construction of the 3. generation of NPPs. He then provided an overview of the new Civil Work concepts for the 4. generation of NPPs

  2. Application of artificial intelligence to improve aircraft survivability

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, William Leecraft

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The hazards associated with the critical flight phases of civil as well as military flight operations can seriously degrade pilot efficiency, and therefore aircraft survivability, if the number or complexity of tasks that the pilot must manage exceeds his/her capabilities. This thesis explores the feasibility of applying artificial intelligence (AI) research to the construction of a Survivability Manager (SM) knowledge based system (K...

  3. Aircraft hydraulic power system diagnostic, prognostics and health management

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This Individual Research Project (IRP) is the extension research to the group design project (GDP) work which the author has participated in his Msc programme. The GDP objective is to complete the conceptual design of a 200-seat, flying wing civil airliner—FW-11. The next generation aircraft design demands higher reliability, safety and maintainability. With the development of the vehicle hydraulic system technology, the equipment and systems become more and more complex, their reliability...

  4. Structural Weight Optimization of Aircraft Wing Component Using FEM Approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Arockia Ruban M,; Kaveti Aruna

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges for the civil aviation industry is the reduction of its environmental impact by better fuel efficiency by virtue of Structural optimization. Over the past years, improvements in performance and fuel efficiency have been achieved by simplifying the design of the structural components and usage of composite materials to reduce the overall weight of the structure. This paper deals with the weight optimization of transport aircraft with low wing configuratio...

  5. Flying qualities and flight control system design for a fly-by-wire transport aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Gautrey, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Fly-by-wire flight control systems are becoming more common in both civil and military aircraft. These systems give many benefits, but also present a new set of problems due to their increased complexity compared to conventional systems and the larger choice of options that they provide. The work presented here considers the application of fly-by-wire to a generic regional transport aircraft. The flying qualities criteria used for typical flying qualities evaluations are described...

  6. Multilevel modelling of aircraft noise on performance tests in schools around Heathrow Airport London

    OpenAIRE

    Haines, M; Stansfeld, S; Head, J.; Job, R

    2002-01-01

    Design: This is a cross sectional study using the National Standardised Scores (SATs) in mathematics, science, and English (11 000 scores from children aged 11 years). The analyses used multilevel modelling to determine the effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on childrens' school performance adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and school factors in 123 primary schools around Heathrow Airport. Schools were assigned aircraft noise exposure level from the 1994 Civil Aviation Authorit...

  7. CARIBIC aircraft measurements of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic plumes in April/May 2010

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rauthe-Schöch; Weigelt, A; Hermann, M.; B. G. Martinsson; A. K. Baker; K.-P. Heue; C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer; Zahn, A.; D. Scharffe; S. Eckhardt; Stohl, A.; van Velthoven, P.F.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) project investigates physical and chemical processes in the Earth's atmosphere using a Lufthansa Airbus long-distance passenger aircraft. After the beginning of the explosive eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on Iceland on 14 April 2010, the first CARIBIC volcano-specific measurement flight was carried out over the Baltic Sea and Southern Sweden on 20 April. Two more flights fo...

  8. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  9. NO and NOy in the upper troposphere: Nine years of CARIBIC measurements onboard a passenger aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Stratmann, Greta; Ziereis, Helmut; Stock, Paul; Brenninkmeijer, C.A.; Zahn, A.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; van Velthoven, Peter; Schlager, Hans; A. Volz-Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide (NO and NOy) measurements were performed onboard an in-service aircraft within the framework of CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). A total of 330 flights were completed from May 2005 through April 2013 between Frankfurt/Germany and destination airports in Canada, the USA, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, South Africa, China, South Korea, Japan, India, Thailand, and the Philippines....

  10. Reconstructing Sub-Saharan, Mayan, and Other Prehistoric Civilizations in Mathematical Macro-Theory of Civilizations

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, S

    2003-01-01

    A study of the Great Zimbabwe Sub-Saharan civilization, Mayan civilization and other prehistoric civilizations within the framework of a mathematical macro theory of civilizations. We show these isolated and early civilizations conform to the general mathematical theory of civilizations in detail.

  11. Economic conditions of technical changes in world civil air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world economic environment of the turn of the century produced many new challenges to civil aviation in expectation of a continued growth in the transportation of passengers and cargo. To meet this growing demand, it will be necessary to increase the fleet and to modernise infrastructure – a process hampered by finances and capacity constraints.Such constraints are especially pressing with regard to the acquisition of new types of large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 and 747-8. Future dominance of the market is, however, difficult to predict, as this will be the outcome of a combination of uncertain parameters.

  12. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the Uniform Fine Assessment (UFA) algorithm, which FMCSA currently uses for calculation of civil...

  13. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem. The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article. The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise. Of the three main areas of the noise problem, i.e. generation, propagation, and radiation, propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation. Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model. Of the various classes of propagation equations, linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain. The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques, bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations, e.g. acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed, with differing degrees of success.

  14. Aircraft noise and its nearfield propagation computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Noise generated by civil transport aircraft during take-off and approach-to-land phases of operation is an environmental problem.The aircraft noise problem is firstly reviewed in this article.The review is followed by a description and assessment of a number of sound propagation methods suitable for applications with a background mean flow field pertinent to aircraft noise.Of the three main areas of the noise problem,i.e.generation,propagation,and radiation,propagation provides a vital link between near-field noise generation and far-field radiation.Its accurate assessment ensures the overall validity of a prediction model.Of the various classes of propagation equations,linearised Euler equations are often casted in either time domain or frequency domain.The equations are often solved numerically by computational aeroacoustics techniques,bur are subject to the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability modes which may ruin the solutions. Other forms of linearised equations,e.g.acoustic perturbation equations have been proposed,with differing degrees of success.

  15. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  16. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  17. Wind tunnel technology for the development of future commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szodruch, J.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements for new technologies in the area of civil aircraft design are mainly related to the high cost involved in the purchase of modern, fuel saving aircraft. A second important factor is the long term rise in the price of fuel. The demonstration of the benefits of new technologies, as far as these are related to aerodynamics, will,for the foreseeable future, still be based on wind tunnel measurements. Theoretical computation methods are very successfully used in design work, wing optimization, and an estimation of the Reynolds number effect. However, wind tunnel tests are still needed to verify the feasibility of the considered concepts. Along with other costs, the cost for the wind tunnel tests needed for the development of an aircraft is steadily increasing. The present investigation is concerned with the effect of numerical aerodynamics and civil aircraft technology on the development of wind tunnels. Attention is given to the requirements for the wind tunnel, investigative methods, measurement technology, models, and the relation between wind tunnel experiments and theoretical methods.

  18. Technical Civilizations in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.

  19. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  20. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  1. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  2. Solar thermal aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  3. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... related to sustainability – a Workshop on Traffic. The workshop discussed traffic prognoses and the way they are used in the preparation of urban transport and traffic strategies. Civil engineer Jonas Eliasson spoke about the experience in Sweden of developing a database for traffic prognoses. The main...

  4. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes; Note d'information sur la protection des installations nucleaires contre les chutes d'avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight < 5.7 t), the military aircraft, and the commercial aircraft (w > 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  5. THE STRATEGIC TRADE POLICIES: COMMERCIAL DISPUTES ON THE WORLD AIRCRAFT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin-Ștefan Maha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to illustrate how strategic trade policy is used by analyzing the concrete situation in the world aircraft industry, focusing on the case of the large civil aircrafts and on the regional jet aircrafts. We want to clarify which is the position of GATT / WTO regarding the strategic trade policy, what are the factors which made it possible to use strategic trade policy in the aviation industry and how the strategic trade policy was implemented by the four major market actors considered, the disputes that have arisen from the use of strategic trade policy and how these were resolved.

  6. Civil Engineering Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the civil engineering program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  7. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  8. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  9. Civil engineering projects realization management

    OpenAIRE

    Mirković Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    The paper treats the management of the realization of civil engineering projects or civil engineering buildings construction management, as a complex dynamic process, which entails a large number of strategic and operative decisions which are important for an efficient, cost effective, and economic construction. The management process execution is not possible without the functions such as planning, organizing, coordination and control. Planning as the initial function, important for the fore...

  10. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  11. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  12. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...

  13. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  14. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  15. 30 CFR 903.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  16. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  17. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  18. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  1. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  2. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  4. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  5. Development of aircraft industry in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Chaturvedi

    1952-09-01

    Full Text Available It is axiomatic that India requires to self sufficient in the design, development and production of aircraft both for civil and military use, and not, as she is at present, remains entirely dependent on foreign sources. This requirement is keenly felt in the field of defence, since it is appreciated .that the growth of the Armed Forces of a country, in fact their very existence in peace and war, is in modern times directly related to the industrial potential of that country to produce weapons of war. If the two are not properly balanced the Armed Forces would be quite ineffective in fulfilling their role of defending their country in time of emergency.

  6. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  7. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  8. CERTIFICATION - The final and critical stage of every civil or military aviation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile STEFAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a general rule the final step in every aviation program is the certification of the airplane, an important step in which the airplane, the engins and the equipments are checked by an authority or commission according to the airworthiness rules. The main scope of the certification is to promote a safe aviation product and to protect the general public from unnecessary risk. In all the contries the national authorieties require a civil certificability for all the parts or equipments and a full aircraft certification for a new or wholly modified airplane. The military aircrafts must pased and respond to a specific way of certification and many actual efforts are done in order to unify the diffrent national rules in this field. This paper presents the existing situation in the certification of civil and military airplans and the actual measures done for the unification of certification procedures in the world.

  9. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  10. Auralization of novel aircraft configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Arntzen, M.; Bertsch, E.L.; Simons, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    A joint initiative of NLR, DLR, and TU Delft has been initiated to streamline the process of generating audible impressions of novel aircraft configurations. The integrated approach adds to the value of the individual tools and allows predicting the sound of future aircraft before they actually fly. Hence, an existing process for the aircraft design and system noise prediction at DLR has been upgraded to generate the required input data for an aircraft auralization framework developed by NLR ...

  11. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  12. Challenges in PFBR civil construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civil works of PFBR has posed numerous design and construction challenges. Eight safety related nuclear buildings of PFBR are founded on a single raft, first of its kind in Indian nuclear Reactors. Construction of eight interconnected buildings on the common raft has been challenge for construction material transportation. Thus Herculean task, require storage of massive quantities of raw materials and ice. The civil construction scope in PFBR expanded to critical steel fabricated structures integrated with civil works. This includes huge embedment erected to very close tolerances. Large size panels for upper lateral, lower lateral and bottom shields were to be fabricated to intricate contours with tight tolerances and were required to be transported to locations from far off distances; this was well accomplished without loss of tolerances of fabricated structures. Novel construction practices and stringent quality control procedures were implemented to accomplish this critical requirement. Integration of cooling coils inside the safety vessel flanges after completing the reactor vault and safety vessel erection, required special contour bending for numerous reinforcement and development of special construction methodology. The neutron detector box integration with bottom shield was also a construction challenge posed and well addressed by site. Many mock ups were to be carried out for demonstrating the construction procedures and methodology for critical construction activities. Maintaining the stringent requirements such as clean room conditions was a major challenge and was met effectively. Equipment erection in parallel to civil works too required innovative solutions for clean condition maintenance while civil works are in progress. it can be said that the civil construction of PFBR has emerged as a marvel of technology handled professionally by competent engineers deploying scientific construction techniques and stringent quality control procedures. (author)

  13. Civil Reserve Air Fleet Enhancement Program: a study of its viability in today's environment

    OpenAIRE

    Wales, William S.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited During the 1970s and 1980s, there existed a gap between the strategic mobility requirement and the nation's cargo assets to meet this requirement. Consequently, the Military Airlift Command developed and implemented the Civil Reserve Air Fleet Enhancement Program (CEP) to bridge this gap. Civilian airlines were given monetary and other incentives to modify their existing wide- body passenger aircraft enabling them to carry military-siz...

  14. Exploring Civil Drone Accidents and Incidents to Help Prevent Potential Air Disasters

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Wild; John Murray; Glenn Baxter

    2016-01-01

    A recent alleged “drone” collision with a British Airways Airbus A320 at Heathrow Airport highlighted the need to understand civil Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) accidents and incidents (events). This understanding will facilitate improvements in safety by ensuring efforts are focused to reduce the greatest risks. One hundred and fifty two RPAS events were analyzed. The data was collected from a 10-year period (2006 to 2015). Results show that, in contrast to commercial air transpor...

  15. Sociedad civil y capital social

    OpenAIRE

    José Fernández Santillán

    2009-01-01

    Este documento aborda el tema de la democracia desde una perspectiva opuesta al llamado neoinstitucionalismo; es decir, se orienta a analizar los procesos de democratización desde la base de la sociedad civil y, en es pe cial, desde lo que se conoce como el cap i tal so cial. Desde mediados de la década de 1980, el tema de la democracia desde la perspectiva de la sociedad civil fue cobrando cada vez mayor relevancia. Esta tendencia se vio reforzada por la caída del Muro de Berlín el 9 de nov...

  16. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  17. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  18. DOAS spectroscopy onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft – trace gas concentration, and flux measurement of localized sources

    OpenAIRE

    Walter, David Josef

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the remote sensing and the flux calculation of atmospheric trace gases, using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Since 2010, within the CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container), a new DOAS instrument is installed in the cargo compartment of a passenger aircraft once per month as part of a fully automated measurement container. With this instrument, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfphur...

  19. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  20. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  1. Etica civile e beatitudini evangeliche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Colaianni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, riproduce il testo dell’intervento nel dibattito a due voci (con il presidente della Corte costituzionale, Gaetano Silvestri a conclusione del convegno “La Bibbia sulle strade dell’uomo” (Messina, 23 novembre 2013, ed è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti.SOMMARIO: 1. L’etica civile come etica costituzionale – 2. L’etica evangelica – 3. Irriducibilità? – 4. La promessa e il terzo – 5. La libertà – 6. Il tratto di cammino insieme.  Civil Ethic and Evangelical Beatitudes ABSTRACT The differences between civil ethic and religious ethic, that the Author defines as constitutional principles and evangelic Beatitudes, are well known: it’s common knowledge that the ones are effective in the earthly life while the others are oriented to the eternal life. Nevertheless the Author argues that they both have a common feature before that last analysis: they cross as principles of continuing opposition to unjust society, to “unlawful law”, to spreading apart between the constitutional and evangelic must be and the legislative being of positive law.KEY-WORDS: Civil Ethic – Constitution – Evangelical Beatitudes – Differences - Common Feature.

  2. Getting the Civil War Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  3. Civil Engineering Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents civil engineering technology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and…

  4. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  5. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  6. Nuclear civil liabilities. International conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A convention on the complementary repair of nuclear damages comes and superposes on the Convention of Paris and the Convention of Vienna or national autonomous conventions of nuclear civil liability. In case of accident, a fund would be created to compete the first level of indemnification beyond the contribution of the government. (N.C.)

  7. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  8. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  9. Extraterrestrial civilizations: Problems of their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskov, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of finding extraterrestrial civilizations and establishing contact with them is directly related to the problem of their evolution. Possible patterns in this evolution and the stages in the evolution of extraterrestrial civilizations are examined.

  10. Aircraft energy efficiency. Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Six advanced technology development projects that could cut fuel consumption of future civil air transports by as much as 50 percent are highlighted. These include improved engine components; better engine design; thin short blades for turboprop aircaft; using composite primary structures for weight reduction; the use of supercritical wings, higher aspect ratio, and winglets for improved aerodynamics; active controls; and laminar flow control. The time span of each of the six efforts and NASA's expected expenditures are also discussed.

  11. The European civil code: the way forward

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    Hugh Collins argues that the European Union should develop a civil code to provide uniform rules for contracts, property rights and protection against civil wrongs, thus drawing together the differing national traditions with respect to the detailed regulation of civil society. The benefits of such a code would lie not so much in facilitating cross border trade, but in establishing foundations for a denser network of transnational relations of civil society, which in turn would help to overco...

  12. The moral status of civil disobedience

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlee, Kimberley; Professor Joseph Raz; Dr John Tasioulas

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation examines the moral character of civil disobedience. The discussion begins with a conceptual analysis of civil disobedience which eschews standard definitions in favour of a paradigm case approach, highlighting a parallel between the communicative aspects of civil disobedience and the communicative aspects of lawful punishment by the state. Foundations for a moral evaluation of civil disobedience are then laid down through, first, an examination of the nature ...

  13. RECRUITMENT AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Cristina RADU; Eliza Adela VOICU

    2014-01-01

    An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is...

  14. Global Civil Society 2005/6

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Kaldor, Mary; Glasius, Marlies

    2005-01-01

    The annual Global Civil Society Yearbooks provide an indispensable guide to global civil society or civic participation and action around the world. Each yearbook includes commissioned contributions from leading commentators across the social sciences on the latest issues and developments. Each yearbook also explores and presents the latest approaches to measuring and analyzing global civil society and provides a chronology of key global civil society events in the year. The 2005/6 Yearbo...

  15. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though an...

  16. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1968, the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) has collected data on key education and civil rights issues in our nation's public schools for use by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), other Department offices, other federal agencies, and by policymakers and researchers outside of the Department. The CRDC has…

  17. 34 CFR 303.424 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 303.424 Section 303.424 Education... Civil action. Any party aggrieved by the findings and decision regarding an administrative complaint has the right to bring a civil action in State or Federal court under section 639(a)(1) of the...

  18. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  20. 34 CFR 300.516 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 300.516 Section 300.516 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.516 Civil action. (a... aggrieved by the findings and decision under § 300.514(b), has the right to bring a civil action...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.), and the NASA implementing regulations (14 CFR parts 1250... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work...

  2. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57... REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For any... willfully participates in the violation, a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000. (b) For any willful...

  3. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575AC93 Civil Monetary Penalties AGENCY...) proposes to implement two civil monetary penalty provisions. First, RHS proposes to amend its regulations to create a new section, for imposing civil monetary penalties under the authority of 42 U.S.C....

  4. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  5. 32 CFR 310.46 - Civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil actions. 310.46 Section 310.46 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.46 Civil actions. An individual may file a civil...

  6. 22 CFR 127.10 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780...

  7. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  8. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty. Any... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  9. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to a civil penalty under this part: (1) 10 CFR Part 1017—Identification and Protection of... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 1017.29 Section 1017.29 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Violations § 1017.29 Civil penalty. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 66033, Dec. 14,...

  10. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  11. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  12. 33 CFR 401.102 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 401.102 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Penalties-Violations of Seaway Regulations § 401.102 Civil penalty. (a) A person, as described in § 401.101(b), who violates a regulation is liable to a civil penalty...

  13. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination...

  14. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  15. Analysis of Reinforcement of Civil Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xiaoyue

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:Corroborative evidence is the basis for ascertaining and corroboration rules are proof the rules, plays a corroborative proof function and limiting the discretion of judges. Full study of corroborative evidence in civil procedure rules to use, helps to perfect evidence rules of civil procedure and civil systems.

  16. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  17. Challenges in PFBR civil construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civil works of PFBR has posed numerous design and construction challenges. Eight safety related nuclear buildings of PFBR are founded on a single raft, first of its kind in Indian nuclear Reactors. Construction of eight interconnected buildings on the common raft has been challenge for construction material transportation. The construction of Nuclear Island Connected Buildings (NICB) raft was completed in three and a half months. This massive 100mx100m raft for NICB, requiring 35000 cubic meter of concrete was undertaken in twelve pours. This Herculean task required storage of massive quantities of raw materials and ice. The construction of Turbo Generator (TG) building including TG mat and deck and interconnection with NICB posed enormous construction challenges that were well planned and executed. The intake and outfall structures too are exemplary construction handled effectively at PFBR. The excavation for the nuclear and power islands was large and deep. Rock out crops were found starting at various depths of excavation, requiring extensive planning controlled blasting and mechanization in excavation. This also required innovative dewatering procedures in sandy terrain often mixed with clay. Ground water table at PFBR site being high, water proofing for massive underground structure of PFBR was required to be carefully engineered and handled. This started with innovative grouting of excavated strata below the raft till required permeability was met and bone dry condition was achieved for laying of waterproofing membranes. Concurrent construction and regulatory reviews and stage wise clearance for civil construction required dynamic construction planning and sequencing. The scope of civil construction in PFBR expands to critical steel fabricated structures integrated with civil works. This includes huge embedment erected to very close tolerances. Large size panels for upper lateral, lower lateral and bottom shields were fabricated to intricate contours with

  18. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  19. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  20. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  1. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP)

  2. Introducing the Civil Wars mediation (CWM) dataset

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Mediation is one of the few mechanisms the international community can deploy that will affect civil wars. This article introduces the dataset on mediation in civil wars – termed the Civil War Mediation (CWM) dataset. This is the first dataset to focus solely on civil war mediation. These data contribute to the present state of quantitative research on mediation in three important respects: the data are collected for the period of 1946–2004, are organized by mediation cases and by civil war e...

  3. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Rrustem Qehaja; Elza Bajrami

    2016-01-01

    This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it ...

  4. The Civil War in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Liakhovsky, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Author analyses (a) the causes leading to the Afghan Civil War 1979-1989 (the war is above all the result of global rivalries between the super-power states and conflicting political systems); (b) Politburo decision to send Soviet troops into Afghanistan (there is reason to believe that the leaders of the Soviet Union became "victims" of strategic misinformation, skillfully put into effect by American intelligence agencies); (c) the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan (brought about an...

  5. Civil service employment statistics 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Livesey; Craig Taylor; Pete Jones

    2007-01-01

    Presents a summary of annual statistics, previously produced by the Cabinet Office and now the responsibility of ONS.This article presents a summary of annual Civil Service statistics for the year ending 30 September 2006, as published in July 2007. Previously produced by the Cabinet Office, responsibility for the collection and publication of these statistics is now with the Office for National Statistics (ONS). This transfer of responsibility was outlined in an ‘In brief’ article in the Feb...

  6. Civil engineering for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power plant structures are conspicuously visible and have an impact on our landscape. In the opinion of a critical public, a successful external design can greatly enhance acceptance of an undertaking and its plants. This paper considers the subjects - utilization of by-products, aggregation of series experience in the construction of nuclear power plants, architecture in power plant construction, water works for adequate cooling water supply and also quality assurance in civil engineering and optimum application of electronic data processing. (orig.)

  7. EXPERIMENTING TOWARDS CIVIL SOCIETY RESILIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Engelbach, Wolf; Kloyber, Christian; Rigaud, Eric; Wendt, Willi

    2015-01-01

    International audience Civil Society Resilience is an area of crisis management that is complementary to professional response. Crisis managers and response organizations need to integrate individuals, communities and local governments in their management efforts, among others by efficient crisis communication via media and the mobilization and handling of citizens as spontaneous volunteers. DRIVER aims at a campaign of experiments: organizational concepts and IT-solutions will be iterativ...

  8. Civil Applications of Safeguards Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The events of September 11 have cast a new light on the perceived security of the world's nuclear facilities. Although concerns have persisted that governments might want to divert nuclear material from civil use to secret weapons programs - recent developments in North Korea validate such concerns - the terrorist attacks on US soil have inspired new fears for nuclear sites of insider threats that, if acted upon, could result in either outright sabotage of the facility or diversion of materials, potentially for future terrorist activities. Further, these concerns have increased the importance of preventing material stolen from nuclear facilities in countries with relatively weak security measures from being trafficked illicitly to and used against prime terrorist targets (industrialized countries of Europe and North America). Without international agreements and standards to guide their efforts, the international nonproliferation community now faces these newly emerged challenges of how to protect nuclear materials from insider threats and how to block diverted materials from reaching terrorist hands. The following paper will explore opportunities for agreed-upon and proven integrated safeguards equipment to be used both to counter the insider threat at nuclear facilities by automatically supervising oversight authorities, and to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by observing personnel and procedures at civil installations. To conclude, the paper will look to future civil applications of safeguards equipment as support for international counter-terrorism and security efforts

  9. The demography of extraterrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried out within the last ten years on the nature and distribution of extraterrestrial intelligent life are reviewed. Arguments for the absence of intelligent life in the Galaxy based on the assumption that at least some of these would have engaged in colonization and for the presence of colonies of extraterrestrials in some undiscovered location in the solar system are presented, and it is noted that both these views rest on the notion that interstellar travel can be achieved at high velocities in very large vehicles, which has been questioned. Alternative suggestions concerning interstellar exploration by automated probes and the possible extended time scale and motivation for galactic colonization are pointed out. Attention is then given to arguments for the extreme smallness of one of the factors in the Drake equation used to estimate the number of communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Galaxy, including the frequency of single stars, the likelihood that planets with the correct initial composition and conditions for life are at the proper distance from their stars, the probability of the formation of DNA and the origin of life, and the time for the evolution of intelligence. It is concluded that it seems likely that other civilizations exist in the Galaxy, although the number and distribution of such civilizations may only be determined by the detection of one or more examples.

  10. Civil use of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the civilian exploitation of depleted uranium is briefly reviewed. Different scenarios relevant to its use are discussed in terms of radiation exposure for workers and the general public. The case of the aircraft accident which occurred in Amsterdam in 1992 involving a fire, is discussed in terms of the radiological exposure to bystanders. All information given has been obtained on the basis of an extensive literature search and are not based on measurements performed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements

  11. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  12. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  13. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  14. The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This monograph is a testament to the efforts of many people overcoming multiple technical challenges encountered while developing the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. The Ames involvement with the tilt rotor aircraft began in 1957 with investigations of the performance and dynamic behavior of the Bell XV-3 tilt rotor aircraft. At that time, Ames Research Center was known as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As we approach the new millennium, and after more than 40 years of effort and the successful completion of our initial goals, it is appropriate to reflect on the technical accomplishments and consider the future applications of this unique aircraft class, the tilt rotor. The talented engineers, technicians, managers, and leaders at Ames have worked hard with their counterparts in the U.S. rotorcraft industry to overcome technology barriers and to make the military and civil tilt rotor aircraft safer, environmentally acceptable, and more efficient. The tilt rotor aircraft combines the advantages of vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, inherent to the helicopter, with the forward speed and range of a fixed wing turboprop airplane. Our studies have shown that this new vehicle type can provide the aviation transportation industry with the flexibility for highspeed, long-range flight, coupled with runway-independent operations, thus having a significant potential to relieve airport congestion. We see the tilt rotor aircraft as an element of the solution to this growing air transport problem.

  15. Improving aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, F. P.; Klineberg, J. M.; Kramer, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations conducted by a NASA task force concerning the development of aeronautical fuel-conservation technology are considered. The task force estimated the fuel savings potential, prospects for implementation in the civil air-transport fleet, and the impact of the technology on air-transport fuel use. Propulsion advances are related to existing engines in the fleet, to new production of current engine types, and to new engine designs. Studies aimed at the evolutionary improvement of aerodynamic design and a laminar flow control program are discussed and possibilities concerning the use of composite structural materials are examined.

  16. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  17. Structural integrity in aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the current design philosophies for achieving long, efficient, and reliable service in aircraft structures. The strengths and weaknesses of these design philosophies and their demonstrated records of success are discussed. The state of the art has not been developed to the point where designing can be done without major test inspection and maintenance programs. A broad program of research is proposed through which a viable computerized design scheme will be provided during the next decade. The program will organize and correlate existing knowledge on fatigue and fracture behavior, identify gaps in this knowledge, and guide specific research to upgrade design capabilities.

  18. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  19. Altus aircraft on runway

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  20. Radial cylinder aircraft engines

    OpenAIRE

    Šimíček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Práce je zaměřena na konstrukční řešení letadlových hvězdicových motorů. Úvod je pojednáním o historii letadlových hvězdicových motorů a jejich vývoji v historickém kontextu. Druhá část je zaměřena na konstrukci letadlových hvězdicových motorů, následně jsou uvedena některá zajímavá konstrukční řešení a porovnání s motorem jiného druhu konstrukce. The bachelor's thesis is focused on design of aircraft radial engines. Home is a treatise on the history of aircraft radial engines and their de...

  1. Aviation industry-research in aircraft finance

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrenthal, Joachim C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft values are key to aircraft financing decisions: Aircraft values act as a source of security for providers of debt capital and lessors failing to re-place aircraft, and as a source of upside potential to equity investors. Yet, aircraft values cannot be precisely and continuously monitored. This is because neither actual primary nor secondary aircraft transaction prices are disclosed. Various types of third party valuation estimates exist, but relying solely on third party appraisa...

  2. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT (PART1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Meyer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sources maintain that the role played by air power in the 1973 Yom Kippur War was important. Other interpretations state that control of air space over the battlefield areas, (either by aircraft or anti-aircraft defences, was vital.

  3. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1998-01-01

    Different phases of realisation to Point 1 : zone of the ATLAS experiment After watching this film you can get the view of the civil engineering work at POINT1 where the ATLAS will be built. 03-11-1998 The video starts with the view of the POINT1 taken from the roof of the building 33. 04-11-1998 View of the installation of the entrance of the SDX1 18/19-11-1998 Installation of the rafters to the building PX15

  4. Noviolencia, desobediencia civil y ejemplaridad

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo), sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una edu...

  5. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  6. Diffusion Models and Global Civil Society

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut K. Anheier; Katz, Hagai; Lam, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    In its focus on the relationships between civil society activity across the political spectrum, communications and democratic change, Global Civil Society 2007/8 explores how activists and organisations are exploiting the effects of globalisation to create or expand spaces for debate and discussion, often using new forms of communications, even in closed regimes such as Burma, Iran and China. In addition to a focus on the civil society activity in illiberal regimes, this edition of the Yearbo...

  7. Civil Society di Masyarakat Muslim: Pengalaman Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamhari Jamhari

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a study on democracy and civil society in non-Western countries. Like other discourse on democracy and modernization, civil society emerged in the West with its specific culture and tradition. Therefore the development of discourse on civil society in non-Western countries has raised a question: Is a social system that emerged in a particular culture compatible to a society with different culture and tradition? Among other things, the book edited by Robert W. Hefner i...

  8. COMPULSORY INSURANCE OF CIVIL LIABILITY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the main trends of compulsory insurance of civil liability in Russia : problems, trends and prospectsInsurance of civil liability – one of the popular forms of distribution and security in the world. The essence of compulsory insurance of civil responsibility is to protect the property interests of individuals. The development of liability insurance goes along with technological progress and reinforced by various laws and regulations, it touches almost all areas of life.

  9. Examining Conflict Escalation Within the Civilizations Context

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Bolks; Richard Stoll

    2003-01-01

    Samuel Huntington's article and book on the clash of civilizations has created a great deal of controversy and interest. The focus of this is his assertion that in the post-Cold War era, there will be significant conflict between states from Western civilization and states from Islamic civilization. This assertion has been the subject of a number of systematic empirical studies (Henderson, 1997, 1998; Henderson and Tucker, 2001; Russett, Oneal and Cox, 2000; Chiozza, 2002). These studies shar...

  10. To the theory of civil society

    OpenAIRE

    Abdibekov Nazarbay; Baimakhanova Dina Muratovna

    2015-01-01

    Main goal of activity of government and the Kazakhstan reforms in the fundamental principle is construction and development of the constitutional state and civil society. The concept of development of civil society and formation of the modern open state allow solving problems of interaction of the population and authorities. The democracy in its full realization provides differentiation of civil society and state by means of certain mechanisms of influence of citizens on activity of governmen...

  11. Poverty and Civil War: Revisiting the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Djankov, Simeon; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has interpreted the correlation between per capita income and civil war as evidence that poverty is a main determinant of conflict. In this paper, we find that the relationship between poverty and civil war is spurious and is accounted for by historical phenomena that jointly determine income evolution and conflict. In particular, the statistical association between poverty and civil wars disappears once we include country fixed effects. Also, using cross-section data for 19...

  12. Civil society organizations, participation and budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Willmore, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The author defines terms and concepts discussed in an Expert Group Meeting on Civil Society Participation in Fiscal Policy held at UN headquarters in New York City. He addresses first the question, What is civil society? The term is used in varied ways by different writers, which makes communication difficult and impedes clarity of thought. Second, he attempts to categorize and synthesize the many ways that civil society participates in the budget process.

  13. CIVIL AVIATION CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sainan

    2013-01-01

    With the social and economic development, the civil aviation industry of China is experiencing rapid growth. This growth will lead to more CO2 emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions and greenhouse effect are already serious problems especially in China, but also all over the world. Civil aviation has brought environmental pollution in the context of improving social activity and economic growth. Because of civil aviation, the rapid increase of the total amount of air pollutants are also in...

  14. Investigation aimed at studying aircraft landing system guidance errors emerging due to multipath propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Ilnitskiy, Ludvig Ya.; Sibruk, L. V.

    1995-01-01

    The landing system radio beacons used in civil aviation offer an extensive guidance zone where the output parameters are normalized. When operating the system, the signals multipath propagation is the main destabilizing factor resulting in the aircraft angular altitude accuracy measurement decrease. The radio beacons control systems cannot in principle measure parameters in a definite point of the guidance zone, and the influence of the airfield local objects can be established either through...

  15. Legal regulation of aircraft engine emissions in the age of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J

    2011-01-01

    Although the contribution of international civil aviation to climate change seems small (with a global share of just 3.5 percent of emissions of CO2), the projected growth in air traffic means that it is highly significant. There is thus an urgent need to explore legal regulations for limiting and/or reducing the adverse impacts of aircraft emissions on the environment. This thesis examines the progress which has been made on international aviation emissions abatement and provi...

  16. Moral autonomy, civil liberties, and Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, J

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the associations among moral autonomy, civil liberties and Confucianism. Concept of moral autonomy; Elements of moral living; Application of moral autonomy in Confucian ethics; Theories of freedom.

  17. Gauging the Magnitude of Civilization Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Glynn Ellis

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies of Huntington’s suggestion of a clash of civilizations have found no support for it. This study does not reanalyze his thesis, but rather focuses on specific features of the different-civilization conflict he theorizes about. Using empirical analysis I find that different-civilization conflict is more prevalent than same-civilization conflict, and is therefore appropriate for continued scholarly examination. Even so, I conclude that over time it is not only shrinking as a p...

  18. Radio communications with extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotelnikov, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    Communications between civilizations within our galaxy at the present level of radio engineering is possible, although civilizations must begin to search for each other to achieve this. If an extra-terrestrial civilization possessing a technology at our level wishes to make itself known and will transmit special radio signals to do this, then it can be picked up by us at a distance of several hundreds of light years using already existing radio telescopes and specially built radio receivers. If it wishes, this civilization can also send us information without awaiting our answer.

  19. Thin tailored composite wing for civil tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1994-01-01

    The tiltrotor aircraft is a flight vehicle which combines the efficient low speed (i.e., take-off, landing, and hover) characteristics of a helicopter with the efficient cruise speed of a turboprop airplane. A well-known example of such vehicle is the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. The high cruise speed and range constraints placed on the civil tiltrotor require a relatively thin wing to increase the drag-divergence Mach number which translates into lower compressibility drag. It is required to reduce the wing maximum thickness-to-chord ratio t/c from 23% (i.e., V-22 wing) to 18%. While a reduction in wing thickness results in improved aerodynamic efficiency, it has an adverse effect on the wing structure and it tends to reduce structural stiffness. If ignored, the reduction in wing stiffness leads to susceptibility to aeroelastic and dynamic instabilities which may consequently cause a catastrophic failure. By taking advantage of the directional stiffness characteristics of composite materials the wing structure may be tailored to have the necessary stiffness, at a lower thickness, while keeping the weight low. The goal of this study is to design a wing structure for minimum weight subject to structural, dynamic and aeroelastic constraints. The structural constraints are in terms of strength and buckling allowables. The dynamic constraints are in terms of wing natural frequencies in vertical and horizontal bending and torsion. The aeroelastic constraints are in terms of frequency placement of the wing structure relative to those of the rotor system. The wing-rotor-pylon aeroelastic and dynamic interactions are limited in this design study by holding the cruise speed, rotor-pylon system, and wing geometric attributes fixed. To assure that the wing-rotor stability margins are maintained a more rigorous analysis based on a detailed model of the rotor system will need to ensue following the design study. The skin-stringer-rib type architecture is used for the wing

  20. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  1. Research on aircraft trailing vortex detection based on laser's multiplex information echo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan-xiang; Wu, Yong-hua; Hu, Yi-hua; Lei, Wu-hu

    2010-10-01

    Airfoil trailing vortex is an important reason for the crash, and vortex detection is the basic premise for the civil aeronautics boards to make the flight measures and protect civil aviation's security. So a new method of aircraft trailing vortex detection based on laser's multiplex information echo has been proposed in this paper. According to the classical aerodynamics theories, the formation mechanism of the trailing vortex from the airfoil wingtip has been analyzed, and the vortex model of Boeing 737 in the taking-off phase has also been established on the FLUENT software platform. Combining with the unique morphological structure characteristics of trailing vortex, we have discussed the vortex's possible impact on the frequency, amplitude and phase information of laser echo, and expounded the principle of detecting vortex based on fusing this information variation of laser echo. In order to prove the feasibility of this detecting technique, the field experiment of detecting the vortex of civil Boeing 737 by laser has been carried on. The experimental result has shown that the aircraft vortex could be found really in the laser scanning area, and its diffusion characteristic has been very similar to the previous simulation result. Therefore, this vortex detection means based on laser's multiplex information echo was proved to be practicable relatively in this paper. It will provide the detection and identification of aircraft's trailing vortex a new way, and have massive research value and extensive application prospect as well.

  2. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  3. The American South: From Civil Rights Struggle to Civil Rights Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Dorit Wagner

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the American South has become the platform for an authenticity seeking tourism industry. Former sites of civil rights action have been revived and transformed into tourist attractions. The following paper introduces the notion of so-called civil rights tourism and presents a critical analysis of current sites of civil rights commemoration throughout the American South.

  4. Toward a human-centered aircraft automation philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of automation in civil aircraft is examined in order to discern trends in the respective roles and functions of automation technology and the humans who operate these aircraft. The effects of advances in automation technology on crew reaction is considered and it appears that, though automation may well have decreased the frequency of certain types of human errors in flight, it may also have enabled new categories of human errors, some perhaps less obvious and therefore more serious than those it has alleviated. It is suggested that automation could be designed to keep the pilot closer to the control of the vehicle, while providing an array of information management and aiding functions designed to provide the pilot with data regarding flight replanning, degraded system operation, and the operational status and limits of the aircraft, its systems, and the physical and operational environment. The automation would serve as the pilot's assistant, providing and calculating data, watching for the unexpected, and keeping track of resources and their rate of expenditure.

  5. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the Sievert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milli-sieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft Various results obtained are presented. (authors)

  6. Modeling of Wake-vortex Aircraft Encounters. Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonya T.

    1999-01-01

    There are more people passing through the world's airports today than at any other time in history. With this increase in civil transport, airports are becoming capacity limited. In order to increase capacity and thus meet the demands of the flying public, the number of runways and number of flights per runway must be increased. In response to the demand, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in conjunction with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), airport operators, and the airline industry are taking steps to increase airport capacity without jeopardizing safety. Increasing the production per runway increases the likelihood that an aircraft will encounter the trailing wake-vortex of another aircraft. The hazard of a wake-vortex encounter is that heavy load aircraft can produce high intensity wake turbulence, through the development of its wing-tip vortices. A smaller aircraft following in the wake of the heavy load aircraft will experience redistribution of its aerodynamic load. This creates a safety hazard for the smaller aircraft. Understanding this load redistribution is of great importance, particularly during landing and take-off. In this research wake-vortex effects on an encountering 10% scale model of the B737-100 aircraft are modeled using both strip theory and vortex-lattice modeling methods. The models are then compared to wind tunnel data that was taken in the 30ft x 60ft wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Comparisons are made to determine if the models will have acceptable accuracy when parts of the geometry are removed, such as the horizontal stabilizer and the vertical tail. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to observe how accurately the models could match the experimental data if there was a 10% error in the circulation strength. It was determined that both models show accurate results when the wing, horizontal stabilizer, and vertical tail were a part of the geometry. When the horizontal

  7. Auxiliary power unit noise of Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jimmy S. W.; Yang, S. J. Eric

    Most modern civil aircraft have an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) which provides compressed air for engine starting and the air-conditioning system on ground and electrical power for aircraft use both on-ground and in-fligth. It is basically a gas turbine engine and it consists of a compressor section, a turbine section, and an accessory drive section. For Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft, the APU is located inside a compartment in the tail section of the aircraft and is completely enclosed by a sound-reduction fire-proof titanium shroud. APU noise is one of the major noise sources at many airports and is extremely important for a densely populated city such as Hong Kong. The noise from APU can affect many people, including ground crew aircraft maintenance staff, and people living in the vicinity of the airport. However, there is very little information available in the literature about APU noise. This paper describes the noise measurement method and presents the measurement results for APUs of one B747 and two B737 aircraft under both 'loaded' and 'no-load' conditions.

  8. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  9. ATLAS Civil Engineering Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Vialis

    1999-01-01

    ATLAS Civil Engineering - Point 1 In the film you can see various stages of construction in Point 1: that is the experiment zone for ATLAS experimentation. One part of the video is filmed on the surface of Point 1. Therefore you can get the view of the hall SX 1 and the cranes. Cranes are located close to the ridge of the hall roof. The film gives you the view of the hall that covers the caps and the wells to underground cavern where the experiment will be implemented. The machinery for excavation lifts and cranes as well as the stock areas can also be seen. There are iron mounting and concrete works too

  10. Radiation meters for civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical requirements for the radiation meters used in civil defence are specified in the guide. The aim of the requirements is to quarantee sufficient measurement accuracy and reliable operation even in extreme environmental conditions. The guide is based on the following standards: (1) IEC 846 'Beta, X and gamma radiation dose equivalent and dose equivalent rate meters for use in radiation protection', (2) IEC 1017-1 'Portable, transportable of installed X or gamma radiation ratemeters for environmental monitoring, part 1: Ratemeters', and (3) IEC 45 B (Secretariat) 104 'Direct reading, personnel dose equivalent and/or dose equivalent rate monitors for X, gamma and high energy beta radiation'. (12 refs., 5 tabs.)

  11. Civil defense should be mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts

  12. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  13. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  14. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  15. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  16. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard....

  17. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  18. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  19. Citizenship, Democratic Participation, and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    the relationship between market, state, civil society and family has been under restructuring due to the financial crisis and the retrenchment of the welfare state. This article tries to establish a frame for understanding the potential role of civil society organizations and the importance of...

  20. The Civil Rights Commission Must Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gerald A.

    2007-01-01

    Columnist George Will and others have questioned the continuing need for a federal civil rights commission, because civil rights protections have been on the books since 1964. The chairman of the Commission, Gerald Reynolds, here responds that practitioners of critical legal theory, advocates of the Akaka-Secession bill, some proponents of…

  1. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  2. Active Center of Islamic Dialogue Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Moghimi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that an essay have introduced about Dialogue Civilizations, at first must be start with a definition about it. Obviously, this simple definition is almost difficult. Defining of Dialogue Civilizations is complex and difficult as far as it need to a vast range of definitions. In this essay will argue that how ever definition of Dialogue Civilization is different, can only seek as specific of intemporall and special situations that are in real-life. As well as this essay emphasize to practice of environmental (realm in Islamic countries. The philosophy of this essay is that, what is the share of Islamic environments with regard to looking at Civilizations special phenomena. The first attitude is that Islamic civilization includes different spaces around the globe. The second attitude is that Islamic Civilization includes developing of other Civilizations realm. The third is that in the realm of Islamic Civilization live different human life and this is an important starting point for Cultural Dialogue in the Islamic countries together. The fourth is that, there are expanding (space, population, political systems, organs and economic is different, that we will describe them in this essay.

  3. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  4. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  5. Native Americans and the Civil War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Arrell Morgan

    1985-01-01

    Details combat and conflicts between Native Americans and settlers before, during, and following the Civil War. Shows how the involvement of tribes in the Civil War and Reconstruction diminished their martial power and made them certain marks for conquest and relegation to reservations. (JHZ)

  6. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  7. Searching for extra-terrestrial civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindilis, L. M.

    1974-01-01

    The probability of radio interchange with extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed. Difficulties constitute absorption, scattering, and dispersion of signals by the rarified interstellar medium as well as the deciphering of received signals and convergence of semantic concept. A cybernetic approach considers searching for signals that develop from astroengineering activities of extraterrestrial civilizations.

  8. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... issued by the Secretary of Health and Human Services with the approval of the President (45 CFR part 80). ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to...

  9. 49 CFR 235.9 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 235.9 Section 235.9 Transportation... SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of... violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1901, subpart E. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer...

  11. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 42, subparts C, D, E, and G. ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on...

  12. 7 CFR 1735.15 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations...

  13. 76 FR 21223 - Civil War Sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9368 Filed 4-14-11...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8654 of April 12, 2011 Civil War Sesquicentennial By the President of the... in an attack on Fort Sumter. These were the first shots of a civil war that would stretch across...

  14. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... benefits and on equal employment opportunity including 7 CFR parts 15 and 15b; and 45 CFR part 90, as... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will...

  15. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... thereunder, 43 CFR part 17. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative...

  16. Promoting Civil Discourse in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Billie F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…

  17. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such form as may be required by the Director. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply...

  18. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner,...

  19. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Department of Justice Non-Discrimination regulations 28 CFR part 42, subparts C, D, E, and G. ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that...

  20. 38 CFR 21.7310 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... her jurisdiction. See part 18 of this chapter. These equal opportunity laws are: (1) Title VI,...

  1. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.21...

  2. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific...

  3. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1846 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil action. 493.1846 Section 493.1846 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1846 Civil action. If...

  5. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.

    This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter…

  6. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yu; Yin Hailian; Zhang Shuai; Yu Xiongqing

    2014-01-01

    Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environ-ment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emis-sion in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Orga-nization (ICAO) aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent) per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emis-sions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC) are performed with five geom-etry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8%in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8%in greenhouse gases.

  7. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  8. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emissions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC are performed with five geometry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8% in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8% in greenhouse gases.

  9. A mathematical model of aircraft for evaluating the effects of shielding structure on aircrew exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influence of the aircraft structures and contents on the exposure of aircrew to the galactic component of cosmic rays, a mathematical model of an aeroplane has been developed. The irradiation of the mathematical model in the cosmic ray environment has been simulated using the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. Effective dose and ambient dose-equivalent rates have been determined inside the aircraft at several locations along the fuselage at a typical civil aviation altitude. A significant effect of the shielding of aircraft structures has been observed on the ambient dose-equivalent rates, while the impact on the effective dose rates seems to be minor. Care should be taken in positioning the detectors onboard when the measurements are aimed at validating the codes. (authors)

  10. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  11. VTOL to Transonic Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cyclogyro, an aircraft propulsion concept with the potential for VTOL to the lower bounds of transonic flight, is conceptually simple but structurally and...

  12. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  13. Concept development of a Mach 3.0 high-speed civil transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, A. Warner; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.; Geiselhart, Karl; Martin, Glenn L.; Shields, E. W.; Swanson, E. E.; Coen, Peter G.; Morris, Shelby J., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A baseline concept for a Mach 3.0 high-speed civil transport concept was developed as part of a national program with the goal that concepts and technologies be developed which will enable an effective long-range high-speed civil transport system. The Mach 3.0 concept reported represents an aggressive application of advanced technology to achieve the design goals. The level of technology is generally considered to be that which could have a demonstrated availability date of 1995 to 2000. The results indicate that aircraft are technically feasible that could carry 250 passengers at Mach 3.0 cruise for a 6500 nautical mile range at a size, weight and performance level that allows it to fit into the existing world airport structure. The details of the configuration development, aerodynamic design, propulsion system design and integration, mass properties, mission performance, and sizing are presented.

  14. Challenges in Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone A

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the problem of aircraft noise prediction using theoretical methods. The problem is set in context with the needs at several levels to produce noise characterisation from commercial aircraft powered by gas turbine engines. We describe very briefly the computational model (whilst referring the reader to the appropriate literature), and provide examples of noise predictions and comparisons with measured data, where possible. We focus on the issue of stochastic analysi...

  15. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  16. Variable-Speed Power-Turbine for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchezky, Mark; Cruzen, G. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Turbine design concepts were studied for application to a large civil tiltrotor transport aircraft. The concepts addressed the need for high turbine efficiency across the broad 2:1 turbine operating speed range representative of the notional mission for the aircraft. The study focused on tailoring basic turbine aerodynamic design design parameters to avoid the need for complex, heavy, and expensive variable geometry features. The results of the study showed that good turbine performance can be achieved across the design speed range if the design focuses on tailoring the aerodynamics for good tolerance to large swings in incidence, as opposed to optimizing for best performance at the long range cruise design point. A rig design configuration and program plan are suggested for a dedicated experiment to validate the proposed approach.

  17. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  18. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  19. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  20. Usability Evaluation Survey for Identifying Design Issues in Civil Flight Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozve Aminian, Negin; Izzuddin Romli, Fairuz; Wiriadidjaja, Surjatin

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomics assessment for cockpit in civil aircraft is important as the pilots spend most of their time during flight on the seating posture imposed by its design. The improper seat design can cause discomfort and pain, which will disturb the pilot's concentration in flight. From a conducted survey, it is found that there are some issues regarding the current cockpit design. This study aims to highlight potential mismatches between the current cockpit design and the ergonomic design recommendations for anthropometric dimensions and seat design, which could be the roots of the problems faced by the pilots in the cockpit.

  1. Tropical Climate Dynamics and Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, G. H.; Yancheva, G.; Peterson, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James P. Kennett has been a leader in the area of rapid climate change. Jim and his son Douglas J. Kennett, a scientific archeologist, were among the first to make a serious effort to combine high-quality climate data with archeological information to study the impact of climate on societies. They argued about the 'strong relationship between climatically induced changes in environmental conditions and social, political, and economic responses' in coastal California during the past 2 millennia. One tropical climate archive with an appropriate memory for the most relevant sub-centennial to sub-decadal scale climate swings is the anoxic Cariaco Basin off northern Venezuela. Millimeter to micrometer-scale geochemical data in the laminated sediments of the Cariaco Basin have been interpreted to reflect variations in the hydrological cycle and the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical South America during the past millennia. These data with decadal to (sub)annual resolution show that the Terminal Collapse of the Classic Maya civilization occurred during an extended dry period. In detail, the Cariaco record reveals evidence for three separate droughts during the period of Maya downfall, each lasting a decade or less. These data suggest that climate change was potentially one immediate cause of the demise of Mayan civilization, with a century-scale decline in rainfall putting a general strain on resources and several multi-year events of more intense drought pushing Mayan society over the edge. Here, we present a new data set of comparable quality and resolution from Southern China. In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Boelling-Alleroed warming, during the Younger Dryas, and

  2. Competencies Framework for Civil Engineer in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanudej Kudngaongarm

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability and the talent that civil engineers apply in the development process. A competency framework defines a set of knowledge, skills, and behaviors that professionals must have to excel in their careers. A competency framework facilitates the identification of training needs and guides the design of a professional development program. In this paper we propose a competency framework for civil engineers, whose design is based on the activities and interactions that they perform during the civil development process. Thus, competency framework for civil engineers defines a set of knowledge, abilities and key behaviors, with special emphasis in the soft skills. The organization that adopts this framework must define and integrate the specific competencies needed by for civil engineers to allow them to fulfill their goals.

  3. Politicization of Senior Civil Servants in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea NAHTIGAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the civil service system reform, the new normative framework adopted in 2002 introduced a new management arrangement in public administration, whose consequence was the transition of senior positions within ministries, bodies within ministries, and government offices from political officials to positional civil servants with a limited term of office, who have thus become the most senior civil servants, called administrative managers. Based on extensive empirical research and statistical data, this article provides an in-depth analysis of the status and position of administrative managers, which is intended to serve as a test whether the apex of the Slovenian administrative system is politicized and in what form. In the so-called new democracies, politicization most often is manifested as a violation of the principles of political neutrality characteristic of a professional civil service, through personalized and biased appointments of senior civil servants and in the low degree of protection against lay-offs of civil servants on political grounds. Administrative managers thus often have to decide between political susceptibility and trustworthiness versus professionalism and professional accountability, for their tasks belong to the administrative and political realms. This poses a question about the degree of influence politicians exert on administrative managers and the rate of success with which administrative managers manage to retain their professionalism and independence, which should represent the key characteristics of a senior civil servant.

  4. An Analysis of Ball Lightning-Aircraft Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, R. K.; Keul, A. G.; Bychkov, V.

    2009-12-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Research and design have created aircraft that withstand average lightning strikes. Ball lightning (BL), a metastable, rare lightning type, is also observed from (and within) aircraft. Science and the media focused on individual BL incidents and did not analyze general patterns. Lacking established incident reporting channels, most BL observations are still passed on as “aviation lore”. To overcome this unsatisfactory condition, the authors collected and analyzed an international data bank of 87 BL-aircraft case histories from 1938 to 2007. 37 Russian military and civil BL reports were provided by the third author. Of the whole sample, 36 (41%) cases occurred over Russia/RF/SU, 24 (28%) over USA/Canada, 23 (26%) over Europe, and 4 (5%) over Asia/Pacific. Various types of military (US: C-54/141, B-52, KC-97/135 Stratotankers, C130, P-3 Orion, RF/SU: PO-2, IL, SU, TU, MIG; Nimrod, Saab-105) and civilian aircraft (US: DC-3/6, Metroliner, B-727/737/757/777, RF/SU: AN, TU; VC-10, Fokker F-28, CRJ-200), as well as general aviation (C-172, Falcon-20), were involved. BL reports show a flat annual April to August maximum. At BL impact, 15 aircraft were climbing, 7 descending; most were at cruising altitude. 42 (48%) reported BL outside the aircraft, 37 (43%) inside, 7 (8%) both in-and outside. No damage was reported in 34 (39%) cases, 39 objects (45%) caused minor damage, 11 major damage (13%), 3 even resulted in military aircraft losses. 3 objects caused minor, 1 major crew injury. 23 damage cases were associated with BL inside the fuselage; all 4 crew injury cases were of that BL type. Mean size is described as 25 cm, sometimes over 1 m, color 30% in the yellow-red, 10% in the blue-green spectral region, 8% white, duration around 10 seconds, sometimes over 1 minute. 33 (38%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. Thunderstorm conditions were reported by 25 (29%) of the observers, 9 (10%) said there

  5. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  6. Noviolencia, desobediencia civil y ejemplaridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia María de Mingo Rodríguez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta mostrar la íntima conexión entre el espíritu que anima la noviolenciaen Mahatma Gandhi y la modalidad de práctica de dicha noviolencia que representala desobediencia civil. No sólo se aborda aquella noviolencia y esta desobediencia en susrasgos básicos, destacándose la perplejidad que suscita la noviolencia en su asimetría eirreprocidad (respecto al acto agresivo, sino que expresamente se intenta articularlasde cara a pensar la relevancia de ambos conceptos para una educación y filosofía para lapaz. Es por ello por lo que se hace imprescindible traer a primer plano la importanciadel compromiso, la responsabilidad y el sacrificio que comporta la noviolencia, a finde que se los pueda hacer trascender socialmente bajo la modalidad (decisiva en unacultura de paz de ejemplaridad y autoridad, muy relevantes para que la noviolenciagane prestigio social real (y no un prestigio utópico.

  7. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak S. Vede

    2015-01-01

    The excavations carried in Western India have brought to light the important civilization of the Indus Valley. This is the most important civilization of the prehistoric period. The sites of this civilization are Mohenjo-Daro, meaning the Mound at the Dead, on the Indus in Sind and the other Harappa on the Ravi in the Montqomery district of the Punjab. The surrounding region of Moh enjo-Daro is wonderfully fertile and is called even today Nakhlistan or the “Garden of Sind”. Here, the city ...

  8. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  9. Analysis of aircraft maintenance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada S. Sokolović

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addressed several organizational models of aircraft maintenance. All models presented so far have been in use in Air Forces, so that the advantages and disadvantages of different models are known. First it shows the current model of aircraft maintenance as well as its basic characteristics. Then the paper discusses two organizational models of aircraft maintenance with their advantages and disadvantages. The advantages and disadvantages of different models are analyzed based on the criteria of operational capabilities of military units. In addition to operational capabilities, the paper presents some other criteria which should be taken into account in the evaluation and selection of an optimal model of aircraft maintenance. Performing a qualitative analysis of some models may not be sufficient for evaluating the optimum choice for models of maintenance referring to the selected set of criteria from the scope of operational capabilities. In order to choose the optimum model, it is necessary to conduct a detailed economic and technical analysis of individual tactical model maintenance. A high-quality aircraft maintenance organization requires the highest state and army authorities to be involved. It is necessary to set clear objectives for all the elements of modern air force technical support programs based on the given evaluation criteria.

  10. Development and Evaluation of 2-D and 3-D Exocentric Synthetic Vision Navigation Display Concepts for Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, Jason L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) project is developing technologies with practical applications that will help to eliminate low visibility conditions as a causal factor to civil aircraft accidents while replicating the operational benefits of clear day flight operations, regardless of the actual outside visibility condition. The paper describes experimental evaluation of a multi-mode 3-D exocentric synthetic vision navigation display concept for commercial aircraft. Experimental results evinced the situation awareness benefits of 2-D and 3-D exocentric synthetic vision displays over traditional 2-D co-planar navigation and vertical situation displays. Conclusions and future research directions are discussed.

  11. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  12. Women and Western Civilization: Recommendations for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Linda

    1978-01-01

    Presents the assumptions, generalizations, data, and methods central to the development of the History of Women (Women and Western Civilization) course at Des Moines Community College. Provides a course outline and a bibliography of primary and secondary sources. (TP)

  13. Women's History and the Western Civilization Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbaum, Abby Wettan

    1979-01-01

    Compares basic themes in women's history and the Western civilization survey course and concludes that women's studies do not assimilate comfortably because women are not a part of the heroic epics upon which European history is based. (CK)

  14. Civil Disobedience at the Mormon Temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocol, Cleo Fellers

    1981-01-01

    This article chronicles events surrounding the pro-ERA/anti-Mormon civil involvement demonstration by 21 feminists in Bellevue, Washington, on the occasion of the dedication of the Bellevue Mormon Temple. (DB)

  15. Nanotechnology in civil infrastructure a paradigm shift

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Taylor, Peter; Attoh-Okine, Nii O

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology's rapid evolution is facilitating ever more previously unexplored areas of application. This book focuses on the latest advances in the development and characterization of nanotechnology-based civil engineering materials, structures and systems.

  16. A Universal Model of Global Civil Unrest

    CERN Document Server

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, we analyze records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008. We demonstrate that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  17. On the detectivity of advanced galactic civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Even with slow rates of technological advance, extraterrestrial civilizations substantially in our future will have technologies and laws of nature currently inaccessible to us, and will probably have minimal interest in communicating with us. If this communication horizon is about 1000 years in our future, other crude estimates previously published imply that only about .0001 of the technical civilizations in the Galaxy are accessible to us. The mean distance to the nearest such society is then about 10,000 light years. Radio detection of extraterrestrial intelligence seems to imply either (1) much larger telescopes or antenna arrays for the detection of civilizations within our Galaxy than now exist; or (2) attention to the nearer extragalactic systems, with smaller radio telescopes, to detect the very small fraction of very advanced societies which may choose to make their presence known to emerging civilizations via antique communication modes.

  18. Assessing/Optimising Bio-fuel Combustion Technologies for Reducing Civil Aircraft Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Mazlan, Nurul Musfirah

    2012-01-01

    Gas turbines are extensively used in aviation because of their advantageous volume as weight characteristics. The objective of this project proposed was to look at advanced propulsion systems and the close coupling of the airframe with advanced prime mover cycles. The investigation encompassed a comparative assessment of traditional and novel prime mover options including the design, off-design, degraded performance of the engine and the environmental and economic analysis of the system. The ...

  19. 14 CFR 91.313 - Restricted category civil aircraft: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for each front seat. The shoulder harness must be designed to protect each occupant from serious head injury when the occupant experiences the ultimate inertia forces specified in § 23.561(b)(2) of...

  20. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  1. Competencies Framework for Civil Engineer in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Phanudej Kudngaongarm; Chuchai Sujivorakul

    2012-01-01

    The civil engineering industry now faces with many problems such as poorly planned projects, breach of the delivery date, erroneous budget estimation, uncontrolled system functionality changes, and inappropriate documentation that all lead to the dissatisfaction of clients. One of the main concerns of civil engineering industry is to develop the talent of its human resources, since the quality and innovation of its products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, the ability a...

  2. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing number and increase in size of civil engineering works and the growing need for protection measures of the sandy coasts have led to an ever increasing risk of adverse effects on the nature and lan...

  3. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new, with potential for operational applications, but currently not exploited to full advantage. Here we investigate how to optimally assess and monitor the structural health of civil infrastructure usi...

  4. Active interaction control for civil structures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Luo-Jia

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents a civil engineering approach to active control for civil structures. The proposed control technique, termed Active Interaction Control (AIC), utilizes dynamic interactions between different structures, or components of the same structure, to reduce the resonance response of the controlled or primary structure under earthquake excitations. The primary control objective of AIC is to minimize the maximum story drift of the primary structure. This is accomplished by timing th...

  5. The search for signals from extraterrestrial civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. C. G.

    1973-01-01

    The probability that a star has a habitable planet with a communicative civilization is investigated. One approach to the search problem is to assume that the other civilization will do most of the work, which implies that the search is limited to 'supercivilizations' able to transmit detectable signals in all directions all the time. The development of an optimal search strategy is discussed together with questions of the probability of success.

  6. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1988 (31 U.S.C. 3801-3812). Authority: E.O. 12549 (3 CFR, 1986 Comp., p. 189); E.O 12689 (3 CFR, 1989 Comp., p. 235); 20 U.S.C. 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education...

  7. Algorithm project weight calculation aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Абрамова

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process of a complex technical object design on the example of the aircraft, using information technology such as CAD/CAM/CAE-systems, presents the basic models of aircraft which are developed in the process of designing and reflect the different aspects of its structure and function. The idea of control parametric model at complex technical object design is entered, which is a set of initial data for the development of design stations and enables the optimal complex technical object control at all stages of design using modern computer technology. The paper discloses a process of weight design, which is associated with all stages of development aircraft and its production. Usage of a scheduling algorithm that allows to organize weight calculations are carried out at various stages of planning and weighing options to optimize the use of available database of formulas and methods of calculation

  8. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje;

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures. The...... cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft/models to be...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the...

  9. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m3 LH2. This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  10. Search and Rescue Operations of Aircraft in Africa: Some Compelling Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyratne, Ruwantissa I. R.

    2002-01-01

    The world aviation community has felt the compelling need for a well-coordinated global programme for search and rescue operations of aircraft ever since commercial aviation was regulated in 1944. Guidelines and plans of action for search and rescue have therefore been considered critical in the event of an aircraft accident. This fact is eminently brought to bear in the continental regions of Africa and South America in particular, where vast expanses of land are still uninhabited or sparsely populated and controlled flight into terrain (CFIT-where an aircraft may crash on land while still under the control of technical crew) is a common occurrence. There are numerous guidelines that have been adopted under the umbrella of the International Civil Aviation Organization which are already in place for the provision of search and rescue operations pertaining to aircraft. However, when an accident occurs in the territory of a State, there are sensitivities involving the State in which the aircraft concerned was registered and issues of sovereignty which have to be considered. Additionally. issues such as the voluntary nature of the search and rescue services offered. confidentiality, timeliness of such operations, fairness and uniformity all play a critical role. This article addresses the issue of search and rescue operations in Africa and examines in some detail where the world aviation community is right now and where it is headed in this important field of human endeavour.

  11. Energy management strategy for solar-powered high-altitude long-endurance aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for high-altitude solar-powered aircraft is purposed. ► The simulations show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS. ► The proposed EMS is capable to alleviate the power consumed for aircraft during night. ► The main technologies to improve the flight performance of aircraft are analyzed. - Abstract: Development of solar-powered High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft has a great impact on both military and civil aviation industries since its features in high-altitude and energy source can be considered inexhaustible. Owing to the development constraints of rechargeable batteries, the solar-powered HALE aircraft must take amount of rechargeable batteries to fulfill the energy requirement in night, which greatly limits the operation altitude of aircraft. In order to solve this problem, a new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is proposed based on the idea that the solar energy can be partly stored in gravitational potential in daytime. The flight path of HALE aircraft is divided into three stages. During the stage 1, the solar energy is stored in both lithium–sulfur battery and gravitational potential. The gravitational potential is released in stage 2 by gravitational gliding and the required power in stage 3 is supplied by lithium–sulfur battery. Correspondingly, the EMS is designed for each stage. The simulation results show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS, and the power consumed during night can be also alleviated. Comparing with the current EMS, about 23.5% energy is remained in batteries with the proposed EMS during one day–night cycle. The sensitivities of the improvement of crucial technologies to the performance of aircraft are also analyzed. The results show that the enhancement of control and structural system, lithium–sulfur battery, and solar cell are ranked in descending order for the

  12. La desobediencia civil como recurso de la sociedad civil para el alcance de la justicia

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Elvira García GONZÁLEZ

    2006-01-01

    En este escrito se presenta la propuesta de Rawls en torno a la posible desobediencia civil ante una autoridad democrática legítimamente establecida. La desobediencia civil rawlsiana muestra pretensiones antiautoritarias en función del mantenimiento de un orden justo, y cuyo gestor se ubica en la sociedad civil. Ahí se comparten valores tales como la justicia, la diversidad, el respeto mutuo, el sentido de dignidad y el respeto a la libertad. La sociedad civil está conformada por elementos ta...

  13. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  14. Galactic civilizations - Population dynamics and interstellar diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W. I.; Sagan, C.

    1981-01-01

    A model is developed of the interstellar diffusion of galactic civilizations which takes into account the population dynamics of such civilizations. The problem is formulated in terms of potential theory, with a family of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations specifying population growth and diffusion for an organism with advantageous genes that undergoes random dispersal while increasing in population locally, and a population at zero population growth. In the case of nonlinear diffusion with growth and saturation, it is found that the colonization wavefront from the nearest independently arisen galactic civilization can have reached the earth only if its lifetime exceeds 2.6 million years, or 20 million years if discretization can be neglected. For zero population growth, the corresponding lifetime is 13 billion years. It is concluded that the earth is uncolonized not because interstellar spacefaring civilizations are rare, but because there are too many worlds to be colonized in the plausible colonization lifetime of nearby civilizations, and that there exist no very old galactic civilizations with a consistent policy of the conquest of inhabited worlds.

  15. Structural Weight Optimization of Aircraft Wing Component Using FEM Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arockia Ruban M,

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for the civil aviation industry is the reduction of its environmental impact by better fuel efficiency by virtue of Structural optimization. Over the past years, improvements in performance and fuel efficiency have been achieved by simplifying the design of the structural components and usage of composite materials to reduce the overall weight of the structure. This paper deals with the weight optimization of transport aircraft with low wing configuration. The Linear static and Normal Mode analysis were carried out using MSc Nastran & Msc Patran under different pressure conditions and the results were verified with the help of classical approach. The Stress and displacement results were found and verified and hence arrived to the conclusion about the optimization of the wing structure.

  16. Gas dynamics, optics and chemistry of an aircraft condensable wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinats, E.S.; Kashevarov, A.V.; Stasenko, A.L. [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Prediction of the properties of a jet-and-vortex wake from an individual airplane is of great interest as the first step to assessment of the possible global changes in the atmosphere due to the world civil aviation. Several mathematical models of the different regions of an aircraft wake and corresponding numerical results are presented. The axisymmetric exhaust jet was simulated on the base of the well-known k-{epsilon} model of turbulence. Jet chemistry was investigated on the base of kinetic scheme of the gas phase reactions of enriched by including chemisorption by water droplets of several species and by taking into account of the photochemical processes. In the 3D far wake model, the numerical results for distribution of species exhausted by the engines and entrapped by the velocity field of two parallel vortices are shown. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  17. Modeling aircraft emmisions by flight [paper in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Sá Meira de Araújo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The following paper intends to develop a translog model of the pollutants emission in Brazilian air transportation according to the flight stages characteristics (flight distance, aircraft type, etc. The model will focus on the segment of passenger transportation in civil aviation and the statistical model of fuel consumption will be based in a historical Brazilian database from 1997 to 2004. The assessment is performed in two stages. In the first, the translog consumption model is defined and estiamted; in the second, the pollutants emission coefficients are calculated through FAA’s (Federal Aviation Administration spreadsheets. The developed model can be easily processed by computers and through the creation of an user interface can produce a brand new pollutants emission calculator.

  18. Ground control segment for UAS civil applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cuadrado Santolaria, Raúl

    2011-01-01

    The aeronautical industry is in a new era of growth thanks to numerous technological advances. One of them is the UAS; Unmanned Aircraft Systems are able to fly by themselves with autonomous operation capabilities. UAS can advantage manned aircrafts in the so called D-cube applications: Dull, Dirty or Dangerous. Risks and costs can be minimized using UAS since they need no crew and their construction, operation and maintenance costs are comparatively lower. This Master Thesi...

  19. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  20. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  1. Introduction to unmanned aircraft systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Douglas M; Hottman, Stephen B; Shappee, Eric; Most, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Unmanned Aircraft Systems is the editors' response to their unsuccessful search for suitable university-level textbooks on this subject. A collection of contributions from top experts, this book applies the depth of their expertise to identify and survey the fundamentals of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) operations. Written from a nonengineering civilian operational perspective, the book starts by detailing the history of UASs and then explores current technology and what is expected for the future. Covering all facets of UAS elements and operation-including an examination of s

  2. Nondestructive testing of aging aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aircraft fleet in the US military is getting old, averaging over 40 years. These old planes are planned to be used for additional 20-30 years. Some commercial fleets are getting older as well, though not on the same level. Many NDT methods are in practice and new ones being developed. Corrosion and fatigue are the two main sources of damage to aircraft structures and require cost-effective NDT methods to detect and characterize the damage. Current approaches to this difficult task reviewed.

  3. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  4. 49 CFR 1503.703 - Civil penalty letter; referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... civil penalty action and that the matter is closed. (e) Referral for prosecution and collection. If the... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty letter; referral. 1503.703 Section... AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Judicial Assessment of Civil Penalties § 1503.703 Civil penalty...

  5. 33 CFR 1.07-95 - Civil and criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-95 Civil and criminal penalties. (a) If a violation of law or regulation carries both a civil and a criminal penalty... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil and criminal penalties....

  6. Civil Technology Applications. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, Karen

    Teacher and student editions of Civil Technology Applications are one in a series of competency-based instructional materials for drafting and civil technology programs. It includes the technical content and tasks necessary for a student to be employed as a drafter or civil technician in a civil engineering firm. Introductory pages in the teacher…

  7. 32 CFR 935.21 - Civil rights, powers, and duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights, powers, and duties. 935.21 Section... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.21 Civil rights, powers, and duties. In any case in which the civil rights, powers, and duties of any person on Wake Island are not otherwise prescribed...

  8. The Comparative Approach to the Survey of Western Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Fred H.

    1972-01-01

    Through the comparative approach to teaching Western Civilization, the student is confronted by a discussion of some aspect of several civilizations or countries within the same time period instead of a civilization-by-civilization or a country-by-country analysis. (Author/JB)

  9. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil...

  10. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment...

  11. 78 FR 5760 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers 33 CFR Part 326 RIN 0710-AA66 Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation... Engineers (Corps) is proposing to amend its regulations to adjust its Class I civil penalties under the... civil penalties to account for inflation is required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation...

  12. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  13. 49 CFR 599.514 - Assessment of civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of civil penalties. 599.514 Section 599... ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.514 Assessment of civil penalties. (a) Not later... Hearing Officer's assessment of a civil penalty, or decision not to assess a civil penalty. In...

  14. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  15. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  16. Civil Rights for Trafficked Persons: Recommendations for a More Effective Federal Civil Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Lack

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its status as the first comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation to be enacted in the United States, the TVPA fails to sufficiently address human trafficking concerns. It is suggested that the failure of the TVPA is a result of both the prosecutorial focus of the legislation, a focus which tends to overlook victims’ civil rights, and the contingency of TVPA benefits upon adherence to the prosecutorial process. In response to the shortcomings of the TVPA, the legislation was amended by the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2003 (TVPRA to provide a civil remedy for trafficking victims. The civil remedy confers on trafficking victims the private right to vindicate their civil rights and hold their traffickers directly accountable for their exploitative acts. By directly compensating victims, the civil remedy acts as a financial deterrent against traffickers and provides a private enforcement anti-trafficking policy. In pursuing the civil remedy, trafficking victims possess several advantages over the prosecutorial process of the TVPA and other civil causes of action. However, despite its advantages, the civil remedy is infrequently utilized thus frustrating congressional intent that victims advance antitrafficking policy by enforcing a civil remedy against their traffickers.

  17. Residents' Annoyance Responses to Aircraft Noise Events

    OpenAIRE

    United States, National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    1983-01-01

    In a study conducted in the vicinity of Salt Lake City International Airport, community residents reported their annoyance with individual aircraft flyovers during rating sessions conducted in their homes. Annoyance ratings were obtained at different times of the day. Aircraft noise levels were measured, and other characteristics of the aircraft were noted by trained observers. Metrics commonly used for assessing aircraft noise were compared, but none performed significantly better than A-...

  18. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  19. Amendment works of the Korean civil code (Property Law)

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sang Yong

    2001-01-01

    "The Korean Civil Code is currently in the process of amendment. The government expects to submit a proposal for amending the Civil Code to this year's regular session of the National Assembly. However, considering the extent to which the works for amending the Civil Code being in process by the Civil Code amendment committee have thus far advanced, submission of the proposal for Civil Code amendment within this year’s regular session of the National Assembly can be considered ...

  20. Class conflict and civil war duration the FARC insurgency

    OpenAIRE

    Akar, Mine

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of class conflicts on civil war duration. Colombian civil war, the FARC insurgency, is examined from a class-based perspective. I argue that class-based civil wars last longer than non-class based civil wars such as identity conflicts because class conflicts have deeper roots embedded in the social, political, and economic aspects of the society. Through the examination of existing theories in the civil war duration literature, I propose four arguments in the c...

  1. ON THE PROSPECTS FOR SHAPING A CIVIL NATION IN DAGHESTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Bilalov, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Russia's integrity depends on ensuring civil identity as a priority factor in the development of society and the individual. Civil identity is fully realized in a civil nation that gradually takes shape within a particular society. The crisis of multiculturalism in the West triggered by the crisis of the European civilization and culture calls for a revision of certain ideas and theories associated with civil identity. The question is whether the national regions of Russia (including Daghesta...

  2. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  3. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  4. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  5. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  6. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  7. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  8. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  10. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  12. Policy and the evaluation of aircraft noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Wee, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize and test the ideas that (1) people’s subjectivity in relation to aircraft noise is shaped by the policy discourse, (2) this results in a limited number of frames towards aircraft noise, (3) the frames inform people how to think and feel about aircraft noise and (4) the

  13. HUMAN FACTOR IMPACT IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

    OpenAIRE

    MARINKOVIC SRBOLJUB J.; DRENOVAC ALEKSANDAR Z.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft maintenance, as a specific field of military materiel maintenance, is characterized by high reliability standards, based on regulations and technical standards. A system approach to maintenance represents the key element of maintenance quality, while aircraft maintenance staff has a crucial influence on the final outcome of aircraft maintenance.

  14. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... or the sun is more than 6 degrees below the horizon)— (1) Operate an aircraft unless it has...

  15. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  16. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  17. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  18. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  19. Human Response to Aircraft Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.

    2011-01-01

    How can it be that one person is extremely annoyed by the sounds of aircrafts, while his neighbour claims not to be bothered at all? The present thesis attempts to explain this observation by applying a range of quantitative methods to field data gathered among residents living near large airports.

  20. Risk assessment of accident associated with aircraft transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new 1996 IAEA regulation for the transportation of radioactive material states a 90 m/s drop test on unyielding surface for packages transported by air. This figure originates from a statistical analysis on civil aircraft accident during the period 1975 to 1985. A review on the 1983-1989 period demonstrates comparable velocity with a less stringent definition of accident. The statistical analyses are combined with the hardness of the fly-over ground and the impact angle to generate probabilities curves giving the occurrence of a mechanical stress overtaking the drop test velocity. The following steps were carried out: statistical analysis of the accident database from the ICOA (International Civil Aviation Organisation) to appreciate the accident characteristics with special attention to the impact velocity and angle. Modelling of the impact speed in each phase of flight (Take off, Climbing, Cruise, Approach and Landing), in order to evaluate the probability of occurrence of a given crash impact for different flight configurations. Qualitative analysis of recorder failures available in France. As the statistical analysis is based on the available impact speed, a bias can be introduced if major crashes are neglected. In this respect, the qualitative analysis should give some elements to characterize the relationship between the non-availability of the information recorded on the black box and the severity of the accident. (author)

  1. Lao PDR - Civil Service Pay and Compensation Review : Attracting and Motivating Civil Servants

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Lao PDR is at a point on its development trajectory where strategic attention to administrative performance is crucial. An efficient and high-performing civil service, with the compensation and human resource management systems to attract and motivate qualified personnel, will be essential to Lao PDR's development efforts. The ministerial-level Public Administration and Civil Service Autho...

  2. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  3. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F.; Jacquin, L.; Laverdant, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  4. The Impact of the Russian Civil Judicial Proceedings Act of 1864 on the Polish Civil Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Rylski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence, which had already been exerted, and which is still exerted by the Russian Civil Judicial Proceedings Act of November 20, 1864 (CJPA on the Polish civil proceedings. First, the authors present the history of CJPA’s presence in the Polish territories. Next, they discuss the general significance of this act and its solutions for the process of shaping the Polish civil procedure in the interwar period. Finally, they present selected examples of the regulations and solutions that demonstrate the CJPA’s impact on the Polish civil proceedings. The authors conclude that CJPA exerted a minor impact on the pre-war and present Polish procedural regulations in comparison to the other codes, i.e. the Austrian and German codes. Even today, however, one can find in the Polish Code of Civil Procedure some provisions patterned after the CJPA.

  5. Protection of civil rights and technological development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH)

  6. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  7. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  8. ESTABLISHING EFFECTIVE CONTRACT FOR CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochakovsky V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing administrative reform in Russia has been carried out with the help of modern technology and human resources and it has a significant impact on the staff of the civil service - civil servants. This article presents the position of the Government of the Russian Federation, according to which the establishment of effective contract - one of the ways of development, improve the remuneration system for civil servants, public servants themselves assessment of this innovation, presented the implementation of effective regulatory framework contract is indicated by its ideology. The factor affecting the wages of civil servants is a performance indicator; the article lists its views. In different departments, employee performance is evaluated differently in the article presents an assessment of the effectiveness of them. The evaluation of the implementation of effective contract Sergei Filatov, who served as President of the socio-economic and intellectual programs and Dmitry Abzalov - President of the Center for Strategic Communications. Also there was shown the analysis of public servants’ understanding, feasibility and impact of introducing effective contract in the state structures. We have proposed measures to address misunderstandings of the reform civil servants. There are findings as well as possible scenarios after the establishment of effective contract

  9. Concept development of a Mach 4 high-speed civil transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, Christopher S.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Mcgraw, Marvin E., Jr.; Shields, Elwood W.; Swanson, Edward E.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to configure and analyze a 250 passenger, Mach 4 High Speed Civil Transport with a design range of 6500 n.mi. The design mission assumed an all-supersonic cruise segment and no community noise or sonic boom constraints. The study airplane was developed in order to examine the technology requirements for such a vehicle and to provide an unconstrained baseline from which to assess changes in technology levels, sonic boom limits, or community noise constraints in future studies. The propulsion, structure, and materials technologies utilized in the sizing of the study aircraft were assumed to represent a technology availability date of 2015. The study airplane was a derivative of a previously developed Mach 3 concept and utilized advanced afterburning turbojet engines and passive airframe thermal protection. Details of the configuration development, aerodynamic design, propulsion system, mass properties, and mission performance are presented. The study airplane was estimated to weigh approx. 866,000 lbs. Although an aircraft of this size is a marginally acceptable candidate to fit into the world airport infrastructure, it was concluded that the inclusion of community noise or sonic boom constraints would quickly cause the aircraft to grow beyond acceptable limits using the assumed technology levels.

  10. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  11. Nordic visions of the Civil War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten HEIBERG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a rich body of Scandinavian literature written by surviving volunteers of the International Brigades which concerns the Spanish Civil War. However, when it comes to scientific studies the situation is an altogether different one. Only a small number of academic studies can be found available, often limited in scope and of modest quality. The Civil War seems to be of marginal interest to the Nordic research community, which is generally more interested in national history than in European and world history. There are, however, some exceptions to this, as this article will demonstrate. The most interesting conclusion - from an international historiographical point of view - to be drawn from a number of new studies is that the Spanish Civil War produced political and military repercussions in Scandinavia during the German occupation of Denmark and Norway from 1940-1945.

  12. The humaneness of our technical civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is good facing our civilization with a critical distance. It keeps away self-complacency and hybris. What we need is a potential of renewal which must be raised by doubts and challenges. A critical distance is based on the determined approval of our civilization which tries to comply with mankind in a high degree. Civilization is the expression of a realistic picture of man. According to this view freedom shall only be possible because of continuous changes and changes are only possible if there is freedom. Propagating confidence in the undestroyable basic forces of human nature and thus enjoying the present as well as trusting the future: this is our message, our moral task. (orig./HP)

  13. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S. Vede

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The excavations carried in Western India have brought to light the important civilization of the Indus Valley. This is the most important civilization of the prehistoric period. The sites of this civilization are Mohenjo-Daro, meaning the Mound at the Dead, on the Indus in Sind and the other Harappa on the Ravi in the Montqomery district of the Punjab. The surrounding region of Moh enjo-Daro is wonderfully fertile and is called even today Nakhlistan or the “Garden of Sind”. Here, the city built some five thousand years ago was successively destroyed and rebuilt no less than seven times, the inundation of the Indus being perhaps the chief agency of destruction.

  14. Beyond strong and weak: rethinking postdictatorship civil societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dylan; Fernández, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    What is the impact of dictatorships on postdictatorial civil societies? Bottom-up theories suggest that totalitarian dictatorships destroy civil society while authoritarian ones allow for its development. Top-down theories of civil society suggest that totalitarianism can create civil societies while authoritarianism is unlikely to. This article argues that both these perspectives suffer from a one-dimensional understanding of civil society that conflates strength and autonomy. Accordingly we distinguish these two dimensions and argue that totalitarian dictatorships tend to create organizationally strong but heteronomous civil societies, while authoritarian ones tend to create relatively autonomous but organizationally weak civil societies. We then test this conceptualization by closely examining the historical connection between dictatorship and civil society development in Italy (a posttotalitarian case) and Spain (a postauthoritarian one). Our article concludes by reflecting on the implications of our argument for democratic theory, civil society theory, and theories of regime variation. PMID:25811069

  15. DOES CIVIL SOCIETY CREATE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether civil society itself can enhance or stimulate the creation of social entrepreneurs, by studying the traits of the civil society and the various definitions attributed to it. The main question that the paper wants to answer to is Does civil society create social entrepreneurs and the main approach used in this research paper is the theoretical one. By studying existing articles and books on the topic, the paper tries to emphasize the various dimensions that civil society can embrace, as pictured by various authors, as well as how these dimensions can relate to social entrepreneurs and the emergence of social businesses. The paper is not meant to be a breakthrough in the field, but rather to launch a question that is related to very important topics these days, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, social businesses and their connection to a very much debated topic-civil society. The paper is work-in progress and wants to stimulate research regarding the search of the sources of social entrepreneurship, in order to analyze them and better establish them as incubators for the future. It wants to be of use to whoever is researching the concepts illustrated above, as well as for those who want to get in touch with the new buzz words of the academic and entrepreneurial fields. The hereby paper stands, as previously stated, in a theoretical framework and the findings represent a mere analysis of the cause-effect relationship between the characteristics of civil society and those of social entrepreneurs. However, we are of the opinion that it can be a very good starting point for the ones interested in the domain, to analyze more sources of social entrepreneurship or further refine the answer to the question addressed in this article.

  16. La responsabilidad civil medioambiental por productos defectuosos

    OpenAIRE

    Siaka, Danny Clovis

    2014-01-01

    La tesis cuestiona por una parte la exhaustividad del marco regulador de la responsabilidad Civil por productos defectuosos y, por la otra, la singularidad de los daños medioambientales. Así, pretende, entre otros objetivos, contribuir en la construcción del Derecho Civil medioambiental, buscando, dentro del ámbito de protección de la legislación sobre productos defectuosos, el posible anclaje de los daños medioambientales. Gira en torno a la cuestión del régimen aplicable a supuesto...

  17. Reliable overlapping control for civil structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír; Papík, Martin; Rehák, Branislav

    Les Ulis Cedex A: EDP Sciences, 2015 - (Feltrin, G.), 06001-1-06001-6. (MATEC Web of Conferences. 24). E-ISSN 2261-236X. [International Conference on Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Engineering Structures EVACES’15, /6./. Dübendorf (CH), 19.10.2015-21.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : reliable control * overlapping control * civil structures Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/AS/bakule-0449128.pdf

  18. AutoCAD Civil 3D - Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Luketić, Antonio; Padovan, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    AutoCAD Civil 3D je vrlo kompleksan i napredan program za geodeziju i građevinarstvo. Survey izbornik predstavlja mali dio tog softvera. U programu je sadržana mogućnost kreiranja vlastitih kodova kao i naredbi kojima možemo ubrzati vizualizaciju izmjerenih objekata. Njegovim korištenjem se znatno skraćuje vrijeme obrade podataka. Članak je napisan na temelju jednostavnog, ali korisnog primjera kojime smo željeli upoznati čitatelje s prilično nepoznatom aplikacijom koju nudi AutoCAD Civil 3D....

  19. Clinical guidelines and their civil law effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulst, E

    2002-01-01

    The number of clinical guidelines or protocols for medical treatment is growing. Considered as an important instrument for increasing the quality of medicine, these originally intended technical guidelines turn out to influence doctor's civil liability. Ignoring those guidelines in itself may cause a breach of a doctor's duty of care according to civil law and he may be charged to produce evidence that his medical treatment was correct. This development is taking place in several countries as France, Germany, United Kingdom and the Netherlands. PMID:15795994

  20. Newton and the origin of civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Buchwald, Jed Z

    2012-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published in 1728, one year after the great man's death, unleashed a storm of controversy. And for good reason. The book presents a drastically revised timeline for ancient civilizations, contracting Greek history by five hundred years and Egypt's by a millennium. Newton and the Origin of Civilization tells the story of how one of the most celebrated figures in the history of mathematics, optics, and mechanics came to apply his unique ways of thinking to problems of history, theology, and mythology, and of how his radical ideas produced a