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Sample records for civ vacuum-ultraviolet fabry-perot

  1. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot ultrasonic detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, J. J.; Berthold, John W., III

    1996-10-01

    We characterized the performance of a commercial fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer for use as an ultrasonic sensor, and compared the performance with a standard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) detector. The interferometer was unstabilized. The results showed that the fiber sensor was about 12 times less sensitive than the PZT detector. Ultrasonic frequency response near 100 kHz was demonstrated. We describe the design of the fiber sensor, the details of the tests performed, and potential applications.

  2. An Archetype Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin; VanZyl, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the generation of a novel resonator, termed Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP), that exhibits unique features, such as, its use of one plane mirror, allowing the SRFP to be easily fabricated as a symmetrical device. In addition to its unique features, it exhibits advantages of ring and Fabry-Perot resonators: 1) compared to a ring resonator that only allows a transmitted intensity, the Semi-Ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) supports standing waves, allowing both a reflected and transmitted intensity; 2) the reflected light spectrum of the SRFP resonator is much narrower than similar Fabry-Perot, implying higher finesse.

  3. Feedback stabilized tandem Fabry-Perot interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Mikio; Shirasu, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    A new system for measuring the isotopic ratio of uranium, in which two plane-type Fabry-Perot interferometers (tandem FP) are connected in series. The parallelism between the two FPs is achieved automatically by a feedback control mechanism based on laser interference fringe monitoring. The structure of the tandem FP, feedback control system, automatic parallelism adjustment mechanism and wavelength synchronization mechanism are described in detail. For experiments, a hollow cathode discharge tube of a pulse discharge type is employed. Measurements are made to determine the effects of pulse width on the 238 U peak height of 502.7 nm line, recorder traces of 235 U and 238 U lines, half width for 238 U component of the 502.7 nm line, SN ratio, reproducibility of the 235 U/ 238 U peak height ratio and 235 U/ 238 U intensity ratio. Considerations are made on the spectral line width, contrast, transmission factor, and stability of automatic parallelism control and wavelength synchronization. Results obtained indicates that a single-type interferometer would serve adequately for measuring the 235 U/ 238 U ratio if the automatic parallelism control developed here is used. The ultimate object of the tandem system is to make measurement of 236 U. Satisfactory results have not obtained as yet, but most likely the present system would make it possible if a light source of a higher intensity and advanced photometric techniques are developed. (Nogami, K.)

  4. On-chip optical filter comprising Fabri-Perot resonator structure and spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghoon; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei; Arbabi, Amir

    2018-04-10

    An on-chip optical filter having Fabri-Perot resonators and a spectrometer may include a first sub-wavelength grating (SWG) reflecting layer and a second SWG reflecting layer facing each other. A plurality of Fabri-Perot resonators are formed by the first SWG reflecting layer and the second SWG reflecting layer facing each other. Each of the Fabri-Perot resonators may transmit light corresponding to a resonance wavelength of the Fabri-Perot resonator. The resonance wavelengths of the Fabri-Perot resonators may be determined according to duty cycles of grating patterns.

  5. TAURUS - a wide field imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, P.D.; Taylor, K.

    1983-01-01

    TAURUS, an imaging Fabry-Perot system developed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory and Imperial College London, is described. The imaging process is explained and the technique is compared with grating spectrographs. It is argued that TAURUS is superior for obtaining field information from extended emission line sources. (Auth.)

  6. Levitated optomechanics with a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, A.; Mourounas, L. S.; Geraci, A. A.; Barker, P. F.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, quantum phenomena have been experimentally demonstrated on variety of optomechanical systems ranging from micro-oscillators to photonic crystals. Since single photon couplings are quite small, most experimental approaches rely on the realization of high finesse Fabry-Perot cavities in order to enhance the effective coupling. Here we show that by exploiting a, long path, low finesse fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer ground state cooling can be achieved. We model a 100 m long cavity with a finesse of 10 and analyze the impact of additional noise sources arising from the fiber. As a mechanical oscillator we consider a levitated microdisk but the same approach could be applied to other optomechanical systems.

  7. A Fabry-Perot interferometer system for high-speed velocity measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Bruinsma, A.J.A.; Prinse, W.C.; Smorenburg, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) is designed and built for measuring the Doppler shift of light by recording positional changes in the interferometric pattern behind the Fabry-Perot interferometer. The velocity of a surface can be deduced from the Doppler shift which is caused

  8. Fabry-Perot confocal resonator optical associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J.; Rogers, Steven K.; Vogel, George A.

    1993-03-01

    A unique optical associative memory architecture is presented that combines the optical processing environment of a Fabry-Perot confocal resonator with the dynamic storage and recall properties of volume holograms. The confocal resonator reduces the size and complexity of previous associative memory architectures by folding a large number of discrete optical components into an integrated, compact optical processing environment. Experimental results demonstrate the system is capable of recalling a complete object from memory when presented with partial information about the object. A Fourier optics model of the system's operation shows it implements a spatially continuous version of a discrete, binary Hopfield neural network associative memory.

  9. Fabry-Perot Diaphragm Fiber Optic Sensor (DFOS for Acoustic Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan SUN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A diaphragm fiber optic sensor (DFOS solely based on Fabry-Perot multiple beam interference has been designed and fabricated with micro-electric mechanical system (MEMS technology. The silicon diaphragm with an embossed center was designed with an interference gap width kept accurately. The DFOS was verified to be a truly and purely Fabry-Perot device via a critical test. Parallel testing with a Piezoelectric (PZT sensor showed that the DFOS had high sensitivity. The Fabry-Perot DFOS also demonstrated excellent performance in on-line monitoring of Partial Discharge (PD in power transformers.

  10. Fabry-Perot observations of Comet Halley H2O(+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherb, F.; Roesler, F.L.D.; Harlander, J.; Magee-sauer, K.

    1990-01-01

    Fabry-Perot scanning spectrometer observations of Comet Halley's H 2 O(+) emissions have yielded 6158.64 and 6158.85 A spin doublet data at distances in the range of 0 to 2 million km from the comet heat in the antisunward direction. Cometary plasma outflow velocities were ascertained on the basis of the emissions' Doppler shifts, yielding results that were mostly but not exclusively consistent with the plasma's constant antisunward acceleration; the acceleration varied from night to night of observations over a 30-300 cm/sec range. The unusual plasma kinematics of December 14-15, 1985, and January 10, 1986, may be associated with the tail-disconnection activity observed by others. 30 refs

  11. Transversely coupled Fabry-Perot resonators with Bragg grating reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Md Ghulam; Wang, Yun; El-Fiky, Eslam; Patel, David; Shahriar, Kh Arif; Alam, Md Samiul; Jacques, Maxime; Xing, Zhenping; Xu, Luhua; Abadía, Nicolás; Plant, David V

    2018-01-01

    We design and demonstrate Fabry-Perot resonators with transverse coupling using Bragg gratings as reflectors on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. The effects of tailoring the cavity length and the coupling coefficient of the directional coupler on the spectral characteristics of the device are studied. The fabricated resonators achieved an extinction ratio (ER) of 37.28 dB and a Q-factor of 3356 with an effective cavity length of 110 μm, and an ER of 8.69 dB and a Q-factor of 23642 with a 943 μm effective cavity length. The resonator structure presented here has the highest reported ER on SOI and provides additional degrees of freedom compared to an all-pass ring resonator to tune the spectral characteristics.

  12. Fabry-Perot enhanced Faraday rotation in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubrig, Nicolas; Crassee, Iris; Levallois, Julien; Nedoliuk, Ievgeniia O; Fromm, Felix; Kaiser, Michl; Seyller, Thomas; Kuzmenko, Alexey B

    2013-10-21

    We demonstrate that giant Faraday rotation in graphene in the terahertz range due to the cyclotron resonance is further increased by constructive Fabry-Perot interference in the supporting substrate. Simultaneously, an enhanced total transmission is achieved, making this effect doubly advantageous for graphene-based magneto-optical applications. As an example, we present far-infrared spectra of epitaxial multilayer graphene grown on the C-face of 6H-SiC, where the interference fringes are spectrally resolved and a Faraday rotation up to 0.15 radians (9°) is attained. Further, we discuss and compare other ways to increase the Faraday rotation using the principle of an optical cavity.

  13. Micromachined fiber optic Fabry-Perot underwater acoustic probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyin; Shao, Zhengzheng; Hu, Zhengliang; Luo, Hong; Xie, Jiehui; Hu, Yongming

    2014-08-01

    One of the most important branches in the development trend of the traditional fiber optic physical sensor is the miniaturization of sensor structure. Miniature fiber optic sensor can realize point measurement, and then to develop sensor networks to achieve quasi-distributed or distributed sensing as well as line measurement to area monitoring, which will greatly extend the application area of fiber optic sensors. The development of MEMS technology brings a light path to address the problems brought by the procedure of sensor miniaturization. Sensors manufactured by MEMS technology possess the advantages of small volume, light weight, easy fabricated and low cost. In this paper, a fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric underwater acoustic probe utilizing micromachined diaphragm collaborated with fiber optic technology and MEMS technology has been designed and implemented to actualize underwater acoustic sensing. Diaphragm with central embossment, where the embossment is used to anti-hydrostatic pressure which would largely deflect the diaphragm that induce interferometric fringe fading, has been made by double-sided etching of silicon on insulator. By bonding the acoustic-sensitive diaphragm as well as a cleaved fiber end in ferrule with an outer sleeve, an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer has been constructed. The sensor has been interrogated by quadrature-point control method and tested in field-stable acoustic standing wave tube. Results have been shown that the recovered signal detected by the sensor coincided well with the corresponding transmitted signal and the sensitivity response was flat in frequency range from 10 Hz to 2kHz with the value about -154.6 dB re. 1/μPa. It has been manifest that the designed sensor could be used as an underwater acoustic probe.

  14. Calibration of Fabry-Perot interferometers for electron cyclotron emission measurements on the Tore Supra tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.; Talvard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The electron temperature is routinely measured on TORE SUPRA using Fabry-Perot cavities. These have been calibrated using a technique involving coherent addition and Fourier analysis of a chopped black-body source. Comparison with conventional techniques is reported

  15. Fabry-Perot observations of [FeX] in the Cygnus Loop and IC443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, J.; Rothenflug, R.; Soutoul, A.; Caplan, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present the first results of an observational program of SNRs in the coronal lines of [FeX] and [FeXIV] using Fabry--Perot spectrophotometer. These support previously published brightnesses

  16. Fabry-Perot measurements of barium temperature in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Garner, R

    2010-01-01

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is used to determine the temperature of barium atoms that are liberated from the electrodes of fluorescent lamps during their steady-state operation. Barium, a constituent of the work function lowering emitter material that is placed on the tungsten coil that forms the electrode, is liberated primarily by evaporation from the hot (∼1300 K) thermionic electrode. However, there may be situations or modes of operation in which barium is, in addition, sputtered, a condition which may lead to increased end-darkening, shortened life and increased mercury consumption in the lamp. Using the FPI diagnostic, the occurrence of sputtering is inferred when barium temperatures are much greater than the electrode temperature. The FPI diagnostic senses resonance radiation (λ = 553 nm) emitted by barium atoms excited in the low pressure discharge environment, and infers temperature from the Doppler broadened linewidth. The diagnostic has proven to be successful in a number of situations. Measurements have been made on rare gas discharges and on Hg-argon discharges for different discharge currents, gas pressures and auxiliary coil currents. Measurements are phase resolved for ac-driven discharges.

  17. Neutral wind measurements by Fabry-Perot interferometry in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, K.D.; Dudeney, J.R.; Rodger, A.S.; Smith, R.W.; Rees, D.

    1986-01-01

    A large-aperture (150 mm), spatially scanned Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) has been deployed at Halley (75.5 o S, 26.8 o W; L=4.2), Antarctica. Thermospheric neutral wind measurements were made by finding the Doppler shift of the OI( 3 P 2 - 1 D 2 ) 630.0 nm emission. This has allowed the first comparison to be made between southern hemisphere ground-based thermospheric wind measurements and the predictions of a three-dimensional, time-dependent thermospheric global circulation model. Geomagnetic and geographic latitude are well separated at Halley, so we may expect a distinct contrast to the dynamic behaviour observed in the more frequently studied northern polar thermosphere. Although the initial results from the experiment are in general agreement with the model, some consistent and significant differences between the observed wind field and that predicted are evident in the morning sector. These may be related to uncertainties in mapping magnetospheric boundaries to ionospheric heights in the southern hemisphere. The intensity of the 630 nm emission has been examined with respect to the maximum plasma frequency of the Es layer using data from the Advanced Ionospheric Sounder at Halley

  18. Study on the structure of bridge surface of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Qinghua; Luo Huan; Bao Shiwei; Zhou Yifan; Chen Sihai

    2011-01-01

    Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filters are widely applied in the area of Pushbroom Hyperspectral imaging, DWDM optical communication system and self-adaptive optics. With small volume, lower consumption and cost, the Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter can realize superior response speed, large spectral range, high definition and high reliability. By deposition metal membrane on silicon chip by MEMS technology, the micro Fabry-Perot cavity has been achieved, which is actuated by electrostatic force and can realize the function of an optical filter. In this paper, the micro-bridge structure of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter has been studied. Finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics has been adopted to design the structure of the micro-bridge of the micro filter. In order to simulate the working mechanism of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity and study the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the micro tunable filter,the static and dynamic characteriastics are analyzed, such as stress, displacement, transient response, etc. The corresponding parameters of the structure are considered as well by optimizition the filter's sustain structure.

  19. Use of PZT's for adaptive control of Fabry-Perot etalon plate figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, WIlbert; Niciejewski, R.

    2005-01-01

    A Fabry Perot etalon, consisting of two spaced and reflective glass flats, provides the mechanism by which high resolution spectroscopy may be performed over narrow spectral regions. Space based applications include direct measurements of Doppler shifts of airglow absorption and emission features and the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. The technique requires a high degree of parallelism between the two flats to be maintained through harsh launch conditions. Monitoring and adjusting the plate figure by illuminating the Fabry Perot interferometer with a suitable monochromatic source may be performed on orbit to actively control of the parallelism of the flats. This report describes the use of such a technique in a laboratory environment applied to a piezo-electric stack attached to the center of a Fabry Perot etalon.

  20. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with controllable temperature sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinpu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fiber taper based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer structure with controllable temperature sensitivity. The FP interferometer is formed by inserting a segment of tapered fiber tip into the capillary and subsequently splicing the other end of the capillary to a single-mode fiber (SMF), the tapered fiber endface, and the spliced face form the FP cavity. Through controlling the inserted tapered fiber length, a series of FP interferometers were made. Because the inserted taper tip has the degree of freedom along the fiber axial, when the FP interferometer is subjected to temperature variation, the thermal expansion of the fiber taper tip will resist the FP cavity length change caused by the evolution of capillary length, and we can control the temperature sensitivity by adjusting the inserted taper length. In this structure, the equivalent thermal expansion coefficient of the FP interferometer can be defined; it was used to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of the FP interferometer, which provides an effective method to eliminate the temperature effect and to enhance other measurement accuracy. We fabricated the FP interferometers and calibrated their temperature characters by measuring the wavelength shift of the resonance dips in the reflection spectrum. In a temperature range of 50°C to 150°C, the corresponding temperature sensitivities can be controlled between 0 and 1.97 pm/°C when the inserted taper is between 75 and 160 μm. Because of its controllable temperature sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and low cost, this FP interferometer can meet different temperature sensitivity requirements in various application areas, especially in the fields which need temperature insensitivity.

  1. A Fabry-Perot interferometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha, A.; Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1990-01-01

    Reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated of a sequence of N thin parallel crystals diffracting close to normal incidence and separated by thin non-diffracting gaps. From the study of the particular case N=2 a new Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is proposed for hard X-rays (wavelengths of the order of Angstroms). It is found that the FPI plates do not need to be carved from a single perfect crystal block but may be grown or cleaved by other methods. This interesting possibility is suggested by two facts. First, it is known that for incidence close to normal various features of dynamical diffraction are much less sensitive to crystal defects and crystal orientation. Second, the existence of a mismatch between the lattices of the two FPI plates may affect but does not qualitatively alter the performance of the FPI. It is shown that the optimal thickness of the plates is of the order of a few microns or less. The plates may be built from a wide variety of materials. The transmission of X-rays is studied as a function of the energy and direction of the incident photons for various values of the plate thickness, of the gap, of the lattice mismatch, and also for different materials in the gap. The transmission profile exhibits a peak which is spectrally very sharp (about 10 -3 eV for low order reflections and even less for higher ones) and which can be easily tuned by changing either the lattice mismatch or the temperature. FPI plates built of materials with low absorption such as graphite seem to be particularly convenient. Several possible applications are suggested. (author)

  2. All-fiber, long-active-length Fabry-Perot strain sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevec, Simon; Donlagic, Denis

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a high-sensitivity, all-silica, all-fiber Fabry-Perot strain-sensor. The proposed sensor provides a long active length, arbitrary length of Fabry-Perot cavity, and low intrinsic temperature sensitivity. The sensor was micro-machined from purposely-developed sensor-forming fiber that is etched and directly spliced to the lead-in fiber. This manufacturing process has good potential for cost-effective, high-volume production. Its measurement range of over 3000 µε, and strain-resolution better than 1 µε were demonstrated by the application of a commercial, multimode fiber-based signal processor.

  3. Effective length of short Fabry-Perot cavity formed by uniform fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmenkov, Yuri O; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Torres-Peiró, Salvador; Cruz, Jose L; Andrés, Miguel V

    2006-07-10

    In this paper, we describe the properties of Fabry-Perot fiber cavity formed by two fiber Bragg gratings in terms of the grating effective length. We show that the grating effective length is determined by the group delay of the grating, which depends on its diffraction efficiency and physical length. We present a simple analytical formula for calculation of the effective length of the uniform fiber Bragg grating and the frequency separation between consecutive resonances of a Fabry-Perot cavity. Experimental results on the cavity transmission spectra for different values of the gratings' reflectivity support the presented theory.

  4. Extrinsic fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for refractive index measurement of optical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jihuan; Zhao Jiarong; Huang Xuguang; Huang Zhenjian

    2010-01-01

    A simple fiber-optic sensor based on Fabry-Perot interference for refractive index measurement of optical glass is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A broadband light source is coupled into an extrinsic fiber Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the surfaces of a sensing fiber end and the measured sample. The interference signals from the cavity are reflected back into the same fiber. The refractive index of the sample can be obtained by measuring the contrast of the interference fringes. The experimental data meet with the theoretical values very well. The proposed technique is a new method for glass refractive index measurement with a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  5. A Green Fabry-Perot Cavity for Jefferson Lab Hall A Compton Polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhman, Abdurahim; Souder, Paul; Nanda, Sirish

    2009-01-01

    A green laser (CW, 532 nm) based Fabry-Perot cavity for high precision Compton Polarimetry is under development in Hall A of the Jefferson Laboratory. In this paper, we present the principle and the preliminary studies for our test cavity.

  6. Characterization of a Fabry--Perot interferometer and a dc arc plasma jet for spectrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A system involving the use of a Fabry--Perot interferometer in combination with a dc arc plasma jet has been constructed and characterized for spectrochemical analysis. Parameters such as flow rate ratio, observation region, electrode composition and orifice size have been considered. Improvements such as noise reduction and dry aerosol introduction of samples were suggested.

  7. Crescent shaped Fabry-Perot fiber cavity for ultra-sensitive strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Wang, D. N.; Chen, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Optical Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors based on inner air-cavity is featured with compact size, good robustness and high strain sensitivity, especially when an ultra-thin air-cavity is adopted. The typical shape of Fabry-Perot inner air-cavity with reflection mode of operation is elliptic, with minor axis along with and major axis perpendicular to the fiber length. The first reflection surface is diverging whereas the second one is converging. To increase the visibility of the output interference pattern, the length of major axis should be large for a given cavity length. However, the largest value of the major axis is limited by the optical fiber diameter. If the major axis length reaches the fiber diameter, the robustness of the Fabry-Perot cavity device would be decreased. Here we demonstrate an ultra-thin crescent shaped Fabry-Perot cavity for strain sensing with ultra-high sensitivity and low temperature cross-sensitivity. The crescent-shape cavity consists of two converging reflection surfaces, which provide the advantages of enhanced strain sensitivity when compared with elliptic or D-shaped FP cavity. The device is fabricated by fusion splicing an etched multimode fiber with a single mode fiber, and hence is simple in structure and economic in cost.

  8. Transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry-Perot filters driven by Lorentzian sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, J; Capmany, J

    1996-12-20

    We derive expressions for the transfer functions of double- and multiple-cavity Fabry-Perot filters driven by laser sources with Lorentzian spectrum. These are of interest because of their applications in sensing and channel filtering in optical frequency-division multiplexing networks.

  9. Folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexer Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, H. M.; Chiou, A. E. T.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of folded Fabry-Perot quasi-optical ring resonator diplexers with different geometries of reflecting surfaces is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Design of optimum surface geometry for minimum diffraction, together with the figure of merit indicating improvement in performance, are given.

  10. Large-area Fabry-Perot modulator based on electro-optic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benter, Nils; Bertram, Ralph Peter; Soergel, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    We present a large-area electro-optic Fabry-Perot modulator utilizing a photoaddressable bis-azo polymer placed between two dielectric mirrors with an open aperture of 2 cm. A modulation efficientcy of 1% at an effective modulation voltage of 20 V for a wavelength of 1.55 mymeter is demonstrated...

  11. Characterization of a Fabry--Perot interferometer and a dc arc plasma jet for spectrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A system involving the use of a Fabry--Perot interferometer in combination with a dc arc plasma jet has been constructed and characterized for spectrochemical analysis. Parameters such as flow rate ratio, observation region, electrode composition and orifice size have been considered. Improvements such as noise reduction and dry aerosol introduction of samples were suggested

  12. Stable CW Single Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings has been achieved by tWo methods: 1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element'; 2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback'. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback.

  13. On-Chip High-Finesse Fabry-Perot Microcavities for Optical Sensing and Quantum Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Bitarafan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities—with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors—offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance. Micro-fabrication techniques can be used to create mirrors with small radius-of-curvature, which is a prerequisite for cavities to support stable, small-volume modes. We review recent progress towards chip-based implementation of such cavities, and highlight their potential to address applications in sensing and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  14. A tunable Fabry-Perot filter (λ/18) based on all-dielectric metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Tianhong; Xu, Xiangdong; Gu, Yu; Jiang, Yadong; Li, Xinrong; Lian, Yuxiang; Wang, Fu

    2018-05-01

    A tunable Fabry-Perot filter composed of two separated all-dielectric metamaterials is proposed and numerically investigated. Different from metallic metamaterials reflectors, the all-dielectric metamaterials are constructed by high-permittivity TiO2 cylinder arrays and exhibit high reflection in a broadband of 2.49-3.08 THz. The high reflection is attributed to the first and second Mie resonances, by which the all-dielectric metamaterials can serve as reflectors in the Fabry-Perot filter. Both the results from phase analysis method and CST simulations reveal that the resonant frequency of the as-proposed filter appears at 2.78 THz, responding to a cavity with λ/18 wavelength thickness. Particularly, the resonant frequency can be adjusted by changing the cavity thickness. This work provides a feasible approach to design low-loss terahertz filters with a thin air cavity.

  15. Conductance oscillation in graphene-nanoribbon-based electronic Fabry-Perot resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Han Mei; Shen Linjiang

    2010-01-01

    By using the tight-binding approximation and the Green's function method, the quantum conductance of the Fabry-Perot-like electronic resonators composed of zigzag and metallic armchair edge graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) was studied numerically. Obtained results show that due to Fabry-Perot-like electronic interference, the conductance of the GNR resonators oscillates periodically with the Fermi energy. The effects of disorders and coupling between the electrodes and the GNR on conductance oscillations were explored. It is found that the conductance oscillations appear at the strong coupling and become resonant peaks as the coupling is very weak. It is also found that the strong disorders in the GNR can smear the conductance oscillation periods. In other words, the weak coupling and the strong disorders all can blur the conductance oscillations, making them unclearly distinguished.

  16. Experimental study of neutron-optical potential with absorption using Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, M.; Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Kawai, T.; Achiwa, N.; Yamazaki, D.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently spin precession angles of neutrons tunneling and non-tunneling through [Permalloy45(PA)-germanium(Ge)]-PA Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator have been observed [1]. The spin precession angle is well reproduced by the theoretical phase difference of up and down spin neutron wave function based on one-dimensional Schroedinger equation using optical potential model [2]. Spin precession angle and transmission probability of neutron through PA-(Ge/Gd)-PA Fabry-Perot magnetic resonator are presented, where the gap(Ge/Gd) layer consists of germanium and gadolinium atoms, and the optical potential model for magnetic multilayer system with absorption is discussed. (author) [1] M. Hino, et al., Physica B 241-243, 1083 (1998).; [2] S. Yamada, et al., Annu. Rep. Res. Reactor Inst. Kyoto Univ. 11, 8 (1978)

  17. Understanding the concept of resolving power in the Fabry-Perot interferometer using a digital simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvells, I; Carnicer, A; Ferre-Borrull, J; MartIn-Badosa, E; Montes-Usategui, M

    2006-01-01

    The resolution concept in connection with the Fabry-Perot interferometer is difficult to understand for undergraduate students enrolled in physical optics courses. The resolution criterion proposed in textbooks for distinguishing equal intensity maxima and the deduction of the resolving power equation is formal and non-intuitive. In this paper, we study the practical meaning of the resolution criterion and resolution power using a computer simulation of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The light source in the program has two monochromatic components, the wavelength difference being tunable by the user. The student can also adjust other physical parameters so as to obtain different simulation results. By analysing the images and graphics of the simulation, the resolving power concept becomes intuitive and understandable

  18. Temperature-independent refractometer based on fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiacheng; Qiao, Xueguang; Wang, Ruohui; Rong, Qiangzhou; Bao, Weijia; Shao, Zhihua; Yang, Tingting

    2016-04-01

    A miniature fiber-optic refractometer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing head consists of a short section of photonics crystal fiber (PCF) spliced to a single mode fiber (SMF), in which the end-face of the PCF is etched to remove holey structure with hydrofluoric (HF) acid. A Fabry-Perot interference spectrum is achieved based on the reflections from the fusion splicing interface and the end-face of the core of PCF. The interference fringe is sensitive to the external refractive index (RI) with an intensity-referenced sensitivity of 358.27 dB/RIU ranging from 1.33 to 1.38. The sensor has also been implemented for the concentration measurement of λ-phage DNA solution. In addition, the dip intensity is insensitive to the ambient temperature variation, making it a good candidate for temperature-independent bio-sensing area.

  19. High-Temperature Sensor Based on Fabry-Perot Interferometer in Microfiber Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenshi Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized tip Fabry-Perot interferometer (tip-FPI is proposed for high-temperature sensing. It is simply fabricated for the first time by splicing a short length of microfiber (MF to the cleaved end of a standard single mode fiber (SMF with precise control of the relative cross section position. Such a MF acts as a Fabry-Perot (FP cavity and serves as a tip sensor. A change in temperature modifies the length and refractive index of the FP cavity, and then a corresponding change in the reflected interference spectrum can be observed. High temperatures of up to 1000 °C are measured in the experiments, and a high sensitivity of 13.6 pm/°C is achieved. This compact sensor, with tip diameter and length both of tens of microns, is suitable for localized detection, especially in harsh environments.

  20. On-Chip High-Finesse Fabry-Perot Microcavities for Optical Sensing and Quantum Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitarafan, Mohammad H; DeCorby, Ray G

    2017-07-31

    For applications in sensing and cavity-based quantum computing and metrology, open-access Fabry-Perot cavities-with an air or vacuum gap between a pair of high reflectance mirrors-offer important advantages compared to other types of microcavities. For example, they are inherently tunable using MEMS-based actuation strategies, and they enable atomic emitters or target analytes to be located at high field regions of the optical mode. Integration of curved-mirror Fabry-Perot cavities on chips containing electronic, optoelectronic, and optomechanical elements is a topic of emerging importance. Micro-fabrication techniques can be used to create mirrors with small radius-of-curvature, which is a prerequisite for cavities to support stable, small-volume modes. We review recent progress towards chip-based implementation of such cavities, and highlight their potential to address applications in sensing and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  1. Quantum transport in bilayer graphene. Fabry-Perot interferences and proximity-induced superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Renjun

    2015-01-01

    Bilayer graphene (BLG) p-n junctions made of hBN-BLG-hBN (hexagonal boron nitride) heterostructures enable ballistic transport over long distances. We investigate Fabry-Perot interferences, and detect that the bilayer-like anti-Klein tunneling transits into single-layer-like Klein tunneling when tuning the Fermi level towards the band edges. Furthermore, the proximity-induced superconductivity has been studied in these devices with Al leads.

  2. Fabry-Perot Interferometer Performance as Temperature Sensor for Use in Electrical Power System Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Mandal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Transfer function model of the loss less Fabry-Perot cavity (FPI, developed in Z-domain is presented in this paper. Frequency response analysis of the model was carried out in MATLAB environment to explain the behavior of the interferometer and its potential as temperature sensor was studied. Analysis reveals a highly sensitive temperature sensor that can be used in electrical engineering power system applications.

  3. Pemodelan Tapis Fabry-perot pada Serat Optik dengan Menggunakan Fiber Bragg Grating

    OpenAIRE

    Pramuliawati, Septi; ', Saktioto; ', Defrianto

    2015-01-01

    Fabry-perot filter was successfully developed by a uniform Fiber Bragg Grating in fiber optic. A characterization of Bragg Grating was analyzed by using computational model with second-order of Transfer Matrix Method based on Coupled Mode Theory. The reflectivity, length of grating, and bandwidth were parametrics to determine the performance of single Bragg Grating. The transmission spectrum showed the longer grating is designed, the larger the reflectivity was produced, so that the transmiss...

  4. Influence of laser frequency noise on scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer based laser Doppler velocimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    n this work, we study the performance of a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer based laser Doppler velocimeter (sFPILDV) and compare two candidate 1.5 um single-frequency laser sources for the system – a fiber laser (FL) and a semiconductor laser (SL). We describe a straightforward calibration...... procedure for the sFPI-LDV and investigate the effect of different degrees of laser frequency noise between the FL and the SL on the velocimeter’s performance...

  5. Differential Radiometers Using Fabry-Perot Interferometric Technique for Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Elena M.; Heaps,William S.; Wilson, Emily L.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of remote sensing radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometric technique has been developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and tested from both ground and aircraft platform. The sensor uses direct or reflected sunlight and has channels for measuring column concentration of carbon dioxide at 1570 nm, oxygen lines sensitive to pressure and temperature at 762 and 768 nm, and water vapor (940 nm). A solid Fabry-Perot etalon is used as a tunable narrow bandpass filter to restrict the measurement to the gas of interest's absorption bands. By adjusting the temperature of the etalon, which changes the index of refraction of its material, the transmission fringes can be brought into nearly exact correspondence with absorption lines of the particular species. With this alignment between absorption lines and fringes, changes in the amount of a species in the atmosphere strongly affect the amount of light transmitted by the etalon and can be related to gas concentration. The technique is applicable to different chemical species. We have performed simulations and instrument design studies for CH4, "Cot isotope, and CO detection. Index Terms- Absorbing media, Atmospheric measurements, Fabry-Perot interferometers, Optical interferometry, Remote sensing.

  6. Stable CW Single-Frequency Operation of Fabry-Perot Laser Diodes by Self-Injection Phase Locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Gary L.; Krainak, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    Previously, single-frequency semiconductor laser operation using fiber Bragg gratings has been achieved by two methods: 1) use of the FBG as the output coupler for an anti-reflection-coated semiconductor gain element'; 2) pulsed operation of a gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode with FBG-optical and RF-electrical feedback. Here, we demonstrate CW single frequency operation from a non-AR coated Fabry-Perot laser diode using only FBG optical feedback. We coupled a nominal 935 run-wavelength Fabry-Perot laser diode to an ultra narrow band (18 pm) FBG. When tuned by varying its temperature, the laser wavelength is pulled toward the centerline of the Bragg grating, and the spectrum of the laser output is seen to fall into three discrete stability regimes as measured by the side-mode suppression ratio.

  7. Application of the CCD Fabry-Perot Annular Summing Technique to Thermospheric O(1)D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Monica Marie

    1995-01-01

    This work will detail the verification of the advantages of the Fabry-Perot charge coupled device (CCD) annular summing technique, the development of the technique for analysis of daysky spectra, and the implications of the resulting spectra for neutral temperature and wind measurements in the daysky thermosphere. The daysky spectral feature of interest is the bright (1 kilo-Rayleigh) thermospheric (OI) emission at 6300 A which had been observed in the nightsky in order to determine winds and temperatures in the vicinity of the altitude of 250 km. In the daysky, the emission line sits on top of a bright Rayleigh scattered continuum background which significantly complicates the observation. With a triple etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer, the continuum background can be reduced while maintaining high throughput and high resolution. The inclusion of a CCD camera results in significant savings in integration time over the two more standard scanning photomultiplier systems that have made the same wind and temperature measurements in the past. A comparable CCD system can experience an order of magnitude savings in integration time over a PMT system. Laboratory and field tests which address the advantages and limitations of both the Fabry-Perot CCD annular summing technique and the daysky CCD imaging are included in Chap. 2 and Chap. 3. With a sufficiently large throughput associated with the spectrometer and a CCD detector, rapid observations (~4 minute integrations) can be made. Extraction of the line width and line center from the daysky near-continuum background is complicated compared to the nightsky case, but possible. Methods of fitting the line are included in Chap. 4. The daysky O ^1D temperatures are consistent with a lower average emission height than predicted by models. The data and models are discussed in Chap. 5. Although some discrepancies exist between resulting temperatures and models, the observations indicate the potential for other direct measurements

  8. Application of Fabry-Perot velocimeter to high-speed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaw, H.H.; McMillan, C.F.; Osher, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Fabry-Perot (F-P) velocimeter is a useful instrument for measuring the velocity of objects at speeds ranging from fractions of a kilometer per second to a few tens of kilometers per second and up. Because of its immunity to electromagnetic interference and its velocity resolution, it has become the prime diagnostic tool in our electric-gun facility. Examples of its application to high speed experiments are discussed, including: electric-gun flyer studies, spallation of materials under high-speed impact, momentum-transfer studies, pressure pulse created by high-velocity impact, and detonation-wave studies in high-explosive experiments

  9. Fiber Fabry-Perot sensors for detection of partial discharges in power transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Kim, Dae Woong; Deng, Jiangdong; Xiao, Hai; Wang, Anbo

    2003-06-01

    A diaphragm-based interferometric fiberoptic sensor that uses a low-coherence light source was designed and tested for on-line detection of the acoustic waves generated by partial discharges inside high-voltage power transformers. The sensor uses a fused-silica diaphragm and a single-mode optical fiber encapsulated in a fused-silica glass tube to form an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is interrogated by low-coherence light. Test results indicate that these fiber optic acoustic sensors are capable of faithfully detecting acoustic signals propagating inside transformer oil with high sensitivity and wide bandwidth.

  10. Construction of an optical semiconductor amplifier starting from a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Soto, H.; Marquez, H.; Valles V, N.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology to convert a semiconductor laser Fabry-Perot (SL-FP) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented. In order to suppress the cavity resonant an optical thin film coating was deposited on the facets of the SL-FP. The experiment was carried out putting on service a new monitoring technique that consist in the observation of the laser power spectrum during the antireflection coatings deposition. This allows to determine the moment were the facets reflectivity is minimum. The SOA obtained was characterized for different polarization currents. (Author)

  11. The low frequency facility Fabry-Perot cavity used as a speed-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Virgilio, A.; Braccini, S.; Ballardin, G.; Bradaschia, C.; Cella, G.; Cuoco, E.; Dattilo, V.; Fazzi, M.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Frasconi, F.; Giazotto, A.; Gennai, A.; Holloway, L.H.; La Penna, P.; Lomtadze, T.; Losurdo, G.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Poggiani, R.; Porzio, A.; Puppo, P.; Raffaelli, F.; Rapagnani, P.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, I.; Solimeno, S.; Stanga, R.; Vetrano, F.; Zhou, Z

    2003-09-15

    Fabry-Perot cavities have many different applications as scientific instruments. In the gravitational waves research field they are extensively used to frequency stabilize lasers and to measure very small distance variations. In the present Letter a method to evaluate from the transmitted power only the relative speed and position of the mirrors of a cavity, having finesse F>40, is described. A displacement spectral sensitivity of the order of about 3x10{sup -10} m/Hz{sup -1/2} at 10 Hz is obtained with the cavity of the low frequency facility.

  12. All-optical logic gates and wavelength conversion via the injection locking of a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E.; Pochet, M.; Schmidt, J.; Locke, T.; Naderi, N.; Usechak, N. G.

    2013-03-01

    This work investigates the implementation of all-optical logic gates based on optical injection locking (OIL). All-optical inverting, NOR, and NAND gates are experimentally demonstrated using two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, a multi-mode Fabry-Perot laser diode, and an optical band-pass filter. The DFB lasers are externally modulated to represent logic inputs into the cavity of the multi-mode Fabry-Perot slave laser. The input DFB (master) lasers' wavelengths are aligned with the longitudinal modes of the Fabry-Perot slave laser and their optical power is used to modulate the injection conditions in the Fabry-Perot slave laser. The optical band-pass filter is used to select a Fabry- Perot mode that is either suppressed or transmitted given the logic state of the injecting master laser signals. When the input signal(s) is (are) in the on state, injection locking, and thus the suppression of the non-injected Fabry-Perot modes, is induced, yielding a dynamic system that can be used to implement photonic logic functions. Additionally, all-optical photonic processing is achieved using the cavity-mode shift produced in the injected slave laser under external optical injection. The inverting logic case can also be used as a wavelength converter — a key component in advanced wavelength-division multiplexing networks. As a result of this experimental investigation, a more comprehensive understanding of the locking parameters involved in injecting multiple lasers into a multi-mode cavity and the logic transition time is achieved. The performance of optical logic computations and wavelength conversion has the potential for ultrafast operation, limited primarily by the photon decay rate in the slave laser.

  13. Storage of laser pulses in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for high flux x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, K.; Honda, Y.; Sasao, N.; Araki, S.; Higashi, Y.; Taniguchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; Nomura, M.; Sakai, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have a plan to produce a high flux x-ray for medical use by using a Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the lower pulses from a mode-locked laser are stored and enhanced. In this plan, the X-ray is produced from the Compton scattering of electrons in a storage ring with the laser light in the optical cavity. In order to increase X-ray flux, high power laser light is necessary. We show the enhancement of the laser power from the model locked laser with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. (author)

  14. Hypersonic force measurements using internal balance based on optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huacheng; Min, Fu; Zhong, Shaolong; Song, Xin; Yang, Yanguang

    2018-03-01

    Force measurements using wind tunnel balance are necessary for determining a variety of aerodynamic performance parameters, while the harsh environment in hypersonic flows requires that the measurement instrument should be reliable and robust, in against strong electromagnetic interference, high vacuum, or metal (oxide) dusts. In this paper, we demonstrated a three-component internal balance for hypersonic aerodynamic force measurements, using novel optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) strain gauges as sensing elements. The FPI gauges were fabricated using Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) surface and bulk fabrication techniques. High-reflectivity coatings are used to form a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, which benefits a high resolution. Antireflective and passivation coatings are used to reduce unwanted interferences. The FPI strain gauge based balance has been calibrated and evaluated in a Mach 5 hypersonic flow. The results are compared with the traditional technique using the foil resistive strain gauge balance, indicating that the proposed balance based on the MOEMS FPI strain gauge is reliable and robust and is potentially suitable for the hypersonic wind tunnel harsh environment.

  15. Lineshape Engineering in an All-Pass Ring Resonator with Backreflection Coupled to a Symmetrical Fabry-Perot Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Melnikov, Vasily

    2012-11-10

    We derive transfer functions for an all-pass ring resonator with internal backreflection coupled to a symmetrical Fabry-Perot resonator and demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano-like lineshapes tunable by backreflection in the ring resonator.

  16. The comparison of environmental effects on michelson and fabry-perot interferometers utilized for the displacement measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Shyu, Lih-Horng; Chang, Chung-Ping

    2010-01-01

    The optical structure of general commercial interferometers, e.g., the Michelson interferometers, is based on a non-common optical path. Such interferometers suffer from environmental effects because of the different phase changes induced in different optical paths and consequently the measurement precision will be significantly influenced by tiny variations of the environmental conditions. Fabry-Perot interferometers, which feature common optical paths, are insensitive to environmental disturbances. That would be advantageous for precision displacement measurements under ordinary environmental conditions. To verify and analyze this influence, displacement measurements with the two types of interferometers, i.e., a self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer and a commercial Michelson interferometer, have been performed and compared under various environmental disturbance scenarios. Under several test conditions, the self-fabricated Fabry-Perot interferometer was obviously less sensitive to environmental disturbances than a commercial Michelson interferometer. Experimental results have shown that induced errors from environmental disturbances in a Fabry-Perot interferometer are one fifth of those in a Michelson interferometer. This has proved that an interferometer with the common optical path structure will be much more independent of environmental disturbances than those with a non-common optical path structure. It would be beneficial for the solution of interferometers utilized for precision displacement measurements in ordinary measurement environments.

  17. Lineshape Engineering in an All-Pass Ring Resonator with Backreflection Coupled to a Symmetrical Fabry-Perot Resonator

    KAUST Repository

    Melnikov, Vasily; Roqan, Iman S.

    2012-01-01

    We derive transfer functions for an all-pass ring resonator with internal backreflection coupled to a symmetrical Fabry-Perot resonator and demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano-like lineshapes tunable by backreflection in the ring resonator.

  18. Readout of micromechanical cantilever sensor arrays by Fabry-Perot interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrmeister, Jana; Fuss, Achim; Saurenbach, Frank; Berger, Ruediger; Helm, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of micromechanical cantilevers in sensing applications causes a need for reliable readout techniques of micromechanical cantilever sensor (MCS) bending. Current optical beam deflection techniques suffer from drawbacks such as artifacts due to changes in the refraction index upon exchange of media. Here, an adaptation of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented that allows simultaneous determination of MCS bending and changes in the refraction index of media. Calibration of the instrument with liquids of known refraction index provides an avenue to direct measurement of bending with nanometer precision. Versatile construction of flow cells in combination with alignment features for substrate chips allows simultaneous measurement of two MCS situated either on the same, or on two different support chips. The performance of the instrument is demonstrate in several sensing applications, including adsorption experiments of alkanethioles on MCS gold surfaces, and measurement of humidity changes in air

  19. Enhanced Bulk-Edge Coulomb Coupling in Fractional Fabry-Perot Interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, C W; Simon, S H; Rosenow, Bernd

    2015-09-18

    Recent experiments use Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometry to claim that the ν=5/2 quantum Hall state exhibits non-Abelian topological order. We note that the experiments appear inconsistent with a model neglecting bulk-edge Coulomb coupling and Majorana tunneling, so we reexamine the theory of FP devices. Even a moderate Coulomb coupling may strongly affect some fractional plateaus, but very weakly affect others, allowing us to model the data over a wide range of plateaus. While experiments are consistent with the ν=5/2 state harboring Moore-Read topological order, they may have measured Coulomb effects rather than an "even-odd effect" due to non-Abelian braiding.

  20. Advanced Interrogation of Fiber-Optic Bragg Grating and Fabry-Perot Sensors with KLT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) is applied to accurate detection of optical fiber sensors in the spectral domain. By processing an optical spectrum, although coarsely sampled, through the KLT, and subsequently processing the obtained eigenvalues, it is possible to decode a plurality of optical sensor results. The KLT returns higher accuracy than other demodulation techniques, despite coarse sampling, and exhibits higher resilience to noise. Three case studies of KLT-based processing are presented, representing most of the current challenges in optical fiber sensing: (1) demodulation of individual sensors, such as Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs); (2) demodulation of dual (FBG/FPI) sensors; (3) application of reverse KLT to isolate different sensors operating on the same spectrum. A simulative outline is provided to demonstrate the KLT operation and estimate performance; a brief experimental section is also provided to validate accurate FBG and FPI decoding. PMID:26528975

  1. Optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yina; Zhao, Chunliu; Xu, Ben; Wang, Dongning; Yang, Minghong

    2018-05-01

    An optical cascaded Fabry-Perot interferometer hydrogen sensor based on vernier effect has been proposed and achieved. The proposed sensor, which total length is ∼594 μm, is composed of a segment of large mode area fiber (LMAF) and a segment of hollow-core fiber (HCF). The proposed sensor is coated with the Pt-loaded WO3/SiO2 powder which will result in the increase of local temperature of the sensor head when exposed to hydrogen atmosphere. Thus the hydrogen sensor can be achieved by monitoring the change of resonant envelope wavelength. The hydrogen sensitivity is -1.04 nm/% within the range of 0 % -2.4 % which is greatly improved because of the vernier effect. The response time is ∼80 s. Due to its compact configuration, the proposed sensor provides a feasible and miniature structure to achieve detection of hydrogen.

  2. Fabry-Perot Interferometry in the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Douglas; Chang, Willy; Kou, Angela; Marcus, Charles; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2011-03-01

    We present measurements of electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes. Two classes of resistance oscillations may be seen as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage, as we have previously reported. In small interferometers in the integer regime, oscillations of the type associated with Coulomb interaction are ubiquitous, while those consistent with single-particle Aharonov-Bohm interference are seen to co-exist in some configurations. The amplitude scaling of both types with temperature and device size is consistent with a theoretical model. Oscillations are further observed in the fractional quantum Hall regime. Here the dependence of the period on the filling factors in the constrictions and bulk of the interferometer can shed light on the effective charge of the interfering quasiparticles, but care is needed to distinguish these oscillations from those associated with integer quantum Hall states. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Project Q and IBM.

  3. A highly directive graphene antenna embedded inside a Fabry-Perot cavity in terahertz regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanaei, Majid; Karami, Hamidreza; Dehkhoda, Parisa; Esfahani, Hamid; Dabir, Fatemeh

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a highly directive nano-thickness graphene-based antenna is introduced in the terahertz frequency band. The antenna is a graphene patch dipole which is placed between two Bragg mirrors called Fabry-Perot cavity. Tunability of the graphene's conductivity makes it possible to excite the desired resonances of the cavity. Here, first, a single resonant antenna is introduced at 5 THz with an enhanced gain from 2.11 dBi to 12.8 dBi with a beamwidth of 22.7°. Then, a triple resonant antenna at 4.7, 5 and 5.3 THz is presented with respective gains of 7.97, 11.9 and 8.52 dBi. Finally, the effect of dimensions and number of the dielectric layers of the cavity are studied in order to further increase in directivity.

  4. A new detection method used to calibrate Fabry-Perot interferometers in the infrared range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.; Javon, C.; Garcin, M.; Thouvenin, D.

    1993-06-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometers are routinely used in the Tore Supra Tokamak in order to measure the time evolution of the electron temperature of the confined plasmas. Calibration of such interferometers requires the detection of very low DC levels (0.1 nV) with signal-to-noise ratios less than 10 -5 , which is generally not compatible with standard detection methods. A new correlation method to achieve this absolute calibration is proposed. It is based on a proper noise auto-correlation technique combined with an optimized signal filtering involving Fourier analysis. The advantages of the method are detailed and experimentally compared to standard averaging techniques, such as coherent addition and synchronous detection. The method can be used in a more general context every time very small amplitude signals are to be measured

  5. Fabry-Perot interferometry using an image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, W.L.; Stacy, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot velocity interferometer system is described that uses a modified rotating mirror streak camera to recrod the dynamic fringe positions. A Los Alamos Model 72B rotating-mirror streak camera, equipped with a beryllium mirror, was modified to include a high aperture (f/2.5) relay lens and a 40-mm image-intensifier tube such that the image normally formed at the film plane of the streak camera is projected onto the intensifier tube. Fringe records for thin (0.13 mm) flyers driven by a small bridgewire detonator obtained with a Model C1155-01 Hamamatsu and Model 790 Imacon electronic streak cameras are compared with those obtained with the image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera (I 2 RMC). Resolution comparisons indicate that the I 2 RMC gives better time resolution than either the Hamamatsu or the Imacon for total writing times of a few microseconds or longer

  6. Performance of a 1200 m long suspended Fabry-Perot cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Freise, A; Gossler, S; Grote, H; Heinzel, G; Lück, H B; Robertson, D I; Strain, K A; Ward, H; Willke, B; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2002-01-01

    Using one arm of the Michelson interferometer and the power recycling mirror of the interferometric gravitational wave detector GEO 600, we created a Fabry-Perot cavity with a length of 1200 m. The main purpose of this experiment was to gather first experience with the main optics, its suspensions and the corresponding control systems. The residual displacement of a main mirror is about 150 nm rms. By stabilizing the length of the 1200 m long cavity to the pre-stabilized laser beam, we achieved an error point frequency noise of 100 mu Hz Hz sup - sup 1 sup / sup 2 at 100 Hz Fourier frequency. In addition we demonstrated the reliable performance of all included subsystems by several 10-hour-periods of continuous stable operation. Thus the full frequency stabilization scheme for GEO 600 was successfully tested.

  7. Multimode fiber tip Fabry-Perot cavity for highly sensitive pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W P; Wang, D N; Xu, Ben; Zhao, C L; Chen, H F

    2017-03-23

    We demonstrate an optical Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on an etched end of multimode fiber filled with ultraviolet adhesive. The fiber device is miniature (with diameter of less than 60 μm), robust and low cost, in a convenient reflection mode of operation, and has a very high gas pressure sensitivity of -40.94 nm/MPa, a large temperature sensitivity of 213 pm/°C within the range from 55 to 85 °C, and a relatively low temperature cross-sensitivity of 5.2 kPa/°C. This device has a high potential in monitoring environment of high pressure.

  8. The PVLAS experiment: measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence and dichroism with a birefringent Fabry-Perot cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Valle, Federico; Milotti, Edoardo [INFN, Trieste (Italy); Universita di Trieste, Dipt. di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); Ejlli, Aldo; Messineo, Giuseppe; Zavattini, Guido [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Universita di Ferrara, Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Ferrara (Italy); Gastaldi, Ugo [INFN, Ferrara (Italy); Pengo, Ruggero; Ruoso, Giuseppe [INFN, Lab. Nazionale di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-01-15

    Vacuum magnetic birefringence was predicted long time ago and is still lacking a direct experimental confirmation. Several experimental efforts are striving to reach this goal, and the sequence of results promises a success in the next few years. This measurement generally is accompanied by the search for hypothetical light particles that couple to two photons. The PVLAS experiment employs a sensitive polarimeter based on a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. In this paper we report on the latest experimental results of this experiment. The data are analysed taking into account the intrinsic birefringence of the dielectric mirrors of the cavity. Besides a new limit on the vacuum magnetic birefringence, the measurements also allow the model-independent exclusion of new regions in the parameter space of axion-like and milli-charged particles. In particular, these last limits hold also for all types of neutrinos, resulting in a laboratory limit on their charge. (orig.)

  9. Faraday-Active Fabry-Perot Resonator: Transmission, Reflection, and Emissivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptuga, Anatoliy; Morozhenko, Vasyl; Pipa, Viktor; Venger, Evgen; Kostiuk, Theodor

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of light within a semiconductor Faraday-active Fabry-Perot resonator (FAFR) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that an external magnetic field radically changes the angular and spectral characteristics of transmission, reflection and emissivity of the resonator not only for polarized, but also for unpolarized light. Suppression of interference patterns and phase inversion of the interference extrema were observed in both monochromatic and polychromatic light. The investigations were carried out for the plane-parallel plates of n-InAs in the spectral range of free charge carrier absorption. The results can be used to create new controllable optical and spectroscopic devices for investigation of Faraday-active material properties and for control of parameters of plane-parallel layers and structures.

  10. Simultaneous wavelength and orbital angular momentum demultiplexing using tunable MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Porfirev, Alexey P.; Gurbatov, Stanislav O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous wavelength and orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing/demultiplexing of 10 Gbit/s data streams using a new on-chip micro-component-tunable MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filter integrated with a spiral phase plate. In the experiment, two......, maximum power penalties at the HD-FEC BER threshold relative to the 0.8 nm wavelength spacing read 0.83, 0.84 and 1.15 dB when multiplexing a Gaussian beam and OAM beams of 1st, 2nd and 3rd orders respectively. The novelty and impact of the proposed filter design is in providing practical, integrable...

  11. Effects of the time delays in a non linear pendular Fabry-Perot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourrenc, P.; Deruelle, N.

    1985-01-01

    We study a one arm pendular Fabry-Perot interferometer with specifications corresponding to the two arms interferometers designed to detect gravitational radiation. We consider the non linearities originating from the radiation force and the effects of time delays due to the finite length of the arm. We derive the exact and the associated ''predictivised'' equations for the motion of the suspended mirror. We show that effects of time delays increase considerably the stability of the device when the optical relaxation time is of the order of the period of the pendulum, a case of relevance when light is recycled. However the thermal noise does not seem to be much modified when calculated within a simple approximation scheme

  12. A fully computerized multi-pass Fabry-Perot interferometer for Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohidar, H.; Berland, T.; Boger, F.; Joessang, T.; Feder, J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a Multipass Fabry-Perot interforometer assembly for use in Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering experiments is reported. The optical alignment and the scattered signal data acquisition have been completely computerized. Digital scanning and alignment strategies of the Fabry-Perot resonator have been incorporated, which makes this instrument quite unique in this respect. The high contrast (∼10 10 ) and finesse (∼50) offered by this instrument makes it possible to detect Brillouin peaks from samples that have a small Brillouin scattering cross-section. As part of this system a compatible and precision sample chamber has been constructed, which has been designed to operate in the pressure and temperature ranges of 1-1000B and 20-150 o C, respectively. The cell has been constructed to be small and compact, but it still has a large heat capacity (∼250J/K) which ensures easy and stable temperature control of the liquid sample volume which has a size of 40 mm 3 . The achievable temperature stability is +-1mK and +-2mK for operating temperatures below and above 100 o C, respectively. The pressure stability is in the range of +-0.05B of the set pressure for pressures below 100B and it is +-0.05% for higher pressures up to 1000B. Both pressure and temperature are remotely monitored and controlled by a ND/100 computer. Special care has been taken in designing the optics of the pressure cell to ensure that both the primary and secondary reflections from the entrance window, as well as the main beam, go out of the scattering region in order to achieve higher signal-to-noise ratio in actual experiments

  13. Luminosity optimization schemes in Compton experiments based on Fabry-Perot optical resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Variola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The luminosity of Compton x-ray and γ sources depends on the average current in electron bunches, the energy of the laser pulses, and the geometry of the particle bunch to laser pulse collisions. To obtain high power photon pulses, these can be stacked in a passive optical resonator (Fabry-Perot cavity especially when a high average flux is required. But, in this case, owing to the presence of the optical cavity mirrors, the electron bunches have to collide at an angle with the laser pulses with a consequent luminosity decrease. In this article a crab-crossing scheme is proposed for Compton sources, based on a laser amplified in a Fabry-Perot resonator, to eliminate the luminosity losses given by the crossing angle, taking into account that in laser-electron collisions only the electron bunches can be tilted at the collision point. We report the analytical study on the crab-crossing scheme for Compton gamma sources. The analytical expression for the total yield of photons generated in Compton sources with the crab-crossing scheme of collision is derived. The optimal collision angle of the bunch was found to be equal to half of the collision angle. At this crabbing angle, the maximal yield of scattered off laser photons is attained thanks to the maximization, in the collision process, of the time spent by the laser pulse in the electron bunch. Estimations for some Compton source projects are presented. Furthermore, some schemes of the optical cavities configuration are analyzed and the luminosity calculated. As illustrated, the four-mirror two- or three-dimensional scheme is the most appropriate for Compton sources.

  14. A Novel, Poly-Etalon, Fabry-Perot for Planetary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Robert B.; Doe, Richard; Noto, John

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop a mechanically robust, high throughput and solid state spectrometer several liquid crystal Fabry-Perot etalons were constructed. The etalons were tested for spectral response, radiation resistance and optical transmission. The first year of this project was spent developing and understanding the properties of the liquid crystal etalons; in the second year an intensified all-sky imaging system was developed around a pair of LC etalons. The imaging system, developed jointly with SRI International represents a unique brassboard to demonstrate the use of LC etalons as tunable filters. The first set of etalons constructed in year one of this project were tested for spectral response and throughput while etalon surrogates were exposed to proton radiation simulating the exposure of an object in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The 2" diameter etalons had a measure finesse of approximately 10 and were tunable over five orders. Liquid crystals exposed to proton irradiation showed no signs of damage. In year two two larger diameter (3") etalons were constructed with gaps of 3 and 5 microns. This pair of etalons is for use in a high resolution, all-sky spectral imager. The WATUMI imager system follows the heritage of all sky, narrow band, intensified imagers however it includes two LC Fabry-Perot etalons to provide tunability and the ability to switch wavelengths rapidly, an import consideration in auroral airglow imaging. This work also resulted in two publications and one poster presentation. The instrument will be uniquely capable, with superior throughput and speed, to measure optical airglow of multiple emission lines in harsh conditions.

  15. Microwave radiometric aircraft observations of the Fabry-Perot interference fringes of an ice-water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, R. F.; Swift, C. T.; Fedors, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Airborne stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) observations of the Fabry-Perot interference fringes of ice-water systems are discussed. The microwave emissivity at normal incidence of a smooth layered dielectric medium over a semi-infinite dielectric medium is examined for the case of ice over water as a function of ice thickness and attenuation coefficient, and the presence of quarter-wavelength oscillations in emissivity as the ice thickness and frequency are varied is pointed out. Experimental observations of pronounced quarter-wavelength oscillations in radiometric brightness temperature due to the Fabry-Perot interference fringes over smooth sea ice and lake ice varying in roughness as the radiometer frequencies were scanned are then presented.

  16. Optical power equalization for upstream traffic with injection-locked Fabry-Perot lasers in TDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Tsan; Sheu, Lih-Gen; Chi, Sien

    2010-10-01

    An optical power equalization of upstream traffic in time-division-multiplexed passive optical network (TDM-PON) based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot lasers has been experimentally investigated. The upstream transmitters with stable spectrum are achieved by using an external injection light source in the optical line terminal (OLT). The different upstream powers can be equalized by injection locking a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) biased below threshold current in OLT. The dynamic upstream power range from - 8.5 to - 19.5 db m is reduced to a 1.6 dB maximal power variation, when the uplink signal is directly modulated at 1.25 Gb/s.

  17. Passive harmonic mode locking by mode selection in Fabry-Perot diode lasers with patterned effective index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitauld, David; Osborne, Simon; O'Brien, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate passive harmonic mode locking of a quantum-well laser diode designed to support a discrete comb of Fabry-Perot modes. Spectral filtering of the mode spectrum was achieved using a nonperiodic patterning of the cavity effective index. By selecting six modes spaced at twice the fundamental mode spacing, near-transform-limited pulsed output with 2 ps pulse duration was obtained at a repetition rate of 100 GHz.

  18. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scan...

  19. Response of a New Low-Coherence Fabry-Perot Sensor to Hematocrit Levels in Human Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jędrzejewska-Szczerska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-coherence Fabry-Perot sensor with a spectrally measured signal processing response to the refractive index of liquids is presented. Optical fiber sensors are potentially capable of continuous measuring hematocrit levels in blood. Low-coherence Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors offer a robust solution, where information about the measurand is encoded in the full spectrum of light reflected from the sensing interferometer. The first step in the research on such sensor is the assessment of its performance under favorable conditions, i.e., using blood samples from healthy volunteers tested in vitro. Such an experiment was conducted using a sensor comprising a superluminescent diode source, an optical spectrum analyzer working as the detection setup and a sensing Fabry-Perot interferometer providing high interference contrast. The response of this sensor was recorded for several samples and compared with the reference laboratory method. The coefficient of determination (R2 for a linear relationship between the results given by both methods was 0.978 and the difference between these results was less than 1%. The presented results suggest that further research into the performance of the sensor is merited.

  20. Ultrafast Fabry-Perot fiber-optic pressure sensors for multimedia blast event measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yang; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-02-20

    A shock wave (SW) is characterized as a large pressure fluctuation that typically lasts only a few milliseconds. On the battlefield, SWs pose a serious threat to soldiers who are exposed to explosions, which may lead to blast-induced traumatic brain injuries. SWs can also be used beneficially and have been applied to a variety of medical treatments due to their unique interaction with tissues and cells. Consequently, it is important to have sensors that can quantify SW dynamics in order to better understand the physical interaction between body tissue and the incident acoustic wave. In this paper, the ultrafast fiber-optic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot interferometric principle was designed and four such sensors were fabricated to quantify a blast event within different media, simultaneously. The compact design of the fiber-optic sensor allows for a high degree of spatial resolution when capturing the wavefront of the traveling SW. Several blast event experiments were conducted within different media (e.g., air, rubber membrane, and water) to evaluate the sensor's performance. This research revealed valuable knowledge for further study of SW behavior and SW-related applications.

  1. Development of a Fabry-Perot cavity for the Compton polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Jean-Paul

    1997-01-01

    A quick, precise and non-destructive longitudinal polarisation measurement should be a great advantage for the HAPPEX experiment at CEBAF (Jefferson Lab, USA). To achieve this, it could be possible to use a Fabry-Perot cavity to get a high photon flux at the electron-photon interaction point of a Compton polarimeter. This thesis is a first study for the design of such a system. We have shown that a 'monolithic' cavity, i.e. with mirrors mounted on fixed stage, is a good solution. My contribution for these studies is the development of a code to compute the optimum geometry of a cavity. Another of my contribution concerns the test of a cavity based on commercial mirrors with a gain > 160, using the Pound-Drever method to lock the laser frequency. My studies concern optical matching between the laser beam and the cavity, the choice of the frequency of modulation for the feed-back system and the characterization of the intracavity power. This work is a first step of the studies which will lead to the integration of a cavity based system on the CEBAF beam line. (author) [fr

  2. Microbubble-based fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high-temperature application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Jia, Pinggang; Fang, Guocheng; Liang, Hao; Liang, Ting; Liu, Wenyi; Xiong, Jijun

    2018-03-10

    Using arc discharge technology, we fabricated a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (FP) pressure sensor with a very low temperature coefficient based on a microbubble that can be applied in a high-temperature environment. The thin-walled microbubble can be fabricated by heating the gas-pressurized hollow silica tube (HST) using a commercial fusion splicer. Then, the well-cut single-mode fiber (SMF) was inserted into the microbubble, and they were fused together. Thus, the FP cavity can be formed between the end of the SMF and the inner surface of the microbubble. The diameter of the microbubble can be up to 360 μm with the thickness of the wall being approximately 0.5 μm. Experimental results show that such a sensor has a linear sensitivity of approximately -6.382  nm/MPa, -5.912  nm/MPa at 20°C, and 600°C within the pressure range of 1 MPa. Due to the thermal expansion coefficient of the SMF being slightly larger than that of silica, we can fuse the SMF and the HST with different lengths; thus, the sensor has a very low temperature coefficient of approximately 0.17 pm/°C.

  3. Tapered optical fiber tip probes based on focused ion beam-milled Fabry-Perot microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Ricardo M.; Warren-Smith, Stephen C.; Becker, Martin; Dellith, Jan; Rothhardt, Manfred; Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Marques, Manuel B.; Bartelt, Hartmut; Frazão, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    Focused ion beam technology is combined with dynamic chemical etching to create microcavities in tapered optical fiber tips, resulting in fiber probes for temperature and refractive index sensing. Dynamic chemical etching uses hydrofluoric acid and a syringe pump to etch standard optical fibers into cone structures called tapered fiber tips where the length, shape, and cone angle can be precisely controlled. On these tips, focused ion beam is used to mill several different types of Fabry-Perot microcavities. Two main cavity types are initially compared and then combined to form a third, complex cavity structure. In the first case, a gap is milled on the tapered fiber tip which allows the external medium to penetrate the light guiding region and thus presents sensitivity to external refractive index changes. In the second, two slots that function as mirrors are milled on the tip creating a silica cavity that is only sensitive to temperature changes. Finally, both cavities are combined on a single tapered fiber tip, resulting in a multi-cavity structure capable of discriminating between temperature and refractive index variations. This dual characterization is performed with the aid of a fast Fourier transform method to separate the contributions of each cavity and thus of temperature and refractive index. Ultimately, a tapered optical fiber tip probe with sub-standard dimensions containing a multi-cavity structure is projected, fabricated, characterized and applied as a sensing element for simultaneous temperature and refractive index discrimination.

  4. MEMS fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for high temperature application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, G. C.; Jia, P. G.; Cao, Q.; Xiong, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    We design and demonstrate a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor (FOFPPS) for high-temperature sensing by employing micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. The FOFPPS is fabricated by anodically bonding the silicon wafer and the Pyrex glass together and fixing the facet of the optical fiber in parallel with the silicon surface by glass frit and organic adhesive. The silicon wafer can be reduced through dry etching technology to construct the sensitive diaphragm. The length of the cavity changes with the deformation of the diaphragm due to the loaded pressure, which leads to a wavelength shift of the interference spectrum. The pressure can be gauged by measuring the wavelength shift. The pressure experimental results show that the sensor has linear pressure sensitivities ranging from 0 kPa to 600 kPa at temperature range between 20°C to 300°C. The pressure sensitivity at 300°C is approximately 27.63 pm/kPa. The pressure sensitivities gradually decrease with increasing the temperature. The sensor also has a linear thermal drift when temperature changes from 20°C - 300°C.

  5. High-energy localized eigenstates in a Fabry-Perot graphene resonator in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalipaev, V. V.

    2012-06-01

    A semiclassical analysis of the high-energy eigenstates of Dirac fermions inside a graphene monolayer nanoribbon resonator of Fabry-Perot type in a magnetic field with zigzag boundary conditions is discussed. A semiclassical asymptotic method of construction of Maslov spectral series of energy spectrum and eigenfunctions, localized in an asymptotically small neighborhood of a periodic orbit, is developed for the graphene Dirac system. The isolated periodic orbit is confined between two flat boundaries. The analysis involves constructing a localized asymptotic solution to the Dirac system (electron-hole Gaussian beam). Then, the stability of a continuous family of periodic orbits (POs) confined between reflecting boundaries of the resonator is studied. The asymptotics of the eigenfunctions are constructed as a superposition of two Gaussian beams propagating in opposite directions between two reflecting points of the periodic orbit. The asymptotics of the energy spectrum are obtained by means of the generalized Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition only for stable POs. It provides two parts of semiclassical Maslov spectral series with positive and negative energies, for electrons and holes, correspondingly, with two different Hamiltonian dynamics and families of classical trajectories. The presence of electrostatic potential is vital as it makes a family of periodic orbit stable. For one subclass of lens-shaped periodic orbits, for a piecewise linear potential, localized eigenstates were computed numerically by the finite element method using COMSOL, and proved to be in very good agreement with the ones computed semiclassically.

  6. The Gain Estimation of a Fabry-Perot Cavity (FPC Antenna with a Finite Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taek-Sun Kwon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented an equation for estimating the gain of a Fabry-Perot cavity (FPC antenna with a finite dimension. When an FPC antenna has an infinite dimension and its height is half of a wavelength, the maximum gain of that FPC antenna can be obtained theoretically. If the FPC antenna does not have a dimension sufficient for multiple reflections between a partially reflective surface (PRS and the ground, its gain must be less than that of an FPC antenna that has an infinite dimension. In addition, the gain of an FPC antenna increases as the dimension of a PRS increases and becomes saturated from a specific dimension. The specific dimension where the gain starts to saturate also gets larger as the reflection magnitude of the PRS becomes closer to one. Thus, it would be convenient to have a gain equation when considering the dimension of an FPC antenna in order to estimate the exact gain of the FPC antenna with a specific dimension. A gain versus the dimension of the FPC antenna for various reflection magnitudes of PRS has been simulated, and the modified gain equation is produced through the curve fitting of the full-wave simulation results. The resulting empirical gain equation of an FPC antenna whose PRS dimension is larger than 1.5λ0 has been obtained.

  7. Nonlinear estimation of ring-down time for a Fabry-Perot optical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallapur, Abhijit G; Boyson, Toby K; Petersen, Ian R; Harb, Charles C

    2011-03-28

    This paper discusses the application of a discrete-time extended Kalman filter (EKF) to the problem of estimating the decay time constant for a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). The data for the estimation process is obtained from a CRDS experimental setup in terms of the light intensity at the output of the cavity. The cavity is held in lock with the input laser frequency by controlling the distance between the mirrors within the cavity by means of a proportional-integral (PI) controller. The cavity is purged with nitrogen and placed under vacuum before chopping the incident light at 25 KHz and recording the light intensity at its output. In spite of beginning the EKF estimation process with uncertainties in the initial value for the decay time constant, its estimates converge well within a small neighborhood of the expected value for the decay time constant of the cavity within a few ring-down cycles. Also, the EKF estimation results for the decay time constant are compared to those obtained using the Levenberg-Marquardt estimation scheme.

  8. Construction of an optical semiconductor amplifier starting from a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser; Construccion de un amplificador optico de semiconductor a partir de un laser de semiconductor Fabry-Perot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.; Soto, H.; Marquez, H.; Valles V, N. [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada. Km. 107, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A methodology to convert a semiconductor laser Fabry-Perot (SL-FP) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented. In order to suppress the cavity resonant an optical thin film coating was deposited on the facets of the SL-FP. The experiment was carried out putting on service a new monitoring technique that consist in the observation of the laser power spectrum during the antireflection coatings deposition. This allows to determine the moment were the facets reflectivity is minimum. The SOA obtained was characterized for different polarization currents. (Author)

  9. Performance Evaluation of Fabry-Perot Temperature Sensors in Nuclear Power Plant Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Talnagi, Joseph W.

    2003-01-01

    The Fiso Fabry-Perot fiber-optic temperature sensor was selected for performance evaluation and for potential application in nuclear power plants because of its unique interferometric sensing mechanism and data-processing technique, and its commercial availability. It employs a Fizeau interferometer and a charge-coupled device array to locate the position of the maximum interference fringe intensity, which is directly related to the environmental temperature. Consequently, the basic sensing mechanism is independent of the absolute transmitted light intensity, which is the most likely parameter to be affected by external harsh environments such as nuclear irradiation, high pressure/temperature, and cyclical vibration.This paper reports research on the performance of two Fiso Fabry-Perot temperature sensors in environmental conditions expected in nuclear power plants during both normal and abnormal (i.e., accident) conditions. The environmental conditions simulated in this paper include gamma-only ( 60 Co) irradiation, pressure/temperature environmental transient, and mixed neutron/gamma field, respectively.The first sensor exhibited no failure or degradation in performance during and following gamma-only irradiation in which a total dose of 15 kGy was delivered at a dose rate of 2.5 kGy/h. Following gamma irradiation, this sensor was then tested for 10.75 days in a thermohydraulic environment prescribed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE323-1983. Intermittent behavior was observed throughout the latter portions of this test, and degradation in performance occurred after the test. Visual evaluation after opening the sensor head indicated that the internal welding methodology was the primary contributor to the observed behavior during this test. Further consultation with the vendor shows that the robustness and reliability of Fiso sensors can be substantially improved by modifying the internal welding methods.The second Fiso temperature

  10. Investigation of mode partition noise in Fabry-Perot laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingyi; Deng, Lanxin; Mu, Jianwei; Li, Xun; Huang, Wei-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Passive optical network (PON) is considered as the most appealing access network architecture in terms of cost-effectiveness, bandwidth management flexibility, scalability and durability. And to further reduce the cost per subscriber, a Fabry-Perot (FP) laser diode is preferred as the transmitter at the optical network units (ONUs) because of its lower cost compared to distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode. However, the mode partition noise (MPN) associated with the multi-longitudinal-mode FP laser diode becomes the limiting factor in the network. This paper studies the MPN characteristics of the FP laser diode using the time-domain simulation of noise-driven multi-mode laser rate equation. The probability density functions are calculated for each longitudinal mode. The paper focuses on the investigation of the k-factor, which is a simple yet important measure of the noise power, but is usually taken as a fitted or assumed value in the penalty calculations. In this paper, the sources of the k-factor are studied with simulation, including the intrinsic source of the laser Langevin noise, and the extrinsic source of the bit pattern. The photon waveforms are shown under four simulation conditions for regular or random bit pattern, and with or without Langevin noise. The k-factors contributed by those sources are studied with a variety of bias current and modulation current. Simulation results are illustrated in figures, and show that the contribution of Langevin noise to the k-factor is larger than that of the random bit pattern, and is more dominant at lower bias current or higher modulation current.

  11. High time resolution measurements of the thermosphere from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of atomic oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. K. Ford

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the performance of CCD detectors have enabled a high time resolution study of the high latitude upper thermosphere with Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs to be performed. 10-s integration times were used during a campaign in April 2004 on an FPI located in northern Sweden in the auroral oval. The FPI is used to study the thermosphere by measuring the oxygen red line emission at 630.0 nm, which emits at an altitude of approximately 240 km. Previous time resolutions have been 4 min at best, due to the cycle of look directions normally observed. By using 10 s rather than 40 s integration times, and by limiting the number of full cycles in a night, high resolution measurements down to 15 s were achievable. This has allowed the maximum variability of the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and 630.0 nm emission intensities, at approximately 240 km, to be determined as a few minutes. This is a significantly greater variability than the often assumed value of 1 h or more. A Lomb-Scargle analysis of this data has shown evidence of gravity wave activity with waves with short periods. Gravity waves are an important feature of mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT dynamics, observed using many techniques and providing an important mechanism for energy transfer between atmospheric regions. At high latitudes gravity waves may be generated in-situ by localised auroral activity. Short period waves were detected in all four clear nights when this experiment was performed, in 630.0 nm intensities and thermospheric winds and temperatures. Waves with many periodicities were observed, from periods of several hours, down to 14 min. These waves were seen in all parameters over several nights, implying that this variability is a typical property of the thermosphere.

  12. Micro-Mechanical Voltage Tunable Fabry-Perot Filters Formed in (111) Silicon. Degree awarded by Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, James D.

    1997-01-01

    The MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) technology is quickly evolving as a viable means to combine micro-mechanical and micro-optical elements on the same chip. One MEMS technology that has recently gained attention by the research community is the micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot optical filter. A MEMS based Fabry-Perot consists of a vertically integrated structure composed of two mirrors separated by an air gap. Wavelength tuning is achieved by applying a bias between the two mirrors resulting in an attractive electrostatic force which pulls the mirrors closer. In this work, we present a new micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot structure which is simple to fabricate and is integratable with low cost silicon photodetectors and transistors. The structure consists of a movable gold coated oxide cantilever for the top mirror and a stationary Au/Ni plated silicon bottom mirror. The fabrication process is single mask level, self aligned, and requires only one grown or deposited layer. Undercutting of the oxide cantilever is carried out by a combination of RIE and anisotropic KOH etching of the (111) silicon substrate. Metallization of the mirrors is provided by thermal evaporation and electroplating. The optical and electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices were studied and show promissing results. A wavelength shift of 120nm with 53V applied bias was demonstrated by one device geometry using 6.27 micrometer air gap. The finesse of the structure was 2.4. Modulation bandwidths ranging from 91KHz to greater than 920KHz were also observed. Theoretical calculations show that if mirror reflectivity, smoothness, and parallelism are improved, a finesse of 30 is attainable. The predictions also suggest that a reduction of the air gap to 1 micrometer results in an increased wavelength tuning range of 175 nm with a CMOS compatible 4.75V.

  13. Development of Silicon-substrate Based Fabry-Perot Etalons for far-IR Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Gordon

    We propose to design, construct and test silicon-substrate-based (SSB) mirrors necessary for high performance Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) to be used in the 25-40 um mid-IR band. These mirrors will be fabricated from silicon wafers that are anti-reflection coated (ARC) by micromachining an artificial dielectric meta-material on one side, and depositing optimized gold-metalized patterns on the other. Two mirrors with the metalized surfaces facing one-another form the Fabry-Perot cavity, also known as the FPI etalon. The exterior surfaces of the silicon mirrors are anti-reflection coated for both good transmission in the science band, and to prevent unwanted parasitic FPI cavities from forming between the four surfaces (one anti-reflection coated, one metalized for each mirror) of the FPI etalon. The mirrors will be tested within a Miniature Cryogenic Scanning Fabry-Perot (MCSF) that we have designed through support of a previous NASA grant (NNX09AB95G). This design is based on our long experience in constructing and using scanning FPI in the mid-IR to submm range, and fits within test-beds we have on hand that are suitable for both warm and cold tests. The key technologies are the ARC and tuned mirrors that are enabled by silicon nano-machining techniques. The creation of these SSB mirrors promises greatly improved performance over previous versions of mid-IR to submm-band FPIs that are based on mirrors made from free-standing metal mesh stretched over support rings. Performance is improved both structurally and in terms of sensitivity, and is measured as the product of the cavity finesse times transmission. Our electromagnetic modeling suggests that SSB mirrors will improve this product by a factor of 2 over the best free standing mesh etalons available. This translates into a factor of sqrt(2) improvement in sensitivity per etalon, or a full factor of 2 when used in a tandem (dual etalon) FPI spectrometer. The SSB improvements are due to both the stiff (~ 0

  14. Nanoporous Zeolite Thin Film-Based Fiber Intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor for Detection of Dissolved Organics in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Xiao

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A fiber optic intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (IFPI chemical sensor wasdeveloped by fine-polishing a thin layer of polycrystalline nanoporous MFI zeolitesynthesized on the cleaved endface of a single mode fiber. The sensor operated bymonitoring the optical thickness changes of the zeolite thin film caused by the adsorption oforganic molecules into the zeolite channels. The optical thickness of the zeolite thin filmwas measured by white light interferometry. Using methanol, 2-propanol, and toluene as themodel chemicals, it was demonstrated that the zeolite IPFI sensor could detect dissolvedorganics in water with high sensitivity.

  15. Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry-Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Hamid, Ramiz; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    X-ray interferometry is emerging as an important tool for dimensional nanometrology both for sub-nanometre measurement and displacement. It has been used to verify the performance of the next generation of displacement measuring optical interferometers within the European Metrology Research Programme project NANOTRACE. Within this project a more detailed set of comparison measurements between the x-ray interferometer and a dual channel Fabry-Perot optical interferometer (DFPI) have been made to demonstrate the capabilities of both instruments for picometre displacement metrology. The results show good agreement between the two instruments, although some minor differences of less than 5 pm have been observed.

  16. General Method for Calculating the Response and Noise Spectra of Active Fabry-Perot Semiconductor Waveguides With External Optical Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical method for calculating small-signal modulation responses and noise spectra of active Fabry-Perot semiconductor waveguides with external light injection. Small-signal responses due to either a modulation of the pump current or due to an optical amplitude or phase modulatio...... amplifiers and an injection-locked laser. We also demonstrate the applicability of the method to analyze slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides. Finite reflectivities of the facets are found to influence the phase changes of the injected microwave-modulated light....

  17. Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on a glass microsphere glued at the etched end of multimode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiping P.; Wang, Dongning N.; Xu, Ben; Wang, Zhaokun K.; Zhao, Chun-Liu

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate an optical Fabry-Perot interferometer fiber tip sensor based on a glass microsphere glued at the etched end of a multimode fiber. The fiber device is miniature and robust, with a convenient reflection mode of operation, a high temperature sensitivity of 202.6 pm/°C within the range from 5°C to 90°C, a good refractive index sensitivity of ˜119 nm/RIU within the range from 1.331 to 1.38, and a gas pressure sensitivity of 0.19 dB/MPa.

  18. Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with asymmetric fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Xu, Zhi-wei; Wang, Meng; Chen, Hai-yan

    2014-11-01

    A novel dual-wavelength fiber laser with asymmetric fiber Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A couple of uniform FBGs are used as the cavity mirrors, and the third FBG is used as intracavity wavelength selector by changing its operation temperature. Experimental results show that by adjusting the operation temperature of the intracavity wavelength selector, a tunable dual-wavelength laser emission can be achieved. The results demonstrate the new concept of dual-wavelength lasing with asymmetric FBG FP resonator and its technical feasibility.

  19. Some aspects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Damany, Nicole; Vodar, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Some Aspects of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics presents some data on the state of research in vacuum ultraviolet radiation in association with areas of physics. Organized into four parts, this book begins by elucidating the optical properties of solids in the vacuum ultraviolet region (v.u.v.), particularly the specific methods of determination of optical constants in v.u.v., the properties of metals, and those of ionic insulators. Part II deals with molecular spectroscopy, with emphasis on the spectra of diatomic and simple polyatomic molecules, paraffins, and condensed phases. Part III

  20. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of neutral winds and F2 layer variations at the magnetic equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vila

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents some night-time observations of neutral wind variations at F2 layer levels near the dip equator, measured by the Fabry-Perot interferometer set up in 1994 at Korhogo (Ivory Coast, geographic latitude 9.25°N, longitude 355°E, dip latitude –2.5°. Our instrument uses the 630 nm (O1D line to determine radial Doppler velocities of the oxygen atoms between 200 and 400 km altitude. First results for November 1994 to March 1995 reveal persistent eastward flows, and frequent intervals of southward winds of larger than 50 ms–1 velocity. Compared with the simultaneous ionospheric patterns deduced from the three West African equatorial ionosondes at Korhogo, Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso, dip latitude +1.5° and Dakar (Sénégal, dip latitude +5°, they illustrate various impacts of the thermospheric winds on F2 layer density: (1 on the mesoscale evolution (a few 103 km and a few 100 minutes scales and (2 on local fluctuations (hundreds of km and tens of minutes characteristic times. We report on these fluctuations and discuss the opportunity to improve the time-resolution of the Fabry-Perot interferometer at Korhogo.Key words. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionosphere-atmosphere interaction · Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics (General circulation

  1. Optical filter based on Fabry-Perot structure using a suspension of goethite nanoparticles as electro-optic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Samir; Dupont, Laurent; Dozov, Ivan; Davidson, Patrick; Chanéac, Corinne

    2018-02-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of optical tunable filters based on a Fabry-Perot etalon that uses a suspension of goethite (α-FeOOH) nanorods as electro-optic material for application in optical telecommunications in the near IR range. These synthetic nanoparticles have a high optical anisotropy that give rise to a very strong Kerr effect in their colloidal suspensions. Currently, these particles are dispersed in aqueous solvent, with pH2 to ensure the colloidal electrostatic stability. However, the high conductivity of these suspensions requires using high-frequency electric fields (f > 1 MHz), which brings about a high power consumption of the driver. To decrease the field frequency, we have changed the solvent to ethylene glycol which has a lower electrical conductivity than the aqueous solvent. We have built a Fabry-Perot cell, filled with this colloidal suspension in the isotropic phase, and showed that a phase shift of 14 nm can be obtained in a field of 3V/μm. Therefore, the device can operate as a tunable filter. A key advantage of this filter is that it is, by principle, completely insensitive to the polarization of the input light. However, several technological issues still need to be solved, such as ionic contamination of the suspension from the blocking layers, and dielectrophoretic and thermal effects.

  2. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photovoltaic Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Richeng; Ran, Junxue; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ji, Xu; Huang, Feng

    2018-01-23

    Over the past two decades, solar- and astrophysicists and material scientists have been researching and developing new-generation semiconductor-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detectors with low power consumption and small size for replacing traditional heavy and high-energy-consuming microchannel-detection systems, to study the formation and evolution of stars. However, the most desirable semiconductor-based VUV photovoltaic detector capable of achieving zero power consumption has not yet been achieved. With high-crystallinity multistep epitaxial grown AlN as a VUV-absorbing layer for photogenerated carriers and p-type graphene (with unexpected VUV transmittance >96%) as a transparent electrode to collect excited holes, we constructed a heterojunction device with photovoltaic detection for VUV light. The device exhibits an encouraging VUV photoresponse, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) and extremely fast tempera response (80 ns, 10 4 -10 6 times faster than that of the currently reported VUV photoconductive devices). This work has provided an idea for developing zero power consumption and integrated VUV photovoltaic detectors with ultrafast and high-sensitivity VUV detection capability, which not only allows future spacecraft to operate with longer service time and lower launching cost but also ensures an ultrafast evolution of interstellar objects.

  3. Designing, Probing, and Stabilizing Exotic Fabry-Perot Cavities for Studying Strongly Correlated Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryou, Albert

    Synthetic materials made of engineered quasiparticles are a powerful platform for studying manybody physics and strongly correlated systems due to their bottom-up approach to Hamiltonian modeling. Photonic quasiparticles called polaritons are particularly appealing since they inherit fast dynamics from light and strong interaction from matter. This thesis describes the experimental demonstration of cavity Rydberg polaritons, which are composite particles arising from the hybridization of an optical cavity with Rydberg EIT, as well as the tools for probing and stabilizing the cavity. We first describe the design, construction, and testing of a four-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity, whose small waist size on the order of 10 microns is comparable to the Rydberg blockade radius. By achieving strong coupling between the cavity photon and an atomic ensemble undergoing electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we observe the emergence of the dark-state polariton and characterize its single-body properties as well as the single-quantum nonlinearity. We then describe the implementation of a holographic spatial light modulator for exciting different transverse modes of the cavity, an essential tool for studying polariton-polariton scattering. For compensating optical aberrations, we employ a digital micromirror device (DMD), combining beam shaping with adaptive optics to produce diffraction-limited light. We quantitatively measure the purity of the DMD-produced Hermite-Gauss modes and confirm up to 99.2% efficiency. One application of the technique is to create Laguerre-Gauss modes, which have been used to probe synthetic Landau levels for photons in a twisted, nonplanar cavity. Finally, we describe the implementation of an FPGA-based FIR filter for stabilizing the cavity. We digitally cancel the acoustical resonances of the feedback-controlled mechanical system, thereby demonstrating an order-of-magnitude enhancement in the feedback bandwidth from 200 Hz to more than 2 k

  4. Statistical analysis of thermospheric gravity waves from Fabry-Perot Interferometer measurements of atomic oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. K. Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Fabry-Perot Interferometers at KEOPS (Sweden, Sodankylä (Finland, and Svalbard (Norway, have been analysed for gravity wave activity on all the clear nights from 2000 to 2006. A total of 249 nights were available from KEOPS, 133 from Sodankylä and 185 from the Svalbard FPI. A Lomb-Scargle analysis was performed on each of these nights to identify the periods of any wave activity during the night. Comparisons between many nights of data allow the general characteristics of the waves that are present in the high latitude upper thermosphere to be determined. Comparisons were made between the different parameters: the atomic oxygen intensities, the thermospheric winds and temperatures, and for each parameter the distribution of frequencies of the waves was determined. No dependence on the number of waves on geomagnetic activity levels, or position in the solar cycle, was found. All the FPIs have had different detectors at various times, producing different time resolutions of the data, so comparisons between the different years, and between data from different sites, showed how the time resolution determines which waves are observed. In addition to the cutoff due to the Nyquist frequency, poor resolution observations significantly reduce the number of short-period waves (<1 h period that may be detected with confidence. The length of the dataset, which is usually determined by the length of the night, was the main factor influencing the number of long period waves (>5 h detected. Comparisons between the number of gravity waves detected at KEOPS and Sodankylä over all the seasons showed a similar proportion of waves to the number of nights used for both sites, as expected since the two sites are at similar latitudes and therefore locations with respect to the auroral oval, confirming this as a likely source region. Svalbard showed fewer waves with short periods than KEOPS data for a season when both had the same time resolution data

  5. Optimal Design of an Hourglass in-Fiber Air Fabry-Perot Microcavity—Towards Spectral Characteristics and Strain Sensing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An hourglass in-fiber air microcavity Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed in this paper, and its second reflecting surface of in-fiber microcavity is designed to be a concave reflector with the best curvature radius in order to improve the spectral characteristics. Experimental results proved that the extinction ratio of Fabry-Perot interferometer with cavity length of 60 μm and concave reflector radius of 60 μm is higher than for a rectangular Fabry-Perot interferometer with cavity length of 60 μm (14 dB: 11 dB. Theory and numerical simulation results show that the strain sensitivity of sensor can be improved by reducing the microcavity wall thickness and microcavity diameter, and when the in-fiber microcavity length is 40 μm, the microcavity wall thickness is 10 μm, the microcavity diameter is 20 μm, and the curvature radius of reflective surface II is 50 μm, the interference fringe contrast of is greater than 0.97, an Axial-pull sensitivity of 20.46 nm/N and resolution of 1 mN can be achieved in the range of 0–1 N axial tension. The results show that the performance of hourglass in-fiber microcavity interferometer is far superior to that of the traditional Fabry-Perot interferometer.

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of low-finesse extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming

    In this dissertation, detailed and systematic theoretical and experimental study of low-finesse extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) fiber optic sensors together with their signal processing methods for white-light systems are presented. The work aims to provide a better understanding of the operational principle of EFPI fiber optic sensors, and is useful and important in the design, optimization, fabrication and application of single mode fiber(SMF) EFPI (SMF-EFPI) and multimode fiber (MMF) EFPI (MMF-EFPI) sensor systems. The cases for SMF-EFPI and MMF-EFPI sensors are separately considered. In the analysis of SMF-EFPI sensors, the light transmitted in the fiber is approximated by a Gaussian beam and the obtained spectral transfer function of the sensors includes an extra phase shift due to the light coupling in the fiber end-face. This extra phase shift has not been addressed by previous researchers and is of great importance for high accuracy and high resolution signal processing of white-light SMF-EFPI systems. Fringe visibility degradation due to gap-length increase and sensor imperfections is studied. The results indicate that the fringe visibility of a SMF-EFPI sensor is relatively insensitive to the gap-length change and sensor imperfections. Based on the spectral fringe pattern predicated by the theory of SMF-EFPI sensors, a novel curve fitting signal processing method (Type 1 curve-fitting method) is presented for white-light SMF-EFPI sensor systems. Other spectral domain signal processing methods including the wavelength-tracking, the Type 2-3 curve fitting, Fourier transform, and two-point interrogation methods are reviewed and systematically analyzed. Experiments were carried out to compare the performances of these signal processing methods. The results have shown that the Type 1 curve fitting method achieves high accuracy, high resolution, large dynamic range, and the capability of absolute measurement at the same time, while others either

  7. A THz plasmonics perfect absorber and Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangfeng; Bhattarai, Khagendra; Silva, Sinhara; Jeon, Jiyeon; Kim, Junoh; Lee, Sang Jun; Ku, Zahyun

    2016-10-01

    The plasmonic metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA) is a recently developed branch of metamaterial which exhibits nearly unity absorption within certain frequency range.[1-6] The optically thin MPA possesses characteristic features of angular-independence, high Q-factor and strong field localization that have inspired a wide range of applications including electromagnetic wave absorption,[3, 7, 8] spatial[6] and spectral[5] modulation of light,[9] selective thermal emission,[9] thermal detecting[10] and refractive index sensing for gas[11] and liquid[12, 13] targets. In this work, we demonstrate a MPA working at terahertz (THz) regime and characterize it using an ultrafast THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Our study reveal an ultra-thin Fabry-Perot cavity mechanism compared to the impedance matching mechanism widely adopted in previous study [1-6]. Our results also shows higher-order resonances when the cavities length increases. These higher order modes exhibits much larger Q-factor that can benefit potential sensing and imaging applications. [1] C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, "Metamaterial Electromagnetic Wave Absorbers," Advanced Materials, vol. 24, pp. 98-120, Jun 19 2012. [2] M. Hedayati, F. Faupel, and M. Elbahri, "Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber," Materials, vol. 7, pp. 1221-1248, 2014. [3] N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, "Perfect metamaterial absorber," Physical Review Letters, vol. 100, p. 207402, May 23 2008. [4] H. R. Seren, G. R. Keiser, L. Cao, J. Zhang, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, et al., "Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber," Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 2, pp. 1221-1226, 2014. [5] D. Shrekenhamer, J. Montoya, S. Krishna, and W. J. Padilla, "Four-Color Metamaterial Absorber THz Spatial Light Modulator," Advanced Optical Materials, vol. 1, pp. 905-909, 2013. [6] S. Savo, D. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Liquid Crystal Metamaterial Absorber Spatial

  8. A preliminary study of thermosphere and mesosphere wind observed by Fabry-Perot over Kelan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Huang, Cong; Zhao, Guangxin; Mao, Tian; Wang, Yungang; Zeng, Zhongcao; Wang, Jingsong; Xia, Chunliang

    2014-06-01

    A Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) system was deployed in Kelan (38.7°N, 111.6°E), center China in November 2011, which observes the airglows at wavelengths of 892.0 nm, 557.7 nm, and 630.0 nm from OH and OI emissions in the upper atmosphere, to derive the wind and temperature at heights around 87 km, 97 km, and 250 km, respectively. From late 2011 through 2013 a series of more than 4500 measurements at each height are validated according to manufacture data quality criteria. By using these data, the morphology of wind in the mesosphere and thermosphere is investigated in this study. Preliminary results are as follows: (1) As for the diurnal variation, meridional and zonal winds at heights of 87 km and 97 km, which are derived through 892.0 nm and 557.7 nm airglows, usually range from -50 m/s to 30 m/s and -50 m/s to 50 m/s, respectively, with typical random errors of about 6-10 m/s at 87 km and 2-3 m/s at 97 km. Meridional winds usually are northward at dusk, southward at middle night, and back to northward at dawn; and zonal winds usually are eastward at dusk, westward at middle night, and back to eastward at dawn. The monthly mean winds are in good agreement with those of HWM93 results. Meridional and zonal winds at a height of 250 km, which are derived through 630.0 nm nightglow, range from -110 m/s to 80 m/s with typical random errors of about 8-10 m/s. Meridional winds usually are northward at dusk, southward at middle night, and back to northward at dawn; and zonal winds usually are eastward at dusk, zero at middle night, and westward at dawn; and they are also well consistent with HWM93 results. (2) As for the seasonal variation, meridional winds at the heights of 87 km and 97 km have a visible annual variation at 12-17 LT and with a little semiannual variation at all other hours, but the zonal winds at the heights of 87 km and 97 km have a semiannual variation all night. The seasonal dependence of the winds, both meridional and zonal winds, at the height

  9. MEMS Fabry-Perot sensor interrogated by optical system-on-a-chip for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Cheng; Bae, Hyungdae; Gupta, Ashwani; Bryden, Kenneth; Yu, Miao

    2013-09-23

    We present a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based Fabry-Perot (FP) sensor along with an optical system-on-a-chip (SOC) interrogator for simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing. The sensor employs a simple structure with an air-backed silicon membrane cross-axially bonded to a 45° polished optical fiber. This structure renders two cascaded FP cavities, enabling simultaneous pressure and temperature sensing in close proximity along the optical axis. The optical SOC consists of a broadband source, a MEMS FP tunable filter, a photodetector, and the supporting circuitry, serving as a miniature spectrometer for retrieving the two FP cavity lengths. Within the measured pressure and temperature ranges, experimental results demonstrate that the sensor exhibits a good linear response to external pressure and temperature changes.

  10. UW Imaging of Seismic-Physical-Models in Air Using Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Hao, Yongxin; Zhou, Ruixiang; Yin, Xunli; Shao, Zhihua; Liang, Lei; Qiao, Xueguang

    2017-02-17

    A fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) has been proposed and demonstrated for the ultrasound wave (UW) imaging of seismic-physical models. The sensor probe comprises a single mode fiber (SMF) that is inserted into a ceramic tube terminated by an ultra-thin gold film. The probe performs with an excellent UW sensitivity thanks to the nanolayer gold film, and thus is capable of detecting a weak UW in air medium. Furthermore, the compact sensor is a symmetrical structure so that it presents a good directionality in the UW detection. The spectral band-side filter technique is used for UW interrogation. After scanning the models using the sensing probe in air, the two-dimensional (2D) images of four physical models are reconstructed.

  11. Mirror Birefringence in a Fabry-Perot Cavity and the Detection of Vacuum Birefringence in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, T. C. P.; Shao, M.; Redding, D.; Gursel, Y.; Boden, A.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the effect of mirror birefringence in two optical schemes designed to detect the quantum-electrodynamics (QED) predictions of vacuum birefringence under the influence of a strong magnetic field, B. Both schemes make use of a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity (F-P) to increase the average path length of the light in the magnetic field. The first scheme, which we called the frequency scheme, is based on measurement of the beat frequency of two orthogonal polarized laser beams in the cavity. We show that mirror birefringence contributes to the detection uncertainties in first order, resulting in a high susceptibility to small thermal disturbances. We estimate that an unreasonably high thermal stability of 10-9 K is required to resolve the effect to 0.1%. In the second scheme, which we called the polarization rotation scheme, laser polarized at 45 relative to the B field is injected into the cavity.

  12. Parallelised photoacoustic signal acquisition using a Fabry-Perot sensor and a camera-based interrogation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeb Gilani, T.; Villringer, C.; Zhang, E.; Gundlach, H.; Buchmann, J.; Schrader, S.; Laufer, J.

    2018-02-01

    Tomographic photoacoustic (PA) images acquired using a Fabry-Perot (FP) based scanner offer high resolution and image fidelity but can result in long acquisition times due to the need for raster scanning. To reduce the acquisition times, a parallelised camera-based PA signal detection scheme is developed. The scheme is based on using a sCMOScamera and FPI sensors with high homogeneity of optical thickness. PA signals were acquired using the camera-based setup and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was measured. A comparison of the SNR of PA signal detected using 1) a photodiode in a conventional raster scanning detection scheme and 2) a sCMOS camera in parallelised detection scheme is made. The results show that the parallelised interrogation scheme has the potential to provide high speed PA imaging.

  13. Extrinsic optical-fiber ultrasound sensor using a thin polymer film as a low-finesse Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, P. C.; Mills, T. N.

    1996-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of an extrinsic optical-fiber ultrasound sensor are described. The sensor is based on a thin transparent polymer film acting as a low-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity that is mounted at the end of a multimode optical fiber. Performance was found to be comparable with that of a piezoelectric polyvinylidene difluoride-membrane (PVDF) hydrophone with a sensitivity of 61 mV/MPa, an acoustic noise floor of 2.3 KPa over a 25-MHz bandwidth, and a frequency response to 25 MHz. The wideband-sensitive response and design flexibility of the concept suggests that it may find application as an alternative to piezoelectric devices for the detection and measurement of ultrasound.

  14. Non-destructive residual pressure self-measurement method for the sensing chip of optical Fabry-Perot pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Xuezhi; Xiao, Mengnan; Xiao, Hai; Liu, Tiegen

    2017-12-11

    We introduce a simple residual pressure self-measurement method for the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity of optical MEMS pressure sensor. No extra installation is required and the structure of the sensor is unchanged. In the method, the relationship between residual pressure and external pressure under the same diaphragm deflection condition at different temperatures is analyzed by using the deflection formula of the circular plate with clamped edges and the ideal gas law. Based on this, the residual pressure under the flat condition can be obtained by pressure scanning process and calculation process. We carried out the experiment to compare the residual pressures of two batches MEMS sensors fabricated by two kinds of bonding process. The measurement result indicates that our approach is reliable enough for the measurement.

  15. Impact of mode partition noise in free-running gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser for 2-dimensional OCDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chan, Kam

    2004-07-26

    Free-running gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode is an appropriate incoherent broadband optical source for incoherent 2-dimensional optical code division multiple access. However, the mode partition noise (MPN) in the laser seriously degrades performance. We derived a bit error rate (BER) expression in the presence of MPN using the power spectra of the laser. The theory agreed with the experimental results. There was a power penalty and BER floor due to the MPN in the laser. Therefore, this scheme should be operated with a sufficiently large number of modes. At least 9 modes should be used for error-free transmission at 1 Gbit/s for the laser we investigated in this work.

  16. Amplification of the Signal Intensity of Fluorescence-Based Fiber-Optic Biosensors Using a Fabry-Perot Resonator Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chang Hsieh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent biosensors have been widely used in biomedical applications. To amplify the intensity of fluorescence signals, this study developed a novel structure for an evanescent wave fiber-optic biosensor by using a Fabry-Perot resonator structure. An excitation light was coupled into the optical fiber through a laser-drilled hole on the proximal end of the resonator. After entering the resonator, the excitation light was reflected back and forth inside the resonator, thereby amplifying the intensity of the light in the fiber. Subsequently, the light was used to excite the fluorescent molecules in the reactive region of the sensor. The experimental results showed that the biosensor signal was amplified eight-fold when the resonator reflector was formed using a 92% reflective coating. Furthermore, in a simulation, the biosensor signal could be amplified 20-fold by using a 99% reflector.

  17. A new method for multi-channel Fabry-Perot spectroscopy of light pulses in the nanosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behn, R.

    1975-01-01

    The demand for powerful multichannel spectrometers raised, e.g., in laser scattering plasma diagnostics, gave rise to the question if it would not be possible to avoid the light losses occuring in the use of multichannel Fabry-Perot spectrometers. These losses can be avoided with the technique presented here. The reflected light is collected and fed back to the interferometer at a different angle. It can thus be recovered for registration in another spectral channel. This method is particularly suitable for the investigation of short light pulses. A spectrum can thus be scanned step by step with full utilization of the transit time of the light pulse. In addition to light recovery, there is another advantage in that only one detector is used for multichannel analysis, thus eliminating calibration problems. In the annex to the report, emission spectres of different dye laser versions are presented and explained. (orig./GG) [de

  18. GHGSat-D: Greenhouse gas plume imaging and quantification from space using a Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeever, J.; Durak, B. O. A.; Gains, D.; Jervis, D.; Varon, D. J.; Germain, S.; Sloan, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    GHGSat, Inc. has launched the first satellite designed to detect and quantify greenhouse gas emissions from individual industrial sites. Our demonstration satellite GHGSat-D or "CLAIRE" was launched in June 2016. It weighs less than 15 kg and its primary instrument is a miniaturized Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer with spectral resolution on the order of 0.1 nm. The spectral bandpass is 1635-1670 nm, giving the instrument access to absorption bands of both CO2 and CH4. Our system is based on targeted observations rather than global coverage, and our spatial imaging resolution is a key differentiator. Specifically, with a ground sampling distance of effect of the Fabry-Perot resonator and the scrolling scene gives a different spectral sampling of each surface location in every image. While our data processing toolchain does not produce a conventional hyperspectral dataset, it does yield a spectral decomposition of the spatially resolved signal that is compared to a model that includes atmospheric radiative transfer and the instrument's pixel-dependent spectral responsivity. Our presentation will describe the instrument design, concept of operations and retrievals approach. We will also present images and results from GHGSat-D at different processing levels, including high-resolution column density retrievals. An observation of the degassing flux of methane from the outlet of a recently impounded hydroelectric reservoir will be shown as an example. Finally we discuss some performance limitations of GHGSat-D and our plans to overcome them as we update the instrument design for the next satellites.

  19. Simultaneous measure of a spectral line profile and the apparatus function of a Fabry-Perot spectrometer when continuous background is present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, J.M.; Quintanilla, M.; Mar, S.

    1978-01-01

    A deconvolution method of registered profile on a Fabry-Perot spectrometer is developed, when the actual profile of the source is a Voigt pattern together with a continuous background. The reliability and accuracy of the method is tested with theoreticaly simulated profiles. The method is applied both to measure the real line profiles and to find the Fabry-Perot parameters, as a test of its validity on studies of experimental profiles. Both measure types -source profile and apparatus function- are made simultaneously by means of analysis of the variations of registered profile, at 6438.5A Cd line and 6328A He-Ne laser line, varying the optical path between interferometer mirrors. (author) [es

  20. Development of a six channel Fabry-Perot interferometer for continuous measurement of electron temperature of Tokamak plasma. Application to current diffusion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.

    1984-10-01

    It is shown how the properties of the electron cyclotron emission of a tokamak plasma can be used to measure the electron temperature. The design of a six channel Fabry-Perot interferometer is then described. This interferometer allows the measurement of the time evolution of the electron temperature profile of the plasma in the TFR tokamak. Using this technique interesting results have been obtained concerning the current penetration during the start up phase of a tokamak discharge [fr

  1. Passive amplification of a fiber laser in a Fabry-Perot cavity: application to gamma-ray production by Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaye, F.

    2012-01-01

    One of the critical points of the International Linear Collider (ILC) is the polarized positrons source. Without going through further explanation on the physical process of polarized positrons production, we point out that they are produced when circularly polarized gamma rays interact with mater. Thus, the critical point is the circularly polarized gamma-ray source. A technical solution for this source is the Compton backscattering and in the end, this thesis takes place in the framework for the design of a high average power laser systems enslaved to Fabry-Perot cavities for polarized gamma-ray production by Compton backscattering. In the first part, we present this thesis context, the Compton backscattering principle and the choice for an optical architecture based on a fiber laser and a Fabry-Perot cavity. We finish by enumerating several possible applications for Compton backscattering which shows that the work presented here might benefits from technology transfer through others research fields. In the second part, we present the different fiber laser architecture studied as well as the results obtained. In the third part, we remind the operating principle of a Fabry-Perot cavity and present the one used for our experiment as well as its specificities. In the fourth part, we address the Compton backscattering experiment which enables us to present the joint utilization of a fiber laser and a Fabry-Perot cavity in a particles accelerator to generate gamma rays for the first time to our knowledge. This experiment took place in the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The experimental apparatus as well as the results obtained are thus presented. In the end, we summarize the results presented in this manuscript and propose different evolution possibilities for the system in a general conclusion. (author)

  2. Watt-level widely tunable single-mode emission by injection-locking of a multimode Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Paul; Piccardo, Marco; Anand, Sajant; Mejia, Enrique A.; Wang, Yongrui; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Xie, Feng; Lascola, Kevin; Belyanin, Alexey; Capasso, Federico

    2018-02-01

    Free-running Fabry-Perot lasers normally operate in a single-mode regime until the pumping current is increased beyond the single-mode instability threshold, above which they evolve into a multimode state. As a result of this instability, the single-mode operation of these lasers is typically constrained to few percents of their output power range, this being an undesired limitation in spectroscopy applications. In order to expand the span of single-mode operation, we use an optical injection seed generated by an external-cavity single-mode laser source to force the Fabry-Perot quantum cascade laser into a single-mode state in the high current range, where it would otherwise operate in a multimode regime. Utilizing this approach, we achieve single-mode emission at room temperature with a tuning range of 36 cm-1 and stable continuous-wave output power exceeding 1 W at 4.5 μm. Far-field measurements show that a single transverse mode is emitted up to the highest optical power, indicating that the beam properties of the seeded Fabry-Perot laser remain unchanged as compared to free-running operation.

  3. An efficient hexagonal switched beam antenna structure based on Fabry-Perot cavity leaky-wave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymen El Cafsi, Mohamed; Nedil, Mourad; Osman, Lotfi; Gharsallah, Ali

    2015-11-01

    A novel design of switched beam antenna (SBA) system based on Fabry-Perot cavity leaky-wave antenna (FPC LWA) is designed and fabricated for base station operating in the unlicensed ISM central frequency band at 5.8 GHz of the wireless local area network (WLAN) standard. The proposed SBA is designed with hexagonal shape of FPC LWA Arrays in order to get 360° of coverage. The single element of FPC LWA array is composed of a patch antenna and covered by a Partially Reflective Surface (PRS), which is composed of a Metal Strip Grating and printed on a high permittivity Superstrate. First, the Transmission Line Model of FPC LWA is introduced to analyse and calculate the far-field components in E- and H planes by using the Transverse Equivalent Network. This approach is then compared with other full wave's commercial software such as Ansoft HFSS and CST Microwave Studio. Second, a parametric study is performed to evaluate the effect of the angle formed by the two successive FPC LWA on the radiation efficiency of the activate sector. To examine the performance of the proposed SBA, experimental prototype was fabricated and measured. As a result, multiple orthogonal beams (six beams) of 10 dBi of gain with low Side Lobes Level and 360° of coverage are produced. This SBA structure is suitable for WLAN communication systems.

  4. An MRI-Guided Telesurgery System Using a Fabry-Perot Interferometry Force Sensor and a Pneumatic Haptic Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Li, Gang; Patel, Niravkumar; Fischer, Gregory S

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave teleoperation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The slave robot consists of a piezoelectrically actuated 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot for needle placement with an integrated fiber optic force sensor (1-DOF axial force measurement) using the Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle; it is configured to operate inside the bore of the MRI scanner during imaging. By leveraging the advantages of pneumatic and piezoelectric actuation in force and position control respectively, we have designed a pneumatically actuated master robot (haptic device) with strain gauge based force sensing that is configured to operate the slave from within the scanner room during imaging. The slave robot follows the insertion motion of the haptic device while the haptic device displays the needle insertion force as measured by the FPI sensor. Image interference evaluation demonstrates that the telesurgery system presents a signal to noise ratio reduction of less than 17% and less than 1% geometric distortion during simultaneous robot motion and imaging. Teleoperated needle insertion and rotation experiments were performed to reach 10 targets in a soft tissue-mimicking phantom with 0.70 ± 0.35 mm Cartesian space error.

  5. Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection with a single Fabry-Perot cavity: A toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarabrin, Sergey P.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a detuned Fabry-Perot cavity, pumped through both the mirrors, as a toy model of the gravitational-wave (GW) detector partially free from displacement noise of the test masses. It is demonstrated that the noise of cavity mirrors can be eliminated, but the one of lasers and detectors cannot. The isolation of the GW signal from displacement noise of the mirrors is achieved in a proper linear combination of the cavity output signals. The construction of such a linear combination is possible due to the difference between the reflected and transmitted output signals of detuned cavity. We demonstrate that in low-frequency region the obtained displacement-noise-free response signal is much stronger than the f gw 3 -limited sensitivity of displacement-noise-free interferometers recently proposed by S. Kawamura and Y. Chen. However, the loss of the resonant gain in the noise cancelation procedure results is the sensitivity limitation of our toy model by displacement noise of lasers and detectors

  6. Cost-effective optical fiber pressure sensor based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric micro-cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, M. Fátima; Rodriguez, Camilo A.; Martins, Joana; Tavares, Cátia; Marques, Carlos; Alberto, Nélia; André, Paulo; Antunes, Paulo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a cost-effective procedure to manufacture optical fiber pressure sensors is presented. This has a high relevance for integration in robotic exoskeletons or for gait plantar pressure monitoring within the physical rehabilitation scenarios, among other applications. The sensing elements are based on Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) micro-cavities, created from the recycling of optical fibers previously destroyed by the catastrophic fuse effect. To produce the pressure sensors, the fiber containing the FPI micro-cavities was embedded in an epoxy resin cylinder used as pressure transducer and responsible to transfer the pressure applied on its surface to the optical fiber containing the FPI micro-cavity. Before the embedding process, some FPI sensors were also characterized to strain variations. After that, the effect of the encapsulation of the FPI structure into the resin was assessed, from which a slight decrease on the FPI interferogram fringes visibility was verified, indicating a small increase in the micro-cavity length. Up on the sensors characterization, a linear dependence of the wavelength shift with the induced pressure was obtained, which leads to a maximum sensitivity of 59.39 ± 1.7 pm/kPa. Moreover, direct dependence of the pressure sensitivity with the micro-cavity volume and length was found.

  7. Self-generation of optical frequency comb in single section quantum dot Fabry-Perot lasers: a theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Paolo; Columbo, Lorenzo Luigi; Gioannini, Mariangela

    2017-10-16

    Optical Frequency Comb (OFC) generated by semiconductor lasers are currently widely used in the extremely timely field of high capacity optical interconnects and high precision spectroscopy. In the last decade, several experimental evidences of spontaneous OFC generation have been reported in single section Quantum Dot (QD) lasers. Here we provide a physical understanding of these self-organization phenomena by simulating the multi-mode dynamics of a single section Fabry-Perot (FP) QD laser using a Time-Domain Traveling-Wave (TDTW) model that properly accounts for coherent radiation-matter interaction in the semiconductor active medium and includes the carrier grating generated by the optical standing wave pattern in the laser cavity. We show that the latter is the fundamental physical effect at the origin of the multi-mode spectrum appearing just above threshold. A self-mode-locking regime associated with the emission of OFC is achieved for higher bias currents and ascribed to nonlinear phase sensitive effects as Four Wave Mixing (FWM). Our results explain in detail the behaviour observed experimentally by different research groups and in different QD and Quantum Dash (QDash) devices.

  8. High-accuracy vibration sensor based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer with active phase-tracking technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wei; Li, Chuncheng; Hao, Hui; Wang, Yiping; Ni, Xiaoqi; Guo, Dongmei; Wang, Ming

    2018-02-01

    A novel position-sensitive Fabry-Perot interferometer was constructed with direct phase modulation by a built-in electro-optic modulator. Pure sinusoidal phase modulation of the light was produced, and the first harmonic of the interference signal was extracted to dynamically maintain the interferometer phase to the most sensitive point of the interferogram. Therefore, the minute vibration of the object was coded on the variation of the interference signal and could be directly retrieved by the output voltage of a photodetector. The operating principle and the signal processing method for active feedback control of the interference phase have been demonstrated in detail. The developed vibration sensor was calibrated through a high-precision piezo-electric transducer and tested by a nano-positioning stage under a vibration magnitude of 60 nm and a frequency of 300 Hz. The active phase-tracking method of the system provides high immunity against environmental disturbances. Experimental results show that the proposed interferometer can effectively reconstruct tiny vibration waveforms with subnanometer resolution, paving the way for high-accuracy vibration sensing, especially for micro-electro-mechanical systems/nano-electro-mechanical systems and ultrasonic devices.

  9. A high-transmission liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot infrared filter for electrically tunable spectral imaging detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonglun; Xin, Zhaowei; Long, Huabao; Wei, Dong; Dai, Wanwan; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have presented the usefulness of typical liquid-crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) infrared filters for spectral imaging detection. Yet, their infrared transmission performances still remain to improve or even rise. In this paper, we propose a new type of electrically tunable LC-FP infrared filter to solve the problem above. The key component of the device is a FP resonant cavity composed of two parallel plane mirrors, in which the zinc selenide (ZnSe) materials with a very high transmittance in the mid-long-wavelength infrared regions are used as the electrode substrates and a layer of nano-aluminum (Al) film, which is directly contacted with liquid-crystal materials, is chosen to make high reflective mirrors as well as the electrodes. Particularly, it should be noted that the directional layer made up of ployimide (PI) used previously is removed. The experiment results indicate that the filter can reduce the absorption of infrared wave remarkably, and thus highlight a road to effectively improve the infrared transmittance ability.

  10. Use of a Fabry-Perot resonator at millimeter wave frequencies in the determination of thin-film resistivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, S. J.

    1979-08-01

    A novel contact-free method of measuring resistivity of thin semiconducting films on highly conductive substrates is described. The material structure studied is commonly encountered in thin-film solar cell development. The microwave technique that involves using a semiconfocal Fabry-Perot cavity at a wavelength of 3 mm is discussed in detail. The sample consists o a thin film of CdS on a brass substrate and is mounted on the flat reflector of the cavity. Using field perturbation methods, an expression is derived that relates the film resistivity to the cavity quality factor Q. The cavity quality factor is an easily measured parameter and, by comparing measurements of Q with and without the sample mounted, an accurate measure of the resistivity is obtained. Accuracy of measurements and necessary sample constraints are discussed in detail. Three samples of CdS were measured on brass substrates spanning an order of magnitude in resistivity difference. The results of the method described agree with those of another method that involves current voltage measurement after application of a metallic contact. Unlike the latter method, however, the new technique provides a nondestructive way of measuring the resistivity of semiconductor films on conducting substrates and is amenable to automation.

  11. Auroral zone thermospheric dynamics using Fabry-Perot interferometric measurements of the O1 15867 K emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sica, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Forty-four nights of thermospheric neutral wind and temperature measurements were obtained from College, Alaska (65 0 invariant latitude) during solar maximum using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer. When averaged by increasing geomagnetic activity, the wind exhibits two main features. First, the general flow pattern poleward and westward in the evening, changing to southward and eastward in the morning, persists with increasing activity. The flow velocity increases and the change in direction occurs earlier in magnetic local time as the geomagnetic activity increases. Second, as the activity increases, the meridional wind pattern shifts equatorward with the auroral oval. Consequently, the low geomagnetic activity average wind pattern in the north is similar to the moderate activity average pattern in the south. The average thermospheric temperature is governed by the geomagnetic activity and by the previous day's 10.7 cm solar flux. The increase in temperature with solar flux is about the same as with auroral activity (approx. = 225 0 K). The dynamical behavior on individual nights highlights the importance of local auroral substorms, which can cause large deviations from both global models and the observed averages. Coupling between the E and F regions is inferred by comparing the bulk motion of the optical aurora and the observed wind. Westward-drifting auroral forms accompany the westward evening zonal wind

  12. Intra-Tissue Pressure Measurement in Ex Vivo Liver Undergoing Laser Ablation with Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tosi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the first-ever intra-tissue pressure measurement performed during 1064 nm laser ablation (LA of an ex vivo porcine liver. Pressure detection has been performed with a biocompatible, all-glass, temperature-insensitive Extrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometry (EFPI miniature probe; the proposed methodology mimics in-vivo treatment. Four experiments have been performed, positioning the probe at different positions from the laser applicator tip (from 0.5 mm to 5 mm. Pressure levels increase during ablation time, and decrease with distance from applicator tip: the recorded peak parenchymal pressure levels range from 1.9 kPa to 71.6 kPa. Different pressure evolutions have been recorded, as pressure rises earlier in proximity of the tip. The present study is the first investigation of parenchymal pressure detection in liver undergoing LA: the successful detection of intra-tissue pressure may be a key asset for improving LA, as pressure levels have been correlated to scattered recurrences of tumors by different studies.

  13. Measurement of Microvibration by Using Dual-Cavity Fiber Fabry-Perot Interferometer for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hyun Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive researches have recently been performed to study structural integrity using structural vibration data measured by in-structure sensors. A fiber optic sensor is one of candidates for the in-structure sensors because it is low in cost, light in weight, small in size, resistant to EM interference, long in service life, and so forth. Especially, an interferometric fiber optic sensor is very useful to measure vibrations with high resolution and accuracy. In this paper, a dual-cavity fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer was proposed with a phase-compensating algorithm for measuring micro-vibration. The interferometer has structurally two arbitrary cavities; therefore the initial phase difference between two sinusoidal signals induced from the interferometer was also arbitrary. In order to do signal processing including an arc-tangent method, a random value of the initial phase difference is automatically adjusted to the exact 90 degrees in the phase-compensating algorithm part. For the verification of the performance of the interferometer, a simple vibration-test was performed to measure micro-vibration caused by piezoelectric transducer (PZT. As an experimental result, the interferometer attached on the PZT successfully measured the 50 Hz-vibration of which the absolute displacement oscillated between −424 nm and +424 nm.

  14. Fabry-Perot magnonic ballistic coherent transport across ultrathin ferromagnetic lamellar bcc Ni nanostructures between Fe leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, A.; Saim, L.; Tigrine, R.; Ghader, D.

    2018-06-01

    We propose thermodynamically stable systems of ultrathin lamellar bcc Ni nanostructures between bcc Fe leads, sbnd Fe[Ni(n)]Fesbnd , based on the available literature for bcc Ni overlayers on Fe(001) surfaces, and establish the necessary criteria for their structural and ferromagnetic order, for thicknesses n ≤ 6 bcc Ni monatomic layers. The system is globally ferromagnetic. A theoretical model is presented to investigate and understand the ballistic coherent scattering of Fe spin-waves, incident from the leads, at the ferromagnetic bcc Ni nanostructure. The Nisbnd Ni and Nisbnd Fe exchange are computed using the Ising effective field theory (EFT), and the magnetic ground state of the system is constructed in the Heisenberg representation. We compute the spin-wave eigenmodes localized on the bcc Ni nanostructure, using the phase field matching theory (PFMT), illustrating the effects of symmetry breaking on the confinement of localized spin excitations. The reflection and transmission scattering properties of spin-waves incident from the Fe leads, across the embedded Ni nanostructures are investigated within the framework of the same PFMT methodology. A highly refined Fabry-Perot magnonic ballistic coherent transmission spectra is observed for these sbnd Fe[Ni(n)]Fesbnd systems.

  15. Fiber Fabry-Perot Force Sensor with Small Volume and High Performance for Assessing Fretting Damage of Steam Generator Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peijian; Wang, Ning; Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-12-13

    Measuring the radial collision force between the steam generator tube (SGT) and the tube support plate (TSP) is essential to assess the fretting damage of the SGT. In order to measure the radial collision force, a novel miniaturized force sensor based on fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) was designed, and the principle and characteristics of the sensor were analyzed in detail. Then, the F-P force sensor was successfully fabricated and calibrated, and the overall dimensions of the encapsulated fiber F-P sensor were 17 mm × 5 mm × 3 mm (L × W × H). The sensor works well in humid, high pressure (10 MPa), high temperature (350 °C), and vibration (40 kHz) environments. Finally, the F-P force sensors were installed in a 1:1 steam generator test loop, and the radial collision force signals between the SGT and the TSP were obtained. The experiments indicated that the F-P sensor with small volume and high performance could help in assessing the fretting damage of the steam generator tubes.

  16. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scanner. The opto-electronic sensing system design was minimized to fit inside an MRI-compatible robot controller enclosure. A flexure mechanism was designed that integrates the FPI sensor fiber for measuring needle insertion force, and finite element analysis was performed for optimizing the correct force-deformation relationship. The compact, low-cost FPI sensing system was integrated into the robot and calibration was conducted. The root mean square (RMS) error of the calibration among the range of 0–10 Newton was 0.318 Newton comparing to the theoretical model which has been proven sufficient for robot control and teleoperation. PMID:25126153

  17. Wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser by employing a self-made Fabry-Perot filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. P.; Ju, Y. L.; Wu, C. T.; Liu, W.; Yang, C.

    2017-06-01

    In this demonstration, we proposed a novel wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) with a self-made Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter. When the F-P filter was not inserted, the maximum output power of 11.1 W was achieved when the pump power was 70.2 W. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 15.8% and the slope efficiency was 22.1%. When the F-P filter was inserted, the output wavelength could be tuned from 1952.9 to 1934.9 nm with the change of cavity length of F-P filter which was fixed on a piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) controlled by the voltage applied to it. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) was no more than 0.19 nm. Furthermore, the wavelength fluctuations of the tunable fiber laser were kept within  ±0.2 nm.

  18. Cascaded-cavity Fabry-Perot interferometer for simultaneous measurement of temperature and strain with cross-sensitivity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiajun; Jiao, Yuzhu; Ji, Shaobo; Dong, Xiaolong; Yao, Yong

    2018-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a fiber sensor for simultaneous temperature and strain measurements. The proposed sensor is implemented by a cascaded-cavity Fabry-Perot (FP) fiber interferometer. The two cascaded FP cavities comprise a micro-air-cavity in a hollow-core tube fiber and a micro-silica-cavity in a standard single-mode fiber. To separate the interference spectrum of each FP cavity, the total spectrum is filtered in the frequency domain through band-pass filters, whose central frequencies were predesigned based on the relationship between the spatial frequency and free spectral range of each FP cavity. The different cross-sectional areas and thermal-optic coefficients of the two FP cavities confer different sensitivities to temperature and strain. Both parameters were measured simultaneously by tracking the wavelength shifts in the filtered interference spectra of the FP cavities. Moreover, the temperature-strain cross-sensitivity was compensated by solving a sensitivity-coefficient matrix equation for the two cavities, using the calibrated temperatures and strains. Other advantages of the proposed sensor are simple fabrication and an all-fiber structure. Owing to these properties, the proposed sensor is potentially applicable to real sensing applications.

  19. Surface stress sensor based on MEMS Fabry-Perot interferometer with high wavelength selectivity for label-free biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiaki; Hizawa, Takeshi; Misawa, Nobuo; Taki, Miki; Sawada, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a surface stress sensor based on a microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer with high wavelength selectivity by using Au half-mirrors, for highly sensitive label-free biosensing. When the target molecule is adsorbed by the antigen-antibody reaction onto a movable membrane with a thin Au film, which acts as an upper mirror of the optical interferometer, the amount of deflection of the movable membrane deflected by the change in surface stress can be detected with high sensitivity. To improve the signal at the small membrane deflection region of this biosensor resulting in detection of low concentration molecules, by integrating 50 nm-thick Au half-mirrors, the wavelength selectivity of the optical interferometer has been successfully improved 6.6 times. Furthermore, the peak shift in the reflection spectrum due to the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) antigen with a concentration of 10 ng ml-l by the antigen-antibody reaction was spectroscopically measured on the fabricated optical interferometer, and the deflection amount of the movable membrane after 10 min treatment was 2.4 times larger than that of nonspecific adsorption with the avidin molecules. This result indicated that the proposed sensor can be used for selective detection of low-concentration target antigen molecules.

  20. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  1. Room-Temperature Pressure-Induced Optically-Actuated Fabry-Perot Nanomechanical Resonator with Multilayer Graphene Diaphragm in Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated a miniature and in situ ~13-layer graphene nanomechanical resonator by utilizing a simple optical fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P interferometric excitation and detection scheme. The graphene film was transferred onto the endface of a ferrule with a 125-μm inner diameter. In contrast to the pre-tension induced in membrane that increased quality (Q factor to ~18.5 from ~3.23 at room temperature and normal pressure, the limited effects of air damping on resonance behaviors at 10−2 and 105 Pa were demonstrated by characterizing graphene F-P resonators with open and micro-air-gap cavities. Then in terms of optomechanical behaviors of the resonator with an air micro-cavity configuration using a polished ferrule substrate, measured resonance frequencies were increased to the range of 509–542 kHz from several kHz with a maximum Q factor of 16.6 despite the lower Knudsen number ranging from 0.0002 to 0.0006 in damping air over a relative pressure range of 0–199 kPa. However, there was the little dependence of Q on resonance frequency. Note that compared with the inferior F-P cavity length response to applied pressures due to interfacial air leakage, the developed F-P resonator exhibited a consistent fitted pressure sensitivity of 1.18 × 105 kHz3/kPa with a good linearity error of 5.16% in the tested range. These measurements shed light on the pre-stress-dominated pressure-sensitive mechanisms behind air damping in in situ F-P resonant sensors using graphene or other 2D nanomaterials.

  2. Photonic filtering of microwave signals in the frequency range of 0.01-20 GHz using a Fabry-Perot filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo-Rodriguez, G; Zaldivar-Huerta, I E [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE). Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); GarcIa-Juarez, A [Depto. de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON) Hermosillo, Son. Mexico (Mexico); Rodriguez-Asomoza, J [Depto. de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad de las Americas-Puebla (UDLA). San Andres Cholula, Pue. Mexico (Mexico); Larger, L; Courjal, N [Laboratoire d' Optique P. M. Duffieux, UMR 6603 CNRS, Institut des Microtechiques de Franche-Comte, FRW 0067, UFR Sciences et Techniques, Universite de Franche-Comte (UFC), Besancon cedex (France)

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the efficiency of tuning of a photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01 to 20 GHz. The presented work combines the use of a multimode optical source associated with a dispersive optical fiber to obtain the filtering effect. Tunability effect is achieved by the use of a Fabry-Perot filter that allows altering the spectral characteristics of the optical source. Experimental results are validated by means of numerical simulations. The scheme here proposed has a potential application in the field of optical telecommunications.

  3. Time-domain multiplexed high resolution fiber optics strain sensor system based on temporal response of fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiageng; Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan

    2017-09-04

    We developed a multiplexed strain sensor system with high resolution using fiber Fabry-Perot interferometers (FFPI) as sensing elements. The temporal responses of the FFPIs excited by rectangular laser pulses are used to obtain the strain applied on each FFPI. The FFPIs are connected by cascaded couplers and delay fiber rolls for the time-domain multiplexing. A compact optoelectronic system performing closed-loop cyclic interrogation is employed to improve the sensing resolution and the frequency response. In the demonstration experiment, 3-channel strain sensing with resolutions better than 0.1 nε and frequency response higher than 100 Hz is realized.

  4. Polar cap mesosphere wind observations: comparisons of simultaneous measurements with a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a field-widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, G M; Killeen, T L; Wu, Q; Reeves, J M; Hays, P B; Gault, W A; Brown, S; Shepherd, G G

    2000-08-20

    Polar cap mesospheric winds observed with a Fabry-Perot interferometer with a circle-to-line interferometer optical (FPI/CLIO) system have been compared with measurements from a field-widened Michelson interferometer optimized for E-region winds (ERWIN). Both instruments observed the Meinel OH emission emanating from the mesopause region (approximately 86 km) at Resolute Bay, Canada (74.9 degrees N, 94.9 degrees W). This is the first time, to our knowledge, that winds measured simultaneously from a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer and a ground-based Michelson interferometer have been compared at the same location. The FPI/CLIO and ERWIN instruments both have a capability for high temporal resolution (less than 10 min for a full scan in the four cardinal directions and the zenith). Statistical comparisons of hourly mean winds for both instruments by scatterplots show excellent agreement, indicating that the two optical techniques provide equivalent observations of mesopause winds. Small deviations in the measured wind can be ascribed to the different zenith angles used by the two instruments. The combined measurements illustrate the dominance of the 12-h wave in the mesopause winds at Resolute Bay, with additional evidence for strong gravity wave activity with much shorter periods (tens of minutes). Future operations of the two instruments will focus on observation of complementary emissions, providing a unique passive optical capability for the determination of neutral winds in the geomagnetic polar cap at various altitudes near the mesopause.

  5. Initial daytime and nighttime SOFDI observations of thermospheric winds from Fabry-Perot Doppler shift measurements of the 630-nm OI line-shape profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Gerrard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present both night and day thermospheric wind observations made with the Second-generation, Optimized, Fabry-Perot Doppler Imager (SOFDI, a novel triple-etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI designed to make 24-h measurements of thermospheric winds from OI 630-nm emission. These results were obtained from the northeastern United States and from under the magnetic equator at Huancayo, Peru and demonstrate the current instrument capability for measurements of Doppler shifts for either night or day. We found the uncertainties in the measurements agree with expected values based upon forward modeling calculations; nighttime wind components having an uncertainty of ~20-m s−1 at 30-min resolution and daytime wind components having an uncertainty of ~70-m s−1 at 20-min resolution. The nighttime uncertainties are typically larger than those seen with traditional single-etalon FPIs, which occur at the cost of being able to achieve daytime measurements. The thermospheric wind measurements from Huancayo replicate recently reported CHAMP zonal winds and are in disagreement with current empirical wind climatologies. In addition, we discuss the incorporation of how multiple point heads in the SOFDI instrument will allow for unique studies of gravity wave activity in future measurements.

  6. Equatorial thermospheric winds: New results using data from a network of three Fabry-Perot interferometers located in central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Dominquez, L. N.; Milla, M. A.; Chau, J. L.; Makela, J. J.; Fisher, D.

    2013-12-01

    A new observing strategy aimed at improving our understanding of the properties of the equatorial thermosphere wind field, such as the vorticity and divergence, has been developed to generate maps of the thermospheric wind field. Estimates of the neutral wind are obtained from measurements of the Doppler shift of the thermospheric 630.0-nm emission obtained from a sequence of eight evenly spaced azimuthal directions for each of the three Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) observatories located in central Peru (Jicamarca, Nazca, and Arequipa). Measurements towards the zenith and a frequency-stabilized laser reference are also included in each sequence, which takes ~25 minutes to complete. Six of the off-zenith observing directions from the Nazca FPI observatory are used to make common volume (CV) measurements, where two of the FPIs observe the same thermospheric volume with a centroid height of ~250 km at orthogonal angles. These CV positions are located ~225 km north and south of the Nazca FPI observatory. The data obtained during a coordinated observation of the two FPIs observing the same CV location are used to compute estimates of the zonal (u) and meridional (v) wind components. The set of Doppler shifts measured by the three FPIs during a single sequence is used to produce a map of the neutral wind field for that period of time. The construction of this map is based upon the use of a first-order polynomial expansion of the neutral wind field relative to the site coordinates of each FPI location. This expansion includes the first-order gradients of u and v with respect to the zonal (x) and meridional (y) directions. Computation of the best fit in a linear least squares sense of the model expansion parameters to the Doppler shift data for all three sites determines the values of these gradient parameters. Results obtained for mid-winter 2013 show the anti-cyclonic circulation expected near the terminator generated by the day-to-night pressure gradient. Sequences

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5 ′ -monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results

  9. Ag-protein plasmonic architectures for surface plasmon-coupled emission enhancements and Fabry-Perot mode-coupled directional fluorescence emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Patnaik, Sai Gourang; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Reddy, Narendra; Manohar, Chelli Sai; Vedarajan, Raman; Mastumi, Noriyoshi; Belliraj, Siva Kumar; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2017-10-01

    We report the use of silver decorated plant proteins as spacer material for augmented surface plasmon-coupled emission (120-fold enhancement) and plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering. We extracted several proteins from different plant sources [Triticum aestivum (TA), Aegle marmelos (AM), Ricinus communis (RC), Jatropha curcas (JC) and Simarouba glauca (SG)] followed by evaluation of their optical properties and simulations to rationalize observed surface plasmon resonance. Since the properties exhibited by protein thin films is currently gaining research interest, we have also carried out simulation studies with Ag-protein biocomposites as spacer materials in metal-dielectric-metal planar microcavity architecture for guided emission of Fabry-Perot mode-coupled fluorescence.

  10. Effect of small variations in the refractive index of the ambient medium on the spectrum of a bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulchin, Yurii N; Vitrik, O B; Gurbatov, S O

    2011-01-01

    The phase of light propagating through a bent optical fibre is shown to depend on the refractive index of the medium surrounding the fibre cladding when there is resonance coupling between the guided core mode and cladding modes. This shifts the spectral maxima in the bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer. The highest phase and spectral sensitivities achieved with this interferometer configuration are 0.71 and 0.077, respectively, and enable changes in the refractive index of the ambient medium down to 5×10 -6 to be detected. This makes the proposed approach potentially attractive for producing highly stable, precision refractive index sensors capable of solving a wide range of liquid refractometry problems.

  11. Effect of small variations in the refractive index of the ambient medium on the spectrum of a bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulchin, Yurii N; Vitrik, O B; Gurbatov, S O [Institute for Automation and Control Processes, Far-Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-30

    The phase of light propagating through a bent optical fibre is shown to depend on the refractive index of the medium surrounding the fibre cladding when there is resonance coupling between the guided core mode and cladding modes. This shifts the spectral maxima in the bent fibre-optic Fabry - Perot interferometer. The highest phase and spectral sensitivities achieved with this interferometer configuration are 0.71 and 0.077, respectively, and enable changes in the refractive index of the ambient medium down to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} to be detected. This makes the proposed approach potentially attractive for producing highly stable, precision refractive index sensors capable of solving a wide range of liquid refractometry problems.

  12. Ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometry of the terrestrial nightglow with a bare charge-coupled device; Remote field site deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niciejewski, R.; Killeen, T.L.; Turnbull, M.

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) to the study of upper atmosphere thermodynamics has largely been restricted by the very low light levels in the terrestrial airglow as well as the limited range in wavelength of photomultiplier tube (PMT) technology. During the past decade, the development of the scientific grade charge-coupled device (CCD) has progressed to the stage in which the detector has become the logical replacement for the PMT. Small fast microcomputers have made it possible to ''upgrade'' the remote field sites which bare CCDs and not only retain the previous capabilities of the existing FPIs but expand the data coverage in both temporal and wavelength domains. The problems encountered and the solutions applied to the deployment of a bare CCD, with data acquisition and image reduction techniques, are discussed. Sample geophysical data determined from the FPI fringe profiles are shown for stations at Peach Mountain, Michigan, and Watson Lake, Yukon Territory

  13. Simple locking of infrared and ultraviolet diode lasers to a visible laser using a LabVIEW proportional-integral-derivative controller on a Fabry-Perot signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, J M; Wells, J E; Goodman, D S; Smith, W W

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous laser locking of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet lasers to a visible stabilized reference laser is demonstrated via a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. LabVIEW is used to analyze the input, and an internal proportional-integral-derivative algorithm converts the FP signal to an analog locking feedback signal. The locking program stabilized both lasers to a long term stability of better than 9 MHz, with a custom-built IR laser undergoing significant improvement in frequency stabilization. The results of this study demonstrate the viability of a simple, computer-controlled, non-temperature-stabilized FP locking scheme for our applications, laser cooling of Ca(+) ions, and its use in other applications with similar modest frequency stabilization requirements.

  14. Combined incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of frictional heating effects over Millstone Hill during March 7-10, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, M.E.; Sipler, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    The authors introduce a methodology to calculate the effects of frictional heating associated with geomagnetic activity using simultaneous incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Vector measurements of ion drift from radar backscatter and neutral wind from optical shifts in the atomic oxygen red line over Millstone Hill, Massachusetts (43 degree N) for the nights of March 7-10, 1989 are presented and are characterized by the magnetic storm activity which prevailed. They combine these measurements to calculate differences in the ion and neutral velocity fields which approach 350 m/s during the most geomagnetically active period that they monitored near 01 UT on March 9. This velocity difference results in a 110 degree K heating of the ion gas at that time

  15. Analysis and design of tunable wideband microwave photonics phase shifter based on Fabry-Perot cavity and Bragg mirrors in silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Pengfei; Zhou, Jingran; Chen, Weiyou; Li, Fumin; Li, Haibin; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Dong, Wei

    2010-04-20

    We designed a microwave (MW) photonics phase shifter, consisting of a Fabry-Perot filter, a phase modulation region (PMR), and distributed Bragg reflectors, in a silicon-on-insulator rib waveguide. The thermo-optics effect was employed to tune the PMR. It was theoretically demonstrated that the linear MW phase shift of 0-2pi could be achieved by a refractive index variation of 0-9.68x10(-3) in an ultrawideband (about 38?GHz-1.9?THz), and the corresponding tuning resolution was about 6.92 degrees / degrees C. The device had a very compact size. It could be easily integrated in silicon optoelectronic chips and expected to be widely used in the high-frequency MW photonics field.

  16. Precision measurements of gas refractivity by means of a Fabry-Perot interferometer illustrated by the monitoring of radiator refractivity in the DELPHI RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Filippas-Tassos, A; Fokitis, E; Maltezos, S; Patrinos, K

    2002-01-01

    With an updated, flexible, highly efficient and easily installed system we obtained accurate refractivity (n-1) values. This system is a refractometer based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer and was used to monitor the refractivity of DELPHI RICH Cherenkov radiators near the VUV region. By using a Pt-Ne spectral lamp and improved alignment and temperature control, the refractivities of C//5F//1//2 and C//4F//1 //0 have been monitored since 1996. With this light source, selected to have large coherence lengths, we can extract the refractivity at several wavelengths from one data set only. The estimated errors of the refractivity measurements are less than 1.2%, and depend on wavelength and the type of gas used. The various parameters affecting the accuracy of the refractometer are also discussed. Finally, results from special sample refractivity measurements of the liquid radiator (C//6F//1//4) in its gas phase, are presented.

  17. Performance of a Distributed Simultaneous Strain and Temperature Sensor Based on a Fabry-Perot Laser Diode and a Dual-Stage FBG Optical Demultiplexer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinwon Kang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR. By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively.

  18. Performance of a distributed simultaneous strain and temperature sensor based on a Fabry-Perot laser diode and a dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhwan; Kwon, Hyungwoo; Yang, Injae; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-11-12

    A simultaneous strain and temperature measurement method using a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) and a dual-stage fiber Bragg grating (FBG) optical demultiplexer was applied to a distributed sensor system based on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR). By using a Kalman filter, we improved the performance of the FP-LD based OTDR, and decreased the noise using the dual-stage FBG optical demultiplexer. Applying the two developed components to the BOTDR system and using a temperature compensating algorithm, we successfully demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature distributions under various experimental conditions. The observed errors in the temperature and strain measured using the developed sensing system were 0.6 °C and 50 με, and the spatial resolution was 1 m, respectively.

  19. Electron density and temperature study of plasmas using a millimeter-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer; Etude de la densite electronique et de la temperature de plasmas a l'aide d'un interferometre Fabry-Perot en ondes millimetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bize, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The contents of this article, which have been used as a basis for a State doctorate thesis, deal with research into focussing systems of the Fabry-Perot, millimetre wave type. With the help of this equipment, measurements have been made of the electronic density using interferometry in the range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 14} electrons/cm{sup 3}, and of the electron temperature by Thomson diffusion, of plasmas formed by laser ionisation and by high frequency. (author) [French] Le contenu de cet article, qui a fait l'objet d'une these d'Etat, se rapporte a l'etude des systemes focalisant de type Fabry-Perot en ondes millimetriques. A l'aide de ces dispositifs, on mesure la densite electronique par interferometrie dans la gamme de densites de 10{sup 9} a 10{sup 14} e/cm{sup 3} et la temperature electronique par diffusion Thomson de plasmas crees par ionisation laser et par haute frequence. (auteur)

  20. Electron density and temperature study of plasmas using a millimeter-wave Fabry-Perot interferometer; Etude de la densite electronique et de la temperature de plasmas a l'aide d'un interferometre Fabry-Perot en ondes millimetriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bize, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The contents of this article, which have been used as a basis for a State doctorate thesis, deal with research into focussing systems of the Fabry-Perot, millimetre wave type. With the help of this equipment, measurements have been made of the electronic density using interferometry in the range from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 14} electrons/cm{sup 3}, and of the electron temperature by Thomson diffusion, of plasmas formed by laser ionisation and by high frequency. (author) [French] Le contenu de cet article, qui a fait l'objet d'une these d'Etat, se rapporte a l'etude des systemes focalisant de type Fabry-Perot en ondes millimetriques. A l'aide de ces dispositifs, on mesure la densite electronique par interferometrie dans la gamme de densites de 10{sup 9} a 10{sup 14} e/cm{sup 3} et la temperature electronique par diffusion Thomson de plasmas crees par ionisation laser et par haute frequence. (auteur)

  1. Research and investigation of a communication chain on optical fiber with a Fabry-Perot power diode for the automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacis, Irina Bristena; Vasile, Alexandru; Ionescu, Ciprian; Marghescu, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze different power devices - emitters of optical flow, from the point of view of optical coupling, emitted optical powers, optical fiber losses and receiver. The research and characterization of the transmission through a power optical system is done using a computer system specialized for the automotive industry. This system/platform can deliver current pulses that are controlled by a computer through a software (it is possible to set different parameters such as pulse repetition frequency, duty cycle, and current intensity). For the experiments a power Fabry Perot 1035 laser diode operating in pulse with μφ 1055 nm, Ith = 40 mA, and Iop =750 mA was used with a single-mode SFM 128 optical fiber and an EM type optical coupler connected through alignment. Two types of measurements were conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of the experimental structure. In the first case the amplitude of the voltage pulses was measured at the output of an optical detector with receiving diode in a built-in amplifier with a 50 kΩ load resistance. In the second stage measurements were conducted to determine the optical power injected in the optical fiber and received at the reception cell of a power meter. Another parameter of optical coupling that can be measured using the experimental structure is irradiation. This parameter is very important to determine the optimum cutting angle of the fiber for continuity welding.

  2. Mid-latitude thermospheric wind changes during the St. Patrick's Day storm of 2015 observed by two Fabry-Perot interferometers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cong; Xu, Ji-Yao; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Liu, Dan-Dan; Yuan, Wei; Jiang, Guo-Ying

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we utilize thermospheric wind observations by the Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) from the Kelan (KL) station (38.7°N, 111.6°E, Magnetic Latitude: 28.9°N) and the Xinglong (XL) station (40.2°N, 117.4°E, Magnetic Latitude: 30.5°N) in central China during the St. Patrick's Day storm (from Mar. 17 to Mar. 19) of 2015 to analyze thermospheric wind disturbances and compare observations with the Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07). The results reveal that the wind measurements at KL show very similar trends to those at XL. Large enhancements are seen in both the westward and equatorward winds after the severe geomagnetic storm occurred. The westward wind speed increased to a peak value of 75 m/s and the equatorward wind enhanced to a peak value of over 100 m/s. There also exist obvious poleward disturbances in the meridional winds during Mar. 17 to Mar. 19. According to the comparison with HWM07, there exist evident wind speed and temporal differences between FPI-winds and the model outputs in this severe geomagnetic storm. The discrepancies between the observations and HWM07 imply that the empirical model should be used carefully in wind disturbance forecast during large geomagnetic storms and more investigations between measurements and numerical models are necessary in future studies.

  3. Strain and high-temperature discrimination using a Type II fiber Bragg grating and a miniature fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yajun; Yang, Dexing; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Jian; Li, Dong; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-08-10

    A novel method for simultaneous measurement of strain and high temperature using a Type II fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and a miniature fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (MFFPI) is proposed. The MFFPI is produced by fusion splicing a short section of quartz capillary tube with two single-mode fibers, and then it is exposed by a focused femtosecond laser and a phase mask to inscribe a Type II FBG nearby. The reflection spectrum of this sensor is the superposition of the reflection spectrum of the FBG and the interference fringe of the MFFPI. This sensor shows perfect high-temperature and strain responses. Because of the different responses to the uniform variations of strain and temperature, by measuring the reflection peak of FBG and one of the interference dips of the MFFPI, strain and temperature can be simultaneously determined. The resolutions of this particular sensor in measuring strain and temperature are estimated to be ±8.4  μϵ and ±3.3°C, respectively, in the range from 0 to 1122 μϵ and from 23°C to 600°C.

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of crystalline and amorphous benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawes, Anita; Pascual, Natalia; Hoffmann, Soren V.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption study of amorphous benzene with com parisons to annealed crystalline benzene and the gas phase. Vapour deposited benzene layers w ere grow n at 25 K and annealed to 90 K under conditions pertinent to interstellaricy dust grains...

  5. Interferometric filters for spectral discrimination in high-spectral-resolution lidar: performance comparisons between Fabry-Perot interferometer and field-widened Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongtao; Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Yang, Liming; Huang, Hanlu

    2013-11-10

    Thanks to wavelength flexibility, interferometric filters such as Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) and field-widened Michelson interferometers (FWMIs) have shown great convenience for spectrally separating the molecule and aerosol scattering components in the high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) return signal. In this paper, performance comparisons between the FPI and FWMI as a spectroscopic discrimination filter in HSRL are performed. We first present a theoretical method for spectral transmission analysis and quantitative evaluation on the spectral discrimination. Then the process in determining the parameters of the FPI and FWMI for the performance comparisons is described. The influences from the incident field of view (FOV), the cumulative wavefront error induced by practical imperfections, and the frequency locking error on the spectral discrimination performance of the two filters are discussed in detail. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that FPI can produce higher transmittance while the remarkable spectral discrimination is one of the most appealing advantages of FWMI. As a result of the field-widened design, the FWMI still performs well even under the illumination with large FOV while the FPI is only qualified for a small incident angle. The cumulative wavefront error attaches a great effect on the spectral discrimination performance of the interferometric filters. We suggest if a cumulative wavefront error is less than 0.05 waves RMS, it is beneficial to employ the FWMI; otherwise, FPI may be more proper. Although the FWMI shows much more sensitivity to the frequency locking error, it can outperform the FPI given a locking error less than 0.1 GHz is achieved. In summary, the FWMI is very competent in HSRL applications if these practical engineering and control problems can be solved, theoretically. Some other estimations neglected in this paper can also be carried out through the analytical method illustrated herein.

  6. Satellite Atmospheric Radiance Measurements in the Vacuum Ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-05

    APERTURE I I 1_ _~~J ;~- WHEEL MOTOR IDRIVE r~~ II I :_-~I ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~_I ~~APERT URE WHEEL\\ ELLIPSOIDAL PRIMARY MIRROR VV ~ V SUNSHADE V I...Table 1. Vacuum Ultraviolet Backg rounds Sensors (Cont ) P~ iot ometer Interf erence Filters (A) 1216 1340 1550 1750 no f

  7. Study of a high finesse four mirrors Fabry Perot cavity for X-rays and Gamma rays production by laser-electron Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedala, Y.

    2008-10-01

    The main goal of this thesis is the study and design of a high finesse Fabry Perot cavity to amplify a laser beam in order to achieve power gains ranging from 10 4 to 10 5 . This cavity is dedicated to the production of intense and monochromatic X-ray for medical applications (medical RADIOTHOMX ring) and gamma rays for a Compton based polarized positron source by Compton scattering of a high power laser beam and electron beam. To increase the brightness of the Compton interaction at the collision points, it is essential to have not only a high power laser beam but also very small laser beam radii at the interaction points. To achieve such performances, 2 scenarios are possible: a concentric 2 mirrors cavity which is mechanically unstable or a 4 mirrors cavity more complex but more stable. We tested numerically mechanical stability and stability of Eigen modes polarization of various planar and non-planar geometries of 4 mirrors cavities. Experimentally, we have developed a four mirrors tetrahedral 'bow-tie' cavity; radii of the order of 20 microns were made. The Eigen modes of such a cavity, in both planar and non planar geometries, were measured and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement was observed. In a second time, the impact of Compton interaction on the transverse dynamics, in the case of the polarized positrons source, and the longitudinal dynamic, in the case of the medical ring of the electron beam was studied. Compton scattering causes energy loss and induces an additional dispersion of energy in electron beam. For the polarized positrons source, 10 collision points are planned. The transport line has been determined and the modelling of the Compton interaction effect with a simple matrix calculation was made. For the medical ring, Compton scattering causes bunch lengthening and the increase of energy dispersion which are to influence the produced X-ray flux. A study of the longitudinal dynamics of the electron beam in the ring was

  8. The Feasibility of Tropospheric and Total Ozone Determination Using a Fabry-perot Interferometer as a Satellite-based Nadir-viewing Atmospheric Sensor. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larar, Allen Maurice

    1993-01-01

    Monitoring of the global distribution of tropospheric ozone (O3) is desirable for enhanced scientific understanding as well as to potentially lessen the ill-health impacts associated with exposure to elevated concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Such a capability can be achieved using a satellite-based device making high spectral resolution measurements with high signal-to-noise ratios; this would enable observation in the pressure-broadened wings of strong O3 lines while minimizing the impact of undesirable signal contributions associated with, for example, the terrestrial surface, interfering species, and clouds. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) provides high spectral resolution and high throughput capabilities that are essential for this measurement task. Through proper selection of channel spectral regions, the FPI optimized for tropospheric O3 measurements can simultaneously observe a stratospheric component and thus the total O3 column abundance. Decreasing stratospheric O3 concentrations may lead to an increase in biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface, which is detrimental to health. In this research, a conceptual instrument design to achieve the desired measurement has been formulated. This involves a double-etalon fixed-gap series configuration FPI along with an ultra-narrow bandpass filter to achieve single-order operation with an overall spectral resolution of approximately .068 cm(exp -1). A spectral region of about 1 cm(exp -1) wide centered at 1054.73 cm(exp -1) within the strong 9.6 micron ozone infrared band is sampled with 24 spectral channels. Other design characteristics include operation from a nadir-viewing satellite configuration utilizing a 9 inch (diameter) telescope and achieving horizontal spatial resolution with a 50 km nadir footprint. A retrieval technique has been implemented and is demonstrated for a tropical atmosphere possessing enhanced tropospheric ozone amounts. An error analysis

  9. Multi-event study of high-latitude thermospheric wind variations at substorm onset with a Fabry-Perot interferometer at Tromsoe, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Shiokawa, K.; Oyama, S. I.; Otsuka, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We studied the high-latitude thermospheric wind variations near the onset time of isolated substorms. Substorm-related energy input from the magnetosphere to the polar ionosphere modifies the high-latitude ionosphere and thermosphere. For the first time, this study showed the characteristics of high-latitude thermospheric wind variations at the substorm onset. We also investigated the possibility of these wind variations as a potential trigger of substorm onset by modifying the ionospheric current system (Kan, 1993). A Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at Tromsoe, Norway provided wind measurements estimated from Doppler shift of both red-line (630.0 nm for the F region) and green-line (557.7 nm for the E region) emissions of aurora and airglow. We used seven-year data sets obtained from 2009 to 2015 with a time resolution of 13 min. We first identified the onset times of local isolated substorms using ground-based magnetometer data obtained at the Tromsoe and Bear Island stations, which belongs to the IMAGE magnetometer chain. We obtained 4 red-line events and 5 green-line events taken place at different local times. For all these events, the peak locations of westward ionospheric currents identified by the ground-based magnetometer chain were located at the poleward side of Tromsoe. Then, we calculated two weighted averages of wind velocities for 30 min around the onset time and 30 min after the onset time of substorms. We evaluated differences between these two weighted averages to estimate the strength of wind changes. The observed wind changes at these substorm onsets were less than 49 m/s (26 m/s) for red-line (green-line) events, which are much smaller than the typical plasma convection speed. This indicates that the plasma motion caused by substorm-induced thermospheric winds through ion-neutral collisions is a minor effect as the driver of high-latitude plasma convection, as well as the triggering of substorm onset. We discuss possible causes of these

  10. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  11. Experimental studies of self-suppression of vacuum ultraviolet generation in Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judish, J.P.; Allman, S.L.; Garrett, W.R.; Payne, M.G.

    1988-11-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet light in the range 116 nm to 117 nm was produced by using a two-photon resonant four-wave mixing scheme in Xe. The buildup of coherent cancellation of the two-photon resonant transition employed in the generation of the vacuum ultraviolet, with resulting limitations imposed on the achievable vacuum ultraviolet intensity was investigated. Under certain predicted conditions, increases in the intensity of one of the pumping beams, ∼1500 nm infrared, or tuning this beam towards resonance with the 5p 5 7s(3/2) 1 level of Xe led, not to increases, but decreases in the vacuum ultraviolet generated. 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. 3m vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer with optical multichanel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, P.; Peraza, C.; Blanco, F.; Campos, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper, describes the design and the performance of a normal incidence vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, for the 300-2400 A spectral range. It is provided with a multichannel detection system. The monochromator is original design and it has been built at CIEMAT: It is equipped with a 3 m concave holographic grating with 2400 grooves/mm. The multichannel detector consists of a windowless double microchannel plate/phosphor screen image intensifier, coupled by fiber optic to a 1024 elements self-scanning linear photodiode array. The output from the arrays is digitized by a 12-bit analog to digital converter and stored in a computer for its later analysis. The necessary software to store and display data has been developed. (Author)

  13. 3m Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectrometer with Optical Multichannel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Peraza, C.; Blanco, F.; Campos, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the performance of a normal incidence vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, for the 300-2400 A spectral range. It is provided with a multichannel detection system. The monochromator is original design and it has been built at CIEMAT. It is equipped with a 3 m concave holographic grating with 2400 grooves/mm. The multichannel detector consists of a windowless double microchannel plate / phosphor screen image intensifier, coupled by fiber optic to a 1024 elements self-scanning linear photodiode array. The output from the array is digitized by a 12-bit analog to digital converter and stored in a computer, for its later analysis. The necessary software to store and display data has been developed. (Author) 18 refs

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization cross section of the hydroxyl radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Leah G.; Savee, John D.; Gozem, Samer; Shen, Linhan; Krylov, Anna I.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Okumura, Mitchio

    2018-05-01

    The absolute photoionization spectrum of the hydroxyl (OH) radical from 12.513 to 14.213 eV was measured by multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with time-resolved radical kinetics. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation was generated at the Advanced Light Source. OH radicals were generated from the reaction of O(1D) + H2O in a flow reactor in He at 8 Torr. The initial O(1D) concentration, where the atom was formed by pulsed laser photolysis of ozone, was determined from the measured depletion of a known concentration of ozone. Concentrations of OH and O(3P) were obtained by fitting observed time traces with a kinetics model constructed with literature rate coefficients. The absolute cross section of OH was determined to be σ(13.436 eV) = 3.2 ± 1.0 Mb and σ(14.193 eV) = 4.7 ± 1.6 Mb relative to the known cross section for O(3P) at 14.193 eV. The absolute photoionization spectrum was obtained by recording a spectrum at a resolution of 8 meV (50 meV steps) and scaling to the single-energy cross sections. We computed the absolute VUV photoionization spectrum of OH and O(3P) using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster Dyson orbitals and a Coulomb photoelectron wave function and found good agreement with the observed absolute photoionization spectra.

  15. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Fukuyama, T.; Yonehara, R.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Gekko, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have constructed a vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectrophotometer using a synchrotron radiation and an assembled-type MgF 2 cell endurable under a high vacuum, to measure the CD spectra of biomaterials in aqueous solutions from 310 to 140 nm. To avoid the absorption of light by air and water vapor, all optical devices of the spectrophotometer were set up under a high vacuum (10 -4 Pa). A path length of the optical cell can be adjusted by various Teflon spacers in the range from 1.3 to 50 μm and its temperature can be controlled to an accuracy of ±1 deg. C over the range from -30 to 70 deg. C by a temperature-control unit using a Peltier thermoelectric element. The performance of the spectrophotometer and the optical cell constructed was tested by measuring the CD spectra of ammonium d-camphor-10-sulfonate, D- and L-isomers of amino acids, and myoglobin in aqueous solutions. The spectra obtained demonstrate that the optical system and the sample cell constructed operate normally under a high vacuum and provide useful information on the structure of biomolecules based on the higher energy chromophores

  16. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization cross section of the hydroxyl radical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Leah G; Savee, John D; Gozem, Samer; Shen, Linhan; Krylov, Anna I; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Okumura, Mitchio

    2018-05-14

    The absolute photoionization spectrum of the hydroxyl (OH) radical from 12.513 to 14.213 eV was measured by multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry with time-resolved radical kinetics. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation was generated at the Advanced Light Source. OH radicals were generated from the reaction of O( 1 D) + H 2 O in a flow reactor in He at 8 Torr. The initial O( 1 D) concentration, where the atom was formed by pulsed laser photolysis of ozone, was determined from the measured depletion of a known concentration of ozone. Concentrations of OH and O( 3 P) were obtained by fitting observed time traces with a kinetics model constructed with literature rate coefficients. The absolute cross section of OH was determined to be σ(13.436 eV) = 3.2 ± 1.0 Mb and σ(14.193 eV) = 4.7 ± 1.6 Mb relative to the known cross section for O( 3 P) at 14.193 eV. The absolute photoionization spectrum was obtained by recording a spectrum at a resolution of 8 meV (50 meV steps) and scaling to the single-energy cross sections. We computed the absolute VUV photoionization spectrum of OH and O( 3 P) using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster Dyson orbitals and a Coulomb photoelectron wave function and found good agreement with the observed absolute photoionization spectra.

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet spectropolarimeter design for precise polarization measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Auchère, Frédéric; Ishikawa, Ryohko; Kano, Ryouhei; Tsuneta, Saku; Winebarger, Amy R; Kobayashi, Ken

    2015-03-10

    Precise polarization measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region provide a new means for inferring weak magnetic fields in the upper atmosphere of the Sun and stars. We propose a VUV spectropolarimeter design ideally suited for this purpose. This design is proposed and adopted for the NASA-JAXA chromospheric lyman-alpha spectropolarimeter (CLASP), which will record the linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) of the hydrogen Lyman-α line (121.567 nm) profile. The expected degree of polarization is on the order of 0.1%. Our spectropolarimeter has two optically symmetric channels to simultaneously measure orthogonal linear polarization states with a single concave diffraction grating that serves both as the spectral dispersion element and beam splitter. This design has a minimal number of reflective components with a high VUV throughput. Consequently, these design features allow us to minimize the polarization errors caused by possible time variation of the VUV flux during the polarization modulation and by statistical photon noise.

  18. Photoionization capable, extreme and vacuum ultraviolet emission in developing low temperature plasmas in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephens, J.; Fierro, A.; Beeson, S.; Laity, G.; Trienekens, D.; Joshi, R.P.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental observation of photoionization capable extreme ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet emission from nanosecond timescale, developing low temperature plasmas (i.e. streamer discharges) in atmospheric air is presented. Applying short high voltage pulses enabled the observation of the onset of

  19. Examination of Laser Microprobe Vacuum Ultraviolet Ionization Mass Spectrometry with Application to Mapping Mars Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, A. S.; Berger, E. L.; Locke, D. R.; Lewis, E. K.; Moore, J. F.

    2018-04-01

    Laser microprobe of surfaces utilizing a two laser setup whereby the desorption laser threshold is lowered below ionization, and the resulting neutral plume is examined using 157nm Vacuum Ultraviolet laser light for mass spec surface mapping.

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometric study of cyclohexene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Cao, Maoqi; Wei, Bin; Ding, Mengmeng; Shan, Xiaobin; Liu, Fuyi; Sheng, Liusi

    2016-02-01

    In this work, photoionization and dissociation of cyclohexene have been studied by means of coupling a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer with the tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation. The adiabatic ionization energy of cyclohexene as well as the appearance energies of its fragment ions C6 H9 (+) , C6 H7 (+) , C5 H7 (+) , C5 H5 (+) , C4 H6 (+) , C4 H5 (+) , C3 H5 (+) and C3 H3 (+) were derived from the onset of the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves. The optimized structures for the transition states and intermediates on the ground state potential energy surfaces related to photodissociation of cyclohexene were characterized at the ωB97X-D/6-31+g(d,p) level. The coupled cluster method, CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ, was employed to calculate the corresponding energies with the zero-point energy corrections by the ωB97X-D/6-31+g(d,p) approach. Combining experimental and theoretical results, possible formation pathways of the fragment ions were proposed and discussed in detail. The retro-Cope rearrangement was found to play a crucial role in the formation of C4 H6 (+) , C4 H5 (+) and C3 H5 (+) . Intramolecular hydrogen migrations were observed as dominant processes in most of the fragmentation pathways of cyclohexene. The present research provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of cyclohexene in the 8- to 15.5-eV photon energy region. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectrophotometer using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsu, K.; Yonehara, R.; Gekko, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is powerful for analyzing the structure of optically active materials such as biopolymers. However, no commercial CD spectrophotometer is capable of measuring the CD in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region below 190 nm because of technical difficulties involved in the light source, optical device, and sample cell. CD measurements extended to the VUV region can provide more detailed and new information on the structure of biopolymers based on the higher energy transition of chromophores such as hydroxyl and acetal groups. We have constructed a VUVCD spectrophotometer to measure the CD spectra of biomaterials in aqueous solutions in the 310-140 nm wavelength region under a high vacuum, using a small-scale SR source (0.7 GeV) at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center (HiSOR). All optical devices of the spectrophotometer were set up under a high vacuum (10 -6 Torr), to avoid the absorption of light by air and water vapor. The SR light is separated into two orthogonal linearly polarized light beams by a linear polarizer and then modulated to circularly polarized light at 50 kHz by a photo-elastic modulator (PEM). In order to control PEM accurately and to stabilize the lock-in amplifier under a high vacuum, we used the optical servo-control system. Also, an assembled-type MgF 2 cell with a temperature-control unit was constructed using a Peltier thermoelectric element. Its path length can be adjusted by various Tefron spacers in the range from 1.3 to 50 μm and its temperature can be controlled within an accuracy of ± 1 deg C in the range from -30 to 70 deg C. The performance of the spectrophotometer and MgF 2 cell constructed was tested by monitoring the CD spectra of ammonium d-camphor-10-sulfonate (ACS), D- and L-isomers of amino acids. These obtained results demonstrate that the optical system and the sample cell constructed normally operate under a high vacuum to provide useful information on the structure analysis of

  2. Combination of highly nonlinear fiber, an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot filter to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of a supercontinuum continuous-wave optical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yinbo; Huo, Li; Lou, Caiyun

    2005-05-20

    We present a theoretical study of a supercontinuum (SC) continuous-wave (cw) optical source generation in highly nonlinear fiber and its noise properties through numerical simulations based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Fluctuations of pump pulses generate substructures between the longitudinal modes that result in the generation of white noise and then in degradation of coherence and in a decrease of the modulation depths and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). A scheme for improvement of the SNR of a multiwavelength cw optical source based on a SC by use of the combination of a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF), an optical bandpass filter, and a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter is presented. Numerical simulations show that the improvement in modulation depth is relative to the HNLF's length, the 3-dB bandwidth of the optical bandpass filter, and the reflection ratio of the FP filter and that the average improvement in modulation depth is 13.7 dB under specified conditions.

  3. Performance of a high resolution monochromator for the vacuum ultraviolet radiation from the DORIS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saile, V.; Skibowski, M.; Steinmann, W.; Guertler, P.; Koch, E.E.; Kozevnikov, A.

    1976-03-01

    The unique properties of the DORIS storage ring at DESY as a synchrotron radiation source are exploited for high resolution spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet. We describe a new experimental set up with a 3 meter normal incidence monochromator for wavelengths between 3,000 A to 300 A (4 [de

  4. Resonance ionization spectroscopy of argon, krypton, and xenon using vacuum ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.D.

    1984-04-01

    Resonant, single-photon excitation of ground state inert gases requires light in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. This paper discusses methods for generating this light. Efficient schemes for ionizing argon, krypton, and xenon using resonant, stepwise single-photon excitation are presented

  5. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow

  6. Development of high resolution vacuum ultraviolet beam line at Indus-1 synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, R.P.; Das, N.C.; Udupa, D.V.; Saraswathy, P.; Sunanda, K.; Jha, S.N.; Shastri, Aparna; Singh, Paramjeet; Mallick, Manika; Mishra, A.P.; Sahoo, N.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Bhatt, S.; Sahni, V.C.

    2005-07-01

    High resolution vacuum ultraviolet beamline at Indus-1 450 MeV synchrotron source has been developed for carrying out absorption spectral studies of atoms and molecules. The beamline consists of three major parts i.e. a focusing optical system, an absorption cell and a high resolution 6.65 m vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer in Eagle mount. The wavelength range of the spectrometer is from 700 A to 2000 A and the resolution of the spectrometer is 0.01 A. Using the synchrotron source Indus-1, the absorption spectra of oxygen, ammonia and carbon disulphide have been recorded at the wavelength band of 1750 A, 1881 A and 3100 A respectively. Details of different aspects of design and development of the high resolution VUV beamline are described in this report. (author)

  7. Measurements of transition probabilities in the range from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peraza Fernandez, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    In this memory we describe the design, testing and calibration of different spectrometers to measure transition probabilities from the vacuum ultraviolet to the infrared spectral region. For the infrared measurements we have designed and performed a phase sensitive detection system, using an InGaAs photodiode like detector. With this system we have determined the transition probabilities of infrared lines of KrI and XeI. For these lines we haven't found previous measurements. In the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region we have designed a 3 m normal incidence monochromator where we have installed an optical multichannel analyzer. We have tested its accurate working, obtaining the absorption spectrum of KrI. In the visible region we have obtained the emission spectrum of Al using different spectral: hallow-cathode lamp and Nd: YAG laser produced Al plasma. With these spectra we have determined different atomic parameters like transition probabilities and electron temperatures.(author). 83 refs

  8. Design and fabrication of a vacuum ultraviolet monochromator using Seya-Namioka mount

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, G.; Sarma, Y.A.; Meenakshi Raja Rao, P.; Bhattacharya, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The design and fabrication of a one meter vacuum ultraviolet monochromator in the Seya-Namioka mounting is described. The monochromator consists of a concave replica grating (1200 grooves/mm) blazed at 1500 A. The grating rotates about a vertical axis through the center of grating by means of sine drive mechanism. An EMI 6256 photomultiplier coupled with a VUV scintillator, sodium salicylate, is used to detect the radiation. (author)

  9. Calibration technique for radiation measurements in vacuum ultraviolet - soft x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizui, Jun-ichi

    1986-05-01

    This is a collection of the papers presented at the workshop on ''Calibration Technique for Radiation Measurements in Vacuum Ultraviolet - Soft X-ray Region'' held at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, on December 19 - 20, 1985, under the Collaborating Research Program at the Institute. The following topics were discussed at the workshop: the needs for the calibration of plasma diagnostic devices, present status of the calibration technique, use of the Synchrotron Orbit Radiations for radiometry, and others. (author)

  10. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oancea, Cosmin Eugen; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in.......Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as filter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because...... the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same...

  11. Five-beam Fabry-Perot velocimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Goosman, D.G.; Collins, L.F.

    1996-03-04

    Velocimetry is useful in diagnosing many properties of high-explosive (HE) systems. The shock pressure of the detonation wave in HE is often measured by noting the velocity of an interface between the HE and a known material. Properties of the equation of state (EOS) of an explosive can be measured in a cylinder event using a combination of velocimetry and other diagnostics. Point-initiated explosions driving large plates give additional information regarding HE EOS. Hemispherical booster shots give quantitative data pertaining to booster performance. Velocimetry is used routinely to measure the performance of detonators. Velocimetry will be a particularly effective tool in cylinder shots, flat plate, and booster shots to determine the effects of aging on the EOS of explosive components in stockpile devices.

  12. Pseudo-absolute quantitative analysis using gas chromatography – Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy – A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Ling; Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip; Qiu, Changling; McNair, Harold M.; Schug, Kevin A.

    2017-01-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet detector (VUV) is a new non-destructive mass sensitive detector for gas chromatography that continuously and rapidly collects full wavelength range absorption between 120 and 240 nm. In addition to conventional methods of quantification (internal and external standard), gas chromatography - vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy has the potential for pseudo-absolute quantification of analytes based on pre-recorded cross sections (well-defined absorptivity across the 120–240 nm wavelength range recorded by the detector) without the need for traditional calibration. The pseudo-absolute method was used in this research to experimentally evaluate the sources of sample loss and gain associated with sample introduction into a typical gas chromatograph. Standard samples of benzene and natural gas were used to assess precision and accuracy for the analysis of liquid and gaseous samples, respectively, based on the amount of analyte loaded on-column. Results indicate that injection volume, split ratio, and sampling times for splitless analysis can all contribute to inaccurate, yet precise sample introduction. For instance, an autosampler can very reproducibly inject a designated volume, but there are significant systematic errors (here, a consistently larger volume than that designated) in the actual volume introduced. The pseudo-absolute quantification capability of the vacuum ultraviolet detector provides a new means for carrying out system performance checks and potentially for solving challenging quantitative analytical problems. For practical purposes, an internal standardized approach to normalize systematic errors can be used to perform quantitative analysis with the pseudo-absolute method. - Highlights: • Gas chromatography diagnostics and quantification using VUV detector. • Absorption cross-sections for molecules enable pseudo-absolute quantitation. • Injection diagnostics reveal systematic errors in hardware settings. • Internal

  13. Pseudo-absolute quantitative analysis using gas chromatography – Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy – A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Ling [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Smuts, Jonathan; Walsh, Phillip [VUV Analytics, Inc., Cedar Park, TX (United States); Qiu, Changling [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); McNair, Harold M. [Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Schug, Kevin A., E-mail: kschug@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The vacuum ultraviolet detector (VUV) is a new non-destructive mass sensitive detector for gas chromatography that continuously and rapidly collects full wavelength range absorption between 120 and 240 nm. In addition to conventional methods of quantification (internal and external standard), gas chromatography - vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy has the potential for pseudo-absolute quantification of analytes based on pre-recorded cross sections (well-defined absorptivity across the 120–240 nm wavelength range recorded by the detector) without the need for traditional calibration. The pseudo-absolute method was used in this research to experimentally evaluate the sources of sample loss and gain associated with sample introduction into a typical gas chromatograph. Standard samples of benzene and natural gas were used to assess precision and accuracy for the analysis of liquid and gaseous samples, respectively, based on the amount of analyte loaded on-column. Results indicate that injection volume, split ratio, and sampling times for splitless analysis can all contribute to inaccurate, yet precise sample introduction. For instance, an autosampler can very reproducibly inject a designated volume, but there are significant systematic errors (here, a consistently larger volume than that designated) in the actual volume introduced. The pseudo-absolute quantification capability of the vacuum ultraviolet detector provides a new means for carrying out system performance checks and potentially for solving challenging quantitative analytical problems. For practical purposes, an internal standardized approach to normalize systematic errors can be used to perform quantitative analysis with the pseudo-absolute method. - Highlights: • Gas chromatography diagnostics and quantification using VUV detector. • Absorption cross-sections for molecules enable pseudo-absolute quantitation. • Injection diagnostics reveal systematic errors in hardware settings. • Internal

  14. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry

  15. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  16. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: a modular vacuum ultraviolet source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, F Sloan; Anderson, Scott L

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet Ar2*laser pumped by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, Shoichi; Kaku, Masanori; Higashiguchi, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    We observed a small-signal gain of Ar 2 * emission at 126 nm by use of an Ar-filled hollow fiber to guide the ultrashort-pulse high-intensity laser propagation. The small signal gain coefficient was measured to be 0.05 cm -1 at 126 nm. Kinetic analysis revealed that the electrons produced by the high-intensity laser through an optical-field ionization process initiated the Ar 2 * production process. This laser scheme could be combined with high harmonic radiation of the pump laser in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), leading to the production of amplified ultrashort VUV pulses. (author)

  18. Ion pair formation in the vacuum ultraviolet region of NO studied by negative ion imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Kaneyasu, T.; Shigemasa, E.

    2007-01-01

    The pair formation of positive and negative fragment ions has been studied in the vacuum ultraviolet region of NO, with negative ion imaging spectroscopy. The negative ion yield curve obtained in the photon energy region of 19-25 eV exhibits many structures which are absent from the photoabsorption spectrum in the same region. The partial yields and asymmetry parameters associated with the dissociations into individual ion pair limits have been extracted from the negative ion images observed. On the basis of these quantities, the assignments for the structures exhibited on the negative ion yield curve are given and the dynamical properties on the ion pair dissociation are discussed

  19. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism of amino acids as revealed by synchrotron radiation spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Koichi; Matsushima, Yosuke; Fukuyama, Takayuki; Gekko, Kunihiko; Senba, Shinya

    2002-01-01

    We succeeded in constructing a vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectrophotometer with a small-scale synchrotron radiation source (0.7 GeV) at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center (HiSOR). This VUVCD system revealed for the first time the CD spectra of amino acids in aqueous media in the 310-140 nm region under high vacuum. These data, which cannot be observed by any types of existing CD spectrophotometers, now open a new field in the structural analysis of biomaterials on a basis of the higher energy transition of chromophores. (author)

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet emission from argon, krypton, and xenon in a radial-viewed theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engleman, R. Jr.; Thomson, D.B.; Monaghan, D.A.

    1976-03-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet line emission from argon, krypton, and xenon (5 percent in deuterium) has been observed from a plasma (approximately 50 eV and N/sub e/ approximately 10 17 /cm 3 ) produced by the Scyllar linear theta-pinch device. More than 50 emission lines in the 30- to 500-A region have been measured for each gas mixture. Some lines have been identified as due to Ar VII through XI, Kr IX and X, and Xe IX, but many lines remain unassigned

  1. Scalable conditional induction variables (CIV) analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2015-02-01

    Subscripts using induction variables that cannot be expressed as a formula in terms of the enclosing-loop indices appear in the low-level implementation of common programming abstractions such as Alter, or stack operations and pose significant challenges to automatic parallelization. Because the complexity of such induction variables is often due to their conditional evaluation across the iteration space of loops we name them Conditional Induction Variables (CIV). This paper presents a flow-sensitive technique that summarizes both such CIV-based and affine subscripts to program level, using the same representation. Our technique requires no modifications of our dependence tests, which is agnostic to the original shape of the subscripts, and is more powerful than previously reported dependence tests that rely on the pairwise disambiguation of read-write references. We have implemented the CIV analysis in our parallelizing compiler and evaluated its impact on five Fortran benchmarks. We have found that that there are many important loops using CIV subscripts and that our analysis can lead to their scalable parallelization. This in turn has led to the parallelization of the benchmark programs they appear in.

  2. Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectrometry of Antibiotic-Treated Bacterial Biofilms using Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, Gerald L; Takahashi, Lynelle K; Zhou, Jia; Ahmed, Musahid; Moore, Jerry F; Hanley, Luke

    2010-08-04

    Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) with 8.0 ? 12.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation is used to single photon ionize antibiotics andextracellular neutrals that are laser desorbed both neat and from intact bacterial biofilms. Neat antibiotics are optimally detected using 10.5 eV LDPI-MS, but can be ionized using 8.0 eV radiation, in agreement with prior work using 7.87 eV LDPI-MS. Tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation also postionizes laser desorbed neutrals of antibiotics and extracellular material from within intact bacterial biofilms. Different extracellular material is observed by LDPI-MS in response to rifampicin or trimethoprim antibiotic treatment. Once again, 10.5 eV LDPI-MS displays the optimum trade-off between improved sensitivity and minimum fragmentation. Higher energy photons at 12.5 eV produce significant parent ion signal, but fragment intensity and other low mass ions are also enhanced. No matrix is added to enhance desorption, which is performed at peak power densities insufficient to directly produce ions, thus allowing observation of true VUV postionization mass spectra of antibiotic treated biofilms.

  3. Absolute calibration of a hydrogen discharge lamp in the vacuum ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealy, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low-pressure hydrogen discharge lamp was calibrated for radiant intensity in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region on an absolute basis and was employed as a laboratory standard source in spectrograph calibrations. This calibration was accomplished through the use of a standard photodiode detector obtained from the National Bureau of Standards together with onsite measurements of spectral properties of optical components used. The stability of the light source for use in the calibration of vacuum ultraviolet spectrographs and optical systems was investigated and found to be amenable to laboratory applications. The lamp was studied for a range of operating parameters; the results indicate that with appropriate peripheral instrumentation, the light source can be used as a secondary laboratory standard source when operated under preset controlled conditions. Absolute intensity measurements were recorded for the wavelengths 127.7, 158.0, 177.5, and 195.0 nm for a time period of over 1 month, and the measurements were found to be repeatable to within 11 percent.

  4. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations

  5. Simultaneous removal of NO and SO2 using vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV)/heat/peroxymonosulfate (PMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangxian; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian; Pan, Jianfeng; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous removal process of SO 2 and NO from flue gas using vacuum ultraviolet light (VUV)/heat/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) in a VUV spraying reactor was proposed. The key influencing factors, active species, reaction products and mechanism of SO 2 and NO simultaneous removal were investigated. The results show that vacuum ultraviolet light (185 nm) achieves the highest NO removal efficiency and yield of and under the same test conditions. NO removal is enhanced at higher PMS concentration, light intensity and oxygen concentration, and is inhibited at higher NO concentration, SO 2 concentration and solution pH. Solution temperature has a double impact on NO removal. CO 2 concentration has no obvious effect on NO removal. and produced from VUV-activation of PMS play a leading role in NO removal. O 3 and ·O produced from VUV-activation of O 2 also play an important role in NO removal. SO 2 achieves complete removal under all experimental conditions due to its very high solubility in water and good reactivity. The highest simultaneous removal efficiency of SO 2 and NO reaches 100% and 91.3%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metallic Na formation in NaCl crystals with irradiation of electron or vacuum ultraviolet photon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owaki, Shigehiro [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Coll. of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Koyama, Shigeko; Takahashi, Masao; Kamada, Masao; Suzuki, Ryouichi

    1997-03-01

    Metallic Na was formed in NaCl single crystals with irradiation of a variety of radiation sources and analyzed the physical states with several methods. In the case of irradiation of 21 MeV electron pulses to the crystal blocks, the optical absorption and lifetime measurement of positron annihilation indicated appearance of Na clusters inside. Radiation effects of electron beam of 30 keV to the crystals in vacuum showed the appearance of not only metallic Na but atomic one during irradiation with Auger electron spectroscopy. Intense photon fluxes in vacuum ultraviolet region of synchrotron radiation were used as another source and an analyzing method of ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed the metallic Na layered so thick that bulk plasmon can exist. (author)

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet photofragmentation of octadecane: photoionization mass spectrometric and theoretical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Sang, Pengpeng; Zhao, Lianming; Guo, Wenyue; Qi, Fei; Xing, Wei; Yan, Zifeng

    The photoionization and fragmentation of octadecane were investigated with infrared laser desorption/tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (IRLD/VUV PIMS) and theoretical calculations. Mass spectra of octadecane were measured at various photon energies. The fragment ions were gradually detected with the increase of photon energy. The main fragment ions were assigned to radical ions (C n H 2 n +1 + , n  = 4-11) and alkene ions (C n H 2 n + , n  = 5-10). The ionization energy of the precursor and appearance energy of ionic fragments were obtained by measuring the photoionization efficiency spectrum. Possible formation pathways of the fragment ions were discussed with the help of density functional theory calculations.

  8. Correspondence of vacuum ultraviolet aurora image with the inverted-V structure observed by Kyokko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneda, Eisuke; Mukai, Toshifumi; Hirao, Kunio.

    1982-01-01

    Since the Kyokko has been in an orbit with the inclination of 65.3 degree, various patterns of the inverted-V structure can be observed. Correspondence of vacuum ultraviolet aurora image with the inverted-V structure was studied. The energy-time diagrams were obtained. The inverted-V event occurrence map was made. The down-dusk asymmetry was recognized. The patterns of the inverted-V structure observed at present were not much different from previous ones. The observed aurora images showed not only the patterns of aurora, but also the state of aurora spreading in the polar region. Some of the observed results of energy characteristics and the aurora images are shown. (Kato, T.)

  9. High intensity vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet production by noncollinear mixing in laser vaporized media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todt, Michael A.; Albert, Daniel R.; Davis, H. Floyd, E-mail: hfd1@cornell.edu [Baker Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-1301 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    A method is described for generating intense pulsed vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser radiation by resonance enhanced four-wave mixing of commercial pulsed nanosecond lasers in laser vaporized mercury under windowless conditions. By employing noncollinear mixing of the input beams, the need of dispersive elements such as gratings for separating the VUV/XUV from the residual UV and visible beams is eliminated. A number of schemes are described, facilitating access to the 9.9–14.6 eV range. A simple and convenient scheme for generating wavelengths of 125 nm, 112 nm, and 104 nm (10 eV, 11 eV, and 12 eV) using two dye lasers without the need for dye changes is described.

  10. Investigation of the noise effect on tomographic reconstructions for a tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet imaging diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Tingfeng; Ohdachi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Tomographic reconstruction for a tangentially viewing two-dimensional (2D) imaging system is studied. A method to calculate the geometry matrix in 2D tomography is introduced. An algorithm based on a Phillips-Tikhonov (P-T) type regularization method is investigated, and numerical tests using the P-T method are conducted with both tokamak and Heliotron configurations. The numerical tests show that the P-T method is not sensitive to the added noise levels and the emission profiles with higher mode numbers can be reconstructed with adequate resolution. The results indicate that this method is suitable for 2D tomographic reconstruction for a tangentially viewing vacuum ultraviolet telescope system. (author)

  11. Possibility of using sources of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to solve problems of space material science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoutseva, E. T.; Yaremenko, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    An urgent problem in space materials science is simulating the interaction of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) of solar emission with solids in space conditions, that is, producing a light source with a distribution that approximates the distribution of solar energy. Information is presented on the distribution of the energy flux of VUV of solar radiation. Requirements that must be satisfied by the VUV source used for space materials science are formulated, and a critical evaluation is given of the possibilities of using existing sources for space materials science. From this evaluation it was established that none of the sources of VUV satisfies the specific requirements imposed on the simulator of solar radiation. A solution to the problem was found to be in the development of a new type of source based on exciting a supersonic gas jet flowing into vacuum with a sense electron beam. A description of this gas-jet source, along with its spectral and operation characteristics, is presented.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet-induced surface modification of cyclo-olefin polymer substrates for photochemical activation bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Jong; Taniguchi, Yoshinao; Murase, Kuniaki; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    The surface of cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) was treated with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light at 172 nm wavelength to improve the wettability and adhesion properties. Through VUV treatment in air, the terminal groups of the COP surface were oxidized into oxygen functional groups, containing C-O, C=O, and COO components, making the COP surface hydrophilic. The extent of oxygenation was evaluated by XPS and FTIR-ATR spectra, and it was shown that the surface properties, hydrophilicity, and functionalization were dependent on both VUV irradiation distance and irradiation time, which have an effect on the concentration of oxygen functional groups. VUV-light treatment with a short irradiation distance was more effective in introducing oxygen functional groups.

  13. Degradation of quinoline and isoquinoline by vacuum ultraviolet light and mechanism thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dazhang; Ni Yaming; Sun Dongmei; Wang Shilong; Sun Xiaoyu; Yao Side

    2010-01-01

    Since the wavelength is shorter than 190 nm, vacuum ultraviolet light has high energy enough to break the H-O bonds of water to produce HO·, as well as the protection is very easy, degradation of organic contaminants in water by vacuum ultraviolet light has obviously excellent feature of no reagent adding to the wastewater among advanced oxidation technologies. In this paper, it was reported that quinoline and isoquinoline were degraded in water by the irradiation of low-pressure quartz mercury light with the electric power of 200 W which mainly emitted the light of 185 nm and 254 nm. The change regulation of the concentration of substrates, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as well as the degradation processes of quinoline and isoquinoline were compared. It showed that both quinoline and isoquinoline could be degraded very fast under the given conditions. The concentration of the substrates decreased to nearly 0 in 10 minutes while the apparent first reaction rate constants were 0.41 ± 0.02 min -1 and 0.19 ± 0.01 min -1 , respectively. Meanwhile, the COD and TOC decreased to nearly 0 in 30 minutes. Quinoline has the faster degradation rate. In order to investigate mechanism thereof, pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis of quinoline and isoquinoline aqueous solution were performed, respectively. Pulse radiolysis indicated that the reaction rate constant of quinoline and HO· was faster than that of isoquinoline. In the meanwhile, laser flash photolysis indicated that both quinoline and isoquinoline could be ionized by the UV-C light while the photo-ionization efficiency of quinoline was higher than that of quinoline. These two reasons caused the faster degradation rate of quinoline. (authors)

  14. Permanent hydrophilic modification of polypropylene and poly(vinyl alcohol) films by vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, Guilherme Kretzmann [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Charles, German [Centro de Química Aplicada (CEQUIMAP), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Unversidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Strumia, Miriam Cristina [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, IPQA-Conicet, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Weibel, Daniel Eduardo, E-mail: danielw@iq.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Polypropylene and Poly(vinyl alcohol) were surface modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. • The hydrophilicity of the treated films was permanent and resisted aging for several months. • Grafting of styrene monomer was only observed in the VUV irradiated regions. • The obtained results showed the potential in the use of VUV treatment for surface modification and processing of polymers which lack chromophores in the UV region. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) both synthetics polymers but one of them biodegradable, were surface modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. After VUV irradiation in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, the films were exposed to oxygen gas. The treated films were characterized by water contact angle measurements (WCA), optical profilometry, FTIR-ATR, XPS, UPS and NEXAFS techniques. PP and PVA VUV-treated films reached superhydrophilic conditions (WCAs <10°) in about 30 min of irradiation under our experimental conditions. It was observed that when the WCAs reached about 35–40° the hydrophilicity was permanent in both polymers. These results contrasted with typical plasma treatments were a rapid hydrophobic recovery with aging time is usually observed. UPS and XPS data showed the presence of new functionalities on the PP and PVA surfaces that were assigned to COO, C=O, C−O and C=C functional groups. Finally, grafting of styrene (ST) as a typical monomer was tested on PP films. It was confirmed that only in the VUV irradiated region an efficient grafting of ST or polymerized ST was found. Outside the irradiated regions no ST grafted was observed. Our results showed the potential use of VUV treatment for surface modification and processing of polymers which lack chromophores in the UV region.

  15. Synchrotron Vacuum Ultraviolet Light and Soft X-Ray Radiation Effects on Aluminized Teflon FEP Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Gaier, James R.; Jalics, Alice I.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was deployed in low Earth orbit in April 1990, two servicing missions have been conducted to upgrade its scientific capabilities. Minor cracking of second-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) surfaces from multilayer insulation (MLI) was first observed upon close examination of samples with high solar exposure retrieved during the first servicing mission, which was conducted 3.6 years after deployment. During the second HST servicing mission, 6.8 years after deployment, astronaut observations and photographic documentation revealed significant cracks in the Teflon FEP layer of the MLI on both the solar- and anti-solar-facing surfaces of the telescope. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center directed the efforts of the Hubble Space Telescope MLI Failure Review Board, whose goals included identifying the low-Earth-orbit environmental constituent(s) responsible for the cracking and embrittling of Teflon FEP which was observed during the second servicing mission. The NASA Lewis Research Center provided significant support to this effort. Because soft x-ray radiation from solar flares had been considered as a possible cause for the degradation of the mechanical properties of Teflon FEP (ref. 1), the effects of soft xray radiation and vacuum ultraviolet light on Teflon FEP were investigated. In this Lewisled effort, samples of Teflon FEP with a 100-nm layer of vapor-deposited aluminum (VDA) on the backside were exposed to synchrotron radiation of various vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray wavelengths between 18 nm (69 eV) and 0.65 nm (1900 eV). Synchrotron radiation exposures were conducted using the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Samples of FEP/VDA were exposed with the FEP surface facing the synchrotron beam. Doses and fluences were compared with those estimated for the 20-yr Hubble Space Telescope mission.

  16. Effects of plasma and vacuum-ultraviolet exposure on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Guo; J.E. Jakes; S. Banna; Y. Nishi; J.L. Shohet

    2014-01-01

    The effects of plasma exposure and vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on the mechanical properties of low-k porous organosilicate glass (SiCOH) dielectric films were investigated. Nanoindentation measurements were made on SiCOH films before and after exposure to an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma or a monochromatic synchrotron VUV beam, to determine the changes...

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet excited photoluminescence properties of Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhilong; WANG Yuhua; ZHANG Jiachi

    2008-01-01

    The Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ with type-II structure phosphor was successfully synthesized via flux method at 400℃ and their photoluminescence properties in vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region were examined. The broad and strong excitation bands in the range of 153-205 nm owing to the CO32- host absorption and charge transfer (CT) of Gd3+-O2- were observed for Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+. Under 172 nm excitation, Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ exhibited strong red emission with good color purity, indicating Eu3+ ions located at low symmetry sites and the chromaticity coordination of luminescence for Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ was (x=0.652, y=0.345). The photoluminescence quenching concentration of Eu3+ excited by 172 nm for Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ was about 5%. Gd2O2CO3:Eu3+ would be a potential VUV-excited red phosphor applied in mercury-free fluorescent lamps.

  18. Two-color photoionization and photoelectron studies by combining infrared and vacuum ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments of two-color infrared (IR)-vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and VUV-IR photoionization and photoelectron detection schemes for spectroscopic studies are described. By preparing molecules in selected rovibrational states by IR excitation prior to VUV-photoionization, state-selected and state-to-state photoionization cross sections can be obtained by IR-VUV-photoionization efficiency (IR-VUV-PIE) and IR-VUV-pulsed field ionization-photoelectron (IR-VUV-PFI-PE) measurements, respectively. Rotationally resolved autoionizing Rydberg states converging to excited ionic states, which cannot be observed by single-photon VUV-PIE measurements, can be examined by the IR-VUV-PIE scheme. By monitoring the photoion and the PFI-PE intensities at a fixed VUV energy as a function of IR frequency, the respective IR photoion and IR absorption spectra of the corresponding neutral molecule can be measured. Two-color VUV-IR photo-induced Rydberg ionization (PIRI) experiment, in which high-n Rydberg states are prepared by VUV-photoexcitation followed by IR-induced autoionization, has also been demonstrated. Since the IR-VUV-PIE, IR-VUV-PFI-PE, and VUV-IR-PIRI methods do not require the existence of a bound intermediate electronic state in the UV and are generally applicable to all molecules, the development of these two-color photoionization and photoelectron schemes is expected to significantly enhance the scope of VUV spectroscopy and chemistry

  19. Microplasma discharge vacuum ultraviolet photoionization source for atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Joshua M; Gann, Reuben N; Fernández, Facundo M; Orlando, Thomas M

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the first use of an atmospheric pressure microplasma-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization source in atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry applications. The device is a robust, easy-to-operate microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) that enables generation of VUV photons from Ne and Ne/H(2) gas mixtures. Photons were detected by excitation of a microchannel plate detector and by analysis of diagnostic sample ions using a mass spectrometer. Reactive ions, charged particles, and metastables produced in the discharge were blocked from entering the ionization region by means of a lithium fluoride window, and photoionization was performed in a nitrogen-purged environment. By reducing the output pressure of the MHCD, we observed heightened production of higher-energy photons, making the photoionization source more effective. The initial performance of the MHCD VUV source has been evaluated by ionizing model analytes such as acetone, azulene, benzene, dimethylaniline, and glycine, which were introduced in solid or liquid phase. These molecules represent species with both high and low proton affinities, and ionization energies ranging from 7.12 to 9.7 eV.

  20. Probing the diffusion of vacuum ultraviolet ({lambda} = 172 nm) induced oxidants by nanoparticles immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatri, Om P.; Hatanaka, Takeshi; Murase, Kuniaki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugimura, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hiroyuki.sugimura@materials.mbox.media.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-09-30

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, {lambda} = 172 nm) patterning of alkyl monolayer on silicon surface has been demonstrated with emphasis on the diffusion of VUV induced oxygen-derived active species, which are accountable for the pattern broadening. The VUV photons photo-dissociates the atmospheric oxygen and water molecules into the oxygen-derived active species (oxidants). These oxidants photo-oxidize the hexadecyl (HD) monolayer in VUV irradiated regions (Khatri et al., Langmuir. 24 (2008) 12077), as well as the little concentration of oxidants diffuses towards the masked areas. In this study, we performed VUV patterning at a vacuum pressure of 10 Pa to track the diffusion pathways for the oxidants with help of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs; {phi} = 10 nm) immobilization. At VUV irradiated sites AuNPs are found as uniformly distributed, but adjacent to the pattern boundary we observed quasi-linear arrays of AuNPs, which are determined by diffusion pathways of the oxidants. The diffusion of oxidants plays vital role in pattern broadening. The site selective anchoring of AuNPs demonstrates the utility of VUV photons for the construction of functional materials with microstructural architecture.

  1. Identification and deconvolution of carbohydrates with gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Jamie; Nagy, Gabe; Pohl, Nicola L B; Leghissa, Allegra; Smuts, Jonathan; Schug, Kevin A

    2017-09-01

    Methodology for qualitative and quantitative determination of carbohydrates with gas chromatography coupled to vacuum ultraviolet detection (GC-VUV) is presented. Saccharides have been intently studied and are commonly analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), but not always effectively. This can be attributed to their high degree of structural complexity: α/β anomers from their axial/equatorial hydroxyl group positioning at the C1-OH and flexible ring structures that lead to the open chain, five-membered ring furanose, and six-membered ring pyranose configurations. This complexity can result in convoluted chromatograms, ambiguous fragmentation patterns and, ultimately, analyte misidentification. In this study, mono-, di, and tri-saccharides were derivatized by two different methods-permethylation and oximation/pertrimethylsilylation-and analyzed by GC-VUV. These two derivatization methods were then compared for their efficiency, ease of use, and robustness. Permethylation proved to be a useful technique for the analysis of ketopentoses and pharmaceuticals soluble in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the oximation/pertrimethylsilylation method prevailed as the more promising, overall, derivatization method. VUV spectra have been shown to be distinct and allow for efficient differentiation of isomeric species such as ketopentoses and reducing versus non-reducing sugars. In addition to identification, pharmaceutical samples containing several compounds were derivatized and analyzed for their sugar content with the GC-VUV technique to provide data for qualitative analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Bai, Ling; Walsh, Phillip; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 FAMEs, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated types were recorded. Unsaturated FAMEs show significantly different gas phase absorption profiles than saturated ones, and these classes can be easily distinguished with the VUV detector. Another advantage includes differentiating cis/trans-isomeric FAMEs (e.g. oleic acid methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester isomers) and the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV also provides high specificity, sensitivity, and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for fatty acid screening when combined with gas chromatography. The fatty acid profile of several food oil samples (olive, canola, vegetable, corn, sunflower and peanut oils) were analyzed in this study to demonstrate applicability to real world samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High-resolution vacuum-ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of 1-butyne and 2-butyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacovella, U. [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Holland, D. M. P. [STFC, Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Boyé-Péronne, S.; Gans, B. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR 8214, CNRS and Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Archer, L. E. [Synchrotron Soleil, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lucchese, R. R. [Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Xu, H.; Pratt, S. T. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The absolute photoabsorption cross sections of 1- and 2-butyne have been recorded at high resolution by using the vacuum-ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer at the SOLEIL Synchrotron. Both spectra show more resolved structure than previously observed, especially in the case of 2-butyne. In this work, we assess the potential importance of Rydberg states with higher values of orbital angular momentum, l, than are typically observed in photoabsorption experiments from ground state molecules. We show how the character of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in 1- and 2-butyne suggests the potential importance of transitions to such high-l (l = 3 and 4) Rydberg states. Furthermore, we use theoretical calculations of the partial wave composition of the absorption cross section just above the ionization threshold and the principle of continuity of oscillator strength through an ionization threshold to support this conclusion. The new absolute photoabsorption cross sections are discussed in light of these arguments, and the results are consistent with the expectations. This type of argument should be valuable for assessing the potential importance of different Rydberg series when sufficiently accurate direct quantum chemical calculations are difficult, for example, in the n ≥ 5 manifolds of excited states of larger molecules.

  4. Determination of ionization energies of small silicon clusters with vacuum?ultraviolet (VUV) radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostko, Oleg; Leone, Stephen R.; Duncan, Michael A.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2009-09-23

    In this work we report on single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of small silicon clusters (n=1-7) produced via laser ablation of Si. The adiabatic ionization energies (AIE) are extracted from experimental photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves with the help of Frank?Condon simulations, used to interpret the shape and onset of the PIE curves. The obtained AIEs are (all energies are in eV): Si (8.13+-0.05), Si2 (7.92+-0.05), Si3 (8.12+-0.05), Si4 (8.2+-0.1), Si5 (7.96+-0.07), Si6 (7.8+-0.1), and Si7 (7.8+-0.1). Most of the experimental AIE values are in good agreement with ab initio electronic structure calculations. To explain observed deviations between the experimental and theoretical AIEs for Si4 and Si6, a theoretical search of different isomers of these species is performed. Electronic structure calculations aid in the interpretation of the a2PIu state of Si2+ dimer in the PIE spectrum. Time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations are performed to reveal the energies of electronically excited states in the cations for a number of Si clusters.

  5. Internal Energies of Ion-Sputtered Neutral Tryptophan and Thymine Molecules Determined by Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jia; Takahashi, Lynelle; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-03-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization coupled to secondary neutral mass spectrometry (VUV-SNMS) of deposited tryptophan and thymine films are performed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline. The resulting mass spectra show that while the intensity of the VUV-SNMS signal is lower than the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) signal, the mass spectra are significantly simplified in VUV-SNMS. A detailed examination of tryptophan and thymine neutral molecules sputtered by 25 keV Bi3 + indicates that the ion-sputtered parent molecules have ~;;2.5 eV of internal energy. While this internal energy shifts the appearance energy of the photofragment ions for both tryptophan and thymine, it does not change the characteristic photoionizaton efficiency (PIE) curves of thymine versus photon energy. Further analysis of the mass spectral signals indicate that approximately 80 neutral thymine molecules and 400 tryptophan molecules are sputtered per incident Bi3 + ion. The simplified mass spectra and significant characteristic ion contributions to the VUV-SNMS spectra indicate the potential power of the technique for organic molecule surface analysis.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet beamline at the Swiss Light Source for chemical dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Melanie; Bodi, Andras; Schulz, Lothar; Gerber, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A bend-magnet vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) beamline, intended for chemical dynamics studies, was constructed and brought into operation at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) of the Paul Scherrer Institut. The beamline delivers synchrotron radiation in the 5-30 eV photon energy range with a photon flux of 10 11 photons/s at 10 eV and 10 12 photons/s at 20 eV with a resolving power of 2500. The resolving power increases to 10 4 at the cost of photon flux. An in-house designed rare gas filter is used to suppress higher harmonic radiation by a factor of >10 4 , yielding purely monochromatic light in the energy range of 5-21.6 eV. The filter is compact, easy to align, requires a total pumping power of less than 645 l/s and consumes only 3 normal l/h of filter gas. It is located at the end of the beamline, right in front of the experimental endstation. It is usually operated at a higher pressure than the endstation, which offers the additional benefit of protecting the beamline vacuum from sample contamination.

  7. Comparison of direct and alternating current vacuum ultraviolet lamps in atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikkinen, Anu; Haapala, Markus; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten; Kostiainen, Risto; Kauppila, Tiina J

    2012-02-07

    A direct current induced vacuum ultraviolet (dc-VUV) krypton discharge lamp and an alternating current, radio frequency (rf) induced VUV lamp that are essentially similar to lamps in commercial atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion sources were compared. The emission distributions along the diameter of the lamp exit window were measured, and they showed that the beam of the rf lamp is much wider than that of the dc lamp. Thus, the rf lamp has larger efficient ionization area, and it also emits more photons than the dc lamp. The ionization efficiencies of the lamps were compared using identical spray geometries with both lamps in microchip APPI mass spectrometry (μAPPI-MS) and desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (DAPPI-MS). A comprehensive view on the ionization was gained by studying six different μAPPI solvent compositions, five DAPPI spray solvents, and completely solvent-free DAPPI. The observed reactant ions for each solvent composition were very similar with both lamps except for toluene, which showed a higher amount of solvent originating oxidation products with the rf lamp than with the dc lamp in μAPPI. Moreover, the same analyte ions were detected with both lamps, and thus, the ionization mechanisms with both lamps are similar. The rf lamp showed a higher ionization efficiency than the dc lamp in all experiments. The difference between the lamp ionization efficiencies was greatest when high ionization energy (IE) solvent compositions (IEs above 10 eV), i.e., hexane, methanol, and methanol/water, (1:1 v:v) were used. The higher ionization efficiency of the rf lamp is likely due to the larger area of high intensity light emission, and the resulting larger efficient ionization area and higher amount of photons emitted. These result in higher solvent reactant ion production, which in turn enables more efficient analyte ion production. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photoionization and Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Lignin Monomers Coniferyl and Sinapyl Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Zhou, Jia; Kostko, Oleg; Golan, Amir; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-02-09

    The fragmentation mechanisms of monolignols under various energetic processes are studied with jet-cooled thermal desorption molecular beam (TDMB) mass spectrometry (MS), 25 keV Bi3+ secondary ion MS (SIMS), synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet secondary neutral MS (VUV-SNMS) and theoretical methods. Experimental and calculated appearance energies of fragments observed in TDMB MS indicate that the coniferyl alcohol photoionization mass spectra contain the molecular parent and several dissociative photoionization products. Similar results obtained for sinapyl alcohol are also discussed briefly. Ionization energies of 7.60 eV ? 0.05 eV for coniferyl alcohol and<7.4 eV for both sinapyl and dihydrosinapyl alcohols are determined. The positive ion SIMS spectrum of coniferyl alcohol shares few characteristic peaks (m/z = 137 and 151) with the TDMB mass spectra, shows extensive fragmentation, and does not exhibit clear molecular parent signals. VUV-SNMS spectra, on the other hand, are dominated by the parent ion and main fragments also present in the TDMB spectra. Molecular fragmentation in VUV-SNMS spectra can be reduced by increasing the extraction delay time. Some features resembling the SIMS spectra are also observed in the desorbed neutral products. The monolignol VUV-SNMS peaks shared with the TDMB mass spectra suggest that dissociative photoionization of ion-sputtered neutral molecules predominate in the VUV-SNMS mass spectra, despite the extra internal energy imparted in the initial ion impact. The potential applications of these results to imaging mass spectrometry of bio-molecules are discussed.

  9. Two-color visible/vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging dynamics of Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Jürgen; Nicolas, Christophe; Caster, Allison G; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R

    2006-10-07

    An experimental two-color photoionization dynamics study of laser-excited Br2 molecules is presented, combining pulsed visible laser excitation and tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation with photoelectron imaging. The X 1Sigmag + -B 3Pi0+u transition in Br2 is excited at 527 nm corresponding predominantly to excitation of the v' = 28 vibrational level in the B 3Pi0+u state. Tunable VUV undulator radiation in the energy range of 8.40-10.15 eV is subsequently used to ionize the excited molecules to the X 2Pi32,12 state of the ion, and the ionic ground state is probed by photoelectron imaging. Similar experiments are performed using single-photon synchrotron ionization in the photon energy range of 10.75-12.50 eV without any laser excitation. Photoelectron kinetic energy distributions are extracted from the photoelectron images. In the case of two-color photoionization using resonant excitation of the intermediate B 3Pi0+u state, a broad distribution of photoelectron kinetic energies is observed, and in some cases even a bimodal distribution, which depends on the VUV photon energy. In contrast, for single-photon ionization, a single nearly Gaussian-shaped distribution is observed, which shifts to higher energy with photon energy. Simulated spectra based on Franck-Condon factors for the transitions Br2(X 1Sigmag+, v" = 0)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) and Br2(B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) are generated. Comparison of these calculated spectra with the measured images suggests that the differences in the kinetic energy distributions for the two ionization processes reflect the different extensions of the vibrational wave functions in the v" = 0 electronic ground state (X 1Sigmag+) versus the electronically and vibrationally excited state (B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28).

  10. Using the longitudinal space charge instability for generation of vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Schneidmiller

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal space charge (LSC driven microbunching instability in electron beam formation systems of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs is a recently discovered effect hampering beam instrumentation and FEL operation. The instability was observed in different facilities in infrared and visible wavelength ranges. In this paper we propose to use such an instability for generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV and x-ray radiation. A typical longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA consists of few amplification cascades (drift space plus chicane with a short undulator behind the last cascade. If the amplifier starts up from the shot noise, the amplified density modulation has a wide band, on the order of unity. The bandwidth of the radiation within the central cone is given by an inverse number of undulator periods. A wavelength compression could be an attractive option for LSCA since the process is broadband, and a high compression stability is not required. LSCA can be used as a cheap addition to the existing or planned short-wavelength FELs. In particular, it can produce the second color for a pump-probe experiment. It is also possible to generate attosecond pulses in the VUV and x-ray regimes. Some user experiments can profit from a relatively large bandwidth of the radiation, and this is easy to obtain in the LSCA scheme. Finally, since the amplification mechanism is broadband and robust, LSCA can be an interesting alternative to the self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser (SASE FEL in the case of using laser-plasma accelerators as drivers of light sources.

  11. Fourier-transform spectroscopy of HD in the vacuum ultraviolet at λ = 87-112 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, T. I.; Dickenson, G. D.; Roudjane, M.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L.; Tchang-Brillet, W.-Ü. L.; Ubachs, W.

    2010-03-01

    Absorption spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) domain was performed on the hydrogen-deuteride molecule with a novel Fourier-transform spectrometer based upon wavefront division interferometry. This unique instrument, which is a permanent endstation of the undulator-based beamline DESIRS on the synchrotron SOLEIL facility, opens the way to Fourier-transform spectroscopy in the VUV range. The HD spectral lines in the Lyman and Werner bands were recorded in the 87-112 nm range from a quasi-static gas sample in a windowless configuration and with a Doppler-limited resolution. Line positions of some 268 transitions in the ? Lyman bands and 141 transitions in the ? Werner bands were deduced with uncertainties of 0.04 cm-1 (1σ) which correspond to Δλ/λ ∼ 4 × 10-7. This extensive laboratory database is of relevance for comparison with astronomical observations of H2 and HD spectra from highly redshifted objects, with the goal of extracting a possible variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio (μ = m p /m e ) on a cosmological time scale. For this reason also calculations of the so-called sensitivity coefficients K i were performed in order to allow for deducing constraints on Δμ/μ. The K i coefficients, associated with the line shift that each spectral line undergoes as a result of a varying value for μ, were derived from calculations as a function of μ solving the Schrödinger equation using ab initio potentials.

  12. Recurrent mass ejections observed in H-alpha and CIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, B.; Simon, G.

    1984-01-01

    Time sequences of recurrent mass ejections have been observed during a coordinated SMY program (Sept. 1, 1980 - Sept. 23, 1980 - Oct. 2, 1980). Comparison of the temporal evolution of H-alpha and CIV brightnesses shows a weak phase lag between H-alpha and CIV maxima, in the case of homologous flares, with CIV brightness maxima preceding H-alpha maxima. The analysis of the variation of the ejection velocities is expected to lead to the determination of an energy balance. Such recurrent ejections could be due to periodic energy storage and periodic reorganization of magnetic field as envisaged to occur for flares, but at lower energy levels

  13. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry spectra and structural properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O.sub.3./sub. films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Chvostová, Dagmar; Kousal, J.; Železný, Vladimír; Lynnyková, Anna; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Gerlach, G.; Dejneka, Alexandr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 519, č. 9 (2011), s. 2885-2888 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA ČR GA202/08/1009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : PZT film * vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry * film structure * optical properties Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.890, year: 2011

  15. Study of higher hydrocarbon production during ethylacetylene pyrolysis using laser-generated vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.; Pfefferle, L. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA))

    1990-04-19

    Higher hydrocarbon formation during the pyrolysis of ethylacetylene in a microjet reactor was studied by vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. At the wavelength employed, this ionization technique allows for the simultaneous detection of both stable and intermediate polyatomic species with ionization potentials below 10.49 eV, including most hydrocarbons with two or more carbon atoms. Minimal fragmentation simplifies the determination of parent species and allows identification of probable reaction pathways involving hydrocarbon radicals as well as stable species. The pyrolysis of ethylacetylene was carried out in the fast-flow microjet reactor (residence times 1-2 ms) at temperatures from 300 to 1,600 K.

  16. Gas phase radiolysis and vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of heterocyclic organic compounds. Progress report, February 1, 1974--February 1, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, A.A.; Salomon, D.; Colon, I.; D'Angona, J.

    1975-01-01

    In the γ radiolysis of tetrahydrofuran there are pronounced density effects in the pressure range from 0 to 50 Torr with the most important ion-pair yields decreasing as the pressure increases. The relative product yields of the radiolysis is compared with that of xenon photolysis. Possible mechanisms to explain the results obtained are discussed. The ion-pair yields from the γ radiolysis of the heterocyclic amines, ethylenimine, azetidine, pyrrolidine, and piperidine, are determined, and the pressure effects are evaluated. Reactions mechanisms are discussed. The vacuum ultraviolet photolysis products of thietane and tetrahydrothiophene are studied and compared with the γ radiolysis products. Reaction mechanisms are discussed. The status of the construction of a photoionization mass spectrometer and the measurement of the ionization efficiencies and extinction coefficients of organic compounds is reported. (U.S.)

  17. Luminescence of Ce3+ at two different sites in ?-Sr2P2O7 under vacuum ultraviolet-UV and x-ray excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, D.; Han, B.; Chen, W.; Liang, H.; Su, Q.; Dorenbos, P.; Huang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Tao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    A series of Ce3+ doped ?-Sr2?2xCexNaxP2O7 phosphor compounds has been prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. The luminescence properties under vacuum ultraviolet-UV and x-ray excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra reveal three UV-emitting peaks at about 310, 330,

  18. Occurrence and Global Properties of Narrow CIV lambda 1549 Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    A statistical study is presented of (a) the frequency of narrow CIV lambda 1549 absorption lines in 1.5 ~50%) of narrow CIV absorbers is detected for the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars, and a constant ~25% of all the quasars, irrespective of radio type display associated CIV absorbers stronger...

  19. Fabry-Perot MEMS Accelerometers for Advanced Seismic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisum, Brad [Lumedyne Technologies Incorporated, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-05-31

    This report summarizes the technical achievements that occurred over the duration of the project. On November 14th, 2014, Lumedyne Technologies Incorporated was acquired. As a result of the acquisition, the work toward seismic imaging applications was suspended indefinitely. This report captures the progress achieved up to that time.

  20. Diamond-based Fabry-Perot microcavities for quantum networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, S.

    2017-01-01

    A quantumnetwork would allow the distribution of a quantum state over many spatially separated quantum nodes which individually possess the ability to generate, process and store quantum information. Connecting these nodes through quantum communication channels would enable sending quantum

  1. Measurements of Schottky barrier at the low-k SiOC:H/Cu interface using vacuum ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Zheng, H.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, S. W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Lin, Y.-H.; Fung, H.-S.; Chen, C.-C. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Nishi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    The band alignment between copper interconnects and their low-k interlayer dielectrics is critical to understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in electrical leakage in low-k/Cu interconnects. In this work, vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoemission spectroscopy is utilized to determine the potential of the Schottky barrier present at low-k a-SiOC:H/Cu interfaces. By examining the photoemission spectra before and after VUV exposure of a low-k a-SiOC:H (k = 3.3) thin film fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition on a polished Cu substrate, it was found that photons with energies of 4.9 eV or greater can deplete accumulated charge in a-SiOC:H films, while VUV photons with energies of 4.7 eV or less, did not have this effect. These critical values were identified to relate the electric potential of the interface barrier between the a-SiOC:H and the Cu layers. Using this method, the Schottky barrier at the low-k a-SiOC:H (k = 3.3)/Cu interface was determined to be 4.8 ± 0.1 eV.

  2. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, Leon; Cremers, David A.; Benelli, Katharine; Khoo, Cynthia; Harris, Ronny D.

    2005-01-01

    Several elements important to planetary geology (e.g. Br, C, Cl, P, S) and the human exploration of Mars (e.g. toxic elements such as As) have strong emission lines in the purge and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region (100-200 nm). This spectral region has not been extensively studied for space applications using geological samples. We studied emissions from the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma in this region using a sample chamber filled with 7 torr (930 Pa) of CO 2 to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Pressures down to 0.02 torr were also used to evaluate the effect of the residual CO 2 on the spectra and to begin investigating the use of VUV-LIBS for airless bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. Spectra were recorded using a 0.3-m vacuum spectrometer with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The effects of time delay and laser energy on LIBS detection at reduced pressure were examined. The effect of ambient CO 2 on the detection of C in soil was also evaluated. Lines useful for the spectrochemical analysis of As, Br, C, Cl, P, and S were determined and calibration curves were prepared for these elements. Although LIBS is being developed for stand-off analysis at many meters distance, the experiments reported here were aimed at in-situ (close-up) analysis

  3. Improved Resolution of Hydrocarbon Structures and Constitutional Isomers in Complex Mixtures Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacman, Gabriel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilson, Kevin R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chan, Arthur W. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Worton, David R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Aerosol Dynamics Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Kimmel, Joel R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Nah, Theodora [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hohaus, Thorsten [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Gonin, Marc [Tofwerk AG, Thun (Switzerland); Kroll, Jesse H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Worsnop, Douglas R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Goldstein, Allen H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. In this study, we use vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally “unresolved complex mixture” by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved on the basis of tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. Lastly, the classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron measurements of excitons in NaMgF{sub 3}:Yb{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes-Currie, Rosa B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Ivanovskikh, Konstantin V. [ANK Service Ltd., PB 58, Novouralsk 624131, Sverdlovsk Region (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 19 Mira st., Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Reid, Michael F., E-mail: mike.reid@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Wells, Jon-Paul R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Dodd-Walls Centre for Quantum and Photonic Technologies (New Zealand); Reeves, Roger J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, PB 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology (New Zealand); Meijerink, Andries [Debye Institute, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80 000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-01-15

    Results of a vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopic characterization of NaMgF{sub 3}:Yb{sup 2+} are presented. The material demonstrates emission features associated with self-trapped excitons and impurity-trapped excitons. The emission features noticeably overlap giving rise to a broad emission band from 17 000 to 35 000 cm{sup −1} at a sample temperature of 8 K. To identify the true profiles of the emission features we have used a deconvolution procedure. The deconvolution was possible due to the thermal quenching of self-trapped excitons at room temperature that allowed for direct observations of the impurity trapped exciton emission band. Energy transfer between host electronic excitations (excitons and e–h pairs) and Yb{sup 2+} ions leading to the formation of impurity-trapped excitons is evident from excitation spectra. - Highlights: • We present VUV emission and excitation spectra of NaMgF{sub 3}:Yb{sup 2+}. • Formation of free excitons leads to emission from intrinsic and extrinsic excitons. • We deconvolute the emission to separate the two overlapping exciton bands. • The excitation spectra show two mechanisms for forming impurity-trapped excitons.

  5. Photocatalytic pretreatment of oily wastewater from the restaurant by a vacuum ultraviolet/TiO2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Jianxiong; Lu Lu; Zhan Wei; Li Bo; Li Daosheng; Ren Yongzheng; Liu Dongqi

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating the performance of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 185 nm) and TiO 2 oxidation system for the pretreatment of oily wastewater from restaurant. The influence of irradiation time, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the dosage of TiO 2 and the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration on COD removal efficiency was ascertained and optimum process conditions for stable and effective operation were determined. Under the optimum conditions of irradiation 10 min, initial COD 3981 mg/L, TiO 2 150 mg/L, pH 7.0 and flow rate of air 40 L/h, the process of VUV and TiO 2 /VUV achieved removal efficiencies of COD, BOD 5 and oil as 50 ± 3%, 37 ± 2%, 86 ± 3%, and 63 ± 3%, 43 ± 2%, 70 ± 3%, respectively. The biodegradability factor f B of the wastewater was determined as 1.56 which indicated that the VUV/TiO 2 process improved the biodegradability of the oily wastewater significantly. Results clearly indicate that VUV/TiO 2 photolysis tends to destruct parts of COD, BOD 5 , and ammonia, as well as enhances the biodegradability of the oily wastewater simultaneously. Thus, this technique could be used as a pretreatment step for conventional biological treatment of oily wastewater.

  6. Spectrograms of the JT-60 plasmas in the vacuum ultraviolet region (wavelength region 15 ∼ 1360 A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Hirotaka; Sugie, Tatsuo; Sakasai, Akira; Koide, Yoshihiko; Nishino, Nobuhiro; Akaoka, Nobuo

    1988-07-01

    Spectrograms in the vacuum ultraviolet region have been obtained by a 3 m grazing incidence spectrograph in order to study impurity behaviors in JT-60 plasma. The spectrograms have been investigated in the first OH experiments, High-Ti mode experiments, and the experiments that were carried out after the replacement of 40 % of the first wall of the vacuum vessel with graphite tiles. In the first OH experiments, the spectrogram which covered the wavelength region of 15 ∼ 1360 A was obtained, and spectral lines of oxygen, carbon, and titanium were identified. In High-Ti mode experiments, the spectrogram which covered the wavelength region of 17 ∼ 77 A was obtained, and spectral lines of highly ionized molybdenum were identified in addition to those of oxygen, carbon, and titanium. In the experiments after the replacement of the first wall, the spectrogram which covered the wavelength region of 15 ∼ 55 A was obtained, and it was found clearly that the metallic impurities decreased. (author)

  7. Measurements of the intrinsic quantum efficiency and absorption length of tetraphenyl butadiene thin films in the vacuum ultraviolet regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Christopher; Gann, Gabriel Orebi; Gehman, Victor

    2018-04-01

    A key enabling technology for many liquid noble gas (LNG) detectors is the use of the common wavelength shifting medium tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB). TPB thin films are used to shift ultraviolet scintillation light into the visible spectrum for detection and event reconstruction. Understanding the wavelength shifting efficiency and optical properties of these films are critical aspects in detector performance and modeling and hence in the ultimate physics sensitivity of such experiments. This article presents the first measurements of the room-temperature microphysical quantum efficiency for vacuum-deposited TPB thin films - a result that is independent of the optics of the TPB or substrate. Also presented are measurements of the absorption length in the vacuum ultraviolet regime, the secondary re-emission efficiency, and more precise results for the "black-box" efficiency across a broader spectrum of wavelengths than previous results. The low-wavelength sensitivity, in particular, would allow construction of LNG scintillator detectors with lighter elements (Ne, He) to target light mass WIMPs.

  8. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S. [Center for Innovation Competence plasmatis, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. von [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  9. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation on trapped charges and leakage currents of low-k organosilicate dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, H.; Guo, X.; Pei, D.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Ryan, E. T. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Nishi, Y. [Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-05-11

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoemission spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the distribution of trapped charges within the bandgap of low dielectric constant (low-k) organosilicate (SiCOH) materials. It was found that trapped charges are continuously distributed within the bandgap of porous SiCOH and the center of the trapped states is 1.3 eV above the valence band of the tested sample. By comparing photoemission spectroscopic results before and after VUV exposure, VUV irradiation with photon energies between 7.6 and 8.9 eV was found to deplete trapped charge while UV exposure with photon energies less than 6.0 eV induces more trapped charges in tested samples. Current-Voltage (IV) characteristics results show that the reliability of dielectrics is improved after VUV irradiation with photon energies between 7.6 and 8.9 eV, while UV exposure results in an increased level of leakage current and a decreased breakdown voltage, both of which are harmful to the reliability of the dielectric. This work shows that VUV irradiation holds the potential to substitute for UV curing in microelectronic processing to improve the reliability of low-k dielectrics by mitigating the leakage currents and trapped charges induced by UV irradiation.

  10. The absolute photoionization cross sections of helium, neon, argon and krypton in the extreme vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.B.; Marr, G.V.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment has been set up at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility to make absolute absorption cross section measurements over a wide range of photon energies. New data are reported for helium, neon, argon and krypton over the range 340 to 40 A which are believed to be reliable to +- 5%. A critical evaluation of published cross section data has been carried out to produce best value data from the ionization thresholds throughout the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray region. Agreement with theoretical calculations on helium is demonstrated to be within +- 2 to 3% from threshold down to the double ionization threshold at 79 eV. Comparison with recent calculations of photoionization cross sections has shown that the effect of electron correlations is significant for the heavier inert gases. Contrary to previous claims, the position of the M shell maximum in krypton is located at 184 +- 10 eV in good agreement with r.p.a.e. calculations. Oscillator strength sum rules have been examined and their moments calculated. Discrepancies developing towards the heavier inert gases suggests a decrease in polarizabilities and other atomic factors from those predicted by Hartree-Fock calculations. (author)

  11. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Shohet, J. L. [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, S. W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Y. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-01-05

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH{sup −}) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  12. Photodissociation dynamics of H2O at 111.5 nm by a vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heilong; Yu, Yong; Chang, Yao; Su, Shu; Yu, Shengrui; Li, Qinming; Tao, Kai; Ding, Hongli; Yang, Jaiyue; Wang, Guanglei; Che, Li; He, Zhigang; Chen, Zhichao; Wang, Xingan; Zhang, Weiqing; Dai, Dongxu; Wu, Guorong; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming

    2018-03-01

    Photodissociation dynamics of H2O via the F ˜ state at 111.5 nm were investigated using the high resolution H-atom Rydberg "tagging" time-of-flight (TOF) technique, in combination with the tunable vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser at the Dalian Coherent Light Source. The product translational energy distributions and angular distributions in both parallel and perpendicular directions were derived from the recorded TOF spectra. Based on these distributions, the quantum state distributions and angular anisotropy parameters of OH (X) and OH (A) products have been determined. For the OH (A) + H channel, highly rotationally excited OH (A) products have been observed. These products are ascribed to a fast direct dissociation on the B ˜ 1A1 state surface after multi-step internal conversions from the initial excited F ˜ state to the B ˜ state. While for the OH (X) + H channel, very highly rotationally excited OH (X) products with moderate vibrational excitation are revealed and attributed to the dissociation via a nonadiabatic pathway through the well-known two conical intersections between the B ˜ -state and the X ˜ -state surfaces.

  13. Photocatalytic pretreatment of oily wastewater from the restaurant by a vacuum ultraviolet/TiO2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian-xiong; Lu, Lu; Zhan, Wei; Li, Bo; Li, Dao-sheng; Ren, Yong-zheng; Liu, Dong-qi

    2011-02-15

    The present study aims at investigating the performance of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 185 nm) and TiO(2) oxidation system for the pretreatment of oily wastewater from restaurant. The influence of irradiation time, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), the dosage of TiO(2) and the initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration on COD removal efficiency was ascertained and optimum process conditions for stable and effective operation were determined. Under the optimum conditions of irradiation 10 min, initial COD 3981 mg/L, TiO(2) 150 mg/L, pH 7.0 and flow rate of air 40 L/h, the process of VUV and TiO(2)/VUV achieved removal efficiencies of COD, BOD(5) and oil as 50±3%, 37±2%, 86±3%, and 63±3%, 43±2%, 70±3%, respectively. The biodegradability factor f(B) of the wastewater was determined as 1.56 which indicated that the VUV/TiO(2) process improved the biodegradability of the oily wastewater significantly. Results clearly indicate that VUV/TiO(2) photolysis tends to destruct parts of COD, BOD(5), and ammonia, as well as enhances the biodegradability of the oily wastewater simultaneously. Thus, this technique could be used as a pretreatment step for conventional biological treatment of oily wastewater. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet excited luminescence properties of sol–gel derived GdP5O14:Eu3+ powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbarek, Aïcha; Chadeyron, Geneviève; Boyer, Damien; Avignant, Daniel; Fourati, Mohieddine; Zambon, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sol–gel route has successfully been used to synthesize pure and Eu 3+ doped polycrystalline samples of the GdP 5 O 14 pentaphosphates. The as-prepared samples have structurally been characterized using X-ray diffraction. Optical properties in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) of Eu 3+ activated GdP 5 O 14 samples prepared either by sol–gel process or solid-state reaction were investigated at room temperature for comparison. In this GdP 5 O 14 host matrix the P 5 O 14 ultraphosphate groups were proved to exhibit an efficient absorption in the VUV range. The excitation spectra recorded in the VUV-UV spectral region from 120 nm to 350 nm have revealed the presence of Gd 3+ 4f–5d interconfiguration transitions, Gd 3+ –O 2− and Eu 3+ –O 2− charge transfer states(CTS)in addition to intraconfiguration transitions of Gd 3+ ions.Furthermore the Gd 3+ →Eu 3+ energy transfer process was investigated and discussed in the framework of the multiphonon relaxation process. Besides, the GdP 5 O 14 :Eu 3+ phosphor led to a strong red emission under 147/172 nm excitation, so that it can be considered as a promising red phosphor for mercury-free lamps and plasma display panels applications. -- Highlights: • Lanthanide pentaphosphates were synthesized by the sol–gel process. • A broad absorption was evidenced in the VUV range for GdP 5 O 14 :Eu 3+ . • An efficient energy transfer was proved from pentaphosphate lattice to Eu 3+ ions

  15. A single-shot nonlinear autocorrelation approach for time-resolved physics in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rompotis, Dimitrios

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a single-shot temporal metrology scheme operating in the vacuum-extreme ultraviolet spectral range has been designed and experimentally implemented. Utilizing an anti-collinear geometry, a second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement of a vacuum ultraviolet pulse can be performed by encoding temporal delay information on the beam propagation coordinate. An ion-imaging time-of-flight spectrometer, offering micrometer resolution has been set-up for this purpose. This instrument enables the detection of a magnified image of the spatial distribution of ions exclusively generated by direct two-photon absorption in the combined counter-propagating pulse focus and thus obtain the second-order intensity autocorrelation measurement on a single-shot basis. Additionally, an intense VUV light source based on high-harmonic generation has been experimentally realized. It delivers intense sub-20 fs Ti:Sa fifth-harmonic pulses utilizing a loose-focusing geometry in a long Ar gas cell. The VUV pulses centered at 161.8 nm reach pulse energies of 1.1 μJ per pulse, while the corresponding pulse duration is measured with a second-order, fringe-resolved autocorrelation scheme to be 18 ± 1 fs on average. Non-resonant, two-photon ionization of Kr and Xe and three-photon ionization of Ne verify the fifth-harmonic pulse intensity and indicate the feasibility of multi-photon VUV pump/VUV probe studies of ultrafast atomic and molecular dynamics. Finally, the extended functionally of the counter-propagating pulse metrology approach is demonstrated by a single-shot VUV pump/VUV probe experiment aiming at the investigation of ultrafast dissociation dynamics of O 2 excited in the Schumann-Runge continuum at 162 nm.

  16. The use of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to oxidize SO2 and NOx for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Junhui; Shang, Jing; Li, Qian; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Jia; Feng, Xiang; Zhu, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ROS, ·OH, ·HO 2 , ·O, and O 3 were generated by VUV photolysis of water and oxygen. • SO 2 and NO x can react with ROS to offer 90% and 96% removal efficiency, respectively. • The flue gas factors’ influences on SO 2 and NO x removal efficiency were investigated. • Mechanisms were proposed based on the photooxidation reactions and ROS generation. • The final products H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 can be used as industrial raw materials. - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and with no additional chemicals is presented. The simultaneous removal of 90% SO 2 and 96% NO x (NO + NO 2 ) was achieved from the simulated flue gas under the irradiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp with main wavelengths of 185 and 254 nm, respectively. The composition, flow rate, and temperature of the simulated flue gas, as well as the VUV light intensity, were evaluated as the factors impacting on the efficiency of SO 2 and NO x removal. The ·OH, ·HO 2 , ·O, and O 3 produced from the photolysis of H 2 O and O 2 were concluded as the major reactive oxygen species that oxidized SO 2 and NO x . The additional ·OH and ·HO 2 generated through the reactions of NO + ·HO 2 and SO 2 + ·OH/·HO 2 improved treatment efficiency, while the oxidation products of NO x , e.g., NO 2 , HNO 2 , HNO 3 , and HNO 4 , consumed massive reactive oxygen species (such as ·O, ·OH, and ·HO 2 ) and thereby reducing the removal efficiencies. The main reaction products were characterized as H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 by ion chromatography, which could be used as chemical or fertilizer raw materials

  17. Vacuum-ultraviolet reflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Baffle, three-blade chopper, and split spherical mirror transmit alternating dual beam into integrating sphere. Alternating reference and sample beams are detected by high gain photomultiplier and modified logarithmic ratiometer. Device is useful in fusion research, high power laser work, and spectrometer or monochromator construction.

  18. Optical luminescence from alkyl-passivated Si nanocrystals under vacuum ultraviolet excitation: Origin and temperature dependence of the blue and orange emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Y; Houlton, A; Horrocks, BR; Hunt, MRC; Poolton, NRJ; Yang, J; Šiller, L

    2006-01-01

    The origin and stability of luminescence are critical issues for Si nanocrystals which are intended for use as biological probes. The optical luminescence of alkyl-monolayer-passivated silicon nanocrystals was studied under excitation with vacuum ultraviolet photons (5.1–23 eV). Blue and orange emission bands were observed simultaneously, but the blue band only appeared at low temperatures (8.7 eV). At 8 K, the peak wavelengths of the emission bands were 430±2 nm (blue) and 600±2 nm (orange)....

  19. The electronic states of 1,2,3-triazole studied by vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and a comparison with ab initio configuration interaction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.

    2011-01-01

    The Rydberg states in the vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of 1,2,3-triazole have been measured and analyzed with the aid of comparison to the UV valence photoelectron ionizations and the results of ab initio configuration interaction (CI) calculations. Calculated electronic ionization...... and excitation energies for singlet, triplet valence, and Rydberg states were obtained using multireference multiroot CI procedures with an aug-cc-pVTZ [5s3p3d1f] basis set and a set of Rydberg [4s3p3d3f] functions. Adiabatic excitation energies obtained for several electronic states using coupled...... are the excitations consistent with an f-series....

  20. Effect of the coherent cancellation of the two-photon resonance on the generation of vacuum ultraviolet light by two-photon reasonantly enhanced four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.; Garrett, W.R.; Judish, J.P.; Wunderlich, R.

    1988-11-01

    Many of the most impressive demonstrations of the efficient generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light have made use of two- photon resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing to generate light at ω/sub VUV/ = 2ω/sub L1/ +- ω/sub L2/. The two-photon resonance state is coupled to the ground state both by two photons from the first laser, or by a photon from the second laser and one from the generated VUV beam. We show here that these two coherent pathways destructively interfere once the second laser is made sufficiently intense, thereby leading to an important limiting effect on the achievable conversion efficiency. 4 refs

  1. Sodium-doping as a reference to study the influence of intracluster chemistry on the fragmentation of weakly-bound clusters upon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization

    OpenAIRE

    Litman Jessica H; Yoder Bruce L; Schläppi Bernhard; Signorell Ruth

    2012-01-01

    The fragmentation of methanol water dimethyl ether and acetic acid clusters upon photoionization with a single vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon of 10.1 eV 13.3 eV or 17.5 eV energy is studied with mass spectrometry. The sodium doping method is used as an independent approximate measure of the original cluster size distribution providing information on the degree of fragmentation upon VUV ionization. The experimental results show strong fragmentation for (CH3)2O and CH3CO2H clusters but minor f...

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of diclofenac and the effects of its treated aqueous solutions on the proliferation and migratory responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arany, Eszter; Láng, Júlia; Somogyvári, Dávid; Láng, Orsolya; Alapi, Tünde; Ilisz, István

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dissolved O 2 , phosphate buffer and the initial concentration of diclofenac on the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of this contaminant molecule were studied. Besides kinetic measurements, the irradiated, multicomponent samples were characterized via the proliferation and migratory responses (in sublethal concentrations) of the bioindicator eukaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The results suggest that hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and hydroperoxyl radicals may all contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. The aromatic by-products of diclofenac were presumed to include a hydroxylated derivative, 1-(8-chlorocarbazolyl)acetic acid and 1-(8-hydroxycarbazolyl)acetic acid. The biological activity of photoexposed samples reflected the chemical transformation of diclofenac and was also dependent on the level of dissolved O 2 . The increase in toxicity of samples taken after different irradiation times did not exceed a factor of two. Our results suggest that the combination of vacuum ultraviolet photolysis with toxicity and chemotactic measurements can be a valuable method for the investigation of the elimination of micropollutants. - Highlights: • The radical-scavenging effect of phosphates seems to be negligible. • Only higher concentrations of HO 2 · contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. • Toxicity of VUV-treated samples decreases with increasing rate of mineralization. • Dissolved O 2 enhances the mineralization of diclofenac by affecting the radical set. • Treated samples retain the chemorepellent character of the parent compound

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of diclofenac and the effects of its treated aqueous solutions on the proliferation and migratory responses of Tetrahymena pyriformis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arany, Eszter [Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1 (Hungary); Láng, Júlia [Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, H-1089 Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4 (Hungary); Somogyvári, Dávid [Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1 (Hungary); Láng, Orsolya [Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, H-1089 Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4 (Hungary); Alapi, Tünde [Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1 (Hungary); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 7 (Hungary); Ilisz, István [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dóm tér 7 (Hungary); and others

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dissolved O{sub 2}, phosphate buffer and the initial concentration of diclofenac on the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of this contaminant molecule were studied. Besides kinetic measurements, the irradiated, multicomponent samples were characterized via the proliferation and migratory responses (in sublethal concentrations) of the bioindicator eukaryotic ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis. The results suggest that hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and hydroperoxyl radicals may all contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. The aromatic by-products of diclofenac were presumed to include a hydroxylated derivative, 1-(8-chlorocarbazolyl)acetic acid and 1-(8-hydroxycarbazolyl)acetic acid. The biological activity of photoexposed samples reflected the chemical transformation of diclofenac and was also dependent on the level of dissolved O{sub 2}. The increase in toxicity of samples taken after different irradiation times did not exceed a factor of two. Our results suggest that the combination of vacuum ultraviolet photolysis with toxicity and chemotactic measurements can be a valuable method for the investigation of the elimination of micropollutants. - Highlights: • The radical-scavenging effect of phosphates seems to be negligible. • Only higher concentrations of HO{sub 2}{sup ·} contribute to the degradation of diclofenac. • Toxicity of VUV-treated samples decreases with increasing rate of mineralization. • Dissolved O{sub 2} enhances the mineralization of diclofenac by affecting the radical set. • Treated samples retain the chemorepellent character of the parent compound.

  4. Suggested treaty benefits approaches for collective investment vehicles (CIVs) and its investors under the OECD MTC 2010 update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.; Weber, D.; van Weeghel, S.

    2012-01-01

    Collective Investment Vehicles (CIVs) are specifically addressed in the 2010 update of the OECD Model Tax Convention (MTC) and the Commentary thereto. Attention is paid to the tax treaty position of CIVs in an international context. The main question is whether a CIV is treaty eligible and if not,

  5. 3m Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectrometer with Optical Multichannel Detector; Espectrometro de ultravioleta de vacio de 3m provisto de sistema de deteccion optical multicanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P; Peraza, C; Blanco, F; Campos, J

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes the design and the performance of a normal incidence vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, for the 300-2400 A spectral range. It is provided with a multichannel detection system. The monochromator is original design and it has been built at CIEMAT. It is equipped with a 3 m concave holographic grating with 2400 grooves/mm. The multichannel detector consists of a windowless double microchannel plate / phosphor screen image intensifier, coupled by fiber optic to a 1024 elements self-scanning linear photodiode array. The output from the array is digitized by a 12-bit analog to digital converter and stored in a computer, for its later analysis. The necessary software to store and display data has been developed. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. Note: a novel vacuum ultraviolet light source assembly with aluminum-coated electrodes for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Keqing; Liu, Chengyuan; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2014-04-01

    A novel vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source assembly (VUVLSA) for enhancing the ionization efficiency of photoionization mass spectrometer has been described. The VUVLSA composes of a Krypton lamp and a pair of disk electrodes with circular center cavities. The two interior surfaces that face the photoionization region were aluminum-coated. VUV light can be reflected back and forth in the photoionization region between the electrodes, thus the photoionization efficiency can be greatly enhanced. The performances of two different shaped electrodes, the coated double flat electrodes (DFE), and double conical electrodes, were studied. We showed that the signal amplification of coated DFE is around 4 times higher than that of uncoated electrodes without VUV light reflection. The relationship between the pressure of ionization chamber and mass signal enhancement has also been studied.

  7. Measurement of H and H2 populations in-situ in a low-temperature plasma by vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Young, A.T.; Stutzin, G.C.; Stearns, J.W.; Doebele, H.G.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1988-12-01

    A new technique, vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy, has been developed to quantitatively determine the absolute density of H and H 2 within a plasma. The technique is particularly well suited to measurement in a plasma, where high charged particle and photon background complicate other methods of detection. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the technique allows for the measurement of the rotational-vibrational state distribution of H 2 as well as the translational temperature of the atoms and molecules. The technique has been used to study both pulsed and continuous H/sup /minus// ion-source plasma discharges. H 2 state distributions in a multicusp ''volume'' H/sup /minus// ion- source plasma show a high degree of internal excitation, with levels up to v = 5 and J = 8 being observed. The method is applicable for a very wide range of plasma conditions. Emission measurements from excited states of H are also reported. 17 refs., 9 figs

  8. The electronic states of 1,2,4-triazoles: A study of 1H- and1-methyl-1,2,4-triazole by vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and a comparison with ab initio configuration interaction computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Camp, Philip J.; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning

    2012-01-01

    The first vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of a 1,2,4-triazole has been obtained and analyzed in detail, with assistance from both an enhanced UV photoelectron spectroscopic study and ab initio multi-reference multi-root configuration interaction procedures. For both 1H- and 1-methyl-1,2...

  9. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulvio, D.; Brieva, A. C.; Jäger, C.; Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H.; Henning, T.

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O 2 actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY 122  = 0.44 ± 0.16 and QY 160  = 0.87 ± 0.30 for solid-phase O 2 actinometry.

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum measurement of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp in several configurations: Application to photodesorption of CO ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Wu, C.-Y. R. [Space Sciences Center and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1341 (United States); Chuang, K.-J.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Muñoz Caro, G. M. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Nuevo, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ip, W.-H., E-mail: yujung@usc.edu [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32049, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-20

    We report measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectra of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (MDHL), a common tool in astrochemistry laboratories working on ice VUV photoprocessing. The MDHL provides hydrogen Ly-α (121.6 nm) and H{sub 2} molecular emission in the 110-180 nm range. We show that the spectral characteristics of the VUV light emitted in this range, in particular the relative proportion of Ly-α to molecular emission bands, strongly depend on the pressure of H{sub 2} inside the lamp, the lamp geometry (F type versus T type), the gas used (pure H{sub 2} versus H{sub 2} seeded in He), and the optical properties of the window used (MgF{sub 2} versus CaF{sub 2}). These different configurations are used to study the VUV irradiation of CO ice at 14 K. In contrast to the majority of studies dedicated to the VUV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, which have not taken into consideration the emission spectrum of the MDHL, our results show that the processes induced by photons in CO ice from a broad energy range are different and more complex than the sum of individual processes induced by monochromatic sources spanning the same energy range, as a result of the existence of multistate electronic transitions and discrepancy in absorption cross sections between parent molecules and products in the Ly-α and H{sub 2} molecular emission ranges.

  11. Versatile high-repetition-rate phase-locked chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plogmaker, Stefan; Johansson, Erik M. J.; Rensmo, Haakan; Feifel, Raimund; Siegbahn, Hans [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Linusson, Per [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Eland, John H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Baker, Neville [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    A novel light chopper system for fast timing experiments in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) and x-ray spectral region has been developed. It can be phase-locked and synchronized with a synchrotron radiation storage ring, accommodating repetition rates in the range of {approx}8 to {approx}120 kHz by choosing different sets of apertures and subharmonics of the ring frequency (MHz range). Also the opening time of the system can be varied from some nanoseconds to several microseconds to meet the needs of a broad range of applications. Adjusting these parameters, the device can be used either for the generation of single light pulses or pulse packages from a microwave driven, continuous He gas discharge lamp or from storage rings which are otherwise often considered as quasi-continuous light sources. This chopper can be utilized for many different kinds of experiments enabling, for example, unambiguous time-of-flight (TOF) multi-electron coincidence studies of atoms and molecules excited by a single light pulse as well as time-resolved visible laser pump x-ray probe electron spectroscopy of condensed matter in the valence and core level region.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet emission spectrum measurement of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp in several configurations: Application to photodesorption of CO ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Wu, C.-Y. R.; Chuang, K.-J.; Chu, C.-C.; Yih, T.-S.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Nuevo, M.; Ip, W.-H.

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission spectra of a microwave-discharge hydrogen-flow lamp (MDHL), a common tool in astrochemistry laboratories working on ice VUV photoprocessing. The MDHL provides hydrogen Ly-α (121.6 nm) and H 2 molecular emission in the 110-180 nm range. We show that the spectral characteristics of the VUV light emitted in this range, in particular the relative proportion of Ly-α to molecular emission bands, strongly depend on the pressure of H 2 inside the lamp, the lamp geometry (F type versus T type), the gas used (pure H 2 versus H 2 seeded in He), and the optical properties of the window used (MgF 2 versus CaF 2 ). These different configurations are used to study the VUV irradiation of CO ice at 14 K. In contrast to the majority of studies dedicated to the VUV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs, which have not taken into consideration the emission spectrum of the MDHL, our results show that the processes induced by photons in CO ice from a broad energy range are different and more complex than the sum of individual processes induced by monochromatic sources spanning the same energy range, as a result of the existence of multistate electronic transitions and discrepancy in absorption cross sections between parent molecules and products in the Ly-α and H 2 molecular emission ranges.

  13. A straightforward method for Vacuum-Ultraviolet flux measurements: The case of the hydrogen discharge lamp and implications for solid-phase actinometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulvio, D., E-mail: daniele.fulvio@uni-jena.de, E-mail: dfu@oact.inaf.it; Brieva, A. C.; Jäger, C. [Laboratory Astrophysics Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy at the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Institute of Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Cuylle, S. H.; Linnartz, H. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Astrophysics, Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Henning, T. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-07

    Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) radiation is responsible for the photo-processing of simple and complex molecules in several terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. In the laboratory such radiation is commonly simulated by inexpensive and easy-to-use microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamps. However, VUV flux measurements are not trivial and the methods/devices typically used for this purpose, mainly actinometry and calibrated VUV silicon photodiodes, are not very accurate or expensive and lack of general suitability to experimental setups. Here, we present a straightforward method for measuring the VUV photon flux based on the photoelectric effect and using a gold photodetector. This method is easily applicable to most experimental setups, bypasses the major problems of the other methods, and provides reliable flux measurements. As a case study, the method is applied to a microwave-powered hydrogen discharge lamp. In addition, the comparison of these flux measurements to those obtained by O{sub 2} actinometry experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield (QY) values QY{sub 122} = 0.44 ± 0.16 and QY{sub 160} = 0.87 ± 0.30 for solid-phase O{sub 2} actinometry.

  14. Absolutely calibrated vacuum ultraviolet spectra in the 150-250-nm range from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, J.F.; Feldman, Uri; Holland, G.E.; Weaver, J.L.; Mostovych, A.N.; Obenschain, S.P.; Schmitt, A.J.; Lehmberg, R.; Kjornarattanawanich, Benjawan; Back, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectra were recorded from plasmas generated by the NIKE KrF laser for the purpose of observing emission from the two-plasmon decay instability (TPDI) at 2/3 the NIKE wavelength (165 nm). The targets were irradiated by up to 43 overlapping beams with intensity up to ≅10 14 W/cm 2 and with beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). The targets consisted of planar foils of CH, BN, Al, Si, S, Ti, Pd, and Au. Titanium-doped silica aerogels in Pyrex cylinders were also irradiated. The spectra of the target elements were observed from charge states ranging from the neutral atoms to five times ionized. The spectrometer was absolutely calibrated using synchrotron radiation, and absolute VUV plasma emission intensities were determined. Emission from the TPDI at 165-nm wavelength was not observed from any of the irradiated targets. An upper bound on the possible TPDI emission was less than 4x10 -8 the incident NIKE laser energy. The NIKE laser radiation backscattered from the silica aerogel targets at 248 nm was typically 6x10 -6 the incident NIKE laser energy, and the spectral broadening corresponded to the 1-THz bandwidth of the ISI smoothing. The spectra from the moderately charged plasma ions (up to five times ionized), spectral linewidths, absolute continuum emission level, and slope of the continuum were consistent with plasma temperatures in the 100-300-eV range

  15. Effect of the methyl substitution on the combustion of two methylheptane isomers: Flame chemistry using vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem

    2015-04-16

    Alkanes with one or more methyl substitutions are commonly found in liquid transportation fuels, so a fundamental investigation of their combustion chemistry is warranted. In the present work, stoichiometric low-pressure (20 Torr) burner-stabilized flat flames of 2-methylheptane and 3-methylheptane were investigated. Flame species were measured via time-of-flight molecular-beam mass spectrometry, with vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation as the ionization source. Mole fractions of major end-products and intermediate species (e.g., alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aldehydes, and dienes) were quantified axially above the burner surface. Mole fractions of several free radicals were also measured (e.g., CH3, HCO, C2H3, C3H3, and C3H5). Isomers of different species were identified within the reaction pool by an energy scan between 8 and 12 eV at a distance of 2.5 mm away from the burner surface. The role of methyl substitution location on the alkane chain was determined via comparisons of similar species trends obtained from both flames. The results revealed that the change in CH3 position imposed major differences on the combustion of both fuels. Comparison with numerical simulations was performed for kinetic model testing. The results provide a comprehensive set of data about the combustion of both flames, which can enhance the erudition of both fuels combustion chemistry and also improve their chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  16. Quantification of isomerically summed hydrocarbon contributions to crude oil by carbon number, double bond equivalent, and aromaticity using gas chromatography with tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jeremy A; Weber, Robert J; Goldstein, Allen H

    2018-03-12

    The ability to structurally characterize and isomerically quantify crude oil hydrocarbons relevant to refined fuels such as motor oil, diesel, and gasoline represents an extreme challenge for chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques. This work incorporates two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a tunable vacuum ultraviolet soft photoionization source, the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC × GC-VUV-TOF) to directly characterize and isomerically sum the contributions of aromatic and aliphatic species to hydrocarbon classes of four crude oils. When the VUV beam is tuned to 10.5 ± 0.2 eV, both aromatic and aliphatic crude oil hydrocarbons are ionized to reveal the complete chemical abundance of C 9 -C 30 hydrocarbons. When the VUV beam is tuned to 9.0 ± 0.2 eV only aromatic hydrocarbons are ionized, allowing separation of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of the crude oil hydrocarbon chemical classes in an efficient manner while maintaining isomeric quantification. This technique provides an effective tool to determine the isomerically summed aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon compositions of crude oil, providing information that goes beyond typical GC × GC separations of the most dominant hydrocarbon isomers.

  17. The valence and Rydberg states of difluoromethane: A combined experimental vacuum ultraviolet spectrum absorption and theoretical study by ab initio configuration interaction and density functional computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael H.; Vrønning Hoffmann, Søren; Jones, Nykola C.; Coreno, Marcello; de Simone, Monica; Grazioli, Cesare

    2018-06-01

    The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectrum for CH2F2 from a new synchrotron study has been combined with earlier data and subjected to detailed scrutiny. The onset of absorption, band I and also band IV, is resolved into broad vibrational peaks, which contrast with the continuous absorption previously claimed. A new theoretical analysis, using a combination of time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations and complete active space self-consistent field, leads to a major new interpretation. Adiabatic excitation energies (AEEs) and vertical excitation energies, evaluated by these methods, are used to interpret the spectra in unprecedented detail using theoretical vibronic analysis. This includes both Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) effects on cold and hot bands. These results lead to the re-assignment of several known excited states and the identification of new ones. The lowest calculated AEE sequence for singlet states is 11B1 ˜ 11A2 expected; the onset of the 15.5 eV band shows a set of vibrational peaks, but the vibration frequency does not correspond to any of the photoelectron spectral (PES) structure and is clearly valence in nature. The routine use of PES footprints to detect Rydberg states in VUV spectra is shown to be inadequate. The combined effects of FC and HT in the VUV spectral bands lead to additional vibrations when compared with the PES.

  18. Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2011-09-13

    Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

  19. Airfoil sampling of a pulsed Laval beam with tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: application to low-temperature kinetics and product detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorkia, Satchin; Liu, Chen-Lin; Savee, John D; Ferrell, Sarah J; Leone, Stephen R; Wilson, Kevin R

    2011-12-01

    A new pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron photoionization quadrupole mass spectrometry is constructed to study low-temperature radical-neutral chemical reactions of importance for modeling the atmosphere of Titan and the outer planets. A design for the sampling geometry of a pulsed Laval nozzle expansion has been developed that operates successfully for the determination of rate coefficients by time-resolved mass spectrometry. The new concept employs airfoil sampling of the collimated expansion with excellent sampling throughput. Time-resolved profiles of the high Mach number gas flow obtained by photoionization signals show that perturbation of the collimated expansion by the airfoil is negligible. The reaction of C(2)H with C(2)H(2) is studied at 70 K as a proof-of-principle result for both low-temperature rate coefficient measurements and product identification based on the photoionization spectrum of the reaction product versus VUV photon energy. This approach can be used to provide new insights into reaction mechanisms occurring at kinetic rates close to the collision-determined limit.

  20. Electronic structure, photoemission spectra, and vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, K.; Schäfer, W.; Schreiber, M.; Söchtig, J.; Trendel, G.; Treusch, J.; Grandke, T.; Stolz, H. J.

    1981-11-01

    Optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3 have been measured in the range from 2 to 10 eV and have been combined with ultraviolet-photoemission-spectroscopy (UPS)-measurements at 21.1 and 40.8 eV. A quantitative band calculation is presented, which takes into account anion-anion interaction as well as electronic states of the Cs+ ion. The prominent features of earlier band models and measurements are reestablished through our measurements and calculations, namely that the valence band consists of anionic p functions and Pb 6s functions, the lowest conduction band being Pb 6p type, and the lowest gap occuring at the R point of the Brillouin zone. Inclusion of a further (Cs 6s-type) conduction band, however, is necessary to bring the calculated joint density of states into agreement with vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra. The calculated densities of states of the valence bands are in quantitative agreement with those deduced from our UPS measurements.

  1. Determination of ionization energies of CnN (n=4-12): Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization experiments and theoretical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Zhou, Jia; Sun, Bian Jian; Lie, Jie Shiuan; Chang, Agnes H.H.; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2010-01-01

    Results from single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of astrophysically relevant CnN clusters, n = 4 - 12, in the photon energy range of 8.0 eV to 12.8 eV are presented. The experimental photoionization efficiency curves, combined with electronic structure calculations, provide improved ionization energies of the CnN species. A search through numerous nitrogen-terminated CnN isomers for n=4-9 indicates that the linear isomer has the lowest energy, and therefore should be the most abundant isomer in the molecular beam. Comparison with calculated results also shed light on the energetics of the linear CnN clusters, particularly in the trends of the even-carbon and the odd-carbon series. These results can help guide the search of potential astronomical observations of these neutral molecules together with their cations in highly ionized regions or regions with a high UV/VUV photon flux (ranging from the visible to VUV with flux maxima in the Lyman-a region) in the interstellar medium.

  2. Laboratory experiments on the magnetic field and neutral density limits on CIV interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.; Brenning, N.

    1990-03-01

    Laboratory experiments are reported which determine the magnetic field and neutral density limit for Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV) interaction in the impact configuration. A combination of microwave interferometry and spectroscopy has been used to measure how the electron energy distribution varies with the neutral density and the magnetic field strength. The efficiency of the CIV process is evaluated in terms of the efficiency factor η of energy transfer to the electron. This efficiency is studied as function of the ratio V A /V 0 between the Alfven velocity and the plasma stream velocity and the ratio ν i /ω gi between the ionization frequency and the ion gyro frequency. With other parameters kept constant, V A /V 0 is proportional to the square root of the magnetic field, while ν i /ω gi is proportional to the neutral density. We have found that these two dimensionless parameters are coupled in such a fashion that a stronger magnetic field can compensate for a lower neutral density. For our strongest magnetic field, corresponding to V A /V 0 = 4, CIV interaction is found to occur for a comparatively low value ν i /ω gi ∼ 0.1. For V A /V 0 = 1, we found a clear absence of CIV interaction even for ν i /ω gi approaching unity. (authors)

  3. Narrow CIV lambda 1549A Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    A large, high-quality spectral data base of well-selected, moderate-redshift radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars is used to characterize the incidence of narrow associated CIV lambda 1549 absorption, and how this may depend on some quasar properties, including radio-type. Preliminary results...

  4. Absolute photoionization cross section of the ethyl radical in the range 8-11.5 eV: synchrotron and vacuum ultraviolet laser measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Bérenger; Garcia, Gustavo A; Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Douin, Stéphane; Gaie-Levrel, François; Gauyacq, Dolores

    2011-06-02

    The absolute photoionization cross section of C(2)H(5) has been measured at 10.54 eV using vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser photoionization. The C(2)H(5) radical was produced in situ using the rapid C(2)H(6) + F → C(2)H(5) + HF reaction. Its absolute photoionization cross section has been determined in two different ways: first using the C(2)H(5) + NO(2) → C(2)H(5)O + NO reaction in a fast flow reactor, and the known absolute photoionization cross section of NO. In a second experiment, it has been measured relative to the known absolute photoionization cross section of CH(3) as a reference by using the CH(4) + F → CH(3) + HF and C(2)H(6) + F → C(2)H(5) + HF reactions successively. Both methods gave similar results, the second one being more precise and yielding the value: σ(C(2)H(5))(ion) = (5.6 ± 1.4) Mb at 10.54 eV. This value is used to calibrate on an absolute scale the photoionization curve of C(2)H(5) produced in a pyrolytic source from the C(2)H(5)NO(2) precursor, and ionized by the VUV beam of the DESIRS beamline at SOLEIL synchrotron facility. In this latter experiment, a recently developed ion imaging technique is used to discriminate the direct photoionization process from dissociative ionization contributions to the C(2)H(5)(+) signal. The imaging technique applied on the photoelectron signal also allows a slow photoelectron spectrum with a 40 meV resolution to be extracted, indicating that photoionization around the adiabatic ionization threshold involves a complex vibrational overlap between the neutral and cationic ground states, as was previously observed in the literature. Comparison with earlier photoionization studies, in particular with the photoionization yield recorded by Ruscic et al. is also discussed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  5. Luminescent properties of Pr3+-sensitized LaPO4:Gd3+ ultraviolet-B phosphor under vacuum-ultraviolet light excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shinji; Uchino, Rika; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Luminescent properties of Pr 3+ -sensitized LaPO 4 :Gd 3+ under vacuum-ultraviolet (vuv) light excitation have been investigated. The energy transfer probably occurs from the 5d levels in Pr 3+ ions to Gd 3+ ions under 172 nm light excitation. LaPO 4 :Gd 3+ ,Pr 3+ shows efficient ultraviolet-B (uv-B) emission at 312 nm, whose peak intensity reaches its maximum at Gd=35 mol % and Pr=5 mol %. (La 0.65 Gd 0.35 ) 0.95 Pr 0.05 PO 4 is about 1.6 times higher than a typical uv-B phosphor for vuv lamp, Y 0.75 Gd 0.25 Al 3 (BO 3 ) 4 , in Gd 3+ -emission intensity under 172 nm light excitation. This result implies that the Pr 3+ -sensitized LaPO 4 :Gd 3+ is a candidate of uv-B phosphors for xenon-excimer discharge vuv lamps. In order to evaluate the effect of the narrow-band uv-B emission by LaPO 4 :Gd 3+ ,Pr 3+ phosphor, irradiation test on DNA was performed. The irradiation damage of pUC 18 DNA by the narrow-band uv-B light from the LaPO 4 :Gd 3+ ,Pr 3+ phosphor is in the same magnitude as that by uv-A light from a filtered Hg lamp, even though the uv-B lamp is higher than the uv-A lamp in power density and photon energy.

  6. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet photons, ion energy and substrate temperature on line width roughness and RMS surface roughness of patterned 193 nm photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, M J; Graves, D B; Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy (≥70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.

  7. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet photons, ion energy and substrate temperature on line width roughness and RMS surface roughness of patterned 193 nm photoresist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, M J; Graves, D B [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Yamaguchi, Y; Hudson, E A, E-mail: graves@berkeley.edu [Lam Research Corporation, 4400 Cushing Parkway, Freemont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    We present a comparison of patterned 193 nm photoresist (PR) line width roughness (LWR) of samples processed in a well characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system to RMS surface roughness and bulk chemical modification of blanket 193 nm PR samples used as control samples. In the ICP system, patterned and blanket PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV) and Ar ions while sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR (blanket) and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). LWR of patterned samples are measured with scanning electron microscopy and blanket portions of the patterned PRs are measured with AFM. We demonstrate that with no RF-bias applied to the substrate the LWR of 193 nm PR tends to smooth and correlates with the smoothing of the RMS surface roughness. However, both LWR and RMS surface roughness increases with simultaneous high-energy ({>=}70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV-irradiation and is a function of exposure time. Both high- and low-frequency LWR correlate well with the RMS surface roughness of the patterned and blanket 193 nm PR samples. LWR, however, does not increase with temperatures ranging from 20 to 80 deg. C, in contrast to the RMS surface roughness which increases monotonically with temperature. It is unclear why LWR remains independent of temperature over this range. However, the fact that blanket roughness and LWR on patterned samples, both scale similarly with VUV fluence and ion energy suggests a similar mechanism is responsible for both types of surface morphology modifications.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of vacuum UV radiation (wavelength range from 1 to 200 nm) with polymers is interesting for fundamental and applied sciences. This interest is stimulated by various reasons: - Wide applications of polymeric materials in semiconductor technology, where they are used as photoresist materials in combination with VUV light sources (lasers, excimer lamps, synchrotron radiation and others). - Polymers are widely used as spacecraft materials in the last 20 years. On near-Earth orbits, the polymeric materials of spacecraft surfaces are destroyed by solar radiation. - VUV radiation is one of the components of gas discharge plasmas, which are used for treatment of polymer, with the aim of modifying their surface properties. The main features of interaction of VUV radiation with polymers are discussed. The spectra of intrinsic absorption of saturated polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and others) are situated mainly in the VUV region. The photochemistry of polymers in the VUV region is very different from their photochemistry at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, where the absorption spectra belong to impurities and polymer defects. The polymer photochemistry in the VUV region is wavelength-dependent. At wavelengths longer than about 140 nm, the main role is played by transformations of primary-formed singlet excited molecules. At shorter wavelengths the role of photoionization increases progressively and the main features of VUV photolysis become similar to the picture of radiolysis, with significant contributions of charge pairs and triplet excited molecules. Very important features of VUV light absorption in polymers are high absorption coefficients. Because of this, the surface layers absorb large doses of energy. This leads to very profound transformation of material on the polymer surface. In particular for polymers which are considered destroyed by radiation (for example, perfluoropolymers), this leads to VUV-induced erosion under vacuum conditions. The energetic yield of erosion is intensity-dependent because of the limited rate of sublimation of polymer fragments

  9. A Fourier transform spectrometer without a beam splitter for the vacuum ultraviolet range: From the optical design to the first UV spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, N; Joyeux, D; Phalippou, D; Rodier, J C; Polack, F; Vervloet, M; Nahon, L

    2009-04-01

    We describe a Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer designed to operate down to 60 nm (20 eV) on a synchrotron radiation beamline for high resolution absorption spectrometry. As far as we know, such an instrument is not available below 140 nm mainly because manufacturing accurate and efficient beam splitters remains a major problem at these wavelengths, especially if a wide bandwidth operation is desired. In order to overcome this difficulty, we developed an interferometer based on wave front division instead of amplitude division. It relies on a modified Fresnel bimirror configuration that requires only flat mirrors. The instrument provides path difference scanning through the translation of one reflector. During the scanning, the moving reflector is controlled by an optical system that keeps its direction constant within a tolerable value and provides an accurate interferometric measurement of the path difference variation. Therefore, a regular interferogram sampling is obtained, producing a nominal spectral impulse response and an accurate spectral calibration. The first results presented in this paper show a measured spectral resolution of delta(sigma)=0.33 cm-1 (interval between spectral samples). This was obtained with a sampling interval of 29 nm (path difference) and 512 K samples from a one-sided interferogram using a cosine FT. Such a sampling interval should allow the recording of large bandwidth spectra down to lambda=58 nm with an ultimate resolving power of 500,000 at this wavelength. In order to check the instrument performances, we first recorded an interferogram from a He-Ne stabilized laser. This provided the actual spectral impulse function, which was found to be fully satisfactory. The determination of the impulse response distortion and of the noise on the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral range provided accurate information in the sampling error profile over a typical scan. Finally, the instrument has been moved to the SU5 undulator

  10. Application of a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor for receiving SH-EMAT signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Ik Keun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Shear horizontal (SH) waves propagate as a type of plate wave in a thin sheet. The dispersion characteristics of SH waves can be used for signal analysis. Therefore, SH-waves are useful for monitoring the structural health of a thin-sheet-structure. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), which is a non-contact ultrasonic transducer, can generate SH-waves easily by varying the shape and array of magnets and coils. Therefore, an EMAT can be applied to an automated ultrasonic testing system for structural health monitoring. When used as a sensor, however, the EMAT has a weakness in that electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise can occur easily in the automated system because of motors and electric devices. Alternatively, a fiber optic sensor works well in the same environment with EMI noise because it uses a light signal instead of an electric signal. In this paper, a fiber Fabry-Prot interferometer (FFPI) was proposed as a sensor to receive the SH-waves generated by an EMAT. A simple test was performed to verify the performance of the FFPI sensor. It is thus shown that the FFPI can receive SH-wave signals clearly.

  11. Fabry-Perot-like interference security image structures: From passive to active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloukas, B.; Trottier-Lapointe, W.; Martinu, L.

    2014-01-01

    Counterfeiting of products and important documents is at an all-time high and is costing the world economy hundreds of billions of dollars yearly as well as posing significant safety and health hazards through the production of uncertified goods, e.g., pharmaceutical products. To limit these effects, interference-based optical security devices offering an angular color shift are still widely in use. Unfortunately, commercial iridescent materials are now readily available and represent a potential source of counterfeiting. In this short review, we first describe the basic principles behind passive interference security image structures (ISIS) and the qualities which have resulted in their integration into most important documents. Various features which have been added to ISIS in order to make them harder to duplicate yet simpler to authenticate are also presented (metamerism, magnetic materials, diffraction, etc.). We then address the implementation of active materials, mainly electrochromic WO 3 as a means of generating two-level authentication devices. Finally, we discuss some general considerations to keep in mind when developing features for security applications. - Highlights: • We review Fabry–Perot-like metal-dielectric filters used in optical security. • We discuss/demonstrate recent additions: metamerism, magnetism and diffraction. • We demonstrate a feature based on the use of thin metallic mirrors. • We cover recent developments in the use of active materials. • We demonstrate an electrochromic feature with two levels of authentication

  12. Active cancellation of residual amplitude modulation in a frequency-modulation based Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinan; Wang, Yicheng; Pratt, Jon R

    2016-03-01

    Residual amplitude modulation (RAM) is one of the most common noise sources known to degrade the sensitivity of frequency modulation spectroscopy. RAM can arise as a result of the temperature dependent birefringence of the modulator crystal, which causes the orientation of the crystal's optical axis to shift with respect to the polarization of the incident light with temperature. In the fiber-based optical interferometer used on the National Institute of Standards and Technology calculable capacitor, RAM degrades the measured laser frequency stability and correlates with the environmental temperature fluctuations. We have demonstrated a simple approach that cancels out excessive RAM due to polarization mismatch between the light and the optical axis of the crystal. The approach allows us to measure the frequency noise of a heterodyne beat between two lasers individually locked to different resonant modes of a cavity with an accuracy better than 0.5 ppm, which meets the requirement to further determine the longitudinal mode number of the cavity length. Also, this approach has substantially mitigated the temperature dependency of the measurements of the cavity length and consequently the capacitance.

  13. Fabry-Perot-like interference security image structures: From passive to active

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloukas, B., E-mail: bill.baloukas@polymtl.ca; Trottier-Lapointe, W.; Martinu, L., E-mail: ludvik.martinu@polymtl.ca

    2014-05-30

    Counterfeiting of products and important documents is at an all-time high and is costing the world economy hundreds of billions of dollars yearly as well as posing significant safety and health hazards through the production of uncertified goods, e.g., pharmaceutical products. To limit these effects, interference-based optical security devices offering an angular color shift are still widely in use. Unfortunately, commercial iridescent materials are now readily available and represent a potential source of counterfeiting. In this short review, we first describe the basic principles behind passive interference security image structures (ISIS) and the qualities which have resulted in their integration into most important documents. Various features which have been added to ISIS in order to make them harder to duplicate yet simpler to authenticate are also presented (metamerism, magnetic materials, diffraction, etc.). We then address the implementation of active materials, mainly electrochromic WO{sub 3} as a means of generating two-level authentication devices. Finally, we discuss some general considerations to keep in mind when developing features for security applications. - Highlights: • We review Fabry–Perot-like metal-dielectric filters used in optical security. • We discuss/demonstrate recent additions: metamerism, magnetism and diffraction. • We demonstrate a feature based on the use of thin metallic mirrors. • We cover recent developments in the use of active materials. • We demonstrate an electrochromic feature with two levels of authentication.

  14. Rugged Low Temperature Actuators for Tunable Fabry Perot Optical Filters, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Why are rugged, low temperature actuator materials important? By themselves, they are useless; however, when fabricated into thin films and integrated into optical...

  15. Musical instrument recordings made with a fiber Fabry-Perot cavity: photonic guitar pickup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Nicholas; Paz-Soldan, Daniel; Kung, Peter; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2010-04-10

    A 1 cm long, low-finesse fiber-optic cavity was used as a transducer for the vibrations of the soundboard of an acoustic guitar and of a violin. The reflected light is detected and then amplified and recorded using conventional audio instrumentation. The fiber-optic pickup is found to have a high response range in both amplitude (up to 100 microm displacement) and audio frequency (DC to 20 kHz) and good linearity up to a displacement of 225 microm. The audio noise is found to arise from the fiber-optic cables and, to a lesser extent, from the laser and laser driver.

  16. Transmission-enabled fiber Fabry-Perot cavity based on a deeply etched slotted micromirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad A; Sabry, Yasser M; Sadek, Mohamed; Nassar, Ismail M; Khalil, Diaa A

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we report the analysis, fabrication, and characterization of an optical cavity built using a Bragg-coated fiber (BCF) mirror and a metal-coated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) slotted micromirror, where the latter allows transmission output from the cavity. Theoretical modeling, using Fourier optics analysis for the cavity response based on tracing the propagation of light back and forth between the mirrors, is presented. Detailed simulation analysis is carried out for the spectral response of the cavity under different design conditions. MEMS chips of the slotted micromirror are fabricated using deep reactive ion etching of a silicon-on-insulator substrate with different device-etching depths of 150 μm and 80 μm with aluminum and gold metal coating, respectively. The cavity is characterized as an optical filter using a BCF with reflectivity that is larger than 95% in a 300 nm range across the E-band and the L-band. Versatile filter characteristics were obtained for different values of the MEMS micromirror slit width and cavity length. A free spectral range (FSR) of about 33 nm and a quality factor of about 196 were obtained for a 5.5 μm width aluminum slit, while an FSR of about 148 nm and a quality factor of about 148 were obtained for a 1.5 μm width gold slit. The presented structure opens the door for wide spectral response transmission-type MEMS filters.

  17. Transfer function of analog fiber-optic systems driven by Fabry-Perot lasers: comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyula, Veszely

    2006-10-01

    A bad notation makes difficult the understanding of the paper of Capmany et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22, 2099 (2005)]. The reason is that the real time function and the complex time function run into one another.

  18. Ultra-Precise Measurement of Distance by Fabry-Perot Resonator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Číp, Ondřej; Petrů, František; Lazar, Josef; Buchta, Zdeněk

    T118, - (2005), s. 45-47 ISSN 0031-8949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP102/02/P122 Keywords : length measurements * laser interferometer * optical resonator Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2004

  19. Highly directive Fabry-Perot leaky-wave nanoantennas based on optical partially reflective surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente-Crespo, M.; Mateo-Segura, C., E-mail: C.Mateo-Segura@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-04

    Nanoantennas enhance the conversion between highly localized electromagnetic fields and far-field radiation. Here, we investigate the response of a nano-patch partially reflective surface backed with a silver mirror to an optical source embedded at the centre of the structure. Using full wave simulations, we demonstrate a two orders of magnitude increased directivity compared to the isotropic radiator, 50% power confinement to a 13.8° width beam and a ±16 nm bandwidth. Our antenna does not rely on plasmonic phenomena thus reducing non-radiative losses and conserving source coherence.

  20. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H. [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Mogi, D. [Development and Marketing Department, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka, Kogyo Co., Ltd., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0063 (Japan); Tanioka, T. [Shibukawa Development Research Laboratory, New Products Development Division, Kanto Denka Kogyo Co., Ltd., Shibukawa City, Gunma 377-8513 (Japan); Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Université de Liège, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, allée de la Chimie 3, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium)

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  1. Online characterization of isomeric/isobaric components in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke by tunable synchrotron radiation vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and photoionization efficiency curve simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Hu, Yonghua; Wang, Jian; Ye, Lili; Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Zhixiang

    2013-12-17

    A newly developed, qualitative and quantitative method based on tunable synchrotron radiation vacuum ultraviolet photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SR-VUV-PI-TOFMS) and photoionization efficiency (PIE) curve simulation was applied for the online analysis of isomers and isobaric compounds in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. After blocking the particulate phase components by the Cambridge filter pad, a puff of fresh gas-phase cigarette smoke was immediately introduced into a vacuum ionization chamber through a heated capillary, then was photoionized, and analyzed by a TOF mass spectrometer. The PIE curves for the mass peaks up to m/z = 106 were measured between 8.0 and 10.7 eV. Some components could be directly identified by their discriminated ionization energies (IEs) on the PIE curve. By simulating the PIE curve with the sum of scaled absolute photoionization cross sections (PICSs), complex isomeric/isobaric compounds along with their mole fractions could be obtained when the best-fitting was realized between experimental and simulated PIE curves. A series of reported toxic compounds for quantification, such as 1,3-butadiene (m/z = 54), 1,3-cyclopentadiene (m/z = 66), benzene (m/z = 78), xylene (m/z = 106), 2-propenal (m/z = 56), acetone and propanal (m/z = 58), crotonaldehyde (m/z = 70), furan and isoprene (m/z = 68), were all found to have other isomers and/or isobaric compounds with considerable abundances. Some isomers have never been reported previously in cigarette smoke, like C5H6 isomers 1-penten-3-yne, 3-penten-1-yne, and 1-penten-4-yne at m/z = 66. Isomeric/isobaric compounds characterization for the mass peaks and mole fraction calculations were discussed in detail below 10.7 eV, an energy value covering several conventional used VUV light sources.

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet spectra from highly ionized oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, R.; Pihl, J.; Hallin, R.; Lindskog, J.; Marelius, A.; Sharma, K.

    1976-03-01

    Transitions in Li-like, He-like and H-like oxygen have been observed in the wavelength region 350-1150 A. A number of lines assigned as transitions in the doubly excited quartet system of O VI are reported. Lifetimes for the 4f 3 F term in O VII, 4f 2 F, 4d 2 D, 4p 2 P terms and for the 2s4f 4 F term in O VI have been measured to 13+-6 ps, 48+-3 ps, 29+-4 ps, 73+-8 ps and 47+-4 ps respectively. (Auth.)

  3. Polarized vacuum ultraviolet and X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.A.R.

    1978-01-01

    The most intense source of polarized vacuum UV and X-radiation is synchrotron radiation, which exhibits a degree of partially polarized light between about 80-100%. However, the radiation transmitted by vacuum UV monochromators can also be highly polarized. The Seya-Namioka type of monochromator can produce partially polarized radiation between 50-80%. For certain experiments it is necessary to know the degree of polarisation of the radiation being used. Also, when synchrotron radiation and a monochromator are combined the polarization characteristic of both should be known in order to make full use of these polarization properties. The polarizing effect on monochromators (i.e. diffraction gratings) have been measured at the Seya angle and at grazing angles for various spectral orders. The author presents the first experimental evidence that the reciprocity law holds for polarization by reflection where the angle of incidence and diffraction are unequal. These results are reviewed along with the techniques for measuring the degree of polarization. (Auth.)

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of tetrahydrothiophene and sulfolane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, A.A.; Colon, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vacuum uv photolysis of tetrahydrothiophene (THT) involves the breaking of the S to α-C bond. Besides ethylene, C 3 H 6 and 1,3-butadiene are also formed. Photolyses of THT, tetrahydrofuran, and pyrrolidine are similar. The vacuum uv photolysis of tetramethylene sulfone (sulfolane) was also studied; products are SO 2 , cyclobutane, 1-butene, and ethylene. No cis-2-butene was observed

  5. Quasar Massive Ionized Outflows Traced by CIV λ1549 and [OIII]λλ4959,5007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marziani, Paola [National Institute for Astrophysics, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Rome (Italy); Negrete, C. Alenka; Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico); Martínez-Aldama, Mary L.; Del Olmo, Ascensión [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Granada (Spain); D' Onofrio, Mauro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Stirpe, Giovanna M., E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it [Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna (INAF), Bologna (Italy)

    2017-09-27

    The most luminous quasars (with bolometric luminosities are ≳ 10{sup 47} erg/s) show a high prevalence of CIV λ1549 and [OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission line profiles with strong blueshifts. Blueshifts are interpreted as due to Doppler effect and selective obscuration, and indicate outflows occurring over a wide range of spatial scales. We found evidence in favor of the nuclear origin of the outflows diagnosed by [OIII]λλ4959,5007. The ionized gas mass, kinetic power, and mechanical thrust are extremely high, and suggest widespread feedback effects on the host galaxies of very luminous quasars, at cosmic epochs between 2 and 6 Gyr from the Big Bang. In this mini-review we summarize results obtained by our group and reported in several major papers in the last few years with an eye on challenging aspects of quantifying feedback effects in large samples of quasars.

  6. Quasar Massive Ionized Outflows Traced by CIV λ1549 and [OIII]λλ4959,5007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marziani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most luminous quasars (with bolometric luminosities are ≳ 1047 erg/s show a high prevalence of CIV λ1549 and [OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission line profiles with strong blueshifts. Blueshifts are interpreted as due to Doppler effect and selective obscuration, and indicate outflows occurring over a wide range of spatial scales. We found evidence in favor of the nuclear origin of the outflows diagnosed by [OIII]λλ4959,5007. The ionized gas mass, kinetic power, and mechanical thrust are extremely high, and suggest widespread feedback effects on the host galaxies of very luminous quasars, at cosmic epochs between 2 and 6 Gyr from the Big Bang. In this mini-review we summarize results obtained by our group and reported in several major papers in the last few years with an eye on challenging aspects of quantifying feedback effects in large samples of quasars.

  7. FABRY-PEROT VERSUS SLIT SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF PORES AND ACTIVE NETWORK: ANALYSIS OF IBIS AND HINODE DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, Philip G.; De Wijn, Alfred; Tritschler, Alexandra; Uitenbroek, Han; Reardon, Kevin; Cauzzi, Gianna

    2010-01-01

    We discuss spectropolarimetric measurements of photospheric (Fe I 630.25 nm) and chromospheric (Ca II 854.21 nm) spectral lines in and around small magnetic flux concentrations, including a pore. Our long-term goal is to diagnose properties of the magnetic field near the base of the corona. We compare ground-based two-dimensional spectropolarimetric measurem ents with (almost) simultaneous space-based slit spectropolarimetry. We address the question of noise and crosstalk in the measurements and attempt to determine the suitability of Ca II measurements with imaging spectropolarimeters for the determination of chromospheric magnetic fields. The ground-based observations were obtained 2008 May 20, with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) in spectropolarimetric mode operated at the Dunn Solar Telescope at Sunspot, NM. The space observations were obtained with the Spectro-Polarimeter of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard the Japanese Hinode satellite. The agreement between the near-simultaneous co-spatial IBIS and Hinode Stokes-V profiles at 630.25 nm is excellent, with V/I amplitudes compatible to within 1%. The IBIS QU measurements are affected by residual crosstalk from V, arising from calibration inaccuracies, not from any inherent limitation of imaging spectroscopy. We use a Principal Component Analysis to quantify the detected crosstalk. QU profiles with V crosstalk subtracted are in good agreement with the Hinode measurements, but are noisier owing to fewer collected photons. Chromospheric magnetic fields are notoriously difficult to constrain by polarization of Ca II lines alone. However, we demonstrate that high cadence, high angular resolution monochromatic images of fibrils in Ca II and Hα, seen clearly in IBIS observations, can be used to improve the magnetic field constraints, under conditions of high electrical conductivity. Such work is possible only with time series data sets from two-dimensional spectroscopic instruments such as IBIS, under conditions of good seeing.

  8. Compact vibration isolation and suspension for Australian International Gravitational Observatory: Performance in a 72 m Fabry Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, P.; Dumas, J. C.; Woolley, A. A.; Zhao, C.; Blair, D. G.

    2009-11-01

    This paper describes the first demonstration of vibration isolation and suspension systems, which have been developed with view to application in the proposed Australian International Gravitational Observatory. In order to achieve optimal performance at low frequencies new components and techniques have been combined to create a compact advanced vibration isolator structure. The design includes two stages of horizontal preisolation and one stage of vertical preisolation with resonant frequencies ˜100 mHz. The nested structure facilitates a compact design and enables horizontal preisolation stages to be configured to create a superspring configuration, where active feedback can enable performance close to the limit set by seismic tilt coupling. The preisolation stages are combined with multistage three-dimensional (3D) pendulums. Two isolators suspending mirror test masses have been developed to form a 72 m optical cavity with finesse ˜700 in order to test their performance. The suitability of the isolators for use in suspended optical cavities is demonstrated through their ease of locking, long term stability, and low residual motion. An accompanying paper presents the local control system and shows how simple upgrades can substantially improve residual motion performance.

  9. Micro Extrinsic Fiber-Optic Fabry-Perot Interferometric Sensor Based on Erbium- and Boron-Doped Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun-Jiang, Rao; Bing, Xu; Zeng-Ling, Ran; Yuan, Gong

    2010-01-01

    Micro extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometers (MEFPIs), with cavity lengths of up to ∼ 9 μm and maximum fringe contrast of ∼ 19 dB, are fabricated by chemically etching Er- and B-doped optical fibers and then splicing the etched fiber to a single-mode fiber, for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The strain and temperature responses of the MEFPI sensors are investigated experimentally. Good linearity and high sensitivity are achieved. Such a type of MEFPI sensor is cost-effective and suitable for mass production, indicating its great potential for a wide range of applications. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  10. Monostatic coaxial 1.5 μm laser Doppler velocimeter using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    on heterodyne detection, our sFPI-LDV has the advantages of having large remote sensing range not limited by laser coherence, high velocity dynamic range not limited by detector bandwidth and inherent sign discrimination of Doppler shift. The more optically efficient coaxial arrangement where transmitter...... achieves ~40 dB reduction in strength of unwanted reflections (i.e. leakage) while maintaining high optical efficiency. Experiments with a solid target demonstrate the performance of the sFPI-LDV system with high sensitivity down to pW level at present update rates up to 10 Hz....

  11. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D. Development of new vacuum ultraviolet area optical materials realizing next generation short wavelength optical lithography; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Jisedai tanhacho hikari lithography wo jitsugensuru shinku shigaiiki kogaku zairyo no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As materials for next generation lithography use optical device using short wavelength light sources such as F{sub 2} and Ar{sub 2}, the development was proceeded with of fluoride monocrystal materials and 12-inch class large/high quality monocrystal production technology. Studies were made in the following five fields: 1) proposal/design of new materials and the heightening of performance: 2) establishment of the large/high quality crystal production method; 3) evaluation of optical properties and elucidation of micro-defect formation mechanism; 4) comprehensive investigational research; 5) study of the evaluation technology by vacuum ultraviolet area pulse light. In 1), for the development of the optimum materials, a lot of materials were tried to be monocrystallized, and the permeability was estimated by measuring the reflectance in the vacuum ultraviolet area. As to LiCaAlF{sub 6}, monocrystal with 1-inch diameter was made by the Bridgman method. In 2), studies were made of conditions for large crystal growth by the pull method, large crystal growth by the Bridgman method, and the structure of production equipment for crystals with larger diameter. (NEDO)

  12. Assessment of FUN-1 vital dye staining: Yeast with a block in the vacuolar sorting pathway have impaired ability to form CIVS when stained with FUN-1 fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essary, Brandin D; Marshall, Pamela A

    2009-08-01

    FUN-1 [2-chloro-4-(2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-(benzo-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-methylidene)-1-phenylquinolinium iodide] is a fluorescent dye used in studies of yeast and other fungi to monitor cell viability in the research lab and to assay for active fungal infection in the clinical setting. When the plasma membrane is intact, fungal cells internalize FUN-1 and the dye is seen as diffuse green cytosolic fluorescence. FUN-1 is then transported to the vacuole in metabolically active wild type cells and subsequently is compacted into fluorescent red cylindrical intravacuolar structures (CIVS) by an unknown transport pathway. This dye is used to determine yeast viability, as only live cells form CIVS. However, in live Saccharomyces cerevisiae with impaired protein sorting to the yeast vacuole, we report decreased to no CIVS formation, depending on the cellular location of the block in the sorting pathway. Cells with a block in vesicle-mediated transport from the Golgi to prevacuolar compartment (PVC) or with a block in recycling from the PVC to the Golgi demonstrate a substantial impairment in CIVS formation. Instead, the FUN-1 dye is seen either in small punctate structures under fluorescence or as diffuse red cytosol under white light. Thus, researchers using FUN-1 should be cognizant of the limitations of this procedure in determining cell viability as there are viable yeast mutants with impaired CIVS formation.

  13. Autonomy, Affinity, and the Assessment of Damages: Acb v Thomson Medical Pte Ltd [2017] SGCA 20 and Shaw v Kovak [2017] EWCA Civ 1028.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purshouse, Craig

    2017-11-17

    In ACB v Thomson Medical Pte Ltd [2017] SGCA 20 and Shaw v Kovak [2017] EWCA Civ 1028, the idea that 'lost autonomy' should be recognised as a new form of actionable damage in the tort of negligence was rejected in Singapore and England, respectively. This, it will be argued, was the correct outcome. Protecting an interest in autonomy via the tort of negligence would undermine the coherence of that tort. In ACB, however, a new, different, form of damage was recognised: loss of 'genetic affinity'. This commentary will discuss some problems that protecting an interest in 'genetic affinity' raises before critiquing the approach to assessing damages in ACB. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A Slater parameter optimisation interface for the CIV3 atomic structure code and its possible use with the R-matrix close coupling collision code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, B.C.; Hibbert, A.

    1989-11-01

    Details are here provided of amendments to the atomic structure code CIV3 which allow the optional adjustment of Slater parameters and average energies of configurations so that they result in improved energy levels and eigenvectors. It is also indicated how, in principle, the resultant improved eigenvectors can be utilised by the R-matrix collision code, thus providing an optimised target for close coupling collision strength calculations. An analogous computational method was recently reported for distorted wave collision strength calculations and applied to Fe XIII. The general method is suitable for the computation of collision strengths for complex ions and in some cases can then provide a basis for collision strength calculations in ions where ab initio computations break down or result in unnecessarily large errors. (author)

  15. Vacuum ultraviolet backgrounds from space - Ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, R.E.; Larrabee, J.C.; Leblanc, F.J.

    1989-01-01

    The airglow, scattering, and auroral emission sources of the VUV background of the earth's atmosphere set limits on the usefulness of UV space observations, but facilitate such passive remote sensing types as electron density profiling and auroral location and strength determinations, which are presently discussed. UV auroral imaging has to date been conducted by four different experiments: (1) the VUV Backgrounds observations (flown on the S3-4 satellite in 1978); (2) the Horizon UV Program experiment (flown on STS-4 in 1982); the HILAT satellite's Atmospheric/Ionospheric Monitor (1986); and the Atmospheric/Ionospheric Remote Sensor (flown on the Polar BEAR satellite, 1988-1989). 18 refs

  16. Highly Resolved Studies of Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakar, Sandeep

    We use measurements of dispersed fluorescence from electronically excited photoions to study fundamental aspects of intramolecular dynamics. Our experimental innovations make it possible to obtain highly resolved photoionization data that offer qualitative insights into molecular scattering. In particular, we obtain vibrationally resolved data to probe coupling between the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom by studying the distribution of vibrational energy among photoions. Vibrationally resolved branching ratios are measured over a broad spectral range of excitation energy and their non-Franck-Condon behavior is used as a tool to investigate two diverse aspects of shape resonant photoionization. First, vibrational branching ratios are obtained for the SiF_4 5a _1^{-1} and CS_2 5sigma_{rm u} ^{-1} photoionization channels to help elucidate the microscopic aspects of shape resonant wavefunction for polyatomic molecules. It is shown that in such molecules the shape resonant wavefunction is not necessarily attributable to a specific bond in the molecule. Second, the multichannel aspect of shape resonant photoionization dynamics, reflected in continuum channel coupling, is investigated by obtaining vibrational branching ratios for the 2 sigma_{rm u}^{ -1} and 4sigma^{ -1} photoionization of the isoelectronic molecules N_2 and CO, respectively. These data indicate that effects of continuum coupling may be widespread. We also present the first set of rotationally resolved data over a wide energy range for the 2 sigma_{rm u}^{ -1} photoionization of N_2. These data probe the partitioning of the angular momentum between the photoelectron and photoion, and highlight the multicenter nature of the molecular potential. These case studies illustrate the utility of dispersed fluorescence measurements as a complement to photoelectron spectroscopy for obtaining highly resolved data for molecular photoionization. These measurements makes it possible to probe intrinsically molecular aspects, such as the vibration and rotation, of photoionization dynamics over an extended spectral range when used in conjunction with synchrotron radiation as the exciting source. Furthermore, the high resolution made possible by this technique provides high selectivity for accessing weaker ionization channels which are the ones strongly affected by resonant activity, and the present study repeatedly stresses the importance of this capability in discovering and deciphering new trends in resonant molecular ionization dynamics.

  17. A vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometric study of acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lixia; Yang, Bin; Yang, Rui; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Jing; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi; Zhang, Yunwu; Qi, Fei; Lam, Chow-Shing; Li, Wai-Kee

    2005-05-19

    The photoionization and dissociative photoionization of acetone have been studied at the photon energy range of 8-20 eV. Photoionization efficiency spectra for ions CH3COCH3+, CH3+, C2H3+, C3H3+, C3H5+, CH(2-)CO+, CH3CO+, C3H4O+, and CH3COCH2+ have been measured. In addition, the energetics of the dissociative photoionization has been examined by ab initio Gaussian-3 (G3) calculations. The computational results are useful in establishing the dissociation channels near the ionization thresholds. With the help of G3 results, the dissociation channels for the formation of the fragment ions CH3CO+, CH2CO+, CH3+, C3H3+, and CH3COCH2+ have been established. The G3 results are in fair to excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  18. Vacuum Ultraviolet Single-Photon Postionization of Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chen Hsu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultraviolet (UV laser desorption and vacuum UV single-photon (VUV SP postionization were performed to ionize and successfully analyze 20 common amino acids. The analytical merit and efficiency of the ionization was compared with those of conventional UV matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (UV-MALDI. A VUV light source (118 nm was generated from the ninth harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, and the photon number was determined to be larger than 1012 for each laser pulse in the ionization region. In general, the detection sensitivity of VUV-SP-postionization was 10–100 times higher than that of conventional UV-MALDI. In particular, the ion signal from VUV-SP-postionization was considerably larger than that from UV-MALDI for analytes with low proton affinity such as glycine. However, some fragmentation of intact ions was observed in VUV-SP-postionization. Quantitative analysis performed using a glycine/histidine mixture and tryptophan/phenylalanine mixture revealed that the dynamic range of VUV-SP-postionization was one order of magnitude larger than that of UV-MALDI, indicating that VUV-SP-postionization is suitable for the quantitative analysis of amino acids.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of some hydrocarbons by electron impact technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo e Souza, A.C. de.

    1985-07-01

    A detailed description of the construction and operation of the electron impact spectrometer of the Electron Impact Laboratory at the Chemistry Institute of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro are presented. The main characteristics of this spectrometer are: incident energy from 0.5 to 3.0 KeV; angular range from -60 0 to + 60 0 ; energy loss from 0 to 500 eV; energy resolution from 0.5 to 2.5 eV and; electron velocity analyser equal to electrostatic (Mollenstedt type. The data acquisition system is based on a microcomputer Motorola; recently an APPLE II system has been incorporated to the spectrometer. Electron energy loss spectra for the nitrogen molecule as well as for some hydrocarbons (C 2 H 6 , C 2 H 4 , C 2 H 2 ) have been obtained. The data were converted into double differential cross sections and generalized oscillator strenghts. (author) [pt

  20. Vacuum ultraviolet light generation applications to resonance ionization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.

    1986-08-01

    A theoretical discussion is given for sum mixing with unfocused Gaussian beams. The four-wave sum and difference mixing are carried out in two ''active'' gases: xenon and krypton. In the negatively dispersive regions buffer gases are added to achieve phase matching. 6 refs., 2 figs

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) absorption spectra of chromatin and its components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonova, N.Y.; Kiseleva, M.N.; Petrov, M.Y.; Tsyganenko, N.M.; Bubyakina, V.V.; Chikhirzhina, G.I.

    1984-01-01

    The electron absorption spectra of thin films of chromatin and chromatin components in the ultraviolet region (140-280 nm) were investigated. The absorption coefficients μ(lambda) of chromatin, nucleosomes with and without histone H1, total histones (TH), and DNA were compared. The spectra of nucleosomes differ from the sum-spectrum of DNA plus TH. The chromatin and nucleosome spectra are not similar in the spectral region of 190-160 nm. The lack of additivity of absorption coefficients at different wavelengths may be explained by different conformational changes of DNA, TH in nucleosomes and chromatin during the process of drying aqueous solutions for the preparation of thin films. The μ(lambda) values are useful for an estimate of the DNA and TH absorption in chromatin and nucleosomes in discussing UV and VUV irradiation damages. (Auth.)

  2. Vacuum ultraviolet images of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.M.; Cornett, R.H.; Hill, R.S.; ST Systems Corp., Lanham, MD)

    1987-01-01

    Linearized, absolutely calibrated VUV images of the LMC with a resolution of about 50 arcsec are presented. The images were made by a sounding rocket payload in two bandpasses with effective wavelengths for hot stars near 1500 A and 1930 A. The flux in each bandpass is measured for the associations in the list of Lucke and Hodge (1970). The results are discussed and their relationship to the overall characteristics of star formation in the LMC are discussed. A simple model for propagating star formation in the LMC is presented whose results closely resemble the distribution of associations revealed by the VUV images. 63 references

  3. High resolution absorption spectrum of nitrogen in the vacuum ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guertler, P.; Saile, V.; Koch, E.E.

    1977-03-01

    The photoabsorption cross section of molecular N 2 has been determined in the range from 10-35 eV utilizing the continuum of synchrotron radiation from the DORIS storage ring, a 3 m normal incidence monochromator of 0.03 A resolution and photoelectrical recording. New detailed features are observed which make possible a refined analysis of the valence-Rydberg interaction of the b 1 πsub(u)-c 1 πsub(u), b' 1 Σ + sub(u)-c' 1 Σ + sub(u) states as well as an improved analysis of Rydberg series leading to the X 2 Σ + sub(g), the A 2 πsub(u), the B 2 Σ + sub(u) and the C 2 Σ + sub(u) states of the N + 2 ion. (orig.) [de

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization and photodissociation of polyatomic molecules and radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.Y. [Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In the past decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the photodissociation (PD) dynamics of triatomic molecules. However, the PD study of radicals, especially polyatomic radicals, has remained essentially an unexplored research area. Detailed state-to-state PD cross sections for radicals in the UV and VUV provide challenges not only for dynamical calculations, but also for ab initio quantum chemical studies. The authors have developed a laser based pump-probe apparatus for the measurement of absolute PD cross sections for CH{sub 3}S and HS is summarized.

  5. HARLIE 3-D Aerosol Backscatter and Wind Profile Measurements During Recent Field Experiments: Background Noise Reduction with a Fabry-Perot Etalon Filter in the HARLIE System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Egbert, Cameron; Anderson, Mark; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Background noise reduction of War signals is one of the most important factors in achieving better signal to noise ratio and precise atmospheric data from Mar measurements. Fahey Perot etalons have been used in several lidar systems as narrow band pass filters in the reduction of scattered sunlight. An slalom with spectral bandwidth, (Delta)v=0.23/cm, free spectral range, FSR=6.7/cm, and diameter, d=24mm was installed in a fiber coupled box which included a 500 pm bandwidth interference Filter. The slalom box couples the telescope and detector with 200 pm core fibers and 21 mm focal length collimators. The angular magnification is M=48. The etalon box was inserted into the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) system and tested during the HARGLO-2 intercomparison campaign conducted in November 2001 at Wallops Island, Virginia. This paper presents the preliminary test results of the slalom and a complete analysis will be presented at the conference.

  6. Two-dimensional distribution of electron temperature in ergodic layer of LHD measured from line intensity ratio of CIV and NeVIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Erhui; Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi; Murakami, Izumi; Oishi, Tetsutarou; Dong, Chunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional distribution of impurity lines emitted from ergodic layer with stochastic magnetic field lines in Large Helical Device (LHD) has been observed using a space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer. The two-dimensional electron temperature distribution in the ergodic layer is successfully measured using the line intensity ratio of Li-like NeVIII 2s-3p ( 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 3/2 : 88.09 Å, 2 S 1/2 - 2 P 1/2 : 88.13 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 102.91 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 103.09 Å) transitions emitted from radial location near Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS). The intensity ratio analyzed with ADAS code shows no dependence on the electron density below 10 14 cm -3 . The result indicates a little higher temperature, i.e., 220 eV, in the poloidal location at high-field side near helical coils called O-point compared to the temperature near X-point, i.e., 170 eV. The electron temperature profile is also measured at the edge boundary of ergodic layer using the line intensity ratio of Li-like CIV 2p-3d ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 D 3/2 : 384.03 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 D 5/2 : 384.18 Å) to 2p-3s ( 2 P 1/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.53 Å, 2 P 3/2 - 2 S 1/2 : 419.71 Å) transitions. The intensity ratios analyzed with CHIANTI, ADAS and T.Kawachi codes show a slightly higher temperature near O-point, i.e., 25 eV for CHIANTI, 21 eV for ADAS and 11 eV for T.Kawachi's codes, compared to the temperature at X-point, i.e., 15 - 21 eV for CHIANTI, 9 - 15 eV for ADAS and 6 - 9 eV for T.Kawachi codes. It suggests that the transport coefficient in the ergodic layer is varied with three-dimensional structure. (author)

  7. Surface-micromachined Bragg Reflectors Based on Multiple Airgap/SiO2 Layers for CMOS-compatible Fabry-perot Filters in the UV-visible Spectral Range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaderi, M.; Ayerden, N.P.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In CMOS-compatible optical filter designs, SiO2 is often used as the low-index material, limiting the optical contrast (nHi/nLo) to about 2. Using the air as low-index material improves the optical contrast by about 50%, thus increasing the reflectivity and bandwidth at a given design complexity.

  8. Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 2. High-latitude circulation and interplanetary magnetic field dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmert, J.T.; Hernandez, G.; Jarvis, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze upper thermospheric (similar to 250 km) nighttime horizontal neutral wind patterns, during geomagnetically quiet (Kp S), Halley (76 degrees S, 27 degrees W), Millstone Hill (43 degrees N, 72 degrees W), Sondre...

  9. Photochemical preparation of aluminium oxide layers via vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of a polymeric hexanoato aluminium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennrich, L.; Khalil, H.; Bundesmann, C.; Decker, U.; Gerlach, J.W.; Helmstedt, U.; Manova, D.; Naumov, S.; Prager, L.

    2013-01-01

    By means of photochemical conversion of thin layers of a polymeric hexanoato aluminium complex as the precursor, thin aluminium oxide layers were prepared onto silicon wafers. The precursor compound was synthesized and characterized by several analytical techniques like NMR, FTIR, XPS, ICP, and found to be a polymeric aluminium-containing coordination compound which has been proposed to be a hydroxo-bridged aluminium chain with pendant hexanoyl side-chains ascertained as catena-poly[{di(κ-O,O-hexanoato)aluminium}(μ-hydroxo)] (PHAH). Thin layers deposited from a solution of PHAH in toluene onto silicon wafers were irradiated using VUV radiation from a xenon excimer lamp. The layers were characterized by XPS, XRD, XRR, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. VUV radiation with a radiant exposure of E = 36 J cm −2 led to almost carbon-free amorphous layers with a composition close to that of alumina having a density of about 2.1 g cm −3 . Thus, using the example of a polymeric aluminium complex, the potential of the photochemical conversion of metal complexes into oxides could be shown as an alternative method, in addition to sol–gel techniques, for the generation of thin plane metal-oxide layers at normal temperature and pressure. Highlights: ► A polymeric aluminium complex was synthesized and characterized by NMR, FTIR, XPS and ICP. ► Thin layers of the compound were irradiated using vacuum-UV radiation and converted to AlO x . ► Quantum-chemical calculations explain the conversion mechanism.

  10. Predominance of membrane damage in yeast cells in suspension with monochromatic 163-nm vacuum ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Ito, A.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of monochromatic 163-nm ultraviolet light on aqueous suspensions of yeast cells were studied under N 2 and O 2 bubbling conditions. This is a continuation of previous attempts at using a bromine resonance lamp immersed in cell suspension as a means of treating cells with water radicals (163-nm photons decompose water molecules into H atoms and OH' radicals). We found that inactivation occurred only under O 2 bubbling. Genetic changes were induced, but this was attributed to the effects of far-uv components which contaminate the emission. A characteristic feature of the vacuum uv inactivation was a decrease in survival when cells were held in liquid after irradiation. The presence of p-nitrosodimethylaniline (a known OH' scavenger) during irradiation prevented the O 2 -dependent enhancement of inactivation. Cells irradiated under N 2 bubbling showed no such enhancement. Thus, the fast access of oxygen is a necessary condition for fixing initial damage. Initial damage of this type seems to be amplified during subsequent incubation, causing further killing. Cells irradiated under N 2 bubbling were not, however, free of damage, since dye permeability across the cell membrane of irradiated samples increased markedly with both N 2 and O 2 as tested by photodynamic induction of genetic changes using normally unpenetrable dye as a sensitizer. Spectrophotometric evidence for the presence of toluidine blue in the irradiated cells are also presented

  11. Vacuum ultraviolet light production by nuclear irradiation of liquid and gaseous xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Recent Los Alamos investigations suggest that a liquefied noble element may be the long-sought medium for a nuclear-excited laser or flashlamp. Research is needed to confirm this finding and to provide a basis for design and application studies. Quantitative and qualitative information are needed on the nature and behavior of the excited species, the effects of impurities and additives in the liquid phase under nuclear excitation, and the existence and magnitudes of nonlinear effects. Questions that need to be addressed and the most appropriate types of facilities for this task are identified.

  12. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of CH4 and isotopomers. II. Product channel fields and absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jen-Han; Liu, Kopin; Min, Zhiyuan; Su, Hongmei; Bersohn, Richard; Preses, Jack; Larese, John Z.

    2000-01-01

    In part I of this work the relative velocities and anisotropies of the atomic H and D fragments from methane photolysis at 10.2 eV were measured. In this paper the relative abundance of the methyl and methylene fragments are reported. A complete set of quantum yields for the different photodissociation channels of each isotopomer is obtained by combining the two sets of data. Previously it was found that H atoms are almost four times more likely than D atoms to be ejected; now it is found that hydrogen molecule photofragments are much richer in H atoms than in D. Overall, the heavier D atoms are more likely than the H atoms to remain attached to the carbon atom. An implication for astrophysics is discussed. The VUV absorption spectra of CH 4 and CH 3 D are almost identical both at room temperature and 75 K. There is, as expected, no variation in the absorption spectrum with temperature. Evidence is given that all or almost all of the methylene is produced in the a 1 A 1 and not in the ground 3 B 1 state. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. Resolution of isomeric new designer stimulants using gas chromatography - Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and theoretical computations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škultéty, L'udovít; Fryčák, P.; Qiu, CL.; Smuts, J.; Shear-Laude, L.; Lemr, Karel; Mao, J.X.; Kroll, P.; Schug, K. A.; Szewczak, A.; Vaught, C.; Lurie, I.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 971, JUNE 8 (2017), s. 55-67 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Gas phase absorption * Time-dependent density functional theory * Isomeric drugs Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  14. Production and analysis of some atomic emission spectra in the vacuum ultraviolet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, F.G.

    1979-01-01

    The development of technical facilities for spectra analysis are described including the design, construction and adjustment of a grazing incidence spectrograph for the extreme ultraviolet and the improvements in light sources. The investigations of the fifth and fourth spectra of tantalum, the analysis of the sixth spectrum of tungsten, the extension of the analysis of the fourth spectrum of hafnium and a start of the analysis of the seventh spectrum of rhenium are presented. (C.F.)

  15. Advances in vacuum ultraviolet detection with multistep gaseous detectors and application to Cherenkov ring imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Breskin, Amos; Charpak, Georges; Peisert, Anna; Policarpo, Armando; Sauli, Fabio

    1981-01-01

    The multistep avalanche chamber permits an efficient detection of VUV photons. In a two-step proportional mode charges higher than 1 pC are obtained from single electrons. By using as the final localization step a spark chamber viewed by a TV digitizer it is easy to have imaging of complex patterns. This is applied to Cherenkov ring imaging and (K, pi ) separation with 3 sigma up to 320 GeV is envisaged. The properties of various photoionizable vapours have been studied. By combining a scintillation xenon chamber with a photoionization wire chamber, a resolution of 8.3% (FWHM) has been obtained for 5.9 keV X- rays using tetrakis(dimethylamine)-ethylene vapour. (15 refs).

  16. VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOABSORPTION SPECTRA OF NITRILE ICES FOR THEIR IDENTIFICATION ON PLUTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, B.; Pavithraa, S.; Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M.; Sekhar, B. N. Raja; Hill, H.; Mason, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Icy bodies, such as Pluto, are known to harbor simple and complex molecules. The recent New Horizons flyby of Pluto has revealed a complex surface composed of bright and dark ice surfaces, indicating a rich chemistry based on nitrogen (N 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and carbon monoxide (CO). Nitrile (CN) containing molecules such as acetonitrile (CH 3 CN), propionitrile (CH 3 CH 2 CN), butyronitrile (CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CN), and isobutyronitrile ((CH 3 ) 2 CHCN) are some of the nitrile molecules that are known to be synthesized by radiative processing of such simple ices. Through the provision of a spectral atlas for such compounds we propose that such nitriles may be identified from the ALICE payload on board New Horizons .

  17. Characterization of Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Radiation for the Development of a Fluorescent Lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatun, Hasina; Sharma, A. K.; Barhai, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    A negative unipolar pulsed voltage is applied to study internal electrical parameters of the xenon filled dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) sources. The VUV radiation emitted from these sources is characterized by means of the photoluminescence intensity of the red phosphor pellet. The red phosphor converts the VUV radiation into visible radiation and the emission spectra include a peak at 619.56 nm. The emission characteristics of the red phosphor are analyzed in terms of the pressure-distance (pd), rise time and frequency of the pulsed voltage waveform. The emission intensity measured at different operational conditions confirms that the formation and decay of the xenon excimer, Xe 2 *, increase with the increase in reduced electric field, E/N. After exceeding certain limits of E/N, the intensity of Xe 2 * decreases rapidly. (plasma technology)

  18. Internal energy selection in vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of ethanol and ethanol dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Internal energy selected ethanol monomer and ethanol dimer ions were prepared by threshold photoionization of a supersonic molecular beam seeded with ethanol. The dissociative photoionization processes of the monomer, the lowest-energy CH3-loss channel of the dimer, and the fragmentation of larger clusters were found to be disjunct from the ionization onset to about 12 eV, which made it possible to determine the 0 K appearance energy of C-C bond breaking in the H-donor unit of the ethanol dimer cation as 9.719 ± 0.004 eV. This reaction energy is used together with ab initio calculations in a thermochemical cycle to determine the binding energy change from the neutral ethanol dimer to a protonated ethanol-formaldehyde adduct. The cycle also shows general agreement between experiment, theory, and previously published enthalpies of formation. The role of the initial ionization site, or rather the initial photoion state, is also discussed based on the dimer breakdown diagram and excited state calculations. There is no evidence for isolated state behavior, and the ethanol dimer dissociative photoionization processes appear to be governed by statistical theory and the ground electronic state of the ion. In the monomer breakdown diagram, the smoothly changing branching ratio between H and CH3 loss is at odds with rate theory predictions, and shows that none of the currently employed few-parameter rate models, appropriate for experimental rate curve fitting, yields a correct description for this process in the experimental energy range.

  19. A vacuum ultraviolet photoionization study on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góbi, Sándor; Zhao, Long; Xu, Bo; Ablikim, Utuq; Ahmed, Musahid; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2018-01-01

    Pyrolysis products of ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) at 483 K were monitored on line and in situ via single photon photoionization reflectron time-of-flight spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) in the photon energy range of 9.00-17.50 eV. The photoionization efficiency curves (PIE) of the subliming product molecules were collected and allowed for detection of three class of products containing chlorine, nitrogen, and oxygen including atoms and free radicals. These results suggest a new insight into possible low-temperature decomposition pathways of NH4ClO4.

  20. Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2: Optical studies in the vacuum ultraviolet range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, V.; Osinniy, Viktor; Kotlov, A.

    2011-01-01

    done. It is demonstrated that the experimentally determined blueshift of the photoluminescence excitation and absorption spectra is larger than the theoretical predictions. The influence of point defects in the SiO2 matrix on the optical and luminescence properties of the embedded Si nanocrystals...... is discussed. Moreover, it is demonstrated that no energy transfer takes place between the SiO2 and Si nanocrystals when the excitation energy is higher than the band-to-band transition energy in SiO2....

  1. Excitation processes in organic systems under irradiation with vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shefer, Y.

    1983-08-01

    The subject of this work is the fluorescence of organic systems in the excitation range where phenomena of photon multiplication begin. It was hoped to reach the excitation energy above which the distribution of the various phenomena was constant and as a result, a linear function between the variation of the fluorescence intensity with variations of the excitation, would be obtained. The experimental set-up consisted mainly of suitable light sources, monochromators and detectors. The gated measuring system consisted of an oscilloscope, integrator and recorder. The material predominantly used in the experiments was anthracene whose absorption spectrum was investigated and calculated. The absorption spectra of various polycrystalline layers were also calculated. The absorption spectrum of a randomly ordered polycrystalline layer was compared with that of a hexane solution and a good correlation between the two spectra was obtained. For the study of the relationship between the excitation spectrum of anthracene and the order of crystal, the excitation spectrum of single crystals of anthracene was measured from 4 eV to 107 eV. For the excitation region from 10 eV to 23 eV the efficiency of exciting a singlet level by a photoelectron was calculated as a function of the kinetic energy of the photoelectron, assuming the efficiency of the recombination to be constant. The excitation spectra of single crystals of p-terphenyl, pyrene and phenanthrene were also examined. In all four crystals the excitation spectrum rises monotonically with an increase in the energy of the exciting photon. (author)

  2. Heats of Vaporization of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids by Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-07

    18) Emel’yanenko, V. N.; Verevkin, S. P.; Heintz, A.; Corfield, J.-A.; deyko, A.; Lovelock , K. R. J.; Licence, P.; Jones, R. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008...112, 11734. (19) Armstrong, J. P.; Hurst, C.; Jones, R. G.; Licence, P.; Lovelock , K. R. J.; Satterly, C. J.; Villar-Garcia, I. J. Phys. Chem. Chem...Phys. 2007, 9, 982. (20) Lovelock , K. R. J.; Deyko, A.; Corfield, J.-A.; Gooden, P. N.; Licence, P.; Jones, R. G. ChemPhysChem 2009, 10, 337. (21

  3. Heats of Vaporization of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids by Tunable Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoionization (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-31

    A.; deyko, A.; Lovelock , K. R. J.; Licence, P.; Jones, R. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 11734. (19) Armstrong, J. P.; Hurst, C.; Jones, R. G...Licence, P.; Lovelock , K. R. J.; Satterly, C. J.; Villar-Garcia, I. J. PCCP 2007, 9, 982. (20) Gross, J. H. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2008, 19, 1347

  4. Recent advances in incoherent light sources in the vacuum-ultraviolet (88-200nm) based on electric discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, B.K.; Carman, R.J.; Mildren, R.P.; Kane, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Rare-gas and rare gas-halide excimer lamps are powerful, frequency agile, mercury-free sources of high power, narrow band (10nm-30nm), UV and VUV radiation covering the wavelength range 88nm-320nm. A very efficient and practically convenient method of excitation is achieved using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). In the DBD, charge build-up on an insulating (dielectric) barrier at one or both of the electrodes provides an intrinsic mechanism for quenching the discharge before the transition to a high current discharge. The UV/VUV output from rare-gas DBD lamps is highly monochromatic, derived predominantly from 2nd excimer continuum, with negligible output at visible and infrared wavelengths. For DBD lamps powered by sinusoidal voltage waveforms (50Hz-100kHz), the electrical to optical conversion efficiency typically reaches 10-20%. The discharge structure consists of multiple transient plasma aments that occur stochastically in time during the discharge cycle leading to VUV output pulses with irregular spacing and amplitude. We have shown, however, that using discrete high-voltage pulses of relatively short duration, produces a short-lived homogeneous discharge that generates much higher peak power from short (sub-microsecond) VUV output pulses, with an additional increase (two- fold) in overall efficiency. Conversion efficiencies between 40-60% have also been reported for short-pulse excitation techniques. Efficient generation of pulsed, high peak-power VUV output is of interest for a broad range of applications in time-resolved spectroscopy, photo-lithography, materials processing and surface modification/cleaning, killing of micro- organisms and bacteria, sterilization, and in ozone production for water purification

  5. Optical constants and dispersion equations of lecithin, cholesterol, fucose, and chloroform: measurements in vacuum-ultraviolet to visible wavelength regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, M.; Nir, S.; Heller, J.M. Jr.; Painter, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The optical constants, n and k, of solutions of lecithin, cholesterol, and fucose and of the solvent chloroform were measured for the spectral region 1348 to 6407 A by a reflectance method. Absorption peaks were found in chloroform at about 1393 and 1631 A and were attributed, respectively, to sigma → sigma/sup */ electron transitions at the C--H and C--Cl bonds and an n → sigma/sup */ electron transition at the C--Cl bond. A procedure for the determination of the optical constants of a solute from those of the solution and solvent is developed and applied. The procedure is also applied to calculate the optical constants of a solution from those of the components. From the values of the optical constants, dispersion equation parameters and van der Waals parameters were calculated for the compounds. The static electronic polarizabilities of the substances studies were found to depend little (less than 6%) on the concentration of solution used in the measurement. Values of polarizabilities obtained agreed closely with those obtained by the addition of bond polarizabilities

  6. Interpretation of the photoelectron, ultraviolet, and vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectra of bromobenzene by ab initio configuration interaction and DFT computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Michael H., E-mail: m.h.palmer@ed.ac.uk; Ridley, Trevor, E-mail: t.ridley@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Joseph Black Building, David Brewster Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning, E-mail: t.ridley@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu; Jones, Nykola C., E-mail: t.ridley@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Coreno, Marcello, E-mail: t.ridley@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [CNR-IMIP, Montelibretti, c/o Laboratorio Elettra, Trieste (Italy); Simone, Monica de, E-mail: t.ridley@ed.ac.uk, E-mail: vronning@phys.au.dk, E-mail: nykj@phys.au.dk, E-mail: marcello.coreno@elettra.eu, E-mail: desimone@iom.cnr.it, E-mail: malgorzata.biczysko@sns.it, E-mail: kipeters@wsu.edu [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Grazioli, Cesare [CNR-IOM Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Zhang, Teng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); and others

    2015-10-28

    New photoelectron, ultraviolet (UV), and vacuum UV (VUV) spectra have been obtained for bromobenzene by synchrotron study with higher sensitivity and resolution than previous work. This, together with use of ab initio calculations with both configuration interaction and time dependent density functional theoretical methods, has led to major advances in interpretation. The VUV spectrum has led to identification of a considerable number of Rydberg states for the first time. The Franck-Condon (FC) analyses including both hot and cold bands lead to identification of the vibrational structure of both ionic and electronically excited states including two Rydberg states. The UV onset has been interpreted in some detail, and an interpretation based on the superposition of FC and Herzberg-Teller contributions has been performed. In a similar way, the 6 eV absorption band which is poorly resolved is analysed in terms of the presence of two ππ* states of {sup 1}A{sub 1} (higher oscillator strength) and {sup 1}B{sub 2} (lower oscillator strength) symmetries, respectively. The detailed analysis of the vibrational structure of the 2{sup 2}B{sub 1} ionic state is particularly challenging, and the best interpretation is based on equation-of-motion-coupled cluster with singles and doubles computations. A number of equilibrium structures of the ionic and singlet excited states show that the molecular structure is less subject to variation than corresponding studies for iodobenzene. The equilibrium structures of the 3b{sub 1}3s and 6b{sub 2}3s (valence shell numbering) Rydberg states have been obtained and compared with the corresponding ionic limit structures.

  7. Development of High-Reflectivity Optical Coatings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet and Verification on a Sounding Rocket Flight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We desire to develop new thin film coatings of fluorides to utilize the high intrinsic reflectivity of aluminum. Highly controllable thickness of fluorides can be...

  8. The Normal-incidence Vacuum-ultraviolet Spectrometer for the TJ-II and First Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, K. J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2002-01-01

    A normal-incidence spectrometer, operating in the extreme-ultraviolet and ultraviolet wavelength regions, has been commissioned for the TJ-II stellarator. The instrument has been custom built by McPherson, Chelmsford, MA, and has several unique features and accessories that are described here. The instrument and CCD detector has been tested and calibrated, and its performance evaluated, using spectral lines from glow discharges and a RF excited flow lamp. Finally, the first spectra collected with the instrument of TJ-II plasmas are presented and a preliminary estimation of an oxygen ion temperature is made. (Author) 23 refs

  9. The Normal-incidence Vacuum-ultraviolet Spectrometer for the TJ-II and First Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, K.J.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.

    2002-07-01

    A normal-incidence spectrometer, operating in the extreme-ultraviolet and ultraviolet wavelength regions, has been commissioned for the TJ-II stellarator. The instrument has been custom built by McPherson, Chelmsford, MA, and has several unique features and accessories that are described here. The instrument and CCD detector has been tested and calibrated, and its performance evaluated, using spectral lines from glow discharges and a RF excited flow lamp. Finally, the first spectra collected with the instrument of TJ-II plasmas are presented and a preliminary estimation of an oxygen ion temperature is made. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Induction of lethal and genetic damage by vacuum-ultraviolet (163 nm) irradiation of aqueous suspensions of yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    1976-01-01

    Yeast cells suspended in distilled water were irradiated with monochromatic 163 nm photons by immersing a specially designed discharge tube into the suspension. This was thought to be a useful means of investigating in vivo effects of radiation-induced water radicals on well cells in the complete absence of ionic species, since 163 nm photons can dissociate water only via excitation. These experiments showed that the water radicals (excluding e/sub aq/ - ) exerted both lethal and genetic (gene-conversion) effects quite potently, and the characteristic protection against these effects was observable when 2-mercaptoethanol or, in particular, p-aminobenzoic acid, a specific scavenger for OH radicals, was added to the medium prior to irradiation. Nearly complete protection from both lethal and genetic effects was observed in some cases with p-aminobenzoic acid. These results establish unequivocally that the OH radical, and not the hydrogen atom (H radical), possesses the damaging potency in the cell. Comparisons with γ-ray experiments revealed several differences between 163 nm photons and γ rays in the protective actions of radical scavengers, which may be attributable to reactive species other than OH radicals produced by the γ rays

  11. Investigation of the vacuum ultraviolet fluorescence of gaseous xenon under optical excitation in an extended wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodmann, R.; Zimmerer, G.; Hamburg Univ.; Hahn, U.

    1976-02-01

    The fluorescence of Xe at a pressure of 10 Torr has been excited by monochromatic light in the wavelength region from 1,040 A to 1,500 A. Besides the well known first and second continuum additional emission bands appear at 1,192 A and 1,300 A. They are ascribed to an atomic transition 5d(3/2) 1 → 1 S 0 and a molecular transition O + sub(u)(6s'(1/2) + 1 S 0 ) → O + sub(g)( 1 S 0 + 1 S 0 ). The excitation spectra of the first and second continuum yield high fluorescence efficiency if higher Rydberg states are excited. Excitation of the first resonance line of Xe results in a low fluorescence intensity. Obviously the formation of highly excited molecules Xe** and intramolecular relaxation play an important role for the population of the vibrationally relaxed excited states (O + sub(u), 1sub(u)) of the Xe* 2 molecule. (orig.) [de

  12. Vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry spectra and optical properties of Ba(Zr,Ti)O.sub.3./sub. films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Chernova, Ekaterina; Kleiner, A.; Liebschner, R.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Meyer, D.C.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Gerlach, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 621, Jan (2017), s. 58-62 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13778S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : barium zirconate titanate thin film * film structure * VUV ellipsometry * optical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  13. Online study on the co-pyrolysis of coal and corn with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yue-Xi; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Pan, Yang; Tian, Zhen-Yu

    2017-11-01

    With the aim to support the experimental tests in a circulating fluidized bed pilot plant, the pyrolysis processes of coal, corn, and coal-corn blend have been studied with an online pyrolysis photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Py-PI-TOFMS). The mass spectra at different temperatures (300-800°C) as well as time-evolved profiles of selected species were measured. The pyrolysis products such as alkanes, alkenes, phenols, aromatics, as well as nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species were detected. As temperature rises, the relative ion intensities of high molecular weight products tend to decrease, while those of aromatics increase significantly. During the co-pyrolysis, coal can promote the reaction temperature of cellulose in corn. Time-evolved profiles demonstrate that coal can affect pyrolysis rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of corn in blend. This work shows that Py-PI-TOFMS is a powerful approach to permit a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the co-pyrolysis of coal and biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coherent x-rays and vacuum-ultraviolet radiation from storage-ring-based undulators and free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.

    1984-12-01

    High-brightness electron storage rings and permanent-magnet technology provide a basis for the development of coherent radiation in the 10- to 1000-A (xuv) spectral range. The most assured route to the production of coherent x-rays and vuv is the simple interaction between properly constrained relativistic electrons and permanent-magnet undulators, a subject that is already well understood and where technology is well advanced. Other techniques are less well developed, but with increasing degrees of technical challenge they will provide additional coherence properties. Transverse optical klystrons (TOKs) provide an opportunity for additional coherence at certain harmonics of longer-wavelength lasers. Free electron lasers (FELs) extend coherence capabilities substantially through two possible routes: one is the development of suitable mirror coatings. Both FEL techniques would provide vuv radiation and soft x rays with extremely narrow spectral content. Research on all of these techniques (undulators, TOKs, and FELs) is possible in a single facility based on a high-brightness electron storage ring, referred to herein as a Coherent xuv Facility (CXF). Individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base

  15. Anomalous cross-field velocities in a CIV laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axnaes, I.

    1988-10-01

    The axial and radial ion velocities and the electron radial velocity are determined in coaxial plasma gun operated under critical velocity conditions. The particle celocities are determined from probe measurement together with He I 3889 AA absolute intensity measurements and the consideration of the total momentum balance of the current sheet. The ions are found move axially and the electrons radially much faster than predicted by the E/B drift in the macroscopic fields. These results agree with what can be expected from the instability processes, which has earlier been proposed to operate in these experiments. It is therefore a direct experimental demonstration that instability processes have to be invoked not only for the electron heating, but also to explain the macroscopic velocities and currents. (author)

  16. FIR and sub-mm direct detection spectrometers for spaceborne astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnbergen, Jan J.; de Graauw, Thijs

    1990-12-01

    Candidate spaceborne sub-mm instrumentation proposed for space projects with large passively cooled telescopes are reviewed. Grating instruments and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) spectrometers are discussed. Particular attention is given to imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometers. The special needs of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) and for the Far InfraRed Space Telescope (FIRST) missions in this area are outlined. Possible Fabry-Perot spectrometer setups are diagrammed and outlined. The use of spherical and multiplex Fabry-Perot spectrometers is discussed.

  17. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  18. Development of High Spectral Resolution Technique for Registration Quasielastic Light Scattering Spectra Including Rayleigh and Brillouin Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool in Materials Characterization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bairamov, Bakhysh

    2004-01-01

    ...: As detailed in an on-line proposal the contractor will: 1) develop and build an optical device, fitted to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, to perform high-resolution quasieleastic light scattering spectroscopy; 2...

  19. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  20. 355nm Photon-Recycled Fringe Imager for HSRL, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is to develop a high-efficiency aircraft-qualified Fabry-Perot-based interferometer for the High Spectral Resolution LIDAR (HSRL). Through this...

  1. A polarisation modulation scheme for measuring vacuum magnetic birefringence with static fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavattini, G.; Ejlli, A. [Universita di Ferrara, Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Della Valle, F. [Universita di Trieste, Dipt. di Fisica, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, TS (Italy); Ruoso, G. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    A novel polarisation modulation scheme for polarimeters based on Fabry-Perot cavities is presented. The application to the measurement of the magnetic birefringence of vacuum with the HERA superconducting magnets in the ALPS-II configuration is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Topical Meeting on Photonic Switching Held in Incline Village, Nevada on 18-20 March 1987. Technical Digest Series. Volume 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    A 20 mil thick transparent non- magnetic single crystal garnet substrate such as gadolinium gallium garnet (Gd mGamO 1 ) is dipped into a mel+ and a 25...facets that causes Fabry -Perot resonances in the gain spectrum. The amplitude of this variation is determined by the product of the amplifier chip...fiers with large Fabry -Perot resonances will be of much use in photonic switching systems. .r Fortanately, coating technology is advancing rapidly and

  3. Integrated Photonics Research Topical Meeting (1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    phase epitaxy on (11 1)-oriented gadolinium -gallium-garnet substrates and were subjected to annealing procedures to ensure near-planar magnetization ...was measured using the Fabry -Perot resonance technique. The propagation losses in the waveguides with and without electrodes were approximately 2.8 and...expected sub-Angstrom range. The high frequency variations present throughout the entire signal are due to Fabry -Perot resonances from the end facets

  4. Electron cyclotron emission measurement in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javon, C.

    1991-06-01

    Electron cyclotron radiation from Tore-Supra is measured with Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers. Calibration methods, essential for this diagnostic, are developed allowing the determination of electron temperature in the plasma. In particular the feasibility of Fabry-Perot interferometer calibration by an original method is demonstrated. A simulation code is developed for modelling non-thermal electron population in these discharges using measurements in non-inductive current generation regime [fr

  5. All-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals using optical resonator-type filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Seoane, Jorge; Ji, Hua

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how introducing a limited rise time to the driving signal enables all-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals generated using a phase modulator. A Fabry-Perot filter is used to generate the optical clock.......It is shown how introducing a limited rise time to the driving signal enables all-optical clock recovery of NRZ-DPSK signals generated using a phase modulator. A Fabry-Perot filter is used to generate the optical clock....

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy of CH2Cl2 and CD2Cl2 in the energy region 50,000-95,000 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Anuvab; Singh, Param Jeet; Shastri, Aparna; Jagatap, B. N.

    2014-12-01

    A consolidated study of the VUV absorption spectra of CH2Cl2 and CD2Cl2 in the 50,000-95,000 cm-1 region using synchrotron radiation is presented. Rydberg series and vibronic analysis are carried out and supported by quantum chemical calculations. The broad absorption band of CH2Cl2 in the region 50,000-60,000 cm-1 is attributed to the valence states 11B2, 11B1 and 11A1. Most of the bands in the 60,000-95,000 cm-1 region are fitted to Rydberg series of ns, np and nd type converging to the first four ionization potentials 11.320, 11.357, 12.152 and 12.271 eV of CH2Cl2 arising from excitation of an electron from one of the four outermost Cl non-bonding orbitals (2b1, 3b2, 1a2 and 4a1). Vertical excited states of CH2Cl2 calculated using TDDFT are correlated with experimentally observed electronic states based on the symmetries of the initial and final MOs involved in a transition. A few Rydberg transitions viz. 2b1→5s, 4p, 5p, 6p; 3b2→4p, 5p; 1a2→4p are accompanied by vibronic features. Observed vibronic bands are assigned mainly to the CCl symmetric stretch (ν3‧) mode with smaller contributions from the CH symmetric stretch (ν1‧), CH2 bend (ν2‧) and CH2 wag (ν8‧) modes. Assignments are corroborated by comparison with the VUV absorption spectrum of the deuterated isotopologue CD2Cl2, reported here for the first time. The high underlying intensities seen in several sub-regions are explained by valence or valence-Rydberg mixed type transitions predicted with high oscillator strengths by the TDDFT calculations.

  7. Ultrafast photodynamics of pyrazine in the vacuum ultraviolet region studied by time-resolved photoelectron imaging using 7.8-eV pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horio, Takuya; Suzuki, Yoshi-ichi; Suzuki, Toshinori, E-mail: suzuki@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2016-07-28

    The ultrafast electronic dynamics of pyrazine (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) were studied by time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TRPEI) using the third (3ω, 4.7 eV) and fifth harmonics (5ω, 7.8 eV) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (ω). Although the photoionization signals due to the 5ω − 3ω and 3ω − 5ω pulse sequences overlapped near the time origin, we have successfully extracted their individual TRPEI signals using least squares fitting of the observed electron kinetic energy distributions. When the 5ω pulses preceded the 3ω pulses, the 5ω pulses predominantly excited the S{sub 4} (ππ{sup *}, {sup 1}B{sub 1u}+{sup 1}B{sub 2u}) state. The photoionization signal from the S{sub 4} state generated by the time-delayed 3ω pulses was dominated by the D{sub 3}({sup 2}B{sub 2g})←S{sub 4} photoionization process and exhibited a broad electron kinetic energy distribution, which rapidly downshifted in energy within 100 fs. Also observed were the photoionization signals for the 3s, 3p{sub z}, and 3p{sub y} members of the Rydberg series converging to D{sub 0}({sup 2}A{sub g}). The Rydberg signals appeared immediately within our instrumental time resolution of 27 fs, indicating that these states are directly photoexcited from the ground state or populated from S{sub 4} within 27 fs. The 3s, 3p{sub z}, and 3p{sub y} states exhibited single exponential decay with lifetimes of 94 ± 2, 89 ± 2, and 58 ± 1 fs, respectively. With the reverse pulse sequence of 3ω − 5ω, the ultrafast internal conversion (IC) from S{sub 2}(ππ{sup *}) to S{sub 1}(nπ{sup *}) was observed. The decay associated spectrum of S{sub 2} exhibited multiple bands ascribed to D{sub 0}, D{sub 1}, and D{sub 3}, in agreement with the 3ω-pump and 6ω-probe experiment described in our preceding paper [T. Horio et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 044306 (2016)]. The electron kinetic energy and angular distributions from S{sub 1} populated by IC from S{sub 2} are also discussed.

  8. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; de Oliveira, E. M.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lima, M. A. P.; Jones, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  9. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range

  10. Effect of the methyl substitution on the combustion of two methylheptane isomers: Flame chemistry using vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Selim, Hatem; Mohamed, Samah; Lucassen, Arnas; Hansen, Nils; Sarathy, Mani

    2015-01-01

    of different species were identified within the reaction pool by an energy scan between 8 and 12 eV at a distance of 2.5 mm away from the burner surface. The role of methyl substitution location on the alkane chain was determined via comparisons of similar

  11. Effects of vacuum ultraviolet radiation on deoxyoligonucleotides in solids in the wavelength region around and above ionization potential -with special reference to the chain scission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi; Saito, Mikio

    1991-01-01

    Photoproducts arising from exposure of deoxyoligonucleotides of adenine, d(pA) n (n = 2 ∼ 5), as solids to vacuum-u.v. radiation at the wavelengths around and above ionization potential were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The main decomposition products were identified as adenine and all possible oligonucleotide and mononucleotide components for k satisfying n - k ≥ 1. These results and previous findings on the related compounds were discussed with special reference to the rules on the induction of chain scission by superexcitation. (author)

  12. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E. [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Limão-Vieira, P., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [Laboratório de Colisões Atómicas e Moleculares, CEFITEC, Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V. [ISA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Århus C (Denmark); Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J. [Départment de Chimie, Institut de Chimie-Bât. B6C, Université de Liège, B-4000 Liège 1 (Belgium); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: plimaovieira@fct.unl.pt, E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: maplima@ifi.unicamp.br [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); and others

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  13. IRRADIATION OF ETHYLENE DILUTED IN SOLID NITROGEN WITH VACUUM ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AND ELECTRONS: ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF HCN AND HNC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hui-Fen [Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Liu, Meng-Chen; Chen, Sian-Cong; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Wu, Yu-Jong, E-mail: yjwu@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, No. 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    Chemical reactions of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} dispersed in solid nitrogen at 10 K that occur upon irradiation with Lyα light at a wavelength of 121.6 nm and 500 eV electrons were investigated by measuring the infrared absorption spectra. Photolysis of the matrix samples with 121.6 nm light yielded products, including C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CN, and isomers of C{sub 2}N{sub 2}, as well as a pair of HCN and HNC. In contrast, electron bombardment of similar matrix samples mainly resulted in the generation of N{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 3}, C{sub 3}H{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}N{sup −}. Mechanisms of the reactions that occur during the photolysis and electron-radiation of the matrix samples are discussed. The results of the study provide insights into the formation of HNC and HCN, as well as nitriles, in N{sub 2}-rich ice samples containing a small proportion of C{sub 2}H{sub 4}.

  14. A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Liao, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Liao, Zhi-Wang; Wang, Hai-Lin; Lin, Gong-Cheng

    2012-06-18

    By spectrally slicing a single longitudinal-mode from a master weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking functions, the broadened self-injection-locking of a slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode is demonstrated to achieve bi-directional transmission in a 200-GHz array-waveguide-grating channelized dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network system. Both the down- and up-stream slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes are non-return-to-zero modulated below threshold and coherently injection-locked to deliver the pulsed carrier for 25-km bi-directional 2.5 Gbits/s return-to-zero transmission. The master weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode is gain-switched at near threshold condition and delivers an optical coherent pulse-train with its mode linewidth broadened from 0.2 to 0.8 nm by transient wavelength scanning, which facilitates the broadband injection-locking of the slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes with a threshold current reducing by 10 mA. Such a transient wavelength scanning induced spectral broadening greatly releases the limitation on wavelength injection-locking range required for the slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode. The theoretical modeling and numerical simulation on the wavelength scanning and tracking effects of the master and slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes are performed. The receiving power sensitivity for back-to-back transmission at bit-error-rate transmission is less than 2 dB for all 16 channels.

  15. Small-scale kinematic structures in ring nebulae around Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.

    1988-01-01

    Four ring nebulas around galactic Wolf-Rayet stars have been observed with echelle spectrographs in the long-slit mode: NGC 2359, NGC 3199, NGC 6888, and RCW 58. The spatial resolution of these observations is seeing limited at about 1-3 arcsec, which is almost a two orders of magnitude improvement from the previous Fabry-Perot scanner observations. To avoid large geometric corrections, the slit positions were placed as close to the central stars as possible. The results show that the ejecta-type nebula RCW 58 is a clumpy shell expanding regularly at about 110 km/s, as opposed to the chaotic expansion concluded from the earlier Fabry-Perot observations. For the three windblown bubbles, NGC 2359, NGC 3199, and NGC 6888, the small-scale structures revealed in the echelle data can explain the apparently discrepant expansion velocities derived from the previous large-aperture Fabry-Perot observations. 20 references

  16. Design and Optimization of Dual Optical Fiber MEMS Pressure Sensor For Biomedical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagang, Guo; Po, Samuel Ng Choon; Hock, Francis Tay Eng; Rongming, Lin

    2006-01-01

    A novel Single Deeply Corrugated Diaphragm (SDCD) based dual optical fiber Fabry-Perot pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement is proposed. Both mechanical and optical simulations are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and superior performance of the proposed sensor. Result shows that less than 2% nonlinearity can be achieved for the proposed sensor using optimal Fabry-Perot microcavity. Also, the fabrication process of the proposed sensor is given, instead of complicated fusion bonding process, only bulk and surface micromachining techniques are required which facilitate the mass production of such biocompatible and disposable pressure sensors

  17. Measurements of the Michigan Airglow Observatory from 1971 to 1973 at Ester Dome Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcwatters, K. D.; Meriwether, J. W.; Hays, P. B.; Nagy, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    The Michigan Airglow Observatory (MAO) was located at Ester Dome Observatory, College, Alaska (latitude: 64 deg 53'N, longitude: 148 deg 03'W) since October, 1971. The MAO houses a 6-inch Fabry-Perot interferometer, a 2-channel monitoring photometer and a 4-channel tilting filter photometer. The Fabry-Perot interferometer was used extensively during the winter observing seasons of 1971-72 and 1972-73 to measure temperature and mass motions of the neutral atmosphere above approximately 90 kilometers altitude. Neutral wind data from the 1971-72 observing season as measured by observing the Doppler shift of the gamma 6300 A atomic oxygen emission line are presented.

  18. Stochastic Processes and Random Matrices : Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School : Session CIV

    CERN Document Server

    Altland, Alexander; Fyodorov, Yan V; O'Connell, Neil; Cugliandolo, Leticia F

    2017-01-01

    Many of the distinctive and useful phenomena of soft matter come from its interaction with interfaces. Examples are the peeling of a strip of adhesive tape, the coating of a surface, the curling of a fiber via capillary forces, or the collapse of a porous sponge. These interfacial phenomena are distinct from the intrinsic behavior of a soft material like a gel or a microemulsion. Yet many forms of interfacial phenomena can be understood via common principles valid for many forms of soft matter. Our goal in organizing this school was to give students a grasp of these common principles and their many ramifications and possibilities. The Les Houches Summer School comprised over fifty 90-minute lectures over four weeks. Four four-lecture courses by Howard Stone, Michael Cates, David Nelson and L. Mahadevan served as an anchor for the program. A number of shorter courses and seminars rounded out the school. This volume collects the lecture notes of the school.

  19. Further Rehabilitating CIV-based Black Hole Mass Estimates in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Michael S.; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Shang, Zhaohui; Varju, Melinda

    2016-06-01

    Virial black hole masses are routinely estimated for high-redshift quasars using the C IV lambda 1549 emission line using single-epoch spectra that provide a gas velocity and a continuum luminosity. Such masses are very uncertain, however, especially because C IV likely possesses a non-virial component that varies with the Eddington ratio. We have previously used the 1400 feature, a blend of S i IV and O IV] emission that does not suffer the problems of C IV, to rehabilitate C IV-based mases by providing a correction term. The C IV profile itself, however, provides enough information to correct the black hole masses and remove the effects of the non-virial component. We use Mg II-based black hole masses to calibrate and test a new C IV-based black hole mass formula using only C IV and continuum measurements superior to existing formulations, as well as to test for additional dependencies on luminosity.

  20. Anomalous Ionization Studies: Investigations of the Critical Ioniaztion Velocity (CIV) Phenomenon in Space

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choueiri, Edgar

    1995-01-01

    .... In this project, we combined, analytical, numerical tools with space experiments in order to develop various complementary descriptions of the complex and fundamental problem of collective (or anomalous) ionization...

  1. Dielectronic recombination rate coefficients to the excited states of CIII from CIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, U.; Kato, Takako; Ohira, Mituhiko

    1996-07-01

    Energy levels, radiative transition probabilities and autoionization rates for CIII including 1s{sup 2}2pnl` (n=2/6, l`{<=}(n-1)) and 1s{sup 2}3lnl` (n=3/6, l`{<=}(n-1)) states were calculated by using multi-configurational Hartree-Fock (Cowan code) method. Autoionizing levels above the 1s{sup 2}2s and 1s{sup 2}2p thresholds were considered and their contributions were computed. Branching ratios on the autoionization rate to the first threshold and intensity factor were calculated for satellite lines of CIII ion. The dielectronic recombination rate coefficients to the excited states for n=2-6 were calculated. The values for the excited states higher than n=6 were extrapolated and the total dielectronic recombination rate coefficients were also derived. The rate coefficients to the excited states were fitted to an analytical formula and the fitting parameters are given. (author)

  2. Testing Disk-Wind Models with Quasar CIV 1549Å Associated Absorption Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Narrow associated C IV 1549Å absorption lines (NALs) with a rest equivalent width EW =3 Å detected in z ˜ 2 radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars, (a) exhibit evidence of an origin in radiatively accelerated gas, and (b) may be closely related to broad absorption line (BAL) outflows. These NALs...... and the few BALs detected in this quasar sample obey key predictions of models of radiatively driven disk-winds in which (1) the local disk luminosity launches the wind, (2) the central UV radiation drives it outwards, and (3) the wind acceleration (i.e., terminal velocity) depends on the strength of the X...

  3. Spectrophotometry in the far infrared. Optical and Hertzian processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, Andre

    1968-01-01

    After a general study of problems related to instrumental spectroscopy in the far infrared, this research thesis examines the theory and technique of construction of slit spectrometers. The author then studied the possibilities to increase brightness and resolution using Fabry-Perot interferometers, and the Fourier transform interferential spectrometry, and finally addressed methods used with micro-waves

  4. Utilize the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ion to measure the ion temperature of tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaodong

    2000-01-01

    Making use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer driven by a piezoelectric crystal and selecting the suitable separation of plates, the ion temperature is defined by measuring the superimposed profile of the spectral line pair of the same ionized state ions in Tokamak. The advantage of this method is to higher spectral resolution and wider spectral range select

  5. Hybrid grating reflectors: Origin of ultrabroad stopband

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Gyeong Cheol; Taghizadeh, Alireza; Chung, Il-Sug

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid grating (HG) reflectors with a high-refractive-index cap layer added onto a high contrast grating (HCG) provide a high reflectance close to 100% over a broader wavelength range than HCGs. The combination of a cap layer and a grating layer brings a strong Fabry-Perot (FP) resonance as well ...

  6. Determination of D/H Ratio on Jupiter from ISO/SWS Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.; de Graauw, Th.; Schaeidt, S.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Beintema, D. A.; Bezard, B.; Drossart, P.; Griffin, M.; Heras, A.; Kessler, M.; Leech, K.; Morris, A.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Roos-Serote, M.; Salama, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Valentijn, E. A.; Davies, G. R.; Naylor, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter, performed on March 29, 1996, with the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in Fabry-Perot mode, have allowed the first detection of the rotational R(2) line of HD at 37.7 mu m (265.3 cm(-1) ). The instrument aperture (a rectangular slit

  7. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) bea...

  8. Dynamics of a barium release in the magnetospheric tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.; Geller, S. P.; Doolittle, J. H.; Haerendel, G.

    1989-01-01

    The late time behavior of the May 13, 1985 magnetotail barium cloud is examined. The bulk dynamics of the cloud are studied based on triangulated data and data from Fabry-Perot Doppler velocity measurements. The changes in cloud morphology in relation to the in situ measurements made by the Ion Release Module satellite are discussed.

  9. A fiber-optic strain measurement and quench localization system for use in superconducting accelerator dipole magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, J.M.; Scanlan, Ronald M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    1995-01-01

    A novel fiber-optic measurement system for superconducting accelerator magnets is described. The principal component is an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer to determine localized strain and stress in coil windings. The system can be used either as a sensitive relative strain measurement system

  10. Effect of Surface Plasmon Coupling to Optical Cavity Modes on the Field Enhancement and Spectral Response of Dimer-Based sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2017-01-01

    with the resonant modes of a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The strong coupling is demonstrated by the large anticrossing in the reflection spectra and a Rabi splitting of 76 meV. Up to 2-fold enhancement increase can be achieved compared to that without using the cavity

  11. A spatio-kinematic study of the interaction of the planetary nebula NGC 246 with the interstellar medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthu, C; Anandarao, BG; Pottasch, [No Value

    Spatio-Kinematic observations were made on NGC 246 in the [OIII] 5007 Angstrom line using an Imaging Fabry-Perot Spectrometer. Evidence for the deceleration effect was found in the leading edge of the nebular shell, possibly due to its interaction with the interstellar medium. Further, we show that

  12. Synchronization scenario of two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mirasso, Claudio; Heil, Tilmann

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of the synchronization of the coupling-induced instabilities in two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers. In our experiments, two similar Fabry-Perot lasers are coupled via their coherent optical fields. Our theoretical framework is ba...

  13. Kinematics of the ionized gas around the quasar MR 2251-178

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.S.; Valentijn, E. A.

    O III forbidden line observations of the nearby quasar MR 2251-178 were made with the Taurus II imaging Fabry-Perot instrument. The line emission around the quasar is found to consist of several regions of high surface brightness located in two half-cones with an opening angle of about 37 deg

  14. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed...

  15. Tunable UV Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Marilyn E. (Principal Investigator); Rosenberg, William A.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an investigation intended to determine the practical short wavelength limit for Fabry-Perot etalons operating in the far ultraviolet. This portion of the investigation includes a design study of multilayer dielectric reflector coatings that would be required by such an etalon. Results of the study indicate that etalons may be made to operate at wavelengths as short as 121 nm.

  16. SPIRAL STRUCTURE OF M51 - DISTRIBUTION AND KINEMATICS OF THE ATOMIC AND IONIZED HYDROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TILANUS, RPJ; ALLEN, RJ

    The atomic hydrogen (H I) and the H-alpha emission lines in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and the TAURUS Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer, respectively. Across the inner spiral arms significant tangential and radial velocity

  17. Amplitude calibration of 2D mechanical resonators by nonlinear optical transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolleman, R.J.; Davidovikj, D.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steeneken, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Contactless characterization of mechanical resonances using Fabry-Perot interferometry is a powerful tool to study the mechanical and dynamical properties of atomically thin membranes. However, amplitude calibration is often not performed or only possible by making assumptions on the device

  18. Fiber Temperature Sensor Based on Micro-mechanical Membranes and Optical Interference Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueming; Tian Weijian; Hua Jing

    2011-01-01

    A novel fiber temperature sensor is presented theoretically and experimentally in this paper. Its working principle is based on Optical Fabry-Perot interference structure that is formed between a polished optical fiber end and micro-mechanical Bi-layered membranes. When ambient temperature is varying, Bi-layered membranes will be deflected and the length of Fabry-Perot cavity will be changed correspondingly. By detecting the reflecting optical intensity from the Fabry-Perot cavity, the ambient temperature can be measured. Using finite element software ANSYS, the sensor structure was optimized based on optical Interference theory and Bi-layered membranes thermal expansion theory, and theoretical characteristics was simulated by computer software. In the end, using optical fiber 2x2 coupler and photo-electrical detector, the fabricated sample sensor was tested successfully by experiment that demonstrating above theoretical analysis and simulation results. This sensor has some favorable features, such as: micro size owing to its micro-mechanical structure, high sensitivity owing to its working Fabry-Perot interference cavity structure, and optical integration character by using optical fiber techniques.

  19. Entanglement of transverse modes in a pendular cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Stefano; Gatti, Alessandra

    2001-01-01

    We study the phenomena that arise in the transverse structure of electromagnetic field impinging on a linear Fabry-Perot cavity with an oscillating end mirror. We find quantum correlations among transverse modes which can be considered as a signature of their entanglement.

  20. Effect of optical waveguiding mechanism on the lasing action of chirped InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa; Ng, Tien Khee; Lee, C.-S.; Bhattacharya, P.; Ooi, Boon S.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the atypical emission dynamics of InAs/AlGaInAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) lasers employing varying AlGaInAs barrier thickness (multilayer-chirped structure). The analysis is carried out via fabry-perot (FP) ridge (RW) and stripe

  1. Where photons meet phonons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buters, F.M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how radiation pressure can be used to influence the mechanical motion of a micro-mirror suspended from springs. This trampoline resonator is part of an optical Fabry-Perot cavity. By tuning the laser frequency with respect to the optical resonance, we are able to optically cool the

  2. Determination of the thermospheric neutral wind from incoherent scatter radar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeggstroem, I.; Murdin, J.; Rees, D.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements made by the EISCAT UHF incoherent scatter radar are used to derive thermospheric winds. The derived wind is compared to Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of the neutral wind made simultaneously. The uncertainties in the radar derived wind are discussed. (author)

  3. Vortex-MEMS filters for wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Sujoy; Lyubopytov, Vladimir; Schumann, Martin F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an on-chip device capable of wavelength-selective generation of vortex beams is demonstrated. The device is realized by integrating a spiral phase-plate onto a MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter. This vortex-MEMS filter, being capable of functioning simultaneously in wavelength...

  4. Ultrafast all-optical clock recovery based on phase-only linear optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel technique for all-optical clock recovery from RZ OOK data based on phase-only filtering, significantly enhancing the recovered clock quality and energy-efficiency compared to the use of a Fabry-Perot filter....

  5. Analysis of moire figures using interferometric lattices with Airy perfils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabal, H.J.; Garavaglia, M.

    1979-01-01

    Using a Fabry-Perot interferometer and a spectrograph, iluminated with white light, ondulatory spectra are obtained. The componentes are not equidistance among them and the intensity distribution obeys the Airy's law. It is been made preliminar experiments to determinate if the moire figures, generated by the ondulatory spectra interaction, allows to measure displacements, rotations, etc [es

  6. The c.IVS1+1G>A mutation inthe GJB2 gene is prevalent and large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IVS1+1G>A mutation inthe GJB2 gene is prevalent and large deletions involving the GJB6 gene are not present in the Turkish population. ASLI SIRMACI, DUYGU AKCAYOZ-DUMAN and MUSTAFA TEKIN∗. Division of Pediatric Molecular Genetics, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100, Turkey. Introduction.

  7. Fiber-linked interferometric pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheim, G.; Fritsch, K.; Poorman, R. N.

    1987-01-01

    A fiber-optic pressure sensor is described which uses a diaphragm to modulate the mirror separation of a Fabry-Perot cavity (the sensing cavity). A multimode optical fiber delivers broadband light to the sensing cavity and returns the spectrally modulated light which the cavity reflects. The sensor's output spectrum is analyzed using a tunable Fabry-Perot cavity (the reference cavity) to determine the mismatch in the mirror separations of the two cavities. An electronic servo control uses this result to cause the mirror separation of the reference cavity to equal that of the sensing cavity. The displacement of the pressure-sensing diaphragm is then obtained by measuring the capacitance of the reference cavity's metal-coated mirrors. Relative to other fiber-optic sensors, an important advantage of this instrument is its high immunity to the effects of variations in both the transmissivity of the fiber link and the wavelength of the optical source.

  8. Anomalous broadening of the N2+ first negative band system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robben, F.; Cattolica, R.; Coe, D.; Talbot, L.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the fluorescence excited by a high energy electron beam has become a standard technique for measurement of density, rotational temperature of nitrogen, and translational temperature of helium and argon in rarefied gas dynamics. To obtain translational temperature the Doppler broadening of the fluorescence is determined by measuring the spectral line shape with a Fabry-Perot interferometer. To apply this technique to nitrogen a single rotational line must be selected from the band spectrum for analysis by the Fabry-Perot interferometer. As supported by extensive additional measurements, there is an anomalous broadening of the rotational lines of the N 2 + first negative band system with a width equivalent to about a 70 0 K translational temperature of nitrogen. It appears that the line width of approximately 0.03 cm -1 is an inherent property of this nitrogen band when excited by electron impact directly from the ground state

  9. Observations of Superwinds in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, A. T.; Heckman, T. M.; Wyse, R.; Schommer, R.

    1993-12-01

    Dwarf galaxies are important in developing our understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies, and of the structure in the universe. The concept of supernova-driven mass outflows is a vital ingredient in theories of the structure and evolution of dwarfs galaxies. We have begun a detailed multi-waveband search for outflows in starbursting dwarf galaxies, and have obtained Fabry-Perot images and Echelle spectra of 20 nearby actively-star-forming dwarf galaxies. In about half the sample, the Fabry-Perot Hα images show loops and filaments with sizes of one to a few kpc. The Echelle spectra taken through the loops and filaments show kinematics consistent with expanding bubble-like structures. We describe these data, and present seven dwarfs in our sample that have the strongest evidence of outflows.

  10. Embedded fiber optic ultrasonic sensors and generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighi, John F.; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar; Achenbach, Jan D.

    1995-04-01

    Ultrasonic sensors and generators based on fiber-optic systems are described. It is shown that intrinsic fiber optic Fabry-Perot ultrasound sensors that are embedded in a structure can be stabilized by actively tuning the laser frequency. The need for this method of stabilization is demonstrated by detecting piezoelectric transducer-generated ultrasonic pulses in the presence of low frequency dynamic strains that are intentionally induced to cause sensor drift. The actively stabilized embedded fiber optic Fabry-Perot sensor is also shown to have sufficient sensitivity to detect ultrasound that is generated in the interior of a structure by means of a high-power optical fiber that pipes energy from a pulsed laser to an embedded generator of ultrasound.

  11. Overview of recent results from the Tore Supra ECE diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.; Liu, W.D.; Giruzzi, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Tore Supra ECE diagnostic system consists of a set of 3 Michelson and 12 Fabry-Perot interferometers, which is now fully operational. We present results obtained with the 3 Michelson during LHCD experiments first. It is shown how the sensitivity of the diagnostic to rather high v (perpendicular) prevents detection of v (parallel) anisotropies. On the other hand, measurements during the Ohmic phase reveal some unexpected anisotropy which can be attributed to superthermal electrons related to the bootstrap current. The 12 Fabry-Perot have been operated using high acquisition sampling rates during pellet injection experiments. A shudder preceding the pellet itself is clearly evidenced just before an internal disruption occurs. During sawtooth activity, such measurements are also used to study the dynamics of the m=1, n=1 instability on the q=1 surface itself

  12. Distributed Feedback Laser Based on Single Crystal Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shang; Xiao, Shumin; Song, Qinghai

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a single crystal perovskite based, with grating-structured photoresist on top, highly polarized distributed feedback laser. A lower laser threshold than the Fabry-Perot mode lasers from the same single crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 microplate was obtained. Single crystal CH3NH3PbBr3 microplates was synthesized with one-step solution processed precipitation method. Once the photoresist on top of the microplate was patterned with electron beam, the device was realized. This one-step fabrication process utilized the advantage of single crystal to the greatest extend. The ultra-low defect density in single crystalline microplate offer an opportunity for lower threshold lasing action compare with poly-crystal perovskite films. In the experiment, the lasing action based on the distributed feedback grating design was found with lower threshold and higher intensity than the Fabry-Perot mode lasers supported by the flat facets of the same microplate.

  13. Optical-cell model based on the lasing competition of mode structures with different Q-factors in high-power semiconductor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podoskin, A. A., E-mail: podoskin@mail.ioffe.ru; Shashkin, I. S.; Slipchenko, S. O.; Pikhtin, N. A.; Tarasov, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    A model describing the operation of a completely optical cell, based on the competition of lasing of Fabry-Perot cavity modes and the high-Q closed mode in high-power semiconductor lasers is proposed. Based on rate equations, the conditions of lasing switching between Fabry-Perot modes for ground and excited lasing levels and the closed mode are considered in the case of increasing internal optical loss under conditions of high current pump levels. The optical-cell operation conditions in the mode of a high-power laser radiation switch (reversible mode-structure switching) and in the mode of a memory cell with bistable irreversible lasing switching between mode structures with various Q-factors are considered.

  14. Miniature all-silica optical fiber pressure sensor with an ultrathin uniform diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

    2010-04-26

    This paper presents an all-silica miniature optical fiber pressure/acoustic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric principle. The endface of the etched optical fiber tip and silica thin diaphragm on it form the FP structure. The uniform and thin silica diaphragm was fabricated by etching away the silicon substrate from a commercial silicon wafer that has a thermal oxide layer. The thin film was directly thermally bonded to the endface of the optical fiber thus creating the Fabry-Perot cavity. Thin films with a thickness from 1microm to 3microm have been bonded successfully. The sensor shows good linearity and hysteresis during measurement. A sensor with 0.75 microm-thick diaphragm thinned by post silica etching was demonstrated to have a sensitivity of 11 nm/kPa. The new sensor has great potential to be used as a non-intrusive pressure sensor in a variety of sensing applications.

  15. Growth of GaN micro/nanolaser arrays by chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Zhang, Hanlu; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Yingjiu; Pan, Caofeng

    2016-09-02

    Optically pumped ultraviolet lasing at room temperature based on GaN microwire arrays with Fabry-Perot cavities is demonstrated. GaN microwires have been grown perpendicularly on c-GaN/sapphire substrates through simple catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition. The GaN microwires are [0001] oriented single-crystal structures with hexagonal cross sections, each with a diameter of ∼1 μm and a length of ∼15 μm. A possible growth mechanism of the vertical GaN microwire arrays is proposed. Furthermore, we report room-temperature lasing in optically pumped GaN microwire arrays based on the Fabry-Perot cavity. Photoluminescence spectra exhibit lasing typically at 372 nm with an excitation threshold of 410 kW cm(-2). The result indicates that these aligned GaN microwire arrays may offer promising prospects for ultraviolet-emitting micro/nanodevices.

  16. Affinement spectral dans les lasers à colorants pulsés.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamant, P

    1978-03-15

    Spectral narrowing in pulsed dye lasers is studied theoretically. Fabry-Perot etalons, gratings, and prisms are considered as tuning elements. Each one is characterized by a new parameter: the spectral width associated with a round trip in the laser cavity. Numerical examples show that depending on cavity parameters it is either the round-trip spectral width or the width due to beam divergence which limits the bandwidth of the laser emission. Instantaneous spectral narrowing is found to be proportional to the square root of the time elapsed after the laser onset when a Fabry-Perot etalon or grating is used. When a prism is set in the laser cavity the instantaneous narrowing is proportional to time.

  17. Fiber optic hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Donald T.

    1994-01-01

    A miniature fiber optic hydrophone based on the principles of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The hydrophone, in one embodiment, includes a body having a shaped flexible bladder at one end which defines a volume containing air or suitable gas, and including a membrane disposed adjacent a vent. An optic fiber extends into the body with one end terminating in spaced relation to the membrane. Acoustic waves in the water that impinge on the bladder cause the pressure of the volume therein to vary causing the membrane to deflect and modulate the reflectivity of the Fabry-Perot cavity formed by the membrane surface and the cleaved end of the optical fiber disposed adjacent to the membrane. When the light is transmitted down the optical fiber, the reflected signal is amplitude modulated by the incident acoustic wave. Another embodiment utilizes a fluid filled volume within which the fiber optic extends.

  18. A new method for testing Newton's gravitational law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, J.; Klein, N.; Meyer, H.; Piel, H.; Walesch, H.

    1991-01-01

    A new experimental method is reported for determining the gravitational force of a laboratory test mass on a Fabry-Perot microwave resonator. The resonator consists of two Fabry-Perot mirrors suspended as pendulums. Changes of 2·10 -11 m in the pendulum separation can be resolved as a shift of the resonance frequency of the resonator. This limit corresponds to an acceleration of 7·10 -11 m s -2 of one mirror with respect to the other. In a first experiment, the gravitational acceleration generated by a 125 kg test mass was measured as a function of distance in the range of 10 to 15 cm and tested Newton's gravitational law with an accuracy of 1%. No deviation is found. Furthermore, the gravitational constant G is determined with similar precision. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  19. Superconducting Nanowires as Nonlinear Inductive Elements for Qubits

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Jaseung; Manucharyan, Vladimir; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    We report microwave transmission measurements of superconducting Fabry-Perot resonators (SFPR), having a superconducting nanowire placed at a supercurrent antinode. As the plasma oscillation is excited, the supercurrent is forced to flow through the nanowire. The microwave transmission of the resonator-nanowire device shows a nonlinear resonance behavior, significantly dependent on the amplitude of the supercurrent oscillation. We show that such amplitude-dependent response is due to the nonl...

  20. On experimental testing of the weak equivalence principle for the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokotilovskij, Yu.N.

    1994-01-01

    The considerations is presented of the experimental situation with the verification of the weak equivalence principle for the neutron. The direct method is proposed to significantly increase (to ∼ 10 -6 ) the precision of the equivalence principle for the neutron in the Galilei type experiment, which uses the thin-film Fabri-Perot interferometer and precise time-of-flight spectrometry of ultracold neutrons

  1. Brillouin scattering at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.

    1988-02-01

    Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted

  2. The nature of the high-velocity gas in NGC 1275: first results with TAURUS-2 on the William Herschel telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.W.; Taylor, K.; Pedlar, A.; Ghataure, H.S.; Penston, M.V.; Robinson, A.

    1990-01-01

    Observations with a new imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer, TAURUS-2, show that there is a close spatial association between the two systems of emission-line gas in the active galaxy NGC 1275 (Perseus A, 3C84). It therefore seems likely that, as first suggested by previous authors, we are witnessing two galaxies in the process of colliding. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with all available observations of this object. (author)

  3. Active Stabilization of a Diode Laser Injection Lock

    OpenAIRE

    Saxberg, Brendan; Plotkin-Swing, Benjamin; Gupta, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    We report on a device to electronically stabilize the optical injection lock of a semiconductor diode laser. Our technique uses as discriminator the peak height of the laser's transmission signal on a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity and feeds back to the diode current, thereby maintaining maximum optical power in the injected mode. A two-component feedback algorithm provides constant optimization of the injection lock, keeping it robust to slow thermal drifts and allowing fast recovery from sudde...

  4. TAURUS observations of the emission-line velocity field of Centaurus A (NGC 5128)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.; Atherton, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    Using TAURUS - an Imaging Fabry Perot system in conjunction with the IPCS on the AAT, the authors have studied the velocity field of the Hα emission line at a spatial resolution of 1.7'' over the dark lane structure of Centaurus A. The derived velocity field is quite symmetrical and strongly suggests that the emission line material is orbiting the elliptical component, as a warped disc. (orig.)

  5. Near-infrared lasers and self-frequency-doubling in Nd:YCOB cladding waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yingying; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R

    2013-05-06

    A design of cladding waveguides in Nd:YCOB nonlinear crystals is demonstrated in this work. Compact Fabry-Perot oscillation cavities are employed for waveguide laser generation at 1062 nm and self-frequency-doubling at 531 nm, under optical pump at 810 nm. The waveguide laser shows slope efficiency as high as 55% at 1062 nm. The SFD green waveguide laser emits at 531 nm with a maximum power of 100 μW.

  6. High resolution atomic spectra of rare earths : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Ahmad, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    High resolution studies of atomic spectra of neodymium and gadolinium are being carried out on a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The present progress report concerns work done on new assignments as well as confirmation of recently assigned electronic configurations and evaluation of isotope shifts of energy levels which have been possible from the isotope shift data obtained for several transitions of NdI, NdII and GdI, GdII respectively. (author)

  7. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Physics. Number 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-02

    magnetic field in the area of large fields, the harmonics are due to the resonances of the standing magnetic -plasma waves in the plate; in the area...parameters of cerium, gadolinium and lutetium orthovanadite. Polytherms of heat capacity, magnetization and magnetic susceptibility of these rare...of lasing in mixed ZnxCd^_xS single crystals, and it was found that the model of a simple " Fabry -Perot resonator ," i.e., an inverse layer on the

  8. Diffractive Optics for Gravitational Wave Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunkowski, A; Burmeister, O; Clausnitzer, T; Kley, E-B; Tuennermann, A; Danzmann, K; Schnabel, R

    2006-01-01

    All-reflective interferometry based on nano-structured diffraction gratings offers new possibilities for gravitational wave detection. We investigate an all-reflective Fabry-Perot interferometer concept in 2nd order Littrow mount. The input-output relations for such a resonator are derived treating the grating coupler by means of a scattering matrix formalism. A low loss dielectric reflection grating has been designed and manufactured to test the properties of such a grating cavity

  9. Measurements on the He-Ne laser lines near 633 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, David W.

    1983-09-01

    The red line from an inexpensive He-Ne laser is made up of several closely spaced lines. To separate these lines very high spectral resolution is required. This apparatus requirement can be met by a simple modification of a student Fabry-Perot interferometer. Laboratory measurements can then be made to verify the expected number, spacing, and polarization of these lines during a single afternoon laboratory session.

  10. Single mode operation of a TEA CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Kazuhiro; Tunawaki, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Masanobu.

    1993-01-01

    Single mode operation of a TEA CO 2 laser was performed by using an optical system of Fox-Smith type. Laser beam was taken out from the cavity by using a beam splitter, and was reflected by a mirror back to the cavity. By inserting a Fabry-Perot etalon between the splitter and the mirror, beat of laser pulses can be removed completly. (author)

  11. Piezoelectricity and absorption of water in biomaterials: bone and tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghilardi Netto, T.

    1973-01-01

    A new application of the Fabry-Perot interferometer has been developed, capable of measuring variations in length with a precision of the order of one angstrom. The method has been applied to the determination of some of the inverse piezoelectric coefficients of bovine bone and tendon. The effect of water in these materials was carefully measured and shown to decrease the piezoelectricity. Correlations between the piezoelectricity and length, weight, and volume and surface resistivity were made during the absorption of water [pt

  12. International Conference on Luminescence Held at Madison, Wisconsin on 13-17 August 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Meucci , A. Scacco F. Somma (b) and M. Tonelli(c) (a) ENEA, TIB-FIS, Centro Ricerche Energia , 00044 Frascati, Italy (b) Dipartimento di Fisica...luminesce by solar ultraviolet and visible light. This instrument uses glass spacer Fabry-Perot filters of narrow bandwidth (ɘ.1 nm) to isolate a...central intensity of a Fraunhofer line to the solar continuum a few tenths of a nanometer distant; it then compares this ratio with a conjugate

  13. Teleoperation System with Hybrid Pneumatic-Piezoelectric Actuation for MRI-Guided Needle Insertion with Haptic Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a surgical master-slave tele-operation system for percutaneous interventional procedures under continuous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. This system consists of a piezoelectrically actuated slave robot for needle placement with integrated fiber optic force sensor utilizing Fabry-Perot interferometry (FPI) sensing principle. The sensor flexure is optimized and embedded to the slave robot for measuring needle insertion force. A novel, compact opto-mechanical FPI ...

  14. Arm-length stabilisation for interferometric gravitational-wave detectors using frequency-doubled auxiliary lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Mullavey, Adam J.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Miller, John; Evans, Matthew; Fritschel, Peter; Sigg, Daniel; Waldman, Sam J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Residual motion of the arm cavity mirrors is expected to prove one of the principal impediments to systematic lock acquisition in advanced gravitational-wave interferometers. We present a technique which overcomes this problem by employing auxiliary lasers at twice the fundamental measurement frequency to pre-stabilise the arm cavities’ lengths. Applying this approach, we reduce the apparent length noise of a 1.3 m long, independently suspended Fabry-Perot cavity to 30 pm rms and successfully...

  15. Internal motions in H II regions. XI. The emission nebula sharpless 206

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pismis, P.; Hasse, I.

    1982-01-01

    Radial velocities at 142 points are obtained on the H II region S206 by photographic Fabry-Perot interferometry using the reflectors with apertures of 2.1 meters at San Pedro Martir and 1 m at Tonantzintla. The overall velocity agrees with previous determinations. Our velocities cover the western faint extensions of the nebula not studied hitherto. The velocity field is consistent with a directional expansion of S206. (author)

  16. Conception and preliminary evaluation of an optical fibre sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, K; Moss, B; Leen, G; Mueller, I; Lewis, E; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel concept of simultaneously measuring pressure and temperature using a silica optical fibre extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) pressure sensor incorporating a fibre Bragg grating (FBG), which is constructed entirely from fused-silica. The novel device is used to simultaneously provide accurate pressure and temperature readings at the point of measurement. Furthermore, the FBG temperature measurement is used to eliminate the temperature cross-sensitivity of the EFPI pressure sensor.

  17. Circuit simulation model multi-quantum well laser diodes inducing transport and capture/escape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuber-Okrog, K.

    1996-04-01

    This work describes the development of world's first circuit simulation model for multi-quantum well (MQW) semiconductor lasers comprising caier transport and capture/escape effects. This model can be seen as the application of a new semiconductor device simulator for quasineutral structures including MQW layers with an extension for simple single mode modeling of optical behavior. It is implemented in a circuit simulation program. The model is applied to Fabry-Perot laser diodes and compared to measured data. (author)

  18. Extreme sub-wavelength atom localization via coherent population trapping

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Girish S.; Kapale, Kishore T.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate an atom localization scheme based on monitoring of the atomic coherences. We consider atomic transitions in a Lambda configuration where the control field is a standing wave field. The probe field and the control field produce coherence between the two ground states. We show that this coherence has the same fringe pattern as produced by a Fabry-Perot interferometer and thus measurement of the atomic coherence would localize the atom. Interestingly enough the role of the cavity ...

  19. Studies on a double-interferometer and mesospheric temperature measurements with a sodium-LIDAR-instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serwazi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The first part of this report describes the integration and alignment of a second Fabry-Perot-Interferometer into the optical bench of the sodium LIDAR experiment in Northern Norway. The spectral efficiency of this double interferometer was instrumentally and theoretically examined. The second part of the report presents results of temperature measurements in March 1989, which were made jointly with a Rayleigh LIDAR from the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy. Measured temperatures and Na densities of three nights are presented. (orig.)

  20. Optical fibre sensing in metals by embedment in 3D printed metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, R. R. J.; Havermann, D.; Schneller, O.; Mathew, J.; Polyzos, D.; MacPherson, W. N.; Hand, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing of structural components in metals has potential to revolutionise the manufacturing industry. Embedded sensing in such structures opens a route towards SMART metals, providing added functionality, intelligence and enhanced performance in many components. Such embedded sensors would be capable of operating at extremely high temperatures by utilizing regenerated fibre Bragg gratings and in-fibre Fabry-Perot cavities.

  1. Modeling fiber Bragg grating device networks in photomechanical polymer optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Joseph T.; Kuzyk, Mark G.; Sullivan, Dennis M.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the modeling of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer fibers doped with azo dyes. Our target is the development of Photomechanical Optical Devices (PODs), comprised of two FBGs in series, separated by a Fabry-Perot cavity of photomechanical material. PODs exhibit photomechanical multi-stability, with the capacity to access multiple length states for a fixed input intensity when a mechanical shock is applied. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical methods, we modeled the photomechanical response of both Fabry-Perot and Bragg-type PODs in a single polymer optical fiber. The polymer fiber was modeled as an instantaneous Kerr-type nonlinear χ(3) material. Our model correctly predicts the essential optical features of FBGs as well as the photomechanical multi-stability of nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavity-based PODs. Networks of PODs may provide a framework for smart shape-shifting materials and fast optical computation where the decision process is distributed over the entire network. In addition, a POD can act as memory, and its response can depend on input history. Our models inform and will accelerate targeted development of novel Bragg grating-based polymer fiber device networks for a variety of applications in optical computing and smart materials.

  2. MEMS-based microspectrometer technologies for NIR and MIR wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Leo P; Milne, Jason S; Dell, John M; Faraone, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Commercially manufactured near-infrared (NIR) instruments became available about 50 years ago. While they have been designed for laboratory use in a controlled environment and boast high performance, they are generally bulky, fragile and maintenance intensive, and therefore expensive to purchase and maintain. Micromachining is a powerful technique to fabricate micromechanical parts such as integrated circuits. It was perfected in the 1980s and led to the invention of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMSs). The three characteristic features of MEMS fabrication technologies are miniaturization, multiplicity and microelectronics. Combined, these features allow the batch production of compact and rugged devices with integrated intelligence. In order to build more compact, more rugged and less expensive NIR instruments, MEMS technology has been successfully integrated into a range of new devices. In the first part of this paper we discuss the UWA MEMS-based Fabry-Perot spectrometer, its design and issues to be solved. MEMS-based Fabry-Perot filters primarily isolate certain wavelengths by sweeping across an incident spectrum and the resulting monochromatic signal is detected by a broadband detector. In the second part, we discuss other microspectrometers including other Fabry-Perot spectrometer designs, time multiplexing devices and mixed time/space multiplexing devices. (topical review)

  3. A study for reduction of radiation pressure noise in gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakata, S; Sugamoto, A [Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-8610 (Japan); Leonhardt, V; Kawamura, S; Sato, S; Yamazaki, T; Fukushima, M [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Numata, K [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, CRESST, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Miyakawa, O [LIGO Laboratory 18-34, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nishizawa, A [Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Furusawa, A [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)], E-mail: shihori.sakata@nao.ac.jp

    2008-07-15

    We describe an experimental conceptual design for observation and reduction of radiation pressure noise. The radiation pressure noise is increased in a high finesse cavity with a small mass mirror. In our experiment a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer with a homodyne detection scheme will be built with Fabry-Perot cavities of finesse of 10000 containing suspended mirrors of 23 mg. To observe the radiation pressure noise, the goal sensitivity is set to 1x10{sup -17} [m/ {radical}Hz] at 1 kHz. Then the radiation pressure noise is reduced by adjusting the homodyne phase. To achieve the sensitivity, the other noise sources such as thermal noises, seismic noise and laser frequency noise should be suppressed below 1x10{sup -18} [m/{radical} Hz] at 1kHz. The whole interferometer is suspended as a double pendulum on double-layer stacks. As a preliminary setup, a Fabry-Perot cavity of finesse of 800 with a suspended mirror of 100 mg was locked. The current best sensitivity is 1x10{sup -15} [m/ {radical}Hz] at 1 kHz.

  4. Baudrillard and Rethinking the Modern Western-Civ Course: the Epistemology of War in an Era of New Media, Neoliberalism, and Virtual Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A university commitment to the liberal arts can take many forms, but more often than not it attempts to ensure that all students, regardless of direction or professed major, become educated in some form about the defining events of Western Civilization. There are many specialized History and Global Studies courses that educate students about…

  5. The civRT operon is important for Campylobacter jejuni strain 81-176 host cell interactions through regulation of the formate dehydrogenase operon

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. jejuni colonizes the intestinal mucosa, and the severity of disease in different strains is correlated with host cell interaction and invasion. A microarray screen to identify genes differentially regulated during C. jejuni interaction with tissue culture cells revealed the up-regulation of a two...

  6. A SHOCKING REQUIREMENT IN THE LAW ON NEGLIGENCE LIABILITY FOR PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS: LIVERPOOL WOMEN'S HOSPITAL NHS FOUNDATION TRUST V RONAYNE [2015] EWCA CIV 588.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Andrew S; Burrows, John H

    2016-01-01

    The Ronayne case concerned a husband who suffered a psychiatric illness, described as an adjustment disorder, in seeing the condition of his wife who was the primary victim of admitted medical negligence. His claim for compensation, as a 'secondary victim', failed because he could not satisfy the legal requirement that there must be a sudden shocking event. This commentary criticises that requirement which appears to make no medical sense. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Pulse reshaping in photonic crystal waveguides and microcavities with Kerr nonlinearity: Critical issues for all-optical switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujic, Dragan; John, Sajeev

    2005-01-01

    We delineate critical issues for 'controlling light with light' in photonic crystal (PC) waveguides coupled to Kerr-nonlinear microresonators. These arise from (a) fundamental trade-off between switching speed and switching intensity threshold inherent in high-quality Q-factor cavities and (b) the dynamical nonlinear oscillation of such cavities in response to incident light pulses. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations of electromagnetic pulse propagation, we consider both (i) a nonlinear Fabry-Perot microresonator (embedded within a PC waveguide) exhibiting a narrow transmission resonance and (ii) a nonlinear point defect (side-coupled to a PC waveguide) exhibiting a narrow reflection spectrum. We describe self-induced switching from transmission to reflection induced by pulse intensity tuning as well as control of pulse transmission induced by the secondary, continuous (cw) laser field propagating through the same PC waveguide. For the Fabry-Perot microresonator, a well-defined self-switching threshold is obtained. However, this is accompanied by considerable temporal and spectral distortion of the pulse caused by the oscillatory nonlinear response of the microresonator. When the quality factor of the microresonator is increased, the switching intensity threshold can be lowered but the pulse transit (switching) time and the pulse distortion are increased. For the side-coupled microresonator, a gradual (not sharp) self-switching behavior as a function of incident intensity is obtained. For both the Fabry-Perot and side-coupled nonlinear microresonators, control of pulse transmission can be achieved by means of a secondary cw laser field. The cw power required for switching with realistic Kerr nonlinearities is in excess of 1 W/μm 2 and may cause optical damage to the semiconducting PC backbone. Both instantaneous and noninstantaneous Kerr-response models are considered. Our results underscore the limitations and trade-offs inherent in the possible

  8. Photodetachment spectroscopy and microscopy; measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H- at 1064 nm by the observation of the asymptotic behaviour in the saturated regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevraye, Mickael

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we initiate the demonstration, at a reduced scale, of the feasibility of the almost-complete laser photodetachment of negative hydrogen ion beams in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for future neutral beam injectors for the heating of fusion power plants plasmas.We develop a new method to measure a photodetachment cross section, the knowledge of which at the exciting wavelength is needed to scale the Fabry-Perot cavity, based on the observation of the saturation in a pulsed lighting regime. The analytical calculus of the detachment signal growth produced while illuminating a negative ion beam with a Gaussian laser pulse bring out a mathematical constraint on the required flux to pass through the saturated regime. This constraint is the signature of the transition toward the saturation for all experiment carried out in Gaussian beam and for all linear light-matter interaction processes. With this method, we measure the photodetachment cross section of H - at 1064 nm - selected wavelength for future neutral beam injectors - in slight disagreement with theoretical predictions.To reduce the technological requirement on the Fabry-Perot cavity and the laser, we study Landau resonances which appear in the photodetachment spectrum. Locking the laser on one of these resonances would allow increasing the photodetachment probability at a given flux.We also present our phosphorus, selenium and tin electron affinity measurements carried out with the photodetachment microscope. The photodetachment microscopy experiment of phosphorus is the first one where the neutral atom is left in an excited term. (author) [fr

  9. Photodetachment spectroscopy and microscopy, measurement of the photodetachment cross section of H- at 1064 nm by the observation of the asymptotic behaviour in the saturated regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevraye, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, we initiate the demonstration, at a reduced scale, of the feasibility of the almost-complete laser photodetachment of negative hydrogen ion beams in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for future neutral beam injectors for the heating of fusion power plants plasmas. We develop a new method to measure a photodetachment cross section, the knowledge of which at the exciting wavelength is needed to scale the Fabry-Perot cavity, based on the observation of the saturation in a pulsed lighting regime. The analytical calculus of the detachment signal growth produced while illuminating a negative ion beam with a Gaussian laser pulse bring out a mathematical constraint on the required flux to pass through the saturated regime. This constraint is the signature of the transition toward the saturation for all experiment carried out in Gaussian beam and for all linear light-matter interaction processes. With this method, we measure the photodetachment cross section of H - at 1064 nm - selected wavelength for future neutral beam injectors - we get 5.0*10 -21 m 2 in slight disagreement with theoretical predictions. To reduce the technological requirement on the Fabry-Perot cavity and the laser, we study Landau resonances which appear in the photodetachment spectrum. Locking the laser on one of these resonances would allow increasing the photodetachment probability at a given flux. We also present our phosphorus, selenium and tin electron affinity measurements carried out with the photodetachment microscope. We get the following values: 6021.81(8) cm -1 for P, 16297.276(9) cm -1 for Se and 8969.447(13) cm -1 . The photodetachment microscopy experiment of phosphorus is the first one where the neutral atom is left in an excited term. (author)

  10. An all-optical fiber optic photoacoustic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thathachary, Supriya V.; Motameni, Cameron; Ashkenazi, Shai

    2018-02-01

    A highly sensitive fiber-optic Fabry-Perot photoacoustic transducer is proposed in this work. The transducer will consist of separate transmit and receive fibers. The receiver will be composed of a Fabry-Perot Ultrasound sensor with a selfwritten waveguide with all-optical ultrasound detection with high sensitivity. In previous work, we have shown an increase in resonator Q-factor from 1900 to 3200 for a simulated Fabry-Perot ultrasound detector of 45 μm thickness upon including a waveguide to limit lateral power losses. Subsequently, we demonstrated a prototype device with 30nm gold mirrors and a cavity composed of the photosensitive polymer Benzocyclobutene. This 80 µm thick device showed an improvement in its Q-factor from 2500 to 5200 after a selfaligned waveguide was written into the cavity using UV exposure. Current work uses a significantly faster fabrication technique using a combination of UV-cured epoxies for the cavity medium, and the waveguide within it. This reduces the fabrication time from several hours to a few minutes, and significantly lowers the cost of fabrication. We use a dip-coating technique to deposit the polymer layer. Future work will include the use of Dielectric Bragg mirrors in place of gold to achieve better reflectivity, thereby further improving the Q-factor of the device. The complete transducer presents an ideal solution for intravascular imaging in cases where tissue differentiation is desirable, an important feature in interventional procedures where arterial perforation is a risk. The final design proposed comprises the transducer within a guidewire to guide interventions for Chronic Total Occlusions, a disease state for which there are currently no invasive imaging options.

  11. Status of the ALPS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehret, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    The ALPS experiment at DESY searches for light particles which are coupling very weakly to photons. Primary physics goal is the search for axion like particles in a photon regeneration experiment. Central part of the experimental setup is a five Tesla strong superconducting HERA dipole magnet. During two operation periods in the years 2007 and 2008 we have collected first data and explored the sensitivity of the setup. A Fabry Perot laser cavity is being set up in order to increase the sensitivity by more than one order of magnitude. (orig.)

  12. Multiple infrared bands absorber based on multilayer gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Gao, Jinsong; Yang, Haigui; Wang, Xiaoyi; Guo, Chengli

    2018-03-01

    The present study offers an Ag/Si multilayer-grating microstructure based on an Si substrate. The microstructure exhibits designable narrowband absorption in multiple infrared wavebands, especially in mid- and long-wave infrared atmospheric windows. We investigate its resonance mode mechanism, and calculate the resonance wavelengths by the Fabry-Perot and metal-insulator-metal theories for comparison with the simulation results. Furthermore, we summarize the controlling rules of the absorption peak wavelength of the microstructure to provide a new method for generating a Si-based device with multiple working bands in infrared.

  13. Zeno dynamics in wave-packet diffraction spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porras, Miguel A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, ES-28003 Madrid (Spain); Luis, Alfredo; Gonzalo, Isabel [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, ES-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Angel S. [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental-CSIC, Serrano 123, ES-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    We analyze a simple and feasible practical scheme displaying Zeno, anti-Zeno, and inverse-Zeno effects in the observation of wave-packet spreading caused by free evolution. The scheme is valid both in spatial diffraction of classical optical waves and in time diffraction of a quantum wave packet. In the optical realization, diffraction spreading is observed by placing slits between a light source and a light-power detector. We show that the occurrence of Zeno or anti-Zeno effects depends just on the frequency of observations between the source and detector. These effects are seen to be related to the diffraction mode theory in Fabry-Perot resonators.

  14. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, J; Bandura, K; Cliche, J-F; Dobbs, M; Gilbert, A; Tang, Q Y

    2013-01-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications

  15. High-resolution spectral analysis of light from neutral beams and ion source plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, D.H.; Kim, J.

    1980-05-01

    The spectral distributions of Balmer alpha emission from 7- and 22-cm-diam neutral hydrogen beams have been measured with a Fabry-Perot interferometer to obtain information on the beam energy, divergence, and species composition. Results of these measurements are compared with other data on the beam properties to evaluate high-resolution spectroscopy as a beam diagnostic technique. Measurements on ion source plasmas and on beam-produced background plasmas yield average neutral atom energies of approximately 0.3 and 2.5 eV, respectively

  16. Stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable distributed feedback laser for interferometric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuefeng; Zhou, Xinlei; Yu, Qingxu

    2016-02-01

    We describe a stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser for quadrature demodulation of interferometric sensors. By introducing automatic lock quadrature point and wavelength periodically tuning compensation into an interferometric system, the operation point of interferometric system is stabilized when the system suffers various environmental perturbations. To demonstrate the feasibility of this stabilizing operation point technique, experiments have been performed using a tunable-DFB-laser as light source to interrogate an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric vibration sensor and a diaphragm-based acoustic sensor. Experimental results show that good tracing of Q-point was effectively realized.

  17. Microcontroller-based locking in optics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.; Le Jeannic, H.; Ruaudel, J.; Morin, O.; Laurat, J.

    2014-01-01

    Optics experiments critically require the stable and accurate locking of relative phases between light beams or the stabilization of Fabry-Perot cavity lengths. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive technique based on a stand-alone microcontroller unit to perform such tasks. Easily programmed in C language, this reconfigurable digital locking system also enables automatic relocking and sequential functioning. Different algorithms are detailed and applied to fringe locking and to low- and high-finesse optical cavity stabilization, without the need of external modulations or error signals. This technique can readily replace a number of analog locking systems advantageously in a variety of optical experiments

  18. Composite modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic microstructures by electric-field and microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Chenyun; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Composite modulation of Fano resonance by using electric-field and microcavity simultaneously is realized in a plasmonic microstructure, which consists of a gold nanowire grating inserted into a Fabry-Perot microcavity composited of a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between two indium tin oxide layers. The Fano resonance wavelength varies with the applied voltage and the microcavity resonance. A large shift of 48 nm in the Fano resonance wavelength is achieved when the applied voltage is 20 V. This may provide a new way for the study of multi-functional integrated photonic circuits and chips based on plasmonic microstructures

  19. Alpenglow: A signature for chameleons in axionlike particle search experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.; Lindner, A.; Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.; Weniger, C.

    2008-01-01

    We point out that chameleon field theories might reveal themselves as an afterglow effect in axionlike particle search experiments due to chameleon-photon conversion in a magnetic field. We estimate the parameter space which is accessible by currently available technology and find that afterglow experiments could constrain this parameter space in a way complementary to gravitational and Casimir force experiments. In addition, one could reach photon-chameleon couplings which are beyond the sensitivity of common laser polarization experiments. We also sketch the idea of a Fabry-Perot cavity with chameleons which could increase the experimental sensitivity significantly

  20. Alpenglow. A signature for chameleons in axion-like particle search experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlers, M.; Lindner, A.; Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.; Weniger, C.

    2007-10-01

    We point out that chameleon field theories might reveal themselves as an ''afterglow'' effect in axion-like particle search experiments due to chameleon-photon conversion in a magnetic field. We estimate the parameter space which is accessible by currently available technology and find that afterglow experiments could constrain this parameter space in a way complementary to gravitational and Casimir force experiments.In addition, one could reach photon-chameleon couplings which are beyond the sensitivity of common laser polarization experiments. We also sketch the idea of a Fabry-Perot cavity with chameleons which could increase the experimental sensitivity significantly. (orig.)

  1. Rabi-like splitting from large area plasmonic microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Hosseini Alast

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rabi-like splitting was observed from a hybrid plasmonic microcavity. The splitting comes from the coupling of cavity mode with the surface plasmon polariton mode; anti-crossing was observed alongside the modal conversional channel on the reflection light measurement. The hybrid device consists of a 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating integrated onto the Fabry-Perot microcavity. The 10x10 mm2 ruled metal grating fabricated from laser interference and the area is sufficiently large to be used in the practical optical device. The larger area hybrid plasmonic microcavity can be employed in polariton lasers and biosensors.

  2. Cavity enhanced interference of orthogonal modes in a birefringent medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Kiran; Saha, Sudipta; Gupta, S. Dutta

    2018-03-01

    Interference of orthogonal modes in a birefringent crystal mediated by a rotator is known to lead to interesting physical effects (Solli et al., 2003). In this paper we show that additional feedback offered by a Fabry-Perot cavity (containing the birefringent crystal and the rotator) can lead to a novel strong interaction regime. Usual signatures of the strong interaction regime like the normal mode splitting and avoided crossings, sensitive to the rotator orientation, are reported. A high finesse cavity is shown to offer an optical setup for measuring small angles. The results are based on direct calculations of the cavity transmissions along with an analysis of its dispersion relation.

  3. Applications of fiber optic sensors in concrete structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingyun; Zhang, Wentao; Sun, Baochen; Du, Yanliang

    2007-11-01

    The research of fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) sensors and their applications in concrete structural health monitoring are presented in this paper. Different types of fiber optic EFPI sensors are designed and fabricated. Experiments are carried out to test the performance of the sensors. The results show that the sensors have good linearity and stability. The applications of the fiber optic EFPI sensors in concrete structural health monitoring are also introduced. Ten fiber optic sensors are embedded into one section of the Liaohe Bridge in Qinghuangdao-Shenyang Railway. Field test demonstrates that the results of fiber optic sensors agree well with conventional strain gauges.

  4. Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Ohad; Katz, Moti; Atar, Gil; Paltiel, Yossi; Sicron, Noam

    2017-07-01

    Optical losses in c-plane (0001) GaN ridge waveguides, containing Mg-doped layers, were measured at 1064 nm, using the Fabry-Perot method. The losses increase linearly with the modal content of the p-layer, indicating that the absorption in these waveguides is dominated by p-layer absorption. The p-layer absorption is strongly anisotropic with E⊥c losses 4 times higher than E∥c. The absorption is temperature independent between 10 °C and 60 °C, supporting the possibility that it is related to Mg-bound holes.

  5. Current status of large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, K; Ohashi, M; Miyoki, S; Uchiyama, T; Ishitsuka, H; Yamamoto, K; Kasahara, K; Fujimoto, M-K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Nagano, S; Tsunesada, Y; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saito, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Aso, Y; Ueda, K-I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Sasaki, M; Tanaka, T; Oohara, K; Takahashi, H; Miyakawa, O; Tobar, M E

    2003-01-01

    The large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) project is the proposed advancement of TAMA, which will be able to detect the coalescences of binary neutron stars occurring in our galaxy. LCGT intends to detect the coalescence events within about 240 Mpc, the rate of which is expected to be from 0.1 to several events in a year. LCGT has Fabry-Perot cavities of 3 km baseline and the mirrors are cooled down to a cryogenic temperature of 20 K. It is planned to be built in the underground of Kamioka mine. This paper overviews the revision of the design and the current status of the R and D

  6. Simultaneous measurement of thermo-optic and thermal expansion coefficients with a single arm double interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenegueti, Jose Francisco Miras; Andrade, Acacio A; Pilla, Viviane; Zilio, Sergio Carlos

    2017-01-09

    A low-cost single arm double interferometer was developed for the concurrent measurement of linear thermal expansion (α) and thermo-optic (dn/dT) coefficients of transparent samples with plane and parallel surfaces. Owing to its common-path optical arrangement, the device is compact and stable, and allows the simultaneous measurement of interferences arising from a low-finesse Fabry-Perot etalon and from a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer. The method was demonstrated with measurements of solid (silica, BK7, SF6) and liquid (water, ethanol and acetone) samples.

  7. Status of the low frequency facility experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracci, L; Calamai, G; Cuoco, E; Dominici, P; Fabbroni, L; Guidi, G; Losurdo, G; Martelli, F; Mazzoni, M; Stanga, R; Vetrano, F; Porzio, A; Ricciardi, I; Solimeno, S; Ballardin, G; Braccini, S; Bradaschia, C; Casciano, C; Cavalieri, R; Cecchi, R; Cella, G; Dattilo, V; Virgilio, A Di; Fazzi, M; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Frasconi, F; Gennaro, G; Giazotto, A; Holloway, L; Penna, P La; Lomtadze, T; Nenci, F; Nicolosi, L; Lelli, F; Paoletti, F; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Poggiani, R; Raffaelli, F; Taddei, R; Vicere, A; Zhang, Z; Frasca, S; Majorana, E; Palomba, C; Perciballi, M; Puppo, P; Rapagnani, P; Ricci, F

    2002-01-01

    The low frequency facility is a VIRGO R and D experiment having the goal of performing a direct measurement of the thermal noise of the VIRGO suspensions by means of a two-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity suspended to the last stage of the attenuating chain. The present status of advancement of this experiment is reported: the apparatus, including mechanical and optical parts, has been completely built and put into operation. Vacuum facilities and the first control loops are active. First measurements on the suspended cavity are in progress

  8. Crosstalk in 1.5-μm InGaAsP optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, H. E.; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1988-01-01

    A dynamical model for multichannel amplification by near-traveling-wave optical amplifiers is presented, and results on crosstalk induced by either amplitude modulation or frequency modulation are given. The mechanisms influencing the crosstalk most are the residual facet reflectivities...... and the detuning of the channels relative to the amplifier Fabry-Perot spectrum. Calculations of worst-case crosstalk levels are included. The model is verified experimentally for amplitude-modulated signals, and crosstalk levels up to -7 dB are reported. For frequency-modulated signals, estimated crosstalk...

  9. Optofluidic Microlasers based on Femtosecond Micromachining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni F.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the different optofluidic lasers which have been realized using the Femtosecond Micromachining technique to fabricate the monolithic optofluidic structures in glass chips. We show how the great flexibility of this 3D technique allows getting different kind of optical cavities. The most recent devices fabricated by this technique as ring shaped and Fabry-Perot resonators show excellent emission performances.We also point out how the addition of the inkjet printing technique provides further opportunities in realizing optofluidic chips.

  10. Lineshape-asymmetry elimination in weak atomic transitions driven by an intense standing wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antypas, Dionysios; Fabricant, Anne; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    Owing to the ac-Stark effect, the lineshape of a weak optical transition in an atomic beam can become significantly distorted, when driven by an intense standing wave field. We use an Yb atomic beam to study the lineshape of the 6s2 1S0 -> 5d6s 3D1 transition, which is excited with light circulating in a Fabry-Perot resonator. We demonstrate two methods to avoid the distortion of the transition profile. Of these, one relies on the operation of the resonator in multiple longitudinal modes, and the other in multiple transverse modes.

  11. Phase-locked, high power, mid-infrared quantum cascade laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Slivken, S.; Razeghi, M.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate phase-locked, high power quantum cascade laser arrays, which are combined using a monolithic, tree array multimode interferometer, with emission wavelengths around 4.8 μm. A maximum output power of 15 W was achieved from an eight-element laser array, which has only a slightly higher threshold current density and a similar slope efficiency compared to a Fabry-Perot laser of the same length. Calculated multimode interferometer splitting loss is on the order of 0.27 dB for the in-phase supermode. In-phase supermode operation with nearly ideal behavior is demonstrated over the working current range of the array.

  12. Dispersive heterodyne probing method for laser frequency stabilization based on spectral hole burning in rare-earth doped crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobron, Olivier; Jung, K.; Galland, N.

    2017-01-01

    Frequency-locking a laser to a spectral hole in rare-earth doped crystals at cryogenic temperature has been shown to be a promising alternative to the use of high finesse Fabry-Perot cavities when seeking a very high short term stability laser (M. J. Thorpe et al., Nature Photonics 5, 688 (2011......)). We demonstrate here a novel technique for achieving such stabilization, based on generating a heterodyne beat-note between a master laser and a slave laser whose dephasing caused by propagation near a spectral hole generate the error signal of the frequency lock. The master laser is far detuned from...

  13. A Literature Review of Millimeter and Submillimeter Radiation Absorption and Scattering in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS OF METHODS OF PREPARING POLYCRYSTALLINE CERAMIC MATERIALS FOR MICROWAVE FREQUENCY USE IS REPORTED. METHODS OF INVESTIGAT NG THE...THE I REFLECTED BY \\ I2J.(?^P^ INDEX rKUKtKlltb i U Hf CONTENT. TEXTURE , AND COMPOSITION OF THE SOIL SAMPLES HAS BEEN EXAMINED IN DETAIL IN THE...GIVEN. IN D THAT WERE USED To PHASE LOCK THE 2-C02 LASERS TOGETHF.- WITH PZT PIEZOELECTRIC DEVICES IN A FABRY PEROT-LASPR CAVITY,«» C361B1B

  14. Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available in 1962 by Gould et al1 as a means to overcome misalignment problems in optical resonators employing Fabry-Perot cavities, by replacing the end face mirrors with crossed roof prisms. Lasers based on this principle have been developed over the years2... Optronics for the use of their laser and for making experimental data available to us. We would also like to thank Dr Dieter Preussler and Mr Daniel Esser for useful discussions. REFERENCES 1. G. Gould, S. Jacobs, P. Rabinowitz and T. Shultz...

  15. Static and dynamic pile testing of reinforced concrete piles with structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Constanze; Kohlhoff, Harald; Hofmann, Detlef; Basedau, Frank; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Baeßler, Matthias; Niederleithinger, Ernst; Georgi, Steven; Herten, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Static and dynamic pile tests are carried out to determine the load bearing capacity and the quality of reinforced concrete piles. As part of a round robin test to evaluate dynamic load tests, structure integrated fibre optic strain sensors were used to receive more detailed information about the strains along the pile length compared to conventional measurements at the pile head. This paper shows the instrumentation of the pile with extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometers sensors and fibre Bragg gratings sensors together with the results of the conducted static load test as well as the dynamic load tests and pile integrity tests.

  16. A Metamaterial-Inspired Approach to RF Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Clayton; Zhou, Jiangfeng

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate an RF energy harvesting rectenna design based on a metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA). With the embedded Schottky diodes, the rectenna converts captured RF energy to DC currents. The Fabry-Perot cavity resonance of the MPA greatly improves the amount of energy captured and hence improves the rectification efficiency. Furthermore, the FP resonance exhibits a high Q-factor and significantly increases the voltage across the Schottky diodes. This leads to a factor of 16 improvement of RF-DC conversion efficiency at ambient intensity level.

  17. Laser frequency stabilisation by the Pound - Drever - Hall method using an acousto-optic phase modulator operating in the pure Raman - Nath diffraction regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, Vyacheslav N

    2012-01-01

    Frequency stabilisation of diode laser radiation has been implemented by the Pound - Drever - Hall method using a new acousto-optic phase modulator, operating in the pure Raman - Nath diffraction regime. It is experimentally shown that, as in the case of saturated-absorption spectroscopy in atomic vapour, the spatial divergence of the frequency-modulated output spectrum of this modulator does not interfere with obtaining error signals by means of heterodyne frequency-modulation spectroscopy with a frequency discriminator based on a high-Q Fabry - Perot cavity with finesse of several tens of thousands.

  18. Observations of Upper Thermospheric Temperatures Using a Ground-Based Optical Instrument at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-Kyun Chung; Young-In Won; Bang Yong Lee; Jhoon Kim

    1998-01-01

    We measured the terrestrial nightglow of OI 6300A in the thermosphere(~250km) using a ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic from March through September, 1997. The King Sejong Station is located at high latitude geographically (62.22 deg S, 301.25 deg E) but at mid-latitude geomagnetically (50.65 deg S, 7.51 deg E). It is therefore the strategic location to measure the temperatures of the thermosphere in the Southern Hemisphere associated with both sola...

  19. Spontaneous dressed-state polarization in the strong driving regime of cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armen, Michael A; Miller, Anthony E; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2009-10-23

    We utilize high-bandwidth phase-quadrature homodyne measurement of the light transmitted through a Fabry-Perot cavity, driven strongly and on resonance, to detect excess phase noise induced by a single intracavity atom. We analyze the correlation properties and driving-strength dependence of the atom-induced phase noise to establish that it corresponds to the long-predicted phenomenon of spontaneous dressed-state polarization. Our experiment thus provides a demonstration of cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong-driving regime in which one atom interacts strongly with a many-photon cavity field to produce novel quantum stochastic behavior.

  20. Remnants of semiclassical bistability in the few-photon regime of cavity QED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoff, Joseph; Armen, Michael A; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2011-11-21

    Broadband homodyne detection of the light transmitted by a Fabry-Perot cavity containing a strongly-coupled (133)Cs atom is used to probe the dynamic optical response in a regime where semiclassical theory predicts bistability but strong quantum corrections should apply. While quantum fluctuations destabilize true equilibrium bistability, our observations confirm the existence of metastable states with finite lifetimes and a hysteretic response is apparent when the optical drive is modulated on comparable timescales. Our experiment elucidates remnant semiclassical behavior in the attojoule (~10 photon) regime of single-atom cavity QED, of potential significance for ultra-low power photonic signal processing. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. InP femtosecond mode-locked laser in a compound feedback cavity with a switchable repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    A monolithically integrated mode-locked semiconductor laser is proposed. The compound ring cavity is composed of a colliding pulse mode-locking (ML) subcavity and a passive Fabry-Perot feedback subcavity. These two 1.6 mm long subcavities are coupled by using on-chip reflectors at both ends, enabling harmonic mode locking. By changing DC-bias conditions, optical mode spacing from 50 to 450 GHz is experimentally demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses shorter than 0.3 ps emitted from this laser diode are shown in autocorrelation traces.

  2. Accurate measurement of the electron beam polarization in JLab Hall A using Compton polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escoffier, S.; Bertin, P.Y.; Brossard, M.; Burtin, E.; Cavata, C.; Colombel, N.; Jager, C.W. de; Delbart, A.; Lhuillier, D.; Marie, F.; Mitchell, J.; Neyret, D.; Pussieux, T.

    2005-01-01

    A major advance in accurate electron beam polarization measurement has been achieved at Jlab Hall A with a Compton polarimeter based on a Fabry-Perot cavity photon beam amplifier. At an electron energy of 4.6GeV and a beam current of 40μA, a total relative uncertainty of 1.5% is typically achieved within 40min of data taking. Under the same conditions monitoring of the polarization is accurate at a level of 1%. These unprecedented results make Compton polarimetry an essential tool for modern parity-violation experiments, which require very accurate electron beam polarization measurements

  3. Ellipsoidal diffraction grating as output coupler for quasi-optical gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogge, J.P.; Cao, H.; Tran, T.M.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Kasparek, W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a diffraction grating arranged in the -1 Littrow mount as an output coupler for a quasi-optical Fabry-Perot resonator at microwave frequencies (100 GHz) was suggested in 1990. A planar grating with curvilinear grooves (in order to match the Littrow condition everywhere on the surface for a given Gaussian beam) gives a power coupling efficiency of 85% which is limited by the depolarization but gave approximately the same global efficiency because of distortion. We report low power tests on an improvement of the second scheme, based on curved grooves on an ellipsoidal surface, which gives a global efficiency of 94%. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs

  4. Application of UDWDM technology in FTTH networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamperski, Jan; Stepczak, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    In the paper we presented results of investigation of an original ultra dense wavelength division technology based on optical comb generator and its implementation for FTTH networks. The optical comb generator used a ring configuration with an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS) which ensured obtaining very stable optical carrier frequency distances. Properties of an optical comb generator module determined stability of the UDWDM transmitter. Key properties of a selective components based on all fiber Fabry-Perot resonant cavity were presented. Operation of direct and coherent detection DWDM systems were shown. New configurations of FTTH UDWDM architecture have been proposed.

  5. Spectral line profile analysis for evaluation of Gaussian and Lorentzian widths and collisional broadening coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhate, S.G.; Ahmad, S.A.; Pushpa; Rao, M.; Saksena, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    Deconvolution of atomic line profiles, recorded on PC interfaced recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer, into its Lorentzian and Gaussian component has been carried out. Effect of various parameters of hollow cathode discharge lamp (light source) such as discharge current, bath temperature and gas pressure on Lorentzian and Gaussian width has been studied. The value of the self-broadening coefficient for neon-neon atomic interaction for the transition 2p 5 4P-2P 5 3s (λ=3472.571 A) has been determined. (author). 15 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Optical fiber sensor for the detection of laser-generated ultrasound in arterial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Paul C.; Mills, Timothy N.

    1995-02-01

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of an extrinsic Fabry-Perot optical fiber ultrasound sensor for use in a photoacoustic-guided laser angioplasty system are described. The sensor has been characterized using laser generated thermoelastic waves as a source of wideband ultrasound. A system sensitivity of 25 mV/MPa and an acoustic noise floor of 2 Pa/Hz1/2 are reported using a transparent polymer film as the sensing element. The system demonstrates the required bandwidth for sensing thermoelastic waves containing frequency components up to 20 MHz.

  7. Composite modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic microstructures by electric-field and microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; Wu, Chenyun; Yang, Hong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyonghu@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-03

    Composite modulation of Fano resonance by using electric-field and microcavity simultaneously is realized in a plasmonic microstructure, which consists of a gold nanowire grating inserted into a Fabry-Perot microcavity composited of a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between two indium tin oxide layers. The Fano resonance wavelength varies with the applied voltage and the microcavity resonance. A large shift of 48 nm in the Fano resonance wavelength is achieved when the applied voltage is 20 V. This may provide a new way for the study of multi-functional integrated photonic circuits and chips based on plasmonic microstructures.

  8. Lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on self-collimation of photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Deyin; Zhou Chuanhong; Gong Qian; Jiang Xunya

    2008-01-01

    The lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on the self-collimation (SC) of photonic crystal have been studied in this work. Some special properties of these devices are demonstrated, such as the higher quality factors and concise integration of the lasing cavities, the tolerance of the non-parallel reflectors in Fabry-Perot cavities. With nonlinearity, the ultra-fast switch can also be realized around the SC frequency. All these functional devices are designed based on the strong beam confinement of SC

  9. Lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on self-collimation of photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Deyin; Zhou Chuanhong; Gong Qian; Jiang Xunya [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)], E-mail: xyjiang@mit.edu

    2008-06-07

    The lasing cavities and ultra-fast switch based on the self-collimation (SC) of photonic crystal have been studied in this work. Some special properties of these devices are demonstrated, such as the higher quality factors and concise integration of the lasing cavities, the tolerance of the non-parallel reflectors in Fabry-Perot cavities. With nonlinearity, the ultra-fast switch can also be realized around the SC frequency. All these functional devices are designed based on the strong beam confinement of SC.

  10. G 2.4 + 1.4: a supernova remnant or ring nebula around a peculiar star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    G2.4+1.4 is a probable nonthermal radio source and an optical nebula which appears to be a supernova remnant (SNR). It also contains an O vi sequence star of great excitation. We present new radiofrequency continuum and (nil) H 92α observations, optical spectroscopy, and Fabry-Perot scanner observations of the nebula. The object distance (5 kpc), origin of gas kinematics (SNR expansion), and mode of excitation of the gas (photoexcitation and/or shock wave) remain uncertain. We discuss the possible roles of the O vi star as ''runaway'' in a SNR, as a source of photoexcitation, and as an ejector of a ''counterfeit'' SNR

  11. Alpenglow. A signature for chameleons in axion-like particle search experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers, M.; Lindner, A.; Ringwald, A.; Schrempp, L.; Weniger, C.

    2007-10-15

    We point out that chameleon field theories might reveal themselves as an ''afterglow'' effect in axion-like particle search experiments due to chameleon-photon conversion in a magnetic field. We estimate the parameter space which is accessible by currently available technology and find that afterglow experiments could constrain this parameter space in a way complementary to gravitational and Casimir force experiments.In addition, one could reach photon-chameleon couplings which are beyond the sensitivity of common laser polarization experiments. We also sketch the idea of a Fabry-Perot cavity with chameleons which could increase the experimental sensitivity significantly. (orig.)

  12. Electronically controllable spoof localized surface plasmons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong Jin; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Liu; Xun Xiao, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Electronically controllable multipolar spoof localized surface plasmons (LSPs) are experimentally demonstrated in the microwave frequencies. It has been shown that half integer order LSPs modes exist on the corrugated ring loaded with a slit, which actually arise from the Fabry-Perot-like resonances. By mounting active components across the slit in the corrugated rings, electronic switchability and tunability of spoof LSPs modes have been accomplished. Both simulated and measured results demonstrate efficient dynamic control of the spoof LSPs. These elements may form the basis of highly integrated programmable plasmonic circuits in microwave and terahertz regimes.

  13. Chirped InAs/InP quantum-dash laser with enhanced broad spectrum of stimulated emission

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2013-03-01

    We report on the demonstration of 50 nm (full-width at half-maximum) broadband stimulated emission from a chirped AlGaInAs barrier thickness multi-stack InAs/InP quantum dash (Qdash) laser. The 2 ?m wide uncoated Fabry-Perot (FP) ridge-waveguide laser exhibits a total power of 0.18 W, corresponding to an average spectral power density of 3.5 mW/nm, under pulsed current conditions. Intentional extended inhomogeneity across the Qdash stacks have been attributed to the enhancement of broadband emission. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Optical investigation of high-speed aerosol-microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, J.

    1982-01-01

    Aerosol-jets are generated by the expansion of an aerosol-gas mixture from different types of micro-nozzles. The particle velocity is measured by means of a Fabry-Perot laser Doppler anemometer, whereas the geometrical structure of the jet will be investigated by direct optical observation. Comparative measurements show that Laval-nozzles are more suitable for the generation of rapid, intense aerosol-jets than simple orifices, because the internal energy of the carrier gas may be transformed more perfectly into one-directional kinetic energy. Moreover, the particles gain high velocities due to the smooth acceleration process. (author)

  15. Backscattering from width variations in quasi-one-dimensional strips of topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, Y

    2012-01-01

    Conductance modulations in wide-narrow-wide electron waveguides constructed from a two-dimensional topological insulator are investigated numerically. The conductance exhibits the Fabry-Perot oscillation at the opening of the helical edge states in the narrow segment when the potential offset imposed in the segment is varied. The quantum multiple reflections between the two ends of the narrow segment manifested by the oscillation demonstrate that the topological states are not protected from the scattering caused by an abrupt change in the channel width. The bulk states do not affect the vulnerability against the geometry scattering but they give rise to resonant transmission in an unconventional fashion.

  16. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna-DECIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji; Nakamura, Takashi; Ando, Masaki

    2006-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. It aims at detecting various kinds of gravitational waves between 1 mHz and 100 Hz frequently enough to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. The pre-conceptual design of DECIGO consists of three drag-free satellites, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO in 2024 after a long and intense development phase, including two pathfinder missions for verification of required technologies

  17. The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, S; Seto, N; Sato, S; Arai, K; Ando, M; Tsubono, K; Agatsuma, K; Akutsu, T; Akutsu, T; Arase, Y; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Funaki, I; Takashima, T; Numata, K; Ioka, K; Kanda, N; Aoyanagi, Koh-Suke; Araya, A; Asada, H

    2008-01-01

    DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO pathfinder first to demonstrate the technologies required to realize DECIGO and, if possible, to detect gravitational waves from our galaxy or nearby galaxies

  18. Precise length etalon controlled by stabilized frequency comb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Radek; Číp, Ondřej; Lazar, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2008), Section 3: 114-117 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200650504; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007; GA MŠk 2C06012; GA AV ČR KAN311610701; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/127; GA MPO FT-TA3/133; GA ČR GA102/07/1179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Fabry-Perot * interferometer * femtosecond * etalon Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  19. Musical instrument pickup based on a laser locked to an optical fiber resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avino, Saverio; Barnes, Jack A; Gagliardi, Gianluca; Gu, Xijia; Gutstein, David; Mester, James R; Nicholaou, Costa; Loock, Hans-Peter

    2011-12-05

    A low-noise transducer based on a fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) cavity was used as a pickup for an acoustic guitar. A distributed feedback (DFB) laser was locked to a 25 MHz-wide resonance of the FFP cavity using the Pound-Drever-Hall method. The correction signal was used as the audio output and was preamplified and sampled at up to 96 kHz. The pickup system is largely immune against optical noise sources, exhibits a flat frequency response from the infrasound region to about 25 kHz, and has a distortion-free audio output range of about 50 dB.

  20. Control of slow-to-fast light and single-to-double optomechanically induced transparency in a compound resonator system: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Rahman, Mujeeb ur; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Qamar, Sajid

    2017-10-01

    The transmission characteristics of probe light field is investigated theoretically in a compound system of two coupled resonators. The proposed system consisted of two high-Q Fabry-Perot resonators in which one of the resonators is optomechanical. Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT), having relatively large window, is noticed via strong coupling between the two resonators. We investigate tunable switching from single to double OMIT by increasing amplitude of the pump field. We notice that, control of slow and fast light can be obtained via the coupling strength between the two resonators.