WorldWideScience

Sample records for civil aircraft 1913-1997

  1. Scaling trajectories in civil aircraft (1913-1997)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2000-01-01

    Using entropy statistics we analyse scaling patterns in terms of changes in the ratios among product characteristics of 143 designs in civil aircraft. Two allegedly dominant designs, the piston propeller DC3 and the turbofan Boeing 707, are shown to have triggered a scaling trajectory at the level

  2. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    OpenAIRE

    Pang Liping; Qin Yue; Liu Dong; Liu Meng

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS) that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV) model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft ...

  3. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-01-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories – policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop sever...

  4. Evolution of civil aircraft industry development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram I. Afyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil aircraft industry market is а complex multistage system of manufacturers and consumers, which affects countries all over the world. The globalization and world economic growth caused inevitable merger of national markets into one system where the key role belongs to few corporations. In the article the author analyze peculiarities of civil aircraft industry global market shaping. Main reasons of aircraft industry centers appearance are considered through socio political and economic development of the industry. Factors that caused national specialization of manufacturing countries are examined along with peculiarities of Boeing leadership. The main stages of the industry development are described starting from the beginning of the 20th century up to the present day. The author highlights specific characters of European manufacturers development and their merger into one multinational conglomerate. Besides, modern market status is examined through benchmark study of the main competitors. Main tendencies of the industry are segmentation and new aviation industry clusters appearance. Key actors of regional aviation are described, which are Embraer and Bombardier. Reasons of their appearance and development are analyzed. Main pretenders for the aviation industry global market entrance are outlined.

  5. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... entitled, ``State of the Art of Supersonics Aircraft Technology--What has progressed in science since 1973... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting participation...

  6. Thermal comfort assessment in civil aircraft cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Liping

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft passengers are more and demanding in terms of thermal comfort. But it is not yet easy for aircraft crew to control the environment control system (ECS that satisfies the thermal comfort for most passengers due to a number of causes. This paper adopts a corrected predicted mean vote (PMV model and an adaptive model to assess the thermal comfort conditions for 31 investigated flights and draws the conclusion that there does exist an uncomfortable thermal phenomenon in civil aircraft cabins, especially in some short-haul continental flights. It is necessary to develop an easy way to predict the thermal sensation of passengers and to direct the crew to control ECS. Due to the assessment consistency of the corrected PMV model and the adaptive model, the adaptive model of thermal neutrality temperature can be used as a method to predict the cabin optimal operative temperature. Because only the mean outdoor effective temperature ET∗ of a departure city is an input variable for the adaptive model, this method can be easily understood and implemented by the crew and can satisfy 80–90% of the thermal acceptability levels of passengers.

  7. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  8. THE AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT RATE IN CIVIL AVIATION DURING AIR TRANSPORT OPERATIONS AT THE AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Запорожець

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft accident dates in civil aviation Ukraine and in republics of participants Agreement werecollected. The aircraft accident rate per 1 million flights was defined for civil aviation Ukraine and republicsof participants Agreement. Dynamics of aircraft accident rate was represented for civil aviation Ukraine.This dynamics was done for civil aviation of republics of participants Agreement and worldwide.

  9. Civil Air Patrol (CAP) Aircraft Requirement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mercher, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Audit Agency (AFAA) concluded in its Report of Audit EB0980013 (13 May 98), Air Force Oversight of CY 1996 Civil Air Patrol Corporation Activities, CAP-USAF, Maxwell AFB, AL 36112-6323...

  10. Dose loading for civil aircraft crews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantsev, V.V.

    1993-01-01

    The results of studying cosmic radiation effects on dose loadings for civil aviation personnel are discussed. The problems connected with health protection and radiation safety provisions for aviation personnels of subsonic and supersonic passenger airplans are considered

  11. Electromagnetic launch systems for civil aircraft assisted take-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertola Luca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the feasibility of different technologies for an electromagnetic launcher to assist civil aircraft take-off. This method is investigated to reduce the power required from the engines during initial acceleration. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. The research compares two possible linear motor topologies which may be efficaciously used for this application. The comparison is made on results from both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA.

  12. METHOD IMPROVEMENT FOR DETERMINING THE TECHNICAL LEVEL OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft are high-tech engineering products which are characterized by a wide range of properties including the two most important groups that respectively characterize the efficiency and technical level.Improving the aircraft efficiency is an essential factor for air transport development, but the efficiency can not be fully describe the technical system, especially in forecasting and new technology requirements development. Aircraft de- signer must evaluate the prospects of a technical solution, but it’s not always possible to calculate the efficiency accuratelyat the design stage. The operator should be able to choose the most technically-advanced aircraft available in the market inorder not to let it grow obsolete quickly. This determines the need for non-economic evaluation of technical systems that can be done by assessment of their technical level.The technical level is a general index that includes a set of technical perfection indicators. Technical perfection is reflected in terms of material and energy intensity, in terms of ergonomics, safety, etc. and is achieved as a result of origi- nal design solutions, the use of new high-strength low-density materials, the introduction of advanced technological pro-cesses, calculation methods, verification, testing, etc.There is a tight connection between the product properties and its weight, because weight is the material reflection of these properties. Therefore, improvement of the product properties usually leads to an intense increase of its weight. To deal with this phenomenon is only possible with widely using scientific and technical progress results. In accordance with this, the technical perfection can be interpreted as a major component of quality that is created without the weight increase. This approach requires investment in research and testing new technical solutions.The method was developed to determine the technical level of civil long-haul aircraft which has been modified to

  13. 48 CFR 25.407 - Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Civil Aircraft. Those countries are Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Macao, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania...

  14. Superconducting and conventional electromagnetic launch system for civil aircraft assisted take-off

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, Luca; Cox, Thomas; Wheeler, Patrick; Garvey, Seamus D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares three possible linear motor topologies for an electromagnetic launch system to assist civil aircraft take-off. Assisted launch of civil aircraft has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise and emissions near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. A comparison is made of practical designs of a linear induction motor, a linear permanent magnet synchronous motor and a superconducting linear ...

  15. Civil aircraft side-facing seat research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft : occupants in the event of a crash. However, side-facing seats were not specifically addressed when aircraft seat : dynamic test standards ...

  16. Next Generation Civil Transport Aircraft Design Considerations for Improving Vehicle and System-Level Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diana M.; Guynn, Mark D.; Wahls, Richard A.; DelRosario, Ruben,

    2013-01-01

    The future of aviation will benefit from research in aircraft design and air transportation management aimed at improving efficiency and reducing environmental impacts. This paper presents civil transport aircraft design trends and opportunities for improving vehicle and system-level efficiency. Aircraft design concepts and the emerging technologies critical to reducing thrust specific fuel consumption, reducing weight, and increasing lift to drag ratio currently being developed by NASA are discussed. Advancements in the air transportation system aimed towards system-level efficiency are discussed as well. Finally, the paper describes the relationship between the air transportation system, aircraft, and efficiency. This relationship is characterized by operational constraints imposed by the air transportation system that influence aircraft design, and operational capabilities inherent to an aircraft design that impact the air transportation system.

  17. 76 FR 30231 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... awareness of the continuing technological advancements in supersonic aircraft technology aimed at reducing... Wednesday, April 21, 2010, as part of the joint meeting of the 159th Acoustical Society of America and NOISE... advances in supersonic technology, and for the FAA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA...

  18. Census U.S. Civil Aircraft Calendar Year 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Rotorcraft Single-Engine Mufi -Engine Multi-Engine MultI-Engm Region Total 2-Engine Single 2-Engine Single 2-Engine Other 1-3 4+ 3+ Engine 3+ Engine 3...REGION OF AIRCRAFT OWNER AS OF DECEMBER 31, 1993 P4so Turboprop Turbojet Rotoi:raf Sngle-Engie Mult-Engmn Mufi -Engiee Multi-Engine Reinr o• 2-E~nine Sigl

  19. TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND TECHNICAL LEVEL INDICATORS APPLICATION FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Efimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties characterize the purpose of the aircraft and are described by its flight performance characteristics such as range and cruising speed, payload, runway characteristics, etc. Functional properties also characterize the aircraft efficiency that determines the objective need for their analysis by both aircraft designers and operators in conditions of permanent and systematic efficiency increase necessity. When choosing the aircraft, it is important for the operator to make sure that a selected aircraft type has a high level of functional properties, which will allow it to provide high operational efficiency without obsolescence in the long term. However, when choosing from several aircraft types the operator has to face the fact that some characteristics of considered aircraft variants are better and the others are worse that does not allow to definitely determine what aircraft type has a higher level of functional properties.The possibility of applying technical efficiency indicators and a generalized technical level indicator for analyzing the functional properties of civil aviation aircraft is explored in this article. Fuel, weight and target efficiency values as well as the previously improved technical level indicator value were calculated for the different generations and modifications of Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 families of medium-range airplanes, which was followed by the results interpretation within one airplane generation and when moving historically from one airplane generation to another. According to analysis results it is concluded that it is impossible to define the change of the aircraft functional properties level by the change in the values of separate technical efficiency indicators. Thus, it is proposed to use a generalized technical level indicator that determines the level of aircraft technical perfection for purpose and to use efficiency indicators to analyze the cost of providing this level of

  20. Aircraft Emission Scenarios Projected in Year 2015 for the NASA Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) High Speed Civil Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCTs) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The HSCT scenarios are calculated using the NASA technology concept airplane (TCA) and update an earlier report. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer pressure altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  1. Crashworthiness uncertainty analysis of typical civil aircraft based on Box–Behnken method

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Yiru; Xiang Jinwu

    2014-01-01

    The crashworthiness is an important design factor of civil aircraft related with the safety of occupant during impact accident. It is a highly nonlinear transient dynamic problem and may be greatly influenced by the uncertainty factors. Crashworthiness uncertainty analysis is conducted to investigate the effects of initial conditions, structural dimensions and material properties. Simplified finite element model is built based on the geometrical model and basic physics phenomenon. Box–Behnken...

  2. SCIENTIFIC AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF THE BULLETINS DEVELOPMENT FOR CIVIL AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey N. Petrov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines science and methodological aspects of issuing bulletins for the civil aircraft and practical prob- lems accumulated in the national aviation industry within the mentioned area. Bulletins are used to inform operators about the purpose, data content and technologies outlining the design changes accomplishment if the aircraft considered at the moment of the design changes is already at the operational stage. Hence maintaining aircraft airworthiness is impossible without making certain modifications and repairs in the design, the bulletins issuing and implementation procedures have notable impact on safety and effectiveness of air transportation.Deficiencies considered are the results of practices used since 1980 and supported by the later interstate standard GOST 31270-2004 in the field of the bulletins development and implementation, which are not in line with contemporary conditions of international civil aviation activities. Negative consequences of transferring the Soviet way of working with aircraft bulletins intothe changed conditions of the state regulation of civil aviation activities in Russia are shown as well as those for substantial com-plication of the rules and procedures in comparison to the standards of Unified System of Design Documentation.Main theses of the ICAO standards and international practice are briefly analyzed, however they are not complete- ly presented in the national aviation regulations. The recommendations proposed are aimed to eliminate mentioned defi- ciencies through the standards amendment process and improvement of Russia's civil aviation regulatory base. Developed recommendations are mainly focused on the formulation of the new concept and certain content of the revised standard requirements to replace GOST 31270-2004.

  3. Active fault-tolerant control strategy of large civil aircraft under elevator failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingjian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft longitudinal control is the most important actuation system and its failures would lead to catastrophic accident of aircraft. This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control (AFTC strategy for civil aircraft with different numbers of faulty elevators. In order to improve the fault-tolerant flight control system performance and effective utilization of the control surface, trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS is considered to generate the extra pitch moment. A suitable switching mechanism with performance improvement coefficient is proposed to determine when it is worthwhile to utilize THS. Furthermore, AFTC strategy is detailed by using model following technique and the proposed THS switching mechanism. The basic fault-tolerant controller is designed to guarantee longitudinal control system stability and acceptable performance degradation under partial elevators failure. The proposed AFTC is applied to Boeing 747-200 numerical model and simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AFTC approach.

  4. A Review of Current and Prospective Factors for Classification of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Morris, A. Terry; Neogi, Natasha; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    While progress is being made on integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into our national airspace on a broad scale, much work remains to establish appropriate certification standards and operational procedures, particularly with respect to routine commercial operations. This paper summarizes research to examine the extent to which today's civil aircraft taxonomy applies to UAS, and, if needed, how that taxonomy could be amended to better cover different UAS designs and operations. Factors that shape the current taxonomy, as defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations, were assessed for applicability to UAS, potential incompatibilities were identified, and additional factors were proposed that might be useful for an updated aircraft taxonomy intended to cover UAS. The results suggest the possibility of constructing new groups in the taxonomy for UAS under a restricted category that share common airworthiness standards. Establishing distinct groups for UAS and associated standards that enable low risk operations for compensation or hire could be a timely step toward full integration. Such a step would allow the civil aviation industry and regulators to gain valuable experience with UAS while carefully controlling access and potential harm to the aviation system as a whole.

  5. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  6. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles. 52.225-7 Section 52.225-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT...

  7. Digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method for flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of civil aircraft based on HQRM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to incorporate airworthiness requirements for flight characteristics into the entire development cycle of electronic flight control system (EFCS equipped civil aircraft, digital virtual flight testing and evaluation method based on handling qualities rating method (HQRM is proposed. First, according to HQRM, flight characteristics airworthiness requirements of civil aircraft in EFCS failure states are determined. On this basis, digital virtual flight testing model, comprising flight task digitized model, pilot controlling model, aircraft motion and atmospheric turbulence model, is used to simulate the realistic process of a pilot controlling an airplane to perform assigned flight tasks. According to the simulation results, flight characteristics airworthiness compliance of the airplane can be evaluated relying on the relevant regulations for handling qualities (HQ rating. Finally, this method is applied to a type of passenger airplane in a typical EFCS failure state, and preliminary conclusions concerning airworthiness compliance are derived quickly. The research results of this manuscript can provide important theoretical reference for EFCS design and actual airworthiness compliance verification of civil aircraft.

  8. CORRELATION OF THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1944 AND THE PEKING CONVENTION OF 2010 IN THE FIELD OF THE MISUSE OF CIVIL AIRCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. . Luli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue concerning the international legal problem of using armed forces to counter the threats posed by the misuse of civil aircraft, in particular, the use of civil aircraft as a weapon to kill people and destroy objects on the territory of States (the events of 11th September 2001 in the USA. It proves the need for universal international legal norms regulating the actions of States to prevent and suppress acts of the misuse of civil aircraft.

  9. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  10. Extended state observer-based motion synchronisation control for hybrid actuation system of large civil aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingjian; Shi, Cun; Wang, Shaoping

    2017-07-01

    Hybrid actuation system with dissimilar redundant actuators, which is composed of a hydraulic actuator (HA) and an electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA), has been applied on modern civil aircraft to improve the reliability. However, the force fighting problem arises due to different dynamic performances between HA and EHA. This paper proposes an extended state observer (ESO)-based motion synchronisation control method. To cope with the problem of unavailability of the state signals, the well-designed ESO is utilised to observe the HA and EHA state variables which are unmeasured. In particular, the extended state of ESO can estimate the lumped effect of the unknown external disturbances acting on the control surface, the nonlinear dynamics, uncertainties, and the coupling term between HA and EHA. Based on the observed states of ESO, motion synchronisation controllers are presented to make HA and EHA to simultaneously track the desired motion trajectories, which are generated by a trajectory generator. Additionally, the unknown disturbances and the coupling terms can be compensated by using the extended state of the proposed ESO. Finally, comparative simulation results indicate that the proposed ESO-based motion synchronisation controller can achieve great force fighting reduction between HA and EHA.

  11. Design Considerations for the Electrical Power Supply of Future Civil Aircraft with Active High-Lift Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-K. Mueller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Active high-lift systems of future civil aircraft allow noise reduction and the use of shorter runways. Powering high-lift systems electrically have a strong impact on the design requirements for the electrical power supply of the aircraft. The active high-lift system of the reference aircraft design considered in this paper consists of a flexible leading-edge device together with a combination of boundary-layer suction and Coanda-jet blowing. Electrically driven compressors distributed along the aircraft wings provide the required mass flow of pressurized air. Their additional loads significantly increase the electric power demand during take-off and landing, which is commonly provided by electric generators attached to the aircraft engines. The focus of the present study is a feasibility assessment of alternative electric power supply concepts to unburden or eliminate the generator coupled to the aircraft engine. For this purpose, two different concepts using either fuel cells or batteries are outlined and evaluated in terms of weight, efficiency, and technology availability. The most promising, but least developed alternative to the engine-powered electric generator is the usage of fuel cells. The advantages are high power density and short refueling time, compared to the battery storage concept.

  12. Thermal design of linear induction and synchronous motor for electromagnetic launch of civil aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Bertola, Luca; Cox, Tom; Wheeler, Patrick; Garvey, Seamus D.; Morvan, Herve

    2017-01-01

    The engine size of modern passenger transport aircraft is principally determined by take-off conditions, since initial acceleration requires maximum engine power. An elec¬tromagnetic launch (EML) system could provide some or all of the energy required at takeoff so that the aircraft engine power requirement and fuel consumption may be significantly reduced. So far, EML for aircraft has been adopted only for military applications to replace steam catapults on the deck of aircraft carriers. Thi...

  13. System Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.; Tai, Jimmy C.; Kirby, Michelle M.; Roth, Bryce A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary aspiration of this study was to objectively assess the feasibility of the application of a low speed pneumatic technology, in particular Circulation Control (CC) to an HSCT concept. Circulation Control has been chosen as an enabling technology to be applied on a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). This technology has been proven for various subsonic vehicles including flight tests on a Navy A-6 and computational application on a Boeing 737. Yet, CC has not been widely accepted for general commercial fixed-wing use but its potential has been extensively investigated for decades in wind tunnels across the globe for application to rotorcraft. More recently, an experimental investigation was performed at Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) with application to an HSCT-type configuration. The data from those experiments was to be applied to a full-scale vehicle to assess the impact from a system level point of view. Hence, this study attempted to quantitatively assess the impact of this technology to an HSCT. The study objective was achieved in three primary steps: 1) Defining the need for CC technology; 2) Wind tunnel data reduction; 3) Detailed takeoff/landing performance assessment. Defining the need for the CC technology application to an HSCT encompassed a preliminary system level analysis. This was accomplished through the utilization of recent developments in modern aircraft design theory at Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL). These developments include the creation of techniques and methods needed for the identification of technical feasibility show stoppers. These techniques and methods allow the designer to rapidly assess a design space and disciplinary metric enhancements to enlarge or improve the design space. The takeoff and landing field lengths were identified as the concept "show-stoppers". Once the need for CC was established, the actual application of data and trends was assessed. This assessment entailed a reduction of the

  14. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  15. Reduction environmental effects of civil aircraft through multi-objective flight plan optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D S; Gonzalez, L F; Walker, R; Periaux, J; Onate, E

    2010-01-01

    With rising environmental alarm, the reduction of critical aircraft emissions including carbon dioxides (CO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) is one of most important aeronautical problems. There can be many possible attempts to solve such problem by designing new wing/aircraft shape, new efficient engine, etc. The paper rather provides a set of acceptable flight plans as a first step besides replacing current aircrafts. The paper investigates a green aircraft design optimisation in terms of aircraft range, mission fuel weight (CO 2 ) and NO x using advanced Evolutionary Algorithms coupled to flight optimisation system software. Two multi-objective design optimisations are conducted to find the best set of flight plans for current aircrafts considering discretised altitude and Mach numbers without designing aircraft shape and engine types. The objectives of first optimisation are to maximise range of aircraft while minimising NO x with constant mission fuel weight. The second optimisation considers minimisation of mission fuel weight and NO x with fixed aircraft range. Numerical results show that the method is able to capture a set of useful trade-offs that reduce NO x and CO 2 (minimum mission fuel weight).

  16. Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) for high resolution topography and monitoring: civil protection purposes on hydrogeological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertacchini, Eleonora; Castagnetti, Cristina; Corsini, Alessandro; De Cono, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    The proposed work concerns the analysis of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS), also known as drones, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) or UAS (Unmanned Aerial System), on hydrogeological contexts for civil protection purposes, underlying the advantages of using a flexible and relatively low cost system. The capabilities of photogrammetric RPAS multi-sensors platform were examined in term of mapping, creation of orthophotos, 3D models generation, data integration into a 3D GIS (Geographic Information System) and validation through independent techniques such as GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). The RPAS used (multirotor OktoXL, of the Mikrokopter) was equipped with a GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, digital cameras for photos and videos, an inertial navigation system, a radio device for communication and telemetry, etc. This innovative way of viewing and understanding the environment showed huge potentialities for the study of the territory, and due to its characteristics could be well integrated with aircraft surveys. However, such characteristics seem to give priority to local applications for rigorous and accurate analysis, while it remains a means of expeditious investigation for more extended areas. According to civil protection purposes, the experimentation was carried out by simulating operational protocols, for example for inspection, surveillance, monitoring, land mapping, georeferencing methods (with or without Ground Control Points - GCP) based on high resolution topography (2D and 3D information).

  17. Dosimetry of cosmic rays in civil aircraft according to ISO standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, O.; Sommer, M.; Kakona, M.; Peksova, D.; Slegl, J.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to draw attention to the existence of these ISO standards and to show the experiment how they can contribute in practice to improving the dosimetry of aircraft crews. The experiment took place this year on board an ABS jets aircraft flying around the world with a Liulin detector, and the CARI program was used as the validation code. (authors)

  18. Application of powered lift and mechanical flap concepts for civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine various design and performance parameters, including wing loading and thrust loading requirements, for powered-lift and mechanical flap conceptual aircraft constrained by field length and community noise impact. Mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) were found for optimum designs. As a baseline, the design and performance parameters were determined for the aircraft using engines without noise suppression. The constraint of the 90 EPNL noise contour being less than 2.6 sq km (1.0 sq mi) in area was then imposed. The results indicate that for both aircraft concepts the design gross weight, DOC, and required mission block fuel decreased with field length. At field lengths less than 1100 m (3600 ft) the powered lift aircraft had lower DOC and block fuel than the mechanical flap aircraft but produced higher unsuppressed noise levels. The noise goal could easily be achieved with nacelle wall treatment only and thus resulted in little or no performance or weight penalty for all studied aircraft.

  19. Domesticating the Drone: The Demilitarisation of Unmanned Aircraft for Civil Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philip

    2015-12-01

    Remotely piloted aviation systems (RPAS) or 'drones' are well known for their military applications, but could also be used for a range of non-military applications for state, industrial, commercial and recreational purposes. The technology is advanced and regulatory changes are underway which will allow their use in domestic airspace. As well as the functional and economic benefits of a strong civil RPAS sector, the potential benefits for the military RPAS sector are also widely recognised. Several actors have nurtured this dual-use aspect of civil RPAS development. However, concerns have been raised about the public rejecting the technology because of their association with military applications and potentially controversial applications, for example in policing and border control. In contrast with the enthusiasm for dual-use exhibited throughout the EC consultation process, the strategy for avoiding public rejection devised in its roadmap would downplay the connection between military and non-military RPAS and focus upon less controversial applications such as search and rescue. We reflect upon this contrast in the context of the European agenda of responsible research and innovation. In doing so, we do not rely upon critique of drones per se, in their neither their civil nor military guise, but explore the extent to which current strategies for managing their public acceptability are compatible with a responsible and socially beneficial development of RPAS for civil purposes.

  20. Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yundong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.

  1. Aircraft Emission Inventories Projected in Year 2015 for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Universal Airline Network. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCT`s) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in geographical distribution of the HSCT emissions as the fleet size grew from 500 to 1000 HSCT`s. For this work, a new expanded HSCT network was used and flights projected using a market penetration analysis rather than assuming equal penetration as was done in the earlier studies. Emission inventories on this network were calculated for both Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4 HSCT fleets with NOx cruise emission indices of approximately 5 and 15 grams NOx/kg fuel. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer attitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  2. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  3. Research and Application on Civil Aircraft Ground Flotation%民用飞机地面漂浮性分析研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房务官; 魏小辉; 宋晓晨; 吴卜圣

    2012-01-01

    民用飞机地面漂浮性是评估飞机-机场相容性的一个重要指标,其直接影响到飞机设计参数选择以及地面适应性的优劣.在总体概念设计阶段就必须对飞机的漂浮性能进行分析评估,从而选择恰当的飞机参数.对民用飞机在刚性道面和柔性道面上漂浮性分析方法做了简要说明,并针对国际民用航空组织所推广使用的ACN/PCN(飞机分类号/机场分类号)方法进行了详细分析研究,在此基础上,开发出了飞机地面漂浮性分析软件.通过直接输入飞机相关参数可以快速准确地计算出飞机分类号ACN值.可以有效地对飞机地面漂浮性进行评估和优化,从而解决了用手工方式评估飞机地面漂浮性时的繁琐及不准确,并降低了对从事飞机地面漂浮性计算的人员要求.%Civil aircraft ground flotation is an important evaluation indicator of aircraft- airport compatibility , which affects the aircraft design parameters selection and the pros and cons of the ground adaptability directly. In the general conceptual design stage, the analysis and evaluation of the aircraft flotation must be done to select the appropriate parameters of the aircraft. This paper briefly describes the analysis methods of civil aircraft floating in the rigid pavement and flexible pavement, and carried out a detailed analysis and research for the ACN / PCN,the aircraft and airport's class number method,that is promoted by International Civil Aviation Organization and developed a aircraft ground flotation analysis software on that base. Inputting the relevant aircraft parameters directly, it can calculate the value the class number of aircraft, ACN, quickly and accurately. The software can effectively evaluate and optimize aircraft ground flotation , thus solve the problem of the complication and inaccuracy caused by evaluating the aircraft ground flotation by hand. In addition,it also reduces the demand for the personnel engaged in it.

  4. Architecture and Key Techniques of Augmented Reality Maintenance Guiding System for Civil Aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    hong, Zhou; Wenhua, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality technology is introduced into the maintenance related field for strengthened information in real-world scenarios through integration of virtual assistant maintenance information with real-world scenarios. This can lower the difficulty of maintenance, reduce maintenance errors, and improve the maintenance efficiency and quality of civil aviation crews. Architecture of augmented reality virtual maintenance guiding system is proposed on the basis of introducing the definition of augmented reality and analyzing the characteristics of augmented reality virtual maintenance. Key techniques involved, such as standardization and organization of maintenance data, 3D registration, modeling of maintenance guidance information and virtual maintenance man-machine interaction, are elaborated emphatically, and solutions are given.

  5. Optimization Based Clearance of Flight Control Laws A Civil Aircraft Application

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, Anders; Puyou, Guilhem

    2012-01-01

    This book summarizes the main achievements of the EC funded 6th Framework Program project COFCLUO – Clearance of Flight Control Laws Using Optimization. This project successfully contributed to the achievement of a top-level objective to meet society’s needs for a more efficient, safer and environmentally friendly air transport by providing new techniques and tools for the clearance of flight control laws. This is an important part of the certification and qualification process of an aircraft – a costly and time-consuming process for the aeronautical industry.   The overall objective of the COFCLUO project was to develop and apply optimization techniques to the clearance of flight control laws in order to improve efficiency and reliability. In the book, the new techniques are explained and benchmarked against traditional techniques currently used by the industry. The new techniques build on mathematical criteria derived from the certification and qualification requirements together with suitable models...

  6. Civil Aircraft for the regular investigation of the atmosphere based on an instrumented container: The new CARIBIC system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An airfreight container with automated instruments for measurement of atmospheric gases and trace compounds was operated on a monthly basis onboard a Boeing 767-300 ER of LTU International Airways during long-distance flights from 1997 to 2002 (CARIBIC, Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, http://www.caribic-atmospheric.com. Subsequently a more advanced system has been developed, using a larger capacity container with additional equipment and an improved inlet system. CARIBIC phase #2 was implemented on a new long-range aircraft type Airbus A340-600 of the Lufthansa German Airlines (Star Alliance in December 2004, creating a powerful flying observatory. The instrument package comprises detectors for the measurement of O3, total and gaseous H2O, NO and NOy, CO, CO2, O2, Hg, and number concentrations of sub-micrometer particles (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm diameter. Furthermore, an optical particle counter (OPC and a proton transfer mass spectrometer (PTR-MS are incorporated. Aerosol samples are collected for analysis of elemental composition and particle morphology after flight. Air samples are taken in glass containers for laboratory analyses of hydrocarbons, halocarbons and greenhouse gases (including isotopic composition of CO2 in several laboratories. Absorption tubes collect oxygenated volatile organic compounds. Three differential optical absorption spectrometers (DOAS with their telescopes mounted in the inlet system measure atmospheric trace gases such as BrO, HONO, and NO2. A video camera mounted in the inlet provides information about clouds along the flight track. The flying observatory, its equipment and examples of measurement results are reported.

  7. Experimental validation of a true-scale morphing flap for large civil aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecora, R.; Amoroso, F.; Arena, M.; Noviello, M. C.; Rea, F.

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the JTI-Clean Sky (CS) project, and during the first phase of the Low Noise Configuration Domain of the Green Regional Aircraft - Integrated Technological Demonstration (GRA-ITD, the preliminary design and technological demonstration of a novel wing flap architecture were addressed. Research activities were carried out to substantiate the feasibility of morphing concepts enabling flap camber variation in compliance with the demanding safety requirements applicable to the next generation green regional aircraft, 130- seats with open rotor configuration. The driving motivation for the investigation on such a technology was found in the opportunity to replace a conventional double slotted flap with a single slotted camber-morphing flap assuring similar high lift performances -in terms of maximum attainable lift coefficient and stall angle- while lowering emitted noise and system complexity. Studies and tests were limited to a portion of the flap element obtained by slicing the actual flap geometry with two cutting planes distant 0.8 meters along the wing span. Further activities were then addressed in order to increase the TRL of the validated architecture within the second phase of the CS-GRA. Relying upon the already assessed concept, an innovative and more advanced flap device was designed in order to enable two different morphing modes on the basis of the A/C flight condition / flap setting: Mode1, Overall camber morphing to enhance high-lift performances during take-off and landing (flap deployed); Mode2, Tab-like morphing mode. Upwards and downwards deflection of the flap tip during cruise (flap stowed) for load control at high speed. A true-scale segment of the outer wing flap (4 meters span with a mean chord of 0.9 meters) was selected as investigation domain for the new architecture in order to duly face the challenges posed by real wing installation. Advanced and innovative solutions for the adaptive structure, actuation and control

  8. A cognitive-axiological approach to the chairman’s letter of the leading civil aircraft manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Enriqueta Cortés de los Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper our aim is to look into the dominant axiological values in the aeronautical discourse through the Chairman´s letters included in the annual reports published in 2014 and 2015 of some leading civil transport aircraft manufacturers: Airbus, Boeing, Bombardier, Embraer and Textron Aviation. We will analyse the positive qualities and the way in which they are introduced in this type of discourse through cognitive tools such as metaphor, metonymy and image schemas. This work has been structured according to the Cognitive Theory of Metaphor and Metonymy (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 1999 and extended to axiological semantics (Krzeszowski, 1997, 2004 and to specialized discourse (Adams & Cruz García, 2007; Cortés de los Ríos, 2010; Nicolae 2010, among others. However, the specific approach to a technological manufacturing sector does not seem to have been carried out so far and, consequently, this study tries both to bridge this gap and to show new evidence for the correct interpretation of this genre. The results show that the source domains that are regularly used to highlight the positive qualities of the new planes and their manufacturing companies are extremely diverse. Consequently, source domains such as LENS, JOURNEY, CONSTRUCTION, GAME and LIVING ORGANISM, among others, can be found in these corporate letters. However, only two metonymies (INSTITUTION FOR PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE and PART FOR THE WHOLE are used to communicate positive attributes in this sector and the number of relevant image schemas in the corpus (attribute, space, container and balance is also limited and occasional.

  9. 32 CFR 855.13 - Civil fly-ins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil fly-ins. 855.13 Section 855.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.13 Civil fly-ins. (a) Civil...

  10. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  11. 2002 Industry Studies: Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    aircraft to a defense electronics, systems integration and information technology company.39 Northrop Grumman no longer seeks a position as a prime...between the military and civil market . Though also upgrading the H-1 helicopter series for the USMC, Bell has mortgaged its future on tiltrotor technology ...business in export dollars, the industry has been forced to look for new markets as worldwide aircraft sales have dropped. Because the U.S. national

  12. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ...

  13. Characterization and source regions of 51 high-CO events observed during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights between south China and the Philippines, 2005-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, S. C.; Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; van Velthoven, P.; Oram, D. E.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2011-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and other atmospheric trace constituents were measured from onboard an Airbus 340-600 passenger aircraft in the upper troposphere (UT) between south China and the Philippines during Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) flights from May 2005 until March 2008. A total of 132 events having CO enhancements were observed in the UT over the region during the 81 CARIBIC flights from Frankfurt, Germany, to Manila, Philippines, with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. Among these, 51 high-CO events with enhancements more than 50 ppb above background were observed. For these events enhancements ranged from 52.7 to 221.3 ppb and persisted for 3 to 78 min (˜40 to 1200 km), indicating an influence of strong pollution from biomass/biofuel/fossil fuel burning on the trace gas composition of the UT. Back trajectory analysis shows that south China, the Indochinese Peninsula, and the Philippines/Indonesia are the main source regions of the high-CO events. The composition of air parcels originating from south China was found to be primarily influenced by anthropogenic urban/industrial emissions, while emissions from biomass/biofuel burning contributed substantially to CO enhancements from the Indochinese Peninsula. During the Philippines/Indonesia events, air parcel composition suggests contributions from both biomass/biofuel burning and urban/industrial sources. Long-range transport of air parcels from northeast Asia and India also contributed to CO enhancements in the UT over the region. The general features of regional influence, typical cases, and the contributions of biomass/biofuel burning and anthropogenic emissions are presented and discussed to characterize the air parcels during the observed high-CO events.

  14. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  15. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  16. Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Media Facebook @oasofficial Facebook Twitter @oas_official Twitter Newsletters Documents OAS Technology Social Development Summits of the Americas Sustainable Development T Telecommunications Terrorism Tourism Trade Treaties and Agreements W Women Y Youth Strategic Partners Permanent Observers Civil Society

  17. Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Blattman; Edward Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Most nations have experienced an internal armed conflict since 1960. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the causes and consequences of civil wars, belatedly bringing the topic into the economics mainstream. This article critically reviews this interdisciplinary literature and charts productive paths forward. Formal theory has focused on a central puzzle: why do civil wars occur at all when, given the high costs of war, groups have every incentive to reach an agreement...

  18. Civil Disobedience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  19. Toxicological findings in fatally injured pilots of 979 amateur-built aircraft accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "Biological samples collected from fatally injured pilots in aviation accidents involving all types of aircraft, including : amateur-built aircraft, are submitted to the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for accident investigation. : These sam...

  20. Aircraft Design Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  1. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  2. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines: Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is amending the existing emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) for new commercial aircraft engines. These standards are equivalent to the NOx emission standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  3. Direct Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This rule will adopt the current voluntary NOx and CO emissions standards of the United Nations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), bringing the United States aircraft standards into alignment with the international standards.

  4. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  5. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  6. Stasis and Bellum Civile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Carsten Hjort

    2017-01-01

    David Armitage’s new monograph Civil Wars: A History in Ideas (2017) will undoubtedly long remain a standard reference work. It presents readers with a vision of civil war as part of the longue durée. The argument might be further strengthened, however, if a more inclusive Greco-Roman approach...... to ancient civil war is accepted. This essay focuses on stasis vs. bellum civile, the origins of the concept of civil war, the approach of later Roman writers (such as Appian and Cassius Dio) to the concepts of stasis and bellum civile, and, finally, the question of what makes a civil war a civil war....... Whatever concepts were used, the Romans were not the first to experience internal war as a civil war—that is, a war between the citizens of a polity....

  7. A Cybernetic Approach to Assess the Longitudinal Handling Qualities of Aeroelastic Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damveld, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The future demand for larger and lighter civil transport aircraft leads to more flexible aircraft, which bring their own controlling and handling problems. A review of established handling qualities methods showed that they were either unsuitable for aeroelastic aircraft, or had significant

  8. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  9. Citizenship in civil society?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article seeks to provide a conceptual framework to complement and guide the empirical analysis of civil society. The core argument is that civil society must be understood, not as a category of (post)industrialized society, but as one of individualized society. Civil society is characterized by

  10. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority......, submarines, aircraft and helicopters, is not likely to be fully operational and war-capable until 2020, given the fact that China is starting from a clean sheet of paper. The United States of America (USA), the United Kingdom (UK), Russia and India are currently building or have made decisions to build new...

  11. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  12. Generic regional aircraft flying qualities for the approach and landing task

    OpenAIRE

    Gautrey, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Many changes have occurred in the past 20 years in aircraft manufacture and development. New technologies have appeared, spanning the entire aircraft design environment, such as new production methods, new materials and new avionics systems. These new methods have been developed for two reasons. For military aircraft, they have arisen through the need to improve performance. However, for civil aircraft they have arisen through the need to reduce the overall cost. This report co...

  13. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.

  14. Public procurement as a tool of ecological safety in civil aviation (ground maintenance)

    OpenAIRE

    Водоласкова, Катерина Юріївна; Державне підприємство "Міжнародний аеропорт "Бориспіль"

    2016-01-01

    Problem setting.The development of the aviation industry is one of the significant indicators of state economic and technological development. However, this progress has side effects such as negative impact on environment. The main ecological problems in civil aviation are: aircraft noise; effects of emissions of exhaust gases of aircraft engines; various local problems, which arise due to the vicinity of airports, aviation-technical base, aircraft repair plants and other aviation companies.A...

  15. Civil Society and Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars

    An illustration of how important the relationship is between civil society anbd governance. A short historic journey with four snapshots of times and situations that have provided interesting evidence about the connection between civil society and governance. My goal for the short historic journey...... is to make clear and hopefully even verify that providing knowledge about the impact of civil society and citizens’ participation on governance is one of the most urgent research tasks in the current period of time....

  16. Flammability of kerosene in civil and military aviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sochet, I.; Gillard, P. [Universite d' Orleans, Lab. Energetique Explosions Structures, Bourges cedex, 18 (France)

    2002-09-01

    The investigation of the ignition conditions of kerosene vapors in the air contained in an aircraft fuel tank contributes to the definition of onboard safety requirements. Civil and military kerosene are characterized by specification. The specification of civil aviation kerosene is based upon usage requirements and property limits, while military kerosene is primarily controlled by specific chemical composition. Characterization of the flammability properties is a first step for the establishment of aircraft safety conditions. Flash point, vapor pressure, gas chromatography analysis, and flammability properties of the kerosene used by the French Military aviation (F-34 and F-35 kerosene) are compared with the flammability properties of civil kerosene. The empirical law established by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in 1998, expressing the ignition energy in terms of fuel, temperature, flash point and altitude is modified and expressed in terms of fuel temperature, flash point and pressure. (Author)

  17. Legalisation of Civil Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the legal challenges of regulating civil wars in international humanitarian law. Civil war is not a term used in international law; it falls however, withing the context of the legal term 'armed conflicts not of an international character', although the shorter 'non......-international armed conflict' is used here. Civil wars are usually limited to the territory of a state. Considering that international law is generally concerned with the legal relations between states – being a legal system based on the system of states with states as its subjects – the main question is how civil...... wars as internal conflicts have become subject to international humanitarian law....

  18. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  19. Refractions of Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmanovic, Daniella

    The thesis investigates various perceptions of civil society among civic activists in Turkey, and how these perceptions are produced and shaped. The thesis is an anthropological contribution to studies of civil society in general, as well as to studies on political culture in Turkey....

  20. Civil engineering work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousyn, Rene; Goubin, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    Although it does not require a specifically new technicality, the Civil Engineering site of a nuclear power plant is a complex work. Considering as an example the power plant currently in construction at Tricastin, the authors describe the main Civil Engineering work and task organization applied to carry it out [fr

  1. Civil War and Inoperativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flohr, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the penultimate publication in Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer-series Stasis: Civil War as a Political Paradigm. It compares and contrasts the paradigm of civil war with the preceding paradigm of the exception, and identifies a significant displacement in the relationship between...... civil war and the sovereign state, in spite of Agamben’s insistence on their continuity. Agamben’s decoupling of civil war and the sovereign state facilitates novel political possibilities that unfortunately remain underdeveloped in the book. The article proceeds to develop Agamben’s brief intimations...... of inoperativity towards a concept of destituent power drawing on his other writings. It makes the argument for thinking civil war and inoperativity – stasis and stasis – together to derive a concept of destituent power as a form of revolution against the sovereign state, which does not constitute a new sovereign...

  2. Reconceptualizing Civil Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galang, Roberto Martin; Castello, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility litera....... Finally, we argue that, in Asia, governments act as a structuration mechanism which challenges the current understanding of CSR.......This article re-conceptualizes the notion of civil regulation, through an analysis of 775 projects by firms located in 21 Asian countries, wherein we map the state of civil regulation initiatives in the region. We challenge two established assumptions in the Corporate Social Responsibility...... and environmental standards; but also that local, small and medium companies play a key role in the development of Asian civil regulation. We call this second finding the “CSR importation trap”. Our findings are supported by evidence on the limitations in the interchangeable properties of business and governments...

  3. Climate Change and International Civil Aviation Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Korber Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO has discussed ways of regulating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by civil aircraft for almost 20 years. Over the past four years, a consensus has developed about a market-based mechanism in the form of a carbon offset system. This article describes the route to the agreement reached by ICAO’s 39th Assembly, in order to contextualise the results and point out some of its limitations. It points to two main factors that contributed to the consensus: the role of the European Union, which sought to lead the negotiations, and the choice of a flexible and ultimately weak mechanism that received support from the international airlines.

  4. Modern trends of aircraft fly-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. С. Юцкевич

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of civil aviation modern transport aircraft fly-by-wire control systems are described. A comparison of the systems-level hardware and software, expressed through modes of guidance, provision of aircraft Airbus A-320, Boeing B-777, Tupolev Tu-214, Sukhoi Superjet SSJ-100 are carried out. The possibility of transition from mechanical control wiring to control through fly-by-wire system in the backup channel is shown.

  5. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  6. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  7. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    scientific activities conducted by the author, partly based on the author's experience as a member, through a number of years, of the Danish Standing Committee on Procedural Law (Retsplejeraadet), which on a continuous basis evaluates the need for civil procedural reforms in Denmark, and finally also based......The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...... procedural questions, including relations to the Brussels I Regulation and Denmark's participation in this Regulation via a parallel convention with the EU countries, impact on Danish civil procedure of the convention on human rights, preparation and pronouncement of judgment and verdict, questions of appeal...

  8. Civil Surgeon Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS designates certain doctors (also known as civil surgeons) to perform the medical exam required for most Green Card applicants. This data set represents the...

  9. Nuclear energy and civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soentono, S.

    1996-01-01

    The role of energy is indeed very important since without it there will be no living-things in this world. A country's ability to cultivate energy determines the levels of her civilization and wealth. Sufficient energy supply is needed for economic growth, industrialization, and modernization. In a modern civilization, the prosperity and security of a country depends more on the capability of her people rather than the wealth of her natural resources. Energy supplies the wealth, prosperity and security, and sufficient reliable continuous supply of energy secures the sustainable development. The energy supply to sustain the development has to improve the quality of life covering also the quality of environment to support the ever increasing demand of human race civilization. Energy has a closer relationship with civilization in a modern society and will have to become even closer in the future more civilized and more modern society. The utilization of nuclear energy has, however, some problems and challenges, e.g. misleading information and understanding which need serious efforts for public information, public relation, and public acceptance, and possible deviation of nuclear materials for non-peaceful uses which needs serious efforts for technological and administrative barriers, precaution, prevention, safety, physical protection, safeguard, and transparency. These require cooperation among nuclear community. The cooperation should be more pronounced by heterogeneous growing Asian countries to reach harmony for mutual benefits toward better civilization. (J.P.N.)

  10. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  11. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    TOTAL ................................................. 0 1 1 SLINGSBY T31 CADET MK 3 ................... t 10 0 0 1 1 KIRBY KITE ...1 41 1 0 1 1 AIR- RUNNER 100............................................ 3 41 1 0 1 1 AIRART 11...2 41 1 0 1 1 FOUR- RUNNER ...................................... 4 41 1 0 1 1 FP101

  12. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-31

    LA-4 4 41 UNKNOWN 1 0 0 33 33 F/W S-EN REC. END 41 0 268 26 TOTAL 0 206 206 CONSTRUCCIONES AERONAATICAS SA 1.131 2 41 UNKNOWN 1 0 0 10 10 F/W S-EWE...52 0 14 145 F/W MULTI TURBOJET 54 3 508 TOTAL 5 643 354 CONSTRUCCIONES AERONAUTICAS SA C-212-CB 19 52 AIRE 2 776 0 2 2 C-212-CB 19 52 UNKNOWN 2 0 1 2

  13. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-31

    0 4 4 TOTAL 0 4 4 PINE AIR ’N-. SUPER v 4 S1 2 0 1 1 F/WI JLTI REC. ENG 51 0 1 1 ’, TOTAL 0 1 1 PIPER AE-1 2 44 1 0 1 1 E -2 2 41 1 0 20 20 F 2 2 41...PLACE PLACE PLACE Iowa Plymouth 31 12 13 2 2 2 Pocahontas 24 8 15 1 Polk 405 101 194 33 17 19 1 6 4 2 28 /? Pottawatta 62 12 35 6 2 1 5 Poweshink 21 8 9...Ballard 3 2 Barren 18 4 10 1 3 Bath 2 " Bell 12 1 9 2 Boone 23 8 11 2 2 Bouror 6 2 3 1 Boyd 41 10 15 7 2 2 2 2 Boyle 16 4 10 2 Bracken 3 2 1

  14. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft, Calendar Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    LIMITED BN-2B-2 10 5’ 2 0 1 BN-26-21 10 51 2 0 1 1 F/W MULTI REC. ENG 51 0 2 2 TOTAL 0 2 2 . PINE AIR % SUPER V 4 51 2 0 1 F/W MULTI REC. ENG 51 0 1 1... Plymouth 32 12 15 2 2 1Pocahontas 22 7 13 1 1Polk 405 104 180 36 17 23 1 8 3 2 1 30 *Pottawatta 68 12 39 7 2 6 3 0 . Powes"In 21 7 10 2 2 Ringgold 3 2 1...2 Ballard 3 2 Barren 22 4 14 1 3 Bath 2 1 Bell 12 1 8 2 Boone 17 4 9 1 1 2 Bourbon 5 1 3 Boyd 37 8 14 6 2 2 2 Boyle 12 4 Bracken 3 2 1 Breatnitt 9

  15. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft. Calendar Year 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    PILATUS ERIt -NORMAN LTD. BN-25-21 10 51 2 0 1 1 F/V ILTI IlEC. ES 61 0 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 PINE AIR SUPER V 4 51 2 0 F/V IULTI REC. ENS 51 0 1 1 TOTAL • 1...6 1 2 2 1 7 0 Brien 39 7 23 5 1 1 2 Osceola 11 4 6 1 Page 52 23 25 1 1 1 1 Palo Alto 24 7 16 1 Plymouth 31 10 16 3 2 Pocahontas 29 8 19 1 1 Polk 414...56 6 22 1 1 1 2 State Tot 5054 1684 2587 335 160 1 3 8s 5 2 4 53 1 1 65 15 123 Kentucky Adalr 6 5 1 Allen 2 1 1 Anderson 3 3 Ballard 4 3 1 Barren 22 3

  16. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    10 51 2 0 2 2 F/W MULTI REC. ENG 51 0 4 4 TOTAL 0 4 4 PINE AIR SUPER V 4 51 2 0 1 1 F/W MULTI REC. ENG 51 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 PIPER AE-1 2 41 1 0 2 2 E...35 18 16 1 Palo Alto 16 7 8 1 Plymouth 29 12 11 3 2 1 Pocahontas 20 7 13Polk 386 109 176 26 12 22 1 7 5 1 27Pottawatta 60 15 29 5 4 1 5 1Poweshtnk 19...3 4 Ballard 4 2 1 Barren 17 5 9 3 Bnth 2 1 1 Bell 15 3 9 3 Boone 22 7 it 1 1 2 Bourbon 5 2 2 1 Boyd 42 13 14 5 3 3 1 1 Boyle 16 5 10 1 Bracken 3 3

  17. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft: Calendar Year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    PILATUS BRITTEN-NORMAN LIMITED BN-2b-21 10 51 u 2% F/W MULTI REC. ENG 51 0 3 3 TOTAL 0 3 3 PINE AIR SUPER V 4 51 2 0 1 1 F/W MULTI REC. ENG 51 01 1 TOTAL...Osceola 8 3 5 Page 36 16 18 1 1 Palo Alto 15 6 9 Plymouth 29 11 11 3 1 2 1 Pocahontas 21 7 13 1 Polk 396 108 180 33 15 18 1 7 5 1 28 *va- Pottawatta...lard 3 2 e- ".’ Barren 16 4 9 1_ 2. .r""- BatriI Bel ’ 1 1 1 8 2r- 41 ’ ,/ Boone 20 7 10 2 1. % wr# Bovf 42 11 13 9 2 I- 1" Boyle 17 4 11 2 Bracken

  18. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft. Calendar Year 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-31

    3 TOTAL 0 3 3 PINE AIR SUPER V 4 51 20 1 F/W MULTI REC. ENG 51 0 1 1 TOTAL 0 1 1 PIPER AE-1 2 41 1 0 1 E-2 2 41 1 0 20 20 F-2 2 41 1 0 1 1 "-2 2 41 1...10 11 1 Montgomery 30 7 19 1 3 Muscatine 72 27 31 4 1 2 1 6 0 Brien 31 7 20 2 1 Osceola 10 4 6 Page 54 24 26 1 1 2 Palo Alto 24 7 16 1 Plymouth 32 11... Barren 23 4 14 1 4 Bath 5 2 3 Bell 15 4 8 1 Boone 21 6 12 1 2 Bourbon 3 1 1 Boyd 33 7 11 7 2 2 1 C-20 9r-°. .o U S REGISTERED GENERAL AVIATION

  19. Cost Analysis for Large Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents cost analysis of purchase price and DOC+I (direct operating cost plus interest) that supports NASA s study of three advanced rotorcraft concepts that could enter commercial transport service within 10 to 15 years. The components of DOC+I are maintenance, flight crew, fuel, depreciation, insurance, and finance. The cost analysis aims at VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and CTOL (conventional takeoff and landing) aircraft suitable for regional transport service. The resulting spreadsheet-implemented cost models are semi-empirical and based on Department of Transportation and Army data from actual operations of such aircraft. This paper describes a rationale for selecting cost tech factors without which VTOL is more costly than CTOL by a factor of 10 for maintenance cost and a factor of two for purchase price. The three VTOL designs selected for cost comparisons meet the mission requirement to fly 1,200 nautical miles at 350 knots and 30,000 ft carrying 120 passengers. The lowest cost VTOL design is a large civil tilt rotor (LCTR) aircraft. With cost tech factors applied, the LCTR is reasonably competitive with the Boeing 737-700 when operated in economy regional service following the business model of the selected baseline operation, that of Southwest Airlines.

  20. Civil society sphericules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    the organization strategizes about and seeks to articulate amongst Tanzanian youth. Situated in the ‘perverse confluence’ (Dagnino, 2011) between neoliberal and radical democratic agendas in the communicative practices of civil society-driven media platforms, Femina navigates between identities as an NGO, a social...... movement and a media initiative. In the context of the growing literature on social networking sites and their affordances, dynamics and structures, the case of Femina illustrates how a civil society sphericule emerges within the dynamic co-evolution of new and old media platforms. The study is furthermore...... an example of the difficult shift in civil society practice, from service provision to an agenda of public service monitoring, social accountability and community engagement....

  1. Producing Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm; Hein Jessen, Mathias

    Since the beginning of the 1990’s, civil society has attracted both scholarly and political interest as the ‘third sphere’ outside the state and the market not only a normatively privileged site of communication and ‘the public sphere’, but also as a resource for democratization processes...... and social cohesion, as well as a provider of welfare services from a welfare state in dire straits. However, such a view upholds a sharp distinction between the three sectors and their distinct logic. This article claims that the separation of spheres is a fundamental part of our ‘social imaginary......’ and as such dominates our way of thinking about civil society. Yet, this view hinders the understanding of how civil society is not a pre-existing or given sphere, but a sphere which is constantly produced both discursively, conceptually and practically. Through two examples; 1,the case of philanthropy in the beginning...

  2. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  3. INTEGRATING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLES IN THE ROMANIAN NATIONAL AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Alina Catinca POP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the Romanian civil airspace brings us back to the 1920's, when the first aircraft started to fly over the Romanian sky. Little did the legislators at that time know how to create the proper legal framework for the use of such machines so that all aspects related to their use be covered, as well as identify all potential risks and effects. Nowadays, UAVs are the new aircraft and it is a challenge for the legislators to properly identify the legal framework so that the safety and security of civil aviation are not affected. The paper will address the challenges the regulator faces in the integration of the UAVs in the Romanian civil airspace, developments and issues raised by the current regulation, as well as aspects related to the national regulations expected to enter into force at the end of 2015, beginning of 2016.

  4. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2013-11-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to this issue, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for the latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. In this report the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2011 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2012 database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2012 revised database for the latest 20 years from 1992 to 2011 shows the followings. The trend of the 2012 database changes little as compared to the last year's report. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. The number of commercial aircraft accidents is 4 for large fixed-wing aircraft, 58 for small fixed-wing aircraft, 5 for large bladed aircraft and 99 for small bladed aircraft. The relevant accidents

  5. TEPC measurements in commercial aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G. C.; Bentley, R. D.; Horwood, N. A.; Hunter, R.; Iles, R. H.; Jones, J. B. L.; Powell, D.; Thomas, D. J.

    2004-01-01

    The collaborative project involving the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), Virgin Atlantic Airways (VAA), the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) and the UK National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has been performing tissue-equivalent proportional counter measurements of cosmic ray doses in commercial aircraft since January 2000. In that time data have been recorded on over 700 flights, including over 150 flights with Air New Zealand (ANZ). This substantial set of data from the southern hemisphere is an ideal complement to the London-based measurements performed primarily on VAA flights. Although some ANZ data remains to be analysed, dose information from 111 flights has been compared with the CARI and EPCARD computer codes. Overall, the agreement between the measurements and EPCARD was excellent (within 1% for the total ambient dose equivalent), and the difference in the total effective doses predicted by EPCARD and CARI was <5%. (authors)

  6. Database on aircraft accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide; Koriyama, Tamio

    2012-09-01

    The Reactor Safety Subcommittee in the Nuclear Safety and Preservation Committee published the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' as the standard method for evaluating probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities in July 2002. In response to the report, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization has been collecting open information on aircraft accidents of commercial airplanes, self-defense force (SDF) airplanes and US force airplanes every year since 2003, sorting out them and developing the database of aircraft accidents for latest 20 years to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into nuclear reactor facilities. This year, the database was revised by adding aircraft accidents in 2010 to the existing database and deleting aircraft accidents in 1991 from it, resulting in development of the revised 2011 database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010. Furthermore, the flight information on commercial aircrafts was also collected to develop the flight database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities. The method for developing the database of aircraft accidents to evaluate probability of aircraft crash into reactor facilities is based on the report 'The criteria on assessment of probability of aircraft crash into light water reactor facilities' described above. The 2011 revised database for latest 20 years from 1991 to 2010 shows the followings. The trend of the 2011 database changes little as compared to the last year's one. (1) The data of commercial aircraft accidents is based on 'Aircraft accident investigation reports of Japan transport safety board' of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 4 large fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 58 small fixed-wing aircraft accidents, 5 large bladed aircraft accidents and 114 small bladed aircraft accidents occurred. The relevant accidents for evaluating

  7. CIVIL RIGHTS AND MINORITIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARTMAN, PAUL

    A MAJOR INTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS AMENDMENTS, TO GUARANTEE EQUAL RIGHTS TO ALL CITIZENS REGARDLESS OF RACE, CREED, OR COLOR, HAS BEEN REINFORCED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES OF MANY STATES. IN SOME STATES SUCH LAWS HAVE BEEN ON RECORD FOR THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENTURY. IN OTHER STATES THE SAME CONSTITUTIONAL INTENT HAS BEEN DENIED BY…

  8. Civil Law and Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of

  9. Nuclear damage - civil liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the civil liability for nuclear damage since there is a need to adjust the existing rules to the new situations created. The conventions that set up the new disciplining rules not considered in the common law for the liability of nuclear damage are also mentioned. (A.L.) [pt

  10. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  11. GPS Civil Monitoring Performance Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-10

    This Civil Monitoring Performance Specification (CMPS) is published and maintained at : the direction of the Program Manager for Civil Applications, Global Positioning Systems : Wing (GPSW). The purpose of this document is to provide a comprehensive ...

  12. Re-thinking civil disobedience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Züger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article points out a struggle of today’s societies with the traditional concepts of civil disobedience and stresses the need for reevaluation of the concept of civil disobedience for policy making and public discourse. Starting with a minimal definition of civil disobedience, the article introduces Hannah Arendt’s approach for a legitimisation of civil disobedience and discusses her ideas for digital actions, which are increasingly framed as digital forms of civil disobedience. Addressing WikiLeaks as an example of digital civil disobedience, the author problematises the internal secrecy of WikiLeaks and the focus on Julian Assange as a single decision-maker. Both aspects challenge Arendt’s understanding of legitimate civil disobedience. Even though traditional criteria of civil disobedience need to be revisited in the digital age, organisations or disobedience actors might themselves in their actions be well-advised to comply with the principles they fight for.

  13. Civil partnerships five years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  14. 77 FR 55175 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0131; Notice 1] RIN 2127-AL16 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposes to increase the maximum civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements... and consumer information provisions. Specifically, this proposes increases in maximum civil penalty...

  15. 75 FR 79978 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0114; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for related series of violations of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety... Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection...

  16. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0066; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AK40 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements involving school buses, bumper... theft protection requirements. This action is taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty...

  17. 77 FR 70710 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0131; Notice 2] RIN 2127-AL16 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... civil penalty amounts for violations of motor vehicle safety requirements for the National Traffic and... provisions. Specifically, this increases the maximum civil penalty amounts for single violations of motor...

  18. 75 FR 49879 - Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0114; Notice 1] RIN 2127-AK78 Civil Penalties AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... proposes to increase the maximum civil penalty amounts for violations covering a related series of... action would be taken pursuant to the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as...

  19. Stability Result For Dynamic Inversion Devised to Control Large Flexible Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Irene M.

    2001-01-01

    High performance aircraft of the future will be designed lighter, more maneuverable, and operate over an ever expanding flight envelope. One of the largest differences from the flight control perspective between current and future advanced aircraft is elasticity. Over the last decade, dynamic inversion methodology has gained considerable popularity in application to highly maneuverable fighter aircraft, which were treated as rigid vehicles. This paper is an initial attempt to establish global stability results for dynamic inversion methodology as applied to a large, flexible aircraft. This work builds on a previous result for rigid fighter aircraft and adds a new level of complexity that is the flexible aircraft dynamics, which cannot be ignored even in the most basic flight control. The results arise from observations of the control laws designed for a new generation of the High-Speed Civil Transport aircraft.

  20. Departamento de Obras Civiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Director Departamento de Obras Civiles

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Es la unidad académica que se crea como estructura básica para la formación profesional del Constructor Civil. El departamento está orientado a las siguientes áreas: Obras Viales, Fluviales y Marítimas; Hormigones y Mecánica de Suelos; Laboratorios y Control de Calidad; Planificación y Programación; Administración; Organización y Gestión Financiera, conocimientos insertos en un total de 33 asignaturas, prácticas y seminarios siendo equivalentes a más de 100 créditos, lo cual representa un 42% del total de las asignaturas correspondientes al Plan de Estudios de la Carrera de Construcción Civil.

  1. Insolvencias. Civil y societaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bordes Leone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El deudor civil que, para substraerse al pago de sus obligaciones, ocultara sus bienes, simulara enajenaciones o créditos, se trasladara al extranjero o se ocultare sin dejar persona que lo represente, o bienes a la vista en cantidad suficiente para responder al pago de sus deudas, será castigado con pena de tres meses de prisión a tres años de penitenciaría. La acción penal no podrá ser ejercitada sino a denuncia de parte, y sólo en el caso de que la insolvencia del deudor resulte comprobada por actos infructuosos de ejecución en la vía civil.Antecedentes históricas. La insolvencia fraudulenta. Insolvencia societaria fraudulenta: Análisis crítico.

  2. A look at tomorrow's civil tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Joseph B.

    1988-01-01

    The present evaluation of the development status of the tilt-rotor VTOL aircraft concept proceeds to identify a large civilian market potential for vehicles of this type, especially along high commuter traffic density urban corridors. A variant of the V-22 tilt-rotor is judged to be of sufficient size for this high-density passenger market in the near term, provided that the rotor-drive system undergoes suitable modifications for more reliable one-engine-inoperative emergency operation. New, larger-than-V-22 and least-cost-optimized civil tilt-rotors carrying as many as 75 passengers are under study, but will require the construction of 'vertiports' at strategically advantageous urban locations.

  3. Small transport aircraft technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  4. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  5. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes; Note d'information sur la protection des installations nucleaires contre les chutes d'avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight < 5.7 t), the military aircraft, and the commercial aircraft (w > 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  6. Aircraft Carrier Exposure Testing of Aircraft Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Eui

    2004-01-01

    .... Test and control specimens were affixed on exposure racks and installed on aircraft carriers to compare adhesive bonding primers for aluminum and to determine the static property behavior of various...

  7. Speech systems for autonomous unmanned aircraft: enabling autonomous unmanned aircraft to communicate in civil airspace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available (VFR) and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Typical local surveillance missions are done under VFR, but almost all passenger- carrying operations are done under IFR. Because many urban surveillance missions take place in close proximity to airline... hubs, IFR capability is required. Rural and peri-urban operations require VFR capability. The levels of control are: o Controlled airspace: In controlled airspace, a controller provides binding instructions to ensure that traffic separation...

  8. The Civil War Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Matthew Philip

    2005-01-01

    The soldierâ s diet in the Civil War has been known as poor, and a number of illnesses and disorders have been associated with it. However, a nutritional analysis placed within the context of mid-nineteenth century American nutrition has been lacking. Such an approach makes clear the connection between illness and diet during the war for the average soldier and defines the importance of nutritionâ s role in the war. It also provides a bridge from the American diet to the soldier diet, ou...

  9. Transnationalising Civil Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    The paper takes a transnational perspective on developing an analytical framework for understanding how transnationalism interacts with civil society and how immigrant organisations use transnational strategies to challenge the pre-given positions of immigrants within given integration......- and citizenship-regimes. Locating transnationalism as part of the political opportunity structure also indicates that the state(s) to some degree can facilitate transnationalism, directly and indirectly. A substantial part of political engagement now occurs via transnational channels. What is uncertain is to what...

  10. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    specific climatic challenge or clean the air. With nanotechnology, the artificial and the natural move closer together; this is the perspective for civil engineer Chris McCarthy’s work all over the world. And what is new is not just the way the construction materials are put together; they also require......Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...

  11. B 150 civil engineering futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foreword B150 –Civil Engineering Futures consists of interviews made, articles written, and projects presented in connection with the 150th anniversary celebrations of the study of civil engineering in Denmark. Instead of a historical retrospect, it was decided to look into the future. What...... challenges will the next 150 years bring civil engineers? Researchers and lecturers at DTU’s Department of Civil Engineering (known as DTU Byg) suggested possible events, and we also consulted civil engineers and their business partners in the building industry. In this way, a programme was put together...... theme in twentieth century architecture. Together, civil engineer Peter Rice and architect Ian Ritchie created a paradigm shift with their revolutionary ideas for glass facades supported by cables. Glued and bolted constructions made entirely of glass are now a reality in small-scale projects, yet...

  12. How persistent is civilization growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study (Garrett, 2011), I described theoretical arguments and empirical evidence showing how civilization evolution might be considered from a purely physical basis. One implication is that civilization exhibits the property of persistence in its growth. Here, this argument is elaborated further, and specific near-term forecasts are provided for key economic variables and anthropogenic CO2 emission rates at global scales. Absent some external shock, civilization wealth, energy cons...

  13. Structural analysis at aircraft conceptual design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Reza

    In the past 50 years, computers have helped by augmenting human efforts with tremendous pace. The aircraft industry is not an exception. Aircraft industry is more than ever dependent on computing because of a high level of complexity and the increasing need for excellence to survive a highly competitive marketplace. Designers choose computers to perform almost every analysis task. But while doing so, existing effective, accurate and easy to use classical analytical methods are often forgotten, which can be very useful especially in the early phases of the aircraft design where concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions [39, 2004]. Structural analysis methods have been used by human beings since the very early civilization. Centuries before computers were invented; the pyramids were designed and constructed by Egyptians around 2000 B.C, the Parthenon was built by the Greeks, around 240 B.C, Dujiangyan was built by the Chinese. Persepolis, Hagia Sophia, Taj Mahal, Eiffel tower are only few more examples of historical buildings, bridges and monuments that were constructed before we had any advancement made in computer aided engineering. Aircraft industry is no exception either. In the first half of the 20th century, engineers used classical method and designed civil transport aircraft such as Ford Tri Motor (1926), Lockheed Vega (1927), Lockheed 9 Orion (1931), Douglas DC-3 (1935), Douglas DC-4/C-54 Skymaster (1938), Boeing 307 (1938) and Boeing 314 Clipper (1939) and managed to become airborne without difficulty. Evidencing, while advanced numerical methods such as the finite element analysis is one of the most effective structural analysis methods; classical structural analysis methods can also be as useful especially during the early phase of a fixed wing aircraft design where major decisions are made and concept generation and evaluation demands physical visibility of design parameters to make decisions

  14. Homeland Security and Civil Liberties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leonard; Lovelace, Douglas C., Jr

    2004-01-01

    .... The conference examined national security issues related to civil liberties, immigration policy, privacy issues, first amendment rights, and the balance of executive and judicial power in relation...

  15. Preliminary Study on Effect of Aviation Fuel in the Safety Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Crashed by Aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Byeong Moo; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Yun Seok; Kim, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    As the safety assessments of nuclear power plants for the hypothetical large civil aircraft crash should be made mandatory, studies on large aircraft-nuclear power plant impact analyses and assessments are actively in progress. The large civil aircraft are being operated with a large amount of fuel and the fuel can be assumed to contribute to the impact loads at the impact. The fuel, i.e., the internal liquid can be considered as added masses classically in the evaluation of the impact load. According to the recent experimental research, it has been shown that the impact load of high speed impacting body with internal liquid is much higher than that of the mass-equivalent impacting body. In this study, the impact loads according to the existence of the internal liquid are computed by numerical methods and the safety assessment of nuclear power plant crashed by large civil aircraft are performed as an application

  16. SYSTEM OF GUARANTEED RESOLUTION OF DYNAMIC CONFLICTS OF AIRCRAFTS IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Pavlova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present work is devoted to improving of flight safety in civil aviation by creating and implementing a new system of resolution of dynamic conflict of aircrafts. The developed system is aimed at ensuring a guaranteed level of safety when resolution of rarefied conflict situations of aircraft in real-time. Methods: The proposed system is based on a new method of conflict resolution of aircraft on the basis of the theory of invariance. Results: The development of the system of conflict resolution of aircraft in real time and the implementation of the respective algorithms such control will ensure effective prevention of dangerous approaches. Discussion: The system is implemented as single unified equipment using satellite and radar navigation systems that will ensure the positioning of aircraft in real time. Provided that the system should be installed on all aircraft and integrated on board to properly ensure its functionality and interact with navigation systems.

  17. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents During 1993-2012 Based on Aircraft Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2015-01-01

    Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.

  18. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals with the role that churches can and should play in civil society to develop societal morally. The central-theoretical argument is that the biblical notion of the kingdom of God can, when it is systematically and theologically developed, offer an acceptable foundation for the civil action of churches. In light of this ...

  19. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  20. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  1. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  2. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  3. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable civil...

  4. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  5. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  6. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability under...

  7. The paradox of civilizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilliam, Laura

    As in most other European Countries, immigrants from “non-Western” countries are increasingly perceived as a threat to integration, equality and harmony in Danish society. Especially the immigrant boys are depicted as aggressive, troublesome and in lack of social competencies. This makes this group...... minority youngsters, which are seen as a threat to the stability and harmony of Danish society. Based on ethnographic material from 11 months of fieldwork among ethnic minority pupils in two schools in Copenhagen, this paper will look into the schools’ effort to civilize youth of outsider status. Through....... For their part, the boys - in search of alternative strength and recognition - invert the image of good behavior presented to them by the school, and come to identify strongly with aggression, rude language and tough masculinity. Drawing on Elias’ discussions of dominant group’s efforts to both integrate...

  8. Departamento de Obras Civiles

    OpenAIRE

    Director Departamento de Obras Civiles

    1984-01-01

    Es la unidad académica que se crea como estructura básica para la formación profesional del Constructor Civil. El departamento está orientado a las siguientes áreas: Obras Viales, Fluviales y Marítimas; Hormigones y Mecánica de Suelos; Laboratorios y Control de Calidad; Planificación y Programación; Administración; Organización y Gestión Financiera, conocimientos insertos en un total de 33 asignaturas, prácticas y seminarios siendo equivalentes a más de 100 créditos, lo cual representa un 42%...

  9. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  10. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT aims to publish definitive and original research papers of high standard, containing material of broad interest and of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems. It provides a forum for ...

  11. Civil works for NPPs construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portenseigne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Christophe Portenseigne, Technical Director of Bouygues Travaux Publics, provided explanations on the main challenges of Civil work for the construction of the 3. generation of NPPs. He then provided an overview of the new Civil Work concepts for the 4. generation of NPPs

  12. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  13. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  14. Advances in Protective Coatings and Their Application to Ageing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Aerospace Material Specification Selectively (1997) Strippable Acrylic Finishing Schemes - Matt and Glossy - 23. K.R. Baldwin and C.J.E. Smith, Repair...corrosion through design, the selection of military and civil aircraft during the last thirty years. Research materials that are resistant to corrosion and...compliant coatings. initiation of corrosion. This paper first examines the general principles involved in 2.2 Materials selection the corrosion

  15. Sustainability issues in civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saride, Sireesh; Basha, B

    2017-01-01

    This compilation on sustainability issues in civil engineering comprises contributions from international experts who have been working in the area of sustainability in civil engineering. Many of the contributions have been presented as keynote lectures at the International Conference on Sustainable Civil Infrastructure (ICSCI) held in Hyderabad, India. The book has been divided into core themes of Sustainable Transportation Systems, Sustainable Geosystems, Sustainable Environmental and Water Resources and Sustainable Structural Systems. Use of sustainability principles in engineering has become an important component of the process of design and in this context, design and analysis approaches in civil engineering are being reexamined to incorporate the principles of sustainable designs and construction in practice. Developing economies are on the threshold of rapid infrastructure growth and there is a need to compile the developments in various branches of civil engineering and highlight the issues. It is th...

  16. Lineage of global civil engineering. Global civil engineering no keifu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, M

    1994-04-15

    This paper considers which way the global civil engineering should go in the future. Civil engineering has now a paradigm with a new dimension debuted as the global environmental problems are taken up specifically. Achieving the target of civil engineering requires a critical review that how the cost effect and efficiency discussions in only the dimensions of the conventional technologies and economies can be incorporated into the dimensions and measures of new fields to create the new horizons. Conceiving the relationship between civil engineered structures and environmental climate encounters the indispensable judgment criterion on how such social scientific conditions as weather, culture, religion, economy, and politics are combined to reach a judgment. The global civil engineering is desired to have the ideas and directional role to work on the ultimate assignment of environment and development called a global environmental problem analytically, comprehensively, innovatively and creatively as the civil engineering science, rather than as a mere existence of one area of the advanced civil engineering science. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Economic conditions of technical changes in world civil air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna HAWLENA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world economic environment of the turn of the century produced many new challenges to civil aviation in expectation of a continued growth in the transportation of passengers and cargo. To meet this growing demand, it will be necessary to increase the fleet and to modernise infrastructure – a process hampered by finances and capacity constraints.Such constraints are especially pressing with regard to the acquisition of new types of large aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and the Boeing 787 and 747-8. Future dominance of the market is, however, difficult to predict, as this will be the outcome of a combination of uncertain parameters.

  18. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    Full Text Available Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO. In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  19. An Engineering Method of Civil Jet Requirements Validation Based on Requirements Project Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Gao, Dan; Mao, Xuming

    2018-03-01

    A method of requirements validation is developed and defined to meet the needs of civil jet requirements validation in product development. Based on requirements project principle, this method will not affect the conventional design elements, and can effectively connect the requirements with design. It realizes the modern civil jet development concept, which is “requirement is the origin, design is the basis”. So far, the method has been successfully applied in civil jet aircraft development in China. Taking takeoff field length as an example, the validation process and the validation method of the requirements are detailed introduced in the study, with the hope of providing the experiences to other civil jet product design.

  20. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  1. Civil liberties and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of preventing nuclear terrorism is so great that it is easy to believe that the usual concern with civil liberties must take a back seat. But it is precisely when emergencies are invoked that the authors must not forget the importance of freedoms. Emergency powers are easily abused, and, even in the absence of abuse, mistakes can be made. It is hard to understand why they care about civil liberties if every suspect is guilty, every wiretap is necessary, and every search is justified. But sometimes suspects are innocent, wiretaps are used for political ends, and searches disrupt lives to no end. Civil liberties do not exist in a vacuum. If society is destroyed, civil liberties are likely to be destroyed as well. Virtually every legal doctrine this study addresses involves a recognition that individual rights must be balanced against valid social needs. The civil liberties focus on here fall under the general headings of freedom of speech and association, privacy, due process rights for suspects, and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. One essential point applied to all these areas: although a counterterrorist activity is legal, that does not mean the activity has no impact on civil liberties. It may be legal, for example, to have a massive federal police force that provides hundreds of guards for every shipment of plutonium. Even so, that procedure still raises civil liberties concerns, since many Americans would feel less free in a society of that type

  2. Material civilization: things and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  3. Acoustical design economic trade off for transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, A.

    The effects of ICAO fixed certification limits and local ordinances on acoustic emissions from jets on commercial transport aircraft and costs of operations are explored. The regulations effectively ban some aircraft from operation over populated areas, impose curfews on airports and, in conjunction with local civil aviation rules, levy extra taxes and quotas on noisier equipment. Jet engine manufacturers have attempted to increase the flow laminarity, decrease the exhaust speed and develop acoustic liners for selected duct areas. Retrofits are, however, not usually cost effective due to increased operational costs, e.g., fuel consumption can increase after engine modification because of increased weight. Finally, an attempt is made to assess, monetarily, the costs of noise pollution, wherein fines are levied for noisy aircraft and the money is spent insulating homes from noise.

  4. Julgamentos parciais no processo civil

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Carlos Nachif Correia Filho

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho trata fundamentalmente da admissibilidade dos julgamentos parciais do mérito e de questões de mérito no sistema processual civil brasileiro, considerando especialmente o modelo constitucional de processo civil, bem como no sistema processual prospectivo previsto no Projeto de Novo Código de Processo Civil, que deve entrar vigor em breve. Com este objetivo, será abordado no início da dissertação o dogma da unidade estrutural da sentença, sua origem, fundamentos e aplicabilidade n...

  5. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes; Note d'information sur la protection des installations nucleaires contre les chutes d'avions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight < 5.7 t), the military aircraft, and the commercial aircraft (w > 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  6. Civil liability on nuclear activities; Responsabilidade civil nas atividades nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittar, C A

    1983-12-31

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs.

  7. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  8. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the development of a robotic system designed to assist aircraft inspectors by remotely deploying non-destructive inspection (NDI) sensors and acquiring, processing, and storing inspection data. Carnegie Mellon University studie...

  9. Aircraft Depainting Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kozol, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    ... of aircraft and component stripping at various levels of maintenance. Under this program, the Navy pursued development of non-HAP chemical paint strippers as alternatives for methylene chloride based strippers...

  10. The Aircraft Industry, 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Keith

    2006-01-01

    .... and global economic growth. The overall outlook for the industry is positive. Orders for commercial aircraft are up from a boom in air travel that is likely to continue well into the next decade...

  11. The Aircraft Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzgerald, Tim; Baiche, Noureddine; Brewer, Mike; Collins, Al; Knapp, Kathy; Kott, Marilyn; McGill, Duncan; Mensah, Dunstan; Neighbors, Mark; Reardon, Dee

    2005-01-01

    .... As the airline companies prepare to buy new Boeing and Airbus passenger jets, they remain under intense pressure to cut costs in order to remain profitable, forcing aircraft and engine manufacturers...

  12. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  13. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  15. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  16. Multifuel rotary aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C.; Berkowitz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The broad objectives of this paper are the following: (1) to summarize the Curtiss-Wright design, development and field testing background in the area of rotary aircraft engines; (2) to briefly summarize past activity and update development work in the area of stratified charge rotary combustion engines; and (3) to discuss the development of a high-performance direct injected unthrottled stratified charge rotary combustion aircraft engine. Efficiency improvements through turbocharging are also discussed.

  17. Radiation protection in civil defence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlborn, K.

    The brochure contains the information given to the participants of an advanced training course in civil defence, on the subject of radiation protection. The course was held by teachers of Bundesverband fuer den Selbstschutz (BVS). (orig.) [de

  18. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  19. Librarians, Civil Liberties and Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Derek

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of current civil liberties issues in Australia with the status of similar issues in Britain and the United States. Included are political affiliation of government employees, censorship, rights of the individual, privacy, and freedom of information. (JAB)

  20. Algeria: An Uncivilized Civil War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robling, Terry

    1995-01-01

    .... Moderates on both sides are seeking peace from the undeclared civil war that resulted when the military-backed regime canceled elections that Islamic fundamentalists were certain to win in 1992...

  1. Aircraft to aircraft intercomparison during SEMAPHORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dominique; Durand, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    During the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, performed in the Azores region in 1993, two French research aircraft were simultaneously used for in situ measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present the results obtained from one intercomparison flight between the two aircraft. The mean parameters generally agree well, although the temperature has to be slightly shifted in order to be in agreement for the two aircraft. A detailed comparison of the turbulence parameters revealed no bias. The agreement is good for variances and is satisfactory for fluxes and skewness. A thorough study of the errors involved in flux computation revealed that the greatest accuracy is obtained for latent heat flux. Errors in sensible heat flux are considerably greater, and the worst results are obtained for momentum flux. The latter parameter, however, is more accurate than expected from previous parameterizations.

  2. High technology and civil rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, P.

    1982-01-01

    Court decision reflect the widely felt lack of clarity about the present legal situation in the field of high technology. This confusion is also due to the fact that this legal situation is surrounded by civil rights constellations, which have more and more eroded the contours of our legal system in recent years: Today, civil rights are no longer specific, well-definable bulwarks for the citizen, but are more and more frequently interpreted by the supreme courts as sources of procedural requirements with more or less certain often vague consequences. This shifting of the accent in civil rights towards procedural matters is due to an innate logical necessity, however: The same civil right considered in the same situation, e.g., in planning for high technology, may give rise to very different, even contradictory individual claims. Therefore, one of the main modern objectives of civil rights becoming more and more apparent is the need to reconcile conflicting positions, which makes civil rights a driving force in balancing interests in the easiest possible way. Yet, one of the main deficiencies in this rapidly growing procedural approach is the one-sidedness often to be found as a result of isolated, punctual actions. This misses the objective of achieving adequate harmonization. As examples of such one-sided, isolated civil rights approaches, legal opinions are cited on the so-called public participation (possibility to object for those concerned) in the licensing procedures under the German Atomic Energy Act and for protection against environmental impacts. Quity rightly, this participation of the public is interpreted as an advance protection of civil rights. However, its consequences quite often are exaggerated. (orig.) [de

  3. Civil liability on nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittar, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The civil liability theory in the actual context is shown in the first and second part of this thesis, including some considerations about concepts and types of liability in dangerous and not dangerous activities. In the third part, the legal aspects of civil liability for the nuclear activities are analyzed, with a brief description of the history evolution, standard systems, inspection corporation and juridical regulation. (C.G.C.). 239 refs

  4. Operation of the aircraft as a discipline of knowledge after 100 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Danilecki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the course of the most important stages of development of the discipline related to the maintenance of aircrafts, as a synthesis of the 100-year experience. It is presented linking of technical maintenance of the aircraft with other disciplines of knowledge. The scope of technical maintenance was defined. The division and analysis of the methods for the maintenance was made. There were defined and discussed definitions used in the theory of maintenance, in conjunction with the construction of the aircraft and the tasks arising for constructor-manufacturer. MSG subsequent versions of the document constituting the logistical procedures for determining the programmable handling of civil airplanes were discussed.[b]Keywords[/b]: aviation, aircraft, maintenance aircrafts

  5. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  6. 30 CFR 947.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 947.845 Section 947.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  7. 30 CFR 941.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 941.845 Section 941.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  8. 30 CFR 912.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 912.845 Section 912.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  9. 30 CFR 921.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 921.845 Section 921.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  10. 30 CFR 939.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 939.845 Section 939.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  11. 30 CFR 937.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 937.845 Section 937.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  12. 30 CFR 942.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 942.845 Section 942.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  13. 30 CFR 903.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for violations...

  14. 30 CFR 910.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 910.845 Section 910.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  15. 30 CFR 922.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 922.845 Section 922.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for violations...

  16. 30 CFR 933.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 933.845 Section 933.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chaper, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  17. 30 CFR 905.845 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 905.845 Section 905.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  18. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment...

  19. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction...

  20. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  2. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement...

  3. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement...

  4. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  5. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  6. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  8. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  9. Airsickness and aircraft motion during short-haul flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M; Griffin, M J; Holland, I

    2000-12-01

    There is little quantitative information that can be used to predict the incidence of airsickness from the motions experienced in military or civil aviation. This study examines the relationship between low-frequency aircraft motion and passenger sickness in short-haul turboprop flights within the United Kingdom. A questionnaire survey of 923 fare-paying passengers was conducted on 38 commercial airline flights. Concurrent measurements of aircraft motion were made on all journeys, yielding approximately 30 h of aircraft motion data. Overall, 0.5% of passengers reported vomiting, 8.4% reported nausea (range 0% to 34.8%) and 16.2% reported illness (range 0% to 47.8%) during flight. Positive correlations were found between the percentage of passengers who experienced nausea or felt ill and the magnitude of low-frequency lateral and vertical motion, although neither motion uniquely predicted airsickness. The incidence of motion sickness also varied with passenger age, gender, food consumption and activity during air travel. No differences in sickness were found between passengers located in different seating sections of the aircraft, or as a function of moderate levels of alcohol consumption. The passenger responses suggest that a useful prediction of airsickness can be obtained from magnitudes of low frequency aircraft motion. However, some variations in airsickness may also be explained by individual differences between passengers and their psychological perception of flying.

  10. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Recently the international relationship has been playing an important role in the research, development and production of the aircraft gas turbine. The YSX, which is supposed to be the 100-seat class commercial aircraft, has been planned by Japan Aircraft Development (JADC) as an international cooperative project. Recently many western aeroengine companies have offered the collaboration of small turbofan engines which would be installed on YSX to Japanese aeroengine companies (IHI, KHI and MHI). The YSX is powered by 16,000-20,000 1bs thrust class engines. As for medium turbofan engine (V2500), the V 2500 family of 22,000 to 30,000 1bs thrust has been developed since 1983 through international collaboration by seven aeroengine companies in five nations. In this paper, the recent Japan`s activities of the research, development and production with viewing the world-wide movement, are described. 6 figs.

  11. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  12. CERTIFICATION - The final and critical stage of every civil or military aviation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile STEFAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a general rule the final step in every aviation program is the certification of the airplane, an important step in which the airplane, the engins and the equipments are checked by an authority or commission according to the airworthiness rules. The main scope of the certification is to promote a safe aviation product and to protect the general public from unnecessary risk. In all the contries the national authorieties require a civil certificability for all the parts or equipments and a full aircraft certification for a new or wholly modified airplane. The military aircrafts must pased and respond to a specific way of certification and many actual efforts are done in order to unify the diffrent national rules in this field. This paper presents the existing situation in the certification of civil and military airplans and the actual measures done for the unification of certification procedures in the world.

  13. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  14. Combat aircraft noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  15. Civil liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1963-01-01

    An international Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage was adopted in Vienna on 19 May 1963 by a sixty-nation conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Convention, which is subject to ratification by the States signing it, will come into force three months after the deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification. The Convention is designee only to establish minimum rules regarding civil liability for nuclear damage; it may thus well be described as a framework convention, the main provisions of which represent the essential common denomination acceptable to as many States as possible. It leaves wide scope for national legislation and regional arrangements with a view to implementing these provisions The Convention does not purport to create a uniform civil law in this field, but it contains the minimal essential for protection of the public and forms the legal basis for uniform world-wide liability rules

  16. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applications of artificial intelligence in civil engineering, including evolutionary computation, neural networks, fuzzy systems, expert system, reasoning, classification, and learning, as well as others like chaos theory, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, knowledge-based engineering, and simulated annealing. The main research trends are also pointed out in the end. The paper provides an overview of the advances of artificial intelligence applied in civil engineering.

  17. Global Standards of Market Civilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Global Standards of Market Civilization brings together leading scholars, representing a range of political views, to investigate how global 'standards of market civilization' have emerged, their justification, and their political, economic and social impact. Key chapters show how as the modern...... thought, as well as its historical application part II presents original case studies that demonstrate the emergence of such standards and explore the diffusion of liberal capitalist ideas through the global political economy and the consequences for development and governance; the International Monetary...... Fund's capacity to formulate a global standard of civilization in its reform programs; and problems in the development of the global trade, including the issue of intellectual property rights. This book will be of strong interest to students and scholars in wide range of fields relating to the study...

  18. On civil engineering disasters and their mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Qu, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and mitigation technologies. Civil engineering disasters are caused primarily by civil engineering defects, which are usually attributed to improper selection of construction site, hazard assessment, design and construction, occupancy, and maintenance. From this viewpoint, many so-called natural disasters such as earthquakes, strong winds, floods, landslides, and debris flows are substantially due to civil engineering defects rather than the actual natural hazards. Civil engineering disasters occur frequently and globally and are the most closely related to human beings among all disasters. This paper emphasizes that such disasters can be mitigated mainly through civil engineering measures, and outlines the related objectives and scientific and technological challenges.

  19. Composite materials for aircraft structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baker, A. A; Dutton, Stuart; Kelly, Donald

    2004-01-01

    ... materials for aircraft structures / Alan Baker, Stuart Dutton, and Donald Kelly- 2nd ed. p. cm. - (Education series) Rev. ed. of: Composite materials for aircraft structures / edited by B. C. Hos...

  20. Long Range Aircraft Trajectory Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Magister, Tone

    2009-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the improvement of the aircraft future trajectory prediction accuracy for long-range airborne separation assurance. The strategic planning of safe aircraft flights and effective conflict avoidance tactics demand timely and accurate conflict detection based upon future four–dimensional airborne traffic situation prediction which is as accurate as each aircraft flight trajectory prediction. The improved kinematics model of aircraft relative flight considering flight ...

  1. Civil liability concerning nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    France and the USA wish to cooperate in order to promote an international regime of civil liability in order to give a fair compensation to victims of nuclear accidents as it is recommended by IAEA. On the other hand the European Commission has launched a consultation to see the necessity or not to harmonize all the civil liability regimes valid throughout Europe. According to the Commission the potential victims of nuclear accidents would not receive equal treatment at the European scale in terms of insurance cover and compensation which might distort competition in the nuclear sector. (A.C.)

  2. OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN CIVIL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Russian civil procedure is not a pure Continental model because it also has procedural features of the common law system, as well as some other original and exceptional features. This article examines the main aspects of Russian civil justice: its main principles; judicial organization, including the structure of the courts and the division between courts of general jurisdiction and arbitrazh (commercial courts, and the Intellectual Property Court; sources of procedural law; bar organization; the jurisdiction of the courts; actions and proceedings; legal costs; evidence; administrative procedure; class actions; enforcement proceedings; and arbitration and mediation.

  3. Interactions of Aircraft Design and Control: Actuators Sizing and Optimization for an Unstable Blended Wing-Body

    OpenAIRE

    Denieul , Yann; Alazard , Daniel; Bordeneuve-Guibé , Joël; Toussaint , Clément; Taquin , Gilles

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In this paper the problem of integrated design and control for a civil blended wing-body aircraft is addressed. Indeed this configuration faces remarkable challenges relatedto handling qualities: namely the aircraft configuration in this study features a strong longitudinal instability for some specific flight points. Moreover it may lack control efficiency despite large and redundant movables. Stabilizing such a configuration may then lead to high control surfaces rat...

  4. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  5. Aircraft Capability Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  6. Aircrafts' taxi noise emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; López, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted, with the objective of creating a database of inputs that can be used with noise prediction software, to evaluate noise of aircraft taxing movements and community noise exposure levels. The acoustic consultant can use these data with any of the software packages,

  7. Aircraft parameter estimation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the evolution of high performance modern aircraft and spiraling developmental and experimental costs, the importance of flight validated databases for flight control design applications and for flight simulators has increased significantly in the recent past. Ground-based and in-flight simulators are increasingly used not ...

  8. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  10. The Civil War and Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  11. Governance and European Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutay, Acar

    This book provides a critical analysis of the European Union’s approach to ‘governance’, focusing on the way in which civil society is incorporated within the EU decision-making process and arguing that it is not conducive to the democratisation of EU governance.\

  12. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  13. Measuring competition in civil aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijesen, M.G.; Nijkamp, P.; Rietveld, P.

    2002-01-01

    Markets in civil aviation are characterized by large differences in the level of competition, both between time periods as between regions. To measure competition, several indicators are available, such as the number of competitors, the C4-index and the Herfindahl index. We use these measures in

  14. Ancient Civilization in Contemporary Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natunewicz, Chester F.

    The development of more than 325 short radio talks, designed to inform the general public, on the relevance and contemporaneity of classical civilization to our times, is discussed in this address. Materials are derived from a wide range of sources and include such writers as Cicero, Plautus, Horace, Ovid, Quintillian, Aeschylus, and Plutarch.…

  15. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  16. Civil Engineering Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents civil engineering technology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and…

  17. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  18. American Society of Civil Engineers | ASCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membership Your New Membership: Getting Started Member Value Civil Engineering Salaries Manage Your Account Vote Now Education & Careers Training & Courses Getting Licensed & Certified Live Exam Reviews Specialty Certifications Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge Volunteer Opportunities Jobs Ethics

  19. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice aims to publish original research papers of high standard, containing material of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems.

  20. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Features of upbringing children in civil law

    OpenAIRE

    Лобжанідзе, Давид

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyzes the features of upbringing children in civil law, in particular under the Civil Code of Georgia. The author examines the concept of the family as a social phenomenon and its underlying principles. Attention is paid also to the court practice of upbringing children and determining the place of their residence. English abstract D. Lobzhanidze Features of upbringing children in civil law. The paper analyzes the features of upbringing children in civil law, in particular u...

  2. 50 CFR 300.40 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalties. 300.40 Section 300.40... South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.40 Civil penalties. The procedures of 15 CFR part 904 apply to the assessment of civil penalties, except as modified by the requirements of section 8 of the Act. ...

  3. 49 CFR 233.11 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalties. 233.11 Section 233.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.11 Civil penalties. Any person (an... subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except that...

  4. 7 CFR 1435.201 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 1435.201 Section 1435.201... Recordkeeping Requirements § 1435.201 Civil penalties. (a) Any processor, refiner, or importer of sugar, syrup... false data required under § 1435.200(a) through (e), is subject to a civil penalty of no more than $10...

  5. 12 CFR 215.11 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 215.11 Section 215.11 Banks... OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.11 Civil penalties... subject to civil penalties as specified in section 29 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 504). [Reg. O...

  6. 39 CFR 233.12 - Civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 233.12 Section 233.12 Postal... Civil penalties. False representation and lottery orders— (a) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3005, the... be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $11,000 for each day...

  7. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Availability Policies § 229.21 Civil liability. (a) Civil liability. A bank that fails to comply with any...

  8. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5 U.S.C...

  9. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty. Any... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except...

  10. 38 CFR 21.7310 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 21.7310... Bill-Active Duty) Administrative § 21.7310 Civil rights. (a) Delegation of authority concerning Federal... her jurisdiction. See part 18 of this chapter. These equal opportunity laws are: (1) Title VI, Civil...

  11. 13 CFR 302.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 302.20 Section 302... TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.20 Civil rights. (a) Discrimination is prohibited... 601 of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) (proscribing...

  12. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination complaints...

  13. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all requirements imposed by or pursuant to...

  14. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57... REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For any... willfully participates in the violation, a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000. (b) For any willful violation...

  15. 49 CFR 235.9 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 235.9 Section 235.9 Transportation... SIGNAL SYSTEM OR RELIEF FROM THE REQUIREMENTS OF PART 236 § 235.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of... violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil...

  16. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State or local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all...

  17. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations against...

  18. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation... is currently evaluating its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming... civil penalties. UFA takes into account the statutory penalty factors under 49 U.S.C. 521(b)(2)(D). The...

  19. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer its... amended by Executive Order 12259, as applicable. The civil rights compliance requirements for RHS are in 7...

  20. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of...

  1. 22 CFR 127.10 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780 for...

  2. 32 CFR 310.46 - Civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil actions. 310.46 Section 310.46 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.46 Civil actions. An individual may file a civil suit...

  3. 34 CFR 303.424 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 303.424 Section 303.424 Education... Civil action. Any party aggrieved by the findings and decision regarding an administrative complaint has the right to bring a civil action in State or Federal court under section 639(a)(1) of the Act...

  4. 34 CFR 300.516 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 300.516 Section 300.516 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.516 Civil action. (a... aggrieved by the findings and decision under § 300.514(b), has the right to bring a civil action with...

  5. 7 CFR 250.21 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 250.21 Section 250.21 Agriculture... TERRITORIES AND POSSESSIONS AND AREAS UNDER ITS JURISDICTION General Operating Provisions § 250.21 Civil... Department's nondiscrimination regulations (7 CFR parts 15, 15a, and 15b) and the FNS civil rights...

  6. 33 CFR 401.102 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 401.102 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Penalties-Violations of Seaway Regulations § 401.102 Civil penalty. (a) A person, as described in § 401.101(b), who violates a regulation is liable to a civil penalty of...

  7. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations promulgated...

  8. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will be administered in accordance with applicable Federal Civil Rights Law. All grants made under this subpart are...

  9. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except...

  10. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at...

  11. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  12. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations promulgated...

  13. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Part 3560 RIN 0575AC93 Civil Monetary Penalties AGENCY: Rural Housing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Rural Housing Service (RHS or Agency) proposes to implement two civil monetary... civil monetary penalties under the authority of 42 U.S.C. 1490s (section 543 of the Housing Act of 1949...

  14. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to the...

  15. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 1017.29 Section 1017.29 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Violations § 1017.29 Civil penalty. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 66033, Dec. 14, 2009... subject to a civil penalty under this part: (1) 10 CFR Part 1017—Identification and Protection of...

  16. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  17. Art and Civil Action : Cultural Organizations in the European Civil Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, Pascal; Lijster, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the place of new cultural organizationsin the civil domain is analysed. The authors describe a theoretical model that they call the ‘civil chain’, describing the different phases in which civil organizations develop themselves. The civil chain delivers analytic insights into the

  18. Multirole cargo aircraft options and configurations. [economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, D. W.; Vaughan, J. C., III

    1979-01-01

    A future requirements and advanced market evaluation study indicates derivatives of current wide-body aircraft, using 1980 advanced technology, would be economically attractive through 2008, but new dedicated airfreighters incorporating 1990 technology, would offer little or no economic incentive. They would be economically attractive for all payload sizes, however, if RD and T costs could be shared in a joint civil/military arrangement. For the 1994-2008 cargo market, option studies indicate Mach 0.7 propfans would be economically attractive in trip cost, aircraft price and airline ROI. Spanloaders would have an even lower price and higher ROI but would have a relatively high trip cost because of aerodynamic inefficiencies. Dedicated airfreighters using propfans at Mach 0.8 cruise, laminar flow control, or cryofuels, would not provide any great economic benefits. Air cushion landing gear configurations are identified as an option for avoiding runway constraints on airport requirements and/or operational constraints are noted.

  19. Aircraft engines. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffles, P C

    1989-01-01

    Configurational design and thermodynamic performance gain trends are projected into the next 50 years, in view of the growing interest of aircraft manufacturers in both larger and more efficient high-bypass turbofan engines for subsonic flight and variable cycle engines for supersonic flight. Ceramic- and metal-matrix composites are envisioned as the key to achievement of turbine inlet temperatures 300 C higher than the 1400 C which is characteristic of the state-of-the-art, with the requisite high stiffness, strength, and low density. Such fiber-reinforced materials can be readily tailored to furnish greatest strength in a specific direction of loading. Large, low-density engines are critical elements of future 1000-seat aircraft.

  20. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  1. Combat Aircraft Maneuverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    rodynamique, propulsion, rdsistance den structures, etc ... - lea m~thodes d’essaia an soufflerie, aur banca au aol, sur simulateurs. A un niveau de synthbse...Dunstan Graham, "Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control," Princeton University Press , Princeton, N.J., 1973. 9. Hoh, Roger H., Thomas T. Myers...discussion of the roll coupling problem" Progress in Aerospace Sciences, Vol 15, Pergamon Press , Oxford 1974 17-8 (6] R.W. KLOPPENSTEIN "Zeroes of

  2. Aircraft gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekido, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-01

    Current developmental activities of aircraft gas turbines in Japan are reviewed. V2500-A5 engine with thrust of 30,000 LBF is scheduled to be used for real aircraft in 1994, and intensive developmental activities are also proceeding in larger engines over 90,000 LBF. Recently, developmental programs of engines for 75-100 seat aircraft have been actively discussed, and Japanese engine makers are having discussions towards international collaboration. Such engines will be high bypass turbofans of 12,000-22,000 LBF. Development of SST/HST engines in a speed range from subsonic to Mach 5 is under the initiative of the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology. The Technical Research and Development Institute of Japan, Defence Agency achieved the target thrust of 3.4 tons in the small turbofan engine program, and the small turboshaft engine for small helicopters is also under development. Both National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) and Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS) are now conducting the research programs on turbo-ramjet engines under a component test phase. 1 fig.

  3. Analysis of a Stretched Derivative Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Haller, William J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Research into advanced, high-speed civil turboprops received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of U.S. aeronautical research. But when fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing the technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation's environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion and revived research by NASA and a number of engine manufacturers. Recently, NASA and General Electric have teamed to conduct several investigations into the performance and noise of an advanced, single-aisle transport with open rotor propulsion. The results of these initial studies indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to aircraft using turbofan engines with equivalent core technology. In addition, noise analysis of the concept indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle transport class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin. The behavior of derivative open rotor transports is of interest. Heavier, "stretched" derivative aircraft tend to be noisier than their lighter relatives. Of particular importance to the business case for the concept is how the noise margin changes relative to regulatory limits within a family of similar open rotor aircraft. The subject of this report is a performance and noise assessment of a notional, heavier, stretched derivative airplane equipped with throttle-push variants of NASA's initial open rotor engine design.

  4. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of international organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreeme...

  5. Practical Guide to Civil Mediation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the Département des Institutions of the Republic and Canton of Geneva and the Groupement suisse des Magistrats pour la médiation (GEMME) - Swiss Association of Magistrates for Mediation have published a multilingual Practical Guide to Civil Mediation (including English). In this context, the Swiss Mission has underlined the benefits of resorting to mediation, especially for the personnel of International Organizations, and which the Secretary-General of the GEMME has summarised as follows: it is a private process not requiring the waiver of the parties' immunities; the confidentiality of the mediation process is guaranteed both by the mediator and the parties to it; the search for an amicable settlement does not need to be determined by reference to law (provided that public order is respected); the process is faster (2 to 3 sessions), less costly and more flexible than civil or arbitration procedures; in order to reinforce the agreem...

  6. Geometric procedures for civil engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Tonias, Elias C

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a multitude of geometric constructions usually encountered in civil engineering and surveying practice.  A detailed geometric solution is provided to each construction as well as a step-by-step set of programming instructions for incorporation into a computing system. The volume is comprised of 12 chapters and appendices that may be grouped in three major parts: the first is intended for those who love geometry for its own sake and its evolution through the ages, in general, and, more specifically, with the introduction of the computer. The second section addresses geometric features used in the book and provides support procedures used by the constructions presented. The remaining chapters and the appendices contain the various constructions. The volume is ideal for engineering practitioners in civil and construction engineering and allied areas.

  7. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  8. Radiation exposure from civil aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalch, D.

    1994-01-01

    The question as to whether civil air crews and frequent air passengers ought to be classified among the group of occupationally exposed persons has in principle been decided by the recommendations adopted by the ICRP, the competent bodies of the EU, and national authorities. Measurements for more information on the radiation fields involved are planned. The German Radiation Protection Office (BfS) recently published a statement on dose commitments, assuming a maximum annual dose of approx. 8 mSv in addition to the mean value already determined. Legal provisions, which ought to be adopted also on EU level since civil aviation is a transboundary traffic system, have yet to come. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 2: specific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-06-01

    This paper describes the main areas of civil forensic psychiatry (FP) and the skills required by psychiatric experts. Some specific areas of civil FP are discussed, including tort law reform, reliability of psychiatric evidence, contentious psychiatric disorders, and the many domains of civil FP. Civil FP is an important sub-specialty component of forensic psychiatry that requires greater emphasis in the training and continuing education of psychiatrists. A process of accrediting psychiatrists as having competency in advanced civil FP may be of value.

  10. Louis H. Bauer and the origins of civil aviation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Theresa L

    2012-12-01

    With the passage of the Air Commerce Act in May 1926, civil aviation safety became a federal responsibility under the Department of Commerce (DoC). In November of that year, Louis Hopewell Bauer (1888-1964) became the DoC's first Aviation Medical Director. After earning his medical degree at the Harvard School of Medicine in 1912, Bauer joined the U.S. Army Medical Corps, where he helped develop the role of the military flight surgeon and then served as director of the Army's School of Aviation Medicine. Upon taking the federal position, he undertook to define medical standards and examination frequencies for civilian pilots and identifiy disqualifying conditions that could compromise a pilot's ability to operate an aircraft safely. Bauer also personally selected 57 private physicians (soon to be known as Aviation Medical Examiners) distributed across the country to give medical examinations for pilot licenses. Bauer subsequently played a leading role in organizing the Aviation Medical Association in 1929.

  11. Aerodynamic Limits on Large Civil Tiltrotor Sizing and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C W.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Large Civil Tiltrotor (2nd generation, or LCTR2) is a useful reference design for technology impact studies. The present paper takes a broad view of technology assessment by examining the extremes of what aerodynamic improvements might hope to accomplish. Performance was analyzed with aerodynamically idealized rotor, wing, and airframe, representing the physical limits of a large tiltrotor. The analysis was repeated with more realistic assumptions, which revealed that increased maximum rotor lift capability is potentially more effective in improving overall vehicle efficiency than higher rotor or wing efficiency. To balance these purely theoretical studies, some practical limitations on airframe layout are also discussed, along with their implications for wing design. Performance of a less efficient but more practical aircraft with non-tilting nacelles is presented.

  12. Conceptual Design of a 150-Passenger Civil Tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual design of a short-haul civil tiltrotor aircraft is presented. The concept vehicle is designed for runway-independent operations to increase the capacity of the National Airspace System without the need for increased infrastructure. This necessitates a vehicle that is capable of integrating with conventional air traffic without interfering with established flightpaths. The NASA Design and Analysis of Rotorcraft software was used to size the concept vehicle based on the mission requirements of this market. The final configuration was selected based upon performance metrics such as acquisition and maintenance costs, fuel fraction, empty weight, and required engine power. The concept presented herein has a proposed initial operating capability date of 2035, and is intended to integrate with conventional air traffic as well as proposed future air transportation concepts.

  13. Civil disobedience, feminism and body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Romero Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, feminist civil disobedience is analysed as democracy’s daughter. As regards the analysis of different interpretations of natural rights, the path of the ownership of the own body is followed from Sufragism and its epoch until the global world. At the present time, the right to own your body is defended from opposite positions, such as Femen and Islamic Feminism.

  14. Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Pengzhen; Chen, Shengyong; Zheng, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, involved in the research, design, and application of intelligent computer. Traditional methods for modeling and optimizing complex structure systems require huge amounts of computing resources, and artificial-intelligence-based solutions can often provide valuable alternatives for efficiently solving problems in the civil engineering. This paper summarizes recently developed methods and theories in the developing direction for applicati...

  15. Civil Engineering & Design Standards Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Vänttinen, Eetu

    2014-01-01

    Civil Discipline Engineering department in Foster Wheeler Energia Oy takes care of the construction of foundation, steel frame, platforms, cladding/roofing, HVAC, elevator, hoist and central vacuum system of the boiler building. The goal of the thesis was to compile a design manual for the department to ease up the startup of the design of a new project and standardize the design. Main objective was to gather together all the existing guidelines, standards and directives regarding the des...

  16. The Aftermath of Civil War

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Siyan; Loayza, Norman V.; Reynal-Querol, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Using an event-study methodology, the article analyzes the aftermath of civil war in a cross-section of countries. It focuses on cases where the end of conflict marks the beginning of relatively lasting peace. The analysis considers 41 countries involved in internal wars over the period 1960--2003. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the aftermath of war, a range of social areas is considered: basic indicators of economic performance, health and education, political development, demograp...

  17. INADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE IN CIVIL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Dika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the exclusion of specific means of evidence as instruments for determining the object of evidence, as well as the taking of evidence in the framework of the Croatian civil procedure law. The introduction lays the grounds for classifying and qualifying exclusion of evidence (general, special; absolute, relative; removable, irremovable; direct, indirect, after which greater attention is paid to the so called absolute and relative type; exclusionary evidence of the direct relative type pertaining to the establishing of facts, and evidence dismissals. With regard to the indirect relative type, the paper examines exclusionary evidence concerning the object of evidence. The remainder of the paper focuses on illegally obtained evidence, while outlining the constitutional, statutory, judicature and doctrinaire premises of bearing for such evidence. Subsequently, the question of evidence obtained in violation of the Constitutional guarantee of respect and legal protection of private and family life, dignity, reputation and honour, as well as evidence obtained by breach of the Constitutional guarantee of freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication, and in violation of the right to safety and privacy of personal data, are discussed too. In addition, the paper analyses the institutions of preclusion of evidence and the so called informative evidence. Concluding, the author points to a lacking regulation of inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law, underlining the need to determine de lege ferenda legal requirements with a view to operationalizing inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law.

  18. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  19. Principles for Aircraft Energy Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Frederick T N

    2013-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on energy eciency in aircraft systems has in recentyears led to greater interest in integrated design and optimisation withinthe industry. New tools are needed to understand, compare and manage energyuse of an aircraft throughout its design and operation. This thesis describes a new methodology to meet this need: aircraft exergy mapping.The choice of exergy, a 2nd law metric, to describe the energy ows is fundamental to the methodology, providing numerous advantages ove...

  20. THE PROBLEMS OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING TO TAKLE THE TASKS OF THE AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Chinyuchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving of the aircraft continued airworthiness system is currently becoming of particular importance applied both to aircraft of domestic and foreign production, used in civil aviation of Russia. This article discusses the background and content of the tasks for long-haul aircraft continued airworthiness, which presents a challenge directly related to the provision of intensive, regular, economically viable, and safe operation of assigned airline fleet. A special place among the problems of continued airworthiness is held by the creation and organization of mechanisms and methods of resource status and age of the assigned airline fleet monitoring to manage its forecasting and timely updates. Not least important among the issues of resource and age structure monitoring to be considered is the need to improve the design of aircraft, taking into account preliminary technical and economic feasibility assessment of its modifications in the interests of the operator. A deep study of the contents of the monitoring allows to develop up-to-date methodological and scientific basis for building an integrated system of aircraft resource management and timing services. This system is developed based on the integrated approach that allows to provide a solution to the entire set of problems presented in this article and faced by professionals and scientists involved in the aircraft maintenance programs development on the stages of their design and manufacturing and long operation of aircraft continued airworthiness.

  1. Developing Curriculum of Nuclear Civil Engineering Degree Programme at Graduate Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper suggests the introduction of a new degree, namely nuclear civil engineering at graduate level for better utilization of civil engineers in nuclear power plant (NPP) design and construction. At present, both nuclear engineering and civil engineering degrees are offered at undergraduate and graduate levels in numerous renowned universities of the world. However, when a civil engineer, even after completion of nuclear engineering at postgraduate level, undertakes an assignment related to NPP design, he comes across various problems which are not covered in the present curricula. For instance, NPPs’ siting issues, design of pre-stressed concrete containment against loads of loss of coolant accident (LOCA), various impulsive and impactive loads (e.g., detonations, aircraft crash analysis, etc.) and shielding calculations are some of the core issues during nuclear power plant design. The paper highlights the importance of introduction of nuclear civil engineering degree at the graduate level. Besides, the contents of the proposed course work have also been discussed. Keeping in view the fact that, currently, no such degree is offered in any university of the world, the paper explores useful avenues to human resource development for introducing and expanding nuclear power programmes. (author

  2. Damage monitoring of aircraft structures made of composite materials using wavelet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, D.; Safin, A.; Luhyna, N.

    2016-10-01

    The present article is dedicated to the study of the acoustic properties of composite materials and the application of non-destructive testing methods to aircraft components. A mathematical model of a wavelet transformed signal is presented. The main acoustic (vibration) properties of different composite material structures were researched. Multiple vibration parameter dependencies on the noise reduction factor were derived. The main steps of a research procedure and new method algorithm are presented. The data obtained was compared with the data from a three dimensional laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer, to validate the results. The new technique was tested in the laboratory and on civil aircraft at a training airfield.

  3. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on...

  4. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A.G.; Stordal, F.; Knudsen, S. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  5. Chemistry in aircraft plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraabol, A G; Stordal, F; Knudsen, S [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research, Kjeller (Norway); Konopka, P [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1998-12-31

    An expanding plume model with chemistry has been used to study the chemical conversion of NO{sub x} to reservoir species in aircraft plumes. The heterogeneous conversion of N{sub 2}O{sub 5} to HNO{sub 3}(s) has been investigated when the emissions take place during night-time. The plume from an B747 has been simulated. During a ten-hour calculation the most important reservoir species was HNO{sub 3} for emissions at noon. The heterogeneous reactions had little impact on the chemical loss of NO{sub x} to reservoir species for emissions at night. (author) 4 refs.

  6. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  7. Design for aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft impact against nuclear power plant structures leads to both local and overall effects on the structure. Among the local effects, backface spalling is most important. The overall effects of impact on structural stability are commonly evaluated in terms of the adequacy of the structure in flexure and shear. Empirical formulas are presented for the determination of local effects of aircraft impact on nuclear power plant facilities. The formulas lead to easy and reasonable estimates of the thickness required to prevent backface spalling. The impactive load depends upon the collapse load of the fuselage, its collapse mechanism, mass distribution and the impact velocity. A simplified method is given for evaluating the design load. The time history, obtained by the proposed method, closely resembles those obtained by more rigorous methods. Procedures for obtaining shear and flexural strengths of concrete walls or roofs, subjected to impact, are provided. The span-to-depth ratio is considered. Recommendations are made on the available ductility ratio and structural behavior. (Author)

  8. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.

  9. ERGONOMIC DESIGN OF AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÎMPIAN Ionuţ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.

  10. Civil rights reference of administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, J.

    1984-01-01

    The book deals with the constitutional obligations which substantive civil rights demand from administrative procedures. The Federal Constitutional Court distinguishes between protection of civil rights in, and by, administrative and judicial procedures. The author analyses the example of the decision of the Federal Constitutional Court concerning the atomic power plant of Muelheim-Kaerlich. In the licensing procedure pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act, the civil rights of persons concerned are guaranteed by the governmental obligation to its protection. (CW) [de

  11. 42 CFR 59.209 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 59.209 Section 59.209 Public Health... Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.209 Civil rights. Attention is called to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.) and in...

  12. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  13. Electronic communication in civil litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into common European and national rules regulating electronic communication in legal matters. Such form of communication in legal matters expedites the procedure. It is also pointed out that electronic communication between the court and the parties to the proceedings, as well as third parties, is conducted through registries, regulated by special regulations, for filing written submissions of the parties and decisions of the court. Legislation regulating electronic communication is intended for litigation in commercial matters. European and national rules do not exclude the possibility of electronic communication in non-commercial litigation provided there is an express consent of the parties to such communication. Although steps towards digitalization have been taken in the Republic of Serbia, legislation regulating electronic service of documents, communication in civil litigation, is still missing. The Civil Procedure Law does not have a separate section regulating the electronic communication in legal matters. However, it cannot be said that the CPC does not set basic principles regulating this form of communication in legal matters.

  14. Thin tailored composite wing for civil tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1994-01-01

    The tiltrotor aircraft is a flight vehicle which combines the efficient low speed (i.e., take-off, landing, and hover) characteristics of a helicopter with the efficient cruise speed of a turboprop airplane. A well-known example of such vehicle is the Bell-Boeing V-22 Osprey. The high cruise speed and range constraints placed on the civil tiltrotor require a relatively thin wing to increase the drag-divergence Mach number which translates into lower compressibility drag. It is required to reduce the wing maximum thickness-to-chord ratio t/c from 23% (i.e., V-22 wing) to 18%. While a reduction in wing thickness results in improved aerodynamic efficiency, it has an adverse effect on the wing structure and it tends to reduce structural stiffness. If ignored, the reduction in wing stiffness leads to susceptibility to aeroelastic and dynamic instabilities which may consequently cause a catastrophic failure. By taking advantage of the directional stiffness characteristics of composite materials the wing structure may be tailored to have the necessary stiffness, at a lower thickness, while keeping the weight low. The goal of this study is to design a wing structure for minimum weight subject to structural, dynamic and aeroelastic constraints. The structural constraints are in terms of strength and buckling allowables. The dynamic constraints are in terms of wing natural frequencies in vertical and horizontal bending and torsion. The aeroelastic constraints are in terms of frequency placement of the wing structure relative to those of the rotor system. The wing-rotor-pylon aeroelastic and dynamic interactions are limited in this design study by holding the cruise speed, rotor-pylon system, and wing geometric attributes fixed. To assure that the wing-rotor stability margins are maintained a more rigorous analysis based on a detailed model of the rotor system will need to ensue following the design study. The skin-stringer-rib type architecture is used for the wing

  15. Advanced transport aircraft technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winblade, R L

    1980-06-01

    Various elements of the NASA aircraft energy efficiency program are described. Regarding composite structures, the development of three secondary and three medium-primary components to validate structural and fabrication technology is discussed. In laminar flow control, the design of advanced airfoils having large regions of supercritical flow with features which simplify laminarization are considered. Emphasis is placed on engine performance improvement, directed at developing advanced components to reduce fuel consumption in current production engines, and engine diagnostics aimed at identifying the sources and causes of performance deterioration in high-bypass turbofan engines. In addition, the results of propeller aerodynamic and acoustic tests have substantiated the feasibility of achieving the propeller efficiency goal of 80% and confirmed that the effect of blade sweep on reducing propeller source noise was 5-6 dB.

  16. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  17. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the SIEVERT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottolier-Depois, J.F.; Clairand, I.; Blanchard, P.; Dessarps, P.; Lantos, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milliSieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - PaulEmile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available since more than two years on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft. Various results obtained are presented: experimental validation, in particular for the ground level event model (large solar eruption), and statistics on routes and personal doses. (author)

  18. PROBLEMS OF FLIGHT PERSONNEL PREPARATION FOR MODERN AIRCRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Харченко

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the problem who can and who should solve the question concerning the preparationand recurrent training of pilots of Ukrainian civil aviation is not solved. The necessity of updatingof aircraft’s park in aviation branch and aircraft operation, which was ripened 10 years ago,demands a corresponding infrastructure. It is necessary to understand, that the pilots ready toperform the flights on modern aircrafts, will not appear by themselves, therefore the real actions onmodernization of existing system of aircrew and the aviation personnel preparation as a whole arerequired. Main objective of this work is the determination of the basic components concerning thesolving of the problematic questions on preparation of aircrew on modern types of aircrafts. Duringthe problem analysis it was specified that the present development of system of aircrew preparationin Ukraine is not perfect, and does not correspond the ICAO and EU requirements, therefore needsan immediate intervention at the highest State level. Trainings are not complex, as do not containthe elements of selection of aircrew members cooperation. Programs of recurrent training ofaircrew, courses of pilots training flight preparation were not reconsidered for many years

  19. Assessing exposure to cosmic radiation aboard aircraft: the Sievert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Biau, A.; Clairand, I.; Saint-Lo, D.; Valero, M.; Blanchard, P.; Dessarps, P.; Lantos, P.

    2003-01-01

    The study of naturally-occurring radiation and its associated risk is one of the preoccupations of bodies responsible for radiation protection. Cosmic particle flux is significantly higher on board aircraft that at ground level. Furthermore, its intensity depends on solar activity and eruptions. Due to their professional activity, flight crews and frequent flyers may receive an annual dose of some milli-sieverts. This is why the European directive adopted in 1996 requires the aircraft operators to assess the dose and to inform their flight crews about the risk. The effective dose is to be estimated using various experimental and calculation means. In France, the computerized system for flight assessment of exposure to cosmic radiation in air transport (SIEVERT) is delivered to airlines for assisting them in the application of the European directive. This dose assessment tool was developed by the French General Directorate of Civil Aviation (DGAC) and partners: the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), the Paris Observatory and the French Institute for Polar Research - Paul-Emile Victor (IPEV). This professional service is available on an Internet server accessible to companies with a public section. The system provides doses that consider the routes flown by aircraft Various results obtained are presented. (authors)

  20. Toward a human-centered aircraft automation philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of automation in civil aircraft is examined in order to discern trends in the respective roles and functions of automation technology and the humans who operate these aircraft. The effects of advances in automation technology on crew reaction is considered and it appears that, though automation may well have decreased the frequency of certain types of human errors in flight, it may also have enabled new categories of human errors, some perhaps less obvious and therefore more serious than those it has alleviated. It is suggested that automation could be designed to keep the pilot closer to the control of the vehicle, while providing an array of information management and aiding functions designed to provide the pilot with data regarding flight replanning, degraded system operation, and the operational status and limits of the aircraft, its systems, and the physical and operational environment. The automation would serve as the pilot's assistant, providing and calculating data, watching for the unexpected, and keeping track of resources and their rate of expenditure.

  1. Civil defense should be mandatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author exposes myths about the effects of nuclear weapons so that the U.S. can begin the necessary task of a mandatory civil defense program. An all-out nuclear war between Russia and the United States would be the worst catastrophe in history, a tragedy so huge it is difficult to comprehend. Even so, it would be far from the end of human life on earth. The dangers from nuclear weapons have been distorted and exaggerated for varied reasons. These exaggerations have become demoralizing myths, believed by millions of Americans. The author has found that many people see no sense in talking about details of survival skills. Only after they have begun to question the truth of these myths do they become interested, under normal peacetime conditions, in acquiring nuclear war survival skills. The author examines the most harmful of the myths about nuclear war dangers, along with some of the grim facts

  2. Civil Liability for Environmental Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ciochină

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We debated in this article the civil liability for environmental damages as stipulated in ourlegislation with reference to Community law. The theory of legal liability in environmental law is basedon the duty of all citizens to respect and protect the environment. Considering the importance ofenvironment in which we live, the liability for environmental damages is treated by the Constitution as aprinciple and a fundamental obligation. Many human activities cause environmental damages and, in linewith the principle of sustainable development, they should be avoided. However, when this is notpossible, they must be regulated (by criminal or administrative law in order to limit their adverse effectsand, according to the polluter pays principle, to internalize in advance their externalities (through taxes,insurances or other forms of financial security products. Communication aims to analyze these issues andlegal regulations dealing with the issue of liability for environmental damage.

  3. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. AIMS AND SCOPE The Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT aims to publish original research papers of high standard, containing material of broad interest and of significant contribution to civil engineering, with emphasis being placed on material that is applicable to the solution of practical problems.

  4. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  5. Nuclear civil liability international system. Evolution prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper sets out the necessity of a special system of international conventions in the scope of nuclear civil liability. Then the main principles of the conventions in Paris and Vienna are described. Recently, works have been carried out in order to improve and modernize the civil liability system. (TEC). 4 tabs

  6. 17 CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE AND DEMOCRATIC SUSTAINABILITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    To Socrates, civil disobedience was morally wrong even when there were justifiable reasons ... issue between the majority and the minority in the society. It is a protest ..... government businesses were halted for about a week and the government of .... 11 William A Herr, “Thoreau: A Civil Disobedience?,” Ethics, Vol. 81, No.

  7. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific remedial...

  8. 7 CFR 1738.17 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1738.17 Section 1738.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1738.17 Civil rights...

  9. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring suit...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1846 - Civil action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil action. 493.1846 Section 493.1846 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1846 Civil action. If CMS...

  11. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  12. 46 CFR 80.40 - Civil penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 80.40 Section 80.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS DISCLOSURE OF SAFETY STANDARDS AND COUNTRY OF REGISTRY § 80.40 Civil penalty. For each violation of the regulations in this part, the owner, operator...

  13. Promoting Civil Discourse in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Billie F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…

  14. 7 CFR 1735.15 - Civil rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1735.15 Section 1735.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Policies § 1735.15 Civil rights. Borrowers are required to comply with certain regulations on...

  15. Civil Engineering: Improving the Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    American Indian civil engineers describe the educational paths that led them to their engineering careers, applications of civil engineering in reservation communities, necessary job skills, opportunities afforded by internship programs, continuing education, and the importance of early preparation in math and science. Addresses of 12 resource Web…

  16. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  17. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  18. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  19. ON THE ISSUE OF AIRCRAFT MAITENANCE PROCESS OPTIMIZATION ON THE CRITERION OF MINIMUM FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Alexandrovich Belkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentially new ways to improve civil aircraft fuel efficiency, based on the aircraft maintenance process optimiza- tion are considered. The data confirming the advisability of their further in-depth study and implementation in civil aviation airlines activity is given.It is shown that one of the reasons provoking the increase of fuel consumption at the cruising flight stage might be the necessity of the bypass of meteorological areas and of the flight altitude or airspeed change. These events are occasional. At the same time the most advantageous methods aimed at improving fuel efficiency are continuous aircraft climb or descent.One of these research directions is the implementation of continuous descent mode, rational routes of approach to the airfield, climb, choice of optimal flight modes in flights. This program is called “SESAR”. While its realization within the framework of the EC it is planned to reduce fuel consumption by 5 million tons a year due to its economy by 10 % after each flight. The similar program “NextGen” of air traffic optimization is accepted and is realized nowadays in the USA. The purpose of this program is annual improvement of fuel efficiency not less than by 2 % a year.Based on the conducted research the expanded list of recommendations for the realization of aircraft continuous descent system in flight, providing renunciation of horizontal flight areas at idling engines is presented.

  20. Multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for emission and cost reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pollutant gases emitted from the civil jet are doing more and more harm to the environment with the rapid development of the global commercial aviation transport. Low environmental impact has become a new requirement for aircraft design. In this paper, estimation method for emission in aircraft conceptual design stage is improved based on the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO aircraft engine emissions databank and the polynomial curve fitting methods. The greenhouse gas emission (CO2 equivalent per seat per kilometer is proposed to measure the emissions. An approximate sensitive analysis and a multi-objective optimization of aircraft design for tradeoff between greenhouse effect and direct operating cost (DOC are performed with five geometry variables of wing configuration and two flight operational parameters. The results indicate that reducing the cruise altitude and Mach number may result in a decrease of the greenhouse effect but an increase of DOC. And the two flight operational parameters have more effects on the emissions than the wing configuration. The Pareto-optimal front shows that a decrease of 29.8% in DOC is attained at the expense of an increase of 10.8% in greenhouse gases.

  1. World tendences of civil aviation development and the enlargement of the Lithuanian civil aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Butkevičius

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with global trends in civil aviation, such as: liberalisation of aviation market, globalisation of airlines, privatisation of airlines and invasion of low cost airlines into the market. Also the influence of these trends on the Lithuanian civil aviation activities has been defined. The Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been analysed: activities of international airports, passenger and cargo carriers, passenger routes and passenger flows, transportation market and airplane fleet. The problems of the Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been identified and suggestions for the development of the Lithuanian civil aviation activities have been proposed.

  2. Multi-sensor fusion with interacting multiple model filter for improved aircraft position accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Taehwan; Lee, Changho; Choi, Sangbang

    2013-03-27

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has decided to adopt Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) as the 21st century standard for navigation. Accordingly, ICAO members have provided an impetus to develop related technology and build sufficient infrastructure. For aviation surveillance with CNS/ATM, Ground-Based Augmentation System (GBAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), multilateration (MLAT) and wide-area multilateration (WAM) systems are being established. These sensors can track aircraft positions more accurately than existing radar and can compensate for the blind spots in aircraft surveillance. In this paper, we applied a novel sensor fusion method with Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter to GBAS, ADS-B, MLAT, and WAM data in order to improve the reliability of the aircraft position. Results of performance analysis show that the position accuracy is improved by the proposed sensor fusion method with the IMM filter.

  3. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... met within the specified time without creating a safety hazard. ...

  4. Expanding Advanced Civilizations in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, C.

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  5. Variable-Speed Power-Turbine for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchezky, Mark; Cruzen, G. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Turbine design concepts were studied for application to a large civil tiltrotor transport aircraft. The concepts addressed the need for high turbine efficiency across the broad 2:1 turbine operating speed range representative of the notional mission for the aircraft. The study focused on tailoring basic turbine aerodynamic design design parameters to avoid the need for complex, heavy, and expensive variable geometry features. The results of the study showed that good turbine performance can be achieved across the design speed range if the design focuses on tailoring the aerodynamics for good tolerance to large swings in incidence, as opposed to optimizing for best performance at the long range cruise design point. A rig design configuration and program plan are suggested for a dedicated experiment to validate the proposed approach.

  6. Détermination des performances aéro-thermo-propulsives des avions civils par une analyse exergétique de solutions haute-fidélité CFD-RANS

    OpenAIRE

    Arntz , A.

    2014-01-01

    A new exergy-based formulation is derived for the assessment of the aerothermopropulsive performance of civil aircraft. The choice of exergy is motivated by its ability to provide a well-established and consistent framework for the design of aerospace vehicles. The output of the derivation process is an exergy balance between the exergy supplied by a propulsion system or by heat transfer, the mechanical equilibrium of the aircraft, and the exergy outflow and destruction within the control vol...

  7. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  8. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  9. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  10. Flow Control Enabled Aircraft Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nangia, Rajendar

    2004-01-01

    ...: Many future advanced aircraft concepts being considered by the Air Force fall outside the current aerodynamic design practice and will rely heavily on the use of flow control technology to optimize flight performance...

  11. Neural networks for aircraft control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  12. Aircraft Evaluation Using Stochastic Duels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and...Fighter aircraft systems and weapons designs are known to involve substantial capital investment . Due to possible budget constraints in the U.S. Navy, the...of fighter aircraft to analysts and decision-makers before they invest further resources into larger-scale, higher-resolution simulations for

  13. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  14. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  15. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  16. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  17. Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco

    2012-01-01

    „Mechanics, Models and Methods in Civil Engineering” collects leading papers dealing with actual Civil Engineering problems. The approach is in the line of the Italian-French school and therefore deeply couples mechanics and mathematics creating new predictive theories, enhancing clarity in understanding, and improving effectiveness in applications. The authors of the contributions collected here belong to the Lagrange Laboratory, an European Research Network active since many years. This book will be of a major interest for the reader aware of modern Civil Engineering.

  18. Developing marketing system for civil engineering firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovićević Ratko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper intention was to reveal insufficient connection between theory and practice in civil engineering as indispose condition for more efficient solving problems which products unstable environment of engineering firms. Successful connection between theory and practice, when we talk about marketing in civil engineering, did not develop at satisfied way. Civil engineering is, in aspect of implementation of modern philosophy of marketing, in big residue related to the other spices of economy. In that order we want to appoint on possibility to resolve this discrepancy.

  19. DOES CIVIL SOCIETY CREATE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS?

    OpenAIRE

    Gauca Oana; Hadad Shahrazad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether civil society itself can enhance or stimulate the creation of social entrepreneurs, by studying the traits of the civil society and the various definitions attributed to it. The main question that the paper wants to answer to is and the main approach used in this research paper is the theoretical one. By studying existing articles and books on the topic, the paper tries to emphasize the various dimensions that civil society can embrace, as pictu...

  20. Colon cancer: a civilization disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Alastair J M; Collins, Paul D

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer arises in individuals with acquired or inherited genetic predisposition who are exposed to a range of risk factors. Many of these risk factors are associated with affluent Western societies. More than 95% of colorectal cancers are sporadic, arising in individuals without a significant hereditary risk. Geographic variation in the incidence of colorectal cancer is considerable with a higher incidence observed in the West. Environmental factors contribute substantially to this variation. A number of these risk factors are associated with a Western lifestyle and could be considered a product of 'civilization'. Recently, smoking has been recognized as a risk factor. Energy consumption also influences colorectal cancer risk, with obesity increasing risk and exercise reducing risk. However, the strongest contribution to environmental risk for colorectal cancer is dietary. Consumption of fat, alcohol and red meat is associated with an increased risk. Fresh fruit and vegetables and dietary fibre may be protective. Much has been learnt recently about the molecular pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer always arises in the context of genomic instability. There is inactivation of the tumour suppressor genes adenomatous polyposis coli, p53, transforming growth factor-β, activation of oncogene pathways including K-ras, and activation of the cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor pathways. The mechanisms by which some environmental factors modify the mutation risk in these pathways have been described. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  2. Using an operating cost model to analyse the selection of aircraft type on short-haul routes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available 1998 (Act No 2 of 1998). http://www. gov.za/gazette/acts/1998/a2-98.pdf (30/4/2004). Pyramid Media Group 2003. Commercial aircraft prices. http://www.pyramid.ch/aircr_prices.htm (4/10/2003). Rolls–Royce 2003. Civil aerospace turbofan range. http...:// www.rolls-royce.com/civil/products/turbofans/Default.htm (4/24/2003). Ssamula, B 2004. Developing a cost model for running an airline service. MEng dissertation, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Stratford, A H1973. Air transport economics...

  3. Bespilotne letelice zapadnih zemalja / Unmanned aircraft of Western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Pokorni

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Trend sve češće primene bespilotnih letelica biće nastavljen nesumnjivo, i tokom ove decenije. U vezi s tim stiče se utisak da će razvoj borbenih bespilotnih letilica biti u usponu. Mada je u proteklom periodu težište bilo na razvoju bespilotnih letilica za vojne primene (gde su ulagana velika sredstva, a civilni sektor je, uglavnom, koristio rezultate razvoja vojnih bespilotnih letelica, u narednom periodu se očekuje porast ulaganja i u razvoj bespilotnih letelica u civilnom sektoru. Bespilotne letelice su imale značajnu ulogu u zadacima koje su obavljale multinacionalne snage u toku rata u Bosni i Hercegovini i agresije NATO-a na SRJ, pa je poznavanje karakteristika bespilotnih letelica, za pripadnike Vojske, od velikog značaja. U sažetom tabelarnom pregledu prikazani su podatci o bespilotnim letelicama uglavnom proizvođača iz zapadnih zemalja, što ne znači da ih ne proizvode i druge zemlje, posebno Ruska federacija kao i neke susedne zemlje (Bugarska, Hrvatska. / The increasingly frequent use of unmanned aircraft will continue unabated throughout this decade. About that the impression is that the development of combat drones will rise. Although in the past period the focus was on the development of unmanned military vehicles (where large funds were invested, and the civil sector used mainly the development of military drones, in the coming period, investment in the development of unmanned aircraft in the civil sector is expected . Unmanned aircraft played a significant role in the tasks performed by multinational forces during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and NATO aggression in the FR Yugoslavia, so the knowledge of the characteristics of drones for members of the Army is of great importance. The summary table shows the data on unmanned aircraft mainly manufactured from Western countries, which does not mean that they are not produced by other countries, especially the Russian Federation as well as some neighboring

  4. Civil-Military Relations: Enhancing International Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    .... In particular, it focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and The International Committee of Red Cross...

  5. Gender aspects of civil marriage risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khrustalova

    2014-07-01

    In comparison with the representatives of matrimonies the civil ones value significantly higher the equality of spent forces for family and «save» on the development of relations extinguishing personal development of both.

  6. Intelligent Structural Health Management of Civil Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    The collapse of the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minneapolis has spawned a growing interest in the : development of reliable techniques for evaluating the structural integrity of civil infrastructure. Current inspection : techniques tailored to ...

  7. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. WHISTLEBLOWING IN CIVIL SERVICE: EXPERIENCE OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Batishcheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is examined the whistleblowing practice in civil service across Europe. The analysis lets to arrive at a conclusion that the whistleblowing mechanism unevenly functions in different parts of Europe: it is more widespread in East and South. It is indicated the following reasons for that: differences in institutional systems of society, models of civil service («continental» and anglosaxon and sociocultural distinctions. Based on the Hofstede dimensions of national culture it is noted that cultural characteristics correlate with presence/absence of whistleblowing law and practice and effectiveness of this mechanism as a whole. Focusing on the role of whistleblowing in control of deviations of civil servants' behavior, it is supposed that the whistleblowing needs to be implemented in the Russian civil service. Obstacles to the whistleblowing design and implementation were also shown and some recommendations were given, taking into account sociocultural characteristics of the Russian society.

  9. Whistleblowing In Civil Service: Experience Of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Batishcheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is examined the whistleblowing practice in civil service across Europe. The analysis lets to arrive at a conclusion that the whistleblowing mechanism unevenly functions in different parts of Europe: it is more widespread in East and South. It is indicated the following reasons for that: differences in institutional systems of society, models of civil service («continental» and anglosaxon and sociocultural distinctions. Based on the Hofstede dimensions of national culture it is noted that cultural characteristics correlate with presence/absence of whistleblowing law and practice and effectiveness of this mechanism as a whole. Focusing on the role of whistleblowing in control of deviations of civil servants' behavior, it is supposed that the whistleblowing needs to be implemented in the Russian civil service. Obstacles to the whistleblowing design and implementation were also shown and some recommendations were given, taking into account sociocultural characteristics of the Russian society.

  10. Civils are “Sharp!”

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa succeeded in hosting a successful 2010 FIFA world cup. It is, however a triumph of African civil engineering. All the stadia and associated works were completed on time, despite extremely tight design and construction schedules...

  11. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  12. Nuclear technology and human civilization in interplay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1979-01-01

    This lecture was held by E. Broda during a series of lectures “Wiener Internationale Hochschulkurse”, organized by the University of Vienna in 1979. The lecture is about nuclear technology and human civilization in interplay. (nowak)

  13. Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Howoong

    Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.

  14. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mititelu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights adopted by the United Nations, in 1966, the human being who enjoy his civil and political rights, enjoy in fact that “humanitas dignitas” (human dignity, since these rights derive from this. That is why this Covenant stipulated that the States parties are obligated to assure both the recognitions of these rights and their exercise and juridical protection.

  15. Civil-military relations : enhancing international security

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Re...

  16. Civil liability for nuclear and radiological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D.

    2001-10-01

    The present work gives details of the nuclear damage, the accidents of Chernobil, three Mile Inland and Tokaimura with their respective legal consequences, the nature of the responsibility and bases for their establishment, conventions about civil responsibility for nuclear damages to regional and world level as well as other condition of conventions of the Ibero-American countries with regard to the approval of the conventions it has more than enough civil responsibility for nuclear and radiological accident damages

  17. Perspectives in geography of culture and civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Grčić Мirko; Grčić Ljiljana; Sibinović Мikica

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of relevant methodological essence of "traditional" and "new" cultural geography. In the introduction is given an explanation of philosophic concepts of space, environment, place and the region in cultural geography. In second section is analyzed the meaning of civilization and the genesis of geography of civilization (géographie de civilisation). Special attention is on features of geographical posibilism as metho...

  18. Religious diversity, intolerance and civil conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joseph Flavian

    2013-01-01

    We compute new measures of religious diversity and intolerance and study their effects on civil conflict. Using a religion tree that describes the relationship between different religions, we compute measures of religious diversity at three different levels of aggregation. We find that religious diversity is a significant and robust correlate of civil conflict. While religious fractionalization significantly reduces conflict, religious polarization increases it. This is most robust at the sec...

  19. Civil Society, Democratic Space, and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelmani Jaysawal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Civil Society envisages the growth of civilization in a way that the society is in “civilized form.” It has been prominent in Social science since time immemorial. Till 18th century, it was synonymous with the state or political society. It was more or less direct translation of Cicero’s Societas’ Civilis and Aristotle’s Koinonia politike. According to Karl Marx, “Civil Society embraces the whole material intercourse of individuals within a definite stage of development of productive forces.” Civil Society is an arena where modern man legitimately gratifies his self-interest and develops his individuality, but also learns the value of group action, social solidarity which educates him for citizenship and equips him to participate in the political sphere of the state. It provides “networks of civic engagement” within which reciprocity is learned and enforced, trust is generated. An active and diverse civil society plays a valuable role in advancement of democracy. It seeks to ensure that citizen’s interests are taken seriously. The social work intervention may not be democratically envisaged until it is promulgated by civic engagement through Civil Society. Methodology: This is a descriptive study which consists of secondary source of data collection based on reports, books, periodic journals, web-based articles. There have been utilized three case studies for reaching the findings of study. This article will highlight on role of civil society in providing democratic space and assisting social workers to ensure inclusive growth through conglomeration of state and individuals.

  20. Protection of personality rights in civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality rights have long been described as the youngest member of the civil law family of absolute subjective (individual civil rights. By establishing these rights, an individual is guaranteed full and direct legal authority and control over one's personal assets, which include the most important human values such as: life, integrity, dignity and privacy. The ultimate importance of these personal assets is supported by appropriate legal protection of personality rights, which have been guaranteed in numerous provisions of constitutional law, civil law, criminal law and administrative law. The legal protection of personality rights stems from the understanding that a human being cannot be reduced to a biological entity; being part of the community, man is also a social being. Taking into account constant interactions and mutual relations between members of the society, man should be guaranteed certain rights. It primarily implies the guaranteed right to inviolability of one's personality, which is the basis for generating other personality rights. These rights are inherent, inalienable and absolute in terms of their effects; as such, they provide protection from the interference of the state and any third party. Focusing on the rules of civil law, the authors have explored the potentials and the scope of legal protection of personality rights provided by awarding a civil sanction. Although civil sanction is basically monetary sanction, it is deemed to be quite appropriate for the protection of personal (non-patrimonial assets.

  1. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  2. Judicial civil procedure dragging out in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rrustem Qehaja

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tends to deal with one of the most worrying issues in the judicial system of Kosovo the problem of judicial civil procedure dragging out. The article analyses the reasons of these dragging outs of the judicial civil procedure focusing on the context of one of the basic procedural principles in civil procedure-the principle of economy or efficiency in the courts. Dragging out of civil procedure in Kosovo has put in question not only the basic principles of civil procedure, but it also challenges the general principles related to human rights and freedoms sanctioned not only by the highest legal act of the country, but also with international treaties. The article tends to give a reflection to the most important reasons that effect and influence in these dragging outs of civil procedure, as well as, at the same time aims to give the necessary alternatives to pass through them by identifying dilemmas within the judicial practice. As a result, the motives of this scientific paper are exactly focused at the same time on identifying the dilemmas, as well as presenting ideas, to overstep them, including the judicial practice of the European Court of Human Rights on Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights, by which it is given the possibility to offering people efficient and within a reasonable time legal protection of their rights before national courts. For these reasons, the paper elaborates this issue based on both, the legal theory and judicial practice.

  3. Emissions of HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and SO2 from civil aviation in China in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Weiyi; Sun, Yifei; Zhu, Tianle; Wen, Yi

    2012-09-01

    Civil aviation in China has developed rapidly in recent years, and the effects of civil aviation emissions on the atmospheric environment should not be neglected. The establishment of emission inventories of atmospheric pollutants from civil aviation contributes to related policy formation and pollution control. According to the 2010's China flight schedules, aircraft/engine combination information and revised emission indices from the International Civil Aviation Organization emission data bank based on meteorological data, the fuel consumption and HC, CO, NOx, CO2, SO2 emissions from domestic flights of civil aviation in China (excluding Taiwan Province) in 2010 are estimated in this paper. The results show that fuel consumption in 2010 on domestic flights in China is 12.12 million tons (metric tons), HC, CO, NOx, CO2 and SO2 emissions are 4600 tons, 39,700 tons, 154,100 tons, 38.21 million tons and 9700 tons, respectively. The fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of China Southern Airline are responsible for the largest national proportion of each, accounting for 27% and 25-28%, respectively.

  4. Wildlife strikes to civil aircraft in the United States, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Departments of Transportation and Agriculture prohibit discrimination in all their programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or ...

  5. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... demand can be furnished only on message authority obtained from the Aviation Supply Office, Philadelphia... intended landing, the alternate airport, and fuel supply in hours shall be placed on file prior to takeoff..., agriculture, and public health laws and regulations. He shall also be responsible for paying fees, charges for...

  6. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft for Calendar Year 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-31

    ENGINE 3+ENG 2 ENGINE 3+ENG PLACE PLACE 1-6 7+ 1-12 13+ 1-12 13+ PLACE PLACE PLACE PLACE PLACE PLACE ;Assipp :orn 15 3 8 3 1 te 3 2 1 ala 10 2 4 1 1...1 1 2 Otero 113 22 56 15 8 3 9 Quay 23 3 17 2 1 -. Rio Arriba 17 4 12 1 Roosevelt 51 15 25 8 2 1 San Juan 229 52 126 21 9 6 1 2 12 San Miguel 13 3 8 1

  7. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 6. Aircraft. Civil and Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    contains a used napkin , paper doily, plastic utensil bag, plastic dishes, and other leftovers; ashes and occasionally cigarette butts are discarded... ink -printed polyvinyl fluoride film on fiberglass-epoxy sheets adhered to Nomex® honeycomb with a fiberglass-epoxy panel. As this struc- ture burns...TABLE B-4 Pwt 121 Swvlc« «nd Gall«v 8uppll«i BTtakdown Typ« Cabin SUPPUM In Lavatories Kleenex and TP Sanitary napkins Towel« Miscellaneous

  8. Study of Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers Aboard Civil Aviation Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    cyanide (HCN), oxides of nitrogen (NO ), ammonia (NH3 ), hydrogen suifide (H 2S), phosgene (COC12 ), and many other compounds. * . "From fires in...that the effective volume is up to 300 times that of the stored volume. Foam is an effective scrubber for fumes and smoke. Foam blankets over

  9. Census of U.S. Civil Aircraft for Calendar Year 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-31

    BRITTEN-NORMAN LIMITED BN-2B-27 10 51 2 0 1 1 BN-2B-21 10 51 2 0 2 2 F/W MULTI REC. ENG 51 0 3 3 TOTAL 0 3 3 PINE AIR SUPER V 4 51 2 0 1 1 F/W MULTI REC...1 1 Montgomery 28 5 18 2 3 Muscatine 69 28 28 4 1 3 5 0 Brien 35 10 23 1 1 Osceola 12 4 7 1 * Page 46 18 25 1 2 Palo Alto 21 7 13 1 Plymouth 31 12 14...1-12 13+ PLACE PLACE PLACE PLACE PLACE PLACE Kentucky * Allen 3 1 1 1 Anderson 2 1 1 Ballard 5 1 3 1 Barren 24 5 15 I 3 Bath 3 2 1 Bell 15 2 8 2 1 2

  10. Energy management strategy for solar-powered high-altitude long-endurance aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xian-Zhong; Hou, Zhong-Xi; Guo, Zheng; Liu, Jian-Xia; Chen, Xiao-Qian

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) for high-altitude solar-powered aircraft is purposed. ► The simulations show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS. ► The proposed EMS is capable to alleviate the power consumed for aircraft during night. ► The main technologies to improve the flight performance of aircraft are analyzed. - Abstract: Development of solar-powered High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) aircraft has a great impact on both military and civil aviation industries since its features in high-altitude and energy source can be considered inexhaustible. Owing to the development constraints of rechargeable batteries, the solar-powered HALE aircraft must take amount of rechargeable batteries to fulfill the energy requirement in night, which greatly limits the operation altitude of aircraft. In order to solve this problem, a new Energy Management Strategy (EMS) is proposed based on the idea that the solar energy can be partly stored in gravitational potential in daytime. The flight path of HALE aircraft is divided into three stages. During the stage 1, the solar energy is stored in both lithium–sulfur battery and gravitational potential. The gravitational potential is released in stage 2 by gravitational gliding and the required power in stage 3 is supplied by lithium–sulfur battery. Correspondingly, the EMS is designed for each stage. The simulation results show that the aircraft can always keep the altitude above 16 km with the proposed EMS, and the power consumed during night can be also alleviated. Comparing with the current EMS, about 23.5% energy is remained in batteries with the proposed EMS during one day–night cycle. The sensitivities of the improvement of crucial technologies to the performance of aircraft are also analyzed. The results show that the enhancement of control and structural system, lithium–sulfur battery, and solar cell are ranked in descending order for the

  11. Gas dynamics, optics and chemistry of an aircraft condensable wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinats, E.S.; Kashevarov, A.V.; Stasenko, A.L. [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Prediction of the properties of a jet-and-vortex wake from an individual airplane is of great interest as the first step to assessment of the possible global changes in the atmosphere due to the world civil aviation. Several mathematical models of the different regions of an aircraft wake and corresponding numerical results are presented. The axisymmetric exhaust jet was simulated on the base of the well-known k-{epsilon} model of turbulence. Jet chemistry was investigated on the base of kinetic scheme of the gas phase reactions of enriched by including chemisorption by water droplets of several species and by taking into account of the photochemical processes. In the 3D far wake model, the numerical results for distribution of species exhausted by the engines and entrapped by the velocity field of two parallel vortices are shown. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  12. Gas dynamics, optics and chemistry of an aircraft condensable wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinats, E S; Kashevarov, A V; Stasenko, A L [Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst., Zhukovsky (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    Prediction of the properties of a jet-and-vortex wake from an individual airplane is of great interest as the first step to assessment of the possible global changes in the atmosphere due to the world civil aviation. Several mathematical models of the different regions of an aircraft wake and corresponding numerical results are presented. The axisymmetric exhaust jet was simulated on the base of the well-known k-{epsilon} model of turbulence. Jet chemistry was investigated on the base of kinetic scheme of the gas phase reactions of enriched by including chemisorption by water droplets of several species and by taking into account of the photochemical processes. In the 3D far wake model, the numerical results for distribution of species exhausted by the engines and entrapped by the velocity field of two parallel vortices are shown. (R.P.) 7 refs.

  13. Hydrogen aircraft and airport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtchen, U.; Behrend, E.; Pohl, H.-W.; Rostek, N.

    1997-01-01

    First flight tests with a hydrogen demonstrator aircraft, currently under investigation in the scope of the German-Russia Cryoplane project, are scheduled for 1999. Regular service with regional aircraft may begin around 2005, followed by larger Airbus-type airliners around 2010-2015. The fuel storage aboard such airliners will be of the order of 15 t or roughly 200 m 3 LH 2 . This paper investigates a number of safety problems associated with the handling and air transport of so much hydrogen. The same is done for the infrastructure on the airport. Major risks are identified, and appropriate measures in design and operation are recommended. It is found that hydrogen aircraft are no more dangerous than conventional ones - safer in some respects. (author)

  14. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  15. 28 CFR 522.11 - Civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil contempt commitments. 522.11..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.11 Civil contempt commitments. Inmates can come into Bureau custody for civil contempt commitments in two ways: (a) The U.S...

  16. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt... ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil contempt commitments in...

  17. 47 CFR 90.411 - Civil defense communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil defense communications. 90.411 Section 90... PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.411 Civil defense communications. The... necessary for the implementation of civil defense activities assigned such station by local civil defense...

  18. 25 CFR 11.501 - Judgments in civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Judgments in civil actions. 11.501 Section 11.501 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.501 Judgments in civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, judgment shall...

  19. 25 CFR 11.503 - Applicable civil procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable civil procedure. 11.503 Section 11.503 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.503 Applicable civil procedure. The procedure to be followed in civil...

  20. 32 CFR 935.21 - Civil rights, powers, and duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.21 Civil rights, powers, and duties. In any case in... the laws of the United States or this part, the civil rights, powers, and duties as they obtain under... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights, powers, and duties. 935.21 Section...

  1. 25 CFR 11.500 - Law applicable to civil actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law applicable to civil actions. 11.500 Section 11.500 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Civil Actions § 11.500 Law applicable to civil actions. (a) In all civil cases, the...

  2. 41 CFR 105-68.920 - Civil judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 105-68... Administration 68-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction...

  3. Features of personnel motivation in the civil service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Artemenko

    2016-06-01

    The problems and the current state of civil servants motivation are investigated. The author reveals the contents of the new Law of Ukraine «On Civil Service» in the context of civil servants motivation and determines the ways of improving civil servants motivation in Ukraine.

  4. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation, may...

  5. 78 FR 4057 - Inflation Adjustment of Civil Money Penalty Amounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...] RIN 2501-AD59 Inflation Adjustment of Civil Money Penalty Amounts AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends HUD's civil money penalty and civil penalty... outdated cross-reference in its civil money penalty regulations. DATES: Effective Date: February 19, 2013...

  6. 24 CFR 81.83 - Civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil money penalties. 81.83... § 81.83 Civil money penalties. (a) Imposition. The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on a GSE... writing of the Secretary's determination to impose a civil money penalty by issuing a Notice of Intent to...

  7. Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft Eigenvalue Stability – Part2: Flight Envelope Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina BOUGHARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil aircraft flight control clearance is a time consuming, thus an expensive process in the aerospace industry. This process has to be investigated and proved to be safe for thousands of combinations in terms of speeds, altitudes, gross weights, Xcg / weight configurations and angles of attack. Even in this case, a worst-case condition that could lead to a critical situation might be missed. To address this problem, models that are able to describe an aircraft’s dynamics by taking into account all uncertainties over a region within a flight envelope have been developed using Linear Fractional Representation. In order to investigate the Cessna Citation X aircraft Eigenvalue Stability envelope, the Linear Fractional Representation models are implemented using the speeds and the altitudes as varying parameters. In this paper Part 2, the aircraft longitudinal eigenvalue stability is analyzed in a continuous range of flight envelope with varying parameter of True airspeed and altitude, instead of a single point, like classical methods. This is known as the aeroelastic stability envelope, required for civil aircraft certification as given by the Circular Advisory “Aeroelastic Stability Substantiation of Transport Category Airplanes AC No: 25.629-18”. In this new methodology the analysis is performed in time domain based on Lyapunov stability and solved by convex optimization algorithms by using the linear matrix inequalities to evaluate the eigenvalue stability, which is reduced to search for the negative eigenvalues in a region of flight envelope. It can also be used to study the stability of a system during an arbitrary motion from one point to another in the flight envelope. A whole aircraft analysis results’ for its entire envelope are presented in the form of graphs, thus offering good readability, and making them easily exploitable.

  8. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  9. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  10. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  11. MATHEMATICAL ASPECTS OF AIRCRAFT ENGINES RUNNING OPTIMIZATION FOR MINIMUM FUEL CONSUMPTION WHILE LANDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Michaylovich Chinyuchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The consistency of the potential increase of fuel efficiency, based on aircraft maintenance optimization, is mathe- matically proved. The mathematical apparatus and a set mathematical model of aircraft spatial motion allow to analyze aircraft behavior on the stage before landing and to draw optimal flight path for minimum fuel consumption with fixed time.For effective problem solving the choice and realization of optimal flight paths are made. The algorithm for the problem of optimal civil aircraft flight control aimed at the most accurate realization of chosen soft path under limited time conditions is proposed. The optimization of the given process is made by solving a point-to-point boundary canonical sys- tem based on the Pontryagin maximum principle.The necessary initial data and conditions for the statement of problem are given. The mathematical model for the simplification of calculations is created and its equivalent representation is given by uniting problems of controls by thrust channels and the angle of attack as the thrust control function. The boundary-value problem is mathematically composed and the analytical apparatus of its solution is presented. Optimal aircraft landing paths reflecting the behavior of the angle of attack and thrust are constructed. The potential of this method is proved by the economic justifiability and its effectiveness, in particular the compar- ison of total aircraft fuel consumption on obtained optimal path to the classic path on which there are rectilinear sections what allowed to confirm the conclusion about the economical expedience and effectiveness of the method of aircraft con- stant landing while making flights.

  12. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 5. Aircraft Postcrash Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    neck Access door toprille capm enrFuel tank Figue 3. Fangblefiler eckinsalgbelati n. A-j L)n wal Aircraft skin Frangible filler neck Failure plane...This is because a number of major assumptions must be made in the extrapolation: the smoke generated is uniformly distri- buted and is independent

  13. Cosmic Radiation - An Aircraft Manufacturer's View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, C.

    1999-01-01

    The relevance and context of cosmic radiation to an aircraft maker Airbus Industrie are outlined. Some future developments in aircraft and air traffic are described, along with their possible consequences for exposure. (author)

  14. NASA Johnson Space Center Aircraft Operations Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalyar, John A.

    2018-01-01

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of JSC aircraft and missions. The capabilities, including previous missions and support team, for the Super Guppy Transport (SGT) aircraft are highlighted.

  15. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.

    1978-01-01

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  16. Versatile Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all-electric aircraft testbed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  17. A Survey of Serious Aircraft Accidents Involving Fatigue Fracture. Volume 1. Fixed-Wing Aircraft (Etude sur des Accidents Importants d’Avions du aux Effets des Fractures de Fatigue. Volume 1. Effets sur des Avions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    17 Jan 68 0 S Dell Rapidis, S.Dak. USA. Bonanza Propeller cylinder attach screws. Propeller in service approx. 170 hr . F85 Beech K35 5 Sep 69 4 D Provo...Ice land Iraq Ireland Jamaica (1966 -1981) Japan (1973 - Feb. 81) Kenya Lethoso Malaysia Ma law i Mal ta Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway...Laboratories, Australia. E. Keller Federal Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau, Switzerland. Quek Seng Kiew Civil Aviation Dept., Malaysia . Tor B

  18. 12 CFR 622.61 - Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment of civil money penalties by the rate of inflation under the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended. 622.61...

  19. Bureaucratic Dilemmas: Civil servants between political responsiveness and normative constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Grønnegård; Opstrup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between political executives and civil servants rests on a delicate balance between political responsiveness and the duty of civil servants and ministers to respect legal and other normative constraints on executive authority. In Danish central government, this balance is stressed...... by norms that define the correct behavior when the civil service provides ministers with political advice and assistance. Organizational factors strongly influence civil servants’ behavior when they have to balance responsiveness against constraints on their role as political advisers. Moreover, civil...

  20. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy; Stanislav Stanislavovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is ...

  1. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  2. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  3. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  4. Volcanic Ash -Aircraft Encounter Damages: in Volcanological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydar, Erkan; Aladaǧ, Çaǧdaş Hakan; Menteş, Turhan

    2017-04-01

    The jet era or age began at 1930 and 40's in aviation sector, with the production of first jet engine for the aircrafts. Since 1950's, the commercial aviation with regular flights were established. Civil aviation and air-transport drastically increased due to intensive demand, and declared at least 10 fold since 1970 by IATA report. Parallelly to technological and economical developpement, the commercial jets became more comfortable, secure and rapid, bringing the world smaller, the countries closer. On the other hand, according to Global Volcanism Program Catalogues of Smithsonian Institute, about 1,500 volcanoes have erupted in the Holocene, 550 of them have had historical eruptions and considered as active. Besides an average of 55-60 volcanoes erupt each year, and about 8-10 of these eruptions produce ash clouds that reach aircraft flight altitudes (Salinas and Watt, 2004). Volcanic ash can be expected to be in air routes at altitudes greater than 9 km (30,000 ft) for roughly 20 days per year worldwide (Miller &Casadeval, 2000). A precious compilation of incidents due to encounters of aircrafts with volcanic ash clouds covering the years between 1953 and 2009 was used in this work (Guffanti et al., 2010-USGS Report) with an additional information on Eyfjallajökull-2010 eruption. According to this compilation,129 incidents happened within the concerned time interval. The damages, in general, fall in second and third class of Severity index, indicating the damages are limited on airframe of the planes, or some abrasions in jet engine, windblast etc.. We focused on fourth class of severity index involving the damages on jet engine of aircraft (engine fail) due to ingestion of volcanic ash and investigate eruption style and caused damage relationships. During the eruptive sequences of Mts Saint Helen (USA), Galunggung (Indonesia, 2 incidents), Redoubt (USA), Pinatubo (Philipinnes), Unzen (Japan), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Soufriere Hills (Lesser Antilles), Chaiten

  5. A Glimpse of Scientific Research on Fundamental Problems of Military and Civil Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1939-01-01

    Among the outstanding accomplishments of the last century is man's conquest of the air. That conquest began in 1903 when the Wright brothers made the first successful flight of an airplane at Kitty Hawk, N. C. Five years later the United States Government purchased its first airplane for the use of the Army, and began the training of officers for military flying. During the years immediately preceding the outbreak of the World War the Government and a meager aircraft industry had made important progress, but the Government, practically the only customer, had purchased less than 100 airplanes. In the meantime, leading European nations, sensing acutely the potentialities of aircraft in warfare, had made greater progress and had begun laying the foundations for the new science of aeronautics. The World War gave a remarkable impetus to the development of aeronautics and emphasized the need for organized research on the fundamental problems of flight. By act of Congress approved March 3, 1915, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics was created and charged with the duty of supervising, directing, and conducting fundamental scientific research and experiment in aeronautics. With the farsighted support of the Congress the Committee has led the world in the development of unique aeronautical research facilities in its laboratories at Langley Field, Va. The research programs include problems initiated by the Committee and its subcommittees and also investigations requested by the Army, the Navy, and the Civil Aeronautics Authority. The results of researches conducted under one control, serve without duplication of effort, the needs of all branches of aviation, civil and military, and exert a profound influence on the progress of aeronautics by improving the performance, efficiency, and safety of aircraft. A brief description of the results of some of the committee's researches and of the equipment employed will be found in the following pages.

  6. Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Hamilton; Nark, Douglas M.; Van Zante, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    The material presents highlights of propulsion and airframe noise research being completed for the Advanced Air Transport Technology Project. The basis of noise reduction plans along with representative work for the airframe, propulsion, and propulsion-airframe integration is discussed for the Aircraft Noise reduction Subproject.

  7. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    a vestigial blind speed at 121 knots. Aircraft radial velocity compon- ents for the flights discussed here varied between zero and 125 knots. Typi.cal...the contributions of Mr. D.M. Selwyn who designed the digital recording equipment and organized the flight tests, and Dr. A.W.R. Gilchrist who edited

  8. CFD for hypersonic airbreathing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay

    1989-01-01

    A general discussion is given on the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in analyzing the hypersonic flow field around an airbreathing aircraft. Unique features of the hypersonic flow physics are presented and an assessment is given of the current algorithms in terms of their capability to model hypersonic flows. Several examples of advanced CFD applications are then presented.

  9. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F.; Jacquin, L.; Laverdant, A. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1997-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  10. Engine jet entrainment in the near field of an aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, F; Jacquin, L; Laverdant, A [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    1998-12-31

    A simplified approach has been applied to analyse the mixing and entrainment processes of the engine exhaust through their interaction with the vortex wake of an aircraft. These investigations are focused on the near filed, extending from exit nozzle to the beginning of the vortex phase (i.e. to about twenty seconds after the wake is generated). This study is performed using an integral model and a numerical simulation for a two-engine large civil aircraft. The properties of the wing-tip vortices on the calculation of the dilution ratio (defined as a tracer concentration) have been shown. The mixing process is also affected by the buoyancy effect, but only after the jet regime, when the trapping in the vortex core has occurred. Qualitative comparison with contrail photography shows similar features. Finally the distortion and stretching of the plume streamlines inside the vortices can be observed, and the role of the descent of the vortices on the maximum tracer concentration has been discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  11. Preliminary Correlations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems Sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gómez-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS is currently undergoing a noteworthy expansion. The diverse types of missions that these aircraft can accomplish, both in military and civil environments, have motivated an increase of interest in their study and applications. The methods chosen to develop this study are based on the statistical analysis of a database including numerous models of RPAS and the estimation of different correlations in order to develop a design method for rapid sizing of H-tail RPAS. Organizing the information of the database according to relevant characteristics, information relative to the state-of-the-art design tendencies can be extracted, which can serve to take decisions relative to the aerodynamic configuration or the power plant in the first phases of the design project. Furthermore, employing statistical correlations estimated from the database, a design method for rapid-sizing of H-tail RPAS has been conducted, which will be focused on the sizing of the wing and tail surfaces. The resulting method has been tested by applying it to an example case so as to validate the proposed procedure.

  12. Conceptual Design of a Small Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Papa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System technologies are today extremely required in various fields of interest, from military to civil (search and rescue, environmental surveillance and monitoring, and entertainment. Besides safety and legislative issues, the main obstacle to civilian applications of UAS systems is the short time of flight (endurance, which depends on the equipped power system (battery pack and the flight mission (low/high speed or altitude. Long flight duration is fundamental, especially with tasks that require hovering capability (e.g., river flow monitoring, earthquakes, devastated areas, city traffic monitoring, and archeological sites inspection. This work presents the conceptual design of a Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft System (HUAS, merging a commercial off-the-shelf quadrotor and a balloon in order to obtain a good compromise between endurance and weight. The mathematical models for weights estimation and balloon static performance analysis are presented, together with experimental results in different testing scenarios and complex environments, which show 50% improvement of the flight duration.

  13. Transfrontier nuclear civil liability without international conventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan is not a contracting party of any international convention in the field of nuclear civil liability, and neither are other east Asian countries who have or will soon have nuclear plants. Therefore, the ordinary rules on private international law will play an important role in dealing with transfrontier nuclear civil liability. Above all, the problems on judicial jurisdiction and governing law are crucial points. With regard to the relations between the above countries and the countries whose legal systems are within the framework of Paris or Vienna Conventions, geographical scopes of these conventions are to be considered. There are two different parts in the international civil liability conventions: uniform civil liability law and mutual funds. As to the first, it is important that, even without the conventions, the basic structure of the nuclear civil liability laws in non-member countries are almost the same with those of members. In any event, considering that the establishment of a single international regime to cover all countries will be hardly possible, legal consequences under the private international law will be explored. (author)

  14. Protection of civil rights and technological development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, H

    1985-01-01

    The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH).

  15. Protection of civil rights and technological development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1985-01-01

    The question of how the consequences of technological development are to be mastered on the legal level is not primarily a problem of the administrative procedure. The essential point in the discussion on protection of basic rights is not to be seen in the citizen's right to participate in administrative procedures, but rather in the substantive civil rights of individual persons as against the government, together with the system of values established in the Basic Law and derived from the basic rights, as well as in the proper functioning of the principle of separation of powers (legislature, administration, and judicature). The law on procedure and thus the idea of (protection of civil rights by rules of procedure) in this context only have an enhancing effect. Practical protection of civil rights is also ascertained in the Federal Republic of Germany by the particularly well-established guarantee of access to the courts. Another idea to be mentioned in this context is an approach that can be termed as 'protection of civil rights by government-funded research'. Other facts contributing to building a protective shield against infringement of civil rights by technology, activities or installations, include e.g. the federal structure of the state and the administration, type and scope of organisation of the public service, the established system of environmental protection and the safety provided by the current system of expert opinions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. How Global is Global Civil Society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera Chandhoke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent times the concept of global civil society has made its appearance on national and international intellectual, as well as political agendas, in a major way. It is of some interest that two other concepts, both of which call for transcendence of national boundaries in precisely the same way as global civil society does, have also made their appearance on the scene of intellectual debates at roughly the same time: the concept of cosmopolitanism and that of transnational justice. All three concepts have dramatically expanded the notion of commitment to one’s fellow beings beyond the nation state. And all three concepts have extended critiques of policies that violate the dignity of human beings from national governments to the practices of inter-national institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Forum. In sum the inter-related concepts of global civil society, cosmopolitanism, and transnational justice have greatly enlarged the traditional domain of political theory. And yet for any political theorist who is acutely conscious of the phenomenon of power, these concepts are not unproblematic. For the practices of global civil society may just reinforce the intellectual and the moral power of the West over the postcolonial world. This is particularly true of say global human rights organizations. This paper will attempt to raise some questions of the concept and the practices of global civil society from the perspective of the countries of the South.

  17. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  18. Adapting existing training standards for unmanned aircraft: finding ways to train staff for unmanned aircraft operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, CR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available - unmanned aircraft; pilot training. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aircraft offer flexibility not found in manned aircraft. They can be made smaller and cheaper to operate. They offer payload advantages relative to small manned aircraft. They can also perform... certificate to non-state users. To facilitate useful operations by UAs, future operations must be subject to no more than routine notification (e.g. an ATC flight plan), just like manned aircraft already are. Before such operations can be established, some...

  19. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  20. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  1. Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

  2. Newton and the origin of civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Buchwald, Jed Z

    2012-01-01

    Isaac Newton's Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, published in 1728, one year after the great man's death, unleashed a storm of controversy. And for good reason. The book presents a drastically revised timeline for ancient civilizations, contracting Greek history by five hundred years and Egypt's by a millennium. Newton and the Origin of Civilization tells the story of how one of the most celebrated figures in the history of mathematics, optics, and mechanics came to apply his unique ways of thinking to problems of history, theology, and mythology, and of how his radical ideas produced an uproar that reverberated in Europe's learned circles throughout the eighteenth century and beyond. Jed Buchwald and Mordechai Feingold reveal the manner in which Newton strove for nearly half a century to rectify universal history by reading ancient texts through the lens of astronomy, and to create a tight theoretical system for interpreting the evolution of civilization on the basis of population dynamics. It was duri...

  3. Engaging Civil Society in Countering Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this Research Paper Dr. Bibi van Ginkel takes an in depth look at how multi-lateral institutions, engage with civil society to counter violent extremism. Dr. van Ginkel argues that civil society can play a crucial role in preventing and countering violent extremism in numerous ways – by working on development programs, through their work in conflict transformation, in providing a platform to raise political grievances and to facilitate dialogue, or through their work in empowering victims and survivors of terrorism. The Paper finds that over the last decade there has been a more intensive coordination of activities between the UN and other multi-lateral organisations and civil society but the question remains whether the implementation as well as the drafting of these policies will live up to their potential effectiveness. This Paper gauges how effective these measures have been and what more there is to do. The final section concludes with a series of policy recommendations.

  4. The humaneness of our technical civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieri, E.

    1981-01-01

    It is good facing our civilization with a critical distance. It keeps away self-complacency and hybris. What we need is a potential of renewal which must be raised by doubts and challenges. A critical distance is based on the determined approval of our civilization which tries to comply with mankind in a high degree. Civilization is the expression of a realistic picture of man. According to this view freedom shall only be possible because of continuous changes and changes are only possible if there is freedom. Propagating confidence in the undestroyable basic forces of human nature and thus enjoying the present as well as trusting the future: this is our message, our moral task. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Beyond strong and weak: rethinking postdictatorship civil societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dylan; Fernández, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    What is the impact of dictatorships on postdictatorial civil societies? Bottom-up theories suggest that totalitarian dictatorships destroy civil society while authoritarian ones allow for its development. Top-down theories of civil society suggest that totalitarianism can create civil societies while authoritarianism is unlikely to. This article argues that both these perspectives suffer from a one-dimensional understanding of civil society that conflates strength and autonomy. Accordingly we distinguish these two dimensions and argue that totalitarian dictatorships tend to create organizationally strong but heteronomous civil societies, while authoritarian ones tend to create relatively autonomous but organizationally weak civil societies. We then test this conceptualization by closely examining the historical connection between dictatorship and civil society development in Italy (a posttotalitarian case) and Spain (a postauthoritarian one). Our article concludes by reflecting on the implications of our argument for democratic theory, civil society theory, and theories of regime variation.

  6. DOES CIVIL SOCIETY CREATE SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauca Oana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether civil society itself can enhance or stimulate the creation of social entrepreneurs, by studying the traits of the civil society and the various definitions attributed to it. The main question that the paper wants to answer to is Does civil society create social entrepreneurs and the main approach used in this research paper is the theoretical one. By studying existing articles and books on the topic, the paper tries to emphasize the various dimensions that civil society can embrace, as pictured by various authors, as well as how these dimensions can relate to social entrepreneurs and the emergence of social businesses. The paper is not meant to be a breakthrough in the field, but rather to launch a question that is related to very important topics these days, social entrepreneurship, social innovation, social businesses and their connection to a very much debated topic-civil society. The paper is work-in progress and wants to stimulate research regarding the search of the sources of social entrepreneurship, in order to analyze them and better establish them as incubators for the future. It wants to be of use to whoever is researching the concepts illustrated above, as well as for those who want to get in touch with the new buzz words of the academic and entrepreneurial fields. The hereby paper stands, as previously stated, in a theoretical framework and the findings represent a mere analysis of the cause-effect relationship between the characteristics of civil society and those of social entrepreneurs. However, we are of the opinion that it can be a very good starting point for the ones interested in the domain, to analyze more sources of social entrepreneurship or further refine the answer to the question addressed in this article.

  7. Civil legal responsibility for environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serbia's EU accession process has actualised the need to harmonise our legislation with the common legal regulations of the European community of nations. The accelerated economic growth produces environmental challenges associated with harmful emissions. This paper gives an account of international declarations, conventions, directives and other state and civil society instruments of legal protection against the environmental damage. A special focus is placed on our positive legislation and enforcement of legal regulations in ensuring the civil legal responsibility, i.e. prevention of the occurrence of damage and indemnification for the damage caused.

  8. Biotechnologies and biomimetics for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Labrincha, J; Diamanti, M; Yu, C-P; Lee, H

    2015-01-01

    Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.

  9. Civil engineering firms and the nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giral, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Pointing out that the realization of the electronuclear programme accounted for just under 5 % of the annual turnover of civil engineering firms from 1975 to 1987, the author lists the main types of work entrusted to these firms for the bulding of the power stations: electrical work, structural work (civil engineering, metal structures. He then describes the two main problems which the profession has to face in the nuclear field: the management of final contract stages and adaptation to the slowing down in the rate of commitment of power plants [fr

  10. Optimal Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thesbjerg, Leo

    In designing large civil engineering structures, an important consideration is prospective dynamic loadings which may include earthquake ground motion, wind gusts, severe sea states and moving vehicles, rotating and reciprocating machinery and others. successful design of such structures requires...... providing for the safety and integrity of the structure, and in some cases also providing for a measure of comfort for the occupants during such loading which the structure and its occupants must endure. Due to these uncertainties, the civil engineering community has traditionally adopted a very...

  11. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  12. Simplified proceeding as a civil procedure model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Юрійович Зуб

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the directions for the development of modern civil procedural law such as optimization, facilitation, forwarding proceedings promoting the increase of the civil procedure efficiency factor are of peculiar importance. Their results are occurrence and functionality of simplified proceedings system designed to facilitate significantly hearing some categories of cases, promotion of their consideration within reasonable time and reduce legal expenses so far as it is possible. The category “simplified proceedings” in the native science of the procedural law is underexamined. A good deal of scientists-processualists were limited to studying summary (in the context of optimization as a way to improve the civil procedural form, summary proceedings and procedures functioning in terms of the mentioned proceedings, consideration of case in absentia as well as their modification. Among the Ukrainian scientist who studied some aspects of the simplified proceedings are: E. A. Belyanevych, V. I. Bobrik, S. V. Vasilyev, M. V. Verbitska, S. I. Zapara, A. A. Zgama, V. V. Komarov, D. D. Luspenuk, U. V. Navrotska, V. V. Protsenko, T. V. Stepanova, E. A. Talukin, S. Y. Fursa, M. Y. Shtefan others. The problems of the simplified proceedings were studied by the foreign scientists as well, such as: N. Andrews, Y. Y. Grubanon, N. A. Gromoshina, E. P. Kochanenko, J. Kohler, D. I. Krumskiy, E. M. Muradjan, I. V. Reshetnikova, U. Seidel, N. V. Sivak, M. Z. Shvarts, V. V. Yarkov and others. The paper objective is to develop theoretically supported, practically reasonable notion of simplified proceedings in the civil process, and also basing on the notion of simplified proceedings, international experience of the legislative regulation of simplified proceedings, native and foreign doctrine, to distinguish essential features of simplified proceedings in the civil process and to describe them. In the paper we generated the notion of simplified proceedings that

  13. MOVEMENT WITHIN THE LOCAL CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Rajko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the current Croatian regulation of movement within the local and regional civil service system. This includes the institutes of transfer, promotion, appointment and removal of the heads of administrative bodies, as well as changes in the workplace that may occur in the process of reorganization of the administrative bodies, with additional references to the particularities related to the position of heads of administrative bodies and employees. The procedural context of these issues, related to the implementation of administrative procedure and administrative dispute, is also discussed. The author offers legal interpretation to resolve doubts arising in the practice of implementation of the mentioned civil service institutes.

  14. CIVIL LIABILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Marica

    2008-09-01

    é un dommage ou un préjudice. Le droit à un environnement écologique, sain et équilibré, est reconnu et garanti par la législation nationale, ainsi que par celle internationale.L’article 35 de la Constitution de la Roumanie, tel qu’il a été modifié par la Loi no. 429/2003, affirme, entre autres droits fondamentaux, le droit à un environnement sain, qui est une partie d’une troisième génération de droits, appelés droits de solidarité, qui peuvent être respectés non seulement par des efforts internes de l’Etat, mais aussi par la coopération entre l’Etat et les citoyens. Par la conclusion d’un accord d’association entre la Roumanie et l’Union Européenne, entré en vigueur en 1995, la Roumanie a assumé l’acquis communautaire de l’environnement, avec ses trois droits fondamentaux (le droit d’être informé au sujet de l’environnement, le droit de participer au processus de prise de décision concernant l’environnement et le droit de solliciter la réparation des dommages écologiques, ou l’annulation d’actes administratifs illégaux a joué un rôle important dans ce processus.Mots-clé: biodiversité, la protection de l’environnement, pollution, la réparation des dommages écologiques, responsabilité civile

  15. Governing Civil Society Organisations and Constructing the Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein Jessen, Mathias

    This paper argues that civil society is something that must be produced and constructed in order to come into existence. This construction entails a specific production of what civil society is, which values are (and should be) present in it, what the common good is and how civil society and civil...... with specific (good) values, but is at the same time instrumentalised to provide welfare services the state can and will no longer provide. Civil society, civil society organisations and the common good are not given entities, but constantly produced and mobilised in different political conjunctures....

  16. Cooperative Route Planning for Multiple Aircraft in a Semifree ATC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Semifree Flight theory used in a civil air traffic control (ATC system to improve the capability of the traditional Free Flight mode. The progressiveness and hidden defects of the “Free Flight” model in civil aviation are analysed, and the Semifree Flight ATC system mode is introduced. Moreover, this paper presents the collaborative route planning method, which is the most important method used in the Semifree Flight ATC system. This collaborative route planning method can plan routes for each aircraft (either in flight or just before achieving flight in real time, and the routes can satisfy all the safety constraints. The final numerical simulations verify the correctness and practicability of the Semifree Flight theory and the collaborative route planning method.

  17. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J. G.; Mairos, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Inst. of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg (Germany)). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Inst., Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made. (authors)

  18. Automatic Flight Control System Design of Level Change Mode for a Large Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Gong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The level change mode is an essential part of large civil aircraft automatic flight control systems. In cruise, with the decrease of the plane's weight caused by fuel consumption and the influence of bad weather, such as thunderstorms, the level change mode is required to solve this problem. This work establishes a nonlinear model of large aircraft, takes level changed from 9500m to 10100m as an example to design control laws for the level change mode in cruise. The classical engineering method is used to design longitudinal and lateral control laws synthetically. The flight qualities are considered in the design process. Simulation results indicate the control laws can meet design requirements and have a good anti-gust performance.

  19. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    A medium fidelity and low cost training device for pilots, called the Multi Aircraft Training Environment (MATE), is developed to replace other low fidelity stand-alone training devices and integrate them into a flexible environment, primarily aimed attraining pilots in checklist procedures....../models to be simulated) and with possibilities for including various forms of intelligent computer assistance. This training concept and the technology are not specific toaviation, but can be used to simulate various types of control panels in different domains. The training effectiveness of pilots' procedure training...... in the MATE prototype was compared with the effects of traditional training that included the use of realaircraft. The experimental group (EXP) trained the pre-start checklist and the engine start checklist for the Saab 340 commuter aircraft in a MATE prototype. The control group (CTR) trained the same...

  20. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  1. Citizenship, Democratic Participation, and Civil Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between organized civil society and the public sector has becoming stronger and more outspoken for several reasons. First, the public sector is increasingly turning to the civic organizations because the general failure of New Public Management strategies and market-driven solutio...... participatory democracy through active involving of all citizens....

  2. Civil Law Legal Assistance: Lawyers Study Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Some topics discussed in this volume include interviewing and client counseling, preventive law programs, estate planning, family support, family law, separation agreements, consumers laws, income tax law, and a discussion of legislation such as the Soldiers and Sailors Civil Relief Act and the Uniformed Services Former Spouses Protection Act.

  3. Civil defence and disaster control services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Today's systems of civil defence and disaster control services are the result of a long process of development, which is outlined for the Federal Republic of Germany. The present organisational and legal systems are explained, together with the institutions concerned. (DG) [de

  4. Developing civil society expertise to promote democratic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It will also build civil society partnership networks and capacity for effective engagement with principal stakeholders in defence affairs, helping to transform attitudes and ... IDRC is supporting research that studies the most effective ways to empower women, prevent gender-based violence, and make digital platforms work for ...

  5. The politics of a European civil code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Last year the European Commission published its Action Plan on European contract law. That plan forms an important step towards a European Civil Code. In its Plan, the Commission tries to depoliticise the codification process by asking a group of academic experts to prepare what it calls a 'common

  6. Explaining Violence in Sierra Leone's Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Explaining the violence of civil war is never a simple task for the scholar. In the case of the Sierra Leone, paradoxically, the task has in some ways been rendered more difficult by the sheer variety of compelling scholarship on the question. This paper seeks to identify the most useful of the explanations offered thus far, and ...

  7. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry (InSAR) is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence. Monitoring civil infrastructure with InSAR is relatively new,

  8. Global Civil Society and International Summits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrebye, Silas

    2011-01-01

    a central role in today’s activist landscape. I develop these typological conceptual representations based on an understanding of civil society as a mediating catalyst. By presenting six versions of citizenship participation based on an analysis of diverse ends and means, I identify how each of them has...

  9. Regulating through leverage: Civil regulation in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürst, K.

    2016-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study is to examine the efforts of Chinese NGOs to prevent and/or control industrial pollution risks and then use the findings of this research to study the nature of civil regulation in, and beyond, China’s authoritarian setting. It first argues that 'regulation through

  10. CIVIL ENGINEERS' ROLES IN PUBLIC WORKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Teruaki

    Recently, the public interests are becoming high in the way of executing public works and the future direction of infrastructure development, which raises nation-wide discussion on these issues. How should we make our country's growth strategy for sustainable development? How should we realize the grand design of infrastructure needed for the implementation of such a strategy? It is obvious that further discussions are needed for these challenging questions. With an aim to promote such discussions, this paper reviews the history of public works and the professional practices (or accomplishments) of our great civil engineers, and discusses the future of public works and the roles of civil engineers based on their origin. Further, in this paper, the author, as the chairman of the Public Works Committee of Japan Civil Engineering Contractors Association, introduces the Association's proposal of "realization of an attractive construction industry." However, for its realization, sustainable institutional arrangements under social consensus are indispensable. Also, individual engineer must establish his/her own identity based on sense of social ethics. It is the author's hope that, through these journals, the professional practices of civil engineers will be widely known to the public with objective logics and discussed to achieve social consensus.

  11. ACTIVITY: The civilized sacred in contemporary China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travagnin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Recent policies set by the Government renewed the urgency of being civilized (wenming): behavior in public parks needs to be wenming, and also rituals in Buddhist and Daoist temples have to be wenming. The next step has been to encourage citizens to avoid burning incense or visiting temples, and to

  12. Tort Law and the Civil Jury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Keith A.

    1997-01-01

    Briefly reviews the historical developments of tort law and identifies some of its main component. Tort law concerns wrongful acts (not involving a breach of contract) that may result in a civil action. Major areas include personal injury and wrongful death, intentional torts, negligence, professional malpractice, misrepresentation, and libel.…

  13. CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE, NON-VIOLENCE AND CONSTITUTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conception of civil disobedience and two other forms of opposition to law, ... likely to cause destruction of property, bodily injury or physical death, will tend to ... the whole legal system, there is a prima facie case for submitting to the penalty fur.

  14. Civil-Military Relations: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Society 29, no. 3 (Spring 2003): 373-391. Sage Rosen , Frederik. "Third-Generation Civil-Military Relations: Moving Beyond the Security- Development Nexus... Barak , Oren. The Lebanese Army: A National Institution in a Divided Society. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2009. 272pp. (UA853 .L4B37

  15. Popularizing Geological Education among Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-jun; Zhou, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The sustainable development of an economy and a society cannot be realized without the help of modern geoscience. Engineering geology knowledge is necessary on a civil engineering construction site to ensure the construction work goes smoothly. This paper first discusses the importance of geoscience, especially the study of engineering geology.…

  16. Civil engineering challenge with nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.

    1985-01-01

    The civil engineer can help to solve the problems in disposing of nuclear waste in a deep geologic formation. The site for a nuclear waste repository must be carefully selected so that the geology provides the natural barrier between the waste and the accessible environment specified by the NRC and the EPA. This engineer is familiar with the needed structure and conditions of the host and surrounding rocks, and also the hydraulic mechanisms for limiting the migration of water in the rocks. To dispose of the nuclear waste underground requires stable and long-lasting shafts and tunnels such as civil engineers have designed and constructed for many other uses. The planning, design and construction of the ground surface facilities for a nuclear waste repository involves civil engineering in many ways. The transporation of heavy, metal shielded casks requires special attention to the system of highways and railroads accessing the repository. Structures for handling the shipping casks and transferring the waste onsite and into the deep geologic formation need special considerations. The structures must provide the NRC required containment, including hot cells for remote handling. Therefore, structural design strives for buildings, ventilation structures, shaft headframes, etc., to be earthquake and tornado-proof. These important design bases and considerations for the civil engineer working on a nuclear waste repository are discussed in this paper

  17. Department of Education Revives Civil Rights Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Ed

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the mission of the Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Education to ensure equal access to education through compliance reviews. The Office hopes to use these reviews to provide technical assistance to help districts improve their performance. In late March, the Los Angeles Unified School District became the…

  18. The transport of civil plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the review entitled ''The Transport of Civil Plutonium by Air'' reported by the Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (ACTRAM) 1988. The contents contain chapters on the following topics:- the reasons for air transport, the various regulations, packagings for plutonium transport, testing of the packagings, accidents, the consequences of a release, and emergency arrangements. (U.K.)

  19. Ecological Engineering and Civil Engineering works

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, H.D.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis provides a survey of the research results of the relationship between on the one hand the construction, management and maintenance of civil engineering works, and on the other hand the environment, nature and landscape, with the main focus on motorways and coastal protection. The growing

  20. RECRUITMENT AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF CIVIL SERVANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Cristina RADU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An ever increasing feature of public office is the way in which the recruitment and training of civil servants are controlled by legislation. Civil servants are a basic component of public administration but they are also important for labor law because civil service relations have the characteristics of an employment relationship and also specific features resulting from the rules of public law. The relevant expression of the interferences between public and private law for civil servants is recruitment and training. The originality of this article lies in the multidisciplinary character, combining elements of labor law, administrative law and human resources management, character reflected in the bibliography used. Another merit of this study is that the authors correlated the provisions of various laws: Constitution, Labor Code, Law no. 161/2003 on the transparency in exercising public dignities and public functions, Government Ordinance no. 137/2000 regarding the prevention and sanction of all discrimination forms, Government Ordinance no. 129/2000 concerning adults’ professional training.

  1. Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Trivero

    Full Text Available No hace mucho tiempo apareció en el mercado anticuario italiano un libro extremadamente raro e interesante para el mundo chileno y, particularmente mapuche. Se trata de la primera edición del "Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili", del jesuita Giovanni Ignazio Molina, publicado en Bologna en el año 1787.

  2. European standards of the civil service integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Prudyus

    2016-09-01

    It was offered for further implementation of the European standards of integrity to develop a new Code of integrity for civil servants and take measures, which contain Anti-Corruption Strategy: adopt a law on the protection of persons who honestly reported regarding corruption offenses (denunciators, in particular a law concerning conducting the inspection of public servants on integrity.

  3. Iraqi Civil Defense Headquarters Baghdad, Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Angelina; O'Connor, Kevin; Rawal, Yogin

    2007-01-01

    .... The assessment team included two engineers/inspectors and three auditors/inspectors. The overall objective of the project was to fully renovate the Civil Defense Headquarters and other buildings on the site to become a fully operational and usable facility.

  4. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  5. Varying Levels of Automation on UAS Operator Responses to Traffic Resolution Advisories in Civil Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Caitlin; Fern, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Continuing demand for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has put increasing pressure on operations in civil airspace. The need to fly UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) in order to perform missions vital to national security and defense, emergency management, and science is increasing at a rapid pace. In order to ensure safe operations in the NAS, operators of unmanned aircraft, like those of manned aircraft, may be required to maintain separation assurance and avoid loss of separation with other aircraft while performing their mission tasks. This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of automation on UAS operator performance and workload while responding to conflict resolution instructions provided by the Tactical Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) during a UAS mission in high-density airspace. The purpose of this study was not to investigate the safety of using TCAS II on UAS, but rather to examine the effect of automation on the ability of operators to respond to traffic collision alerts. Six licensed pilots were recruited to act as UAS operators for this study. Operators were instructed to follow a specified mission flight path, while maintaining radio contact with Air Traffic Control and responding to TCAS II resolution advisories. Operators flew four, 45 minute, experimental missions with four different levels of automation: Manual, Knobs, Management by Exception, and Fully Automated. All missions included TCAS II Resolution Advisories (RAs) that required operator attention and rerouting. Operator compliance and reaction time to RAs was measured, and post-run NASA-TLX ratings were collected to measure workload. Results showed significantly higher compliance rates, faster responses to TCAS II alerts, as well as less preemptive operator actions when higher levels of automation are implemented. Physical and Temporal ratings of workload were significantly higher in the Manual condition than in the Management by Exception and

  6. Ikhana: Unmanned Aircraft System Western States Fire Missions. Monographs in Aerospace History, Number 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., obtained a civil version of the General Atomics MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system and modified it for research purposes. Proposed missions included support of Earth science research, development of advanced aeronautical technology, and improving the utility of unmanned aerial systems in general. The project team named the aircraft Ikhana a Native American Choctaw word meaning intelligent, conscious, or aware in order to best represent NASA research goals. Building on experience with these and other unmanned aircraft, NASA scientists developed plans to use the Ikhana for a series of missions to map wildfires in the western United States and supply the resulting data to firefighters in near-real time. A team at NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., developed a multispectral scanner that was key to the success of what became known as the Western States Fire Missions. Carried out by team members from NASA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, National Interagency Fire Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Aviation Administration, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., these flights represented an historic achievement in the field of unmanned aircraft technology.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF NAVIGATION SYSTEMS IN CIVIL AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Sergeyevna Stepanenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history of navigation systems formation, such as "Cicada" system, which at that time could compete with the US "Transit", European, Chinese Beidou navigation system and the Japanese Quasi-Zenit.The detailed information about improving the American GPS system, launched in 1978 and working till now is provided. The characteristics of GPS-III counterpart "Transit", which became the platform for creating such modern globalnavigation systems as GLONASS and GPS. The process of implementation of the GLONASS system in civil aviation, itssegments, functions and features are considered. The stages of GLONASS satellite system orbital grouping formation are analyzed. The author draws the analogy with the American GPS system, the GALILEO system, which has a number of additional advantages, are given. The author remarks the features of the European counterpart of the GALILEO global nav- igation system. One of the goals of this system is to provide a high-precision positioning system, which Europe can rely on regardless of the Russian GLONASS system, the US - GPS and the Chinese Beidou. GALILEO offers a unique global search and rescue function called SAR, with an important feedback function. The peculiarities of Chinese scientists’ navi- gation system, the Beidou satellite system, and the Japanese global Quasi-Zenith Satellite System are described.Global navigation systems development tendencies are considered. The author dwells upon the path to world satel- lite systems globalization, a good example of which is the trend towards GLONASS and Beidou unification. Most attention was paid to the latest development of Russian scientists’ autonomous navigation system SINS 2015, which is a strap-down inertial navigation system and allows you to navigate the aircraft without being connected to a global satellite system. The ways of navigation systems further development in Russia are determined. The two naturally opposite directions are

  8. EUROPEAN CIVIL CODE BETWEEN DESIDERATUM AND REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Bogdan Ciucă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of priority and direct application of European rules in relation to the provisions that we find in the national legislation, once assumed at European level, it has generated debates and concerns about the usefulness of a single legal act in private law matters. The idea of European Civil Code, appeared somewhere in the early 80s, is becoming more current and triggers a justified and sustained interest. Considering that the civil legislation of Community Member is a legislation dominated by tradition and peculiarities of culture, religion and temper, the issue of a European Civil Code forms as a project generating discussions, restraints and even rejec tions of the Member States in relation to this proposal. The current system of European legislative acts that apply immediately and priority in EU member states remains only a temporary solution and which generates difficulties in interpretation and affects the utility of the enactment. Clarifications on the pros and cons to promote a European Civil Codex will be analyzed primarily in terms of law and, last but not least in terms of political perspective, taking into account the Community objectives undertaken by accession treaties and the need for a legislative norm, especially European, to be predictable, transparent, useful and accessible. This paper intends to submit to debate both current doctrinal arguments, the blocking of such an approach, based on the principle of autonomy and the peculiarities of the legal system of each Member State, but also considering the practical arguments and of simplification of rules met in a European Civil Code assumed and applicable in the European space.

  9. Regional Civil Support Forces for Homeland Defense and Civil Support Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nuismer, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    To protect the homeland, a plan to form ten regional Civil Support Forces (CSF) made up of National Guard forces has been proposed by senior fellow Christine Wormuth of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS...

  10. 49 CFR 599.514 - Assessment of civil penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE TO RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Enforcement § 599.514 Assessment of civil penalties. (a) Not later... the amount of the civil penalty, the severity of the violation and the intent and history of the party...

  11. Politicized Civil Society in Bangladesh: Case Study Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Tasnim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although civil society in Bangladesh is recognized for its vibrant performance in social development, it is often criticized for its inability to ensure good governance and democracy. The aim of this paper is to point out the reasons for this failure of civil society. Through performing case studies upon five civil society organizations representing different sector and level of the civil society, the paper concludes that civil society organizations in Bangladesh are often politicized and co-opted by different political parties. In a typical scenario, civil society can provide a counterbalance or even monitor the state both at the national and local level. However, in Bangladesh, often the civil society organizations have compromised their autonomy and politicized themselves to certain political parties or political block. In such a vulnerable position, civil society can hardly play its expected role to ensure good governance and strengthen democracy.

  12. The Arab Spring and civil-military relations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    power interplay between the civil elites and the military elites using the term 'civil- military relations' ..... the American military, whose 5th Fleet is headquartered in Bahrain. The advice was that the ..... Embassy Madrid. 23 Danopoulos, C (ed).

  13. Civil society and the ‘commanding heights’:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger; Paton, Rob

    Civil society associations, including voluntary and community groups, trade unions, faithbased organisations, co-operatives and mutuals, have long influenced the economy. Civil society associations can run businesses and they can run organisations that aim to influence businesses. Together, these...

  14. Nonviolent Civil Disobedience: Creating Legitimate Regime Change in Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selman, Jr, John T

    2007-01-01

    .... These transitions were hastened by nonviolent civil disobedience. Although nonviolent civil disobedience is a common form of political action throughout the world, many political observers do not understand its nature and often underestimate its effect...

  15. Civil Society Participation in the Governance of Educational Systems ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will explore the role of civil society organizations in education reform in ... practices and model initiatives for civil society engagement in the educational sector. ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine ...

  16. Investors Perception on Civil Remedies and Civil Action under the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon, Asmah Laili; Yaacob, Nurli

    2016-01-01

    The Capital Markets and Services Act 2007 provides civil action and remedies for the victim of securities crimes. Whether these remedies are sufficient to protect investors’ interest when dealing in securities transaction is an issue to be discussed in the paper? This paper aims to analyze investors’ perception on civil remedies and action. This paper based on the legal research findings where a systematic method of exploring, investigating, analyzing and conceptualizing legal issues pertaini...

  17. Civil Rights for Trafficked Persons: Recommendations for a More Effective Federal Civil Remedy

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon Lack

    2008-01-01

    In response to increasing public awareness of human trafficking in the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) was signed into law by President Bill Clinton in October of 2000. The TVPA consolidated existing legislation to create a comprehensive civil remedy; this ensures that trafficking victims are no longer forced to seek redress under multiple criminal and civil statutes that target only components of the human trafficking offense. However, despite its...

  18. On the history of codification of Hungarian civil law and the new Hungarian civil code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Jožef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the paper examines the basic tendencies in the development of the codification of Hungarian civil law in the period of representative and civil society. The second part deals with the new Hungarian Civil Code (2013/14 its content, methods of regulation and its relation to other civil legislation, temporal validity with the adherence to the idea of validity pro futuro, as well as its tendency to harmonize its norms with the guidelines of the European civil law. In accordance with the idea of completeness, the lawmakers incorporated all of the areas of civil law according to the pandecta system - personal law, corporate law with civil association law, family law, obligations and inheritance. The Code is based on the principle of equality of parties in civil relations, the principle of good faith, fraus legis prohibition. Family law is based on specific principles of protection of marriage, family and children. Contract law is based on the freedom of contract, limited by good customs and morality. Tort law is guided by the principle of prohibiting the harm to others, full compensation of material and imaterial damages. Contractual responsibility is regulated separately, so that the tort rules apply if the specific rules of contractual responsibility donot say otherwise. Other grounds for obligations are also regulated, as well as unjustified enrichment, doing business without order or authority, unilateral expression of intention and securities. The grounds for inheritance are contractual, statutory or based on the will. Freedom of disposition by will is limited by statutory rules regulating the forced share. The system of transfer of property ex lege after the death is adopted. The state is a successor if there are no testamentary, statutory or contractual inheritors.

  19. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  20. Lyndon B. Johnson and the Civil Right Act of 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karatzas Konstantinos D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Civil Rights Movement is deeply intertwined with Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout his career, Johnson supported the quest of African-Americans for political and civil rights. They found in him an ally whose role was fundamental in fullfilling the goals of Martin Luther King, Jr, and the Civil Rights Movement. This paper will examine the role of the Johnson presidency in the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1964.